WorldWideScience

Sample records for pregnancy school dropout

  1. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  2. Relationship between school dropout and teen pregnancy among rural South African young women

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Miller, William C.; THIRUMURTHY, Harsha; Emch, Michael; Afolabi, Sulaimon A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundSexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa.

  3. Early School Dropout: Configurations and Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Robert B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined behavioral, cognitive, and demographic factors associated with early school dropout in 475 seventh graders. Clusters of students most vulnerable to early school dropout were characterized by high levels of aggressiveness and low levels of academic performance. (RJC)

  4. Work environment and school dropout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas

    Aim The aim of this presentation is to examine the possible impact of work environment (and especially psychosocial work environment) on school dropout. The questions raised are: to what extent do psychosocial work environment and especially the social relations between young apprentices and thei......Aim The aim of this presentation is to examine the possible impact of work environment (and especially psychosocial work environment) on school dropout. The questions raised are: to what extent do psychosocial work environment and especially the social relations between young apprentices...... and their colleagues and managers play a role in dropping out of upper secondary education? Methods A cohort of 3058 adolescents born in 1989 and a cohort of approximately 2000 young adults born in 1983 are used to examine the associations between work environment and subsequent dropout in upper secondary educational...... tracks utilising questionnaire data collected as part of the West Jutland Cohort Study (VestLiv) in 2004, 2007 and 2010/11. Dropout events were identified using the educational register at Statistics Denmark and in addition self-reported episodes of drop out considerations are included as well. Results...

  5. Middle School Student Records as Dropout Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, William Sherman

    2010-01-01

    Dropping out of school is associated with a wide array of negative outcomes and the extraordinarily high United States dropout rate has brought the issue to the forefront of American education. This study investigated normally collected middle school data from a suburban Colorado school district to determine the predictive value toward students…

  6. High School Dropouts in America. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Over a million of the students who enter ninth grade each fall fail to graduate with their peers four years later. In fact, about seven thousand students drop out every school day. Perhaps this statistic was acceptable fifty years ago, but the era in which a high school dropout could earn a living wage has ended in the United States. Dropouts…

  7. Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Seyma; Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts at primary, secondary and high school level in Düzce Province and to develop suggestions for solving these problems. A "case study" design, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in this study. The study group consisted of…

  8. Conditional Cash Transfers and School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Lorraine; Emmerson, Carl; Frayne, Christine; Meghir, Costas

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates a United Kingdom pilot study designed to test whether a means-tested conditional cash transfer paid to 16- to 18-year-olds for staying in full-time education is an effective way of reducing the proportion of school dropouts. The transfer's impact is substantial: In the first year, full-time education participation rates…

  9. Conditional Cash Transfers and School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Lorraine; Emmerson, Carl; Frayne, Christine; Meghir, Costas

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates a United Kingdom pilot study designed to test whether a means-tested conditional cash transfer paid to 16- to 18-year-olds for staying in full-time education is an effective way of reducing the proportion of school dropouts. The transfer's impact is substantial: In the first year, full-time education participation rates…

  10. School Dropouts: Examining the Space of Reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun N. R Kishore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dropping out of school is a worldwide phenomenon with drastic mental health consequences for children, families and society. Aim and Materials & Methods: This study examines school dropouts in one district in Kerala with an emphasis on looking at multiple reasons for the problem. Results: The most common "reason" was various Physical disorders (80, 21.8% followed by Mental Retardation (77, 20.9%. Child labour (Employment came last (30, 8.1% as a "reason" while financial issues constituted 50 (13.6%. Family issues accounted for 63 (17.1% and School-related issues 68 (18.5%. Conclusion: This study highlights the need to examine a space of reasons for this phenomenon with active involvement and coordination of multiple agencies to examine and support getting children back to school and prevent dropouts.

  11. [A Cross-sectional Study of School dropout in adolescents: National Mental Health Survey Colombia 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Padilla Muñoz, Andrea; Rincón, Carlos Javier

    2016-12-01

    School dropout in adolescents can have negative consequences, not only for the individual and the family, but also for the society. To identify the characteristics associated with the occurrence of this event might contribute to the planning of a prevention strategy. To evaluate the relationship between the individual and home characteristics and school dropout in adolescents from 12 to 17 years old in Colombia. A cross sectional study was conducted from information taken from the results obtained in the 2015 National Mental Health Survey. A study was made of the relationship between the individual and home characteristics and school dropout in adolescents from 12 to 17 years old RESULTS: A higher percentage of school dropouts was found in the older adolescents, females, and those who have children. Among the home characteristics, it was observed that those homes with more than two people, located in rural area, or that are classified as poor, have an increased percentage of school dropout adolescents. Strategies for which the main goal is to prevent school dropout should consider populations with higher prevalence of out-of-school adolescents (female, homes in rural area, or household poverty). Preventive actions of adolescent pregnancy might contribute to reduce the school dropout rate. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. High School Dropouts: Interactions between Social Context, Self-Perceptions, School Engagement, and Student Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Anna-Maria; Roberts, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that contextual, self-system, and school engagement variables influence dropping out from school. However, it is not clear how different types of contextual and self-system variables interact to affect students' engagement or contribute to decisions to dropout from high school. The self-system model of motivational development…

  13. Aggressive Students and High School Dropout: An Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive students often struggle in multiple domains of their school functioning and are at increased risk for high school dropout. Research has identified a variety of warning flags which are strong predictors of high school dropout. While it is known that aggressive students exhibit many of these warning flags, there is little research which…

  14. Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyma Şahin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts at primary, secondary and high school level in Düzce Province and to develop suggestions for solving these problems. A “case study” design, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in this study. The study group consisted of 64 school principals working at primary, secondary and high schools in the province center and districts of Düzce. A semi-structured interview form consisting of nine questions was used as the data collection tool. The collected data was analyzed by content analysis method. 15 main themes were formed under five categories. Certain suggestions were developed based on the findings obtained as the result of the study.

  15. Student engagement and its relationship with early high school dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Fallu, Jean-Sébastien; Pagani, Linda S

    2009-06-01

    Although the concept of school engagement figures prominently in most school dropout theories, there has been little empirical research conducted on its nature and course and, more importantly, the association with dropout. Information on the natural development of school engagement would greatly benefit those interested in preventing student alienation during adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 11,827 French-Canadian high school students, we tested behavioral, affective, cognitive indices of engagement both separately and as a global construct. We then assessed their contribution as prospective predictors of school dropout using factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Global engagement reliably predicted school dropout. Among its three specific dimensions, only behavioral engagement made a significant contribution in the prediction equation. Our findings confirm the robustness of the overall multidimensional construct of school engagement, which reflects both cognitive and psychosocial characteristics, and underscore the importance attributed to basic participation and compliance issues in reliably estimating risk of not completing basic schooling during adolescence.

  16. Task Force on School Dropouts: Productive People, Productive Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Governors' Association, Washington, DC. Center for Policy Research and Analysis.

    The first part of this report on school dropouts summarizes the testimony at a hearing on dropouts given by: (1) Jacqueline P. Danzberger, The Institute for Educational Leadership; (2) Anthony Earl, former governor of Wisconsin; (3) Janice Earle, National Alliance of State Boards of Education; (4) Gloria Frazier, National Foundation for the…

  17. High school dropouts: interactions between social context, self-perceptions, school engagement, and student dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Anna-Mária; Roberts, Greg

    2012-08-01

    Research suggests that contextual, self-system, and school engagement variables influence dropping out from school. However, it is not clear how different types of contextual and self-system variables interact to affect students' engagement or contribute to decisions to dropout from high school. The self-system model of motivational development represents a promising theory for understanding this complex phenomenon. The self-system model acknowledges the interactive and iterative roles of social context, self-perceptions, school engagement, and academic achievement as antecedents to the decision to dropout of school. We analyzed data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002-2004 in the context of the self-system model, finding that perception of social context (teacher support and parent support) predicts students' self-perceptions (perception of control and identification with school), which in turn predict students' academic and behavioral engagement, and academic achievement. Further, students' academic and behavioral engagement and achievement in 10th grade were associated with decreased likelihood of dropping out of school in 12th grade.

  18. School Dropout: A Review Assessing the Place of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Anne; Fortin, Laurier; Joly, Jacques; Royer, Egide

    2005-01-01

    School dropout is a complex social problem. In 1999, more boys (15 %) than girls (9 %) dropped out of Canadian schools prior to graduation (Bowlby and McMullen, 2002). In the United States, Kaufman et al. (2000) evaluated that 5 % more boys than girls dropped out of school. This literature review focuses on the place given to gender within studies…

  19. The Earnings of Dropouts and High School Enrollments: Evidence from the Coal Boom and Bust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan; Daniel, Kermit; Sanders, Seth

    Economic theory suggests that when the reduction in earnings from dropping out of school is minimal, dropout rates will be high. As earnings loss for dropouts grows, however, the dropout rate should decrease. This chapter examines whether these predicted effects actually occur by looking at changes in dropout rates in Kentucky in the 1970s and…

  20. Patterns and Factors of High School Dropout Risks of Racial and Linguistic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunha; Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Allen, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the dropout trajectories of racial and linguistic minority students and explored the effects of students' contextual factors on their high school dropout risks. Our motivation was to identify the dropout patterns of Black, Hispanic, and Hispanic English language learner (ELL) students, who have comparatively high dropout rates,…

  1. Folk High Schools and Dropouts from Upper Secondary School: Effects of Non-Academic Investments in Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Solveig T.; Borgen, Nicolai T.

    2015-01-01

    High dropout rates from upper secondary school are related to substantial societal costs, and are hence a major policy concern. The Norwegian folk high schools provide a non-academic education in an intimate and nurturing environment where interpersonal and social skills are emphasised, and where individuals grow in sense of self-esteem and sense…

  2. Socioeconomic differences in school dropout among young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    a secondary education, especially among girls. For instance, 18-year-old girls finding family conflicts difficult to handle had a 2.6-fold increased risk of not completing a secondary education. Young people from low socioeconomic position families had approximately a 3-fold higher risk of not completing......Background School dropout in adolescence is an important social determinant of health inequality in a lifetime perspective. It is commonly accepted that parental background factors are associated with later dropout, but to what extent social relations mediate this association is not yet fully...... understood. Aim: To investigate the effect of social relations on the association between parental socioeconomic position and school dropout in the Danish youth cohort Vestliv. Methods This prospective study used data from questionnaires in 2004 and 2007 and register data in 2004 and 2010. The study...

  3. The Societal Benefits and Costs of School Dropout Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Catterall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an analysis of the societal benefits and costs of recovering school dropouts. Successful recovery is defined by subsequent graduation from high school. The analysis is based on established estimates of the societal costs of dropping out including reduced government tax collections and higher social costs of welfare, healthcare, and crime. These potential costs are cast as benefits when a dropout is recovered. A large dropout recovery program provides the setting for the analysis. Rigorous attention is given to accurate estimation of the number of students who would not have graduated without the program in the year assessed and to the induced public costs of their continued education. Estimated benefits are weighed against the total annual public costs of the program, which operates in 65 school centers and commands an annual budget of about $70 million. The estimated benefit-cost ratio for this program is 3 to 1, a figure comparable to benefit-cost ratio estimates reported in studies of dropout prevention. The sensitivity of this conclusion to specific assumptions within the analysis is discussed.

  4. New Approach to reduce High School Dropout Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Cristhian Portillo-Torres

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From 2006 to 2014, the Ministry of Public Education of Costa Rica implemented four strategic actions to reduce high school dropout rates. The main purpose of these actions was to promote student participation and student identification with their school. Studies prepared by the Ministry of Education and the Comptroller of the Republic were revised to assess the impact of these actions. The result of these actions does not show an actual decrease in the number of students who leave high school. Therefore, a more holistic view is necessary to ensure the students’ stay. This review suggests using use the concept of student engagement and applying a three tier system-wide dropout preventive actions: universal, targeted and intensive.

  5. GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE EL FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are accepted preconceptions of what should be a man and a woman. Affect all areas of life, in the relationships that stablished in the family and the school. Within education, these stereotypes are reflected in the access, retention and completion of education degrees, as well as the area of study that preferred the women and men. They also have different effects on the causes of dropout depending on the gender to which they belong. This article aims to show the influence of gender stereotypes on dropout students and high school students in rural areas, specifically in three schools located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, the academic unit (AU San Blas and its extensions La Constancia and Las Higueras of Los Natoches. The results were obtained through a wider investigation in 2013.

  6. Risk Factors for School Dropout in a Sample of Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, Asunción; Herrero, Juan; Pérez, Beatriz; Juarros-Basterretxea, Joel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: The high rates of school dropout worldwide and their relevance highlight the need for a close study of its causes and consequences. Literature has suggested that school dropout might be explained by multiple causes at different levels (individual, family, school, and neighborhood). The aim of the current study is to examine the relation between individual (defiant attitude, irresponsibility, alcohol abuse, and illegal drugs use), family (educational figure absent and parental monitoring), school factors (truancy and school conflict) and school dropout. Method: Judicial files of all juvenile offenders (218 males and 46 females) with a judicial penal measure in Asturias (Spain) in the year 2012 were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the relationships between school dropout and individual, family and school variables. Results: As for the individual characteristics, results showed that school dropouts were more irresponsible than non-dropouts. Also they had higher rates of illegal drug use and alcohol abuse. Moreover, lack of parental monitoring emerged as a key predictive factor of school dropout, beyond the type of family structure in terms of the presence of both or only one educational figure. Finally, school factors did not show a significant relationship to school dropout. Conclusions: These findings indicate that school dropout is a multidimensional process. School and family policies that emphasize the role of parental monitoring and prevent alcohol and substance abuse are recommended. PMID:28082934

  7. The impact of community schools on student dropout in pre-vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Heers; C. van Klaveren; W. Groot; H. Maassen van den Brink

    2012-01-01

    Dropout prevention is highly ranked on the political agenda in many countries. It remains unclear, however, how dropout can be effectively reduced, as many different factors are determining student dropout. Community schools recognize this and modernize education such that it better accommodates stu

  8. The impact of community schools on student dropout in pre-vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Heers; C. van Klaveren; W. Groot; H. Maassen van den Brink

    2014-01-01

    Dropout prevention is highly ranked on the political agenda in many countries. It remains unclear, however, how dropout can be effectively reduced, as many different factors determine student dropout. Community schools recognize this and aim to modernize education such that it better accommodates st

  9. High Suspension Schools and Dropout Rates for Black and White Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Talisha; Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Fan, Xitao

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between school suspension rates and dropout rates in a statewide sample of 289 Virginia public high schools. The contribution of suspension rates on dropout rates was examined for both Black and White students, after controlling for school demographics (school racial composition, percentage of students eligible…

  10. Finishing high school: alternative pathways and dropout recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, John H; Lofstrom, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    John Tyler and Magnus Lofstrom take a close look at the problems posed when students do not complete high school. The authors begin by discussing the ongoing, sometimes heated, debate over how prevalent the dropout problem is. They note that one important reason for discrepancies in reported dropout rates is whether holders of the General Educational Development (GED) credential are counted as high school graduates. The authors also consider the availability of appropriate student data. The overall national dropout rate appears to be between 22 and 25 percent, but the rate is higher among black and Hispanic students, and it has not changed much in recent decades. Tyler and Lofstrom conclude that schools are apparently doing about as well now as they were forty years ago in terms of graduating students. But the increasingly competitive pressures associated with a global economy make education ever more important in determining personal and national well-being. A student's decision to drop out of school, say the authors, is affected by a number of complex factors and is often the culmination of a long process of disengagement from school. That decision, not surprisingly, carries great cost to both the student and society. Individual costs include lower earnings, higher likelihood of unemployment, and greater likelihood of health problems. Because minority and low-income students are significantly more likely than well-to-do white students to drop out of school, the individual costs fall unevenly across groups. Societal costs include loss of tax revenue, higher spending on public assistance, and higher crime rates. Tyler and Lofstrom go on to survey research on programs designed to reduce the chances of students' dropping out. Although the research base on this question is not strong, they say, close mentoring and monitoring of students appear to be critical components of successful programs. Other dropout-prevention approaches associated with success are family

  11. 20 CFR 664.310 - When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dropout status is determined at the time of registration. A youth attending an alternative school at the time of registration is not a dropout. An individual who is out-of school at the time of registration..., particularly for youth attending alternative schools? 664.310 Section 664.310 Employees' Benefits...

  12. An Overview of School Dropout in Central America: Unresolved Issues and New Challenges for Education Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Melissa A.; Székely, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    School dropout is a growing concern in Central America, and in Latin America as a whole, because of its consequences for economic productivity, the inclusiveness of growth, social cohesion, and increasing youth risks. This paper utilizes more than two decades of household survey data to construct a systematic overview of school dropout at the…

  13. A Study of Secondary School Principals' Leadership Styles and School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly-Hinojosa, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the leadership styles of secondary school principals, measured by the self-report "Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X short" (Bass & Avolio, 2000) and the school's dropout rates, as reported by the Texas Education Agency in the Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) report…

  14. The Meaning of School from Dropout's View Point (A Phenomenological Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi; Setiawan, Cally

    2017-01-01

    Student dropouts are complex problems in Indonesia. Some of the dropouts living in rural areas have migrated to the large cities. It contributes to the child labor growth which is already one the major problems in Indonesia. Knowledge about the meaning of school from their perspective could be helpful for policy and programs related to dropout…

  15. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  16. Oregon's High School Dropouts: Examining the Economic and Social Costs. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Educational Choice, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Foundation for Educational Choice recently commissioned a new study to examine the economic and social costs of Oregon's high school dropouts. Emily House, the study's author, analyzed how dropouts in the state dramatically impact state finances through reduced tax revenues, increased Medicaid costs, and high incarceration rates. House's study…

  17. Evaluation of a Public Awareness Campaign to Prevent High School Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Leslie M; Corra, Ashley J; Gifford, Elizabeth J

    2016-08-01

    Many advocacy organizations devote time and resources to increasing community awareness and educating the public in an effort to gain support for their issue. One such effort, the Dropout Prevention Campaign by America's Promise Alliance, aimed to increase the visibility of the high school dropout problem and mobilize the community to take action. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the framing of the Dropout Prevention Campaign in television news media. To evaluate this campaign, television news coverage about high school dropout in 12 U.S. communities (N = 982) was examined. A content analysis of news transcripts was conducted and coded to determine the definition of the problem, the reasons for dropout and the possible solutions. Findings indicated that the high school dropout problem was most often framed (30 % of news segments) in terms of the economic and societal implications for the community. Individual student factors as well as broader societal influences were frequently discussed as possible reasons for dropout. The most commonly mentioned solutions were school-based interventions. News segments that mentioned America's Promise Alliance were more likely to frame the issue as a crisis and to use statistics to illustrate that point. Solutions that were more likely to appear in America's Promise segments promoted community and cross-sector involvement, consistent with the messages promoted by the Dropout Prevention Campaign. The findings suggest that a media content analysis can be an effective framework for analyzing a prevention campaign.

  18. The Role School Counselors Believe They Should Adopt in Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christine V.; Galassi, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The ASCA National Model's theme and element definitions were used to investigate the school counselor's role in dropout prevention. The domains recommended by the What Works Clearinghouse (staying-in-school, progressing-in-school, and completing-school) were used to determine how accountability should be assessed. Results indicate that counselors…

  19. A Reason To Stay in School: What Educators Can Do To Reduce Dropout Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presson, Alice; Bottoms, Gene

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) and the Center on Education and Training for Employment (CETE) at Ohio State University worked with six schools (two comprehensive high schools, two high schools served by an area vocational center, an area vocational center, and a junior high school) in the SREB region to keep potential dropouts in…

  20. Relationship between Self-Reported Psychopathology and Future Dropout in a Mexican School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J Chalita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odd ratio of school dropout associated with student’s self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty seven students participated in the study. Psychosis (Odds Ratio (OR=8.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.7-37.2, depression (OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7, tic disorders (OR=3.7 (95%CI: 1.4-9.5, ADHD (OR=3.2 (95%CI:1.5-6.4, and social phobia (OR=2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.8 were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students’ self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico.

  1. School trajectory and teenage pregnancy in three Brazilian state capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Maria da Conceição C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the relationship between school trajectory and incidence of teenage pregnancy. A cross-sectional residence-based questionnaire was applied, interviewing 4,634 youth ages 18 to 24 years, selected through a stratified three-stage sample. For the present study, young people ages 20 to 24 years (65.6% were chosen, with teenage pregnancy rates of 29.5% for females and 21.4% for males (in relation to their partners. Sexual debut was reported by 87% of women and 95.3% of men. The majority of young people reported irregular school trajectory, with 39% enrolled in school at the time of the study. Nearly half of those who had interrupted their studies at least once reported a teenage pregnancy. The main reasons for interrupting their studies were pregnancy and children for women and work for men. School dropout due to teenage pregnancy was mentioned by 40.1% of women for whom the outcome of pregnancy was a child. However, 20.5% had already dropped out of school before becoming pregnant.

  2. School trajectory and teenage pregnancy in three Brazilian state capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria da Conceição C; Aquino, Estela M L; de Barros, Antoniel Pinheiro

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the relationship between school trajectory and incidence of teenage pregnancy. A cross-sectional residence-based questionnaire was applied, interviewing 4,634 youth ages 18 to 24 years, selected through a stratified three-stage sample. For the present study, young people ages 20 to 24 years (65.6%) were chosen, with teenage pregnancy rates of 29.5% for females and 21.4% for males (in relation to their partners). Sexual debut was reported by 87% of women and 95.3% of men. The majority of young people reported irregular school trajectory, with 39% enrolled in school at the time of the study. Nearly half of those who had interrupted their studies at least once reported a teenage pregnancy. The main reasons for interrupting their studies were pregnancy and children for women and work for men. School dropout due to teenage pregnancy was mentioned by 40.1% of women for whom the outcome of pregnancy was a child. However, 20.5% had already dropped out of school before becoming pregnant.

  3. A Comparative Study of Black Dropouts and Black High School Graduates in an Urban Public School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Silvia Brooks

    1987-01-01

    Reports findings of a comparative study of Black high school dropouts and Black high school graduates in Houston, TX, in relation to five clusters of variables: demographic/personal characteristics; academic origin variables; family characteristics; feelings toward school; and feelings toward peers in school. The primary distinguishing…

  4. School motivation and high school dropout: the mediating role of educational expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Wolters, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    A good deal of evidence indicates that students' motivational beliefs and attitudes play a critical role in their academic success. Research studies on how motivational factors may help determine whether students remain in high school or drop out, however, are relatively few. More specifically, there is a lack of research examining the dynamics of whether students' motivational beliefs from earlier in high school might be used to predict their status as a dropout in their final year. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating role of students' educational expectations in linking students' school motivation to their dropout status by utilizing a nationally representative dataset. The present study used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002). The final sample consisted of 16,194 students, with approximately 54% White, 13% Black, 16% Hispanic, and 10% Asian students, and the rest were Native American, Hawaiian, multiracial, or of other races. Structural equation modelling was employed to conduct the mediational analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the relationships between student ability beliefs in math and English and student behaviour of dropping out were fully mediated by students' educational expectations. The results also revealed that student intrinsic value in math and English had significant indirect relations with student behaviour of leaving school through students' educational expectations. The results of this study suggest that explanations for student dropout status that rely solely on students' social background and school behaviours without considering their motivation are incomplete. The study expands the extant research by showing possible pathways that motivate students to persist in high school. These pathways are specifically rooted in students' ability beliefs and intrinsic interest in learning through their relationships with students' expectations for their education. © 2012 The

  5. Is Obesity Associated with School Dropout? Key Developmental and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to expand the literature on child obesity and school outcomes by examining associations between obesity and high school dropout, including the role of obesity onset and duration as well as ethnicity. Methods: Data on 5066 children obtained between 1986 and 2010 from the child cohort of the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of…

  6. Is Obesity Associated with School Dropout? Key Developmental and Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Huang, David Y. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to expand the literature on child obesity and school outcomes by examining associations between obesity and high school dropout, including the role of obesity onset and duration as well as ethnicity. Methods: Data on 5066 children obtained between 1986 and 2010 from the child cohort of the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of…

  7. Predicting Secondary School Dropout among South African Adolescents: A Survival Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weybright, Elizabeth H.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Xie, Hui; Wegner, Lisa; Smith, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    Education is one of the strongest predictors of health worldwide. In South Africa, school dropout is a crisis where by Grade 12, only 52% of the age appropriate population remain enrolled. Survival analysis was used to identify the risk of dropping out of secondary school for male and female adolescents and examine the influence of substance use…

  8. Achievement Motivation Training for Potential High School Dropouts. Achievement Motivation Development Project Working Paper Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.

    This pilot project sought to determine if instruction in achievement motivation would help potential dropouts to complete their schooling. Subjects were tenth grade students in a suburban Boston high school. A one-week residential course during winter and spring vacations was taken by one group of six boys and a second group of four. Equated…

  9. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta;

    2011-01-01

    dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half......Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...

  10. Why Tenth Graders Fail to Finish High School: A Dropout Typology Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.; Sprott, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    A large percentage of the students who drop out of K-12 schools in the United States do so at the end of high school, at some point after grade 10. Yet little is known about the differences between types of students who drop out near the end of high school. The purpose of this study is to examine a typology of high school dropouts from a large…

  11. Can a Public Scholarship Program Successfully Reduce School Drop-Outs in a Time of Economic Crisis? Evidence from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role played by Indonesia's Social Safety Net Scholarships Program in reducing school drop-out rates during the Asian financial crisis. The expectation was that many families would find it difficult to keep their children in school and drop-out rates would be high. The scholarships are found to have been effective in…

  12. Can a Public Scholarship Program Successfully Reduce School Drop-Outs in a Time of Economic Crisis? Evidence from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role played by Indonesia's Social Safety Net Scholarships Program in reducing school drop-out rates during the Asian financial crisis. The expectation was that many families would find it difficult to keep their children in school and drop-out rates would be high. The scholarships are found to have been effective in…

  13. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta;

    2011-01-01

     years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...... dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half...... took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2...

  14. A meta-analysis of the effects of dropout prevention programs on school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Wilson, Sandra Jo

    2013-10-01

    This study reports findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature examining the effects of school dropout prevention and intervention programs on students' school absenteeism outcomes. The meta-analysis synthesized 74 effect sizes measuring posttest differences in school absenteeism outcomes for youth enrolled in dropout prevention programs relative to a comparison group. Although results from randomized controlled trials indicated significant beneficial program effects, findings from quasi-experimental studies indicated no significant beneficial or detrimental effects. Examination of study characteristics suggested that dropout programs may have beneficial effects on school absenteeism among primarily male samples, and younger samples. Although no single type of intervention program was consistently more effective than others, vocational oriented and supplemental academic training programs showed some promise. However, the inconsistency in results and the possibility of small study bias mean the quality of evidence in this literature is low; at this time there is not enough evidence to conclude that dropout prevention programs have a universal impact on youth's school absenteeism outcomes.

  15. Effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout in Nepal: Analysis of data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Kazutaka; Hodgkin, Marian Ellen

    2017-01-01

    School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the ‘tipping point’ school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls’ school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15–17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls’ dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl’s marriage so as to reduce girls’ school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups. PMID:28727793

  16. The Primary School Dropout in Spain: The Influence of Family Background and Labor Market Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraita, Carlos; Pastor, Margarita

    2000-01-01

    Despite 2 decades of overall enrollment increases at all education levels, Spain's primary-school dropout rate is relatively high and permanent. A study using 1985 living/working conditions data shows that family socioeconomic-status variables significantly determine probability of dropping out; youth labor market conditions are also influential.…

  17. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  18. Can Social-Emotional Learning Reduce School Dropout in Developing Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Chu, James; Loyalka, Prashant; Xin, Tao; Shi, Yaojiang; Qu, Qinghe; Yang, Chu

    2016-01-01

    An alarming number of students drop out of junior high school in developing countries. In this study, we examine the impacts of providing a social-emotional learning (SEL) program on the dropout behavior and learning anxiety of students in the first two years of junior high. We do so by analyzing data from a randomized controlled trial involving…

  19. Leisure Boredom and High School Dropout in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Lisa; Flisher, Alan J.; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Lombard, Carl; King, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated whether leisure boredom predicts high school dropout. Leisure boredom is the perception that leisure experiences do not satisfy the need for optimal arousal. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which included the Leisure Boredom Scale. The original cohort of grade 8 students (n=303) was…

  20. School Persistence in the Wake of War: Wartime Experiences, Reintegration Supports, and Dropout in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of wartime experience and reintegration supports to students' risk of school dropout. It draws on longitudinal, mixed-methods data collected among children and youth in Sierra Leone from 2002 through 2008. The study finds that family financial support and perceived social support are positively associated…

  1. Perceived Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying Predicts High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Huang, Francis; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study of 276 Virginia public high schools found that the prevalence of teasing and bullying (PTB) as perceived by both 9th-grade students and teachers was predictive of dropout rates for this cohort 4 years later. Negative binomial regression indicated that one standard deviation increases in student- and teacher-reported PTB were…

  2. Building Bonds to High School Graduation: Dropout Intervention with Seventh and Eighth Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A principal at a Lowell (Massachusetts) school collaborated with the University of Massachusetts-Lowell to develop a dropout intervention program for seventh and eighth grade students. Small classes met alternate Saturday mornings at the university. Additional field trips and two overnight weekends helped strengthen the bond between students and…

  3. Socioeconomic differences in school dropout among young adults: the role of social relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-10-15

    School dropout in adolescence is an important social determinant of health inequality in a lifetime perspective. It is commonly accepted that parental background factors are associated with later dropout, but to what extent social relations mediate this association is not yet fully understood. To investigate the effect of social relations on the association between parental socioeconomic position and school dropout in the Danish youth cohort Vestliv. This prospective study used data from questionnaires in 2004 and 2007 and register data in 2004 and 2010. The study population consisted of 3,054 persons born in 1989. Information on dropout was dichotomised into those who had completed a secondary education/were still attending one and those who had dropped out/had never attended a secondary education. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between parental socioeconomic position and dropout at age 21, taking into account effects of social relations at age 15 and 18. A large proportion of young people were having problems with social relations at age 15 and 18. In general, social relations were strongly related to not completing a secondary education, especially among girls. For instance, 18-year-old girls finding family conflicts difficult to handle had a 2.6-fold increased risk of not completing a secondary education. Young people from low socioeconomic position families had approximately a 3-fold higher risk of not completing a secondary education compared to young people from high position families, and the estimates did not change greatly after adjustment for social relations with family or friends. Poor relations with teachers and classmates at age 18 explained a substantial part of the association between income and dropout among both girls and boys. The study confirmed a social gradient in completion of secondary education. Despite the fact that poor social relations at age 15 and 18 were related to dropout at age 21, social

  4. Operation C.O.D. "Curtailment of Dropouts." A Program Designed to Improve Pupil Self-Esteem Thereby Reducing Future School Dropouts. Maxi II Practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Edward C.

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a counseling program designed to improve pupil self-esteem, thereby hopefully reducing the number of future school dropouts The program was conducted at Cooley Education and Vocational Guidance Center and served 87 pupils. The need for such a program was apparent when the high rate of secondary…

  5. Substance Use and Psychosocial Predictors of High School Dropout in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisher, Alan J.; Townsend, Loraine; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Lombard, Carl F.; King, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs predicts dropout among secondary school students in Cape Town, South Africa. A self-report instrument was administered to 1,470 Grade 8 students. The proportion of students that dropped out of school between the onset of the study and 4 years later was 54.9%.…

  6. School Counselors' Role in Dropout Prevention and Credit Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromski-Klingshirn, Donna; Miura, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces credit recovery (CR) programs to school counseling. Traditionally the school counselors' role in CR has been limited to referring students who are, or who have, failed courses. Based on our own findings from a study of a large Midwest high school (N = 2,000) CR program, we make specific recommendations for school counselors…

  7. An Analysis of the Impact of Socio-Economic Disadvantage and School Quality on the Probability of School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahuteau, S.; Mavromaras, K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper combines the Australian Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) micro-level data with its longitudinal continuation, the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth data, to measure the association between individual PISA scores and early school dropouts. We use multilevel modelling to distinguish between student and school…

  8. An Analysis of the Impact of Socio-Economic Disadvantage and School Quality on the Probability of School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahuteau, S.; Mavromaras, K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper combines the Australian Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) micro-level data with its longitudinal continuation, the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth data, to measure the association between individual PISA scores and early school dropouts. We use multilevel modelling to distinguish between student and school…

  9. Ability, Parental Valuation of Education and the High School Dropout Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Kelly; Gallipoli, Giovanni; Green, David

    We use a large, rich Canadian micro-level dataset to examine the channels through which family socio-economic status and unobservable characteristics a ect children's decisions to drop out of high school. First, we document the strength of observable socio-economic factors: our data suggest...... that teenage boys with two parents who are themselves high school dropouts have a 16% chance of dropping out, compared to a dropout rate of less than 1% for boys whose parents both have a university degree. We examine the channels through which this socio-economic gradient arises using an extended version....... Second, parental valuation of education has an impact of approximately the same size as cognitive ability e ects for medium and low ability teenagers. A low ability teenager has a probability of dropping out of approximately .03 if his parents place a high value on education but .36 if their education...

  10. Alternative Education Programmes and Middle School Dropout in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Aguilar, Claudia R.; Alas, Mario; Castellanos, Renán Rápalo; Castro, Levi; Enamorado, Ramón; Fonseca, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Honduras has made steady progress in expanding post-primary school coverage in recent years, but many rural communities still do not provide a middle (lower secondary) school. As a result, Honduras has implemented a number of middle school alternative programmes designed to meet the needs of at-risk populations throughout the country. This article…

  11. School dropout susceptibility mapping with fuzzy logic – a study in the District of Purulia, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukunda Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-input prediction models are gradually finding their places in the arena of social and economic sciences to assess, locate and address the complicated socio-economic issues arising around the globe. These models treat the problems as the output aroused from a complex interaction between a range of variables linked with physical, socio-cultural, economic as well as ambient political systems. The discussion on dropout from the education system belongs to the core of the educational researchers. The researchers within this domain are attempting to develop the ‘tools and techniques’ for efficiently demarcating the space with a given degree of susceptibility. The scope is to drop out and examine the internal functions of the interactive variables associated with the process. In the present study, we try to apply the fuzzy logic in mapping the spatial variation of the susceptibility of school dropout in the district of Purulia, a backwards district in India regarding achieved level of human development. The training datasets for building the fuzzy model based on the available secondary data from different reports published by the Government and a range of primary data collected through a socio-economic survey. The model output is an index, namely the Index of Susceptibility of School Drop Out (ISDO which reflects the levels of susceptibility to school dropout at different parts of the study area. The proposed model should allow the success within the larger social and economic system.

  12. Estimated mental retardation and school dropout in a sample of students from state public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramontina Silzá

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.

  13. An Analysis of Primary School Dropout Patterns in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Takeshi; Ashida, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    This study hypothesized that repeating a grade is one reason why Honduran primary students drop out of school but not the main reason. Using longitudinal data, we analyzed student enrollment patterns up until students left school. The results revealed that many students dropped out suddenly without having previously repeated a grade, although many…

  14. An Analysis of Primary School Dropout Patterns in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Takeshi; Ashida, Akemi

    2017-01-01

    This study hypothesized that repeating a grade is one reason why Honduran primary students drop out of school but not the main reason. Using longitudinal data, we analyzed student enrollment patterns up until students left school. The results revealed that many students dropped out suddenly without having previously repeated a grade, although many…

  15. Parent-child attachment, academic performance and the process of high-school dropout: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdal, Gro; Bergvik, Svein; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Poor academic performance is a strong predictor of school dropout. Researchers have tried to disentangle variables influencing academic performance. However, studies on preschool and early care variables are seldom examined when explaining the school dropout process. We reviewed the literature on the relationship between caregiver-child attachment and academic performance, including attachment studies from preschool years, seeking out potential contributions to academic performance and the dropout process. The review was organized according to a model of four main mediating hypotheses: the attachment-teaching hypothesis, the social network hypothesis, the attachment-cooperation hypothesis, and the attachment self-regulation hypothesis. The results of the review are summed up in a model. There is some support for all four hypotheses. The review indicates that attachment and early care contribute substantially to dropout and graduation processes. Mediation effects should be given far more attention in future research.

  16. School Performance in Adolescent Jamaican Girls: Associations with Health, Social, and Behavioral Characteristics, and Risk Factors for Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M.; Himes, John H.; Williams, Sonia; Duff, Edith M.

    1998-01-01

    Health, nutrition, and behavioral determinants of school achievement, attendance, and dropout examined in 452 girls aged 13-14 randomly selected in Kingston, Jamaica. Anemic or sexually active girls had worse achievement levels. Better achievement was associated with possession of school materials and access to reading material outside of school.…

  17. Childhood Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders as Correlates of School Dropout in a National Sample of Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S. born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites, including 2532 young adults, ages 21 to 29. The dropout prevalence rate was 16% overall, with variation by childhood trauma, childhood psychiatric d...

  18. DIMENSIONS OF BASIC SCHOOL DROPOUTS IN RURAL GHANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR PRINCE

    rural Ghana using the Asutifi district as a case study. The analysis of ... Governmental Organisations (NGO) in con- junction with .... report, it was noted that the beneficial impact of ..... tics that the image of the schools in the district from 1997 to ...

  19. The Mayas of Yucatan, Mexico: Their Fight against School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos; Cardos-Dzul, Maria Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the strategies that a sample of Maya men and women of Yucatan, Mexico used to avoid dropping out of school. Data from in-depth interviews, focus groups and life stories were analyzed using grounded theory techniques through a non-essentialist gender approach. Among the Maya, statistics show that women drop out of school…

  20. The Mayas of Yucatan, Mexico: Their Fight against School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos; Cardos-Dzul, Maria Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the strategies that a sample of Maya men and women of Yucatan, Mexico used to avoid dropping out of school. Data from in-depth interviews, focus groups and life stories were analyzed using grounded theory techniques through a non-essentialist gender approach. Among the Maya, statistics show that women drop out of school…

  1. Early school leavers and dropouts : A matter of educationalappeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugino Binanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este texto es analizar el complejo fenómeno de la dispersión escolar y contextualizarlo dentro del sistema escolar italiano, centrándose en el sur de Italia y en particular en la Puglia y en la provincia de Lecce. La primera parte se concentra en las tesis teóricas relacionadas con este fenómeno. La misma definición de dispersión escolar transmite la idea de multidimensionalidad de este problema que comprende una variedad de acontecimientos y comportamientos que conducen en último análisis a la dispersión, y por supuesto tiene que ser diferente al término «drop out» o abandono, que se refiere específicamente a los estudiantes que interrumpen sus cursos de estudios sin acabarlos. En la segunda parte el texto describe el sistema escolar italiano y evidencia los recientes cambios en la estructura educativa, demostrando como los poderes y las responsabilidades competenciales de la administración del Estado y del Ministerio de la educación pública ahora se han trasladado a las autoridades locales como las Regiones, las Provincias y los Ayuntamientos, en una óptica de descentralización y desregulación. La tercera parte se centra en la dispersión escolar prematura en el sur de Italia, donde este comportamiento es muy común, debido a factores socioeconómicos, pero también a la desmotivación personal.The purpose of this text is to analyse the complex phenomenon of early school-leaving and to contextualize it within the Italian school system, with a focus on Southern Italy and, in particular, on Apulia and the Province of Lecce. Part one concentrates on the theoretical assumptions linked to this phenomenon. The definition itself of school-leaving conveys the idea of the multidimensionality of this problem, which covers a variety of events and behaviours — i.e. lack of admission, failures, irregular attendance, etc. — ultimately leading to dispersion, and has to be necessarily distinguished from the term

  2. Evaluating the Impact of a Summer Dropout Prevention Program for Incoming Freshmen Attending an Under-Resourced High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth; Shriberg, David; Alves, Alison; de Oca, Jessie Montes; Reker, Kassandra; Roche, Meghan; Salgado, Manuel; Stegmaier, Jessica; Viellieu, Lindsay; Karahalios, Vicky; Knoll, Michael; Adams, Kristen; Diaz, Yahaira; Rau, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Low high school completion rates are an ongoing challenge for educators. This study provides the results of an evaluation of a ninth-grade summer transition program offered at a large public school with a high freshman dropout rate. The evaluation consisted of preprogram and postprogram surveys and interviews with 64 incoming freshman…

  3. Teachers' Views on the Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships on School Dropout: A Bourdieusian Analysis of Misrecognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairz-Wirth, Erna; Feldmann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's relational theory this paper shows that many teachers misrecognize the impact of teacher-student relationships on school dropout. The study is based on a series of 60 semi-structured interviews with teachers from Austrian secondary schools. The analysis of the empirical data reveals that many teachers attribute school…

  4. Teachers' Views on the Impact of Teacher-Student Relationships on School Dropout: A Bourdieusian Analysis of Misrecognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairz-Wirth, Erna; Feldmann, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's relational theory this paper shows that many teachers misrecognize the impact of teacher-student relationships on school dropout. The study is based on a series of 60 semi-structured interviews with teachers from Austrian secondary schools. The analysis of the empirical data reveals that many teachers attribute school…

  5. Analysis of the Socio-Economic Factors That Contribute to Children School Dropout in Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Dora Harrison; Ting, Zuo; Pesha, John Chrisostom

    2017-01-01

    In Tanzania, education has been earmarked as a priority area to stimulate socioeconomic development, however; the increasing number of school dropout cases is posing a huge hindrance to achieving this goal. To establish the major causes of school dropouts, this paper investigated different factors that explain the phenomena with special focus on…

  6. Factors associated with dropout in medical education: a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Eika, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Medical school dropout may have negative consequences for society, patients, the profession, schools and dropouts. To our knowledge, the literature dealing with dropout from medical school has never been systematically and critically appraised.......Medical school dropout may have negative consequences for society, patients, the profession, schools and dropouts. To our knowledge, the literature dealing with dropout from medical school has never been systematically and critically appraised....

  7. Schools Must Act on Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, James

    1987-01-01

    Urges school administrators to act now to establish innovative programs dealing with teen pregnancy and parenting problems. Argues for school-based clinics or special schools offering comprehensive health services such as birth control information and devices, referral, and childcare. Cites successful approaches in Fresno, California, and several…

  8. A Mixed-Method Exploration of School Organizational and Social Relationship Factors That Influence Dropout-Decision Making in a Rural High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    This explanatory mixed-method study explored the dropout phenomenon from an ecological perspective identifying the school organizational (academics, activities, structure) and social relationship (teachers, peers) factors that most significantly influence students' decisions to leave school prior to graduation at a rural high school in south…

  9. How can we strengthen students’ social relations in order to reduce school dropout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Liselotte; Sørensen, Betina Bang; Andersen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article describes the rationale and contents of an intervention program aimed at strengthening students' social relations in order to reduce dropout from vocational schools in Denmark. Taking its theoretical cue from the concept of 'social participation', a qualitative study...... on ethnographic methods, including 22 qualitative interviews with students 17-19 years old and fieldwork with participant observations at four vocational schools over 40 days, including informal interviews and discussion meetings with managers, teachers, counselors and students. As part of the fieldwork, four...... additional qualitative interviews and four group interviews were conducted with students 16-25 years old. RESULTS: The qualitative data collection resulted in seven major themes to be addressed in the intervention: social relations, sole focus on professional skills, institutionalized individualization...

  10. Early Adolescent Depression Symptoms and School Dropout: Mediating Processes Involving Self-Reported Academic Competence and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…

  11. Early Adolescent Depression Symptoms and School Dropout: Mediating Processes Involving Self-Reported Academic Competence and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Cintia V.; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Research on adolescent well-being has shown that students with depression have an increased risk of facing academic failure, yet few studies have looked at the implications of adolescent depression in the process of school dropout. This study examined mediation processes linking depression symptoms, self-perceived academic competence, and…

  12. Is the GED an Effective Route to Postsecondary Education for School Dropouts? NBER Working Paper No. 13816

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, John H.; Lofstrom, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    We use data from the Texas Schools Microdata Panel (TSMP) to examine the extent to which dropouts use the GED as a route to post-secondary education. The paper develops a model pointing out the potential biases in estimating the effects of taking the "GED path" to postsecondary education. Lacking suitable instruments that would allow us…

  13. Childhood Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders as Correlates of School Dropout in a National Sample of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S.-born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites,…

  14. Fort Hamilton High School Project SPEED: Special Education to Eliminate Dropouts. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1982-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, Mary; Sica, Michael

    The major goal of Project SPEED (at Fort Hamilton High School, Brooklyn, New York) was dropout prevention. In its first year of operation, 1982-83, the project provided English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction, bilingual instruction in basic skills required for graduation, and guidance services to approximately 300 limited English proficient…

  15. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Reengaging High School Dropouts: Early Results of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program Evaluation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether participating in the "National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program", a quasi-military residential/mentoring program for dropouts, improved the educational and other outcomes of at-risk youth. The study analyzed data on about 1,000 16- to 18-year-old high school dropouts enrolled in 10 ChalleNGe programs throughout…

  16. Sexual behavior, pregnancy, and schooling among young people in urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Letícia; Lam, David; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2008-12-01

    This study examines transitions in schooling, sexual activity, and pregnancy among adolescents and young adults in urban South Africa. Data are analyzed from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), a recently collected longitudinal survey of young adults and their families in metropolitan Cape Town. We find that teen pregnancy is not entirely inconsistent with continued schooling, especially for African (black) women. More than 50 percent of African women who were pregnant at age 16 or 17 were enrolled in school the following year. We estimate probit regressions to identify the impact of individual and household characteristics on sexual debut, pregnancy, and school dropout between 2002 and 2005. We find that male and female students who performed well on a literacy and numeracy exam administered in 2002 were less likely than those who performed more poorly to become sexually active and less likely to drop out of school by 2005. Surprisingly, 14-16-year-olds who had completed more grades in school in 2002, conditional on their age, were more likely than those who had completed fewer grades to have become sexually active by 2005, a potential indicator of peer effects resulting from the wide dispersion in age per grade in South African schools. Overall, this study shows the importance of accounting for a measure that reflects the knowledge and skills of young people in an examination of their transitions to adulthood.

  17. [The relationship between teenage pregnancy and school desertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Marta; Ferrada, Cristina; Pérez, Ruth; Cid, Luis; Casanueva, Víctor; García, Apolinaria

    2004-01-01

    In Chile, the prevalence of teenage pregnancy is 17%. To assess relationship between adolescent pregnancy and school desertion. At the Hospital Guillermo Grant Benavente's Departament of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in Concepción, Chile, 2001 a comparative, cross sectional and correlational study was conducted. The study group were pregnant adolescents who deserted from school system, divided in two subgroups: 86 adolescents who deserted before pregnancy and 130 who deserted during pregnancy. Twenty percent of teenagers that deserted from school before pregnancy belonged to a sublevel of poverty, compared with 5% of those who deserted during pregnancy. Flunk was frequent in both but higher in girls that deserted before pregnancy (46.5 and 36.9% respectively, (prelationship between teenage pregnancy and school desertion. Adolescents who deserted from school before pregnancy are more vulnerable.

  18. A District View: Dropouts and the Differentiated Diploma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, E. Todd

    2012-01-01

    More students are deciding to dropout of school prior to graduation. As a result the dropout rate has become a hot topic in education across the United States. The average high school dropout salary is approximately 50% less than the salary of a high school graduate. The social factors are another reason the dropout rate needs to be a high…

  19. The early identification of risk factors on the pathway to school dropout in the SIODO study: a sequential mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theunissen Marie-José

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School dropout is a persisting problem with major socioeconomic consequences. Although poor health probably contributes to pathways leading to school dropout and health is likely negatively affected by dropout, these issues are relatively absent on the public health agenda. This emphasises the importance of integrative research aimed at identifying children at risk for school dropout at an early stage, discovering how socioeconomic status and gender affect health-related pathways that lead to dropout and developing a prevention tool that can be used in public health services for youth. Methods/design The SIODO study is a sequential mixed-methods study. A case–control study will be conducted among 18 to 24 year olds in the south of the Netherlands (n = 580. Data are currently being collected from compulsory education departments at municipalities (dropout data, regional public health services (developmental data from birth onwards and an additional questionnaire has been sent to participants (e.g. personality data. Advanced analyses, including cluster and factor analyses, will be used to identify children at risk at an early stage. Using the quantitative data, we have planned individual interviews with participants and focus groups with important stakeholders such as parents, teachers and public health professionals. A thematic content analysis will be used to analyse the qualitative data. Discussion The SIODO study will use a life-course perspective, the ICF-CY model to group the determinants and a mixed-methods design. In this respect, the SIODO study is innovative because it both broadens and deepens the study of health-related determinants of school dropout. It examines how these determinants contribute to socioeconomic and gender differences in health and contributes to the development of a tool that can be used in public health practice to tackle the problem of school dropout at its roots.

  20. Burned out to Drop out: Exploring the Relationship between School Burnout and School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bask, Miia; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the development of school burnout among Finnish youth aged 16-18, specifically with regard to the following three components: a cynical attitude toward the school, feelings of inadequacy as a student, and exhaustion at school. There is evidence of an increase in all three components over time, but only among students on the…

  1. Why We Drop out of School: Voices of San School Dropouts in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokibelo, Eureka B.

    2014-01-01

    Among San communities in Botswana, the rate of student disengagement from both primary and junior secondary school is an ongoing concern for educators. San learners leave school at all levels of primary and junior secondary education. Students who leave school have tended not to provide reasons as to why they are dropping out. This study…

  2. Prevalence and correlates of school drop-out prior to initial treatment of nonaffective psychosis: further evidence suggesting a need for supported education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Sandra M; Chien, Victoria H; Compton, Michael T

    2010-02-01

    Because dropping out of high school (i.e., secondary education) contributes prominently to numerous social, economic, and health conditions, formal public health initiatives promoting population health and social justice, especially in at-risk populations, are increasingly encouraged to address high school drop-out. The relative dearth of research attention on school drop-out prior to first treatment contact in young adults with psychotic disorders indicates a need for investigation of the associations between school drop-out and illness-related variables so that interventions may be tailored appropriately to this unique population. This study provides a descriptive characterization of the prevalence and correlates of high school drop-out in a sample of 109 patients hospitalized for the evaluation and treatment of a first episode of nonaffective psychosis. Findings from this urban, socially disadvantaged, predominantly African American sample indicate that school drop-out is a marker of diverse detrimental social problems in first-episode psychosis, and that further research is required to fully characterize the most appropriate interventions for such individuals. Future research might seek to intervene through an integrated treatment approach that incorporates supported education, symptom reduction and management, and comorbid substance use treatment in first-episode patients. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Consequences of School-Age Pregnancy and Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gail Hasselbach

    1980-01-01

    School-age mothers, their parents, and school personnel were interviewed independently to determine their perceptions of consequences of school-age pregnancy and motherhood. Perceived consequences differed for the three sets of interviewees. (Author)

  4. Perception Of In-school Teenagers On Teenage Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Background: Teenage pregnancy is a major medical and socioeconomic ... This study was conducted to assess the perception of teenagers in secondary school on teenage pregnancy.

  5. Middle School Predictors of High School Performance: A Case Study of Dropout Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M. Todd; Caldarella, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of high school has negative results and implications for individuals and society. The likelihood of dropping out is attributed to both social and academic risk factors. Poor high school attendance, low course completion, and low grade-point-average (GPA) have been identified as three leading indicators that students are at risk for…

  6. Need Satisfaction, Work-School Interference and School Dropout: An Application of Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Genevieve; Lekes, Natasha; Gagnon, Hugo; Kwan, Lisa; Koestner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background: In many parts of the world, it is common for secondary school students to be involved in part-time employment. Research shows that working can have a negative impact on school engagement. However, the majority of studies have focused on the amount of time that students spend working rather than on the "quality" of work experience and…

  7. School quality, economic status and school dropout rates among Mexican teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Danitza Vargas Valle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between dropping out of school and the perceived quality of the last school that Mexican teenagers attended, and examine the interaction between this educational factor and the economic status of this population. Based on the 2010 National Youth Survey, the researchers used the life table to describe this relationship, and Cox regression models to analyze it, including individual, family-related and educational co-variables. The results show that the risk of dropping out of school is indirectly linked to school quality and, to a greater degree, to economic status; and that the gap between students dropping out based on school quality is slightly wider among adolescents of low academic status than among those of high status.

  8. Student Perspectives of the Graduation Coach's Ethic of Care on the Dropout Epidemic in a Middle Georgia Alternative High School of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kimberly R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the influence of the graduation coach's ethic of care on potential dropouts (at risk high school seniors) in a Georgia alternative high school. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the objective of this research was to identify if the graduation coach's ethic of care had an influence on…

  9. Student Perspectives of the Graduation Coach's Ethic of Care on the Dropout Epidemic in a Middle Georgia Alternative High School of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kimberly R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the influence of the graduation coach's ethic of care on potential dropouts (at risk high school seniors) in a Georgia alternative high school. Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the objective of this research was to identify if the graduation coach's ethic of care had an influence on…

  10. Primary Education and Dropout in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Shree Prasad; Bagale, Shiba

    2015-01-01

    This article tries to highlight the dropout rate of primary education of Nepal. The main essence of the article is to explore the situation of dropout of primary education. There are several programs and policies to reduce the dropout, out of the school children and so on but still there are several issues that are left behind. Educational budget…

  11. A Case Control Study on School Dropouts in Children of Alcohol-Dependent Males Versus that in Abstainers/Social Drinkers′ Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet N Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study and compare in the children of alcohol-dependent males versus those in a socio-demographically similar control group, the occurrence of school dropouts, and to examine the link between certain factors like parental education and socioeconomic status on school dropout. Materials and Methods: This was a community-based case control study. The participants were 107 family units in both study group (alcohol-dependent male, wife, at least one child less than 14 years of age and control group (abstainer/social drinker, wife, at least one child less than 14 years of age. It was conducted in an urban slum community in Mumbai. Interview technique was used for data collection. The study was conducted for a period of 1 year. Statistical Analysis: Using software SPSS version 17.0, percentages, Chi-square test. Results and Conclusion: The number of school dropouts was significantly higher (45.31%, P < 0.001 in the children of alcohol-dependent males as compared to 22.47% in the abstainers/social drinkers′ children. In the study group, there was higher number of school dropouts among boys (52.73%, P < 0.05 as compared to girls (35.37%. There was a statistically significant association between parental illiteracy and school dropout in children in both the groups. In the control group, significantly higher number of school dropouts of socioeconomic class IV and V had dropped out as compared to those of socioeconomic class III and II.

  12. The Kohlberg Moral Development Rationale and a Program for Potential School Dropouts. An Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Peggy; And Others

    A program for potential dropouts was designed around Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development and the Kohlberg Dilemmas were used to get baseline and measure growth. The classroom setting and procedures took cognizance of the student's level of moral development and regular group counseling sessions attempted to facilitate growth. First year results…

  13. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  14. School Dropouts or Pushouts? Overcoming Barriers for the Right to Education. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anugula N.; Sinha, Shantha

    2010-01-01

    Persistently high dropout rates are one of the biggest challenges to fulfilling the right to education in India. This paper attempts to assess the magnitude of the problem of dropout. The paper critically reviews the evidence on some of the commonly cited reasons for dropout, including poverty, limited to access to credit, child labour, and…

  15. Dropout--Mertonian or reproduction scheme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T R

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on dropouts in four schools in Israel. Two main research questions were addressed: (1) Is it possible to identify a potential dropout through examination of his/her attitudes and competence before the actual act of leaving school? (2) Is there a difference between dropouts and persistent students in different educational settings (academic, vocational, agricultural, and comprehensive high schools)? Significant differences were found in the attitudes of persistent students and dropouts even before the act of dropping out occurred. In the vocational, comprehensive, and agricultural schools, the dropouts scored more positively on the self-estrangement, meaninglessness, and misfeasance scales. In the academic school, the dropouts scored positively on the anxiety scale. Results were interpreted in light of the Mertonian scheme of ends and means as well as the reproduction scheme. The Mertonian scheme was deemed more applicable.

  16. At-Risk Students and the Dropout Rate: What Influences Student Decisions to Remain in School or Drop-Out in a Suburban High School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The drop out phenomenon is a persistent problem in public schools across the United States. The consequence of a student dropping out of school negatively impacts both the individual who chooses to drop out and the society that ultimately is responsible for supporting that individual. The purpose of this study is to analyze the decision making…

  17. Infodemiological data of high-school drop-out related web searches in Canada correlating with real-world statistical data in the period 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Anna; Khabbache, Hicham; Al-Jafar, Ali; Martini, Mariano; Brigo, Francesco; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

    2016-12-01

    The present data article describes high-school drop-out related web activities in Canada, from 2004 to 2012, obtained mining Google Trends (GT), using high-school drop-out as key-word. The searches volumes were processed, correlated and cross-correlated with statistical data obtained at national and province level and broken down for gender. Further, an autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model was used to model the GT-generated data. From a qualitative point of view, GT-generated relative search volumes (RSVs) reflect the decrease in drop-out rate. The peak in the Internet-related activities occurs in 2004 (56.35%, normalized value), and gradually declines to 40.59% (normalized value) in 2007. After, it remains substantially stable until 2012 (40.32%, normalized value). From a quantitative standpoint, the correlations between Canadian high-school drop-out rate and GT-generated RSVs in the study period (2004-2012) were statistically significant both using the drop-out rate for academic year and the 3-years moving average. Examining the data broken down by gender, the correlations were higher and statistically significant in males than in females. GT-based data for drop-out resulted best modeled by an ARMA(1,0) model. Considering the cross correlation of Canadian regions, all of them resulted statistically significant at lag 0, apart from for New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador and the Prince Edward island. A number or cross-correlations resulted statistically significant also at lag -1 (namely, Alberta, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan).

  18. Does Parental Educational Level Predict Drop-Out from Upper Secondary School for 16- to 24-Year-Olds when Basic Skills Are Accounted For? A Cross Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundetrae, Kjersti

    2011-01-01

    Drop-out from upper secondary school is considered a widespread problem, closely connected with youth unemployment. The aim of the current study was to examine whether parents' level of education predicted drop-out for 16-24-year-olds when accounting for basic skills. For this purpose, data from the Norwegian (n = 996) and American (n = 641)…

  19. Does Parental Educational Level Predict Drop-Out from Upper Secondary School for 16- to 24-Year-Olds when Basic Skills Are Accounted For? A Cross Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundetrae, Kjersti

    2011-01-01

    Drop-out from upper secondary school is considered a widespread problem, closely connected with youth unemployment. The aim of the current study was to examine whether parents' level of education predicted drop-out for 16-24-year-olds when accounting for basic skills. For this purpose, data from the Norwegian (n = 996) and American (n = 641)…

  20. Teenage pregnancy and parenting at school in contemporary South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teenage pregnancy and parenting at school in contemporary South African contexts: ... South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender ... dominant moralistic discourses on adolescence, normative gender roles and ...

  1. Puertorriquenos En Chicago: El Problema Educativo Del Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Isidro

    1974-01-01

    Article written in Spanish. Defines the term "dropout," discusses the characteristics and motivations of Puerto Rican school dropouts in Chicago, and outlines the problems in educating them. (Author/RJ)

  2. High School Graduation, Completion, and Dropout (GCD) Indicators: A Primer and Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christopher B.

    2004-01-01

    This catalog is concerned with the measurement of certain high school outcomes; specifically the progression of students through high school and the way in which students terminate their participation with the secondary education system. The catalog provides a basic inventory of the various methods for estimating high school graduation,…

  3. Early High School Dropouts: What Are Their Characteristics? Data Point. NCES 2015-066

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jeffrey A.; Chen, Xianglei; Ingels, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This Data Point utilizes data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), a nationally representative, longitudinal study of more than 23,000 ninth-graders in 2009. HSLS:09 surveyed students, their parents, math and science teachers, school administrators, and school counselors. The study included information about students who were…

  4. Examination of Urban High School Dropouts with High Self-Efficacy: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayles, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of urban students in Central Alabama with high self-efficacy who have dropped out of school to pursue a GED. This study: (a) provided a platform that gave voice to students to share their lived experience as they made the decision to drop out of high school, (b) identified the character…

  5. Problems and Strategies Regarding Reducing America's Migrant Student Dropout Rate. Congressional Testimony Delivered in Response to a Request from the National Commission on Migrant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge, Doris

    Studies conducted by the National Rural Development Institute (NRDI) indicate that migrant students have a higher school dropout rate than non-migrant students. In addition, rural migrant students experience higher levels of family dysfunction and abuse, teen pregnancy, emotional difficulties such as depression or low self-esteem, poverty,…

  6. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between High School Dropout and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Loraine; Flisher, Alan J.; King, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A systematic review of peer-reviewed, empirical literature published between 1990 and 2006 was undertaken to determine whether existing research could provide evidence, and a deeper understanding of the relationship between dropping out of high school and the use of substances such as tobacco, alcohol, cannabis/marijuana and other illicit drugs.…

  7. Beyond the Numbers: Understanding California's High School Dropouts. Partnership for Urban Education Research (PUER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeric

    2008-01-01

    Six of California's largest urban school districts have joined together in the Partnership for Urban Education Research (PUER), to address the most pressing issues in urban education. The six PUER districts have agreed to work together to increase data availability, enhance internal research capacity, and promote collaboration and information…

  8. Exclusion from School: Teenage Pregnancy and the Denial of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Marie

    2007-01-01

    There is an unrecognised crisis in the education of pregnant schoolgirls and schoolgirl mothers. Girls leaving school due to pregnancy are not reported in official statistics. This has serious consequences in terms of resource allocation and planning of service provision. This article examines how girls are forced out of the mainstream education…

  9. The Response of the Schools to Teenage Pregnancy and Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellman, Gail L.

    Local education agency responses to student pregnancy and parenthood are constrained by narrow definitions of the problem, opposition to sex education, contraception, and abortion, disagreement about the appropriate school role, lack of expertise, and lack of incentives to develop programs. Nationwide field studies were conducted to assess 12…

  10. Exclusion from School: Teenage Pregnancy and the Denial of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Marie

    2007-01-01

    There is an unrecognised crisis in the education of pregnant schoolgirls and schoolgirl mothers. Girls leaving school due to pregnancy are not reported in official statistics. This has serious consequences in terms of resource allocation and planning of service provision. This article examines how girls are forced out of the mainstream education…

  11. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE SCHOOL IN HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE SINALOA

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalva Ruiz-Ramírez; José Luis García-Cué; María Antonia Pérez-Olvera

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation has the objective to establish the personal, economic and social causes and consequences that create school desertion of high school in Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (UAS). The investigation took place in the high school located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, in the academic unit (UA) of San Blas and its extensions The Constancia and The Higueras of the Natoches in 2013. A mixed approach was used to analyze qualitative and quantitative information; the...

  12. 'He is the one who is providing you with everything so whatever he says is what you do': A Qualitative Study on Factors Affecting Secondary Schoolgirls' Dropout in Rural Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Oruko

    Full Text Available Education is an effective way to improve girls' self-worth, health, and productivity; however there remains a gender gap between girls' and boys' completion of school. The literature around factors influencing girls' decision to stay in school is limited. Seven focus group discussions took place among 79 girls in forms 2 to 4 at secondary schools in rural western Kenya, to examine their views on why girls absent themselves or dropout from school. Data were analysed thematically. Lack of resources, sexual relationships with boyfriends, and menstrual care problems were reported to lead directly to dropout or school absence. These were tied to girls increased vulnerability to pregnancy, poor performance in school, and punishments, which further increase school absence and risk of dropout. Poverty, unmet essential needs, coercive sexual relationships, and an inequitable school environment collude to counter girls' resolve to complete their schooling. Lack of resources drive girls to have sex with boyfriends or men who provide them with essentials their family cannot afford, such as sanitary pads and transport to school. While these improve quality of their school life, this dynamic increases their exposure to sexual risk, pregnancy, punishment, and dropout. Evaluation of interventions to ameliorate these challenges is warranted, including provision of pocket money to address their needs.

  13. School-to-Work Transitional Outcomes of a Group of Italian School Dropouts: Challenges for Promoting Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Viviana; Bonica, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to deal with the role of vocational training in developing social inclusion by analyzing the school-to-work transitional outcomes of early school leavers whose successful experience in vocational training was documented in previous works. Design/methodology/approach: The sample comprises 126 males who enrolled in and…

  14. CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE SCHOOL IN HIGH SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruiz-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has the objective to establish the personal, economic and social causes and consequences that create school desertion of high school in Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (UAS. The investigation took place in the high school located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, in the academic unit (UA of San Blas and its extensions The Constancia and The Higueras of the Natoches in 2013. A mixed approach was used to analyze qualitative and quantitative information; the studied population was 18 women and 17 men deserters of the school cycle 2011-2012, ten teachers, four directors and twenty non-deserting students. In the results one can see that the principal factor for school desertion was the personnel to be married and not approving classes. The main consequence was economic, highlighting that the poverty cycle is hard to break.

  15. Tracking Drop-out Students in Palestinian Refugee Camps in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hroub, Anies

    2015-01-01

    This research paper examines the perceptions of students on the school drop-out problem in Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon regarding (a) the social and economic causes associated with the phenomenon of school drop-out; (b) the educational policies and practices used in UNRWA schools and their relationship to student drop-out; and (c) the role…

  16. University Students’ Tendencies Toward and Reasons Behind Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ŞİMŞEK

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research conducted to investigate university students’ tendencies toward and reasons behind dropout, it was found that university students had a high level of tendency towards dropout (45%. This indicated that one out of two students wanted to drop out of school at least once for a reason. As a result, their tendencies toward dropout was due to personal factors as well as those related to family, friends, and school. The personal factors affecting tendency toward dropout were gender, academic performance, school attendance, out-of-school work, boredom at school, and discipline penalty. According to the results, the factors related to school were faculty type, level of satisfaction with administrative and teaching staff as well as with social activities, level of difficulty in the department, and willingness to choose faculty. Furthermore, in this study, a positive relationship was found between dropout tendency and possession of close friends who dropped out of school.

  17. The Efficacy of the RENEW Model: Individualized School-to-Career Services for Youth At Risk of School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, JoAnne M.; Sundar, Vidyalakshmi; Hagner, David; Pierias, Leigh; Viet, Tara

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the results of a research project designed to assess the efficacy of a secondary transition model, RENEW (Rehabilitation, Empowerment, Natural supports, Education and Work), on the social and emotional functioning of 20 youth at risk of dropping out of high school using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale…

  18. Creating a Culture for High-Performing Schools: A Comprehensive Approach to School Reform and Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Cletus R.; Lunenburg, Fred C.; Potter, Les

    2008-01-01

    A high performing school is described as one where student achievement is high and student and teacher absenteeism is low. Student behavior is such that teachers seldom have to control them or tell them what to do. This results in greater time on task, higher teacher morale, low teacher absenteeism, and improved parental support. One other…

  19. Creating a Culture for High-Performing Schools: A Comprehensive Approach to School Reform and Dropout Prevention. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Cletus R.; Lunenberg, Fred C.; Potter, Les

    2011-01-01

    A high-performing school is described as one where student achievement is high and student and teacher absenteeism is low. Student behavior is such that teachers seldom have to control them or tell them what to do. This results in greater time on task, higher teacher morale, low teacher absenteeism, and improved parental support. One other…

  20. Improving school ethos may reduce substance misuse and teenage pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bonell, Chris; Fletcher, Adam; McCambridge, J

    2007-01-01

    Substance misuse and teenage pregnancy are major public health challenges. Existing responses generally focus on individual characteristics, such as knowledge and attitudes about substances and sexual risk, rather than wider social and institutional influences, and seem to have brought about only limited benefits. We review evidence suggesting that interventions aiming to promote one such wider influence—positive school ethos—might provide an effective complement to existing interventions.

  1. The Annual Dropout Report 1987-88. OREA Report. Accountability Section Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opperman, Prudence; Gampert, Richard D.

    Examination of dropout trends in New York City for 1987-88 reveals the following: (1) the annual dropout rate was 7.5 percent for the high schools, and 8.4 percent system-wide; (2) the estimated 4-year dropout rate was 26.8 percent for the high schools, and 29.7 percent system-wide; (3) the 1987-88 4-year high school dropout rate was 5.7…

  2. Drop-Out Challenges: Pathways to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Evguenia; McKee, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an action research at an alternative high school which explores drop-out prevention strategies with first-year students. Student retention is extremely challenging for alternative schools. Because their mission is to provide a second chance to students who could not succeed in a regular setting, those schools regularly must…

  3. Predicting College Retention and Dropout: Sex and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Shirley; Ferraro, Vittoria; Fichten, Catherine; Havel, Alice

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between student dropout and high school grades, demographic factors and psychosocial variables was examined for 40 682 full-time Dawson College students. Overall, low high school grades and older age were the best predictors of dropout. Male students, who generally had lower grades than females, were more likely to drop out than…

  4. School-age pregnancy: why hasn't prevention worked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, M

    1993-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) reduction has not occurred, despite sexuality education and abstinence programs, and intensive publicity and community initiatives. An obstacle to adolescent pregnancy, STD, and childbearing prevention is the assumption that adolescent sexuality is a closed system of activity among peers. When a nation is consumed with the preoccupation of condoms versus chastity debates, and is ignoring high poverty levels and abuse of the young, adolescent girls will seek escape from harsh childhoods in early family formation with young adult men. There is a high correlation between poverty rates and teenage birth, AIDS, and STD rates. Schools are not able to produce magical solutions to teenage pregnancy when adult lawmakers abnegate their responsibility to provide for youth well-being. Adolescent pregnancy will occur regardless of the expansion of curative programs such as school-based clinics; fundamental changes in assumptions, attitudes, and policies are needed. Beneficial aspects of programming appear to be fact-based sexuality and contraceptive education, counseling and referrals for youths with histories of child abuse, and child care classes and flexible school schedules for parenting students. A statistical profile in California indicates that 85% of all fathers of babies born to girls between ages of 11 and 18 years were adults. More than 50% of mothers aged 11-15 years were impregnated by adult men. Fathers' average age for births among junior high school mothers was 15-26 years, when the youngest and the oldest 2.5% of fathers are eliminated. There is a greater likelihood that a man older than 23 years will impregnate a junior high girl than will a junior high boy. The partner age gap is greatest among the very young girls. The California profile of father's age is similar to birth patterns in other states and similar to the national average. An examination of STDs shows a higher rate of STDs among females

  5. School-based teenage pregnancy prevention programs: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sylvana E; Assefi, Nassim P

    2005-01-01

    We compared school-based abstinence-only programs with those including contraceptive information (abstinence-plus) to determine which has the greatest impact on teen pregnancy. The United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the industrialized world. Programs aimed at reducing the rate of teen pregnancy include a myriad of approaches including encouraging abstinence, providing education about birth control, promoting community service activities, and teaching skills to cope with peer pressure. We systematically reviewed all published randomized controlled trials of secondary-school-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in the United States that used sexual behavior, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive use, and pregnancy rates as outcomes.

  6. Hartford Community Plan for Dropout Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartford Public Schools, CT.

    Whereas the nationwide dropout rate is 27 percent, in Hartford, Connecticut, 39 percent of high school students do not graduate. This factor limits residents' employability in the city's expanding economy. The problem is especially serious among Hispanic students, who comprise 39 percent of Hartford's high school population and account for 47…

  7. Stress and the High School Senior: Implications for Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, John; Reglin, Gary

    1992-01-01

    A recent survey found that 90 percent of high school seniors/respondents perceived the world as stressful and the majority of people as phony. These views may partly explain the high suicide, pregnancy, dropout, and drug usage rates among high school seniors. Teachers can help students overcome stress by modeling coping strategies and providing…

  8. Changes in mode of transportation to work or school from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Skreden

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of Norwegian women there was a significant change towards less active transportation to work or school and lower levels of physical activity from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy.

  9. An Evaluation of a School-Based Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program Using a Logic Model Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulton, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy and the subsequent social morbidities associated with unintended pregnancies are complex issues facing school nurses in their daily work. In contemporary practice, school nurses are being held to higher standards of accountability and being asked to demonstrate the effective outcomes of their interventions. The purpose of this…

  10. An Evaluation of a School-Based Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program Using a Logic Model Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulton, Linda J.

    2007-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy and the subsequent social morbidities associated with unintended pregnancies are complex issues facing school nurses in their daily work. In contemporary practice, school nurses are being held to higher standards of accountability and being asked to demonstrate the effective outcomes of their interventions. The purpose of this…

  11. Diplomas Count 2013: Second Chances--Turning Dropouts into Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Week, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of "Diplomas Count," entitled "Second Chances: Turning Dropouts into Graduates," examines dropout recovery and innovative strategies for returning to the educational fold the 1 million students who leave school without a diploma each year. "Education Week's" journalists investigate interventions that…

  12. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-09-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy.

  13. Attending School and Learning or Repeating and Leaving. A Study about the Determinants of Grade Repetition and Dropout in Primary School in Honduras. Synthesis of the Study = Asistir y Aprender o Repetir y Desertar. Un Estudio sobre los Factores que Contribuyen a la Repitencia en la Escuela Primaria en Honduras. Sintesis del Informe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Noel F.; And Others

    This paper synthesizes a study designed to identify the factors that contribute to primary school repetition and dropout in Honduras. Data were collected by record reviews; teacher, student, and parent interviews; and a test of Spanish. The sample included 1,253 students in grades 1 and 3 in 40 schools in rural Honduras. The main findings of the…

  14. Attending School and Learning or Repeating and Leaving. A Study about the Determinants of Grade Repetition and Dropout in Primary School in Honduras. Synthesis of the Study = Asistir y Aprender o Repetir y Desertar. Un Estudio sobre los Factores que Contribuyen a la Repitencia en la Escuela Primaria en Honduras. Sintesis del Informe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Noel F.; And Others

    This paper synthesizes a study designed to identify the factors that contribute to primary school repetition and dropout in Honduras. Data were collected by record reviews; teacher, student, and parent interviews; and a test of Spanish. The sample included 1,253 students in grades 1 and 3 in 40 schools in rural Honduras. The main findings of the…

  15. The Influence of the Trainer's Motivation and Cooperative Learning towards the Improvement of the Youth School Dropouts' Vocational Competences: "A Case Study of Life Skills Training at the Center for Social Empowerment of Youths ("Balai Pemberdayaan Sosial Bina Remaja") in the West Java Province"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniati, Rina

    2013-01-01

    The fact that there are many children and youths dropping out of school in Indonesia cannot be denied. The number of dropouts in elementary schools, junior, and senior high schools, and combined with those abandoning school before finishing their higher education program each year remains high. To mitigate this situation, there has been an…

  16. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

  17. Utah Drop-Out Drug Use Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…

  18. Assessing reasons for school/college dropout among young adults and implications for awareness about STDs and HIV/AIDS: findings from a population-based study in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid-ul-Hasnain, Syed; Krantz, Gunilla

    2011-06-01

    Dropping out of school/college not only impedes economic prosperity but may also result in poor knowledge and awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This study investigated, among young adults in Karachi, Pakistan, the risk factors associated with involuntary school/college dropout and the implications for awareness about HIV/AIDS and STDs. A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1,650 young males and females, aged 17-21 years and living in Karachi, was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed separately for males and females. Females were twice as likely to drop out of school/college as males. Furthermore, migrant residential status, living in an extended family and lower socio-economic status were identified as risk factors for school/college dropout both for males and females. In the total sample, only 17% of males and 13% of females had heard of STDs (p = 0.020). Furthermore, 26.8% of males and 20.5% of females had not heard of HIV/AIDS (p = 0.003). The females exhibited a higher level of awareness on these matters than the males, irrespective of whether they had dropped out of school or not. While the males who dropped out were considerably less aware than those who remained at school, there was no such difference among females. Young adults from poor families are at increased risk of dropping out of school/college. Among the dropouts, males were clearly at risk of ignorance about STDs while females were somewhat better informed.

  19. Pregnancy Risk among Black, White, and Hispanic Teen Girls in New York City Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Orr, Mark G.; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was c...

  20. The Relationship between Dropout Prevention and Transition for Secondary School Students with Mild Disabilities. Monograph No. 1993-R1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Jeanne B.; And Others

    Project RETAIN (Retention in Education Technical Assistance and Information Network) is a Florida project to assist school districts through identification and dissemination of effective practices that keep students with mild disabilities in school. One part of the project attempted to establish a consensus among experts in the fields of…

  1. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports 2006 study results in the area of pregnancy prevention, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education; and (2) Health Services…

  2. Why do couples drop-out from IVF treatment? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberg, M F G; Eijkemans, M J C; Heijnen, E M E W; Broekmans, F J; de Klerk, C; Fauser, B C J M; Macklon, N S

    2008-09-01

    Cumulative IVF pregnancy rates are compromised by the large number of couples who drop-out of treatment before achieving pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify the role of the treatment strategy applied, and potential other factors that influence the decision of couples to discontinue treatment. The incidence of drop-out from IVF treatment and factors related to drop-out were studied in a cohort of IVF patients aged dropped out of IVF treatment. The physical or psychological burden of treatment was the most frequent cause of drop-out (28%). The application of a mild treatment strategy (mild ovarian stimulation along with the transfer of a single embryo) significantly reduced the chance of drop-out (hazard ratio (HR) 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31-0.96). When a mild IVF strategy was employed, the association between the baseline anxiety score and drop-out was reduced by >50%. The presence of severe male subfertility (HR 4.80; 95% CI, 1.63-14.13) and the failure to achieve embryo transfer (odds ratio 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.72) were also related to drop-out. Reducing drop-out rate is crucial to further improve the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of IVF treatment. An important factor determining the risk of drop-out is the burden of the treatment strategy. The application of a mild treatment strategy and managing patient's expectations might reduce drop-out rates.

  3. Palomar project: predicting school renouncing dropouts, using the artificial neural networks as a support for educational policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, V; Piras, G

    1998-02-01

    The "Palomar" project confronts two problem situations that are partly independent and partly connected to the Italian schooling system: unstable participation in school such as drop out and educational guidance. Our concern is that of a set of phenomena which consists of ceasing compulsory education, repetition of a year at school, school "drop outs", irregular compulsory attendance and delays in the course of studies. The "Palomar" project is designed to offer educators and administrators who want to effectively intervene with these complex problems to furnish school guidance services as an instrument able to: 1. Predict: creating a system able to predict in advance (not in a "cause-effect" way but as an approximation): a) which students are at "risk" for school destabilization or failure; b) what are the prototypical characteristics of these students; c) which students among those studied are more likely to "destabilize" or fail in school; in which course of study does each student have the greatest chance of success; d) which, among the variables studied and appropriately weighted for each student, will predict the successful grade, analyzed for each possible course of studies. 2. Optimize: selecting and focusing on a student on the basis of the information given. It is possible: a) to point out which personal factors (relational, familial, student, disciplinary, economical) need to be reinforced in order to improve the school performances of each selected student, both to prevent or limit "dropping out" desertion or failure and to raise the performances in the chosen school course as much as possible; b) on the basis of what was mentioned above, to simulate the possible support measures to increase the efficacy of the considered intervention; c) to choose for each student the appropriate intervention strategy capable of obtaining the maximum result and the maximum efficacy in the given conditions. 3. Verify: when the strategy of intervention has been decided

  4. Bibliography: How to Survive High School and Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanny, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Describes a high school library "stress collection" of 125 fiction and nonfiction titles dealing with issues teens may experience and provides brief annotations for a number of these resources. Topics covered include academic and other anxieties, crises, dropouts, drugs and alcohol, families, health, illness and death, pregnancy, sexual…

  5. Dropout and downward mobility in the educational career: An event-history analysis of ethnic schooling differences in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    While many aspects of educational careers have been examined ill the literature on ethnic minorities, such as truancy, turnover and grades, downward mobility has rarely been studied. Using data on more than 10,000 students who entered secondary school in The Netherlands in 1989, we develop an

  6. Dropout and Downward Mobility in the Educational Career : An Event-History Analysis of ethnic Schooling Differences in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Kraaykamp, G.

    2003-01-01

    While many aspects of educational careers have been examined ill the literature on ethnic minorities, such as truancy, turnover and grades, downward mobility has rarely been studied. Using data on more than 10,000 students who entered secondary school in The Netherlands in 1989, we develop an

  7. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  8. Learning about Academic Ability and the College Dropout Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Stinebrickner; Ralph Stinebrickner

    2012-01-01

    Research examining the educational attainment of low-income students has often focused on financial factors such as credit constraints. We use unique longitudinal data to provide direct evidence about a prominent alternative explanation--that departures from school arise as students learn about their academic ability or grade performance. Examining college dropout, we find that this explanation plays a very prominent role; our simulations indicate that dropout between the first and second yea...

  9. Leadership to Success: A Study of the Leadership Behaviors of Dropout Recovery Program Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the leadership practices and behaviors of the building leaders of dropout recovery schools and how these behaviors correlate with the ability of their student population to pass state-required standardized tests. This study analyzed the responses of 8 building leaders of dropout recovery schools regarding their leadership…

  10. Adoption of an Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Curriculum: A Case Study in a South Carolina School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Lauren M.; Flynn, Shannon; Kenison, Kelli; Prince, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Continued efforts are needed to reduce teenage pregnancy in the United States. Implementation of evidence-based curricula in schools is one strategy toward meeting this goal. In 2010, the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (SC Campaign) received funding to implement a teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) curriculum. Congruent with South…

  11. Adoption of an Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Curriculum: A Case Study in a South Carolina School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Lauren M.; Flynn, Shannon; Kenison, Kelli; Prince, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Continued efforts are needed to reduce teenage pregnancy in the United States. Implementation of evidence-based curricula in schools is one strategy toward meeting this goal. In 2010, the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (SC Campaign) received funding to implement a teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) curriculum. Congruent with South…

  12. Perceptions of Teen Pregnancy among High School Students in Sweet Home, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tim; Henderson, Jessica; Pedersen, Peggy; Stonecipher, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to gain insights into the perceptions and attitudes about teen pregnancy among high school students in a rural area with high teen pregnancy rates. Methods: Five focus groups were conducted with: (1) females in 9th-10th grades; (2) females in 11th-12th grades; (3) males in 9th-10th grades; (4) males in…

  13. Perceptions of Teen Pregnancy among High School Students in Sweet Home, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tim; Henderson, Jessica; Pedersen, Peggy; Stonecipher, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to gain insights into the perceptions and attitudes about teen pregnancy among high school students in a rural area with high teen pregnancy rates. Methods: Five focus groups were conducted with: (1) females in 9th-10th grades; (2) females in 11th-12th grades; (3) males in 9th-10th grades; (4) males in…

  14. Sexual Orientation and Risk of Pregnancy Among New York City High-School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa L; Walsemann, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We examined associations between sexual orientation and pregnancy risk among sexually experienced New York City high-school students. We analyzed data from 2005, 2007, and 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We excluded students who had never engaged in sexual intercourse, only had same-gender sexual partners, or had missing data on variables of interest, resulting in a final sample of 4892 female and 4811 male students. We employed multivariable logistic regression to examine pregnancy risk by sexual orientation, measured as self-reported sexual identity and gender of sexual partners, with adjustment for demographics and sexual behaviors. We stratified analyses by gender. Overall, 14.3% of female and 10.8% of male students had experienced a pregnancy. Students who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or reported both male and female sexual partners had higher odds of pregnancy than heterosexual students or students who only had opposite-gender sexual partners. Sexual behaviors accounted for higher odds of pregnancy among female, but only partially accounted for higher odds of pregnancy involvement among male, sexual-minority students. Sexual orientation should be considered in future adolescent pregnancy-prevention efforts, including the design of pregnancy-prevention interventions.

  15. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde;

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  16. Pregnancy Risk among Black, White, and Hispanic Teen Girls in New York City Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G.; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was calculated using pregnancy risk index (PRI) methodology, which estimates probability of pregnancy based on current sexual activity and birth control method at last intercourse. Factors of race/ethnicity, grade level, age, borough, and school neighborhood were assessed. Whites reported lower rates of current sexual activity (23.4%) than blacks (35.4%) or Hispanics (32.7%), and had lower predicted pregnancy risk (PRI = 5.4% vs. 9.0% and 10.5%, respectively). Among sexually active females, hormonal contraception use rates were low in all groups (11.6% among whites, 7.8% among blacks, and 7.5% among Hispanics). Compared to white teens, much of the difference in PRI was attributable to poorer contraceptive use (19% among blacks and 50% among Hispanics). Significant differences in contraceptive use were also observed by school neighborhood after adjusting for age group and race/ethnicity. Interventions to reduce teen pregnancy among diverse populations should include messages promoting delayed sexual activity, condom use and use of highly effective birth control methods. Access to long-acting contraceptive methods must be expanded for all sexually active high school students. PMID:20383750

  17. Partners in Prevention: The Role of School-Community Partnerships in Dropout Prevention. The Report of the NASBE Study Group on School-Community Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Boards of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Today's society is global, multicultural, multilingual, and digitally connected. Learning no longer occurs just in the classroom, delivered by teachers. At the same time, research has repeatedly shown that no single strategy or approach will turn around low-performing schools and reengage students. As a result, districts and schools are reaching…

  18. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur between 34 and 36 weeks—these are late-preterm births. 5 Infants born in the 37th and 38th ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  19. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND SCHOOL DROPOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the most serious problems of the contemporary world, fact which is expressed not only by all European statistics, statistics showing a growing number of unemployed, despite the consistent concern of the governments of all developed countries. Worse is that the unemployment is the highest among young people up to 25 years, many of them being university graduates. This way the trend of young people to stop attending studies appeared ... seeing as useless their efforts to invest in their future through university studies, the chances of finding a job are minimal despite their diplomas. Hence the name of "the lost generation" - the way that young people are called nowadays. The market economy, based mainly on private property is not considering social issues, it pursues just one goal: profit, more exactly the profit maximization.

  20. Teen pregnancy and abortion among high school students of the urban district of Antananarivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidiniaina Mamy Randriantsarafara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen pregnancy and abortion phenomena take an ever-growing magnitude in poor countries. Lack of knowledge about reproductive health could aggravate these problems. Methods: Across-sectional survey has been conducted in public, private and denominational high schools of the urban district of Antananarivo, Madagascar, on a sample of 248 students during schoolyear 2012-2013. Data was collected during the third quarter of the schoolyear. Results: Good knowledge about pregnancy and abortion was found in 14.5%, 95% CI [10.4% -19.5%] of students. The media represent almost 60% of the sources of information. Access to care is limited in 48% of cases by feeling shame. Nearly 11% would resort to abortion if an unplanned pregnancy happens. Nearly 6.5%, 95% CI [3.6% - 10.3%] had teen pregnancy problems: 9.6% of boys and 4.1% of girls came encountered these and all cases have ended in induced abortion among girls. The students from the denominational schools and the female gender have more knowledge of about sexuality. The level of knowledge does not significantly influence pregnancy. Female students (p = 0.07 are less prone to teen pregnancy, whereas dating a fixed boyfriend (p <10-4, a large sibship (p = 0.03 and parents in consensual union (p = 0.02 encourage its occurrence. Conclusions: Abortion does not actually represent a remedy in case of pregnancy. Nevertheless, prevention of teen pregnancy is suggested. The control strategy should be multidisciplinary and multisectoral, and focused on targeted information. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 240-246

  1. Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, and Schooling among Young People in Urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marteleto, Letícia; Lam, David; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2008-01-01

    This study examines transitions in schooling, sexual activity, and pregnancy for adolescents and young adults in urban South Africa. The study analyzes data from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), a recently collected longitudinal survey of young adults and their families in metropolitan Cape Town. South African youth have high school enrollment rates through their teenage years, combined with relatively early sexual initiation, with most young people becoming sexually active while they are en...

  2. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…

  3. Classroom Goal Structures and HIV and Pregnancy Prevention Education in Rural High School Health Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek R.; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L.; O'Connell, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV and pregnancy instruction, 3 months after instruction, and 1 year after instruction). Results indicated…

  4. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…

  5. Why do couples drop-out from IVF treatment? A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.G. Verberg; M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); E.M. Heijnen; F.J.M. Broekmans (Frank); C. de Klerk (Cora); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); N.S. Macklon (Nick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Cumulative IVF pregnancy rates are compromised by the large number of couples who drop-out of treatment before achieving pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify the role of the treatment strategy applied, and potential other factors that influence the decision of

  6. Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D; Casey, S

    1986-09-01

    The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media.

  7. Teenage pregnancy: a psychopathological risk for mothers and babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Gwendoline; Kadji, Caroline; Delvenne, Veronique

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy remains a public health problem of varying importance in developing and developed countries. There are risks and consequences for teen parents and the child on the medical and socioeconomic level. We conducted a literature search on multiple databases, focusing on the risk and the consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing. We used different combined keywords as teen pregnancy, teen mother, teenage parents, teenage childbearing, teenage mother depression. Our search included different type of journals to have access on different views (medical, psychological, epidemiologic). The teen mothers are more at risk for postnatal depression, school dropout and bad socioeconomic status. The babies and children are more at risk for prematurity and low birthweight and later for developmental delays and behavior disorders. Pregnancy in adolescence should be supported in an interdisciplinary way (gynecologist, psychologist, child psychiatrist, midwives, pediatrician). We need further studies that allow targeting patients most at risk and personalizing maximum support.

  8. Dropout in vocational education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    For the last ten years drop out of vocational education has increased strongly in Denmark. Only half of the students, who take up a vocational programme on upper secondary level, complete it. Like in other European countries the low completion rates has caused considerable alarm on the political...... level (Lamb and Markussen 2011). Continuing high dropout rates will make it very hard for the government to reach its target for educational completion, and the government has launched a series of measures to increase retention including the obligation for all colleges to make plans for retention...

  9. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... low blood pressure (also caused by blood loss) lower back pain continue What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic ...

  10. The Myth That Preferential College Admissions Create High Black Student Dropout Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the impact of affirmative-action college-admission policies on black student dropout rates in the nation's top higher education institutions. Black student dropout rate comparative data are provided that show graduation rate percentages of Ivy League schools, less-selective state universities, and historically black colleges. (GLR)

  11. Reexamining Gifted Underachievement and Dropout through the Lens of Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of high school dropout has long concerned policy makers, educational professionals, and the general public. In the gifted literature, this concern is no less pressing. Student engagement is becoming an increasingly discussed construct for conceptualizing the dropout phenomenon and designing appropriate interventions to prevent this…

  12. Early Childhood Education. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 22, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Laying the Foundation for Success (Mary Caputo); (2) Ready or Not? (Laura Koenig); (3) Every Child A School-Ready Child (Leah Newkirk Meunier); (4) Parents As Teachers (Erin Garner);…

  13. Urban Issues. National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Newsletter. Volume 20, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The "National Dropout Prevention Newsletter" is published quarterly by the National Dropout Prevention Center/Network. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Education in the Urban Context (Ed Lambert); (2) An Interview with Paul Reville, Massachusetts Secretary of Education; (3) Communities In Schools of Chicago (Jane…

  14. School-Age Pregnancy and Parenthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddinger, Lucy; Forbush, Janet

    The National Alliance Concerned with School-Age Parents (NACSAP) is a private, non-profit, multidisciplinary membership organization specializing in technical assistance to those working with school-age parents, young families at risk, and sexually active youth. This publication represents a compilation of information relating to adolescent…

  15. Causes of Male Dropout Rate in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Dad, Hukam; Iqbal, Javid; Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali; Niazi, Muhammad Imran

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to seek the cause of male students' dropout rate at the primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were: 1) to study the teacher problems and attitudes of the dropouts, 2) to determine the factors that cause dropouts, 3) to study the government's strategy of dropouts, and 4) to provide suggestions to overcome…

  16. Dropout Rates in the United States: 2002 and 2003. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-062

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jennifer; Lew, Stephen; DeBell, Matthew; Chapman, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This report builds upon a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reports on high school dropout and completion rates that began in 1988. It presents estimates of rates in 2002 and 2003, provides data about trends in dropout and completion rates over the last three decades, and examines the characteristics of high school dropouts…

  17. Teenage pregnancy rates and associations with other health risk behaviours: a three-wave cross-sectional study among South African school-going adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Kim; Crutzen, Rik; van den Borne, Bart; Sewpaul, Ronel; Reddy, Priscilla

    2016-05-04

    Teenage pregnancy still remains high in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), as well as in high-income countries (HIC). It is a major contributor to maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, it has social consequences, such as perpetuating the cycle of poverty including early school dropout by the pregnant adolescent, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few studies in SSA have investigated the trends in teenage pregnancy and the associated factors, while this is critical in fully understanding teenage pregnancy and for promotion of reproductive health among adolescents at large in SSA. To examine the trends in teenage pregnancy and to identify associations with other health risk behaviours in South Africa (SA), a total of 31 816 South African school-going adolescents between 11 to 19 years of age were interviewed in three cross-sectional surveys. Data from the first (2002, n = 10 549), second (2008, n = 10 270) and the third (2011, n = 10 997) nationally representative South African youth risk behaviour surveys (YRBS) were used for this study. The overall prevalence of having ever been pregnant among the combined 3-survey sample was self-reported to be 11.0 % and stable across the three surveys. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in SA has decreased from 41.9 % in 2002 to 36.9 % in 2011. However, pregnancy among girls who ever had sex increased from 17.3 % (95 % CI: 0.16-0.19) in 2002, to 23.6 % (95 % CI: 0.21-0.26) in 2008 and decreased to 21.3 % (95 % CI: 0.19-0.23) in 2011. The odds for ever been pregnant were higher for girls who had 2 or more sexual partners (OR: 1.250, 95 % CI: 1.039-1.503), girls who ever used alcohol before sex (OR: 1.373, 95 % CI: 1.004-1.878), practised binge-drinking during the last month (OR: 0.624, 95 % CI: 0.503-0.774), and girls who used mandrax (OR: 1.968, 95 % CI: 1,243-3.117). The odds for never been pregnant were lower for those who used condoms (OR: 0.462, 95 % CI: 0

  18. The Return to College: Selection Bias and Dropout Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Lutz; Leukhina, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    We study two long-standing questions: (i) What part of the measured return to education is due to selection? (ii) The ex post return to schooling is higher than the return to most financial assets. How large are the contributions of various frictions to the "high" return to schooling? We focus in particular on the roles of college dropout risk, borrowing constraints, and learning about ability. We develop and calibrate a model of school choice. Key model features are: (i) ability heterogeneit...

  19. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakuela, Nditsheni J.; Lebese, Tsakani R.; Sonto M. Maputle; Lindiwe Mulaudzi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.Methodology: A ...

  20. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  1. School-based interventions for preventing Hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in

  2. Exploring the Use of Role Play in a School-Based Programme to Reduce Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Diamini, Nthabiseng; Khanyile, Zama; Mpanza, Lloyd; Sathiparsad, Reshma

    2012-01-01

    Can the use of a method such as role play help reduce sexual risk behaviour among KwaZulu-Natal learners? A study was undertaken of the use of role plays by Grade 8 learners, at eight urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal high schools, as part of a programme to reduce the prevalence of teenage pregnancy. Within the framework of Bandura's Social Cognitive…

  3. Classroom Goal Structures and HIV/Pregnancy Prevention Education in Rural High School Health Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Anderman, Eric M.; CUPP, PAMELA K.; Lane, Derek R.; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L.; O'Connell, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV/pregnancy instruction, three months after instruction, and one year after instruction). Results indicated that classroom goal structures were related to both proximal and distal knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and efficacy beliefs. Results in partic...

  4. Predicting Drop-Out from Social Behaviour of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jaroslav; Bydzovska, Hana; Geryk, Jan; Obsivac, Tomas; Popelinsky, Lubomir

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on predicting drop-outs and school failures when student data has been enriched with data derived from students social behaviour. These data describe social dependencies gathered from e-mail and discussion board conversations, among other sources. We describe an extraction of new features from both student data and behaviour…

  5. Why Do Sports Officials Dropout?

    OpenAIRE

    Dosseville, Fabrice; Rioult, François; Laborde, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Sports officials' recruitment and retention is currently an issue for many sports. The sources of stress are numerous but seem to have a reduced impact on sport officials' dropout. To examine potential reasons of sport officiating dropout, 1718 sport officials were asked to fill a survey about their motivation, the way they trained and are evaluated, perceived stress, the qualities and skills required for officiating, and how they live their function, for a total of 13...

  6. Awareness of prevention of teenage pregnancy amongst secondary school learners in Makhado municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giliana M. Maxwell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexuality plays a very significant role in the lives of both boys and girls. It is, therefore, considered important for schools to recognise and accept sexuality as part of the development process of the child. Professor Kader Asmal (previous South African Minister of Education suggested that the earlier the school begins to teach learners about sexuality, the better because they can be easily misled by their peers if proper guidance regarding their sexuality is not given.Aim: The current study was conducted to assess the awareness of teenagers on the prevention of teenage pregnancy (TP in six secondary school learners situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province.Setting: The study was conducted at six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province in 2014.Methodology: A quantitative descriptive survey study was conducted where data were collected, using self-administered questionnaires, from 381 systematically sampled participants from six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province. Data were analysed descriptively using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software, version 22.0. Necessary approval procedures and ethical clearance were obtained prior to data collection.Results: Ninety-four percent of participants agreed that TP can be prevented through abstaining from sex, whilst 65% of participants agreed that TP could be prevented by using contraceptives such as pills and injections. Eighty-three percent of participants agreed that T Pcould be prevented through the use of condoms. Seventy-four percent participants disagreed that bathing after sex prevents teenage pregnancies. Furthermore, 28% participants agreed that TP can be prevented by oral sex.Conclusion: The conclusion drawn was that learners are aware of the measures for preventing TP

  7. Impact of timing of sex education on teenage pregnancy in Nigeria: cross-sectional survey of secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiogu, Ifeoma N; Miettola, Juhani; Ilika, Amobi L; Vaskilampi, Tuula

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether the time at which sex education was provided had any impact on reported cases of unintended pregnancies. A cross-sectional survey of secondary school students and their teachers was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. The participants were 1,234 students aged 14-17 years and 46 teachers in 5 secondary schools in South Eastern Nigeria. The outcome measures were reported pregnancies within the last 3 years by type of school and class level; class level at the time of receiving sex education at school; and age at the time of receiving sex education at home. In all schools, sex education was provided at all the junior and senior secondary school levels (JSS and SSS, respectively). Overall, reported cases of unintended pregnancies were highest among the junior students. In the private schools, four in ten teachers reported pregnancies among JSS 3 students. Almost four in ten teachers in public schools reported pregnancies among JSS 2 students. Of all the students, about three in ten reported pregnancies among JSS 2 and 3 students respectively. At home, sex education was provided at the mean age of 16 years (SD ± 2.2). All participants cited financial need and marital promise as major predisposing factors. About four in ten students did not use contraceptives during their first sexual experience. This study highlights the need to introduce sex education much earlier, possibly before the JSS levels. At home, sex education may have greater impact if provided before the age of 14 years. Efforts should be made to address the factors predisposing to teenage pregnancy.

  8. All4You! A Randomized Trial of an HIV, Other STDs, and Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Alternative School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Kirby, Douglas B.; Robin, Leah E.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Glassman, Jill R.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated All4You!, a theoretically based curriculum designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors associated with HIV, other STDs, and unintended pregnancy among students in alternative schools. The study featured a randomized controlled trial involving 24 community day schools in northern California. A cohort of 988 students was assessed…

  9. Condom Availability in Schools: A Practical Approach to the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV and Unintended Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults are highly impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy in the United States and globally. Consistent and correct use of male latex condoms is associated with protection against both STIs and pregnancy. Providing adolescents and young adults with access to free condoms in schools may increase the use of condoms by improving condom availability, eliminating cost, and decreasing embarrassment associated with purchasing condoms. Studies demonstrate that condom availability in schools is associated with the increased use of condoms and improved overall sexual health. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages schools to make condoms available to students as part of efforts to decrease rates of STIs and unplanned pregnancy in adolescents and young adults. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages health care providers to advocate for and support the availability of condoms in local schools. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Schools as Agencies of Protection in Namibia and Swaziland: Can They Prevent Dropout and Child Labor in the Context of HIV/AIDS and Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses a particular area of research in the field of education and child protection: the protective role of schools in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and poverty. Such adverse situations may lead children not to enroll in school or to drop out of school and subsequently to be subjected to abusive child labor and, in some cases, the worst…

  11. Schools as Agencies of Protection in Namibia and Swaziland: Can They Prevent Dropout and Child Labor in the Context of HIV/AIDS and Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses a particular area of research in the field of education and child protection: the protective role of schools in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and poverty. Such adverse situations may lead children not to enroll in school or to drop out of school and subsequently to be subjected to abusive child labor and, in some cases, the worst…

  12. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  13. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  14. 学习快乐度:西藏农牧区中小学生辍学问题新解——以A县为例%A New View on the Dropout of the Primary and Middle School Students in Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Tibet:Analysis from the Perspective of Happiness of Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺能坤

    2012-01-01

    The students in agricultural and pastoral areas of Tibet get the national preferential policy of "san bao"(promising provide free food,accommodation and textbooks)early,there is the earliest area where has implemented the free compulsory education.However,the problem of primary and middle school students'dropout is still noticeable.According to the questionnaire,the reason of students'dropout mainly lies in the lack of happy in school.Thus,thoroughly solve the students'dropout can not only relies on economy measure,but also it needs to find the breakthrough point from the students'happiness level in study.All of the educational activities in school should make students'studies happy,by that,the school dropout problem which has a long history in Tibetan education can be radically solved.%西藏农牧区学生很早就享受了国家实施的"三包"(包吃、包住、包书本费)优惠政策,是最早实施义务教育免费的地区。但是,中小学生辍学问题仍然很突出。问卷调查发现,辍学原因主要在于学生体会不到学习的快乐。因此,根治学生辍学不能仅仅依赖经济手段,还应从学生学习的快乐度入手寻找突破口。学校的一切教育教学活动应当使学生的学习是快乐的,才能从根本上解决西藏教育历史上长期存在的辍学问题。

  15. Migration as a risk factor for school dropout amongst children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS: a prospective study in eastern Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pufall, Erica L; Nyamukapa, Constance; Robertson, Laura; Mushore, Paradzai George; Takaruza, Albert; Gregson, Simon

    2015-07-03

    Orphans and other children made vulnerable by HIV in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of moving household and of dropping out of school. However, the relationship between child migration and school enrolment has not been established. Multivariable regression models and prospective data from a cohort of children in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, were used to investigate the effect of migration on school enrolment. Children who had moved household were at increased risk of dropping out of school after adjusting for orphan status, relationship to primary caregiver, and household wealth. Interventions are needed to ensure that children who migrate are re-enrolled in school.

  16. Evidence on Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Rode; Sommersel, Hanna Bjørnøy; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    This publication is an excerpt from the full technical report ‘Dropout Phenomena at Universities: What is Dropout? Why does Dropout Occur? What Can be Done by the Universities to Prevent or Reduce it? A systematic review’, which was completed in April 2013. The purpose of this excerpt is to prese...... the knowledge we have on dropout phenomena at European universities in a short, precise and comprehensible form to allow readers to orient themselves on the subject in a more readable manner....

  17. High Rates of Pregnancy among Vocational School Students: Results of Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Survey in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Kilmarx, Peter H.; van Griensven, Frits; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Limpakarnjanarat, Khanchi; Uthaiworavit, Wat

    2003-01-01

    Examined prevalence of and factors associated with pregnancy and abortion among vocation school students in northern Thailand. Age, current contraceptive use, early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol and drug use, and sexual coercion were associated with self or partner pregnancy. High rates of pregnancy and abortion indicate the need for…

  18. Classroom Goal Structures and HIV/Pregnancy Prevention Education in Rural High School Health Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M; Cupp, Pamela K; Lane, Derek R; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L; O'Connell, Ann

    2011-12-01

    Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV/pregnancy instruction, three months after instruction, and one year after instruction). Results indicated that classroom goal structures were related to both proximal and distal knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and efficacy beliefs. Results in particular indicate that the perception of a mastery goal structure in health education classrooms fosters knowledge, improved attitudes, enhanced efficacy beliefs, and lower intentions to have sexual intercourse.

  19. Awareness of prevention of teenage pregnancy amongst secondary school learners in Makhado municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Giliana M; Radzilani-Makatu, Makondelele; Takalani, James F

    2016-04-01

    Sexuality plays a very significant role in the lives of both boys and girls. It is, therefore, considered important for schools to recognise and accept sexuality as part of the development process of the child. Professor Kader Asmal (previous South African Minister of Education) suggested that the earlier the school begins to teach learners about sexuality, the better because they can be easily misled by their peers if proper guidance regarding their sexuality is not given. The current study was conducted to assess the awareness of teenagers on the prevention of teenage pregnancy (TP) in six secondary school learners situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province. The study was conducted at six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province in 2014. A quantitative descriptive survey study was conducted where data were collected, using self-administered questionnaires, from 381 systematically sampled participants from six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province. Data were analysed descriptively using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22.0. Necessary approval procedures and ethical clearance were obtained prior to data collection. Ninety-four percent of participants agreed that TP can be prevented through abstaining from sex, whilst 65% of participants agreed that TP could be prevented by using contraceptives such as pills and injections. Eighty-three percent of participants agreed that T Pcould be prevented through the use of condoms. Seventy-four percent participants disagreed that bathing after sex prevents teenage pregnancies. Furthermore, 28% participants agreed that TP can be prevented by oral sex. The conclusion drawn was that learners are aware of the measures for preventing TP.

  20. May new school models minimize status of drop-out rates? Reflexions and discussions based on the American P-tech model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted; Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    Conference paper on studies of the American P-tech schools that have good results lifting ghetto kids out of poverty and establishing a STEM career from them.......Conference paper on studies of the American P-tech schools that have good results lifting ghetto kids out of poverty and establishing a STEM career from them....

  1. The effect of dislike of school on risk of teenage pregnancy: testing of hypotheses using longitudinal data from a randomised trial of sex education

    OpenAIRE

    Bonell, C; Allen, E.; Strange, V; Copas, A; Oakley, A.; Stephenson, J; Johnson, A.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To examine whether attitude to school is associated with subsequent risk of teenage pregnancy. To test two hypotheses that attitude to school is linked to pregnancy via pathways involving young people having "alternative" expectations or deficits in sexual health knowledge and confidence.

  2. Patterns, Consequences, and Possible Causes of Dropout in Upper Secondary Education in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Bentaouet Kattan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a detailed analysis of upper secondary education dropout patterns in Mexico, exploring its consequences and possible causes. To perform the analysis we combine different databases and statistical methods ranging from the use of surveys with information on specific individuals to data aggregated at the municipal and state level. The main value added is the simultaneous analysis of the influence of individual-family, community, and macroaggregate factors, on school dropout in the country.

  3. Escuela media y abandono escolar en Argentina: aproximaciones a un debate pendiente Middle school and dropout in Argentina: approaches to an unresolved debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Otero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tiene como objetivo exponer panorámicamente un recuento del surgimiento histórico de la educación media en Argentina, para avanzar luego en la evolución de la expansión matricular hasta la actualidad, contemplando los rasgos fundamentales de la misma. A partir de allí, se expondrán factores incidentes en la problemática del abandono escolar, prestando énfasis a las características de la modalidad técnica. Se retomarán puntos centrales de un debate escasamente explorado que es aquel que aborda la intersección específica entre abandono escolar y los estudiantes de modalidad técnica. Se subraya que las condiciones del mercado laboral actual, como la amplitud de la precarización, el avance del sector servicios y la estrechez en materia de industrialización tornan aún más acuciante el contorno de discusiones sobre esta problemática. Este panorama marcha en paralelo a cambios de envergadura en el sistema educativo nacional, enmarcados en sucesivas modificaciones a las normativas jurídicas que lo orientan.This text aims to expose panoramically a recount of the historical emergence of secondary education in Argentina, to advance later in the evolution of the expansion currently watching enrolling until the fundamental features of it. From there, it will expose the factors which affect the dropout problem giving particular emphasis to the characteristics of the technical arrangement. Focal points will resume in a little explored that debate is one that addresses the specific intersection between ESL students and technical arrangement. It emphasizes that current labor market conditions, as the amplitude of the precarious, the advance of the service sector and the narrowness in industrialization becomes even more pressing the outline of discussions on this issue. Panorama marching in parallel with major changes in the national education system, surrounded by successive amendments to legal regulations that guide the system.

  4. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakuela, Nditsheni J; Lebese, Tsakani R; Maputle, Sonto M; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-05-31

    Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents' parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers' views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15-19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch's eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen's life while attending school) and (2) teenager's fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.

  5. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebese, Tsakani R.; Maputle, Sonto M.; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school) and (2) teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Conclusion Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. PMID:27380849

  6. Selective drop-out in longitudinal studies and non-biased prediction of behaviour disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Waylen, Andrea; Samara, Muthanna; Steer, Colin; Goodman, Robert; Ford, Tamsin; Lamberts, Koen

    2009-09-01

    Participant drop-out occurs in all longitudinal studies, and if systematic, may lead to selection biases and erroneous conclusions being drawn from a study. We investigated whether drop out in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) was systematic or random, and if systematic, whether it had an impact on the prediction of disruptive behaviour disorders. Teacher reports of disruptive behaviour among currently participating, previously participating and never participating children aged 8 years in the ALSPAC longitudinal study were collected. Data on family factors were obtained in pregnancy. Simulations were conducted to explain the impact of selective drop-out on the strength of prediction. Drop out from the ALSPAC cohort was systematic and children who dropped out were more likely to suffer from disruptive behaviour disorder. Systematic participant drop-out according to the family variables, however, did not alter the association between family factors obtained in pregnancy and disruptive behaviour disorder at 8 years of age. Cohort studies are prone to selective drop-out and are likely to underestimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorder. This empirical study and the simulations confirm that the validity of regression models is only marginally affected despite range restrictions after selective drop-out.

  7. ACCESS TO AND DROPOUT OF GIRLS FROM SCHOOL: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF MARRIAGE ARRANGEMENTS ON GIRL-CHILD EDUCATION IN BOLNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gmalifo Mabefam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The education of the girl-child has suffered many setbacks both in the past and at the present. As a result some girls are denied access while others are forced to drop out-of-school especially in rural Ghana. This study therefore examined the effects of marriage arrangements on girl-child education in Bolni, a rural community in the Nanumba North District of the Northern Region, Ghana. The study adopted a quantitative method of research design and employed questionnaire in collecting data. Eighty respondents were sampled for the study. The study used simple regression analysis to determine the relationship between marriage arrangements and girl-child education while t-test was used to validate the hypotheses. Exchange, Betrothal and preferred marriage arrangements all had relationships with girl-child education and the effects of such relationships were inimical to their ability to access school or remain in school. Hence the increase in the number of girls involved in a marriage arrangement led to a corresponding increase in the number of girls who were either denied access to or dropped out from school. It is recommended that, school social workers, community workers and gender activists should educate parents to do away with such marriages and invest in their girls’ education.

  8. "Drop-Outs" or "Heritage Learners"? Competing Mentalities of Governmentality and Invested Meanings at a Weekend Japanese Language School in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Lee, Kiri

    2012-01-01

    Based on fieldwork at a weekend Japanese language school in the USA in 2007-2009, this article illustrates the ways in which different regimes of government arise from an activity depending on meanings individuals invest in it. We examine how two students in the same classroom experienced two different regimes of government: one of a low-track…

  9. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and Total and Abdominal Fat Distribution in School-age Children: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Taal, H.R.; Manniesing, R.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.Methods:We performed a population-based prospective cohort study amo

  10. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective…

  11. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Pregnancy Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ...

  12. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP, adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview. Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed.Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1 Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school and (2 teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth.Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.Keywords: Views, teenagers and termination of pregnancy

  13. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP, adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview. Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed.Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1 Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school and (2 teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth.Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.Keywords: Views, teenagers and termination of pregnancy

  14. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-11-08

    School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America

  15. Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

  16. Engagement, Conduct of Life and Dropouts in the Danish Vocational Education and Training (VET) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This study provides support for the idea that school engagement is a central concept when trying to understand the dropout process. One of the strengths of this concept is that it involves understanding dropping out as a process, rather than as an event. However, the concept of school engagement also presents a number of problems. It tends to be…

  17. Does the Economic Crisis Have an Influence on the Higher Education Dropout Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão Fernandes, Graça; Chagas Lopes, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to identify the effects of the economic crisis on higher education (HE) dropout rates at Lisbon School of Economics and Management (ISEG)--Universidade de Lisboa, after having controlled for individual characteristics, family background, High School and HE trajectories. Our main hypothesis is that the economic crisis induces…

  18. Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

  19. Grades and Graduation: A Longitudinal Risk Perspective to Identify Student Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of student risk of school dropout have shown that present predictors of at-risk status do not accurately identify a large percentage of students who eventually drop out. Through the analysis of the entire Grade 1-12 longitudinal cohort-based grading histories of the class of 2006 for two school districts in the United States, the author…

  20. Selected determinants may account for dropout risks among medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; O'Neill, Lotte; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads

    2012-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: The dropout rate has been decreasing during the past decade. Young people considering studying medicine could be advised to choose natural science subjects in high school, and a number of research questions concerning preparedness for medical school are worth pursuing. Leave or very low grades...... during the first and second study years might serve as red flags to supervisors. FUNDING: Study research was funded by Aarhus University. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not relevant, register-based research with no biological human material cannot be notified to the Danish Committee System. The Danish Data...

  1. Culturally Responsive Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program for Middle School Students in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Linda Toms; Chan, Vincent; Eucogco, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Pono Choices, a culturally responsive adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention program targeting middle school youths in Hawai‘i. Methods. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial with the school as the unit of random assignment over 3 semesters between 2012 and 2013. The sample consisted of 36 middle schools and 2203 students. We administered student surveys to collect baseline outcomes, student demographic data, and outcomes at 12 months after baseline. Results. We found statistically significant effects for the knowledge assessment, which focused on basic understanding of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention. The average percentage of correct responses was 73.6 for the treatment group and 60.4 for the control group (P < .001). We did not find statistically significant effects on behavioral outcomes (initiation of sexual activity or engagement in high-risk sexual behavior) or on other nonbehavioral outcomes (attitudes, skills, intentions). Conclusions. Pono Choices had a statistically significant impact on knowledge of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention among middle school students at 12 months after baseline, though it did not lead to detectable changes in behavioral outcomes within the 1-year observation period. These results call for an exploration of longer-term outcomes to assess effects on knowledge retention and behavioral changes. PMID:27689477

  2. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  3. University Drop-Out: An Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloc, Filippo; Maruotti, Antonello; Petrella, Lea

    2010-01-01

    University students' drop-out is a crucial issue for the universities' efficiency evaluation and funding. In this paper, we analyze the drop-out rate of the Economics and Business faculty of Sapienza University of Rome. We use administrative data on 9,725 undergraduates students enrolled in three-years bachelor programs from 2001 to 2007 and…

  4. Dropout bij klinisch psychotherapeutische behandeling van persoonlijkheidsproblematiek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, A.J.T.; Poppe, W.H.; Ouwens, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    achtergrond Drop-out is een belangrijk probleem bij psychotherapie. Factoren die in eerdere studies samenhingen met drop-out zijn onder meer te verdelen in cliëntkenmerken zoals jonge leeftijd en lage sociaaleconomische status en kenmerken van stoornissen zoals ernst van de problematiek en

  5. Factors predicting dropout in student nursing assistants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dropout rate among student nursing assistants (NAs) in Danish health and social care education is high at >20%. AIMS: To explore if recent low back pain (LBP) history is a predictor of dropout among NA students, taking into account conventional risk factors for LBP, general health...

  6. Dropout Factories and the Vaccination Approach: The Impact of the Dropout Rate on the Economy and the Need for Effective Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Carolyn L.

    2014-01-01

    Almost seven thousand students drop out of high school every day. Without strong literacy skills, students are less likely to experience academic success and more likely to drop out. This has a negative impact not only on those students, but on the economy. If the dropouts from the Class of 2011 had graduated, the nation's economy would have…

  7. Dropout and therapeutic alliance: a meta-analysis of adult individual psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Jennie; Primavera, Louis H; Diener, Marc J

    2010-12-01

    This meta-analytic review of 11 studies examined the relationship between psychotherapy dropout and therapeutic alliance in adult individual psychotherapy. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrate a moderately strong relationship between psychotherapy dropout and therapeutic alliance (d = .55). Findings indicate that clients with weaker therapeutic alliance are more likely to drop out of psychotherapy. The meta-analysis included a total of 1,301 participants, with an average of 118 participants per study, a standard deviation of 115 participants, and a range from 20 to 451 participants per study. Exploratory analyses were conducted to determine the influence of variables moderating the relationship between alliance and dropout. Client educational history, treatment length, and treatment setting were found to moderate the relationship between alliance and dropout. Studies with a larger percentage of clients who completed high school or higher demonstrated weaker relationships between alliance and dropout. Studies with lengthier treatments demonstrated stronger relationships between alliance and dropout. Inpatient settings demonstrated significantly larger effects than both counseling centers and research clinics. No significant differences were found between client-rated, therapist-rated, and observer/staff-rated alliance. Recommendations for clinicians and researchers are discussed.

  8. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth and body fat distribution at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns, and body fat and insulin levels at school-age. Methods In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, we assessed maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onwards. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Results Compared to children whose mothers consumed <2 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Conclusions Our results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. PMID:27015969

  9. Efficacy of infant simulator programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy: a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R

    2016-11-05

    Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one

  10. The effect of dislike of school on risk of teenage pregnancy: testing of hypotheses using longitudinal data from a randomised trial of sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Copas, A; Oakley, A; Stephenson, J; Johnson, A

    2005-03-01

    To examine whether attitude to school is associated with subsequent risk of teenage pregnancy. To test two hypotheses that attitude to school is linked to pregnancy via pathways involving young people having "alternative" expectations or deficits in sexual health knowledge and confidence. Analysis of longitudinal data arising from a trial of sex education. Examination of associations between attitude to school and protected first sex, unprotected first sex, unprotected and protected last sex, and pregnancy, both crude and adjusting in turn for expectation of parenting by age 20, lack of expectation of education/training at age 20, and sexual health knowledge and confidence. Schools in central and southern England. Girls of median age 13.7 years at baseline, 14.7 years at follow up 1, and 16.0 years at follow up 2. In unadjusted analysis, attitude to school was significantly associated with protected and unprotected first sex by follow up 1, protected first sex between follow up 1 and 2, unprotected last sex, and pregnancy. Dislike of school was more strongly associated with increased risk of these outcomes than was ambivalence to school. These associations remained after adjusting for socioeconomic status and for expectation of parenting, lack of expectation of education/training, and various indicators of knowledge and confidence about sexual health. Dislike of school is associated with subsequent increased risk of teenage pregnancy but the mechanism underlying any possible causal link is unlikely to involve "alternative" expectations or deficits in sexual health knowledge or confidence.

  11. Academic dropout or academic success: a model for prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel-Flom, P

    1986-09-01

    Why do some students who qualify for admission to optometry school become academic dropouts while others succeed? This question was addressed in a study which compared the admission records of 21 academic dropouts from three classes at the University of Houston College of Optometry (UHCO) with 269 retained students. Academic dropouts were found to have significantly lower preoptometry grades, lower Optometry College Admission Test (OCAT) scores, attended less competitive (i.e., less selective) undergraduate institutions, scored lower on the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), and were older than retained students. When these differentiating admission variables, excepting age, were applied to a new entering class, prediction of subsequent academic dismissal or serious academic difficulty was highly accurate. However, it was found that such prediction must take into account not only areas of weakness, i.e., academic and psychological factors which place a student at risk, but also areas of strength which give the student an advantage. For all students, regardless of age, sex, or ethnic origin, it was the ratio of "advantage" factors to "risk" factors which gave the most valid prediction of academic success or failure.

  12. Girls' schooling and the perceived threat of adolescent sexual activity in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Monica J

    2012-01-01

    Despite its relative infrequency, pregnancy is perceived by parents in rural Malawi as a leading cause of school dropout among female students. This paper explores parents' beliefs about adolescent sexual activity and schoolgirl pregnancy and how these perceptions frame parents' aspirations and expectations about girls' schooling. In-depth interviews were collected in rural Malawi from 60 adults aged 25-50 who were the parent of at least one school-aged child. Four themes emerged from the data: how expectations about sexual activity frame parental expectations about schooling duration and dropout, the loss of parental control, the negative influence of classmates and schools as unsafe environments. These concerns frame how parents consider a daughter's schooling prospects and are active even for parents whose daughters are not sexually active or who are not yet old enough to have gone through puberty. Although all parents aspire for their children to attend secondary school, these perceptions of daughters' relative risk weaken parents' motivation to encourage daughters to remain in school.

  13. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachcar, P

    1990-01-01

    The number of adolescent pregnancies brought to term in France has continued to decline while the number of abortions remains stable. Adolescent pregnancies cannot be considered "accidents" either in their social or psychological aspects. Pregnant adolescents carrying to term tend to be more disadvantaged than those seeking abortions. Early pregnancy may be a response to difficult life conditions. Despite appearing to constitute an infraction of a social code, adolescent pregnancy may in fact represent an attempt at social integration through motherhood. Adolescents failing in school, with poor employment prospects and feeling family pressures may view pregnancy as a means of social recognition. But such factors by themselves do not explain pregnancy; the primordial role of psychological factors must be examined. For some adolescents, pregnancy may represent an attempt to understand their own sexual identity as the transformations of puberty unsettle their previous self-images. Or they may be failing to perceive or actively denying the possibility of pregnancy. Adolescent pregnancies may be the result of transgressions of prohibitions. The traditional prohibition of sexual activity has relaxed to the degree that it is being replaced by a new prohibition on adolescent pregnancy and a prescription to use contraception. But contraception deprives an adolescent in search of sexual identity of proof of fertility as well as of the image of spontaneity and naturalness. Use of contraception is in conflict with the questions, doubts, and anxieties of adolescence. For adolescents in a reactivated oedipal stage, heterosexuality is often at the service of incestuous fantasies involving the mother. Abortion and perhaps pregnancy itself may assume the character of a rite of passage into adulthood for some adolescents. The important thing for many is the ability to become pregnant, to be a mother like their own mother.

  14. School Dropouts in Hong Kong: Parents' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yuk King

    2011-01-01

    Chinese parenting emphasises parents' responsibility in training and governing children's appropriate and expected behaviors, including good academic performance. As reflected by the Attendance Ordinance and the strong involvement of parents in children's study, there is continuous emphasis on parental responsibility in children's education in…

  15. Technologies for a content and language integrated approach to dropout problems in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Hajer Maaike; Ton Koenraad; Marjolein Simons; Rintse van der Werf

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on CATS (2006-2007), a project initiated by the Research Centre ‘Teaching in Multicultural Schools’, that addresses language related dropout problems of both native and non-native speakers of Dutch in higher education. The project’s main objective is to develop a model for the

  16. Hispanic Parents as Agents of Dropout Prevention: An Interview with Elena Pell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Linda

    1989-01-01

    The ASPIRA Association, an organization serving Latino youth through leadership development, education, and advocacy, is sponsoring the Hispanic Community Mobilization for Dropout Prevention, a project focused on increasing parental and community involvement in promoting high school retention and academic achievement. (SK)

  17. Valued Youth Partnerships: Programs in Caring. Cross-Age Tutoring Dropout Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…

  18. Technologies for a content and language integrated approach to dropout problems in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, Ton; Maaike, Hajer; Simons, Marjolein; Werf, Rintse van der

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on CATS (2006-2007), a project initiated by the Research Centre ‘Teaching in Multicultural Schools’, that addresses language related dropout problems of both native and non-native speakers of Dutch in higher education. The project’s main objective is to develop a model for the re

  19. Parental Support for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programmes in South Carolina Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India; Prince, Mary; Flynn, Shannon; Kershner, Sarah; Taylor, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a major public health issue in the USA; this is especially true in the state of South Carolina (SC). Research shows that well developed, good-quality teenage pregnancy prevention (TPP) programmes can be effective in modifying young people's sexual behaviour. While several quantitative studies have examined parents' perceptions…

  20. Parental Support for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programmes in South Carolina Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India; Prince, Mary; Flynn, Shannon; Kershner, Sarah; Taylor, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a major public health issue in the USA; this is especially true in the state of South Carolina (SC). Research shows that well developed, good-quality teenage pregnancy prevention (TPP) programmes can be effective in modifying young people's sexual behaviour. While several quantitative studies have examined parents' perceptions…

  1. Universally optimal crossover designs under subject dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Subject dropout is very common in practical applications of crossover designs. However, there is very limited design literature taking this into account. Optimality results have not yet been well established due to the complexity of the problem. This paper establishes feasible, as well as necessary and sufficient conditions for a crossover design to be universally optimal in approximate design theory in the presence of subject dropout. These conditions are essentially linear equations with re...

  2. Delving Deeper into MOOC Student Dropout Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehill, Jacob; Mohan, Kiran; Seaton, Daniel; Rosen, Yigal; Tingley, Dustin

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable accuracy estimates for automatic MOOC dropout predictors, it is important to train and test them in a manner consistent with how they will be used in practice. Yet most prior research on MOOC dropout prediction has measured test accuracy on the same course used for training the classifier, which can lead to overly optimistic accuracy estimates. In order to understand better how accuracy is affected by the training+testing regime, we compared the accuracy of a stand...

  3. Shifting problems and shifting policies to reduce student drop-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2016-01-01

    -out, as well as the policies that have been implemented in pursuit of improving student retention. The review identifies two pervasive ways in which the drop-out problem has been framed in both policy and research. The first locates the drop-out problem with individual students, while the second locates...... the problem with the educational system. This study of Danish vocational education policy examines both (i) how student attrition has been framed in different periods, and (ii) the solutions that have been prescribed in accordance with shifting conceptualisations of early school leaving. The author’s inquiry...... finds that the rate of student drop-out has been a cause for ongoing concern among policy makers for more than a century, and that the framing of the problem has shifted considerably over time. The problem has variously been placed with the individual apprentice, the basic structure of vocational...

  4. Predicting Psychotherapy Dropouts: A Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Alexander F; Flückiger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The role of therapeutic processes in predicting premature termination of psychotherapy has been a particular focus of recent research. The purpose of this study was to contrast outpatients who completed therapy and those who dropped out with respect to their self-reported in-session experiences of self-esteem, mastery, clarification and the therapeutic alliance. The 296 patients with mixed disorders were treated with an integrative form of cognitive-behavioural therapy without pre-determined time limit (M = 20.2 sessions). Multilevel analyses indicated that patients who did not completetreatment reported, on average, lower levels of self-esteem, mastery and clarification and lower ratings of their therapeutic alliance in treatment in contrast to patients who completed therapy. Patient-reported change in self-esteem experiences over the course of treatment turned out to be the strongest predictor of dropout from psychotherapy or successful completion. When dropout occurred before the average treatment length was reached, patients reported fewer clarifying experiences as early as the first session and their ratings of the therapeutic alliance were characterized by an absence of positive development. Both of these aspects seem to be involved in patients' decisions to leave treatment early. The findings underscore the importance of the therapeutic process in understanding the mechanisms behind treatment dropout. Analyses data from 296 patients at a private outpatient clinic in a routine practice setting (CBT). Completer/dropout definition: presence or absence of measurement battery at post-assessment. Focuses on change in therapy processes by investigating post-session reports. Finds that positive changes in self-esteem experiences is the most robust predictor of dropout, followed by ratings of clarification experiences and the global alliance. In line with recent dropout research, these process indicators might help to detect therapeutic situations that are

  5. Smaller genitals at school age in boys whose mothers were exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Christine Wohlfahrt; Andersen, H R; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are believed to play a role in the development of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Many pesticides are known to have endocrine disrupting abilities. In a previous study, sons of women who were occupationally exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy...... showed signs of impaired reproductive function (reduced genital size and altered serum hormone concentrations) at three months of age. To assess the possible long-term effects of prenatal pesticide exposure, the boys were re-examined at 6-11 years. The 94 boys (59 exposed, 35 unexposed) underwent genital...... penile length (95% CI: -16.8; -1.1) compared with the unexposed. The testicular volume and penile length at school age could be tracked to measures from the same boys made at 3 months, e.g. those that had small testes at school age also had small testes at 3 months. Pituitary and testicular hormone serum...

  6. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  7. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy complications Complications of pregnancy are health problems that ... pregnancy. Expand all | Collapse all Health problems before pregnancy Before pregnancy, make sure to talk to your ...

  8. The Phenomena of Dropping Out and Criminal Delinquency among Middle and Primary School Students in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianrong, Chen

    1987-01-01

    Reports juvenile crime statistics and dropout rates for primary and middle school students in the Beijing municipality for the years 1978 through 1984. Includes a discussion of the reasons for dropouts and suggestions on how to solve the problem. (JDH)

  9. Juventude, escola e trabalho: permanência e abandono na educação profissional técnica de nível médio Youth, school and work: attendance and dropout in technical professional secondary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ribeiro da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a temática das relações entre juventude e escolarização, propondo-se a discutir as razões de permanência e abandono no âmbito da educação profissional técnica de nível médio. Inicialmente, apresenta uma discussão conceitual sobre juventude, escola e trabalho para, em seguida, expor os resultados de duas pesquisas empíricas que se ocuparam de analisar o que levam os jovens a abandonar ou a permanecer na escola. Os dois cursos investigados foram definidos por possuírem, ambos, elevada procura, sendo que em um deles há alto índice de abandono, ao passo que o outro apresenta uma permanência acima da média se comparada a outras escolas de ensino médio. A análise sinaliza que a grande procura pelos cursos técnicos nas áreas pesquisadas deve-se ao fato de os jovens buscarem encontrar formação de qualidade superior, profissionalização em áreas que representam certo status ou, ainda, garantia de empregabilidade. Em uma das situações, ao se frequentar a escola, as ilusões iniciais dissolvem-se, problemas para acompanhar a realização do curso evidenciam-se e a relação entre a escola e o jovem mantém-se distante, o que leva ao abandono. Contrariamente, em outra situação, a permanência é explicada devido ao grau de experiências positivas que os jovens podem viver enquanto estão matriculados em uma instituição de tempo integral, interna e bem estruturada.The article deals with the theme of the relations between youth and schooling, proposing a discussion of the reasons for the attendance and dropout within the technical professional secondary education. Initially, it presents a conceptual discussion about youth, school and work, and then it puts forward the results of two empirical researches that analyzed the reasons why youngsters drop out from, or remain at, the school. The two courses investigated were chosen because they were both in high demand, with one of them displaying a high level of

  10. Juventude, escola e trabalho: permanência e abandono na educação profissional técnica de nível médio Youth, school and work: attendance and dropout in technical professional secondary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ribeiro da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a temática das relações entre juventude e escolarização, propondo-se a discutir as razões de permanência e abandono no âmbito da educação profissional técnica de nível médio. Inicialmente, apresenta uma discussão conceitual sobre juventude, escola e trabalho para, em seguida, expor os resultados de duas pesquisas empíricas que se ocuparam de analisar o que levam os jovens a abandonar ou a permanecer na escola. Os dois cursos investigados foram definidos por possuírem, ambos, elevada procura, sendo que em um deles há alto índice de abandono, ao passo que o outro apresenta uma permanência acima da média se comparada a outras escolas de ensino médio. A análise sinaliza que a grande procura pelos cursos técnicos nas áreas pesquisadas deve-se ao fato de os jovens buscarem encontrar formação de qualidade superior, profissionalização em áreas que representam certo status ou, ainda, garantia de empregabilidade. Em uma das situações, ao se frequentar a escola, as ilusões iniciais dissolvem-se, problemas para acompanhar a realização do curso evidenciam-se e a relação entre a escola e o jovem mantém-se distante, o que leva ao abandono. Contrariamente, em outra situação, a permanência é explicada devido ao grau de experiências positivas que os jovens podem viver enquanto estão matriculados em uma instituição de tempo integral, interna e bem estruturada.The article deals with the theme of the relations between youth and schooling, proposing a discussion of the reasons for the attendance and dropout within the technical professional secondary education. Initially, it presents a conceptual discussion about youth, school and work, and then it puts forward the results of two empirical researches that analyzed the reasons why youngsters drop out from, or remain at, the school. The two courses investigated were chosen because they were both in high demand, with one of them displaying a high level of

  11. Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting at School in Contemporary South African Contexts: Deconstructing School Narratives and Understanding Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…

  12. Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting at School in Contemporary South African Contexts: Deconstructing School Narratives and Understanding Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…

  13. Who is being left behind? A decade of dropout in Brazilian undergraduate programs of Business Administration and Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Veneroso Alves da Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dropout from public and private institutions of higher education (IHE is associated with considerable social, academic and economic losses. These losses affect all of society, as citizens directly or indirectly pay for their own education and that of their relatives. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the dropout behavior of students enrolled in undergraduate programs of Business Administration and Accounting at Brazilian IHEs between 2001 and 2010. Dropout rates were investigated per type of IHE and correlated with the percentage of students completing their courses within the ideal time frame. Our hypotheses were tested with ANOVA and the variables were submitted to simple and multiple correspondence analysis. Descriptive statistics showed higher dropout levels for Business Administration than for Accounting, but lower overall levels when compared to the literature. The median ideal-term course completion index was higher for Accounting, though not significantly. Less than a quarter of the students completed their courses within the expected five-year period. In general, our findings indicate that Accounting programs have lower dropout rates in universities and university centers, whereas Business Administration programs have higher dropout rates in colleges, schools, institutes and technological education centers. The results of this study are not intended as a generalization, but represent patterns observed within the classifications adopted in the study.

  14. The Dropout Differences of Primary and Middle School Students in Agricultural and Pastoral Areas:A Case Study of County A in Tibet%西藏农牧区中小学生逃学差异性研究--以 A县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺能坤

    2013-01-01

    The dropout of primary and middle school students in Tibetan agricultural and pastoral areas has become a serious problem :large number of dropouts , strong intention of truancy , and high frequency of truancy ,which extremely influenced the sustainable development of education in Tibet . The analysis shows that students'intentions of truancy have significant difference on students'genders and their ways to attend school (in-campus or out of campus ) , but have no difference about the places w here their families are living . Their experiences of truancy have differences in different age groups but have no difference on the family residence places , genders and their ways to attend school . It indicates that age is the crucial reason for students'truancy . Providing suitable school education for students in different age groups by their age characteristics is an appropriate solution to consolidate school retention .%调查发现,西藏农牧区中小学学生逃学情况严重:逃学人数多、逃学想法强烈、逃学经历频繁,极大地影响着西藏教育的可持续发展。调查数据表明,学生逃学想法与性别、住读/走读方式、年龄显著相关,与家庭居住地不存在相关性;学生逃学经历在不同年龄段上有差异,而在家庭居住地、性别、住读还是走读方面没有差异,年龄是影响中小学生逃学的重要原因。根据学生年龄特点提供与其生活世界相统一的学校教育应是巩固学生在校率的对策之一。

  15. Effects of age, years of schooling, income, and cash incentive on postponement of first pregnancy among newly married couples in Satara district of Maharashtra (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha K Pratinidhi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Postponement of first pregnancy is known to be associated with a variety of interdependent factors such as age, education, income, occupation, religion, caste, and cash incentives. This paper examines the relationship and effects of some of these factors on postponement of first pregnancy among newly married couples in Satara district. Objective: To study the interdependency of age, years of schooling, income, and cash incentive on postponement of first pregnancy among newly married couples. Materials and Methods: This study employed quasi-experimental study design. Duly trained multipurpose workers interviewed husbands and auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs interviewed the wives; preferably in separate rooms using pretested semi-open proforma. Statistical analysis was done using STATA® version 12 statistical software. Results: Out of 1,355 participants; 704 couples successfully postponed first pregnancy by 2 years, but 651 couples could not do so. Participants were significantly successful in postponing pregnancy by 569.13 vs. 353.89 days for controls. Age and education of female participants were significantly associated with postponement of first pregnancy; while age, education, and income of male participants were not associated with postponement. Conclusions: Higher age, more education, and higher income appear to be associated with acceptance of postponement of pregnancy and appear to be acting synergistically in both male and female participants as compared to nonparticipants.

  16. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and primary headache in school-aged children: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Carlos E; Barbieri, Marco A; Silva, Antônio M; Gutierrez, Manoel R; Bettiol, Heloisa; Speciali, José G; Rona, Roberto J

    2012-03-01

    It is not known whether smoking by mothers during pregnancy is associated with headache in their offspring. Two prospective cohorts of 869 children aged 10-11 years from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and 805 children aged 7-9 years from São Luís (SL) were studied. Data on maternal smoking were collected at birth. Primary headache was defined as a reporting of ≥2 episodes of headache in the past 2 weeks, without any associated organic symptoms. Prevalence of headache was 28.1% in RP and 13.1% in SL as reported by the mothers and 17.5% in RP and 29.4% in SL as reported by the children. Agreement between mothers' report and children's self-report of primary headache in the child was poor. After adjustment, children whose mothers smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy presented higher prevalence of primary headache than their counterparts in both cohorts, as reported by the mother and in RP as reported by the children. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with headache in 7- to 11-year-olds. With one exception, the consistency of the results, despite poor agreement between maternal and children reports of headache, indicates that maternal smoking during pregnancy may contribute to headaches in their children.

  17. Familial searching on DNA mixtures with dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slooten, K

    2016-05-01

    Familial searching, the act of searching a database for a relative of an unknown individual whose DNA profile has been obtained, is usually restricted to cases where the DNA profile of that person has been unambiguously determined. Therefore, it is normally applied only with a good quality single source profile as starting point. In this article we investigate the performance of the method if applied to mixtures with and without allelic dropout, when likelihood ratios are computed with a semi-continuous (binary) model. We show that mixtures with dropout do not necessarily perform worse than mixtures without, especially if some separation between the donors is possible due to their different dropout probabilities. The familial searching true and false positive rates of mixed profiles on 15 loci are in some cases better than those of single source profiles on 10 loci. Thus, the information loss due to the fact that the person of interest's DNA has been mixed with that of other, and is affected by dropout, can be less than the loss of information corresponding to having 5 fewer loci available for a single source trace. Profiles typed on 10 autosomal loci are often involved in familial searching casework since many databases, including the Dutch one, in part consist of such profiles. Therefore, from this point of view, there seems to be no objection to extend familial searching to mixed or degraded profiles.

  18. Psychological and Educational Variables in University Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethencourt, Jose Tomas; Cabrera, Lidia; Hernandez, Juan Andres; Alvarez-Perez, Pedro; Gonzalez-Afonso, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this research is to demonstrate that on the perceptions of university students, the student variables are seen as most important than the context variables to dropout their university studies. Method: The used methodology was cross-sectional or of cut, of retrospective type. 558 undergraduates were interviewed by…

  19. Pathological gambling: understanding relapses and dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragay, Núria; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Ramos-Grille, Irene; Cardona, Sara; Garrido, Gemma; Anisul Islam, Mohammed; Menchón, José M; Vallès, Vicenç

    2015-02-01

    There is little available information on the factors that influence relapses and dropouts during therapy for pathological gambling (PG). The aim of this study was to determine socio-demographic, clinical, personality, and psychopathological predictors of relapse and dropout in a sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. A total of 566 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with PG according to DSM-IV-TR criteria were included. All patients underwent an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment program. We analyzed predictors of relapse during 6months of treatment and during the subsequent 6months of follow-up, and predictors of dropout over the entire therapeutic program. Eighty patients (14.1%) experienced at least one relapse during the entire follow-up of the study: 50 (8.8%) within the treatment period and 12 (2.1%) during the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. The main predictors of relapse were single marital status, spending less than 100euros/week on gambling, active gambling behavior at treatment inclusion, and high scores on the TCI-R Harm Avoidance personality dimension. One hundred fifty-seven patients (27.8%) missed 3 or more therapeutic sessions over the entire therapeutic program. The main predictors of dropout were single marital status, younger age, and high scores on the TCI-R Novelty Seeking personality dimension. The presence of these factors at inclusion should be taken into account by physicians dealing with PG patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A STUDY ON PREGNANT ADOLESCENTS RESIDING IN A GOVERNMENT HOME: COMMON CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR VIEWS ON THE PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS Tan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent pregnancy has emerged to be a significant public health and social issue in Malaysia as itsprevalence is increasing in our population.Objectives: This study aimed to identify the common characteristics of pregnant adolescents residing in a governmentshelter home. Their reasons for pregnancy, sources of information on contraception, and views on abortion and future careof the baby were explored.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 26 universally sampled pregnant adolescents in the centre. Theadolescents responded to a set of self-administered questionnaire on their socio-demographic profiles, reasons of theirpregnancy, contraception and future plans including abortion as well as care of the newborn.Results: Almost all (92% of the adolescents were unmarried. Majority of them were in late adolescence, age between 16to 19 years (73.1%, from urban areas (73.1% and of low income families (53.8%. There were 69.3% of the adolescentswho were school dropouts. The reasons for pregnancy were consensual sexual activity (63.0%, coercion by boyfriend(18.5%, and rape (11.5%. The main sources of information on contraception were friends (50%, partners (50% andthe internet or mass media (42.3%. 54% had considered abortion earlier, but majority (92.0% disagreed that abortionshould be legalised in Malaysia. Most of the adolescents planned to parent their child with or without help from significantothers and only 42.3% planned to relinquish their child for adoption.Conclusion: To curb teenage pregnancy-related problems, efforts on educating the adolescents about sexual reproductivehealth and assertive communication skills should be implemented, especially to the late adolescents, school dropouts andthose from poor urban families. Parenthood support may be necessary to the pregnant adolescents who opted to care fortheir own child.

  2. The Medical School Retention Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout.1 Recently Urlings-Strop et al. found the relative risk of dropout to be 2.6 times lower for ‘selected students’ than for ‘lottery admitted controls’.2 The main aim of our study was to evaluate...... scores and dropout. REFERENCES 1.O’Neill L, Wallstedt B, Eika B, Hartvigsen J. Factors associated with dropout in medical education: a literature review. Med Educ (In press). 2.Urlings-Strop LC, Stijnen T, Themmen APN, Splinter TAW. Selection of medical students: a controlled experiment. Med Educ 2009...

  3. Identifying potential dropouts from college physics classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Warren; Lawrenz, Frances

    Hudson and Rottman (1981) established that mathematics ability is probably a secondary factor influencing dropout from college physics courses. Other factors remain to be found for predicting who will drop out or at least have difficulty with the course. When mathematics ability is coupled with general indicators of performance (total GPA and ACT natural science), prediction of performance for those who complete the course is substantially improved. Moreover, discriminant analyses reveal who will have at least some difficulty, but not who will drop out. The problem of isolating specific weaknesses of students who have difficulty persists. Physics achievement appears to depend on mathematics ability only to the extent that students possess the ability to utilize mathematics knowledge for solving physics problems. Identification of the specific aspects of this ability as well as the specific deficiencies leading to dropout should be the object of future research. For the present, interviews might be more revealing than group testing methods.

  4. Dealing with teen-age pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, P L

    1991-01-01

    The author finds that teenage pregnancy is more complicated than access to contraception or abortion. At risk teenagers are not identifiable, only at risk factors such as isolation, lack of perception of future opportunities, lack of self esteem, lack of self worth, poor performance in school, poor role models or lack of role models at home or in the community. There is indictment of parents who are just as much in need. The focus on teen pregnancy as one dimensional belies the reality that health, family, work, social and cultural experience affect people's decisions and sexual behavior. The recommendation is for a holistic approach, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. Adolescents need education and jobs as well as preventive health, body image, and nutrition in conjunction with contraceptives. Where success is defined by motherhood or fatherhood, birth control pills sit in drawers at home. Teenagers need to be convinced that there is some benefit in being connected to mainstream society. Support services need to help teenagers answer the question of what's in it for me? Why? Teenagers need assistance in attaining educational success, job success, the ability to handle anger, and leadership opportunities. A holistic approach is not only realistic but also is the most practical with the longest term benefit. With resources for teen pregnancy superseded by the problems of AIDs and crack gangs, there is a constantly changing political agenda for resource allocation. In fact, teenage pregnancy is reflective of social ills in an urban society simultaneous with drug abuse, school dropouts, juvenile crime and gang activity. The common denominator is that teens all need good educational opportunities, good health, and good housing. Parent involvement is needed, and it is presumptuous to believe that a couple of hours of contact a week can change lives. Parents need respect and understanding for their important role; they need information and a role

  5. At-Risk Students' Perceptions of Traditional Schools and a Solution-Focused Public Alternative School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana-Riordan, Christine; Aguilar, Jemel P.; Franklin, Cynthia; Streeter, Calvin L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Hopson, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent trends in education have drawn attention to students at risk of school failure and dropout in the United States. Alternative schools are one method for preventing the severe and long-lasting consequences of underachievement and dropout. Few research studies have sought the opinions and perceptions of the at-risk students who attend…

  6. School Climate Associated with School Dropout Among Tenth Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Orpinas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El estudio evaluó la asociación entre los desertores de bachillerato y seis dimensiones de ambiente escolar. Método. La muestra consistía en 638 estudiantes de décimo grado quienes participaron en el Estudio Longitudinal de Adolescentes Saludables. Los estudiantes iban al colegio al Noreste de Georgia, Estados Unidos; eran encuestados aún si desertaban del colegio. La información relacionada con la deserción se obtiene en grado doce. Se utilizó la regresión logística para identificar indicadores de deserción. Resultados. Más niños (22.1% que niñas (14.4% desertaron del colegio. Comparado con los estudiantes que permanecieron en el colegio, los que desertaron mostraron un alto nivel de muestra de victimización relacional con sus pares y menos relaciones positivas con estos, poca conexión con el colegio, menos relación con un adulto protector dentro del mismo y menos participación significativa. En el modelo de logística regresiva, el género masculino (AOR = 1.68 y victimización relacional (AOR = 1.51 aumentaron las probabilidades de desertar, mientras que la conexión con el colegio (AOR = 0.78 y la presencia de una adulto protector (AOR = 0.73 disminuyen las posibilidades de la deserción. Conclusión. Las dimensiones del ambiente escolar en décimo grado fueron asociadas con la decisión de abandonar o persistir en el colegio. Sus múltiples dimensiones pueden llevar a los educadores a desarrollar programas y prácticas para reducir la deserción en bachillerato.

  7. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  8. Understanding the Effects of Personal and School Religiosity on the Decision to Abort a Premarital Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Although much research has examined the relationship between religion and abortion attitudes, few studies have examined whether religion influences abortion behavior. This study looks at whether individual and school religiosity influence reported abortion behavior among women who become pregnant while unmarried. Hierarchical Logistic Models are…

  9. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  10. Policy and participant perspectives on the drop-out problem in secondary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Rasmussen, Palle

    In this paper we compare the way the drop-out problem in secondary education is constructed in Danish official and public policy discourse with the way it is experiences and interpreted by young people trying to get an education. As regards the student's perspective we will use interviews...... with students in production schools. This is an interim form of schooling for young people who have for some reason not entered secondary education directly but are still trying to find their way into (most often) vocational education....

  11. Drop-out from a psychodynamic group psychotherapy outpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2014-11-01

    BACKGROUND. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy.

  12. Abandono do atendimento em uma clínica-escola de psicologia infantil: variáveis associadas Abandono en una clínica-escuela de psicología infantil Dropout in a school-clinic of child psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cella Panaia Mantovani

    2010-09-01

    menor y la familia estaba más expuesta a estrés psicosocialThis retrospective study aimed at investigating the rates of treatment nonattendance and dropout at a university-affiliated child guidance clinic and identifying socio demographic, clinical and family risk factors that contribute to them. We obtained archival data of 258 children. Sixteen percent of the families did not return after their intake interview. Among families that returned, forty-nine percent dropped out of treatment. Groups were compared with respect to risk factors for self-termination: nonattenders (clients who did not return after intake versus attenders (clients who returned; dropouts (clients that attended at least one session before interrupting treatment versus completers (clients that persisted until treatment conclusion. Children from nonnattender families attended earlier school grades and had less behavior problems. Children in the dropout group had lower scores in intelligence assessment, their fathers were younger and their families were more exposed to psychosocial stress, as compared to completers.

  13. Dropout prediction in cognitive behavior therapy for panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, G.P.J.; Kampman, M.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to attempt to identify reliable factors associated with dropout risk in a sample of 161 panic disorder patients treated with manualized cognitive behavior therapy. Four possible predictors of dropout were selected from the literature: level of education, treatment motivatio

  14. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725, respon

  15. Psychological Treatment as Part of Dropout Prevention: An Israeli Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Hava; Hain, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the integration of psychotherapy in a comprehensive dropout prevention program developed at the Dean of Students' office of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. The program's psychologists conducted psychotherapy with a subset of dropout prevention program participants who had reacted with emotional turmoil to the…

  16. [Drop-out from clinical psychotherapeutic treatment of personality problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, A T J; Poppe, E; Ouwens, M A

    2010-01-01

    Drop-out is a serious problem in psychotherapy. Earlier studies have shown that the main factors associated with drop-out are young age, low socio-economic status and pathological symptoms such as severity of the problems and problematic substance-abuse. To investigate patient's and pathological characteristics that predict drop-out among patients with predominantly personality problems. Patient's characteristics and pathological characteristics of 372 subjects were ascertained via a retrospective study by means of four databases: intake letters, scid-ii personality questionnaires, scid-i and ii interviews and discharge letters. The association between these characteristics and drop-out was tested by means of bivariate and multivariate analysis. results The drop-out rate was 33.3 %. The main predictors of drop-out were young age, a low Global Assessment of Functioning (gaf)-score and the existence of problematic substance-abuse at discharge. The degree and severity of axis i disorders and the nature of personality problems made hardly any contribution to the prediction of drop-out. These findings indicate that more attention needs to be given to the existence of substance-abuse before psychotherapy begins. Drop-out is still a problem and is difficult to predict and hard to influence.

  17. Student Drop-Out from German Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    28% of students of any one year currently give up their studies in bachelor degree programmes at German higher education institutions. Drop-out is to be understood as the definite termination in the higher education system without obtaining an academic degree. The drop-out rate is thereby calculated with the help of statistical estimation…

  18. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.C.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725,

  19. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

  20. Reflexiones sobre la deserción escolar en Finlandia y Puerto Rico Reflections about school dropout in Finland and Puerto Rico Reflexões sobre a evasão escolar na Finlândia e em Porto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Viana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta reflexiones sobre algunos factores claves que ayudan a comprender porque en Finlandia la deserción escolar es prácticamente inexistente mientras que en Puerto Rico es un problema significativo. Se encontraron varias razones que explican el hecho. Finlandia tiene buenos servicios de apoyo al estudiante, sus maestros cuentan con mayor libertad de cátedra, la desigualdad social existe en menor escala, la educación escolar y universitaria, y los servicios de salud son gratuitos y la preparación de los maestros es más rigurosa. En base a los datos de este estudio, se consideró apropiado formular un modelo para ayudar a entender la problemática de la deserción escolar como sistema social complejo. Para la formulación de ese modelo se utilizó un diagrama causal, que es una herramienta proveniente de la teoría de dinámica de sistemas.

    This work presents reflections about some key factors that help to understand the reasons why in Finland school dropouts are practically nonexistent, while in Puerto Rico they are a significant problem. Several reasons that explain this situation were found. Finland has good student support services, teachers have more academic freedom, social inequalities exist in a smaller scale, schooling including university, and health services are free, and teacher training is more rigorous. Based on the findings of this study, we developed a model to understand school dropout as a complex social system. To develop this model we used a causal diagram, a tool from the theory of dynamic systems.
    Este trabalho apresenta reflexões sobre alguns fatores importantes que ajudam a entender porque na Finlândia a evasão escolar é praticamente inexistente, enquanto em Porto Rico é um problema significativo. Há várias razões para explicar essa situação. A Finlândia tem bons serviços de apoio ao aluno; os professores têm mais liberdade acadêmica; a desigualdade social existe em menor

  1. Rethinking school-based health centers as complex adaptive systems: maximizing opportunities for the prevention of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Alison Moriarty

    2012-01-01

    This article examines school-based health centers (SBHCs) as complex adaptive systems, the current gaps that exist in contraceptive access, and the potential to maximize this community resource in teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention efforts. Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for the United States. Existing community resources need to be considered for their potential to impact teen pregnancy and STI prevention efforts. SBHCs are one such community resource to be leveraged in these efforts. They offer adolescent-friendly primary care services and are responsive to the diverse needs of the adolescents utilizing them. However, current restrictions on contraceptive availability limit the ability of SBHCs to maximize opportunities for comprehensive reproductive care and create missed opportunities for pregnancy and STI prevention. A clinical case explores the current models of health care services related to contraceptive care provided in SBHCs and the ability to meet or miss the needs of an adolescent seeking reproductive care in a SBHC.

  2. Prepregnancy contraceptive use among teens with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births - Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Approximately 400,000 teens aged 15-19 years give birth every year in the United States (1), and the teen birth rate remains the highest in the developed world. Teen childbearing is a public health concern because teen mothers are more likely to experience negative social outcomes, including school dropout. In addition, infants of teen mothers are more likely to be low birth weight and have lower academic achievement, and daughters of teen mothers are more likely to become teen mothers themselves. To learn why teens wishing to avoid pregnancy become pregnant, CDC analyzed data from the 2004-2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). This report describes estimated rates of self-reported prepregnancy contraceptive use among white, black, and Hispanic teen females aged 15-19 years with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births. Approximately one half (50.1%) of these teens were not using any method of birth control when they got pregnant, and of these, nearly one third (31.4%) believed they could not get pregnant at the time; 21.0% used a highly effective contraceptive method (although less than 1% used one of the most effective methods, such as an intrauterine device [IUD]); 24.2% used the moderately effective method of condoms; and 5.1% used the least effective methods, such as rhythm and withdrawal. To decrease teen birth rates, efforts are needed to reduce or delay the onset of sexual activity, provide factual information about the conditions under which pregnancy can occur, increase teens' motivation and negotiation skills for pregnancy prevention, improve access to contraceptives, and encourage use of more effective contraceptive methods.

  3. Labor Market Impacts of the GED[R] Test Credential on High School Dropouts: Longitudinal Evidence from NLSY97. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2011-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Ever since achieving a high school credential by passing the GED[R] test became widely institutionalized through adult education programs in the United States, outcomes for GED test credential recipients have continued to be of great interest to the adult education community and the general public. Very few studies of GED test credential…

  4. The Effect of School-Based Health Clinics on Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting Outcomes: An Integrated Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy outcomes have become an increasing concern in the United States. Education and support of pregnant teens are critical factors that may determine good or poor pregnancy outcomes. Poor outcomes may include low birth weight, developmental delays, and poor academic performance. Although the number of teenagers experiencing pregnancy…

  5. The Effect of School-Based Health Clinics on Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting Outcomes: An Integrated Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy outcomes have become an increasing concern in the United States. Education and support of pregnant teens are critical factors that may determine good or poor pregnancy outcomes. Poor outcomes may include low birth weight, developmental delays, and poor academic performance. Although the number of teenagers experiencing pregnancy…

  6. A Longitudinal Investigation of Dropout from College in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Terry T.; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the timing of dropout by college students over a 5-year period. Found that factors that affect student dropout often have effects that change over time. For instance, students who receive financial aid generally have lower dropout rates than non-aided students, but dropout rates vary depending on the amount and timing of student…

  7. Teenage Pregnancy: A Family Life Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Rosemary; Bruce, Becky

    1988-01-01

    Looks at issues surrounding teenage pregnancy and describes different school-based approaches to sex education. Stresses that parental involvement is critical to the success of any effective program for reducing teenage pregnancy. (RWB)

  8. FACTORS ASSOCIATED wITH ADOLESCENT PREGNANCIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the factors associated with adolescent pregnancies among ... and health centres, while schools and peer groups contributed only 29.1% and .... WHO (1998) , Educafion levels and cultural norms influence pregnancy in Adolescents.

  9. Teenage Pregnancy: A Family Life Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Rosemary; Bruce, Becky

    1988-01-01

    Looks at issues surrounding teenage pregnancy and describes different school-based approaches to sex education. Stresses that parental involvement is critical to the success of any effective program for reducing teenage pregnancy. (RWB)

  10. Drop-out from the Swedish addiction compulsory care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padyab, Mojgan; Grahn, Robert; Lundgren, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Drop-out of addiction treatment is common, however, little is known about drop-out of compulsory care in Sweden. Data from two national register databases were merged to create a database of 4515 individuals sentenced to compulsory care 2001-2009. The study examined (1) characteristics associated with having dropped out from a first compulsory care episode, (2) the relationship between drop-out and returning to compulsory care through a new court sentence, and (3) the relationship between drop-out and mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to address Aim 1 and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was applied to respond to Aims 2 and 3. Age and previous history of crime were significant predictors for drop-out. Clients who dropped out were 1.67 times more likely to return to compulsory care and the hazard of dying was 16% higher than for those who dropped-out. This study finds that 59% of clients assigned to compulsory care drop-out. Younger individuals are significantly more likely to drop-out. Those who drop out are significantly more likely to experience negative outcomes (additional sentence to compulsory care and higher risk of mortality). Interventions need to be implemented that increase motivation of youth to remain in compulsory care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High School Employment, School Performance, and College Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanyoung; Orazem, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of U.S. high school students working during the school year ranges from 23% in the freshman year to 75% in the senior year. This study estimates how cumulative work histories during the high school years affect probability of dropout, high school academic performance, and the probability of attending college. Variations in…

  12. Model-Free Adaptive Control Algorithm with Data Dropout Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhui Bu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of model-free adaptive control (MFAC algorithm can be guaranteed when the system is subject to measurement data dropout. The system output convergent speed gets slower as dropout rate increases. This paper proposes a MFAC algorithm with data compensation. The missing data is first estimated using the dynamical linearization method, and then the estimated value is introduced to update control input. The convergence analysis of the proposed MFAC algorithm is given, and the effectiveness is also validated by simulations. It is shown that the proposed algorithm can compensate the effect of the data dropout, and the better output performance can be obtained.

  13. Efficient Catalog Matching with Dropout Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Dongwei; Szalay, Alexander S; Cui, Chenzhou; Zhao, Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    Not only source catalogs are extracted from astronomy observations. Their sky coverage is always carefully recorded and used in statistical analyses, such as correlation and luminosity function studies. Here we present a novel method for catalog matching, which inherently builds on the coverage information for better performance and completeness. A modified version of the Zones Algorithm is introduced for matching partially overlapping observations, where irrelevant parts of the data are excluded up front for efficiency. Our design enables searches to focus on specific areas on the sky to further speed up the process. Another important advantage of the new method over traditional techniques is its ability to quickly detect dropouts, i.e., the missing components that are in the observed regions of the celestial sphere but did not reach the detection limit in some observations. These often provide invaluable insight into the spectral energy distribution of the matched sources but rarely available in traditional...

  14. Inclusion probability with dropout: an operational formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, E; Courteau, J; Crispino, F; Mailly, F

    2015-05-01

    In forensic genetics, a mixture of two or more contributors to a DNA profile is often interpreted using the inclusion probabilities theory. In this paper, we present a general formula for estimating the probability of inclusion (PI, also known as the RMNE probability) from a subset of visible alleles when dropouts are possible. This one-locus formula can easily be extended to multiple loci using the cumulative probability of inclusion. We show that an exact formulation requires fixing the number of contributors, hence to slightly modify the classic interpretation of the PI. We discuss the implications of our results for the enduring debate over the use of PI vs likelihood ratio approaches within the context of low template amplifications.

  15. Dropouts from nursing education: path analysis of a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, B H

    1980-01-01

    Path analysis was used to test a theoretical model of college nursing student dropouts. Multiple regression was used to assess the relative importance of the predictor variables. Students' self-reported reasons for dropping out were studied by contingency and correlational analyses to determine the relationship between these reasons and individual difference variables. Factor analysis was used to develop scales to measure the variables of locus of control, self-esteem, social integration, and institutional commitment. The sample of students was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Included in the sample were students entering two- and four-year nursing programs full-time in the fall of 1972. These two groups of students were found to be significantly different in measures of cognitive ability and in aspirations for further education. Approximately 27 percent of the two-year and 41 percent of the four-year students withdrew from their nursing programs during this study. Reasons for withdrawal most frequently cited by both groups related to losing interest in nursing and becoming interested in other fields of study. Educational aspirations had the strongest direct effect on persistence in nursing for two-year students; for four-year students, academic ability was the most powerful predictor of persistence.

  16. School Violence Is Not Going Away so Proactive Steps Are Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Kylee; Crews, Jack; Turner, Freda

    2008-01-01

    Problems associated with school violence include higher than average teacher turnover, increased student dropout rates, students changing schools, and principals/teachers retiring early. There are 19 strategies offered that might reduce school violence.

  17. Reduzierbarkeit der Abbrecherquote im Humanmedizinstudium durch das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für Medizinische Studiengänge - Naturwissenschaftsteil (HAM-Nat [Possible reduction of the medical school dropout number by the Hamburg Assessment test for Medicine - part Natural sciences (HAM-Nat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harendza, Sigrid

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Since 2005 German medical faculties are allowed to select 60% of their freshmen. Nevertheless, many faculties stick to a selection based merely on the grade point average assigned by the secondary school (Abiturnote which is the best known predictor of success in German medical schools. Methods: In order to improve selection with respect to medical school dropout numbers we developed the HAM-Nat (Hamburg Admission test for Medicine - part Natural sciences, a test consisting of 52 multiple-choice questions from the topics of chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics, and assessed its difficulty with pupils of 6 different schools. Then the HAM-Nat was administered to 333 first-year students just before the start of their courses in October 2006. After the first academic year the power of the HAM-Nat to predict individual study success was compared to that of the grade point average. Study success was measured by the number of passed exams. Outcomes: The HAM-Nat was found to correlate better with study success than the grade point average. A projection based on data from older student cohorts shows that student selection with the HAM-Nat can reduce the number of students dropping out compared with a selection based on the grade point average alone. Other parameters like chosen natural science subjects at school or an industrial training in medicine or other areas do not predict academic success. Conclusions: The HAM-Nat is a valuable tool to predict student success at medical school. Based on this study Hamburg’s medical faculty has decided to introduce the HAM-Nat to select its entrants in 2008. [german] Zielsetzung: Seit das Hochschulrahmengesetz 2005 den Hochschulen ermöglicht, 60% der Medizinstudienanfänger selbst auszuwählen, sind die Medizinischen Fakultäten auf der Suche nach dem optimalen Auswahlverfahren. Viele tun sich schwer, ein Auswahlkriterium zu definieren. Noch schwieriger ist es, einen Test für die Auswahl

  18. A Comparative Study of Two Counseling Approaches with Potential Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Charles L.

    1970-01-01

    No statistically significant differences in dropout rate were noted between directive and nondirective counseling approaches. Suggests future use of different measure, such as self concept, average or attendance. (CJ)

  19. Selected determinants may account for dropout risks among medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; O'Neill, Lotte; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads

    2012-01-01

    during their first year. The type of admission exam was a strong predictor of dropout in the pre-admission model, whereas previous higher education protected against dropout. Obtaining leave was a very strong predictor of dropout in the post-admission model, whereas high grades protected against dropout...... during the first and second study years might serve as red flags to supervisors. FUNDING: Study research was funded by Aarhus University. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not relevant, register-based research with no biological human material cannot be notified to the Danish Committee System. The Danish Data...... extracted from the established database of Aarhus University for the 639 students initiating medicine studies between 1 January 1999 and 31December 2000. A multivariate pre-admission and post-admission model was examined. RESULTS: Of the 639 medical students, 20% dropped out. Most students dropped out...

  20. Unconditionally Stable Low Dropout Regulators for Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a low dropout (LDO) regulator using a patented MESFET transistor technology that can be manufactured in commercial CMOS foundries with no changes...

  1. Stabilization of Networked Control System with Packet-Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Sanatizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Secondly, by above method an inverted pendulum which was controlled in a network with delays, is controlled in a network through packet-dropouts. simulation results show the effectiveness of the above method.

  2. A Guide for Funding At-Risk Youth Programs with Carl Perkins and Job Training Partnership Act Funds. TEA Division of Program Planning: Dropout Prevention and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Community Affairs, Austin.

    This guide is designed as a practical tool for those who wish to meet the requirements of House Bill 1010 and Texas State Board of Education rules that mandate district dropout programs for at-risk youth. This audience includes school district superintendents, at-risk coordinators, vocational education administrators, private industry council…

  3. Fulfilling the Potential of NYC-2. Dropout Prevention: A Proposed Model for Utilizing NYC-2 to Facilitate Career Education. Manpower Monograph Series on Disadvantaged Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Joel R.

    Youth manpower programs, despite their accumulated expertise in serving disadvantaged school dropouts, have been allocated a subsidiary, compensatory role in serving those youth who experience difficulty with formal education methods. The Experimental Manpower Laboratory at Mobilization for Youth has proposed to the New York City Board of…

  4. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key Words: School related factors, Internal Efficiency, Public University student,. South-West ... cycle as it will show the promotion rate, repetition rate and drop-out rate. Many ..... School-based variables and internal efficiency of colleges of.

  5. Model-Free Adaptive Control Algorithm with Data Dropout Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Xuhui Bu; Fashan Yu; Zhongsheng Hou; Hongwei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The convergence of model-free adaptive control (MFAC) algorithm can be guaranteed when the system is subject to measurement data dropout. The system output convergent speed gets slower as dropout rate increases. This paper proposes a MFAC algorithm with data compensation. The missing data is first estimated using the dynamical linearization method, and then the estimated value is introduced to update control input. The convergence analysis of the proposed MFAC algorithm is given, and the effe...

  6. The Economic and Fiscal Costs of Failing to Reform K-12 Education in Georgia. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Georgia, and examines how policies that increase school choice, such as the recently-enacted tuition tax credit scholarship program will provide large public benefits by increasing public school graduation rates. The study calculates the annual cost of Georgia dropouts caused by…

  7. [A study of factors related to contraceptive dropout: colored women in the metropolitan area of Capetown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, M

    1985-06-01

    There is concern over persons who fail to attend family planning clinics without reason. The represents 1 of the major stumbling blocks to a successful family planning program. The author investigated factors associated with clinic dropout among black women in a metropolitan area (Capetown, South Africa). Almost 1/2 of those who ceased to attend had a good reason for doing so. The main findings regarding the other defaulters included a lack of motivation among black women to prevent uplanned pregnancies through temporary contraception and that the program may not have met all of the public needs. In this regard, specific reference is made to the need of those women who no longer bring their youngest child to the child health clinic as family planning services are usually integrated into such a clinic. (author's modified)

  8. Electron dropout echoes induced by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Fu, S. Y.; Rankin, R.; Yuan, C.-J.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.

    2016-06-01

    On 23 November 2012, a sudden dropout of the relativistic electron flux was observed after an interplanetary shock arrival. The dropout peaks at ˜1 MeV and more than 80% of the electrons disappeared from the drift shell. Van Allen twin Probes observed a sharp electron flux dropout with clear energy dispersion signals. The repeating flux dropout and recovery signatures, or "dropout echoes", constitute a new phenomenon referred to as a "drifting electron dropout" with a limited initial spatial range. The azimuthal range of the dropout is estimated to be on the duskside, from ˜1300 to 0100 LT. We conclude that the shock-induced electron dropout is not caused by the magnetopause shadowing. The dropout and consequent echoes suggest that the radial migration of relativistic electrons is induced by the strong dusk-dawn asymmetric interplanetary shock compression on the magnetosphere.

  9. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancies among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with adolescent pregnancies among secondary school students. a study from Tanga-Tanzania. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... Dar Es Salaam Medical Students' Journal.

  10. Swedish teenager perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits--a focus group study among 17-year-old female high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Von Essen, Louise; Tydén, Tanja

    2005-10-01

    Sweden has the highest abortion numbers among the Nordic countries. Since 1995, the abortion rate among teenagers has increased by nearly 50%. We therefore undertook a study where the overall aim was to gain a deeper understanding on which factors female teenagers believe may explain the increasing numbers of teenage abortions. Teenagers' perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits were investigated. Six focus group interviews with 17-year-old Swedish girls were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by manifest content analysis. Negative attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and supportive attitudes toward abortion were expressed. Risk-taking behaviors such as negligence in contraceptive use and intercourse under the influence of alcohol were suggested as main reasons behind the increasing numbers of abortions among Swedish teenagers. The contemporary, sexualized, media picture was believed to influence adolescents' sexual behavior, and liberal attitudes toward casual sex were expressed. Girls were perceived as more obliged than boys in taking responsibility for contraceptive compliance and avoidance of pregnancy. The apprehension that hormonal contraceptives cause negative side-effects was widely spread, and the participants were found to have a somewhat limited knowledge of abortion. The majority were unsatisfied with the quality of sexual education provided by the schools. Possible reasons for increased abortion numbers among teenagers in Sweden could be liberal attitudes toward casual sex in combination with negligence in contraceptive use, use of alcohol followed by sexual risk-taking, fear of hormonal contraceptives, and a deterioration of sexual education in the schools.

  11. Who Drops out from Primary Schools in China? Evidence from Minority-Concentrated Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meichen; Cui, Manlin; Shi, Yaojiang; Chang, Fang; Mo, Di; Rozelle, Scott; Johnson, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    One of the Millennium Development Goals is to ensure universal access to primary education by 2015. However, primary school dropout remains a challenge in many developing countries. While official statistics in China report aggregated primary school dropout of only 0.2%, almost no independent, survey-based studies have sought to verify these…

  12. Long-awaited pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Golombok, Susan

    2016-01-01

    as unplanned (n = 1,827). Intervention(s): The children were followed up using questionnaires and information from Danish national registers. Main Outcome Measure(s): Parent reported school difficulties at ages 9–11 years, register-based school grades at ages 16, 17, and 19 years, and conscription intelligence...... age of 19 years. These children were born as a result of fertility treatment (n = 210), had subfertile parents who took more than 12 months before conceiving naturally (n = 334), had fertile parents who conceived naturally within 12 months (n = 2,661), or had parents who reported the pregnancy...... test scores at age 19 years. Result(s): We found no evidence of school difficulties in childhood, impaired school performance in adolescence, or lower intelligence in young adulthood in multivariate analyses adjusted for parental age, educational level, maternal parity, before pregnancy body mass index...

  13. The Benjamin Franklin High School Urban League Street Academies Program. Evaluation of ESEA Title I Projects in New York City, 1967-68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Michael A.

    This New York City school district educational project sought to locate actual dropouts and identify potential dropouts from Benjamin Franklin High School, and to involve them in the Urban Street Academy Program as a means of resolving their school problems and helping them continue their education. The objectives of the Academy were (1)…

  14. Reading and School Completion: Critical Connections and Matthew Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschly, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that reading interventions are a key dropout prevention strategy. A review of the literature connects reading skills and interventions with events such as grade retention, placement in special education, and high school dropout. In general, data indicate that intensive early interventions positively affect students' reading…

  15. Transition from School-Based Training in VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daehlen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the drop-out rate among disadvantaged students within vocational education and training. The purpose of this paper is to examine the probability of dropping out after school-based training for child welfare clients--a particularly disadvantaged group of youth. Child welfare clients' drop-out rate is compared with…

  16. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may check for other medical problems, including: Preeclampsia Hyperthyroidism Anemia A molar pregnancy can't continue as a normal viable pregnancy. To prevent complications, the molar tissue must be removed. Treatment usually consists of one or more of the ...

  17. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  18. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plan to get pregnant, but many do. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother ... later on. They have a higher risk for pregnancy-related high blood pressure and its complications. Risks ...

  19. Variation in 2010-11 Truancy Rates among District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) High Schools and Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Akiva; Cahill, Meagan

    2012-01-01

    Truancy is well documented as an indicator of high risk for drop-out and failure to graduate, as well as a risk factor for delinquency. This report provides a snapshot of truancy in District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) high schools and middle schools in 2010-11. School data on student absenteeism was combined with Census and crime data on…

  20. In the absence of marriage: long-term concurrent partnerships, pregnancy, and HIV risk dynamics among South African young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Abigail; O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2010-10-01

    In KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa, where HIV prevalence is among the world's highest, a longitudinal qualitative study of partnership dynamics and HIV preventive behaviors was conducted. 47 young adults aged 18-24 participated in in-depth interviews, and 29 were re-interviewed 2 years later. Five analytical domains emerged: primary partnerships, love and romance; secondary partnerships; pregnancy/parenthood; condom use/prevention; and contextual influences, including schooling and future aspirations. Primary relationships were long-lasting, with most men and women in the same relationship at 2-year follow-up. Secondary, casual partnerships were common for men and women, although these were shorter and changed frequently. Love and marriage aspirations were not viewed as incompatible with secondary partners. Condom use increased over time in some primary relationships, but decreased in others, and was nearly universal with non-primary partners. Pregnancy, school drop-out, and economic need strongly influence young people's lifecourse. These findings suggest the need to focus prevention efforts on the partnership context, including partner reduction, and structural factors that impede or enhance prevention success.

  1. Mining Educational Data to Reduce Dropout Rates of Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Pal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, number of Engineering Institutes and Universities grows rapidly in India. This causes a tight competition among these institutions and Universities while attracting the student to get admission in these Institutions/Universities. Most of the institutions and courses opened in Universities are in self finance mode, so all time they focused to fill all the seats of the courses not on the quality of students. Therefore a large number of students drop the course after first year. This paper presents a data mining application to generate predictive models for student’s dropout management of Engineering. Given new records of incoming students, the predictive model can produce accurate prediction list identifying students who tend to need the support from the student dropout program most. The results show that the machine learning algorithm is able to establish effective predictive model from the existing student dropout data.

  2. Dropout in VET – institutional selection and social exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    . The study shows how the institutionalised selection of students is integrated in the working of the colleges, and that this practice contributes to dropouts. In addition the students make friendships and form groups in their daily life in college and outside according to gender, ethnicity, age, residential...... of the complex processes of dropping out. The present study is part of a large national research project on retention in VET. The paper aims to understand dropout as a result of the interplay of students’ agentic actions and social interactions and the opportunities for participation afforded by the colleges....... Dropout is studied as a combination of on the one hand processes of social and cultural in- and exclusion among the students and on the other hand processes of institutional selection of vocational colleges. It draws on critical theories of reproduction in education and cultural studies of education...

  3. Student Drop-Out Trends at Sultan Qaboos University and Kuwait University: 2000-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghanboosi, Salim Saleem; Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the drop-out trends at Sultan Qaboos. University and Kuwait University. Archival data of the period 2000-2011 were used to achieve this goal. Main findings showed that (a) male drop-out rates are higher than female drop-out rates; (b) drop- out rates at scientific colleges are higher; (c) drop-out rates of…

  4. Student Drop-Out Trends at Sultan Qaboos University and Kuwait University: 2000-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghanboosi, Salim Saleem; Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to explore the drop-out trends at Sultan Qaboos. University and Kuwait University. Archival data of the period 2000-2011 were used to achieve this goal. Main findings showed that (a) male drop-out rates are higher than female drop-out rates; (b) drop- out rates at scientific colleges are higher; (c) drop-out rates of…

  5. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Debes, Frodi; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2015-01-01

    categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11years together with 44 newly recruited...... children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory...... function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide...

  6. Examination of the Relationship between Psychosocial Mediators and Intervention Effects in It’s Your Game: An Effective HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Baumler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of mediation analyses were carried out in this study using data from It’s Your Game. . .Keep It Real (IYG, a successful HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program. The IYG study evaluated a skill and normbased. HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention program that was implemented from 2004 to 2007 among 907 urban low-income middle school youth in Houston, TX, USA. Analyses were carried out to investigate the degree to which a set of proposed psychosocial measures of behavioral knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, behavioral, and normative beliefs, and perceived risky situations, all targeted by the intervention, mediated the intervention’s effectiveness in reducing initiation of sex. The mediation process was assessed by examining the significance and size of the estimated effects from the mediating pathways. The findings from this study provide evidence that the majority of the psychosocial mediators targeted by the IYG intervention are indeed related to the desired behavior and provide evidence that the conceptual theory underlying the targeted psychosocial mediators in the intervention is appropriate. Two of the psychosocial mediators significantly mediated the intervention effect, knowledge of STI signs and symptoms and refusal self-efficacy. This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses.

  7. No More Excuses: The Final Report of the Hispanic Dropout Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secada, Walter G.; Chavez-Chavez, Rudolfo; Garcia, Eugene; Munoz, Cipriano; Oakes, Jeannie; Santiago-Santiago, Isaura; Slavin, Robert

    In September 1995, the U.S. Secretary of Education invited seven individuals to take part in a special project to study the problem of Hispanic student dropout. The Secretary's charge to the Hispanic Dropout Project incorporated the goals of increasing public awareness about Hispanic dropout issues; developing policy-relevant recommendations at…

  8. Therapeutic relationship and dropout in youth mental health care with ethnic minority children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. de Haan; A.E. Boon; J.T.V.M. de Jong; C.A.M.L. Geluk; R.R.J.M. Vermeiren

    2013-01-01

    Background Dropout in youth psychotherapy is high, especially for ethnic minority patients. An important determinant of dropout is the quality of the therapeutic relationship. This study evaluated the association between the therapeutic relationship and dropout in therapy with ethnic minority youth.

  9. Is Drop-Out from University Dependent on National Culture and Policy? The Case of Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troelsen, Rie; Laursen, Per F.

    2014-01-01

    National cultures are known to influence educational institutions and practices in many ways. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that drop-out from university is also influenced by differences in national cultures. In this article, we compare drop-out from Danish universities with drop-out from European universities. Based on Danish national…

  10. Spalding Junior High, Unit 1 Dropout Prevention Program. Maxi 2 Practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joe C.

    The purpose of this practicum was to develop strategies to reduce the dropout rate at Spalding Junior High, Unit 1, Griffin, Georgia. Potential dropouts were identified and specific strategies were used to assist students in solving problems which caused them to become potential dropouts. Some of the strategies developed were: (1) faculty…

  11. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share with Women Dental Care in Pregnancy Why is dental care in pregnancy important? During pregnancy, you are more likely to have problems ... There are 2 major reasons women can have dental problems during pregnancy: Pregnancy gingivitis— During pregnancy, changes ...

  12. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Exercise During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Exercise During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ119, May 2016 PDF Format Exercise During Pregnancy Pregnancy Is it safe to exercise during pregnancy? ...

  13. Information Management Processes for Extraction of Student Dropout Indicators in Courses in Distance Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria Abrantes Baracho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the use of information management processes in order to extract student dropout indicators in distance mode courses. Distance education in Brazil aims to facilitate access to information. The MEC (Ministry of Education announced, in the second semester of 2013, that the main obstacles faced by institutions offering courses in this mode were students dropping out and the resistance of both educators and students to this mode. The research used a mixed methodology, qualitative and quantitative, to obtain student dropout indicators. The factors found and validated in this research were: the lack of interest from students, insufficient training in the use of the virtual learning environment for students, structural problems in the schools that were chosen to offer the course, students without e-mail, incoherent answers to activities to the course, lack of knowledge on the part of the student when using the computer tool. The scenario considered was a course offered in distance mode called Aluno Integrado (Integrated Student

  14. School Security: For Whom and with What Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servoss, Timothy J.; Finn, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized school-level data from several combined national databases to address two questions regarding school security policy: (1) What are the school characteristics related to levels of security? (2) How does security relate to school suspension, dropout, and college attendance rates? Among the predictors of school security, having a…

  15. Convergence Analysis of Wireless Remote Iterative Learning Control Systems with Dropout Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-xun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless remote iterative learning control (ILC system with random data dropouts is considered. The data dropout is viewed as a binary switching sequence which obeys the Bernoulli distribution. In order to eliminate the effect of data dropouts on the convergence property of output error, the signal at the same time with the lost one but in the last iteration is used to compensate the data dropout at the actuator. With the dropout compensation, the convergence property of output error is analyzed by studying the element values of system transition matrix. Finally, some simulation results are given to illustrate the validity of the proposed method.

  16. Allelic drop-out probabilities estimated by logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Asplund, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the model for estimating drop-out probabilities presented by Tvedebrink et al. [7] and the concerns, that have been raised. The criticism of the model has demonstrated that the model is not perfect. However, the model is very useful for advanced forensic genetic work, where allelic dro...

  17. Problems and Strategies Regarding Reducing America's Migrant Student Dropout Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge, Doris

    1993-01-01

    Overviews national data concerning the problems associated with the high dropout rate of migrant students. Stresses the importance of enhancing self-esteem of migrant children. Offers recommendations for national, state, and community action that emphasize empowering children and their families to break the cycles of poverty, abuse, and high…

  18. Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout : the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, C; Feskens, E J M; Corpeleijn, E; Mensink, M; Saris, W H M; Blaak, E E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a 4.1-year (range 3-6 years) lifestyle intervention according to general public health recommendations on glucose tolerance and dropout in a Dutch population with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the Study on Lifestyle

  19. Drop-out probabilities of IrisPlex SNP alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt;

    2013-01-01

    In certain crime cases, information about a perpetrator's phenotype, including eye colour, may be a valuable tool if no DNA profile of any suspect or individual in the DNA database matches the DNA profile found at the crime scene. Often, the available DNA material is sparse and allelic drop-out o...

  20. Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout: the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Corpeleijn, E.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    Original Article European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 1141–1147; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.74; published online 18 May 2011 Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout: the SLIM study C Roumen1, E J M Feskens2, E Corpeleijn1, M Mensink2, W H M Saris1 and E E Blaak1 1Department

  1. Emotional variables, dropout and academic performance in Spanish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso-Bas, Fátima; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; García-Buades, Esther

    2016-02-01

    The dropout of university studies is a main concern in many countries, also for Health Sciences degrees. The reviews on dropout in all university degrees as well as nursing generally show multidimensional causes with factors related both to institutional and students' characteristics. Regarding the personal variables of students, researchers have focused on financial, family and personality features. Far less attention has been devoted to emotional variables. This study aims to explore whether individual variables of the emotional domain such as perceived emotional intelligence, dispositional optimism/pessimism and depressive rumination are related and/or can predict students' intention to dropout and academic performance. Using a cross-correlational approach, data were obtained from a sample of 144 nursing students. Students with a pessimistic disposition revealed a greater tendency to drop out. The remaining variables correlated significantly with pessimism but had no predictive value on dropout. Our results suggest that students with low levels of emotional clarity and repair and high depressive rumination have pessimistic expectations, so they are more likely to leave studies. No significant results were found in relation to academic performance. We conclude with an identification of strategies to increase retention and academic success.

  2. Drop-out probabilities of IrisPlex SNP alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg; Tvedebrink, Torben; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2013-01-01

    -out of true alleles is possible. As part of the validation of the IrisPlex assay in our ISO17025 accredited, forensic genetic laboratory, we estimated the probability of drop-out of specific SNP alleles using 29 and 30 PCR cycles and 25, 50 and 100 Single Base Extension (SBE) cycles. We observed no drop...

  3. Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout: the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Corpeleijn, E.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    Original Article European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 1141–1147; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.74; published online 18 May 2011 Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout: the SLIM study C Roumen1, E J M Feskens2, E Corpeleijn1, M Mensink2, W H M Saris1 and E E Blaak1 1Department

  4. A retrospective transversal study of enlargement and college dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lidia; Bethencourt Benítez, José Tomás; González Afonso, Miriam; Pedro ÁLVAREZ PÉREZ

    2006-01-01

    At present leaving and prolonging studies constitutes a serious problem at the university level. This report pre-sents the results of a retrospective transversal study which purpose was to identify risk factors related with dropout. The methodology design used can be for help

  5. Factors that Influence Students' Decision to Dropout of Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Pedro A.; Johnson, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many reasons why students dropout of college courses, those reasons may be unique for students who are enrolled in an online program. Issues of isolation, disconnectedness, and technological problems may be factors that influence a student to leave a course. To understand these factors, an online survey was developed to collect…

  6. Degree Flexibility and University Drop-out: The Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Giorgio; Cutillo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    How to reduce university drop-out is a topic of increasing concern. Although several measures have been the subject of numerous debates, little attention has been given to those impacting on the duration, structure and content of the supply of university education. This paper looks at the Italian experience to see what can be learnt about the…

  7. Dropout from Secondary Education: All's Well That Begins Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Kristof; Rogge, Nicky

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased attention to students leaving secondary education without a diploma numerous students still dropout yearly. This paper makes a distinction between the "individual perspective" and the "institutional perspective" of dropping out. The former is explored by multinominal logit models. We observe that…

  8. Contraception and unwanted pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, N E

    1984-01-01

    An overview of research findings in the US on the psychological and social variables associated with unwanted pregnancy and on the consequences of unwanted pregnancy was provided. Studies which examined personality differences between women and adolescent females who practicaed effective contraception and thesse who experienced unwanted pregnancy consistently found that the latter group, compared to the former group, had lower self-esteem, were more passive, tended to engage in more risk taking behavior, and were less achievement and future oriented. Several studies found that those who experienced unwanted pregnancies were often poorly informed about sex and contraception. Sex education, however, did not always lead to an increase in the knowledge and use of contraception. Sex education was unable to overcome the effects of male and female sexual socialization processes in which adolescents were inculcated with a double sex standard and females with a sense of guilt concerning the use of contraception. Numerous studies showed that unperceived or denied motives played a role in the occurence of unwanted pregnancies. Unwanted pregnancies were associated with loss, and these pregnancies probably represented an attempt to replace the loss of a loved person. Women who were in conflict about their work and mothering roles, and women who did not want to work but felt pressured to do so, frequently had inappropriate pregnancies. Teenagers who were not interested in school or in future careers often had unwanted pregnancies. These pregnancies probably represented an attempt to establish a social identity. W.B. Miller identified 8 stages in the reproductive life span when unwanted pregnancies were most likely to occur. These stages were 1) the initial stage of adolescence when the individual may not be fully aware of her fertility, 2) the 1st 6 months following the initiation of sexual activity, 3) at the beginning of a new relationship, 4) during the initial stage of

  9. Therapist and relationship factors influencing dropout from individual psychotherapy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Johanna; Werbart, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Among potential predictors of dropout, client variables are most thoroughly examined. This qualitative literature review examines the current state of knowledge about therapist, relationship and process factors influencing dropout. Databases searches identified 44 relevant studies published January 2000-June 2011. Dropout rates varied widely with a weighted rate of 35%. Fewer than half of the studies directly addressed questions of dropout rates in relation to therapist, relationship or process factors. Therapists' experience, training and skills, together with providing concrete support and being emotionally supportive, had an impact on dropout rates. Furthermore, the quality of therapeutic alliance, client dissatisfaction and pre-therapy preparation influenced dropout. To reduce dropout rates, therapists need enhanced skills in building and repairing the therapeutic relationship.

  10. Open and Distance Education Dropout Research:Conclusion and Reflection%远程开放教育辍学研究:结论与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2014-01-01

    degree that learners could study at any time and at any place according to their requirements. The two attributes show that open and distance education has strengths in socialization and capacity, especially low requirements for entrance. However, easy entrance is accompanied by high dropout rate, a widespread problem that open and distance education cannot ignore. In China, open and distance education started in 1999. Now the open and distance education system includes the Open University of China and 66 network academies of colleges and universities. The enrollment number of open and distance education in China reached 4. 85 million in 2011. Meanwhile, dropout rate grew increasingly as well. The high dropout rate attracted attention from open and distance education institutes, teachers and researchers. Dropout causes damages to both education institutions and learners. Because open and distance education institutions are mainly funded by tuitions, high dropout rate means losing school-running benefits and wasting education invest-ments. For learners who have invested time and money on open and distance education, dropout means that their ef-forts do not get expected returns. Dropout also represents failed learning experience under multiple pressures for learn-ers. Therefore, compared with being contributive to learners' completion of their studies and the achievement of the so-cial goal of education equity, paying more attention to dropout and improving students' retention rate and success rate fit better for the goals and interests of distance educational institutions. Based on"Open and Distance Education Dropout Research" Project and school-running experiences of The Open University of China, this paper conducts an in-depth study on dropout in open and distance education in China. It a-dopts quantitative and qualitative methods to conduct international comparative studies, aiming to answer questions a-bout dropout occurrence rules in open and distance education. The

  11. School Plus Home = Student Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Nancy; Santos, Ricardo Sotelo

    This handbook was developed to serve as a point of reference in identifying potential dropout problems. Included are several crucial recommendations for establishing an effective partnership between home and school that will help children succeed in school. Recommendations focus on preventive action in the classroom and at home. Artwork and…

  12. Yoga May Mitigate Decreases in High School Grades

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butzer, Bethany; van Over, Max; Noggle Taylor, Jessica J; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2015-01-01

    ... outcomes such as academic disengagement and dropout [1]. While some school-based interventions, such as social-emotional learning programs, have shown promise with regard to improving academic ...

  13. Connecting with Families to Improve Students' School Attendance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Bethany M.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    School attendance is a rising issue in public schools. Students regularly absent from school can end up involved in destructive behaviors and dropout of school. Family characteristics are strong determining factors in students' school attendance. This presents the question, "Can family involvement improve public school students'…

  14. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  15. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  16. Pregnancy test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG is a hormone produced during pregnancy. It appears in the blood and urine of ... A pregnancy test is done using blood or urine. There are 2 types of ... how much HCG is present The blood test is done by drawing ...

  17. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  18. Staying in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Terry B.

    2000-01-01

    A Tennessee district counsels seniors lacking sufficient credits to consider General Education Development (GED) tutoring. African-American females are generally "pulled out" by family reasons; African-American males feel "pushed out," following suspensions and expulsions. Potential dropouts are deterred by an alternative high school and a…

  19. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV and Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? How ...

  20. Pregnancy and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profile Home About IC Women & IC Pregnancy & IC Pregnancy & IC How Pregnancy Affects IC Unfortunately, there is limited scientific data ... 2009 issue of the ICA Update . Planning Your Pregnancy Planning ahead for your pregnancy will let you: ...

  1. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Travel During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Travel During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ055, February 2016 PDF Format Travel During Pregnancy Pregnancy When is the best time to travel ...

  2. Final Evaluation Report of the Benjamin Franklin High School--Urban League Street Academies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban Ed, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Street Academy is a program designed to meet the dropout as an individual--to assist, help and support him continually in his daily life. The academies operate from store-fronts located in neighborhoods where there are large concentrations of school dropouts. They are staffed, at the minimum, by a project director, a street worker, and a…

  3. Invisible Flood: Notes on the Politics of "Dropping Out" of an Urban Public High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michelle

    1991-01-01

    Research on dropouts at an urban, comprehensive New York City high school found a complex politics of "discharge" and low awareness on the part of students and parents of legal entitlement to education, which allowed 66 percent of a ninth grade cohort to dropout without comment or concern. (JB)

  4. Drop-out in de Verslavingszorg. : Een pilotstudie naar redenen voor drop-out van cliënten van Verslavingszorg Noord Nederland (VNN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Samenvatting Deze pilotstudie exploreert redenen voor drop-out van cliënten bij Verslavingszorg Noord Nederland (VNN). Drop-out is een veel voorkomend probleem binnen de verslavingszorg. Om de centrale vraag ‘Waarom stoppen ambulante cliënten van Verslavingszorg Noord Nederland voortijdig met hun

  5. A Five-Year Follow-Up on the Role of Educational Support in Preventing Dropout From Upper Secondary Education in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Airi M; Holopainen, Leena K; Savolainen, Hannu K

    2015-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the role of word reading and mathematical difficulties measured in 9th grade as factors for receiving educational support for learning in upper secondary education in Grades 10 to 12 (from ages 16 to 19) and furthermore as predictors of dropout from upper secondary education within 5 years after compulsory education. In addition, we studied the role of school achievement in Grades 9 and 11 in this prediction. The participants of this study were members of one age group of 16-year-old ninth graders (N = 595, females 302, males 293) in a midsized Finnish city, who were followed for 5 years after completing compulsory education. The path model results, where the effects of gender, educational track, and SES were controlled, showed, first, that students with academic learning difficulties received educational support for learning particularly in the 11th grade. Second, academic learning difficulties directly affected school achievement in the 9th grade, but no longer in the 11th grade. Third, mathematical difficulties directly predicted dropout from upper secondary education, and difficulties in both word reading and mathematics had an indirect effect through school achievement in Grades 9 and 11 on dropout.

  6. Data-driven system to predict academic grades and dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Sergi; Puertas, Eloi; Igual, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the role of a tutor is more important than ever to prevent students dropout and improve their academic performance. This work proposes a data-driven system to extract relevant information hidden in the student academic data and, thus, help tutors to offer their pupils a more proactive personal guidance. In particular, our system, based on machine learning techniques, makes predictions of dropout intention and courses grades of students, as well as personalized course recommendations. Moreover, we present different visualizations which help in the interpretation of the results. In the experimental validation, we show that the system obtains promising results with data from the degree studies in Law, Computer Science and Mathematics of the Universitat de Barcelona.

  7. Data-driven system to predict academic grades and dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Sergi; Puertas, Eloi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the role of a tutor is more important than ever to prevent students dropout and improve their academic performance. This work proposes a data-driven system to extract relevant information hidden in the student academic data and, thus, help tutors to offer their pupils a more proactive personal guidance. In particular, our system, based on machine learning techniques, makes predictions of dropout intention and courses grades of students, as well as personalized course recommendations. Moreover, we present different visualizations which help in the interpretation of the results. In the experimental validation, we show that the system obtains promising results with data from the degree studies in Law, Computer Science and Mathematics of the Universitat de Barcelona. PMID:28196078

  8. Talent Development High Schools. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Talent Development High Schools" is a school reform model for restructuring large high schools with persistent attendance and discipline problems, poor student achievement, and high dropout rates. The model includes both structural and curriculum reforms. It calls for schools to reorganize into small "learning…

  9. Educational Impact of a School Breakfast Programme in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; Chinen, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data from an evaluation of the educational impact of a school breakfast program implemented in rural schools in Peru. The results showed positive effects on school attendance and dropout rates, and a differential effect of the breakfast program on multiple-grade and full-grade schools. Particularly in multiple-grade…

  10. Routes and Reasons Out, Paths Back: The Influence of Push and Pull Reasons for Leaving School on Students' School Reengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Rebecca L.; Renzulli, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a major issue facing our country's schools; however, many students who drop out of school later go on to finish their degree either by returning to high school or by earning a General Education Development (GED) credential. Despite this, there has been relatively little research on these students who "stopout" of high school.…

  11. Dropout of a multidisciplinary treatment program for women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rehder Gonçalves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the dropout of a multidisciplinary treatment program in fibromyalgia (FM. Methods: An observational study conducted during the period of April 2000 to December 2005, including 133 women with fibromyalgia, participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program. Those who had left the treatment for two weeks or more were classified as inactive and contacted by telephone to record the reasons for their noncompliance, which were divided into four groups: 1 Family; 2 Occupations; 3 Medical; 4 Other Reasons. Results: When collecting data, 92 (69.4% women were considered inactive. There was no significant difference between noncompliance before and after six months of treatment. Of the total number of inactive women, 54 (40.8% participants left for medical reasons, 30 (22.6% for other reasons, 26 (19.4% for family reasons and 23 (17.2% due to occupation. There was no statistical difference between the motives of dropout according to the length of stay in the program (p> 0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that the multidisciplinary program for women with fibromyalgia had high levels of noncompliance, half of them occurred in the first six months. Among the main reasons reported for dropout, the medical reasons were more frequent.

  12. Group counseling for medical students with drop-out experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Baek, Sunyong; Woo, Jae Seok; Im, Sun Ju; Lee, Sun Hee; Kam, Beesung; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Yun, So Jung

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe our group counseling methods for medical students with drop-out experiences. Group counseling was offered to 11 medical students with drop-out experiences in their previous second semester. All subjects provided written informed consent before participating and completed a 2-day group counseling program using the Gestalt approach. The self-assertiveness training group counseling program consisted of 6 sessions, each of which lasted 90 minutes. Experience reports by participants after the program and data from semi-structured qualitative interviews were qualitatively analyzed. Program participants reported that they were moderately satisfied with the program regarding its usefulness and helpfulness on self-awareness, understanding, and reminding them of attempts to change behavior. Most students showed heightened levels of sincerity perceptions and positive attitudes in every session. The results demonstrated significant changes in experience in self-esteem, self-recognition, and interpersonal relationships. A group counseling program using the Gestalt approach could help medical students with drop-out experiences to adjust with 1 year their juniors, enhance their self-esteem, contribute to their psychological well-being, and prevent student re-failure through effective stress management and improved interpersonal relationships.

  13. Cloning Dropouts: Implications for Galaxy Evolution at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwens, R J; Illingworth, G D; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Broadhurst, Tom; Illingworth, Garth

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of high redshift galaxies in the two Hubble Deep Fields, HDF-N and HDF-S, is investigated using a cloning technique that replicates z~ 2-3 U dropouts to higher redshifts, allowing a comparison with the observed B and V dropouts at higher redshifts (z ~ 4-5). We treat each galaxy selected for replication as a set of pixels that are k-corrected to higher redshift, accounting for resampling, shot-noise, surface-brightness dimming, and the cosmological model. We find evidence for size evolution (a 1.7x increase) from z ~ 5 to z ~ 2.7 for flat geometries (Omega_M+Omega_LAMBDA=1.0). Simple scaling laws for this cosmology predict that size evolution goes as (1+z)^{-1}, consistent with our result. The UV luminosity density shows a similar increase (1.85x) from z ~ 5 to z ~ 2.7, with minimal evolution in the distribution of intrinsic colors for the dropout population. In general, these results indicate less evolution than was previously reported, and therefore a higher luminosity density at z ~ 4-5 (~ 50...

  14. Meaningful Education for Returning-to-School Students in a Comprehensive Upper Secondary School in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir; Bjarnadóttir, Valgerður S.

    2016-01-01

    Dropout from upper secondary education in Iceland is higher than in the neighboring countries, but varied options to re-enter school have also been on offer. This article focuses on how students, who had returned to a selected upper secondary school after having quit in one or more other schools, benefited from an innovative pedagogical approach…

  15. Steve Jobs or no jobs? Entrepreneurial activity and performance among Danish college dropouts and graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Bünstorf, Guido; Nielsen, Kristian; Timmermans, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Are college dropouts successful entrepreneurs? Other than anecdotal evidence on illustrious college dropouts who managed to become self-made billionaires, there is only limited empirical evidence to answer this question. This paper addresses this issue by investigating the relationship between college dropout or graduation and entrepreneurship activity as well as performance. Using information from the Danish labor market register, we identify college students, whether these students graduate...

  16. [Drop-out risk factors in mood disorder: a clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando, Marco; Bensi, Marco; Brandizzi, Martina; Censi, Viviana; Lindau, Juliana Fortes; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are (i) to assess the drop-out rate in an outpatient sample with mood disorder diagnosis in a psychotherapy unit; (ii) to focus clinical and sociodemographic variables related with drop-out; (iii) to delineate a psychopathological profile of the dropping-out patient through the SCL-90-R and OPD scores. The sample of this study includes 90 depressive patients, which came to our service for a psychotherapy. The outcome is classified as drop-out and non drop-out. Each patient is submitted to the multidimensional scale SCL-90-R in the course of the first interview. At the end of the first visit each patient has been evaluated through the first and the fourth OPD axis. A descriptive analysis of all the data collected was made and the principal links between clinical and sociodemographic variables and dropout, between SCL-90-R score and drop-out, and between OPD scores and drop-out were detected. About 42% of the patients were drop-out, of which 89% by the third session. The variables associated with drop-out are: pathological score in the paranoic and interpersonal sensibility scale of SCL-90-R, low compliance scores, low integration of defences, self perception, object's perception and link. The drop-out rate in depressive patients turned out to be frequent. The patient's resources in terms of relationship, self-perception and object's perception are strongly related to the drop-out risk. These results are suggestive for the idea that the evaluation of drop-out risk in psychiatric patients must considerate the subjective aspects of the patient besides the clinical features.

  17. Prediction of Student Dropout in E-Learning Program Through the Use of Machine Learning Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mingjie Tan; Peiji Shao

    2015-01-01

    The high rate of dropout is a serious problem in E-learning program. Thus it has received extensive concern from the education administrators and researchers. Predicting the potential dropout students is a workable solution to prevent dropout. Based on the analysis of related literature, this study selected student’s personal characteristic and academic performance as input attributions. Prediction models were developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Decision Tree (DT) and Bayesian Ne...

  18. Teenage pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-01-01

    .... Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development...

  19. Denied pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, Dubravko

    2010-06-01

    Two cases of non-psychotic denied pregnancy are presented and discussed. Following obstetric expertise, the forensic-criminal evaluation should investigate the reported crimes of denied pregnancy associated infanticide or criminal abortion as well as the potential involvement of other persons in these crimes. All this would require close collaboration between obstetricians, psychiatrists and crime investigation experts in the forensic expertise of these criminal offences.

  20. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, H

    2000-10-01

    This article examines trends in teenage pregnancy in Canada, focussing on induced abortions, live births and fetal loss among women aged 15 to 19 in 1997. The data come from the Hospital Morbidity Data Base and the Canadian Vital Statistics Data Base at Statistics Canada, and the annual Therapeutic Abortion Survey, conducted by the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Data on abortions performed on Canadian residents in the United States are from an annual survey of selected states. International data are from the Alan Guttmacher Institute. Pregnancy rates, abortion rates, live birth rates and fetal loss rates are calculated using population counts of women in the age groups 15 to 17, 18 to 19, and 15 to 19. The percentages of pregnancies that ended in the three outcomes are also calculated for these years. The teenage pregnancy rate declined from 1994 to 1997, reflecting lower teenage birth and fetal loss rates. Through this period the abortion rate remained stable, with the result that slightly more than half of all teenage pregnancies ended in abortion by 1997. Younger teens are more likely to have an abortion than to give birth. The majority of pregnancies among older teens end in a live birth, although the number of live births is decreasing.

  1. Allelic drop-out probabilities estimated by logistic regression--further considerations and practical implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Asplund, Maria; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels

    2012-03-01

    We discuss the model for estimating drop-out probabilities presented by Tvedebrink et al. [7] and the concerns, that have been raised. The criticism of the model has demonstrated that the model is not perfect. However, the model is very useful for advanced forensic genetic work, where allelic drop-out is occurring. With this discussion, we hope to improve the drop-out model, so that it can be used for practical forensic genetics and stimulate further discussions. We discuss how to estimate drop-out probabilities when using a varying number of PCR cycles and other experimental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An exploration of students’ own explanations about dropout in vocational education in a danish context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    The present paper addresses the phenomenon of student dropout from vocational education in Denmark. It does so by addressing the need to critically discuss the term ‘drop-out’ taking the perspective of students’ own reflections on the topic. The empirical findings indicate that dropout is conside......The present paper addresses the phenomenon of student dropout from vocational education in Denmark. It does so by addressing the need to critically discuss the term ‘drop-out’ taking the perspective of students’ own reflections on the topic. The empirical findings indicate that dropout...... interviews with students in eight different basic vocational educational courses in Denmark....

  3. Impact of Running Away on Girls' Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Lisa E.; Chen, Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of running away on pregnancy in the subsequent year among U.S. adolescents. We also investigated interactions between running away and sexual assault, romance, and school disengagement. Pregnancy among females between 11 and 17 years (n = 6100) was examined utilizing the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add…

  4. Teenage Pregnancy. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Laurie L.

    This fact sheet addresses the issue of teenage pregnancy. Six factors contributing to the current attention focused on teenage pregnancy and parenthood are listed and teenage pregnancy and birth rates are discussed. Other areas covered include teenage nonuse of contraception, sex education by schools and parents, family planning services, and the…

  5. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  6. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  7. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy A A ... safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during all stages ...

  8. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  10. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back ... Pain During Pregnancy FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during ...

  11. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  12. Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  13. Cystic Fibrosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  14. Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  15. Pregnancy Complications: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  16. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  17. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

  18. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  19. Radiation and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  20. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  2. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  3. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  4. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  5. Pregnancy Complications: Salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  6. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  7. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Exercise After Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ131, June 2015 PDF Format Exercise After Pregnancy Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What are some ...

  8. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  9. Pregnancy week by week

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  10. Getting Fit Before Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  11. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  12. Heroin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  13. Prescription Opioids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  14. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  15. Cravings during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  16. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ...

  17. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ...

  18. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Having a Healthy Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Teens > Having a Healthy Pregnancy A ... or she can help you to get treatment. Pregnancy Discomforts Pregnancy can cause some uncomfortable side effects. ...

  19. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to ...

  1. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  2. Incident pregnancy and time to death or AIDS among HIV-positive women receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Westreich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of pregnancy on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the effect of incident pregnancy after HAART initiation on clinical response to HAART. METHODS: We evaluated a prospective clinical cohort of adult women initiating HAART in Johannesburg, South Africa between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2011, and followed up until an event, transfer, drop-out, or administrative end of follow-up on 30 September 2011. Women over age 45 and women who were pregnant at HAART initiation were excluded from the study. Main exposure was having experienced pregnancy after HAART initiation; main outcome was death and (separately death or new AIDS event. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence limits (CL using marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The study included 7,534 women, and 20,813 person-years of follow-up; 918 women had at least one recognized pregnancy during follow-up. For death alone, the weighted (adjusted HR was 0.84 (95% CL 0.44, 1.60. Sensitivity analyses confirmed main results, and results were similar for analysis of death or new AIDS event. Incident pregnancy was associated with a substantially reduced hazard of drop-out (HR = 0.62, 95% CL 0.51, 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: Recognized incident pregnancy after HAART initiation was not associated with increases in hazard of clinical events, but was associated with a decreased hazard of drop-out. High rates of pregnancy after initiation of HAART may point to a need to better integrate family planning services into clinical care for HIV-infected women.

  3. Pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Gatny; Yasamin Kusunoki; Jennifer Barber

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial number of young women experience pregnancy scares - thinking they might be pregnant, and later discovering that they are not. Although pregnancy scares are distressing events, little is known about who experiences them and whether they are important to our understanding of unintended pregnancy. Objective: We describe the young women who experience pregnancy scares, and examine the link between pregnancy scares and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Methods: We us...

  4. Contraceptive Use Among Nonpregnant and Postpartum Women at Risk for Unintended Pregnancy, and Female High School Students, in the Context of Zika Preparedness - United States, 2011-2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sheree L; D'Angelo, Denise V; Morrow, Brian; Zapata, Lauren; Berry-Bibee, Erin; Rivera, Maria; Ellington, Sascha; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Frey, Meghan; Williams, Tanya; Goldberg, Howard; Warner, Lee; Harrison, Leslie; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Barfield, Wanda; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Kroelinger, Charlan D

    2016-08-05

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1,2). Since 2015, Zika virus has been spreading through much of the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas, including U.S. territories. Zika virus is spread through the bite of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, by sex with an infected partner, or from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy.* CDC estimates that 41 states are in the potential range of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (3), and on July 29, 2016, the Florida Department of Health identified an area in one neighborhood of Miami where Zika virus infections in multiple persons are being spread by bites of local mosquitoes. These are the first known cases of local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the continental United States.(†) CDC prevention efforts include mosquito surveillance and control, targeted education about Zika virus and condom use to prevent sexual transmission, and guidance for providers on contraceptive counseling to reduce unintended pregnancy. To estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use among nonpregnant and postpartum women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually active female high school students living in the 41 states where mosquito-borne transmission might be possible, CDC used 2011-2013 and 2015 survey data from four state-based surveillance systems: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, 2011-2013), which surveys adult women; the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS, 2013) and the Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA, 2013), which surveys women with a recent live birth; and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, 2015), which surveys students in grades 9-12. CDC defines an unintended pregnancy as one that is either unwanted (i.e., the pregnancy occurred when no children, or no more children, were desired) or mistimed (i.e., the pregnancy occurred earlier than desired). The proportion of

  5. Physical exercise in treatment of AUDs – a dropout study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sari, Sengül; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    Background: The Healthy Lifestyle Study is one out of five alcohol research studies in the RESCueH research project. It is a randomized controlled study which aims to understand the effect of physical exercise on alcohol, fitness and wellness outcomes for outpatients in treatment of alcohol use...... understanding of lived lives of dropouts from The Healthy Lifestyle Study, a qualitative interview study was conducted. Objective: This interview study aims to gain better understanding of and more in depth knowledge about how alcohol patients experience, think and feel about physical exercise when...... experience physical exercise when they are in treatment for alcohol use disorders....

  6. Benjamin Franklin High School Unit Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Seth F.

    The Benjamin Franklin High School Unit Program in New York City was designed to overcome the serious academic deficiencies identified as criterion for entry into the program: retardation in reading and mathematics and to improve attitudes toward school, increase classroom attendance and participation, reduce the dropout rate, improve self-image…

  7. School Building in Early Development. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, C.; Giertz, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    This bulletin, concerned mainly with the educational problems in developing lands, focuses on school development, the future of education, and the schools that will have to be built to meet the needs of the future. The report deals with problems arising from the present rates of dropout in traditional primary education, and proposes possible…

  8. Ethnic Background, Socioeconomic Status, and Problem Severity as Dropout Risk Factors in Psychotherapy with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…

  9. Student Enrollment and Dropout: An Evaluation Study of DCSA Program at Bangladesh Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mohammad Mamunur; Jahan, Monira; Islam, Md. Anwarul; Ratna, Meherin Munjarin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the present status of DCSA program focusing on student enrollment, dropout, and completion trends. The study tries to explore the factors that attract or pull students to enroll in the program and push them to dropout from the program. Secondary data analysis and interview are used to generate data of the…

  10. Predicting dropout in fertility care: a longitudinal study on patient-centredness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huppelschoten, A.G.; Dongen, A.J.C.M. van; Philipse, I.C.; Hamilton, C.J.C.M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are clinic factors, including patients' experiences with patient-centred care, associated with dropout in fertility care? SUMMARY ANSWER: Clinic factors, including patients' experiences with patient-centred care, are not related to dropout. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In fertility care, a

  11. Dropouts from Nursing Education: Who They Are and What Happens to Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael H.

    Little definitive data exist about what happens to the large numbers of students who drop out of nursing programs. This study examined the reasons for withdrawal, level of alienation, and alternative career choices of 140 first year dropouts from six nursing programs in Tennessee. The results show that the dropouts are not alienated from nursing.…

  12. COUNSELING TECHNIQUES WITH POTENTIAL DROP-OUT STUDENTS IN JUNIOR COLLEGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUNHART, WILLIAM E.; ROLEDER, GEORGE

    AN ATTITUDE QUESTIONNAIRE PREVIOUSLY FOUND TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL DROPOUTS WAS COMPLETED BY 450 PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS AT MOUNT SAN ANTONIO COLLEGE. THOSE IDENTIFIED AS POTENTIAL DROPOUTS (N-186) WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO GROUPS OF 62 SUBJECTS. IN THREE 1-HOUR GROUP COUNSELING SESSIONS, ONE GROUP WAS SUBMITTED TO A DIRECTIVE…

  13. Factors associated with dropout from treatment for eating disorders: a comprehensive literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomba Elena

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dropout (DO is common in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs, but the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This study is an extensive review of the literature regarding DO predictors in EDs. Methods All papers in PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library (1980-2009 were considered. Methodological issues and detailed results were analysed for each paper. After selection according to inclusion criteria, 26 studies were reviewed. Results The dropout rates ranged from 20.2% to 51% (inpatient and from 29% to 73% (outpatient. Predictors of dropout were inconsistent due to methodological flaws and limited sample sizes. There is no evidence that baseline ED clinical severity, psychiatric comorbidity or treatment issues affect dropout. The most consistent predictor is the binge-purging subtype of anorexia nervosa. Good evidence exists that two psychological traits (high maturity fear and impulsivity and two personality dimensions (low self-directedness, low cooperativeness are related to dropout. Conclusion Implications for clinical practice and areas for further research are discussed. Particularly, these results highlight the need for a shared definition of dropout in the treatment of eating disorders for both inpatient and outpatient settings. Moreover, the assessment of personality dimensions (impulse control, self-efficacy, maturity fear and others as liability factors for dropout seems an important issue for creating specific strategies to reduce the dropout phenomenon in eating disorders.

  14. Differential Dropout Rates of Minority and Majority Job Candidates Due to "Time Lags" between Selection Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvey, Richard D.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This research investigated whether or not "time lags" are related to the dropout rates of job applicants. The effect of duration of these time lags, periods between initial job application and psychological testing, on differential dropout rates of minority and majority candidates was also examined. (Author/RK)

  15. Teachers' Opinions of Student Dropout from Formal Music Education Centres of the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Socorro, Sonia; Escandell Bermúdez, María Olga; Castro Sánchez, José Juan

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-five teachers were surveyed to determine their opinion of student dropout from formal music centres in the Canary Islands. The goal of the study was to investigate the causes of dropout and strategies to prevent it. Teachers' opinions were collected by means of a questionnaire. The influence of the environment on the…

  16. How Do Tertiary Dropouts Fare in the Labour Market? A Comparison between EU Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Sylke V.

    2017-01-01

    Dropping out of university is regularly discussed as a negative indicator. However, research on actual career trajectories of dropouts is virtually non-existent. This study estimates the association between tertiary dropouts and career chances in 15 European countries. Using data from the 2011 Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  17. Working While Studying: The Impact of Term-Time Employment on Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    There are many possible reasons why students leave university prior to degree completion, and one of the more commonly cited is being employed while studying. This paper analyses the impact of employment status on dropout rates using survival analysis. It finds that employment status does have an impact on dropout rates; students who work full…

  18. Teachers' Opinions of Student Dropout from Formal Music Education Centres of the Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Socorro, Sonia; Escandell Bermúdez, María Olga; Castro Sánchez, José Juan

    2016-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-five teachers were surveyed to determine their opinion of student dropout from formal music centres in the Canary Islands. The goal of the study was to investigate the causes of dropout and strategies to prevent it. Teachers' opinions were collected by means of a questionnaire. The influence of the environment on the…

  19. Dropout and Graduation Rates 2009-2010. Research Brief. Volume 1101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The District conducts a "cross-sectional" analysis of student dropouts annually; it examines dropout rates among students enrolled in various grades at one point in time. A "longitudinal" analysis, also conducted annually, tracks a group of students in the same grade or cohort over a period of several years. Each method…

  20. [Predicting drop-out during the systems training for emotional predictability and problem solving (STEPPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, J B; de Groot, I W

    2016-01-01

    Drop-out is a complex problem in mental health care and in STEPPS. Research has revealed a variety of predicting factors and has produced contradictory results. To investigate whether the information available at the start of STEPPS can pinpoint predictors of drop-out. The ROM data for 150 patients were used to test the link between the following factors: age, gender, education, employment, substance abuse, anxiety, hostility, interpersonal relations, responsibility and social concordance with drop-out. The method used for testing was logistic regression analysis. Factors that contributed significantly to the prediction of drop-out were gender and employment status. These factors made up 16% of the explained variation (R2 Nagelkerkes) in drop-out. Gender was the strongest predictive factor. Concerning the other factors, no differences were found between groups (drop-out and non-dropouts). In its present form STEPPS does not suit a large number of the male participants. Drop-out during STEPPS is hard to predict on the basis of ROM-questionnaires. Future research should focus on preconditions and marginal conditions that influence patients to complete their training.

  1. Learning about Academic Ability and the College Drop-Out Decision. NBER Working Paper No. 14810

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinebrickner, Todd R.; Stinebrickner, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    We use unique data to examine how college students from low income families form expectations about academic ability and to examine the role that learning about ability and a variety of other factors play in the college drop-out decision. From the standpoint of satisfying a central implication from the theory of drop-out, we find that…

  2. Dropout in looking time studies: The role of infants' temperament and cognitive developmental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Radukic, Sarah; Zmyj, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    Dropout of infants in looking time studies sometimes occurs at high rates, raising concerns that the representativeness of the final sample might be reduced in comparison to the originally obtained sample. The current study investigated which infant characteristics play a role in dropout. Infants were presented with a preferential looking task at 6 and 9 months of age. At 9 months of age, an additional habituation task and a subsequent novelty preference task were conducted. In addition, temperament was assessed via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised (IBQ-R, Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003), and cognitive developmental status was assessed via the Cognitive Scale of the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III, Bayley, 2006). Dropout was positively related to the IBQ-R temperament scales Distress to Limitations and Approach, and negatively related to the scales Falling Reactivity and Cuddliness. The representativeness of the final sample regarding situation-specific temperament dimensions is affected by dropout. Dropout was not related to cognitive developmental status as measured via the BSID-III, habituation speed and novelty preference. Dropout at 6 months of age was associated with dropout at 9 months of age. We concluded that in looking time studies, the representativeness of the final sample regarding performance-relevant temperament dimensions or cognitive developmental status is not affected by dropout.

  3. Higher dropout rate in non-native patients than in native patients in rehabilitation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Maurits; Scheppers, Emmanuel F.; van de Weg, Frans B.; Bartels, Edien A.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dekker, Joost; Dekker, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    Dropout from a rehabilitation programme often occurs in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain of non-native origin. However, the exact dropout rate is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in dropout rate between native and non-native patients with chronic

  4. Dropout is a problem in lifestyle intervention programs for overweight and obese infertile women : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Kuchenbecker, W. K. H.; Mol, B. W.; Land, J. A.; Hoek, A.

    2013-01-01

    What are the dropout rates in lifestyle intervention programs (LIPs) for overweight and obese infertile women and can intervention- or patient-related baseline factors associated with dropout be identified in these women? The median dropout rate was 24 in overweight and obese infertile women who par

  5. The analysis of longitudinal quality of life measures with informative drop-out : A pattern mixture approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.J.; Buijs, C.; Stolk, R.P.; de Vries, E.G.E.; le Cessie, S.

    The analysis of longitudinal health-related quality of life measures (HRQOL) can be seriously hampered due to informative drop-out. Random effects models assume Missing At Random and do not take into account informative drop-out. We therefore aim to correct the bias due to informative drop-out.

  6. School Quality Signals and Attendance in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes school dropout in rural Guatemala using event history data and unusually detailed data on schools and teachers. Significant results for language of instruction, teacher education and fighting between students demonstrate the importance of accounting for school context influences on an outcome that has, historically, been…

  7. The Reasons Why Farm Children Drop Out of School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Alberto

    To study the relationship between the school and the rural family, and particularly to establish reasons for student dropout, a questionnaire was administered in 1973 to 103 students who dropped out of school in 2 large rural towns in the Veneto, Italy. Responses indicated that about 60% of the adolescents left school to help out the family or…

  8. Pregnancy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avoid all alcohol and drug use and limit caffeine. Quit smoking, if you smoke. Go for prenatal visits and tests: You will see your provider many times during your pregnancy for prenatal care. The number of visits and types of exams you receive will change, depending on where you ...

  9. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more frequently and are likely to have their babies by cesarean delivery . How can multiple pregnancy affect my risk of ... the result of a recognized disease. Cesarean Delivery: Delivery of a baby through surgical incisions made in the mother’s abdomen ...

  10. Teen Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-16

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the issue of teen pregnancy and some strategies to address it.  Created: 4/16/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/16/2014.

  11. PREGNANCY DERMATOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Priscilla Katta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological status of a woman. Every organ is adapting in order to accept another human body. The main changes occur in the endocrine, immune, metabolic and vascular systems. The skin is no exception. Many skin changes during pregnancy are considered to be normal or physiological including striae gravidarum or melasma. These physiological skin changes are usually well tolerated by the pregnant woman. There is no balance between these systems, however, and abnormalities can appear. Immunologic status of the woman plays an important role in the manifestations exhibited in the skin. Alterations of the skin during pregnancy can be classified as physiologic skin changes, changes in pre-existing skin diseases and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 pregnant women with skin manifestations attending Dermatology and Obstetric departments attached to Government General Hospital, Kurnool, were studied. 1. A detailed proforma was taken, which included: a. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. b. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. c. Complete general physical and systemic examination. d. Associated skin/medical disorders. 2. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBsAg, VDRL, HIV 1 and 2 were done routinely. 3. KOH mount, saline mount and skin biopsy performed wherever required. Inclusion criteria- All pregnant women having skin lesions were included in the study irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and gravidity. Exclusion criteria- Pregnant women having any underlying medical diseases. All pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted into wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at KIMS Hospital are studied. 1. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. 2. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. 3. Complete general physical and systemic examination. 4. Associated skin/medical disorders. 5. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBs

  12. A low voltage CMOS low drop-out voltage regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Salma Ali; Abbasi, Tanvir Ahmad; Abbasi, Mohammas Suhaib; Aldessouky, Mohamed Samir; Abbasi, Mohammad Usaid

    2009-05-01

    A low voltage implementation of a CMOS Low Drop-Out voltage regulator (LDO) is presented. The requirement of low voltage devices is crucial for portable devices that require extensive computations in a low power environment. The LDO is implemented in 90nm generic CMOS technology. It generates a fixed 0.8V from a 2.5V supply which on discharging goes to 1V. The buffer stage used is unity gain configured unbuffered OpAmp with rail-to-rail swing input stage. The simulation result shows that the implemented circuit provides load regulation of 0.004%/mA and line regulation of -11.09mV/V. The LDO provides full load transient response with a settling time of 5.2μs. Further, the dropout voltage is 200mV and the quiescent current through the pass transistor (Iload=0) is 20μA. The total power consumption of this LDO (excluding bandgap reference) is only 80μW.

  13. Early Pregnancy and Academic Achievement of African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Loretta Pinkard

    1992-01-01

    Case studies of 10 unmarried, African-American adolescent mothers at risk of dropping out of school are presented, revealing the stressful situations created by competing demands of school and home. Educational deficits that existed prior to pregnancy and their influence on contraceptive behavior and pregnancy resolution are noted. Intervention…

  14. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Europe and in contrast to the decline in the rate of teenage pregnancy, recorded in the remaining countries of Western Europe, this figure has remained relatively stable, especially in adolescents aged 16 years and below. In Greece, according to National Statistics Office, in 2007, we had 3.129 births by teenagers under 18, with 75 births by teenagers under 15. The main factors contributing to the incidence of teenage pregnancy are socioeconomic factors, the family, the education and the sexual behavior of teenagers. Conclusions.It is necessary the state, through the health services and the education programs, to provide modern sex education in schools, as well as programs of prevention and health education in primary health care. The cooperation of these authorities is essential, to better address the extent and consequences of teenage pregnancy.

  15. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  16. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  17. Internet Use and Online Literacy among Middle Grade Students at Risk of Dropping out of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amy; Henry, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    This research provides an analysis of Internet use and online literacy skill among seventh-grade students who were identified as having a high risk for school dropout. Participants (n = 1,025) included students from 12 middle schools in 9 school districts. Six of the schools were located in rural and urban districts in the Northeast United States…

  18. Graduating and Dropping Out of High School in the South Bronx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Patria V.

    This study evaluates the personal, academic, and social factors associated with high school graduation and non-graduation among Hispanics. Subjects for this study included 56 high school graduates, 58 high school equivalency (GED) students, and 50 dropouts from high schools in the South Bronx (New York). The following measurement instruments were…

  19. Promoting Gypsy Children's Behavioural Engagement and School Success: Evidence from a Four-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Vallejo, Guillermo; Azevedo, Raquel; Pereira, Raquel; Moreira, Tânia; Fuentes, Sonia; Valle, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Low schooling, high non-attendance and school dropout rates are critical phenomena within disadvantaged groups, especially among the Gypsy community. For example, in the UK, 10%-25% of Gypsy children do not attend school regularly and have significantly higher levels of overall absence from school (percentage of half-day sessions missed) than…

  20. [Teenage pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-05-01

    In Mexico, 20% of the annual births are presented in women younger than 20 years old. Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development. It has been pointed out that the youths with low education, with minor academic and laboral expectations, with low self-esteem and assertiveness, tend to begin early their active sexual life, to use less frequently contraceptives, and in the case of younger women, to be pregnant, with the risk of abortion because they cannot to make the best decision. It is important to take into account the social context and the special characteristics of the family to understand situation of adolescent at risk of pregnancy.

  1. A relativistic electron dropout during the storm on June 1 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Bin; Fok, Mei-Ching; Engebretson, Mark; Komar, Colin; Glocer, Alex; Buzulukova, Natalia

    2016-04-01

    A flux dropout is a sudden and considerable decrease in the relativistic electron population of the outer radiation belt on the timescale of a few hours. The dropout is generally driven by loss to the atmosphere mainly due to EMIC waves or drift loss to the magnetopause. A significant dropout was observed from Van Allen Probes during the storm on June 1 2013. However, there did not appear that EMIC waves are strong enough to cause considerable precipitating loss of Multi-MeV electrons from both Van Allen Probes and ground-based observatory during this dropout. Moreover, Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) rarely detected precipitating flux of > 1 MeV. To understand physical mechanisms of this dropout, we used Comprehensive Inner Magnetosphere and Ionosphere (CIMI) model and simulated flux and phase space density of relativistic electrons without pitch-angle scattering due to EMIC waves. The CIMI simulation using Tsyganenko 2004 magnetic model reproduced the significant dropout. The minimum last closed drift shell calculated by CIMI model was estimated to be L* = 4.55 during this event. CIMI also showed a strong induced-electric field due to displacement of the magnetic field line at the magnetic equator even at L* < 4.55, which can result in outward radial transport of relativistic electrons. We conclude that outward radial transport due to strong induced-electric field and drift loss to the magnetopause are main causes of this dropout.

  2. Effect of multiple allelic drop-outs in forensic RMNE calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophe, Van Neste; Dieter, Deforce; Filip, Van Nieuwerburgh

    2015-11-01

    Technological advances such as massively parallel sequencing enable increasing amounts of genetic information to be obtained from increasingly challenging samples. Certainly on low template, degraded and multi-contributor samples, drop-outs will increase in number for many profiles simply by analyzing more loci, making it difficult to probabilistically assess how many drop-outs have occurred and at which loci they might have occurred. Previously we developed a Random Man Not Excluded (RMNE) method that can take into account allelic drop-out while avoiding detailed estimations of the probability that drop-outs have occurred, nor making assumptions about at which loci these drop-outs might have occurred. The number of alleles that have dropped out, does not need to be exactly known. Here we report a generic Python algorithm to calculate the RMNE probabilities for any given number of loci. The number of allowed drop-outs can be set between 0 and twice the number of analyzed loci. The source code has been made available on https://github.com/fvnieuwe/rmne. An online web-based RMNE calculation tool has been made available on http://forensic.ugent.be/rmne. The tool can calculate these RMNE probabilities from a custom list of probabilities of the observed and non-observed alleles from any given number of loci. Using this tool, we explored the effect of allowing allelic drop-outs on the evidential value of random forensic profiles with a varying number of loci. Our results give insight into how the number of allowed drop-outs affects the evidential value of a profile and how drop-out can be managed in the RMNE approach. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Control group design, contamination and drop-out in exercise oncology trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; Courneya, Kerry S; Velthuis, Miranda J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Jones, Lee W; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-oncology trials and explores the association with contamination and drop-out rates. Randomized controlled exercise-oncology trials from two Cochrane reviews were included. Additionally, a computer-aided search using Medline (Pubmed), Embase and CINAHL was conducted after completion date of the Cochrane reviews. Eligible studies were classified according to three control group design characteristics: the exercise instruction given to controls before start of the study (exercise allowed or not); and the intervention the control group was offered during (any (e.g., education sessions or telephone contacts) or none) or after (any (e.g., cross-over or exercise instruction) or none) the intervention period. Contamination (yes or no) and excess drop-out rates (i.e., drop-out rate of the control group minus the drop-out rate exercise group) were described according to the three design characteristics of the control group and according to the combinations of these three characteristics; so we additionally made subgroups based on combinations of type and timing of instructions received. 40 exercise-oncology trials were included based on pre-specified eligibility criteria. The lowest contamination (7.1% of studies) and low drop-out rates (excess drop-out rate -4.7±9.2) were found in control groups offered an intervention after the intervention period. When control groups were offered an intervention both during and after the intervention period, contamination (0%) and excess drop-out rates (-10.0±12.8%) were even lower. Control groups receiving an intervention during and after the study intervention period have lower contamination and drop-out rates. The present findings can be

  4. Epilepsy and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staffPregnancy and ChildbirthPregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?March 2016January 1995familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthChanges in Your Body During Pregnancy: Third TrimesterMarch 2016October 2009familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthLabor ...

  5. Flu Vaccine during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staffPregnancy and ChildbirthChanges in Your Body During Pregnancy: Third TrimesterMarch 2016October 2009familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthPregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?March 2016January 1995familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthLabor ...

  6. Ending a Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staffPregnancy and ChildbirthChanges in Your Body During Pregnancy: Third TrimesterMarch 2016October 2009familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthPregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?March 2016January 1995familydoctor.org editorial staffPregnancy and ChildbirthLabor ...

  7. Advances in interspecific pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interspecific pregnancy in which the conceptus and female carrying the pregnancy are of different species is a key step to interspecific cloning. Cloning endangered animals by interspecific pregnancy is such a highlight catching people's eyes nowadays. In this article, the history of interspecific pregnancy, the methods for establishment of interspecific pregnancy, the corresponding theories, barriers and applied prospects are reviewed.``

  8. Pregnancy smoking, child health and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research in this thesis was to assess, through cross-sectional school child health surveys, the health and nutrition of primary school children (5-11 years) in Merseyside, England, in relation to their mother’s history of pregnancy smoking. Childhood health outcomes assessed included

  9. Pregnancy smoking, child health and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research in this thesis was to assess, through cross-sectional school child health surveys, the health and nutrition of primary school children (5-11 years) in Merseyside, England, in relation to their mother’s history of pregnancy smoking. Childhood health outcomes assessed included

  10. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P

    1999-03-01

    The question of just what is the relationship of early pregnancy and childbearing and substance use among adolescents remains unanswered. From a public health perspective, both behaviors are unwanted, and populations that are at risk are often at high risk for both. Perhaps prevention of one behavior may be expected to prevent the other. This, however, may be too simplistic a notion, grounded in misconception of the role of early pregnancy and specific cultural context. Furthermore, several studies have documented a decline of drug use during pregnancy and just after delivery among adolescent mothers. Does this trend continue through the parenting years? If so, for whom? What are the individual maternal, child, and family environmental characteristics that predict a decline in use or continued abstinence after early childbearing? Within the context of poverty, lower educational attainment, minority status, and high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, pregnancy may play a positive role. With a change in role, young women may be less likely than nonparenting peers and less likely than prior to their own pregnancy to become deeply involved in the negative behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and substance use. Perhaps this is a potential opportunity to intervene. To summarize, the health risk behaviors of substance use and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing appear to be linked. Youths who become pregnant before they complete high school represent a particular group of young women who may be at higher risk than the general population for substance use, at least cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Yet, most pregnant teenagers are not substance users. Among those who are, frequency and amounts of use in most samples were low compared with adult samples of pregnant women. Furthermore, there is evidence that teenagers perceive substance use as a risk to their pregnancies and their unborn children. Among users, there is a decrease in use and increase in quit rates

  11. Dynamic Output Feedback Control for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Random Packet Dropout and Random Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic output feedback control for nonlinear networked control systems with both random packet dropout and random delay. Random packet dropout and random delay are modeled as two independent random variables. An observer-based dynamic output feedback controller is designed based upon the Lyapunov theory. The quantitative relationship of the dropout rate, transition probability matrix, and nonlinear level is derived by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. An Imputation Model for Dropouts in Unemployment Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Petra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete unemployment data is a fundamental problem when evaluating labour market policies in several countries. Many unemployment spells end for unknown reasons; in the Swedish Public Employment Service’s register as many as 20 percent. This leads to an ambiguity regarding destination states (employment, unemployment, retired, etc.. According to complete combined administrative data, the employment rate among dropouts was close to 50 for the years 1992 to 2006, but from 2007 the employment rate has dropped to 40 or less. This article explores an imputation approach. We investigate imputation models estimated both on survey data from 2005/2006 and on complete combined administrative data from 2005/2006 and 2011/2012. The models are evaluated in terms of their ability to make correct predictions. The models have relatively high predictive power.

  13. Factors predicting drop-out in community mental health centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneses, Blanca; Muñoz, Elena; López-Ibor, Juan José

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to identify treatment, therapist and patient factors associated with dropping out of treatment in four outpatient mental health services. The experimental group comprised all 789 individuals who attended for the first time the mental health services during one year and dropped out of treatment in the same year or during the two following ones. The control group consisted of the same number of individuals, chosen at random from patients who, in the same year, attended for the first time the services and did not subsequently drop out of treatment. The overall drop-out rate was 33.2%. According to logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of dropping out were: being treated in a particular centre, the involvement of more than one therapist in treatment, having no previous history of psychiatric disorders, being young and being male.

  14. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during the first half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus ... infected, or have had a recent infection. Monitoring Parvovirus B19 Infection during Pregnancy If you are pregnant, ...

  15. Nutrition during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can food poisoning affect my pregnancy? • What is listeriosis and how can it affect my pregnancy? •Glossary ... cooked to a safe internal temperature. What is listeriosis and how can it affect my pregnancy? Listeriosis ...

  16. Rheumatic diseases during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman YAVUZ

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy induces immunologic changes that may differentially impact rheumatic disorders. The effects of pregnancy on rheumatic diseases vary by condition. The systemic rheumatic illnesses commonly complicating pregnancy are systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), scleroderma.

  17. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Vaccinations and pregnancy Vaccinations and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... date before you get pregnant. What is a vaccination? A vaccination is a shot that contains a ...

  18. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  19. Pregnancy test via milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemes, H.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Determining a pregnancy through the milk. Wageningen University is researching the possibilities. The first steps have been taken. Researchers have identified five milk proteins that release a signal of a pregnancy. A pregnancy test via the milk comes within sight.

  20. Planning a pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Planning a pregnancy Lupus Foundation of America March 16, 2017 Resource ... History or presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Planning Your Pregnancy Although many lupus pregnancies will have no complications, ...