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Sample records for pregnancy reverses metabolic

  1. Maternal cardiac metabolism in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura X.; Arany, Zolt

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy causes dramatic physiological changes in the expectant mother. The placenta, mostly foetal in origin, invades maternal uterine tissue early in pregnancy and unleashes a barrage of hormones and other factors. This foetal ‘invasion’ profoundly reprogrammes maternal physiology, affecting nearly every organ, including the heart and its metabolism. We briefly review here maternal systemic metabolic changes during pregnancy and cardiac metabolism in general. We then discuss changes in cardiac haemodynamic during pregnancy and review what is known about maternal cardiac metabolism during pregnancy. Lastly, we discuss cardiac diseases during pregnancy, including peripartum cardiomyopathy, and the potential contribution of aberrant cardiac metabolism to disease aetiology. PMID:24448314

  2. Correlation of reversely increased level of plasma glucose during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ya SHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of the reversely increased results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome, so as to provide a reliable theoretical basis of the early intervention for the pregnant women with high plasma glucose. Methods The clinical data of 461 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were chosen from the pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal examination in our hospital during 2014. According to the results of 75g OGTT, 226 patients were analyzed as the observation group, in whom the level of postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose was higher than that of postprandial 1-hour plasma glucose. Meanwhile 235 pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were randomly selected as the control group. Results The levels of fasting plasma glucose and 1-hour postprandial plasma glucose were lower, but those of 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose was higher in observation group than in control group (P0.05 in the incidences of polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction (FGR, premature labor (PTL, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, complicated with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD and non scar uterus cesarean section rate (CSR. Compared with the observation group, the rates of neonatal dysplasia and neonatal asphyxia and the newborn transfer rate were lower in the control group, of which the newborn transfer rate was statistically different (P<0.01. Conclusions There might be a delayed plasma glucose metabolism in the patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT during pregnancy, which may affect the long-term prognosis of the newborn. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.09

  3. Sudden (reversible) sensorineural hearing loss in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, R

    2011-03-01

    Sudden hearing loss directly associated with pregnancy or birth is a little known and rare occurrence. The temporary, unilateral, low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss in this case was reported after the birth of the patient\\'s first child, and again during the third trimester of her second pregnancy.

  4. Tryptophan metabolism, disposition and utilization in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B

    2015-09-17

    Tryptophan (Trp) requirements in pregnancy are several-fold: (1) the need for increased protein synthesis by mother and for fetal growth and development; (2) serotonin (5-HT) for signalling pathways; (3) kynurenic acid (KA) for neuronal protection; (4) quinolinic acid (QA) for NAD(+) synthesis (5) other kynurenines (Ks) for suppressing fetal rejection. These goals could not be achieved if maternal plasma [Trp] is depleted. Although plasma total (free + albumin-bound) Trp is decreased in pregnancy, free Trp is elevated. The above requirements are best expressed in terms of a Trp utilization concept. Briefly, Trp is utilized as follows: (1) In early and mid-pregnancy, emphasis is on increased maternal Trp availability to meet the demand for protein synthesis and fetal development, most probably mediated by maternal liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) inhibition by progesterone and oestrogens. (2) In mid- and late pregnancy, Trp availability is maintained and enhanced by the release of albumin-bound Trp by albumin depletion and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) elevation, leading to increased flux of Trp down the K pathway to elevate immunosuppressive Ks. An excessive release of free Trp could undermine pregnancy by abolishing T-cell suppression by Ks. Detailed assessment of parameters of Trp metabolism and disposition and related measures (free and total Trp, albumin, NEFA, K and its metabolites and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in maternal blood and, where appropriate, placental and fetal material) in normal and abnormal pregnancies may establish missing gaps in our knowledge of the Trp status in pregnancy and help identify appropriate intervention strategies. © 2015 Authors.

  5. Altered drug metabolism during pregnancy: hormonal regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2010-06-01

    Medication use during pregnancy is prevalent, but pharmacokinetic information of most drugs used during pregnancy is lacking in spite of known effects of pregnancy on drug disposition. Accurate pharmacokinetic information is essential for optimal drug therapy in mother and fetus. Thus, understanding how pregnancy influences drug disposition is important for better prediction of pharmacokinetic changes of drugs in pregnant women. Pregnancy is known to affect hepatic drug metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Physiological changes accompanying pregnancy are probably responsible for the reported alteration in drug metabolism during pregnancy. These include elevated concentrations of various hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, placental growth hormones and prolactin. This review covers how these hormones influence expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), thus potentially responsible for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy. The reader will gain a greater understanding of the altered drug metabolism in pregnant women and the regulatory effects of pregnancy hormones on expression of DMEs. In-depth studies in hormonal regulatory mechanisms as well as confirmatory studies in pregnant women are warranted for systematic understanding and prediction of the changes in hepatic drug metabolism during pregnancy.

  6. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2011-12-01

    Pregnancy and lactation cause a substantial increase in demand for calcium that is met by different maternal adaptations within each period. Intestinal calcium absorption more than doubles during pregnancy, whereas the maternal skeleton resorbs to provide most of the calcium content of breast milk during lactation. These maternal adaptations also affect the presentation, diagnosis, and management of disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. Although some women may experience fragility fractures as a consequence of pregnancy or lactation, for most women, parity and lactation do not affect the long-term risks of low bone density, osteoporosis, or fracture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Progesterone metabolism by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrone, B.L.; Karavolas, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Metabolites of [ 3 H]progesterone were quantitated from incubations of hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of rats during different stages of pregnancy. The hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and a section of uterus from five rats on Days 1, 8, 15, and 21 of pregnancy were incubated individually with [3H]progesterone and analyzed for metabolite formation by reverse isotopic dilution analysis. The radioactive metabolites present were 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-DHP), 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one, and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol. The major metabolite formed by the hypothalamus and pituitary was 5 alpha-DHP. In the pituitary samples, formation of 5 alpha-DHP was decreased on Days 15 and 21 of pregnancy compared to Day 1, and formation of 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one was decreased on Day 21 compared to Day 1. In the uterine samples, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one was the major metabolite formed at all stages of pregnancy. The formation of all metabolic products of progesterone by the uterus was increased on Day 21 compared to Days 1, 8, and 15 of pregnancy. No changes in the formation of progesterone metabolites were observed in the hypothalamic samples during pregnancy. It is concluded that there are different profiles in the in vitro metabolism of [3H]progesterone by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during the course of pregnancy

  8. Starvation Ketoacidosis: A Cause of Severe Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis in Pregnancy

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    Nupur Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a diabetogenic state characterized by relative insulin resistance, enhanced lipolysis, elevated free fatty acids and increased ketogenesis. In this setting, short period of starvation can precipitate ketoacidosis. This sequence of events is recognized as “accelerated starvation.” Metabolic acidosis during pregnancy may have adverse impact on fetal neural development including impaired intelligence and fetal demise. Short periods of starvation during pregnancy may present as severe anion gap metabolic acidosis (AGMA. We present a 41-year-old female in her 32nd week of pregnancy, admitted with severe AGMA with pH 7.16, anion gap 31, and bicarbonate of 5 mg/dL with normal lactate levels. She was intubated and accepted to medical intensive care unit. Urine and serum acetone were positive. Evaluation for all causes of AGMA was negative. The diagnosis of starvation ketoacidosis was established in absence of other causes of AGMA. Intravenous fluids, dextrose, thiamine, and folic acid were administered with resolution of acidosis, early extubation, and subsequent normal delivery of a healthy baby at full term. Rapid reversal of acidosis and favorable outcome are achieved with early administration of dextrose containing fluids.

  9. The Role of Metformin in Metabolic Disturbances during Pregnancy: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Joselyn Rojas; Mervin Chávez-Castillo; Valmore Bermúdez

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of gestation implicates complex function of multiple endocrine mechanisms, and disruptions of the global metabolic environment prompt profound consequences on fetomaternal well-being during pregnancy and postpartum. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are very frequent conditions which increase risk for pregnancy complications, including early pregnancy loss, pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, and preterm labor, among many others. Insuli...

  10. Pregnancy and Infants' Outcome: Nutritional and Metabolic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, C; Cetin, I; Agostoni, C; Desoye, G; Devlieger, R; Emmett, P M; Ensenauer, R; Hauner, H; Herrera, E; Hoesli, I; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Olsen, S F; Schaefer-Graf, U; Schiessl, B; Symonds, M E; Koletzko, B

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a complex period of human growth, development, and imprinting. Nutrition and metabolism play a crucial role for the health and well-being of both mother and fetus, as well as for the long-term health of the offspring. Nevertheless, several biological and physiological mechanisms related to nutritive requirements together with their transfer and utilization across the placenta are still poorly understood. In February 2009, the Child Health Foundation invited leading experts of this field to a workshop to critically review and discuss current knowledge, with the aim to highlight priorities for future research. This paper summarizes our main conclusions with regards to maternal preconceptional body mass index, gestational weight gain, placental and fetal requirements in relation to adverse pregnancy and long-term outcomes of the fetus (nutritional programming). We conclude that there is an urgent need to develop further human investigations aimed at better understanding of the basis of biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological events related to maternal-fetal nutrition and offspring health. An improved knowledge would help to optimize nutritional recommendations for pregnancy.

  11. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  12. Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives to reduce the rate of teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are safe for use in adolescents and do not rely on compliance or adherence for effectiveness. Continuation rates are higher and pregnancy rates are lower for adolescent users of LARCs compared with short-acting methods such as oral contraceptives. Similarly, repeat pregnancy rates are lower when LARCs are used compared with other forms of contraception. Myths and misconceptions about LARCs and other contraceptives remain a barrier to their use. Health care providers are in a unique position to provide confidential care to adolescents, and should provide education to them about the various contraceptive options, especially LARCs. Copyright © 2015 Cleveland Clinic.

  13. Neuromyelitis optica in pregnancy complicated by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, eclampsia and fetal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Catherine; Garretto, Diana; Robbins, Matthew S; Swerdlow, Michael; Judge, Nancy; Dayal, Ashlesha

    2015-03-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by optic neuritis and acute myelitis with poor recovery and a progressive course. We report a poor outcome complicated by posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and eclampsia and review available literature and current evidence for anticipation of adverse fetal and maternal effects. After a pregnancy complicated by multiple admissions for painful NMO exacerbations, a primiparous patient with seropositive NMO presented at 31 + 3/7 weeks with eclampsia, HELLP and subsequent fetal death. MRI confirmed PRES. NMO may be associated with eclampsia and leads to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Posited mechanisms include antibody-mediated placental damage and a heightened risk of eclampsia-associated PRES. Further characterization of the course of NMO and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes in larger series would be invaluable.

  14. Arachidonic acid metabolism by bovine placental tissue during the last month of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedemaker, M.; Weston, P.G.; Wagner, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Conversion of tritiated arachidonic acid (AA) into metabolites of the cyclo- and lipoxygenase pathways by bovine fetal placental tissue (200 mg) and fetal plus maternal placental tissue (400 mg) of Days 255, 265, 275 of gestation and at parturition (n = 5) during a 30 min incubation was measured using reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. Fetal placental tissue produced 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin E2 (PGEM) as the major metabolite, the synthesis of which increased from Day 265 to Day 275 and parturition by 150% and 475%, respectively. In tissues collected at parturition, PGE2 synthesis was also detected. On Day 275 and at parturition fetal placental tissue synthesized the metabolite 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT), and throughout the experimental period the lipoxygenase product 15-HETE was detected with synthesis rates increasing over time of gestation. In addition, an unidentified metabolite was regularly found in the radiochromatograms which eluted at 1 h and 1 min (U101), between HHT and 15-HETE. The synthesis of this metabolite decreased as pregnancy progressed. Furthermore, various other polar and nonpolar metabolites pooled under the heading UNID were eluted, the production of which increased over time of gestation. The presence of maternal placental tissue did not influence the synthesis of PGEM, 15-HETE and U101, but the production of HHT was decreased when maternal tissue was present. Also, as pregnancy progressed, maternal placental tissue seemed to contribute to the pool of unidentified metabolites. In conclusion, fetal placental tissue seems to be the major source of the AA metabolites when compared with maternal placental tissue, and AA metabolism by bovine placental tissue is markedly increased throughout the last month of pregnancy, suggesting a role for AA metabolites in mechanisms controlling parturition

  15. Maternal protein intake in pregnancy and offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Grunnet, Louise Groth

    2017-01-01

    in free-living populations remains limited. Objective: We examined the association of protein intake in pregnancy with offspring metabolic health at age 9-16 y in a longitudinal cohort that oversampled pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design: Six hundred eight women with an index...... provide little support for an association of maternal protein intake in pregnancy with measures of offspring metabolic health. Further studies in larger cohorts are needed to determine whether low maternal protein intake in pregnancy may improve glucose homeostasis in GDM-exposed and male offspring....... pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes mellitus and 626 controls enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were used for the analysis. Protein (total, animal, vegetable) intake was assessed by using a foodfrequency questionnaire in gestational week 25. The offspring underwent a clinical examination...

  16. The Role of Metformin in Metabolic Disturbances during Pregnancy: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselyn Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of gestation implicates complex function of multiple endocrine mechanisms, and disruptions of the global metabolic environment prompt profound consequences on fetomaternal well-being during pregnancy and postpartum. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are very frequent conditions which increase risk for pregnancy complications, including early pregnancy loss, pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, and preterm labor, among many others. Insulin resistance (IR plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both PCOS and GDM, representing an important therapeutic target, with metformin being the most widely prescribed insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic drug. Although traditional views neglect use of oral antidiabetic agents during pregnancy, increasing evidence of safety during gestation has led to metformin now being recognized as a valuable tool in prevention of IR-related pregnancy complications and management of GDM. Metformin has been demonstrated to reduce rates of early pregnancy loss and onset of GDM in women with PCOS, and it appears to offer better metabolic control than insulin and other oral antidiabetic drugs during pregnancy. This review aims to summarize key aspects of current evidence concerning molecular and epidemiological knowledge on metformin use during pregnancy in the setting of PCOS and GDM.

  17. Association between long-acting reversible contraceptive use, teenage pregnancy, and abortion rates in England

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    Connolly A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne Connolly,1 Guilhem Pietri,2 Jingbo Yu,3 Samantha Humphreys4 1The Ridge Medical Practice, Cousen Road, Bradford, UK; 2HERON – A PAREXEL® Company, London, UK; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 4Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited, Hertfordshire, UK Background: Since the late 1990s, the British government has launched major strategies to address high teenage pregnancy and abortion rates in England. These have focused in part on improving access to contraception through national campaigns. This study assessed teenage pregnancy and abortion rate trends since 1998 and possible associations with usage of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs. Methods: Teenage conception rates and age-specific abortion rates were obtained from the Office for National Statistics and the Department of Health. LARC usage data was obtained for Depo-Provera, Implanon/Nexplanon, intrauterine devices, Mirena, and Noristerat from the IMS British Pharmaceutical Index, IMS Hospital Pharmacy Audit, IMS Disease Analyzer, and KT-31 reports. Through linear regression methods, changes in conception and abortion-related outcomes during 1998–2011 and the associations with LARC usage were assessed. Results: Conception rates for girls younger than 18 years of age decreased significantly between 1998–2011, from 46.6 to 30.7 per 1,000 girls. A statistically significant association was observed between this decrease and increased LARC usage (P=0.0024 in this population. Abortion rates among females aged <18 years or aged 18–19 years decreased between 1998–2011, and their associations with increased LARC usage were statistically significant (P=0.0029 and P=0.0479, respectively. The pattern in older women was complex; abortion rates in women aged 20–24 years or 25–34 years increased slightly from 1998 to 2011, with stabilization during 2007–2011. Conclusion: Increased LARC usage in England was significantly associated with decreased teenage pregnancy rates

  18. MRI findings in multifetal pregnancies complicated by twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carolina V.A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Linam, Leann E.; Calvo Garcia, Maria A.; Rubio, Eva I. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence (TRAP) is a rare complication in multifetal monochorionic pregnancies in which a normal ''pump'' twin provides circulation to an abnormal acardiac co-twin, resulting in high-output cardiac dysfunction in the pump twin. To define fetal MRI findings of TRAP sequence. Fetal MR images were retrospectively reviewed in 35 pregnancies complicated by TRAP sequence. Abnormalities of the pump twin, acardiac twin, umbilical cord, placenta and amniotic fluid were reviewed. Acardiac twins were classified as: acephalus (51%), anceps (40%), amorphus (9%), acormus (0%). Common findings in acardiac twins include subcutaneous edema (77%), absent cardiac structures (86%), absent or abnormal thoracic cavity (100%), abnormal abdominal organs (100%), superior limbs absent (46%) or abnormal (51%), and inferior limbs present but abnormal (83%). There were pump twin findings of cardiac dysfunction in 43% and intracranial ischemic changes in 3%. Umbilical cord anomalies were present in 97%. Acardiac twins present with a predictable pattern of malformation with poorly developed superior structures, more normally formed inferior structures and absent or rudimentary heart. Although usually absent, abnormal heart structures can be seen and do not exclude TRAP sequence. Pump twins are commonly normal with exception of findings of cardiac dysfunction and possible brain ischemia. (orig.)

  19. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: impact on thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2008-01-01

    In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome.......In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome....

  20. Does metformin treatment during pregnancy modify future metabolic profile in women with PCOS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underdal, Maria Othelie; Stridsklev, Solhild; Oppen, Ingrid Hennum

    2018-01-01

    with PCOS. Design: Follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial, which compared metformin to placebo in women with PCOS. Mean follow-up period was 8 years (5-11). Setting: Three university hospitals, seven local hospitals, and one gynecological specialist practice. Participants: Women with PCOS......Context: Worldwide, metformin is prescribed in an attempt to improve pregnancy outcome in PCOS. Metformin may also benefit future health by modulating the increased metabolic stress during pregnancy. Objective: To investigate if metformin during pregnancy modified future metabolic health in women......-up period. Weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure were registered. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and fasting lipids, glucose and insulin were analysed. Results: 131 out of 239 (55%) invited women participated in the follow-up. Weight...

  1. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

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    Maira A. Moreno-Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models.

  2. [Secondary osteoporosis UPDATE. Bone metabolic change and osteoporosis during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Takumi; Tamura, Ryo; Hata, Yuki; Nishijima, Shota; Tsuneki, Ikunosuke; Tamura, Masaki; Yanase, Toru

    2010-05-01

    Calcium transfer from the mother to the infant during pregnancy and lactation plays an extremely important role in the bone health of the mother and neonate. Calcium aids in bone health through all ages but is especially crucial during pregnancy and lactation. Changes in the structure and metabolism of bone during pregnancy and the early stage of postpartum are evaluated by investigating bone mineral density (BMD), bone histomorphometry and bone markers of human or animal models. The bone resorption increased at the end of pregnancy and lactation, and the bone formation increases and the bone structure is almost recovered after cessation of lactating in postpartum. Puerperal BMD remained static over the subsequent 5-10 years. If the women have a low BMD at this stage of their reproductive life, it tends not to improve over this time. Perhaps identification of this at-risk group may lead to effective interventions to reduce fracture risk in later life.

  3. The reversed feto-maternal bile acid gradient in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is corrected by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenes, Victoria; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Benthin, Lisbet; Lawrance, Dominic; Chambers, Jenny; Gurung, Vinita; Thornton, Jim; Chappell, Lucy; Khan, Erum; Dixon, Peter; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Williamson, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes. It is characterised by raised maternal serum bile acids, which are believed to cause the adverse outcomes. ICP is commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). This study aimed to determine the fetal and maternal bile acid profiles in normal and ICP pregnancies, and to examine the effect of UDCA treatment. Matched maternal and umbilical cord serum samples were collected from untreated ICP (n = 18), UDCA-treated ICP (n = 46) and uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 15) cases at the time of delivery. Nineteen individual bile acids were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Maternal and fetal serum bile acids are significantly raised in ICP compared with normal pregnancy (p = acid. There are no differences between the umbilical cord artery and cord vein levels of the major bile acid species. The feto-maternal gradient of bile acids is reversed in ICP. Treatment with UDCA significantly reduces serum bile acids in the maternal compartment (p = acid (LCA) concentrations. ICP is associated with significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the maternal and fetal bile acid pools. Treatment with UDCA reduces the level of bile acids in both compartments and reverses the qualitative changes. We have not found evidence to support the suggestion that UDCA treatment increases fetal LCA concentrations to deleterious levels.

  4. Does metformin treatment during pregnancy modify future metabolic profile in women with PCOS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underdal, Maria Othelie; Stridsklev, Solhild; Oppen, Ingrid Hennum; Høgetveit, Kristin; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager; Vanky, Eszter

    2018-04-05

    Worldwide, metformin is prescribed in an attempt to improve pregnancy outcome in PCOS. Metformin may also benefit future health by modulating the increased metabolic stress during pregnancy. To investigate if metformin during pregnancy modified future metabolic health in women with PCOS. Follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial, which compared metformin to placebo in women with PCOS. Mean follow-up period was 8 years (5-11). Three university hospitals, seven local hospitals, and one gynecological specialist practice. Women with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria, all former participants in the PregMet study. Metformin 2000 mg daily or placebo from 1st trimester to delivery in the original study. No intervention in the present follow-up study. Main outcome measure was weight-gain in the follow-up period. Weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure were registered. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and fasting lipids, glucose and insulin were analysed. 131 out of 239 (55%) invited women participated in the follow-up. Weight gain was similar in women given metformin (2.1±10.5) and women given placebo (1.8±11.2) at 7.7 years follow-up after pregnancy (p-value=0.834). No difference was found between those treated with metformin and placebo during pregnancy in BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, body composition, lipids, glucose and insulin levels or prevalence of metabolic syndrome at follow-up. Metformin treatment during pregnancy did not influence the metabolic profile in women with PCOS at 7.7 years of follow-up.

  5. Limitations of a metabolic network-based reverse ecology method for inferring host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Aie, Kazuki

    2017-05-25

    Host-pathogen interactions are important in a wide range of research fields. Given the importance of metabolic crosstalk between hosts and pathogens, a metabolic network-based reverse ecology method was proposed to infer these interactions. However, the validity of this method remains unclear because of the various explanations presented and the influence of potentially confounding factors that have thus far been neglected. We re-evaluated the importance of the reverse ecology method for evaluating host-pathogen interactions while statistically controlling for confounding effects using oxygen requirement, genome, metabolic network, and phylogeny data. Our data analyses showed that host-pathogen interactions were more strongly influenced by genome size, primary network parameters (e.g., number of edges), oxygen requirement, and phylogeny than the reserve ecology-based measures. These results indicate the limitations of the reverse ecology method; however, they do not discount the importance of adopting reverse ecology approaches altogether. Rather, we highlight the need for developing more suitable methods for inferring host-pathogen interactions and conducting more careful examinations of the relationships between metabolic networks and host-pathogen interactions.

  6. Naringin Reverses Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Associated with HIV-1 Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Metabolic Complications

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    Oluwafeyisetan O. Adebiyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin’s effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats, randomly allotted into seven groups (n = 7 were orally treated daily for 56 days with 100 mg/kg zidovudine (AZT (groups I, II III, 50 mg/kg stavudine (d4T (groups IV, V, VI and 3 mL/kg of distilled water (group VII. Additionally, rats in groups II and V were similarly treated with 50 mg/kg naringin, while groups III and VI were treated with 45 mg/kg vitamin E. AZT or d4T treatment significantly reduced body weight and plasma high density lipoprotein concentrations but increased liver weights, plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol compared to controls, respectively. Furthermore, AZT or d4T treatment significantly increased oxidative stress, adiposity index and expression of Bax protein, but reduced Bcl-2 protein expression compared to controls, respectively. However, either naringin or vitamin E significantly mitigated AZT- or d4T-induced weight loss, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis compared to AZT- or d4T-only treated rats. Our results suggest that naringin reverses metabolic complications associated with NRTIs by ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. This implies that naringin supplements could mitigate lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia associated with NRTI therapy.

  7. [Metabolic syndrome reversion by polyunsaturated fatty acids ingestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Mondragón, Martha Gabriela; Oliart Ros, Rosa María; Martínez Martinez, Angélica; Méndez Machado, Gustavo Francisco; Angulo Guerrero, Jesús Ofelia

    2013-12-21

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) frequency is growing and diet has an important influence on its evolution. Our objective was to study the effect of 3 sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids on MS parameters in humans. The MS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three groups of individuals (n=15/group) were quasi-randomly assigned to one of the following treatments during 6 weeks: a) 1.8 g/d n-3 (1.08g eicosapentoaenoic acid+0.72 g docosahexaenoic acid); b) 2.0 g/d conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 50:50, cis9:trans11, trans10:cis12), and c) 40 g/d walnut. The clinical and biochemical parameters were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the essay. In the group with n-3 the triglycerides level decreased from 183.9 ± 35.2mg/dl to 149.6 ± 29.0mg/dl (P=.007). In the group with walnut the HDL level rose from 41.7 ± 5.2mg/dl to 47.8 ± 5.4 mg/dl (P=.004) and the Castelli index (total cholesterol/HDL) decreased from 4.86 ± 0.97 to 3.82 ± 0.81 (P=.004). There were not significant changes in the CLA group. At the end of the essay, 46.7% of walnut group patients, 46.7% of n-3 group and 20% of CLA group, had no MS. The groups that consumed polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 and those in walnut in moderate daily doses during 6 weeks had an improvement of the dyslipidemia component of MS, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategies for reversing the effects of metabolic disorders induced as a consequence of developmental programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H Vickers

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and the metabolic syndrome have reached epidemic proportions worldwide with far-reaching health care and economic implications. The rapid increase in the prevalence of these disorders suggests that environmental and behavioural influences, rather than genetic causes, are fuelling the epidemic. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis has highlighted the link between the periconceptual, fetal and early infant phases of life and the subsequent development of metabolic disorders in later life. In particular, the impact of poor maternal nutrition on susceptibility to later life metabolic disease in offspring is now well documented. Several studies have now shown, at least in experimental animal models, that some components of the metabolic syndrome, induced as a consequence of developmental programming, are potentially reversible by nutritional or targeted therapeutic interventions during windows of developmental plasticity. This review will focus on critical windows of development and possible therapeutic avenues that may reduce metabolic and obesogenic risk following an adverse early life environment.

  9. Reversal of metabolic disorders by pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Jadhav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Activation of the bile acid (BA receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR or G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1; TGR5 improves metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we aim to determine the impact of pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors by INT-767 on reversal of diet-induced metabolic disorders, and the relative contribution of FXR vs. TGR5 to INT-767's effects on metabolic parameters. Methods: Wild-type (WT, Tgr5−/−, Fxr−/−, Apoe−/− and Shp−/− mice were used to investigate whether and how BA receptor activation by INT-767, a semisynthetic agonist for both FXR and TGR5, could reverse diet-induced metabolic disorders. Results: INT-767 reversed HFD-induced obesity dependent on activation of both TGR5 and FXR and also reversed the development of atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Mechanistically, INT-767 improved hypercholesterolemia by activation of FXR and induced thermogenic genes via activation of TGR5 and/or FXR. Furthermore, INT-767 inhibited several lipogenic genes and de novo lipogenesis in the liver via activation of FXR. We identified peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα as novel FXR-regulated genes. FXR inhibited PPARγ expression by inducing small heterodimer partner (SHP whereas the inhibition of CEBPα by FXR was SHP-independent. Conclusions: BA receptor activation can reverse obesity, NAFLD, and atherosclerosis by specific activation of FXR or TGR5. Our data suggest that, compared to activation of FXR or TGR5 only, dual activation of both FXR and TGR5 is a more attractive strategy for treatment of common metabolic disorders. Keywords: Farnesoid X receptor, TGR5, Atherosclerosis, Obesity, NAFLD

  10. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Jill K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may

  11. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; O'Connor, Deborah L; Retnakaran, Ravi; Hamilton, Jill K; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J

    2010-10-06

    Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention

  12. 1H-MR spectroscopy in anorexia nervosa. Reversible cerebral metabolic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckel, R.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Becker, G.; Koepke, J.; Georgi, M.; Gueckel, C.; Goepel, C.; Schmidt, M.; Hentschel, F.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: By using localized 1 H-MR spectroscopy in the brain of patients with anorexia nervosa we wanted to verify our preliminary results and to look for a reversibility of the metabolic changes under therapy. Methods: In 22 patients and 17 healthy volunteers (11 follow-up examinations) single voxel 1 H-MR spectroscopy (TE=50 ms, TM=30 ms, TR=1500 ms, voxel (2 cm) 3 , acq.: 256) was used in two different localizations (thalamus and parieto-occipital region). The first examination of the patients was performed before therapy, the follow-up examination at the end of therapy. Results: In both regions of the brain we found a statistically significant elevation of the Cho/Cr-ratio in comparison to normal controls. The follow-up examinations revealed reversibility of the metabolic changes under successful therapy. Conclusion: 1 H-MR spectroscopy reveals metabolic changes in the brain of patients with anorexia nervosa, which are reversible under successful therapy. These metabolic changes can be conclusively explained using a biochemical model. (orig.) [de

  13. Baking soda pica: a case of hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotegut, Chad A; Dandolu, Vani; Katari, Sunita; Whiteman, Valerie E; Geifman-Holtzman, Ossie; Teitelman, Melissa

    2006-02-01

    We report a case of baking soda pica in a woman at 31 weeks of pregnancy causing severe hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis. A multigravida at 31 weeks of gestation presented with weakness and muscle pain. She was found to have severe hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and rhabdomyolysis, with elevation in serum transaminases and hypertension. We initially thought the patient had an atypical presentation of preeclampsia until it was realized that she was ingesting 1 full box of baking soda (454 g sodium bicarbonate) per day. Symptoms and abnormal laboratory findings resolved with discontinuation of the patient's pica practices. Pica is a common but often overlooked practice that can potentially lead to life-threatening disorders. A thorough evaluation of a patient's dietary intake is extremely important, especially in the setting of atypical presentations of disease in pregnancy.

  14. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake and abdominal fat distribution in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, E B; Turan, G A; Ince, O; Karadeniz, M; Tatar, S; Kasap, E; Sahin, N; Guclu, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and abdominal visceral fat thickness (VFT) in pregnancy. Seventy-eight healthy pregnant subjects who had fasted for at least 15 days during the month of Ramadan in 2012 and 2013 and 78 controls were included in this study. Metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and ultrasonographic VFT were calculated for each subject before and after Ramadan fasting. When before and after Ramadan values in the fasting group were compared, we found that daily protein intake was increased (p effects and reduction in VFT during pregnancy. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 298-303.

  15. Reversible changes in brain glucose metabolism following thyroid function normalization in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Q; Zhang, S; Guan, Y H; Ye, H Y; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Q Y; Xue, R D; Zeng, M F; Zuo, C T; Li, Y M

    2011-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently present with regional cerebral metabolic changes, but the consequences of endocrine-induced brain changes after thyroid function normalization are unclear. We hypothesized that the changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism are related to thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroid, and some of these changes can be reversed with antithyroid therapy. Relative regional cerebral glucose metabolism was compared between 10 new-onset untreated patients with hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy control participants by using brain FDG-PET scans. Levels of emotional distress were evaluated by using the SAS and SDS. Patients were treated with methimazole. A follow-up PET scan was performed to assess metabolic changes of the brain when thyroid functions normalized. Compared with controls, patients exhibited lower activity in the limbic system, frontal lobes, and temporal lobes before antithyroid treatment. There were positive correlations between scores of depression and regional metabolism in the cingulate and paracentral lobule. The severity of depression and anxiety covaried negatively with pretreatment activity in the inferior temporal and inferior parietal gyri respectively. Compared with the hyperthyroid status, patients with normalized thyroid functions showed an increased metabolism in the left parahippocampal, fusiform, and right superior frontal gyri. The decrease in both FT3 and FT4 was associated with increased activity in the left parahippocampal and right superior frontal gyri. The changes of regional cerebral glucose metabolism are related to thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroidism, and some cerebral hypometabolism can be improved after antithyroid therapy.

  16. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: impact on thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2008-01-01

    In pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated whether the presence of thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO) was associated with changes in thyroid function, metabolic control and pregnancy outcome....

  17. The reversed feto-maternal bile acid gradient in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is corrected by ursodeoxycholic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Geenes

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes. It is characterised by raised maternal serum bile acids, which are believed to cause the adverse outcomes. ICP is commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA. This study aimed to determine the fetal and maternal bile acid profiles in normal and ICP pregnancies, and to examine the effect of UDCA treatment. Matched maternal and umbilical cord serum samples were collected from untreated ICP (n = 18, UDCA-treated ICP (n = 46 and uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 15 cases at the time of delivery. Nineteen individual bile acids were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Maternal and fetal serum bile acids are significantly raised in ICP compared with normal pregnancy (p = <0.0001 and <0.05, respectively, predominantly due to increased levels of conjugated cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid. There are no differences between the umbilical cord artery and cord vein levels of the major bile acid species. The feto-maternal gradient of bile acids is reversed in ICP. Treatment with UDCA significantly reduces serum bile acids in the maternal compartment (p = <0.0001, thereby reducing the feto-maternal transplacental gradient. UDCA-treatment does not cause a clinically important increase in lithocholic acid (LCA concentrations. ICP is associated with significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the maternal and fetal bile acid pools. Treatment with UDCA reduces the level of bile acids in both compartments and reverses the qualitative changes. We have not found evidence to support the suggestion that UDCA treatment increases fetal LCA concentrations to deleterious levels.

  18. Air Pollution Exposure During Pregnancy and Fetal Markers of Metabolic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Eric; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Hystad, Perry; Johnson, Markey; Crouse, Dan L.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Sun, Liu; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renée; Fraser, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that exposure to outdoor air pollution during pregnancy could alter fetal metabolic function, which could increase the risk of obesity in childhood. However, to our knowledge, no epidemiologic study has investigated the association between prenatal exposure to air pollution and indicators of fetal metabolic function. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and umbilical cord blood leptin and adiponectin levels with mixed-effects linear regression models among 1,257 mother-infant pairs from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, conducted in Canada (2008–2011). We observed that an interquartile-range increase in average exposure to fine particulate matter (3.2 µg/m3) during pregnancy was associated with an 11% (95% confidence interval: 4, 17) increase in adiponectin levels. We also observed 13% (95% confidence interval: 6, 20) higher adiponectin levels per interquartile-range increase in average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (13.6 parts per billion) during pregnancy. Significant associations were seen between air pollution markers and cord blood leptin levels in models that adjusted for birth weight z score but not in models that did not adjust for birth weight z score. The roles of prenatal exposure to air pollution and fetal metabolic function in the potential development of childhood obesity should be further explored. PMID:27026336

  19. Metabolic Networks and Metabolites Underlie Associations Between Maternal Glucose During Pregnancy and Newborn Size at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Denise M; Bain, James R; Reisetter, Anna C; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Nodzenski, Michael; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga; Lowe, Lynn P; Metzger, Boyd E; Newgard, Christopher B; Lowe, William L

    2016-07-01

    Maternal metabolites and metabolic networks underlying associations between maternal glucose during pregnancy and newborn birth weight and adiposity demand fuller characterization. We performed targeted and nontargeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics on maternal serum collected at fasting and 1 h following glucose beverage consumption during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 400 northern European mothers at ∼28 weeks' gestation in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study. Amino acids, fatty acids, acylcarnitines, and products of lipid metabolism decreased and triglycerides increased during the OGTT. Analyses of individual metabolites indicated limited maternal glucose associations at fasting, but broader associations, including amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, were found at 1 h. Network analyses modeling metabolite correlations provided context for individual metabolite associations and elucidated collective associations of multiple classes of metabolic fuels with newborn size and adiposity, including acylcarnitines, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids. Random forest analyses indicated an improved ability to predict newborn size outcomes by using maternal metabolomics data beyond traditional risk factors, including maternal glucose. Broad-scale association of fuel metabolites with maternal glucose is evident during pregnancy, with unique maternal metabolites potentially contributing specifically to newborn birth weight and adiposity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. Dietary Glycemic Index during Pregnancy Is Associated with Biomarkers of the Metabolic Syndrome in Offspring at Age 20 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Haldorsson, Thorhallur

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome is rooted in fetal life with a potential key role of nutrition during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to assess the possible associations between the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) during pregnancy and biomarkers...

  1. Metabolic markers during pregnancy and their association with maternal and newborn weight status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Perichart-Perera

    Full Text Available Obesity during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes and is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. We describe maternal metabolic risk and inflammation by maternal weight status, and evaluate the association of metabolic and inflammatory markers with birthweight in a group of pregnant Mexican women.This study derived from a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women <14 weeks of gestation, receiving prenatal care at National Institute of Perinatology (Mexico, 2009-2013. Metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured in maternal serum in all three pregnancy trimesters (1st: 11.42±1.7; 2nd: 21.06±2.4; 3rd: 32.74±2.3 weeks. Pregestational weight was self-reported, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Gestational weight gain was evaluated in the third trimester. Newborn´s weight was measured at birth. We carried out correlations, general mixed linear model and regression analyses, based on pregestational weight (self-reported, body mass index (BMI, gestational weight gain (evaluated in the third trimester and newborn weight (measured at birth.Of the 177 women included in the study (mean age = 26.93±8.49, thirty-eight percent (n = 67 were overweight or had obesity, and 32.8% (n = 58 showed excessive gestational weight gain. We found insulin, lipids (including total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides-TG, leptin and interleukin 1b (IL-1b all increased significantly (p<0.05 during pregnancy. Pregestational maternal weight status altered longitudinal concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, TG and C reactive protein. Excessive gestational weight gain was associated with higher maternal insulin in the third trimester (p<0.05. Early pregnancy leptin and TNFα were determinants of birthweight in women with normal weight, but not in overweight or obese women.Maternal weight status affected the concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triglycerides and C reactive protein

  2. Association between different levels of dysglycemia and metabolic syndrome in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we sought to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in a cohort of pregnant women with a wide range of glucose tolerance, prepregnancy risk factors for MS during pregnancy, and the effects of MS in the outcomes in the mother and in the newborn. Methods One hundred and thirty six women with positive screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were classified by two diagnostic methods: glycemic profile and 100 g OGTT as normoglycemic, mild gestational hyperglycemic, GDM, and overt GDM. Markers of MS were measured between 24–28th during the screening. Results The prevalence of MS was: 0%; 20.0%; 23.5% and 36.4% in normoglycemic, mild hyperglycemic, GDM, and overt GDM groups, respectively. Previous history of GDM with or without insulin use, BMI ≥ 25, hypertension, family history of diabetes in first degree relatives, non-Caucasian ethnicity, history of prematurity and polihydramnios were statistically significant prepregnancy predictors for MS in the index pregnancy, that by its turn increased the adverse outcomes in the mother and in the newborn. Conclusion The prevalence of MS increases with the worsening of glucose tolerance; impaired glycemic profile identifies pregnancies with important metabolic abnormalities even in the presence of a normal OGTT, in patients that are not classified as having GDM.

  3. SOCS3 deficiency in leptin receptor-expressing cells mitigates the development of pregnancy-induced metabolic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais T. Zampieri

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Our study identified the increased hypothalamic expression of SOCS3 as a key mechanism responsible for triggering pregnancy-induced leptin resistance and metabolic adaptations. These findings not only help to explain a common phenomenon of the mammalian physiology, but it may also aid in the development of approaches to prevent and treat gestational metabolic imbalances.

  4. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and hea...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  5. Bone metabolic changes during pregnancy: a period of vulnerability to osteoporosis and fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Salvador, Lucía; García-Pérez, Miguel Ángel; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Changes in bone density and bone markers suggest that pregnancy is associated with deterioration of bone mass in the mother. The metabolism of calcium resets to allow for the needs imposed by the building of the fetal skeleton. The fetus contributes to the process through the output of regulators from the placenta. Understanding of the whole process is limited, but some changes are unambiguous. There is an increase in the circulating levels of vitamin D, but its functional impact is unclear. Fetal parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide (PTHrp) play an indirect role through support of a calcium gradient that creates hypercalcemia in the fetus. Placental GH, which increases up to the end of pregnancy, may exert some anabolic effects, either directly or through the regulation of the IGF1 production. Other key regulators of bone metabolism, such as estrogens or prolactin, are elevated during pregnancy, but their role is uncertain. An increase in the ratio of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) acts as an additional pro-resorbing factor in bone. The increase in bone resorption may lead to osteoporosis and fragility fracture, which have been diagnosed, although rarely. However, the condition is transitory as long-term studies do not link the number of pregnancies with osteoporosis. Prevention is limited by the lack of identifiable risk factors. When fractures are diagnosed, rest, analgesics, or, when indicated, orthopedic intervention have demonstrated efficacy. Systemic treatment with anti-osteoporotic drugs is effective, but the potential harm to the fetus imposes caution in their use. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Exercise reverses metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sabeur; Meziri, Fayçal; Devaux, Sylvie; Berthelot, Alain; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet induces obesity. We investigated whether exercise would reverse the cardiometabolic disorders associated with obesity without it being necessary to change from a high- to normal-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 12 wk. HFD rats were then divided into four groups: sedentary HFD (HFD-S), exercise trained (motor treadmill for 12 wk) HFD (HFD-Ex), modified diet (HFD to CD; HF/CD-S), and exercise trained with modified diet (HF/CD-Ex). Cardiovascular risk parameters associated with metabolic syndrome were measured, and contents of aortic Akt, phospho-Akt at Ser (473), total endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and phospho-eNOS at Ser (1177) were determined by Western blotting. Chronic consumption of HFD induced a metabolic syndrome. Exercise and dietary modifications reduced adiposity, improved glucose and insulin levels and plasma lipid profile, and exerted an antihypertensive effect. Exercise was more effective than dietary modification in improving plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance and in correcting the endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and insulin. Furthermore, independent of the diet used, exercise increased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. Metabolic syndrome induced by HFD is reversed by exercise and diet modification. It is demonstrated that exercise training induces these beneficial effects without the requirement for dietary modification, and these beneficial effects may be mediated by shear stress-induced Akt/eNOS pathway activation. Thus, exercise may be an effective strategy to reverse almost all the atherosclerotic risk factors linked to obesity, particularly in the vasculature.

  7. The incidence of metabolic syndrome and its reversal in a cohort of schizophrenic patients followed for one year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schorr, S. G.; Slooff, C. J.; Bruggeman, R.; Taxis, K.

    Cross-sectional studies showed a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to identify the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its reversal in a non-preselected cohort of chronic psychotic patients in routine practice in one year follow-up and to find

  8. Weight loss after bariatric surgery reverses insulin-induced increases in brain glucose metabolism of the morbidly obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Karlsson, Henry K; Hirvonen, Jussi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Bucci, Marco; Helmiö, Mika; Ovaska, Jari; Soinio, Minna; Salminen, Paulina; Savisto, Nina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2013-08-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with altered brain glucose metabolism. Here, we studied brain glucose metabolism in 22 morbidly obese patients before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Seven healthy subjects served as control subjects. Brain glucose metabolism was measured twice per imaging session: with and without insulin stimulation (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose scanning. We found that during fasting, brain glucose metabolism was not different between groups. However, the hyperinsulinemic clamp increased brain glucose metabolism in a widespread manner in the obese but not control subjects, and brain glucose metabolism was significantly higher during clamp in obese than in control subjects. After follow-up, 6 months postoperatively, the increase in glucose metabolism was no longer observed, and this attenuation was coupled with improved peripheral insulin sensitivity after weight loss. We conclude that obesity is associated with increased insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in the brain and that this abnormality can be reversed by bariatric surgery.

  9. Long-acting reversible contraceptive acceptability and unintended pregnancy among women presenting for short-acting methods: a randomized patient preference trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacher, David; Spector, Hannah; Monteith, Charles; Chen, Pai-Lien; Hart, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Measures of contraceptive effectiveness combine technology and user-related factors. Observational studies show higher effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception compared with short-acting reversible contraception. Women who choose long-acting reversible contraception may differ in key ways from women who choose short-acting reversible contraception, and it may be these differences that are responsible for the high effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. Wider use of long-acting reversible contraception is recommended, but scientific evidence of acceptability and successful use is lacking in a population that typically opts for short-acting methods. The objective of the study was to reduce bias in measuring contraceptive effectiveness and better isolate the independent role that long-acting reversible contraception has in preventing unintended pregnancy relative to short-acting reversible contraception. We conducted a partially randomized patient preference trial and recruited women aged 18-29 years who were seeking a short-acting method (pills or injectable). Participants who agreed to randomization were assigned to 1 of 2 categories: long-acting reversible contraception or short-acting reversible contraception. Women who declined randomization but agreed to follow-up in the observational cohort chose their preferred method. Under randomization, participants chose a specific method in the category and received it for free, whereas participants in the preference cohort paid for the contraception in their usual fashion. Participants were followed up prospectively to measure primary outcomes of method continuation and unintended pregnancy at 12 months. Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to estimate method continuation probabilities. Intent-to-treat principles were applied after method initiation for comparing incidence of unintended pregnancy. We also measured acceptability in terms of level of happiness with the products. Of the 916

  10. Metabolic profiling uncovers a phenotypic signature of small for gestational age in early pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, Richard P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality and increases the risk of cardiovascular complications and diabetes in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests that the etiology of SGA is usually associated with poor placental vascular development in early pregnancy. We examined metabolomic profiles using ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) in three independent studies: (a) venous cord plasma from normal and SGA babies, (b) plasma from a rat model of placental insufficiency and controls, and (c) early pregnancy peripheral plasma samples from women who subsequently delivered a SGA baby and controls. Multivariate analysis by cross-validated Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of all 3 studies showed a comprehensive and similar disruption of plasma metabolism. A multivariate predictive model combining 19 metabolites produced by a Genetic Algorithm-based search program gave an Odds Ratio for developing SGA of 44, with an area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve of 0.9. Sphingolipids, phospholipids, carnitines, and fatty acids were among this panel of metabolites. The finding of a consistent discriminatory metabolite signature in early pregnancy plasma preceding the onset of SGA offers insight into disease pathogenesis and offers the promise of a robust presymptomatic screening test.

  11. Maternal Mineral and Bone Metabolism During Pregnancy, Lactation, and Post-Weaning Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2016-04-01

    During pregnancy and lactation, female physiology adapts to meet the added nutritional demands of fetuses and neonates. An average full-term fetus contains ∼30 g calcium, 20 g phosphorus, and 0.8 g magnesium. About 80% of mineral is accreted during the third trimester; calcium transfers at 300-350 mg/day during the final 6 wk. The neonate requires 200 mg calcium daily from milk during the first 6 mo, and 120 mg calcium from milk during the second 6 mo (additional calcium comes from solid foods). Calcium transfers can be more than double and triple these values, respectively, in women who nurse twins and triplets. About 25% of dietary calcium is normally absorbed in healthy adults. Average maternal calcium intakes in American and Canadian women are insufficient to meet the fetal and neonatal calcium requirements if normal efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption is relied upon. However, several adaptations are invoked to meet the fetal and neonatal demands for mineral without requiring increased intakes by the mother. During pregnancy the efficiency of intestinal calcium absorption doubles, whereas during lactation the maternal skeleton is resorbed to provide calcium for milk. This review addresses our current knowledge regarding maternal adaptations in mineral and skeletal homeostasis that occur during pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning recovery. Also considered are the impacts that these adaptations have on biochemical and hormonal parameters of mineral homeostasis, the consequences for long-term skeletal health, and the presentation and management of disorders of mineral and bone metabolism.

  12. The role of inflammatory pathway genetic variation on maternal metabolic phenotypes during pregnancy.

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    Margrit Urbanek

    Full Text Available Since mediators of inflammation are associated with insulin resistance, and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes, we hypothesized that genetic variation in members of the inflammatory gene pathway impact glucose levels and related phenotypes in pregnancy. We evaluated this hypothesis by testing for association between genetic variants in 31 inflammatory pathway genes in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO cohort, a large multiethnic multicenter study designed to address the impact of glycemia less than overt diabetes on pregnancy outcome.Fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour glucose, fasting and 1-hour C-peptide, and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples obtained from HAPO participants during an oral glucose tolerance test at 24-32 weeks gestation. We tested for association between 458 SNPs mapping to 31 genes in the inflammatory pathway and metabolic phenotypes in 3836 European ancestry and 1713 Thai pregnant women. The strongest evidence for association was observed with TNF alpha and HbA1c (rs1052248; 0.04% increase per allele C; p-value = 4.4×10(-5, RETN and fasting plasma glucose (rs1423096; 0.7 mg/dl decrease per allele A; p-value = 1.1×10(-4, IL8 and 1 hr plasma glucose (rs2886920; 2.6 mg/dl decrease per allele T; p-value = 1.3×10(-4, ADIPOR2 and fasting C-peptide (rs2041139; 0.55 ug/L decrease per allele A; p-value = 1.4×10(-4, LEPR and 1-hour C-peptide (rs1171278; 0.62 ug/L decrease per allele T; p-value = 2.4×10(-4, and IL6 and 1-hour plasma glucose (rs6954897; -2.29 mg/dl decrease per allele G, p-value = 4.3×10(-4.Based on the genes surveyed in this study the inflammatory pathway is unlikely to have a strong impact on maternal metabolic phenotypes in pregnancy although variation in individual members of the pathway (e.g. RETN, IL8, ADIPOR2, LEPR, IL6, and TNF alpha, may contribute to metabolic phenotypes in pregnant women.

  13. Correlation of lipid metabolism characteristics with bile acid metabolism and placental hypoxia injury in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

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    Liang Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of lipid metabolism characteristics with bile acid metabolism and placental hypoxia injury in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP. Methods: ICP pregnant women and healthy pregnant women who received antenatal care and delivered in Obstetrics Department of Panzhihua Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital between May 2013 and October 2016 were collected and included in ICP group and control group respectively. Serum lipid metabolism and bile acid metabolism indexes were measured at 20 weeks, 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation; mitochondria damage molecule expression levels in placenta were determined after childbirth. Results: Serum TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels were not different between two groups of pregnant women at 20 weeks of gestation, and serum TC and LDL-C levels of ICP group at 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were significantly higher than those of control group while HDL-C levels were significantly lower than those of control group; serum TBA, ALT and AST levels were not different between two groups of pregnant women at 20 weeks, 24 weeks and 28 weeks of gestation, and serum TBA, ALT and AST levels of ICP group at 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were significantly higher than those of control group; CCO, ATPase, SDH and Bcl-2 protein expression in placenta tissue of ICP group were significantly lower than those of control group while Bax and Caspase-3 protein expression were significantly higher than those of control group. Serum LDL-C levels at 24 weeks, 28 weeks, 32 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were positively correlated with TBA, ALT and AST levels in serum as well as Bax and Caspase-3 protein expression in placental tissue, and negatively correlated with CCO, ATPase, SDH and Bcl-2 protein expression in placental tissue. Conclusion: Midtrimester lipid metabolism characteristics can early predict the risk of ICP and evaluate the

  14. Effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy and anthropometrics at birth on offspring metabolic profile at 2.8 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Vinter, Christina A; Jørgensen, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are linked to offspring adverse metabolic profile, and lifestyle intervention during pregnancy in obese women may have long-term positive effect on their children. Furthermore, although the association between birth weight and later metabolic...... outcomes is well established, little is known about the predictive value of abdominal circumference at birth. Objectives: To study: i) effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy in obese women on offspring metabolic risk factors and ii) predictive values of birth weight (BW) and birth abdominal...... circumference (BAC). Design: Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial; the Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) study Setting: Odense and Aarhus University Hospitals, Denmark Participants: Offspring of LiP study participants (n=157) and offspring of normal weight mothers (external reference group, ER, n=97...

  15. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... current.html ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. (2013; Reaffirmed 2015). Committee Opinion No. 579. Definition of term pregnancy. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from ...

  16. A low-carbohydrate survey: Evidence for sustainable metabolic syndrome reversal

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    Mark T. Cucuzzella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome has become a significant problem, with the American Diabetes Association estimating the cost of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the United States alone to be $322 billion per year. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets in reversing metabolic syndrome and its associated disorders. Aim: This study was designed to examine how voluntary adherents to a low-carbohydrate diet rate its effectiveness and sustainability using an online survey. Setting and methods: The 57-question survey was administered online and shared internationally via social media and ‘low-carb’ communities. Where appropriate, chi-squared tests and paired t-tests were used to analyse the responses. Results: There were 1580 respondents. The majority of respondents had consumed less than 100 g of carbohydrates per day for over a year, typically for reasons of weight loss or disease management. There was a reported decrease in waist circumference and weight with a simultaneous decrease in hunger and increase in energy level. Of those who provided laboratory values, the majority saw improvements in their HbA1c, blood glucose measurements, and lipid panel results. There was a reduction in usage of various medications, and 25% reported medication cost savings, with average monthly savings of $288 for those respondents. In particular, the usage of pain relievers and anti-inflammatories dropped with a simultaneous decreased rating of pain and increase in mobility. Conclusion: We conclude that low-carbohydrate diets are a sustainable method of metabolic syndrome reversal in a community setting.

  17. Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Complications of Pregnancy and Maternal Risk Factors for Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Phang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are important nutrients during periods of rapid growth and development in utero and infancy. Maternal health and risk factors play a crucial role in birth outcomes and subsequently offspring cardio-metabolic health. Evidence from observational studies and randomized trials have suggested a potential association of maternal intake of marine n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy with pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, there is inconsistency in the literature on whether marine n-3 PUFA supplementation during pregnancy can prevent maternal complications of pregnancy. This narrative literature review summarizes recent evidence on observational and clinical trials of marine n-3 PUFA intake on maternal risk factors and effects on offspring cardio-metabolic health. The current evidence generally does not support a role of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation in altering the incidence of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, or pre-eclampsia. It may be that benefits from marine n-3 PUFA supplementation are more pronounced in high-risk populations, such as women with a history of complications of pregnancy, or women with low marine n-3 PUFA intake. Discrepancies between studies may be related to differences in study design, dosage, fatty acid interplay, and length of treatment. Further prospective double-blind studies are needed to clarify the impact of long-chain marine n-3 PUFAs on risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease in the offspring.

  18. Phorate can reverse P450 metabolism-based herbicide resistance in Lolium rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Roberto; Gaines, Todd Adam; Powles, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Organophosphate insecticides can inhibit specific cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in metabolic herbicide resistance mechanisms, leading to synergistic interactions between the insecticide and the herbicide. In this study we report synergistic versus antagonistic interactions between the organophosphate insecticide phorate and five different herbicides observed in a population of multiple herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum. Phorate synergised with three different herbicide modes of action, enhancing the activity of the ALS inhibitor chlorsulfuron (60% LD 50 reduction), the VLCFAE inhibitor pyroxasulfone (45% LD 50 reduction) and the mitosis inhibitor trifluralin (70% LD 50 reduction). Conversely, phorate antagonised the two thiocarbamate herbicides prosulfocarb and triallate with a 12-fold LD 50 increase. We report the selective reversal of P450-mediated metabolic multiple resistance to chlorsulfuron and trifluralin in the grass weed L. rigidum by synergistic interaction with the insecticide phorate, and discuss the putative mechanistic basis. This research should encourage diversity in herbicide use patterns for weed control as part of a long-term integrated management effort to reduce the risk of selection of metabolism-based multiple herbicide resistance in L. rigidum. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Warburg effect or reverse Warburg effect? A review of cancer metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao Dong; Shao, Shi Xiu; Jiang, Hai Ping; Cao, Yan Wei; Wang, Yong Hua; Yang, Xue Cheng; Wang, You Lin; Wang, Xin Sheng; Niu, Hai Tao

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to human health. A considerable amount of research has focused on elucidating the nature of cancer from its pathogenesis to treatment and prevention. Tumor cell metabolism has been considered a hallmark of cancer. Cancer cells differ from normal cells through unlimited cell division, and show a greater need for energy for their rapid growth and duplication. Research on glycometabolism, as the key point of energy metabolism, has played a unique role. In the 1920s, Warburg found that cancer cells prefer to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by glycolysis, which is a less efficient pathway compared to oxidative phosphorylation. This striking discovery, called 'the Warburg effect', has influenced and guided the study of the mechanism and treatment of tumors for generations, but its causal relationship with cancer progression is still unclear. Some studies have now shown contradicting evidence and a new hypothesis, the reverse Warburg effect, has been put forward, in which cancer cells produce most of their ATP via glycolysis, even under aerobic conditions. In this review we discuss the new points concerning the energy metabolism of a tumor, as well as the current facts and perspectives. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  20. Metabolic markers during pregnancy and their association with maternal and newborn weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Reyes-López, Angélica; Tolentino-Dolores, Maricruz; Espino Y Sosa, Salvador; Ramírez-González, Ma Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes and is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. We describe maternal metabolic risk and inflammation by maternal weight status, and evaluate the association of metabolic and inflammatory markers with birthweight in a group of pregnant Mexican women. This study derived from a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women gestation, receiving prenatal care at National Institute of Perinatology (Mexico, 2009-2013). Metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured in maternal serum in all three pregnancy trimesters (1st: 11.42±1.7; 2nd: 21.06±2.4; 3rd: 32.74±2.3 weeks). Pregestational weight was self-reported, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Gestational weight gain was evaluated in the third trimester. Newborn´s weight was measured at birth. We carried out correlations, general mixed linear model and regression analyses, based on pregestational weight (self-reported), body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (evaluated in the third trimester) and newborn weight (measured at birth). Of the 177 women included in the study (mean age = 26.93±8.49), thirty-eight percent (n = 67) were overweight or had obesity, and 32.8% (n = 58) showed excessive gestational weight gain. We found insulin, lipids (including total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides-TG), leptin and interleukin 1b (IL-1b) all increased significantly (pweight status altered longitudinal concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, TG and C reactive protein. Excessive gestational weight gain was associated with higher maternal insulin in the third trimester (pweight, but not in overweight or obese women. Maternal weight status affected the concentrations of insulin, leptin, adiponectin, triglycerides and C reactive protein throughout pregnancy. The role of early leptin and TNFα in fetal growth need further study given the association was only observed in normal weight women. This

  1. Deciphering the mechanisms involved in Portulaca oleracea (C4) response to drought: metabolic changes including crassulacean acid-like metabolism induction and reversal upon re-watering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rodrigo Matías; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

    2014-11-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a C(4) plant; however, under drought it can change its carbon fixation metabolism into a crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)-like one. While the C(3) -CAM shift is well known, the C(4) -CAM transition has only been described in Portulaca. Here, a CAM-like metabolism was induced in P. oleracea by drought and then reversed by re-watering. Physiological and biochemical approaches were undertaken to evaluate the drought and recovery responses. In CAM-like plants, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were transitory affected and non-radiative energy dissipation mechanisms were induced. Induction of flavonoids, betalains and antioxidant machinery may be involved in photosynthetic machinery protection. Metabolic analysis highlights a clear metabolic shift, when a CAM-like metabolism is induced and then reversed. Increases in nitrogenous compounds like free amino acids and urea, and of pinitol could contribute to withstand drought. Reciprocal variations in arginase and urease in drought-stressed and in re-watered plants suggest urea synthesis is strictly regulated. Recovery of C(4) metabolism was accounted by CO(2) assimilation pattern and malate levels. Increases in glycerol and in polyamines would be of importance of re-watered plants. Collectively, in P. oleracea multiple strategies, from induction of several metabolites to the transitory development of a CAM-like metabolism, participate to enhance its adaptation to drought. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. [Maternal metabolic diseases related to pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in mexican women with high risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Higareda, Salvador; Pérez-Pérez, Omar-Alejandro; Balderas-Peña, Luz-Ma-Adriana; Martínez-Herrera, Brenda-Eugenia; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana-Leticia; Ramírez-Conchas, Rosa-Emilia

    Pre-pregnancy obesity has been proposed as a risk factor related to gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Identify pregnancy related diseases associated with pre-pregnancy obesity as a risk factor ina high risk preganancy patient population. 600 patients whose pre-pregnancy obesity had been assessed as a high risk factor were included in the study. The means, standard deviation, median, interquartile intervals, Pearson and Spearman correlation and logistic regression to estimate risk with the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The mean pre-pregnancy body mass index was 29.59 ± 6.42 kg/m 2 . The mean for recommended pregnancy weight gain was 2.31 ± 1.03 kg, but the mean of real weight gain was 8.91 ± 6.84 kg. A significant correlation between pre-pregnancy obesity and family history of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000), systemic hypertension (p=0.003), cardiac diseases (p=0.000), dyslipidemia (p=0.000) and obesity (p=0.000) was identified. Pre-pregnancy obesity was identified as a risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes (OR: 1.95; IC95%: 1.39 to 2.76; p=0.000) in this kind of patient. 75% of high risk pregnancy women in a high specialty hospital in West Mexico are overweight or obese when they become pregnant. These are risk factors in the development of gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigenetic effects of the pregnancy Mediterranean diet adherence on the offspring metabolic syndrome markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorite Mingot, David; Gesteiro, Eva; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) has a multifactorial and not yet fully clarified origin. Insulin resistance is a key element that connects all the accepted components of MS (obesity, dyslipemia, high blood pressure, and hyperglycemia). There is strong evidence that epigenetic changes during fetal development are key factors in the development of MS. These changes are induced by maternal nutrition, among different factors, affecting the intrauterine environment. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to be a healthy eating pattern that protects against the development of MS in adults. Similarly, the Mediterranean diet could have a similar action during pregnancy, protecting the fetus against the development of MS throughout life. This review assembles studies carried out, both in animals and humans, on the epigenetic modifications associated with the consumption, during pregnancy, of Mediterranean diet main components. The relationship between these modifications and the occurrence of factors involved in development of MS is also explained. In addition, the results of our group relating adherence to the Mediterranean diet with MS markers are discussed. The paper ends suggesting future actuation lines in order to increase knowledge on Mediterranean diet adherence as a prevention tool of MS development.

  4. Maternal Metabolic Health Parameters During Pregnancy in Relation to Early Childhood BMI Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Parisa; Vrijheid, Martine; Martinez, David; Basterrechea, Mikel; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Guxens, Monica; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lertxundi, Aitana; Murcia, Mario; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Valvi, Damaskini

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and early childhood BMI trajectories. Two thousand two hundred fifty-one children born in Spain between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. Five BMI z score trajectories from birth to age 4 years were identified by using latent class growth analysis. Multinomial regression assessed the associations between maternal metabolic parameters and offspring's BMI trajectories. Children in the reference BMI trajectory had average size at birth followed by a slower BMI gain. Maternal prepregnancy obesity was associated with trajectories of accelerated BMI gain departing from either higher (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.91) or lower size at birth (RRR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.17-3.12). Gestational weight gain (GWG) above clinical guidelines was associated with a trajectory of higher birth size followed by accelerated BMI gain (RRR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.53-2.97). Maternal serum triglycerides were negatively associated with BMI trajectories departing from lower birth sizes. Gestational diabetes, maternal serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein were unrelated to children's BMI trajectories. Maternal prepregnancy obesity, GWG, and serum triglycerides are associated with longitudinal BMI trajectories in early childhood that may increase disease risk in later life. Health initiatives should promote healthy weight status before and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  5. Incorporation and metabolism of tritium in pregnant mice and their offspring after feeding organically labelled tritiated milk powder during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; Maes, J.; Fagniart, E.

    1982-01-01

    Food mixed from equal amounts of organically labelled tritiated milk powder and normal food pellets was given to mice during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, some new-born were swapped with those from non-exposed mothers to compare separately accumulation and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Young mice were sacrificed at different time after birth, and tritium activity in different organs was determined. Tritium activity was also determined in maternal organs at various times during and after the 42 days feeding period. The activity per g in some tissues of the young, particularly in fat, exceeded that of the food given, probably as a result of the high activity and low metabolic dilution of the fats in the food. Young mice contaminated during lactation and pregnancy contained still detectible activity at an age of 2 months. Activity was nearly the same in mice receiving tritium only during lactation as in those receiving it also during pregnancy. Dilution was more marked due to rapid growth when tritium application was discontinued at birth. Tritium water was replaced most rapidly, organic tritium in brain turned over most slowly with and additional metabolic component of a half life in the order of 1 month. Organic tritium in liver displayed an intermediate half life. (author)

  6. The Reversal Intervention for Metabolic Syndrome (TRIMS study: rationale, design, and baseline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troughton Jacqui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent attention has focused on strategies to combat the forecast epidemic of type-2 diabetes (T2DM and its major vascular sequelae. Metabolic syndrome (MetS comprises a constellation of factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and T2DM. Our study aims to develop a structured self-management education programme for people with MetS, which includes management of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, and to determine its impact. This paper describes the rationale and design of the TRIMS study, including intervention development, and presents baseline data. Methods Subjects recruited from a mixed-ethnic population with MetS were randomised to intervention or control arms. The intervention arm received structured group education based on robust psychological theories and current evidence. The control group received routine care. Follow-up data will be collected at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure will be reversal of metabolic syndrome in the intervention group subjects compared to controls at 12 months follow-up. Results 82 participants (44% male, 22% South Asian were recruited between November 2009 and July 2010. Baseline characteristics were similar for both the intervention (n = 42 and control groups (n = 40. Median age was 63 years (IQR 57 - 67, mean waist size 106 cm (SD ± 11, and prescribing of statins and anti-hypertensives was 51% in each case. Conclusion Results will provide information on changes in diabetes and CVD risk factors and help to inform primary prevention strategies in people with MetS from varied ethnic backgrounds who are at high risk of developing T2DM and CVD. Information gathered in relation to the programme's acceptability and effectiveness in a multi-ethnic population would ensure that our results are widely applicable. Trial registration The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, study identifier: NCT01043770.

  7. Improving metabolic efficiency of the reverse beta-oxidation cycle by balancing redox cofactor requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junjun; Zhang, Xia; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jiaying; Xia, Xiudong; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyu; Chen, Yue; Liu, Yinghao; Dong, Mingsheng

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have made many exciting achievements on pushing the functional reversal of beta-oxidation cycle (r-BOX) to more widespread adoption for synthesis of a wide variety of fuels and chemicals. However, the redox cofactor requirement for the efficient operation of r-BOX remains unclear. In this work, the metabolic efficiency of r-BOX for medium-chain fatty acid (C 6 -C 10 , MCFA) production was optimized by redox cofactor engineering. Stoichiometric analysis of the r-BOX pathway and further experimental examination identified NADH as a crucial determinant of r-BOX process yield. Furthermore, the introduction of formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii using fermentative inhibitor byproduct formate as a redox NADH sink improved MCFA titer from initial 1.2g/L to 3.1g/L. Moreover, coupling of increasing the supply of acetyl-CoA with NADH to achieve fermentative redox balance enabled product synthesis at maximum titers. To this end, the acetate re-assimilation pathway was further optimized to increase acetyl-CoA availability associated with the new supply of NADH. It was found that the acetyl-CoA synthetase activity and intracellular ATP levels constrained the activity of acetate re-assimilation pathway, and 4.7g/L of MCFA titer was finally achieved after alleviating these two limiting factors. To the best of our knowledge, this represented the highest titer reported to date. These results demonstrated that the key constraint of r-BOX was redox imbalance and redox engineering could further unleash the lipogenic potential of this cycle. The redox engineering strategies could be applied to acetyl-CoA-derived products or other bio-products requiring multiple redox cofactors for biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pre-weaning growth hormone treatment reverses hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in adult male offspring of mothers undernourished during pregnancy.

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    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal undernutrition results in elevated blood pressure (BP and endothelial dysfunction in adult offspring. However, few studies have investigated interventions during early life to ameliorate the programming of hypertension and vascular disorders. We have utilised a model of maternal undernutrition to examine the effects of pre-weaning growth hormone (GH treatment on BP and vascular function in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard control diet (CON or 50% of CON intake throughout pregnancy (UN. From neonatal day 3 until weaning (day 21, CON and UN pups received either saline (CON-S, UN-S or GH (2.5 ug/g/day(CON-GH, UN-GH. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Male offspring were fed a standard diet until the end of the study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 150 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 160, intact mesenteric vessels mounted on a pressure myograph. Responses to pressure, agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated to determine vascular function. SBP was increased in UN-S groups and normalised in UN-GH groups (CON-S 121±2 mmHg, CON-GH 115±3, UN-S 146±3, UN-GH 127±2. Pressure mediated dilation was reduced in UN-S offspring and normalised in UN-GH groups. Vessels from UN-S offspring demonstrated a reduced constrictor response to phenylephrine and reduced vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, UN-S offspring vessels displayed a reduced vasodilator response in the presence of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, carbenoxolone (CBX, L-NAME and CBX, Tram-34 and Apamin. UN-GH vessels showed little difference in responses when compared to CON and significantly increased vasodilator responses when compared to UN-S offspring. Pre-weaning GH treatment reverses the negative effects of maternal UN on SBP and vasomotor function in adult offspring. These data suggest that developmental cardiovascular programming is

  9. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürke, Jacqueline; Hirche, Frank; Thieme, René; Haucke, Elisa; Schindler, Maria; Stangl, Gabriele I; Fischer, Bernd; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2), branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld), were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling.

  10. INFLUENCE OF PREGNANCY AND LACTATION ON GLUCOSE METABOLISM OF NUBIAN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chávez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two in vivo metabolic challenges were conducted to assess the changes in glucose metabolism during three intervals prepartum (-6, -4, -2 weeks and three postpartum (+2, +4, +6 weeks in six multiparous pregnant Nubian goats. Challenges consisted of intravenous administration of 1 glucose (62.5 g/goat and 2 L-epinephrine (0.7 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected via jugular cannula from 30 min pre-injection (basal concentrations to four hours post-injection. Response variables for glucose challenge were glucose concentration at zero time (to glucose disappearance rate (t½, insulin and NEFA concentrations; for the epinephrine challenge glucose, NEFA and insulin integrated responses were determined through the four hours of sampling. Data were analyzed according to a repeated-measures design. Dry matter intakes (1.8±0.07 kg/d were not different throughout the study (P>0.1. Average milk production (649±69 g/d was not different among periods (P>0.1. Basal glucose and insulin concentrations were not different (P>0.1 between pregnancy and lactation, with means (± standard error of 77.9±3.7mg/dl, and 0.264±.034ng/dl, respectively. Basal NEFA concentrations were greater (P0.1 and for t½ of 31±15 min (P>0.1. Insulin responses were similar for all periods (63.3±8.2 ngml-1min (P>0.1. The epinephrine challenge resulted in similar changes in glucose and insulin integrated responses throughout the periods evaluated (P>0.1, with corresponding means for glucose of 3886.5±318 mgml-1min, and 21.6±7.7 ngml-1min, but elicited a significant (P

  11. Maternal Diabetes Leads to Adaptation in Embryonic Amino Acid Metabolism during Early Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Gürke

    Full Text Available During pregnancy an adequate amino acid supply is essential for embryo development and fetal growth. We have studied amino acid composition and branched chain amino acid (BCAA metabolism at day 6 p.c. in diabetic rabbits and blastocysts. In the plasma of diabetic rabbits the concentrations of 12 amino acids were altered in comparison to the controls. Notably, the concentrations of the BCAA leucine, isoleucine and valine were approximately three-fold higher in diabetic rabbits than in the control. In the cavity fluid of blastocysts from diabetic rabbits BCAA concentrations were twice as high as those from controls, indicating a close link between maternal diabetes and embryonic BCAA metabolism. The expression of BCAA oxidizing enzymes and BCAA transporter was analysed in maternal tissues and in blastocysts. The RNA amounts of three oxidizing enzymes, i.e. branched chain aminotransferase 2 (Bcat2, branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (Bckdha and dehydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld, were markedly increased in maternal adipose tissue and decreased in liver and skeletal muscle of diabetic rabbits than in those of controls. Blastocysts of diabetic rabbits revealed a higher Bcat2 mRNA and protein abundance in comparison to control blastocysts. The expression of BCAA transporter LAT1 and LAT2 were unaltered in endometrium of diabetic and healthy rabbits, whereas LAT2 transcripts were increased in blastocysts of diabetic rabbits. In correlation to high embryonic BCAA levels the phosphorylation amount of the nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR was enhanced in blastocysts caused by maternal diabetes. These results demonstrate a direct impact of maternal diabetes on BCAA concentrations and degradation in mammalian blastocysts with influence on embryonic mTOR signalling.

  12. Reversible Fetal Renal Impairment following Angiotensin Receptor Blocking Treatment during Third Trimester of Pregnancy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Saar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Late pregnancy usage of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB may cause severe oligohydramnios due to fetal renal impairment. Affected neonates will often suffer from fatal, renal, and respiratory failure. Case. A 39-year-old multigravida admitted due to anhydramnios secondary to valsartan (ARB exposure at 30 weeks’ gestation. Following secession of treatment amniotic fluid volume returned to normal. Delivery was induced at 34 weeks’ gestation following premature rupture of membranes and maternal fever. During the two-year follow-up, no signs of renal insufficiency were noted. Conclusions. This description of reversible fetal renal damage due to ARB intake during pregnancy is the first to show no adverse renal function in a two-year follow-up period. This case may help clinicians counsel patients with pregnancies complicated by exposure to these drugs.

  13. Disturbed energy metabolism and muscular dystrophy caused by pure creatine deficiency are reversible by creatine intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabuurs, C I; Choe, C U; Veltien, A; Kan, H E; van Loon, L J C; Rodenburg, R J T; Matschke, J; Wieringa, B; Kemp, G J; Isbrandt, D; Heerschap, A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) plays an important role in muscle energy homeostasis by its participation in the ATP–phosphocreatine phosphoryl exchange reaction mediated by creatine kinase. Given that the consequences of Cr depletion are incompletely understood, we assessed the morphological, metabolic and functional consequences of systemic depletion on skeletal muscle in a mouse model with deficiency of l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT−/−), which catalyses the first step of Cr biosynthesis. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a near-complete absence of Cr and phosphocreatine in resting hindlimb muscle of AGAT−/− mice. Compared with wild-type, the inorganic phosphate/β-ATP ratio was increased fourfold, while ATP levels were reduced by nearly half. Activities of proton-pumping respiratory chain enzymes were reduced, whereas F1F0-ATPase activity and overall mitochondrial content were increased. The Cr-deficient AGAT−/− mice had a reduced grip strength and suffered from severe muscle atrophy. Electron microscopy revealed increased amounts of intramyocellular lipid droplets and crystal formation within mitochondria of AGAT−/− muscle fibres. Ischaemia resulted in exacerbation of the decrease of pH and increased glycolytic ATP synthesis. Oral Cr administration led to rapid accumulation in skeletal muscle (faster than in brain) and reversed all the muscle abnormalities, revealing that the condition of the AGAT−/− mice can be switched between Cr deficient and normal simply by dietary manipulation. Systemic creatine depletion results in mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular energy deficiency, as well as structural and physiological abnormalities. The consequences of AGAT deficiency are more pronounced than those of muscle-specific creatine kinase deficiency, which suggests a multifaceted involvement of creatine in muscle energy homeostasis in addition to its role in the phosphocreatine–creatine kinase system. PMID:23129796

  14. {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy in anorexia nervosa. Reversible cerebral metabolic changes; {sup 1}H-MR-Spektroskopie bei Anorexia nervosa: Reversible zerebrale Metabolitenaenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeckel, R.; Schlemmer, H.P.; Becker, G.; Koepke, J.; Georgi, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Gueckel, C.; Goepel, C.; Schmidt, M. [Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie; Hentschel, F. [Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim (Germany). Neuroradiologie

    1999-04-01

    Purpose: By using localized {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy in the brain of patients with anorexia nervosa we wanted to verify our preliminary results and to look for a reversibility of the metabolic changes under therapy. Methods: In 22 patients and 17 healthy volunteers (11 follow-up examinations) single voxel {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy (TE=50 ms, TM=30 ms, TR=1500 ms, voxel (2 cm){sup 3}, acq.: 256) was used in two different localizations (thalamus and parieto-occipital region). The first examination of the patients was performed before therapy, the follow-up examination at the end of therapy. Results: In both regions of the brain we found a statistically significant elevation of the Cho/Cr-ratio in comparison to normal controls. The follow-up examinations revealed reversibility of the metabolic changes under successful therapy. Conclusion: {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy reveals metabolic changes in the brain of patients with anorexia nervosa, which are reversible under successful therapy. These metabolic changes can be conclusively explained using a biochemical model. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Im Rahmen dieser weiterfuehrenden Studie sollten die bisherigen Ergebnisse der lokalisierten {sup 1}H-MR-Spektroskopie des Gehirns an Patienten mit Anorexia nervosa verifiziert werden. Weiter sollte ueberprueft werden, ob die von uns nachgewiesenen metabolischen Veraenderungen unter Therapie reversibel sind. Methode: Die {sup 1}H-MR-Spektren wurden bei 22 Patientinnen und 17 Probanden (11 Verlaufskontrollen) in Einzelvolumentechnik (TE=50 ms, TM=30 ms, TR=1500 ms, Voxel: (2 cm){sup 3}, Acq.: 256) in zwei unterschiedlichen Hirnregionen (Thalamus, parieto-okzipitale Region) durchgefuehrt. Die erste Untersuchung der Patienten erfolgte bei Aufnahme und die Verlaufskontrolle zum Abschluss der stationaeren Behandlung. Ergebnisse: Bei den Patienten wurde in beiden Hirnregionen ein statistisch signifikant erhoehter Wert fuer das Cho/Cr-Verhaeltnis im Vergleich zu dem Normalkollektiv nachgewiesen

  15. Biotinidase deficiency: a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. Neuroimaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a series of four patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Shrinivas; Ganesan, Karthik; Hegde, Anaita

    2008-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a metabolic disorder characterized by inability to recycle biotin with resultant delayed myelination. Clinical findings include seizures, ataxia, alopecia and dermatitis with atypical findings of myoclonic jerks, neuropathy and spastic paraparesis. Neuroradiological findings include cerebral atrophy, encephalopathy and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Many of the clinical and neuroradiological features are reversible except sensorineural hearing loss and optic atrophy. To understand and describe the neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings of biotinidase deficiency. We evaluated the spectrum of neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings in four patients with biotinidase deficiency with follow-up studies in three patients. The imaging findings were encephalopathy, low cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Uncommon findings were caudate involvement, parieto-occipital cortical abnormalities and one patient with restricted diffusion. Two patients had subdural effusions, which is uncommon in biotinidase deficiency. 1 H-MR spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate, reversal of the choline/creatine ratio and decreased NAA peaks. Follow-up studies revealed complete reversal of imaging findings in two patients. Biotinidase deficiency is a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. This study highlights the importance of early and prompt cliniconeuroradiological diagnosis of biotinidase deficiency as it has an extremely good clinical outcome if treatment is initiated from early infancy. (orig.)

  16. Biotinidase deficiency: a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. Neuroimaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a series of four patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Shrinivas [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of CT and MRI, Mumbai (India); Ganesan, Karthik [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of CT and MRI, Mumbai (India); University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Hegde, Anaita [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Department of Paediatrics, Mumbai (India)

    2008-08-15

    Biotinidase deficiency is a metabolic disorder characterized by inability to recycle biotin with resultant delayed myelination. Clinical findings include seizures, ataxia, alopecia and dermatitis with atypical findings of myoclonic jerks, neuropathy and spastic paraparesis. Neuroradiological findings include cerebral atrophy, encephalopathy and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Many of the clinical and neuroradiological features are reversible except sensorineural hearing loss and optic atrophy. To understand and describe the neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings of biotinidase deficiency. We evaluated the spectrum of neuroimaging and spectroscopic findings in four patients with biotinidase deficiency with follow-up studies in three patients. The imaging findings were encephalopathy, low cerebral volume, ventriculomegaly and widened extracerebral CSF spaces. Uncommon findings were caudate involvement, parieto-occipital cortical abnormalities and one patient with restricted diffusion. Two patients had subdural effusions, which is uncommon in biotinidase deficiency. {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy revealed elevated lactate, reversal of the choline/creatine ratio and decreased NAA peaks. Follow-up studies revealed complete reversal of imaging findings in two patients. Biotinidase deficiency is a reversible metabolic encephalopathy. This study highlights the importance of early and prompt cliniconeuroradiological diagnosis of biotinidase deficiency as it has an extremely good clinical outcome if treatment is initiated from early infancy. (orig.)

  17. Pregnancy and lactation alter biomarkers of biotin metabolism in women consuming a controlled diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cydne A; West, Allyson A; Gayle, Antoinette; Lucas, Lauren K; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-12-01

    Biotin functions as a cofactor for several carboxylase enzymes with key roles in metabolism. At present, the dietary requirement for biotin is unknown and intake recommendations are provided as Adequate Intakes (AIs). The biotin AI for adults and pregnant women is 30 μg/d, whereas 35 μg/d is recommended for lactating women. However, pregnant and lactating women may require more biotin to meet the demands of these reproductive states. The current study sought to quantify the impact of reproductive state on biotin status response to a known dietary intake of biotin. To achieve this aim, we measured a panel of biotin biomarkers among pregnant (gestational week 27 at study entry; n = 26), lactating (postnatal week 5 at study entry; n = 28), and control (n = 21) women who participated in a 10- to 12-wk feeding study providing 57 μg of dietary biotin/d as part of a mixed diet. Over the course of the study, pregnant women excreted 69% more (vs. control; P biotin-dependent methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase is impaired. Interestingly, urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (3-HIA-carnitine), a downstream metabolite of 3-HIA, was 27% lower (P = 0.05) among pregnant (vs. control) women, a finding that may arise from carnitine inadequacy during gestation. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected in plasma biotin, urinary biotin, or urinary bisnorbiotin between pregnant and control women. Lactating women excreted 76% more (vs. control; P = 0.001) of the biotin catabolite bisnorbiotin, indicating that lactation accelerates biotin turnover and loss. Notably, with respect to control women, lactating women excreted 23% less (P = 0.04) urinary 3-HIA and 26% less (P = 0.05) urinary 3-HIA-carnitine, suggesting that lactation reduces leucine catabolism and that these metabolites may not be useful indicators of biotin status during lactation. Overall, these data demonstrate significant alterations in markers of biotin metabolism during pregnancy and lactation and

  18. Pregnancy and Lactation Alter Biomarkers of Biotin Metabolism in Women Consuming a Controlled Diet123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cydne A; West, Allyson A; Gayle, Antoinette; Lucas, Lauren K; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-01-01

    biotin metabolism during pregnancy and lactation and suggest that biotin intakes exceeding current recommendations are needed to meet the demands of these reproductive states. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127022. PMID:25122647

  19. (p-ClPhSe)2 stimulates carbohydrate metabolism and reverses the metabolic alterations induced by high fructose load in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quines, Caroline B; Rosa, Suzan G; Chagas, Pietro M; Velasquez, Daniela; Prado, Vinicius C; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2017-09-01

    The modern life leads to excess consumption of food rich in fructose; however, the long-term changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism could lead to metabolic dysfunction in humans. The present study evaluated the in vitro insulin-mimetic action of p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide (p-ClPhSe) 2 . The second aim of this study was to investigate if (p-ClPhSe) 2 reverses metabolic dysfunction induced by fructose load in Wistar rats. The insulin-mimetic action of (p-ClPhSe) 2  at concentrations of 50 and 100 μM was determined in slices of rat skeletal muscle. (p-ClPhSe) 2  at a concentration of 50 μM stimulated the glucose uptake by 40% in skeletal muscle. A dose-response curve revealed that (p-ClPhSe) 2  at a dose of 25 mg/kg reduced (∼20%) glycemia in rats treated with fructose (5 g/kg, i.g.). The administration of fructose impaired the liver homeostasis and (p-ClPhSe) 2 (25 mg/kg) protected against the increase (∼25%) in the G-6-Pase and isocitrate dehydrogenase activities and reduced the triglyceride content (∼25%) in the liver. (p-ClPhSe) 2 regulated the liver homeostasis by stimulating hexokinase activity (∼27%), regulating the TCA cycle activity (increased the ATP and citrate synthase activity (∼15%)) and increasing the glycogen levels (∼67%). In conclusion, (p-ClPhSe) 2 stimulated carbohydrate metabolism and reversed metabolic dysfunction in rats fed with fructose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyphenols and IUGR pregnancies: Maternal hydroxytyrosol supplementation improves prenatal and early-postnatal growth and metabolism of the offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Vazquez-Gomez

    Full Text Available Hydroxytyrosol is a polyphenol with antioxidant, metabolism-regulatory, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties. The present study aimed to determine whether supplementing the maternal diet with hydroxytyrosol during pregnancy can improve pre- and early post-natal developmental patterns and metabolic traits of the offspring. Experiment was performed in Iberian sows fed a restricted diet in order to increase the risk of IUGR. Ten sows were treated daily with 1.5 mg of hydroxytyrosol per kg of feed between Day 35 of pregnancy (30% of total gestational period until delivery whilst 10 animals were left untreated as controls. Number and weight of offspring were assessed at birth, on post-natal Day 15 and at weaning (25 days-old. At weaning, body composition and plasma indexes of glucose and lipids were measured. Treatment with hydroxytyrosol was associated with higher mean birth weight, lower incidence of piglets with low birth weight. Afterwards, during the lactation period, piglets in the treated group showed a higher body-weight than control piglets; such effects were even stronger in the most prolific litters. These results suggest that maternal supplementation with hydroxytyrosol may improve pre- and early post-natal development of offspring in pregnancies at risk of IUGR.

  1. Maternal malaria status and metabolic profiles in pregnancy and in cord blood: relationships with birth size in Nigerian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola Omolola O

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is more common in pregnant than in non-pregnant Nigerian women, and is associated with small birth size and the attendant short- and long-term health risks. The influence of malaria on maternal metabolic status in pregnancy and in cord blood and how this relates to birth size has not been studied. The study objective was to define relationships between maternal and cord serum metabolic markers, maternal malaria status and birth size. Methods During pregnancy, anthropometric measurements, blood film for malaria parasites and assays for lipids, glucose, insulin and TNF were obtained from 467 mothers and these analytes and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I were obtained from cord blood of 187 babies. Results Overall prevalence of maternal malaria was 52%, associated with younger age, anaemia and smaller infant birth size. Mothers with malaria had significantly lower cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL and higher TNF, but no difference in triglyceride. In contrast, there was no effect of maternal malaria on cord blood lipids, but the median (range cord IGF-I was significantly lower in babies whose mothers had malaria: 60.4 (24,145μg/L, versus no malaria: 76.5 (24, 150μg/L, p = 0.03. On regression analysis, the key determinants of birth weight included maternal total cholesterol, malarial status and cord insulin and IGF-I. Conclusions Malaria in pregnancy was common and associated with reduced birth size, lower maternal lipids and higher TNF. In the setting of endemic malaria, maternal total cholesterol during pregnancy and cord blood insulin and IGF-I levels are potential biomarkers of foetal growth and birth size.

  2. Brain Metabolism Alterations Induced by Pregnancy Swimming Decreases Neurological Impairments Following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Very Immature Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Sanches

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prematurity, through brain injury and altered development is a major cause of neurological impairments and can result in motor, cognitive and behavioral deficits later in life. Presently, there are no well-established effective therapies for preterm brain injury and the search for new strategies is needed. Intra-uterine environment plays a decisive role in brain maturation and interventions using the gestational window have been shown to influence long-term health in the offspring. In this study, we investigated whether pregnancy swimming can prevent the neurochemical metabolic alterations and damage that result from postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI in very immature rats.Methods: Female pregnant Wistar rats were divided into swimming (SW or sedentary (SE groups. Following a period of adaptation before mating, swimming was performed during the entire gestation. At postnatal day (PND3, rat pups from SW and SE dams had right common carotid artery occluded, followed by systemic hypoxia. At PND4 (24 h after HI, the early neurochemical profile was measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Astrogliosis, apoptosis and neurotrophins protein expression were assessed in the cortex and hippocampus. From PND45, behavioral testing was performed. Diffusion tensor imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging were used to evaluate brain microstructure and the levels of proteins were quantified.Results: Pregnancy swimming was able to prevent early metabolic changes induced by HI preserving the energetic balance, decreasing apoptotic cell death and astrogliosis as well as maintaining the levels of neurotrophins. At adult age, swimming preserved brain microstructure and improved the performance in the behavioral tests.Conclusion: Our study points out that swimming during gestation in rats could prevent prematurity related brain damage in progeny with high translational potential and possibly interesting cost

  3. Growth of the conceptus from day 33 to 45 of pregnancy is minimally associated with concurrent hormonal or metabolic status in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, T J; Moore, S G; Lamberson, W R; Keisler, D H; Poock, S E; Lucy, M C

    2016-05-01

    A hypothetical explanation for pregnancy loss in postpartum dairy cows is that the metabolic environment of the cow inhibits the growth of the conceptus and places the pregnancy at risk for loss. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to model the association between cow-level metabolic indicators and conceptus growth during early pregnancy (day 33-45 after AI) and to determine if an association (if present) is large enough to cause pregnancy loss. Metabolic indicators included milk production, changes in body weight and body condition score, parity, and concentrations of circulating hormones and metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, growth hormone, IGF1, progesterone, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins). One-hundred cows were enrolled. Cows that became pregnant with single conceptus pregnancies (n=53) weighed more (Pcows that failed to become pregnant. The embryo and amniotic vesicle were measured by using ultrasound on day 33, 35, 38, 40, 42, and 45 of pregnancy. Most of the cow-level indicators that were included in the model of conceptus growth failed to achieve statistical significance. Day of pregnancy had the largest effect on conceptus growth (size and cross-sectional area of the embryo and amniotic vesicle; Pbody weigh change (positive association) on embryo length and cross-sectional area but these effects were small when compared with the range in conceptus length or area that we observed. The conclusion was that the capacity of the cow to become pregnant was associated with body weight and uterine health but we failed to find a large association with metabolic status on conceptus growth from day 33 to 45 of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-term effects of maternal feed restriction during pregnancy on goat kid morphology, metabolism, and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte-Broux, Bérengère; Roussel, Sabine; Ponter, Andrew; Perault, Julien; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Duvaux-Ponter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Morphometric, metabolic, and behavioural modifications were studied in goat kids after maternal feed restriction during the last one-third of pregnancy. At birth, only kids from twin and triplet litters were studied [n = 40 kids born to control dams (CONT) and n = 38 born to restricted dams (REST)] and only males thereafter (n = 13 CONT and 15 REST kids) until slaughter at 6 wk of age. Kids born to restricted goats had a smaller abdominal girth at birth P < 0.01) and tended to have a smaller ...

  5. Impact of lifestyle intervention for obese women during pregnancy on maternal metabolic and inflammatory markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, K. M.; Carlsen, E. M.; Hædersdal, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background:Offspring of obese mothers have increased risk of developing obesity and related short- and long-term disease. The cause is multifactorial and may partly be explained by the unfavorable intrauterine environment. Intervention during pregnancy leading to a healthier lifestyle among obese...... women can reduce hsCRP representing a marker of inflammation during pregnancy. The effect may partly be mediated by more physical activity and partly by changes in intake of carbohydrates and the glycaemic load....

  6. Interleukin 37 reverses the metabolic cost of inflammation, increases oxidative respiration, and improves exercise tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalli, G.; Justice, J.N.; Boyle, K.E.; d'Alessandro, A.; Eisenmesser, E.Z.; Herrera, J.J.; Hansen, K.C.; Nemkov, T.; Stienstra, R.; Garlanda, C.; Mantovani, A.; Seals, D.R.; Dagna, L.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Ballak, D.B.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    IL-1 family member interleukin 37 (IL-37) has broad antiinflammatory properties and functions as a natural suppressor of innate inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment with recombinant human IL-37 reverses the decrease in exercise performance observed during systemic inflammation.

  7. The gut hormone ghrelin partially reverses energy substrate metabolic alterations in the failing heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitacchione, Gianfranco; Powers, Jeffrey C; Grifoni, Gino; Woitek, Felix; Lam, Amy; Ly, Lien; Settanni, Fabio; Makarewich, Catherine A; McCormick, Ryan; Trovato, Letizia; Houser, Steven R; Granata, Riccarda; Recchia, Fabio A

    2014-07-01

    The gut-derived hormone ghrelin, especially its acylated form, plays a major role in the regulation of systemic metabolism and exerts also relevant cardioprotective effects; hence, it has been proposed for the treatment of heart failure (HF). We tested the hypothesis that ghrelin can directly modulate cardiac energy substrate metabolism. We used chronically instrumented dogs, 8 with pacing-induced HF and 6 normal controls. Human des-acyl ghrelin [1.2 nmol/kg per hour] was infused intravenously for 15 minutes, followed by washout (rebaseline) and infusion of acyl ghrelin at the same dose. (3)H-oleate and (14)C-glucose were coinfused and arterial and coronary sinus blood sampled to measure cardiac free fatty acid and glucose oxidation and lactate uptake. As expected, cardiac substrate metabolism was profoundly altered in HF because baseline oxidation levels of free fatty acids and glucose were, respectively, >70% lower and >160% higher compared with control. Neither des-acyl ghrelin nor acyl ghrelin significantly affected function and metabolism in normal hearts. However, in HF, des-acyl and acyl ghrelin enhanced myocardial oxygen consumption by 10.2±3.5% and 9.9±3.7%, respectively (Pmetabolism in normal dogs, whereas they enhance free fatty acid oxidation and reduce glucose oxidation in HF dogs, thus partially correcting metabolic alterations in HF. This novel mechanism might contribute to the cardioprotective effects of ghrelin in HF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Evolution of Tumor Metabolism might Reflect Carcinogenesis as a Reverse Evolution process (Dismantling of Multicellularity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O., E-mail: Alfarouk@Hala-alfarouk.org [Department of Evolution of Tumor Metabolism and Pharmacology, Hala Alfarouk Cancer Center, Khartoum 11123 (Sudan); Shayoub, Mohammed E.A. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111 (Sudan); Muddathir, Abdel Khalig [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 11111 (Sudan); Elhassan, Gamal O. [General Directorate of Pharmacy, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum 11111 (Sudan); Bashir, Adil H.H. [Department of Evolution of Tumor Metabolism and Pharmacology, Hala Alfarouk Cancer Center, Khartoum 11123 (Sudan); Al Jawda Medical Hospital, Khartoum 11111 (Sudan)

    2011-07-22

    Carcinogenesis occurs through a series of steps from normal into benign and finally malignant phenotype. This cancer evolutionary trajectory has been accompanied by similar metabolic transformation from normal metabolism into Pasteur and/or Crabtree-Effects into Warburg-Effect and finally Cannibalism and/or Lactate-Symbiosis. Due to lactate production as an end-product of glycolysis, tumor colonies acquire new phenotypes that rely on lactate as energetic fuel. Presence of Warburg-Effect indicates that some tumor cells undergo partial (if not complete) de-endosymbiosis and so cancer cells have been become unicellular microorganism (anti-Dollo's Law) specially when they evolve to develop cannibalism as way of metabolism while oxidative types of cells that rely on lactate, as their energetic fuel, might represent extra-endosymbiosis. Thus, at the end, the cancer colony could be considered as integrated metabolic ecosystem. Proper understanding of tumor metabolism will contribute to discover potential anticancer agents besides conventional chemotherapy.

  9. Efficacy of exenatide on weight loss, metabolic parameters and pregnancy in overweight/obese polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Si-Yuan; Lin, Rong; Xie, Yi-Juan; Chen, Hui; Zheng, Yong-Xiong; Liu, En; Chen, Lin; Yan, Jia-He; Xu, Wei; Mai, Ting-Ting; Gong, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Weight loss remains one of the most important arms in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Further studies are needed to identify the best treatment. To evaluate the effects of exenatide (EXE) on reproductive and metabolic function in overweight/obese (OW/OB) PCOS. This is a 24-week open-label prospective, randomized, clinical study. This study randomized 176 OW/OB women diagnosed with PCOS to receive either EXE 10 μg BID (n = 88) or metformin (MET) 1000 mg BID (n = 88) for the first 12 weeks. Then all patients were treated with MET alone during the second 12 weeks. We observed metabolic parameters at 0 and 12 weeks, and then tracked the rate of pregnancy during the second 12 weeks. After the first 12 weeks of intervention, compared with MET, subjects who received EXE had significantly decreased weight (4.29 ± 1.29 kg vs 2.28 ± 0.55 kg, P weight loss and central adiposity reduction, which may further explain the improvements in insulin resistance, inflammatory marker and menstrual cycle, which may contribute to increasing pregnancy rates in OW/OB women with PCOS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Disorders of bone-mineral metabolism and their correction with women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Shelestova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The processes in bone-mineral metabolism provide normal course of pregnancy, labour and fetus development, women with body weight deficiency are at risk reduction of bone tissue mineral density, progressing of osteopenia and osteoporosis. This shows the necessity of medical and preventive measures that have the aim to correct calcium- phosphorus and bone metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency. Aim. To elaborate and to evaluate medical and preventive measures that have the aim to correct disorders in bone-mineral metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy. Materials and methods. The efficiency of adding combined medicine of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol and dietary nourishment to traditional treatment that affected the state of bone-mineral metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy was studied. Results. With women who have body weight deficiency at pregravid stage and during pregnancy it is noted statistically considerable reduction in blood of total calcium and bone tissue markers that grows with the course of gestation. The changes in mineral density of bone tissue can be seen from the existence of osteopenic syndrome at pregravid stage that occurs with every third woman who has body weight deficiency and with every second before labour. The use of elaborated medical and preventive measures including combined medicine of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol allows to normalize the indexes of bone-mineral metabolism with women who have body weight deficiency. Conclusions. Women with body weight deficiency already at pregravid stage have disorders in bone metabolism and coming of pregnancy lead to aggravation of bone metabolism disorders. The additional use of combined medicine of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol and dietary nourishment made the indexes of calcium-phosphorus and bone metabolism better and osteopenic

  11. Metabolic effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women. Results from the randomized controlled trial 'Lifestyle in Pregnancy' (LiP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, C A; Jørgensen, J S; Ovesen, Per Glud

    2014-01-01

    weight gain in the intervention group, there was no difference between the groups with respect to total cholesterol, HDL, LDL or triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women resulted in attenuation of the physiologic pregnancy-induced insulin resistance. Despite restricted......AIMS: The Lifestyle in Pregnancy intervention in obese pregnant women resulted in significantly lower gestational weight gain compared with the control group, but without improvement in rates of clinical pregnancy complications. The impact of the lifestyle intervention on metabolic measurements...... in the study participants is now reported. METHODS: The Lifestyle in Pregnancy study was a randomized controlled trial among 360 obese women (BMI 30-45 kg/m(2) ) who were allocated in early pregnancy to lifestyle interventions with diet counselling and physical activities or to the control group. Fasting blood...

  12. TallyHO obese female mice experience poor reproductive outcomes and abnormal blastocyst metabolism that is reversed by metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Erica D; Luzzo, Kerri M; Jimenez, Patricia T; Chi, Tiffany; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H

    2014-12-01

    Obese women experience worse reproductive outcomes than normal weight women, specifically infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal malformations and developmental delay of offspring. The aim of the present study was to use a genetic mouse model of obesity to recapitulate the human reproductive phenotype and further examine potential mechanisms and therapies. New inbred, polygenic Type 2 diabetic TallyHO mice and age-matched control C57BL/6 mice were superovulated to obtain morula or blastocyst stage embryos that were cultured in human tubal fluid (HTF) medium. Deoxyglucose uptake was determined for individual insulin-stimulated blastocysts. Apoptosis was detected by confocal microscopy using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and Topro-3 nuclear dye. Embryos were scored for TUNEL-positive as a percentage of total nuclei. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression and adiponectin expression were analysed by western immunoblot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. Lipid accumulation was assayed by BODIPY. Comparisons were made between TallyHO morulae cultured to blastocyst embryos in either HTF medium or HTF medium with 25 μg mL(-1) metformin. TallyHO mice developed whole body abnormal insulin tolerance, had decreased litter sizes and increased non-esterified fatty acid levels. Blastocysts from TallyHO mice exhibited increased apoptosis, decreased insulin sensitivity and decreased AMPK. A possible cause for the insulin resistance and abnormal AMPK phosphorylation was the increased TNF-α expression and lipid accumulation, as detected by BODIPY, in TallyHO blastocysts and decreased adiponectin. Culturing TallyHO morulae with the AMPK activator metformin led to a reversal of all the abnormal findings, including increased AMPK phosphorylation, improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and normalisation of lipid accumulation. Women with obesity and

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome One Year after Delivery in Finnish Women at Increased Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatta Puhkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MeS after delivery. We studied the prevalence of MeS at one year postpartum among Finnish women who in early pregnancy were at increased risk of developing GDM. Methods. This follow-up study is a part of a GDM prevention trial. At one year postpartum, 150 women (mean age 33.1 years, BMI 27.2 kg/m2 were evaluated for MeS. Results. The prevalence of MeS was 18% according tothe International Diabetes Federation(IDF criteria and 16% according toNational Cholestrol Education Program(NCEP criteria. Of MeS components, 74% of participants had an increased waist circumference (≥80 cm. Twenty-seven percent had elevated fasting plasma glucose (≥5.6 mmol/L, and 29% had reduced HDL cholesterol (≤1.3 mmol/L. The odds ratio for the occurrence of MeS at one year postpartum was 3.0 (95% CI 1.0–9.2 in those who were overweight before pregnancy compared to normal weight women. Conclusions. Nearly one-fifth of the women with an increased risk of GDM in early pregnancy fulfilled the criteria of MeS at one year postpartum. The most important factor associated with MeS was prepregnancy overweight. Weight management before and during pregnancy is important for preventing MeS after delivery.

  14. Maternal supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid in the setting of diet-induced obesity normalises the inflammatory phenotype in mothers and reverses metabolic dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Stephanie A; Vickers, Mark H; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-12-01

    Maternal consumption of a high-fat diet significantly impacts the fetal environment and predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic dysfunction during adulthood. We examined the effects of a high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation on metabolic and inflammatory profiles and whether maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could have beneficial effects on mothers and offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% total fat as CLA), high-fat (HF; 45% kcal from fat) or high fat with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% total fat as CLA) diet ad libitum 10days prior to and throughout gestation and lactation. Dams and offspring were culled at either late gestation (fetal day 20, F20) or early postweaning (postnatal day 24, P24). CLA, HF and HFCLA dams were heavier than CD throughout gestation. Plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α were elevated in HF dams, with restoration in HFCLA dams. Male and female fetuses from HF dams were smaller at F20 but displayed catch-up growth and impaired insulin sensitivity at P24, which was reversed in HFCLA offspring. HFCLA dams at P24 were protected from impaired insulin sensitivity as compared to HF dams. Maternal CLA supplementation normalised inflammation associated with consumption of a high-fat diet and reversed associated programming of metabolic dysfunction in offspring. This demonstrates that there are critical windows of developmental plasticity in which the effects of an adverse early-life environment can be reversed by maternal dietary interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of new human metabolic urinary markers in chronic alcoholism and their reversal by aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ashwani; Dabur, Rajesh

    2015-05-01

    We have studied urine metabolic signature of chronic alcoholism (CA) before and after treatment with an Ayurvedic drug Tinospora cordifolia aqueous extract (TCE). Urinary metabolites of chronic alcoholics and apparently healthy subjects were profiled using HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Discrimination models from the initial data sets were able to correctly assign the unknown samples to the CA, treated or healthy groups in validation sets with r(2) > 0.98. Metabolic signature in CA patients include changed tryptophan, fatty acids and pyrimidines metabolism. Several novel biomarkers of alcoholism were observed in urine for the first time which includes, 5-hydroxyindole, phenylacetic acid, picolinic acid, quinaldic acid, histidine, cystathionine, riboflavin, tetrahydrobiopterin and chenodeoxyglycocholic acid, in addition to previously reported biomarkers. Treatment of CA with TCE reverted the levels of most of the biomarkers except tetrahydrobiopterin levels. These results suggested that the measurement of these urine metabolites could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic method for the detection of CA. As TCE treatment significantly reversed the affected pathways without any side effect. Overall, the present data depicts that TCE may be used either alone or adjunct in reducing alcohol-induced disorders. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  16. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  17. Effectiveness of acetazolamide for reversal of metabolic alkalosis in weaning COPD patients from mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisy, Christophe; Mokline, Amel; Sanchez, Olivier; Tadié, Jean-Marc; Fagon, Jean-Yves

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of a single daily dose of acetazolamide (ACET) on metabolic alkalosis and respiratory parameters in weaning chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from invasive mechanical ventilation. Case-control study. An 18-bed intensive care unit (ICU) in a university hospital. Twenty-six intubated COPD patients with mixed metabolic alkalosis (serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/l and arterial pH >or=7.38) were compared with a historical control group (n = 26) matched for serum bicarbonate, arterial pH, age, and severity of illness at admission to ICU. ACET administration (500 mg intravenously) was monitored daily according to arterial blood gas analysis from readiness to wean until extubation. ACET was administered 4 (1-11) days throughout the weaning period. Patients with ACET treatment significantly decreased their serum bicarbonate (p = 0.01 versus baseline) and arterial blood pH (p respiratory parameters except PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio (p = 0.03). ACET patients and their matched controls had similar duration of weaning. Extubation success rate was not significantly different between groups, and causes of reintubation were comparable. ACET used at the dosage of 500 mg per day reduces metabolic alkalosis but has no benefit in terms of improving PaCO(2) or respiratory parameters in weaning COPD patients from mechanical ventilation.

  18. Dark nights reverse metabolic disruption caused by dim light at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, L K; Weil, Z M; Nelson, R J

    2013-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders coincides with increasing exposure to light at night. Previous studies report that mice exposed to dim light at night (dLAN) develop symptoms of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether mice returned to dark nights after dLAN exposure recover metabolic function. Male Swiss-Webster mice were assigned to either: standard light-dark (LD) conditions for 8 weeks (LD/LD), dLAN for 8 weeks (dLAN/dLAN), LD for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of dLAN (LD/dLAN), and dLAN for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of LD (dLAN/LD). After 4 weeks in their respective lighting conditions both groups initially placed in dLAN increased body mass gain compared to LD mice. Half of the dLAN mice (dLAN/LD) were then transferred to LD and vice versa (LD/dLAN). Following the transfer dLAN/dLAN and LD/dLAN mice gained more weight than LD/LD and dLAN/LD mice. At the conclusion of the study dLAN/LD mice did not differ from LD/LD mice with respect to weight gain and had lower fat pad mass compared to dLAN/dLAN mice. Compared to all other groups dLAN/dLAN mice decreased glucose tolerance as indicated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test at week 7, indicating that dLAN/LD mice recovered glucose metabolism. dLAN/dLAN mice also increased MAC1 mRNA expression in peripheral fat as compared to both LD/LD and dLAN/LD mice, suggesting peripheral inflammation is induced by dLAN, but not sustained after return to LD. These results suggest that re-exposure to dark nights ameliorates metabolic disruption caused by dLAN exposure. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  19. Repletion of branched chain amino acids reverses mTORC1 signaling but not improved metabolism during dietary protein dilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maida, Adriano; Chan, Jessica S K; Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein dilution (PD) has been associated with metabolic advantages such as improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. This phenotype involves liver-induced release of FGF21 in response to amino acid insufficiency; however, it has remained unclear whether...... dietary dilution of specific amino acids (AAs) is also required. Circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are sensitive to protein intake, elevated in the serum of obese humans and mice and thought to promote insulin resistance. We tested whether replenishment of dietary BCAAs to an AA-diluted (AAD......) diet is sufficient to reverse the glucoregulatory benefits of dietary PD. METHODS: We conducted AA profiling of serum from healthy humans and lean and high fat-fed or New Zealand obese (NZO) mice following dietary PD. We fed wildtype and NZO mice one of three amino acid defined diets: control, total...

  20. Is reversal of endothelial dysfunction by tea related to flavonoid metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Puddey, Ian B; Burke, Valerie; Croft, Kevin D

    2006-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids can improve endothelial function, but the response varies between individuals. Wide variability is also seen in flavonoid O-methylation, a major pathway of flavonoid metabolism. The O-methylation of flavonoids could alter activity, and thus influence any effect on endothelial function. The objective of the current analysis was to investigate whether variability in the endothelial function response to ingestion of tea, a rich source of flavonoids, is related to the degree of O-methylation of flavonoids. This relationship was investigated in two studies in which endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed and urinary 4-O-methylgallic acid (4OMGA) excretion was used as a marker of the O-methylation of tea-derived flavonoids. In the first study, amongst participants consuming five cups of tea per day for 4 weeks, the degree of increase in 4OMGA excretion was inversely associated with the change in FMD responses (r -078, P=0.008). In the second study, there was a significant difference in the FMD responses to acute ingestion of three cups of tea between individuals with a low (median) 4OMGA response (1.94 (sem 0.79) % and -0.25 (sem 0.53) %, respectively; P=0.03). That is, any improvement in FMD following ingestion of tea may be enhanced in individuals who O-methylate less of the absorbed flavonoids. The present results are consistent with the suggestion that differences in flavonoid metabolism may influence their effect on endothelial function. Thus, differences in flavonoid metabolism could be related to the level of benefit of dietary flavonoids on the risk of CVD.

  1. Resveratrol Intake During Pregnancy and Lactation Modulates the Early Metabolic Effects of Maternal Nutrition Differently in Male and Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Purificación; Díaz, Francisca; Freire-Regatillo, Alejandra; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Barrios, Vicente; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2018-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition can have detrimental long-term consequences on energy homeostasis in the offspring. Resveratrol exerts antioxidant and antiobesity actions, but its impact during development remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation could improve the effects of poor maternal nutrition on offspring metabolism. Wistar rats received a low-fat diet (LFD; 10.2% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 61.6% kcal from fat), with half of each group receiving resveratrol in their drinking water (50 mg/L) during pregnancy and lactation. Body weight (BW) of dams was measured at treatment onset and weaning [postnatal day (PND) 21] and of pups at birth and PND21, at which time dams and pups were euthanized. Although HFD dams consumed more energy, their BW at the end of lactation was unaffected. Mean litter size was not modified by maternal diet or resveratrol. At birth, male offspring from HFD and resveratrol (HFD + R) dams weighed less than those from LFD and resveratrol (LFD + R) dams. On PND21, pups of both sexes from HFD dams weighed more, had more visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT), and had higher serum leptin levels than those from LFD dams. Resveratrol reduced BW, leptin, VAT, and SCAT, with females being more affected, but increased glycemia. Neuropeptide levels were unaffected by resveratrol. In conclusion, resveratrol intake during pregnancy and lactation decreased BW and adipose tissue content in offspring of dams on an HFD but did not affect offspring from LFD-fed dams, suggesting that the potential protective effects of resveratrol during gestation/lactation are diet dependent. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  2. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-01-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. PMID:22152095

  3. MiADMSA reverses impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism and neuronal apoptotic cell death after arsenic exposure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Mehta, Ashish; Yadav, Abhishek [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior-474 002 (India); Binukumar, B.K.; Gill, Kiran Dip [Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh-160 012 (India); Flora, Swaran J.S., E-mail: sjsflora@hotmail.com [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior-474 002 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Arsenicosis, due to contaminated drinking water, is a serious health hazard in terms of morbidity and mortality. Arsenic induced free radicals generated are known to cause cellular apoptosis through mitochondrial driven pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of arsenic interactions with various complexes of the electron transport chain and attempted to evaluate if there was any complex preference of arsenic that could trigger apoptosis. We also evaluated if chelation with monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) could reverse these detrimental effects. Our results indicate that arsenic exposure induced free radical generation in rat neuronal cells, which diminished mitochondrial potential and enzyme activities of all the complexes of the electron transport chain. Moreover, these complexes showed differential responses towards arsenic. These early events along with diminished ATP levels could be co-related with the later events of cytosolic migration of cytochrome c, altered bax/bcl{sub 2} ratio, and increased caspase 3 activity. Although MiADMSA could reverse most of these arsenic-induced altered variables to various extents, DNA damage remained unaffected. Our study for the first time demonstrates the differential effect of arsenic on the complexes leading to deficits in bioenergetics leading to apoptosis in rat brain. However, more in depth studies are warranted for better understanding of arsenic interactions with the mitochondria. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic impairs mitochondrial energy metabolism leading to neuronal apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic differentially affects mitochondrial complexes, I - III and IV being more sensitive than complex II. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic-induced apoptosis initiates through ROS generation or impaired [Ca{sup 2+}]i homeostasis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MiADMSA reverses arsenic toxicity via intracellular arsenic- chelation, antioxidant

  4. Impact of folic acid intake during pregnancy on genomic imprinting of IGF2/H19 and 1-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserga, Aggeliki; Binder, Alexandra M; Michels, Karin B

    2017-12-01

    Folic acid is an essential component of 1-carbon metabolism, which generates methyl groups for DNA methylation. Disruption of genomic imprinting leads to biallelic expression which may affect disease susceptibility possibly reflected in high levels of S -adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) and low levels of S -adenosyl-methionine (SAM). We investigated the association between folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2 and H19 genes in placentas and cord blood of 90 mother-child dyads in association with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) genotype. Pyrosequencing was used to evaluate deviation from monoallelic expression among 47 placentas heterozygous for H19 and 37 placentas and cord blood tissues heterozygous for IGF2 and H19 methylation levels of 48 placentas. We detected relaxation of imprinting (ROI) and LOI of H19 in placentas not associated with differences in methylation levels of the H19ICR. Placentas retained monoallelic allele-specific gene expression of IGF2 , but 32.4% of cord blood samples displayed LOI of IGF2 and 10.8% showed ROI. High SAH levels were significantly associated with low H19 methylation. An interesting positive association between SAM/SAH ratio and high H19 methylation levels was detected among infants with low B 12 levels. Our data suggest profound differences in regulation of imprinting in placenta and cord blood; a lack of correlation of the methylome, transcriptome, and proteome; and a complex regulatory feedback network between free methyl groups and genomic imprinting at birth.-Tserga, A., Binder, A. M., Michels, K. B. Impact of folic acid intake during pregnancy on genomic imprinting of IGF2/H19 and 1-carbon metabolism. © FASEB.

  5. Osteoporotic cytokines and bone metabolism on rats with induced hyperthyroidism; changes as a result of reversal to euthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Gönül; Karter, Yesari; Aydin, Seval; Uzun, Hafize

    2003-12-31

    Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased bone turnover and resorptive activity. Raised levels of serum osteoporotic cytokines, such as interleukin (IL) -1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha have been demonstrated previously in hyperthyroidism. These elevations are controversial and it is difficult to differentiate the contribution of thyroid hormones to the elevation of cytokines from that of the autoimmune inflammation in Graves' disease (GD) and follicular cell damage in thyroiditis. Therefore, we investigated the effect of thyroid hormones on serum IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha levels and bone metabolism on L-thyroxine induced hyperthyroid rats and changes in cytokine levels and bone metabolism on the same rats after reversal to euthyroidism. Rats were treated with L-thyroxine for 5 weeks (0.4 mg/ 100 g food). Plasma T3, T4, TSH and serum IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, Calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), parathyroid hormone (PTH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) levels were measured and differential leucocyte counts were made initially, at the 5th week of the experiment (hyperthyroid state) and 5 weeks after quitting the administration of L-thyroxine (euthyroid state). Significant rises in serum IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNFalpha were noted in hyperthyroidism (P hyperthyroid state while there was no correlation in euthyroid states. Ca and P levels did not differ significantly while PTH levels declined significantly in the hyperthyroid state (P hyperthyroidism (P hyperthyroid state (P metabolism in hyperthyroidism might be mediated by cytokines and the increased bone turnover in hyperthyroidism failed to decrease despite euthyroidism.

  6. Effects of Dietary Flavonoids on Reverse Cholesterol Transport, HDL Metabolism, and HDL Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Courtney L; Duclos, Quinn; Blesso, Christopher N

    2017-03-01

    Strong experimental evidence confirms that HDL directly alleviates atherosclerosis. HDL particles display diverse atheroprotective functions in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic processes. In certain inflammatory disease states, however, HDL particles may become dysfunctional and proatherogenic. Flavonoids show the potential to improve HDL function through their well-documented effects on cellular antioxidant status and inflammation. The aim of this review is to summarize the basic science and clinical research examining the effects of dietary flavonoids on RCT and HDL function. Based on preclinical studies that used cell culture and rodent models, it appears that many flavonoids (e.g., anthocyanidins, flavonols, and flavone subclasses) influence RCT and HDL function beyond simple HDL cholesterol concentration by regulating cellular cholesterol efflux from macrophages and hepatic paraoxonase 1 expression and activity. In clinical studies, dietary anthocyanin intake is associated with beneficial changes in serum biomarkers related to HDL function in a variety of human populations (e.g., in those who are hyperlipidemic, hypertensive, or diabetic), including increased HDL cholesterol concentration, as well as HDL antioxidant and cholesterol efflux capacities. However, clinical research on HDL functionality is lacking for some flavonoid subclasses (e.g., flavanols, flavones, flavanones, and isoflavones). Although there has been a tremendous effort to develop HDL-targeted drug therapies, more research is warranted on how the intake of foods or specific nutrients affects HDL function. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; van Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-03-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High fructose consumption in pregnancy alters the perinatal environment without increasing metabolic disease in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineker, Christopher; Kerr, Paul M; Nguyen, Patricia; Bloor, Ian; Astbury, Stuart; Patel, Nikhil; Budge, Helen; Hemmings, Denise G; Plane, Frances; Symonds, Michael E; Bell, Rhonda C

    2016-10-01

    Maternal carbohydrate intake is one important determinant of fetal body composition, but whether increased exposure to individual sugars has long-term adverse effects on the offspring is not well established. Therefore, we examined the effect of fructose feeding on the mother, placenta, fetus and her offspring up to 6 months of life when they had been weaned onto a standard rodent diet and not exposed to additional fructose. Dams fed fructose were fatter, had raised plasma insulin and triglycerides from mid-gestation and higher glucose near term. Maternal resistance arteries showed changes in function that could negatively affect regulation of blood pressure and tissue perfusion in the mother and development of the fetus. Fructose feeding had no effect on placental weight or fetal metabolic profiles, but placental gene expression for the glucose transporter GLUT1 was reduced, whereas the abundance of sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter-2 was raised. Offspring born to fructose-fed and control dams were similar at birth and had similar post-weaning growth rates, and neither fat mass nor metabolic profiles were affected. In conclusion, raised fructose consumption during reproduction results in pronounced maternal metabolic and vascular effects, but no major detrimental metabolic effects were observed in offspring up to 6 months of age.

  9. Determinants of maternal pregnancy one-carbon metabolism and newborn human DNA methylation profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H. van Mil (Nina); M.I. Bouwl-Both (Marieke I.); L. Stolk (Lisette); M.M.P.J. Verbiest (Michael); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMaternal one-carbon (1-C) metabolism provides methylgroups for fetal development and programing by DNA methylation as one of the underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We aimed to investigate maternal 1-C biomarkers, folic acid supplement use, and MTHFR C677T genotype as determinants of 1-C

  10. Regular exercise training reverses ectonucleotidase alterations and reduces hyperaggregation of platelets in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Caroline Curry; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Zanini, Daniela; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Dalenogare, Diéssica Padilha; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Morsch, Vera Maria

    2016-02-15

    Alterations in the activity of ectonucleotidase enzymes have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, whereas regular exercise training has been shown to prevent these alterations. However, nothing is known about it relating to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated the effect of exercise training on platelet ectonucleotidase enzymes and on the aggregation profile of MetS patients. We studied 38 MetS patients who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical profiles, hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets and platelet aggregation were collected from patients before and after the exercise intervention as well as from individuals of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) and a decrease in adenosine deamination in the platelets of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training (Pexercise training prevented platelet hyperaggregation in addition to decrease the classic cardiovascular risks. An alteration of ectonucleotidase enzymes occurs during MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on these enzymes and on platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Uptake and metabolism of structured triglyceride by Caco-2 cells: reversal of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalinger, J H; Seidman, E G; Lepage, G; Ménard, D; Gavino, V; Levy, E

    1998-10-01

    Structured lipids have been proposed as efficient vehicles for the supplementation of essential fatty acids (EFA) to patients with malabsorption. We investigated how a novel structured triglyceride (STG), containing purely octanoic acid in the sn-1/sn-3 and [14C]linoleic acid in the sn-2 positions, was incorporated into different lipid classes in Caco-2 cells. We also evaluated the contribution of gastric lipase in the uptake and metabolism of [14C]linoleic acid from the STG. We furthermore determined the potential of the STG to correct EFA deficiency induced in Caco-2 cells. The absorption of STG by Caco-2 cells was significantly greater compared with that of triolein. The addition of human gastric lipase significantly enhanced cellular uptake of the labeled substrate, reflecting the stereoselectivity of gastric lipase to hydrolyze medium chain FA. Analysis of the intracellular lipids synthesized revealed a predominance of phospholipids-monoglycerides. Most of the radioactivity in the lipoproteins isolated from Caco-2 cells was recovered in TG-rich lipoproteins (45%) and to a lesser extent in the high-density lipoprotein (36%) and low-density lipoprotein (17%) fractions. The administration of STG to Caco-2 cells rendered EFA deficient produced a marked increase of the cellular level of linoleic and arachidonic acids. This resulted in a lower ratio of 20:3(n-9) to 20:4(n-6), reflecting the correction of EFA deficiency in Caco-2 cells. Our data demonstrate that STG, in the presence of gastric lipase, have beneficial effects on lipid incorporation, lipoprotein production, and EFA status, utilizing Caco-2 cells as a model of EFA deficiency.

  12. Maternal Diabetes in Pregnancy: Early and Long-Term Outcomes on the Offspring and the Concept of “Metabolic Memory”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akadiri Yessoufou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse outcomes on the offspring from maternal diabetes in pregnancy are substantially documented. In this paper, we report main knowledge on impacts of maternal diabetes on early and long-term health of the offspring, with specific comments on maternal obesity. The main adverse outcome on progenies from pregnancy complicated with maternal diabetes appears to be macrosomia, as it is commonly known that intrauterine exposure to hyperglycemia increases the risk and programs the offspring to develop diabetes and/or obesity at adulthood. This “fetal programming”, due to intrauterine diabetic milieu, is termed as “metabolic memory”. In gestational diabetes as well as in macrosomia, the complications include metabolic abnormalities, degraded antioxidant status, disrupted immune system and potential metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Furthermore, there is evidence that maternal obesity may also increase the risk of obesity and diabetes in offspring. However, women with GDM possibly exhibit greater macrosomia than obese women. Obesity and diabetes in pregnancy have independent and additive effects on obstetric complications, and both require proper management. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal obesity is essential for maternal and offspring's good health. Increasing physical activity, preventing gestational weight gain, and having some qualitative nutritional habits may be beneficial during both the pregnancy and offspring's future life.

  13. Reversible oligohydramnios in the second trimester of pregnancy in two patients with long-term diclofenac exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherneck, Stephan; Schöpa, Franziska Lilli; Entezami, Michael; Kayser, Angela; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Schaefer, Christof

    2015-12-01

    The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like diclofenac in the third trimester of pregnancy can cause severe side effects, in particular oligohydramnios, premature closure of ductus arteriosus, and fetal kidney damage. However, the treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs until gestational week 28 is accepted as relatively safe. Here we describe two retrospectively reported cases of early-onset oligohydramnios associated with long-term diclofenac exposure of at least 150mg per day. The pathological findings were detected at gestational weeks 22 and 23, respectively. Amniotic fluid turned to normal after discontinuation of diclofenac in both cases, suggesting causality. Although early-onset oligohydramnios is a rare complication, caution for long-term diclofenac use in high doses is recommended even before gestational week 28. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects Of Walker 256 Carcinoma On Metabolic Alterations During The Evolution Of Pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Cintra-Gomes M.C.; Cury L.; Parreira M.R.; Elias C.F.; Areas M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The control of pregnant cancer patients is difficult because it involves both mother and fetus, and the metabolic alterations in the cancer host induce a massive mobilization of nutrients diverted to the neoplastic cells. The purpose of the present study was to determine the evolution of the Walker 256 carcinoma in pregnant rats and its consequences on fetal development. The results showed that the tumors displayed a very rapid rate of growth and induced a reduction in fetal weights in the pr...

  15. Transgenic neuronal expression of proopiomelanocortin attenuates hyperphagic response to fasting and reverses metabolic impairments in leptin-deficient obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Tooru M; Kelley, Kevin A; Pasinetti, Giulio M; Roberts, James L; Mobbs, Charles V

    2003-11-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression is reduced in many forms of obesity and diabetes, particularly in those attributable to deficiencies in leptin or its receptor. To assess the functional significance of POMC in mediating metabolic phenotypes associated with leptin deficiency, leptin-deficient mice bearing a transgene expressing the POMC gene under control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter were produced. The POMC transgene attenuated fasting-induced hyperphagia in wild-type mice. Furthermore, the POMC transgene partially reversed obesity, hyperphagia, and hypothermia and effectively normalized hyperglycemia, glucosuria, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in leptin-deficient mice. Effects of the POMC transgene on glucose homeostasis were independent of the partial correction of hyperphagia and obesity. Furthermore, the POMC transgene normalized the profile of hepatic and adipose gene expression associated with gluconeogenesis, glucose output, and insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that central POMC is a key modulator of glucose homeostasis and that agonists of POMC products may provide effective therapy in treating impairments in glucose homeostasis when hypothalamic POMC expression is reduced, as occurs with leptin deficiency, hypothalamic damage, and aging.

  16. Risk factors and the choice of long-acting reversible contraception following medical abortion: effect on subsequent induced abortion and unwanted pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, Riina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Mentula, Maarit

    2018-04-01

    To analyse the post-abortion effect of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) plans and initiation on the risk of subsequent unwanted pregnancy and abortion. retrospective cohort study of 666 women who underwent medical abortion between January-May 2013 at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. Altogether 159 (23.8%) women planning post-abortion use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) participated in a randomized study and had an opportunity to receive the LNG-IUS free-of-charge from the hospital. The other 507 (76.2%) women planned and obtained their contraception according to clinical routine. Demographics, planned contraception, and LARC initiation at the time of the index abortion were collected. Data on subsequent abortions were retrieved from the Finnish Abortion Register and electronic patient files until the end of 2014. During the 21 months ([median], IQR 20-22) follow-up, 54(8.1%) women requested subsequent abortions. When adjusted for age, previous pregnancies, deliveries, induced abortions and gestational-age, planning LARC for post-abortion contraception failed to prevent subsequent abortion (33 abortions/360 women, 9.2%) compared to other contraceptive plans (21/306, 6.9%) (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.68-2.17). However, verified LARC initiation decreased the abortion rate (4 abortions/177 women, 2.3%) compared to women with uncertain LARC initiation status (50/489, 10.2%) (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.48). When adjusted for LARC initiation status, age abortion (27 abortions/283 women, 9.5%) compared to women ≥25 years (27/383, 7.0%, HR1.95, 95% CI 1.04-3.67). Initiation of LARC as part of abortion service at the time of medical abortion is an important means to prevent subsequent abortion, especially among young women.

  17. Association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelei; Zhang, Xiaotian; Chen, Gong; Pei, Lijun; Xiao, Hailong; Jiang, Jiajing; Li, Jiaomei; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Duo

    2018-02-21

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of fatty acids and lipids metabolism in placenta with early spontaneous pregnancy loss (ESPL) in Chinese women. Seventy women with ESPL and 29 healthy pregnant women who asked for legal induced abortion were included in the case and control groups, respectively. The gestational age of the subject foetuses in both the case and control groups ranged from 4 to 10 weeks. The total fatty acids composition in the decidual and villous tissues was detected by gas-liquid chromatography using a standard method. Metabonomics analysis of the decidual and villous tissues was conducted by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOFMS). The total C18:3n-3 in the decidual and villous tissues, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) in the decidual tissue, and total C18:2n-6 in the villous tissue were all significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. The ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3 in villous tissue was significantly higher, but prostaglandin I 2 as well as hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, leukotriene B 5 and thromboxane B 3 in the villous tissue were significantly lower in the case group than in the control group. In addition, the low content of lysophosphatide in the decidual and villous tissues and the low content of diacylglycerol in the villous tissue were also associated with the occurance of ESPL. In conclusion, the lack of essential fatty acids, high ratio of C20:4n-6/C20:5n-3, abnormal eicosanoids metabolism and low content of lysophosphatide and diacylglycerol in the placenta were all potential risk factors for ESPL in Chinese.

  18. Effects of Walker 256 carcinoma on metabolic alterations during the evolution of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra-Gomes, M C; Cury, L; Parreira, M R; Elias, C F; Areas, M A

    1990-01-01

    The control of pregnant cancer patients is difficult because it involves both mother and fetus, and the metabolic alterations in the cancer host induce a massive mobilization of nutrients diverted to the neoplastic cells. The purpose of the present study was to determine the evolution of the Walker 256 carcinoma in pregnant rats and its consequences on fetal development. The results showed that the tumors displayed a very rapid rate of growth and induced a reduction in fetal weights in the pregnant tumor-bearing rats. The tumor-bearing and pregnant tumor-bearing groups showed a decrease in blood glucose and total serum protein, suggesting an increase in energy utilization of these substrates and synthetic activity by the tumoral cells. An imbalance between protein synthesis and catabolism may occur in the tumor-bearing rats which may be related to the degree of nutritional depletion.

  19. Reversal of brain metabolic abnormalities following treatment of AIDS dementia complex with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine): a PET-FDG study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, A.; Berg, G.; Di Chiro, G.

    1989-01-01

    Brain glucose metabolism was evaluated in four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex using [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans at the beginning of therapy with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine), and later in the course of therapy. In two patients, baseline, large focal cortical abnormalities of glucose utilization were reversed during the course of therapy. In the other two patients, the initial PET study did not reveal pronounced focal alterations, while the post-treatment scans showed markedly increased cortical glucose metabolism. The improved cortical glucose utilization was accompanied in all patients by immunologic and neurologic improvement. PET-FDG studies can detect cortical metabolic abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex, and may be used to monitor the metabolic improvement in response to AZT treatment

  20. PDK4 Inhibits Cardiac Pyruvate Oxidation in Late Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Laura X; Rowe, Glenn C; Yang, Steven; Li, Jian; Damilano, Federico; Chan, Mun Chun; Lu, Wenyun; Jang, Cholsoon; Wada, Shogo; Morley, Michael; Hesse, Michael; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Das, Saumya; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Arany, Zoltan

    2017-12-08

    Pregnancy profoundly alters maternal physiology. The heart hypertrophies during pregnancy, but its metabolic adaptations, are not well understood. To determine the mechanisms underlying cardiac substrate use during pregnancy. We use here 13 C glucose, 13 C lactate, and 13 C fatty acid tracing analyses to show that hearts in late pregnant mice increase fatty acid uptake and oxidation into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, while reducing glucose and lactate oxidation. Mitochondrial quantity, morphology, and function do not seem altered. Insulin signaling seems intact, and the abundance and localization of the major fatty acid and glucose transporters, CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36) and GLUT4 (glucose transporter type 4), are also unchanged. Rather, we find that the pregnancy hormone progesterone induces PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4) in cardiomyocytes and that elevated PDK4 levels in late pregnancy lead to inhibition of PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) and pyruvate flux into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Blocking PDK4 reverses the metabolic changes seen in hearts in late pregnancy. Taken together, these data indicate that the hormonal environment of late pregnancy promotes metabolic remodeling in the heart at the level of PDH, rather than at the level of insulin signaling. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Nutritional Intervention Preconception and During Pregnancy to Maintain Healthy Glucose Metabolism and Offspring Health ("NiPPeR"): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Keith M; Cutfield, Wayne; Chan, Shiao-Yng; Baker, Philip N; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2017-03-20

    Improved maternal nutrition and glycaemic control before and during pregnancy are thought to benefit the health of the mother, with consequent benefits for infant body composition and later obesity risk. Maternal insulin resistance and glycaemia around conception and in early pregnancy may be key determinants of maternal physiology and placental function, affecting fetal nutrient supply and maternal-feto-placental communications throughout gestation, with implications for later postnatal health. This double-blind randomised controlled trial will recruit up to 1800 women, aged 18-38 years, who are planning a pregnancy in the United Kingdom (UK), Singapore and New Zealand, with a view to studying 600 pregnancies. The primary outcome is maternal glucose tolerance at 28 weeks' gestation following an oral glucose tolerance test. Secondary outcomes include metabolic, molecular and health-related outcomes in the mother and offspring, notably infant body composition. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive a twice-daily control nutritional drink, enriched with standard micronutrients, or a twice-daily intervention nutritional drink enriched with additional micronutrients, myo-inositol and probiotics, both demonstrated previously to assist in maintaining healthy glucose metabolism during pregnancy. Myo-inositol is a nutrient that enhances cellular glucose uptake. The additional micronutrients seek to address deficiencies of some B-group vitamins and vitamin D that are both common during pregnancy and that have been associated with maternal dysglycaemia, epigenetic changes and greater offspring adiposity. Women who conceive within a year of starting the nutritional drinks will be followed through pregnancy and studied with their infants at six time points during the first year of life. Blood, urine/stool, hair and cheek swabs will be collected from the mothers for genetic, epigenetic, hormone, nutrient and metabolite measurements, and assessments of the mother

  2. Maternal high fructose and low protein consumption during pregnancy and lactation share some but not all effects on early-life growth and metabolic programming of rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Zou, Mi; Teegarden, Dorothy; Buhman, Kimberly K; Donkin, Shawn S

    2016-09-01

    Maternal nutritional stress during pregnancy acts to program offspring metabolism. We hypothesized that the nutritional stress caused by maternal fructose or low protein intake during pregnancy would program the offspring to develop metabolic aberrations that would be exacerbated by a diet rich in fructose or fat during adult life. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the fetal programming effects of maternal fructose with the established programming model of a low-protein diet on offspring. Male offspring from Sprague-Dawley dams fed a 60% starch control diet, a 60% fructose diet, or a low-protein diet throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto either a 60% starch control diet, 60% fructose diet, or a 30% fat diet for 15 weeks. Offspring from low-protein and fructose-fed dam showed retarded growth (Pprotein dams (1.31 vs 0.89, 0.85; confidence interval, 0.78-1.04). Similarly, maternal fructose (P=.09) and low-protein (Pprotein restriction such as retarded growth, but is unique in programming of selected hepatic and intestinal transcripts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Combined metformin and insulin treatment reverses metabolically impaired omental adipogenesis and accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal in obese diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morana Jaganjac

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obesity-associated impaired fat accumulation in the visceral adipose tissue can lead to ectopic fat deposition and increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. This study investigated whether impaired adipogenesis of omental (OM adipose tissues and elevated 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE accumulation contribute to this process, and if combined metformin and insulin treatment in T2DM patients could rescue this phenotype. Methods: OM adipose tissues were obtained from forty clinically well characterized obese individuals during weight reduction surgery. Levels of 4-HNE protein adducts, adipocyte size and number of macrophages were determined within these tissues by immunohistochemistry. Adipogenic capacity and gene expression profiles were assessed in preadipocytes derived from these tissues in relation to insulin resistance and in response to 4-HNE, metformin or combined metformin and insulin treatment. Results: Preadipocytes isolated from insulin resistant (IR and T2DM individuals exhibited lower adipogenesis, marked by upregulation of anti-adipogenic genes, compared to preadipocytes derived from insulin sensitive (IS individuals. Impaired adipogenesis was also associated with increased 4-HNE levels, smaller adipocytes and greater macrophage presence in the adipose tissues. Within the T2DM group, preadipocytes from combined metformin and insulin treated subset showed better in vitro adipogenesis compared to metformin alone, which was associated with less presence of macrophages and 4-HNE in the adipose tissues. Treatment of preadipocytes in vitro with 4-HNE reduced their adipogenesis and increased proliferation, even in the presence of metformin, which was partially rescued by the presence of insulin. Conclusion: This study reveals involvement of 4-HNE in the impaired OM adipogenesis-associated with insulin resistance and T2DM and provides a proof of concept that this impairment can be reversed by the synergistic

  4. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  5. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring? A prospective study over two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte; Hammer Bech, Bodil; Brink Henriksen, Tine; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2013-08-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring. Longitudinal study where 965 pregnant women during 1988-1989 had four dimensions of PA assessed by questionnaires in gestation week 30: PA at work; leisure time PA, daily amount of walking-biking and sport participation. The following MS markers were assessed in the offspring (n=439): body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance as well as fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol), insulin and leptin levels. Walking-biking PA in pregnancy is associated with unchanged or subtle, adverse changes of distinct MS markers among offspring including lower levels of HDL cholesterol (ratio 0.95 (95% CI 0.92 to 0.98) per 1 h increment in walking-biking), a higher diastolic blood pressure (difference 1.12 (95% CI 0.03 to 2.20) mm Hg/1 h increment) and a higher BMI (ratio 1.03 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.05) per 1 h increment). In separate analyses in males, these associations persisted and additional adverse associations were found for triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and leptin. No associations were detected with other measures of PA. The study did not substantiate any protective effects of PA in pregnancy. In contrast, data suggested that high amounts of daily walking-biking in pregnancy may have adverse effects on levels of HDL cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure and BMI in young adult offspring.

  6. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Pathophysiology, adiagnosis and treatment of post-pregnancy osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Takumi

    Post-pregnancy osteoporosis is a rare condition with little known pathophysiology. Most cases are diagnosed in the late stage of pregnancy or in the post-partum while breastfeeding, particularly in first pregnancy. Vertebral fractures are most commonly observed and characterized by prolonged severe pain and functional limitations. Measurements of bone mineral density(BMD)of the lumbar spine and proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA)are the clinical methods most commonly used for no fracture women. Conventional radiography will confirm the fracture in most cases, and magnetic resonance(MR), which can be safely used during pregnancy, is effective in detecting vertebral fractures and bone marrow edema. Although the bone resorption increased at the end of pregnancy and lactation, the bone formation increases and the bone structure is almost recovered after cessation of lactating in postpartum. There is much uncertainty about whether pharmacological treatments should be used for osteoporosis that presents during pregnancy and lactation. This is partly because of the lack of a firm evidence base for treatment and also because there is a spontaneous recovery of bone mass and strength after pregnancy or weaning.

  7. Repletion of branched chain amino acids reverses mTORC1 signaling but not improved metabolism during dietary protein dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Maida

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Repletion of BCAAs in dietary PD is sufficient to oppose changes in somatic mTORC1 signaling but does not reverse the hepatic ISR nor induce insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes during dietary PD.

  8. Sleep Duration and Midday Napping with 5-Year Incidence and Reversion of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liangle; Xu, Zengguang; He, Meian; Yang, Handong; Li, Xiulou; Min, Xinwen; Zhang, Ce; Xu, Chengwei; Angileri, Francesca; Légaré, Sébastien; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Xiaoping; Guo, Huan; Yao, Ping; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2016-11-01

    Prospective evidence on the association of sleep duration and midday napping with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is limited. We aimed to examine the associations of sleep duration and midday napping with risk of incidence and reversion of MetS and its components among a middle-aged and older Chinese population. We included 14,399 subjects from the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) Cohort Study (2008-2013) who were free of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer at baseline. Baseline data were obtained by questionnaires and health examinations. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. After controlling for potential covariates, longer sleep duration (≥ 9 h) was associated with a higher risk of MetS incidence (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08-1.55) and lower reversion of MetS (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96) compared with sleep duration of 7 to napping, subjects with longer napping (≥ 90 min) was also associated with a higher risk of MetS incidence and a lower risk of MetS reversion compared with those with napping of 1 to napping categories. Both longer sleep duration and longer midday napping were potential risk factors for MetS incidence, and concurrently exert adverse effects on MetS reversion. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Subclinical inflammation during third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with markers of the metabolic syndrome in young adult offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    for maternal smoking during pregnancy, height, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), education, and offspring's sex. Offspring MS markers included waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, HOMA insulin resistance, and plasma levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol fractions, insulin, and leptin...

  10. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  11. Associations of circulating calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D with glucose metabolism in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study in European and South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Donald C; Scally, Andrew J; Tuffnell, Derek J; Davies, T Jeffrey; Fraser, William D; Bhopal, Raj S; Wright, John; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is thought to impair insulin action and glucose metabolism; however, previous studies have not examined ethnic differences or the influence of calcium and parathyroid hormone. We investigated this in a cohort of predominantly white European and south Asian women during pregnancy. In this cross-sectional study from an urban population in northern England (53.8°N), 1467 women were recruited when undergoing glucose tolerance testing (75 g oral glucose tolerance test) at 26 weeks' gestation. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was diagnosed in 137 women (9.3%). Median 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration for the study population was 9.3 ng/mL (interquartile range 5.2, 16.9) and was higher in European [15.2 ng/mL (10.7, 23.5)] than in south Asian women [5.9 ng/mL (3.9, 9.4), P Asian women. These findings do not indicate any important association between vitamin D status and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Relationships between circulating calcium and glucose metabolism warrant further investigation.

  12. Reduced Cortisol and Metabolic Responses of Thin Ewes to an Acute Cold Challenge in Mid-Pregnancy: Implications for Animal Physiology and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Else; Oliver, Mark Hope; Waas, Joseph Rupert; McLeay, Lance Maxwell; Blache, Dominique; Matthews, Lindsay Ross

    2012-01-01

    Background Low food availability leading to reductions in Body Condition Score (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity) in sheep often coincides with low temperatures associated with the onset of winter in New Zealand. The ability to adapt to reductions in environmental temperature may be impaired in animals with low BCS, in particular during pregnancy when metabolic demand is higher. Here we assess whether BCS affects a pregnant animal's ability to cope with cold challenges. Methods Eighteen pregnant ewes with a BCS of 2.7±0.1 were fed to attain low (LBC: BCS2.3±0.1), medium (MBC: BCS3.2±0.2) or high BCS (HBC: BCS3.6±0.2). Shorn ewes were exposed to a 6-h acute cold challenge in a climate-controlled room (wet and windy conditions, 4.4±0.1°C) in mid-pregnancy. Blood samples were collected during the BCS change phase, acute cold challenge and recovery phase. Results During the BCS change phase, plasma glucose and leptin concentrations declined while free fatty acids (FFA) increased in LBC compared to MBC (Pewes (Pewes (Pewes (Pewes while remaining unchanged in LBC ewes (Pewes (Pewes (Pewes were able to increase Tcore and mobilize glucose, low BCS animals had considerably reduced cortisol and metabolic responses to a cold challenge in mid-pregnancy, suggesting that their ability to adapt to cold challenges through some of the expected pathways was reduced. PMID:22662144

  13. Changes in the metabolic footprint of placental explant-conditioned medium cultured in different oxygen tensions from placentas of small for gestational age and normal pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, R P

    2012-01-31

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers significantly increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that an SGA fetus results from a poorly perfused and abnormally developed placenta. Some of the placental features seen in SGA, such as abnormal cell turnover and impaired nutrient transport, can be reproduced by culture of placental explants in hypoxic conditions. Metabolic footprinting offers a hypothesis-generating strategy to investigate factors absorbed by and released from this tissue in vitro. Previously, metabolic footprinting of the conditioned culture media has identified differences in placental explants cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and between normal pregnancies and those complicated by pre-eclampsia. In this study we aimed to examine the differences in the metabolic footprint of placental villous explants cultured at different oxygen (O(2)) tensions between women who deliver an SGA baby (n = 9) and those from normal controls (n = 8). Placental villous explants from cases and controls were cultured for 96 h in 1% (hypoxic), 6% (normoxic) and 20% (hyperoxic) O(2). Metabolic footprints were analysed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to an electrospray hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). 574 metabolite features showed significant difference between SGA and normal at one or more of the oxygen tensions. SGA explant media cultured under hypoxic conditions was observed, on a univariate level, to exhibit the same metabolic signature as controls cultured under normoxic conditions in 49% of the metabolites of interest, suggesting that SGA tissue is acclimatised to hypoxic conditions in vivo. No such behaviour was observed under hyperoxic culture conditions. Glycerophospholipid and tryptophan metabolism were highlighted as areas of particular interest.

  14. Androgen deficiency during mid- and late pregnancy alters progesterone production and metabolism in the porcine corpus luteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Malgorzata; Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E; Golas, Aniela; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

    2014-06-01

    We determined whether androgen deficiency induced by flutamide treatment during mid- and late pregnancy affects the functions of the porcine corpus luteum (CL). Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide between days 43 and 49 (gestation day [GD] 50F), days 83 and 89 (GD90F), or days 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Antiandrogen treatment increased the luteal progesterone concentration in the GD50F group and decreased progesterone content in the GD90F and GD108F groups. Luteal levels of side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated in the GD90F and GD108F groups as compared with the respective controls. The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (HSD3B) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced only in the GD108F group as compared with the control. Decreased luteal 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C1) mRNA and protein levels were observed in the GD50F group. Thus, androgen deficiency during pregnancy in pigs led to CL dysfunction that is marked by decreased progesterone production. Furthermore, exposure to flutamide during late pregnancy downregulated steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1 and HSD3B) in pigs. We conclude that androgens are important regulators of CL function during pregnancy.

  15. Virgin coconut oil reverses hepatic steatosis by restoring redox homeostasis and lipid metabolism in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Palliyil, Devika Mukundan; Kuruvilla, Kezia; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2018-03-01

    Hepatosteatosis, a form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is being increasingly recognized as a major health burden worldwide. Insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and imbalances in adipokine/cytokine interplay are reported to be involved in the onset and progression of this disease. Use of dietary nutraceuticals in prevention and treatment of NAFLD is emerging. Virgin coconut oil (VCO), a fermented product of fresh coconut kernel, has been shown to impede the development of hepatosteatosis in rats. This study analyzes the potential of VCO to reverse the already developed hepatosteatosis condition. Hyperglycemia, reduced glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic macrovesicles in high-fructose-diet-fed rats (4 weeks) confirmed the development of hepatosteatosis. Natural reversion in these parameters was observed upon shifting to normal diet in untreated control animals. Administration of VCO, however, increased this natural reversion by improving high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (53.5%) and reducing hepatic and serum triacylglycerols (78.0 and 51.7%). Increased hepatic glutathione level (P < 0.01), antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) and reduced lipid peroxidation were also noticed in these animals. These observations were in concordance with reduced liver enzyme activities (P < 0.01) and restoration of altered hepatic architecture. The study indicates that VCO can be used as a nutraceutical against hepatosteatosis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Dietary phenolic acids reverse insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Oluwayemisi B; Ajiboye, Taofeek O

    2017-12-20

    This study investigated the influence of caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic acids on high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Oral administration of the phenolic acids significantly reversed high-fructose diet-mediated increase in body mass index and blood glucose. Furthermore, phenolic acids restored high-fructose diet-mediated alterations in metabolic hormones (insulin, leptin and adiponectin). Similarly, elevated tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and -8 were significantly lowered. Administration of phenolic acids restored High-fructose diet-mediated increase in the levels of lipid parameters and indices of atherosclerosis, cardiac and cardiovascular diseases. High-fructose diet-mediated decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, protein oxidation and fragmented DNA) were significantly restored by the phenolic acids. The result of this study shows protective influence of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid in high-fructose diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  17. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  18. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yarrington, Christina; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  19. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  20. Putrescine treatment reverses α-tocopherol-induced desynchronization of polyamine and retinoid metabolism during rat liver regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Sánchez-Sevilla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pre-treatment with α-tocopherol inhibits progression of rat liver proliferation induced by partial hepatectomy (PH, by decreasing and/or desynchronizing cyclin D1 expression and activation into the nucleus, activation and nuclear translocation of STAT-1 and -3 proteins and altering retinoid metabolism. Interactions between retinoic acid and polyamines have been reported in the PH-induced rat liver regeneration. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of low dosage of α-tocopherol on PH-induced changes in polyamine metabolism. Methods This study evaluated the participation of polyamine synthesis and metabolism during α-tocopherol-induced inhibition of rat liver regeneration. In PH-rats (Wistar treated with α-tocopherol and putrescine, parameters indicative of cell proliferation, lipid peroxidation, ornithine decarboxylase expression (ODC, and polyamine levels, were determined. Results Pre-treatment with α-tocopherol to PH-animals exerted an antioxidant effect, shifting earlier the increased ODC activity and expression, temporally affecting polyamine synthesis and ornithine metabolism. Whereas administration of putrescine induced minor changes in PH-rats, the concomitant treatment actually counteracted most of adverse actions exerted by α-tocopherol on the remnant liver, restituting its proliferative potential, without changing its antioxidant effect. Putrescine administration to these rats was also associated with lower ODC expression and activity in the proliferating liver, but the temporally shifting in the amount of liver polyamines induced by α-tocopherol, was also “synchronized” by the putrescine administration. The latter is supported by the fact that a close relationship was observed between fluctuations of polyamines and retinoids. Conclusions Putrescine counteracted most adverse actions exerted by α-tocopherol on rat liver regeneration, restoring liver proliferative potential and restituting the decreased

  1. Diabetes insipidus during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) in pregnancy is a heterogeneous syndrome, most classically presenting with polyuria and polydipsia that can complicate approximately 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The presentation can involve exacerbation of central or nephrogenic DI during pregnancy, which may have been either overt or subclinical prior to pregnancy. Women without preexisting DI can also be affected by the actions of placental vasopressinase which increases in activity between the 4th and 38th weeks of gestation, leading to accelerated metabolism of AVP and causing a transient form of DI of pregnancy. This type of DI may be associated with certain complications during pregnancy and delivery, such as preeclampsia. Management of DI of pregnancy depends on the pathophysiology of the disease; forms of DI that lack AVP can be treated with desmopressin (DDAVP), while forms of DI that involve resistance to AVP require evaluation of the underlying causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluations of in vitro metabolism, drug-drug interactions mediated by reversible and time-dependent inhibition of CYPs, and plasma protein binding of MMB4 DMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S Peter; Lusiak, Bozena D; Burback, Brian L; Johnson, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    1,1'-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] (MMB4) dimethanesulfonate (DMS) is a bisquaternary pyridinium aldoxime that reactivates acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agent. Drug metabolism and plasma protein binding for MMB4 DMS were examined using various techniques and a wide range of species. When (14)C-MMB4 DMS was incubated in liver microsomes, 4-pyridine aldoxime (4-PA) and an additional metabolite were detected in all species tested. Identity of the additional metabolite was postulated to be isonicotinic acid (INA) based on liquid chromatography with a tandem mass spectrometry analysis, which was confirmed by comparison with authentic INA. Formation of INA was dependent on species, with the highest level found in monkey liver microsomes. The MMB4 DMS exhibited reversible inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner toward cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes showing the highest inhibition for CYP2D6. Human recombinant CYPs were used to evaluate inhibitory curves more adequately and determine detailed kinetic constants for reversible inhibition and potential time-dependent inhibition (TDI). The MMB4 DMS exhibited reversible inhibition toward human-recombinant CYP2D6 with an inhibition constant (K i) value of 66.6 µmol/L. Based on the k inact/K I values, MMB4 DMS was found to exhibit the most potent TDI toward CYP2D6. The MMB4 DMS at 5 different concentrations was incubated in plasma for 5 hours using an equilibrium dialysis device. For all species tested, there were no concentration-dependent changes in plasma protein binding, ranging from 10% to 17%. These results suggest that MMB4 was not extensively bound to plasma protein, and there were no overt species-related differences in the extent of MMB4 bound to plasma protein.

  3. Reduced cortisol and metabolic responses of thin ewes to an acute cold challenge in mid-pregnancy: implications for animal physiology and welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Verbeek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low food availability leading to reductions in Body Condition Score (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity in sheep often coincides with low temperatures associated with the onset of winter in New Zealand. The ability to adapt to reductions in environmental temperature may be impaired in animals with low BCS, in particular during pregnancy when metabolic demand is higher. Here we assess whether BCS affects a pregnant animal's ability to cope with cold challenges. METHODS: Eighteen pregnant ewes with a BCS of 2.7±0.1 were fed to attain low (LBC: BCS2.3±0.1, medium (MBC: BCS3.2±0.2 or high BCS (HBC: BCS3.6±0.2. Shorn ewes were exposed to a 6-h acute cold challenge in a climate-controlled room (wet and windy conditions, 4.4±0.1°C in mid-pregnancy. Blood samples were collected during the BCS change phase, acute cold challenge and recovery phase. RESULTS: During the BCS change phase, plasma glucose and leptin concentrations declined while free fatty acids (FFA increased in LBC compared to MBC (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively and HBC ewes (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively. During the cold challenge, plasma cortisol concentrations were lower in LBC than MBC (P<0.05 and HBC ewes (P<0.05, and FFA and insulin concentrations were lower in LBC than HBC ewes (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. Leptin concentrations declined in MBC and HBC ewes while remaining unchanged in LBC ewes (P<0.01. Glucose concentrations and internal body temperature (T(core increased in all treatments, although peak T(core tended to be higher in HBC ewes (P<0.1. During the recovery phase, T4 concentrations were lower in LBC ewes (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though all ewes were able to increase T(core and mobilize glucose, low BCS animals had considerably reduced cortisol and metabolic responses to a cold challenge in mid-pregnancy, suggesting that their ability to adapt to cold challenges through some of the expected pathways was reduced.

  4. Proteomics and metabolomics characterizing the pathophysiology of adaptive reactions to the metabolic challenges during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Lecchi, Cristina; Urh, Christiane; Sauerwein, Helga

    2018-04-30

    The transition from late pregnancy to early lactation is a critical period in a dairy cow's life due to the rapidly increasing drain of nutrients from the maternal organism towards the foetus and into colostrum and milk. In order to cope with the challenges of parturition and lactation, comprehensive adaptive reactions comprising the endocrine and the immune system need to be accomplished. There is high variation in this coping ability and both metabolic and infectious diseases, summarized as "production diseases", such as hypocalcaemia (milk fever), fatty liver syndrome, laminitis and ketosis, may occur and impact welfare, productive lifespan and economic outcomes. Proteomics and metabolomics have emerged as valuable techniques to characterize proteins and metabolite assets from tissue and biological fluids, such as milk, blood and urine. In this review we provide an overview on metabolic status and physiological changes during the transition period and the related production diseases in dairy cows, and summarize the state of art on proteomics and metabolomics of biological fluids and tissues involved in metabolic stress during the peripartum period. We also provide a current and prospective view of the application of the recent achievements generated by omics for biomarker discovery and their potential in diagnosis. For high-yielding dairy cows there are several "occupational diseases" that occur mainly during the metabolic challenges related to the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Such diseases and their sequelae form a major concern for dairy production, and often lead to early culling of animals. Beside the economical perspective, metabolic stress may severely influence animal welfare. There is a multitude of studies about the metabolic backgrounds of such so called production diseases like ketosis, fatty liver, or hypocalcaemia, although the investigations aiming to assess the complexity of the pathophysiological reactions are largely focused on gene

  5. Metabolismo Basal durante a gestação: revisão sistemática Basal metabolism during pregnancy: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enilce de Oliveira Fonseca Sally

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O gasto energético (GE na gestação é fundamental no aconselhamento dietético e no controle da massa corporal. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar revisão sistemática nas bases de dados bibliográficas sobre a taxa metabólica basal (TMB, maior componente do GE, durante a gestação de feto único de mulheres saudáveis. Segundo os critérios de inclusão, 37 artigos foram selecionados (24 estudos de coorte e 13 seccionais. O aumento da TMB (entre 8,0 e 35,0% ocorreu na maioria de estudos de coorte dependendo do tempo de seguimento e do estado nutricional. Nos seccionais, o aumento na TMB foi de 8,0-28,0% na fase final da gestação sobre a fase inicial ou no pós-parto. Informação precária sobre idade materna, perdas de seguimento e curto tempo de acompanhamento durante a gestação foram limitações dos estudos revisados. Em conclusão, a TMB aumenta durante a gestação e o aumento é mais intenso a partir do 2º trimestre. As estimativas mais confiáveis provêm dos poucos estudos de coorte iniciados na fase pré-gestacional.Gestational energy expenditure (EE is the basis for nutritional counseling and body weight control. The objective of this study was to systematically review the behavior of the basal metabolic rate (BMR, the major component of EE, during non gemelar pregnancy of healthy women. Based on the inclusion criteria, 37 articles were identified (24 cohort and 13 cross-sectional studies. Increases in BMR (between 8% and 35% were observed in most cohort studies and it was related to the duration of follow-up and nutritional status. In the cross-sectionals, the increase in BMR varied from 8% to 28% close to delivery in comparison with the first trimester or post-partum. Lack of information on maternal age, loss of follow-up and short duration of follow-up during the pregnancy were serious limitations in the identified studies. In conclusion, BMR increases during pregnancy, and the increase is more intense after

  6. Overfeeding Dairy Cattle During Late-Pregnancy Alters Hepatic PPARα-Regulated Pathways Including Hepatokines: Impact on Metabolism and Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Jawad; Jacometo, Carolina B; Graugnard, Daniel E; Corrêa, Marcio N; Schmitt, Eduardo; Cardoso, Felipe; Loor, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic metabolic gene networks were studied in dairy cattle fed control (CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg) or higher energy (overfed (OVE), 1.62 Mcal/kg) diets during the last 45 days of pregnancy. A total of 57 target genes encompassing PPARα-targets/co-regulators, hepatokines, growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis, lipogenesis, and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated on −14, 7, 14, and 30 days around parturition. OVE versus CON cows were in more negative energy balance (NEB) postpartum and had greater serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. Milk synthesis rate did not differ. Liver from OVE cows responded to postpartal NEB by up-regulating expression of PPARα-targets in the fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis pathways, along with gluconeogenic genes. Hepatokines (fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4)) and apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5) were up-regulated postpartum to a greater extent in OVE than CON. OVE led to greater blood insulin prepartum, lower NEFA:insulin, and greater lipogenic gene expression suggesting insulin sensitivity was not impaired. A lack of change in APOB, MTTP, and PNPLA3 coupled with upregulation of PLIN2 postpartum in cows fed OVE contributed to TAG accumulation. Postpartal responses in NEFA and FGF21 with OVE support a role of this hepatokine in diminishing adipose insulin sensitivity. PMID:24737933

  7. In Utero Exposure to a Cardiac Teratogen Causes Reversible Deficits in Postnatal Cardiovascular Function, But Altered Adaptation to the Burden of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Kristiina L; Maciver, Rebecca D; Ramchandani, Shyamlal; Adams, Michael A; Ozolinš, Terence R S

    2015-11-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common birth anomaly and while many resolve spontaneously by 1 year of age, the lifelong burden on survivors is poorly understood. Using a rat model of chemically induced CHD that resolve postnatally, we sought to characterize the postnatal changes in cardiac function, and to investigate whether resolved CHD affects the ability to adapt to the increased the cardiovascular (CV) burden of pregnancy. To generate rats with resolved CHD, pregnant rats were administered distilled water or dimethadione (DMO) [300 mg/kg b.i.d. on gestation day (gd) 9 and 10] and pups delivered naturally. To characterize structural and functional changes in the heart, treated and control offspring were scanned by echocardiography on postnatal day 4, 21, and 10-12 weeks. Radiotelemeters were implanted for continuous monitoring of hemodynamics. Females were mated and scanned by echocardiography on gd12 and gd18 during pregnancy. On gd18, maternal hearts were collected for structural and molecular assessment. Postnatal echocardiography revealed numerous structural and functional differences in treated offspring compared with control; however, these resolved by 10-12 weeks of age. The CV demand of pregnancy revealed differences between treated and control offspring with respect to mean arterial pressure, CV function, cardiac strain, and left ventricular gene expression. In utero exposure to DMO also affected the subsequent generation. Gd18 fetal and placental weights were increased in treated F2 offspring. This study demonstrates that in utero chemical exposure may permanently alter the capacity of the postnatal heart to adapt to pregnancy and this may have transgenerational effects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Dietary fatty acid composition during pregnancy and lactation in the rat programs growth and glucose metabolism in the offspring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink, M.; Verhoef, A.; Dormans, J.A.M.A.; Span, P.N.; Piersma, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS. We investigated of the effects of fatty acid composition of the maternal diet on fetal and postnatal growth, morphology of the pancreas and glucose metabolism and muscle hexosamine concentrations in the adult offspring of rats. METHODS. High-fat diets enriched with either saturated

  9. Teen pregnancy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Katherine A; Loveless, Meredith

    2014-10-01

    To provide clinicians with a review of recent research and clinically applicable tools regarding teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy rates have declined but still remain a significant problem in the USA. Teen pregnancy prevention was identified by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of its top six priorities, which is increasing research and intervention data. Long-acting contraceptive methods are acceptable to teens and have been shown to reduce teen birth rates. Pregnant teens need special attention to counseling on pregnancy options and reducing risk during pregnancy with regular prenatal care. Postpartum teens should be encouraged and supported to breastfeed, monitored for depression, and have access to reliable contraception to avoid repeat undesired pregnancy. This review highlights important issues for all providers caring for female adolescents and those who may encounter teen pregnancy. Foremost prevention of teen pregnancy by comprehensive sexual education and access to contraception is the priority. Educating patients and healthcare providers about safety and efficacy of long-acting reversible contraception is a good step to reducing undesired teen pregnancies. Rates of postpartum depression are greater in adolescents than in adults, and adolescent mothers need to be screened and monitored for depression. Strategies to avoid another undesired pregnancy shortly after delivery should be implemented.

  10. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  11. Nitrogen balance of healthy Dutch women before and during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojtahedi, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Boekholt, H.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies including longitudinal nitrogen balance studies could provide insight into protein metabolism in pregnancy. Objective: Our aim was to determine the development of nitrogen balance during pregnancy compared with nitrogen balance before pregnancy in women consuming

  12. [Thyroid and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwen, K A; Lehnert, H

    2018-05-17

    During pregnancy thyroid hormones have profound effects on embryonal/fetal development and maternal health. Therefore, thyroid gland disorders should be immediately diagnosed and adequately treated. Pregnancy-specific physiological alterations during pregnancy cause changes in the reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and trimester-specific thresholds must be taken into account. This article summarizes the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects before, during and after pregnancy. With reference to the period prior to pregnancy, the article discusses iodide supplementation, preconceptional examination of thyroid gland metabolism and the importance of thyroid gland functional disorders for fertility and fulfilling the desire to have children. With a view to the period during pregnancy, the effect of hypothyroxinemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism as well as the effects of their treatment on the development of the child are explained. Finally, a description is given of what must be paid attention to in the breast-feeding period and in postpartum thyroiditis.

  13. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks of pregnancy Ovarian cysts Anemia Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) Causes A molar pregnancy is caused by an ... have this complication than a partial molar pregnancy. Prevention If you've had a molar pregnancy, talk ...

  14. Perinatal programming of metabolic dysfunction and obesity-induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Camilla; Hellgren, Lars; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    The number of obese women in the childbearing age is drastically increasing globally. As a consequence, more children are born by obese mothers. Unfortunately, maternal obesity and/ or high fat intake during pregnancy increase the risk of developing obesity, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease...... and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the children, which passes obesity and metabolic dysfunction on from generation to generation. Several studies try to elucidate causative effects of maternal metabolic markers on the metabolic imprinting in the children; however diet induced obesity is also...... associated with chronic low grade inflammation. Nobody have yet investigated the role of this inflammatory phenotype, but here we demonst rate that obesity induced inflammation is reversed during pregnancy in mice, and is therefore less likely to affect the fetal programming of metabolic dysfunction. Instead...

  15. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  16. PREGNANCY DERMATOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Priscilla Katta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological status of a woman. Every organ is adapting in order to accept another human body. The main changes occur in the endocrine, immune, metabolic and vascular systems. The skin is no exception. Many skin changes during pregnancy are considered to be normal or physiological including striae gravidarum or melasma. These physiological skin changes are usually well tolerated by the pregnant woman. There is no balance between these systems, however, and abnormalities can appear. Immunologic status of the woman plays an important role in the manifestations exhibited in the skin. Alterations of the skin during pregnancy can be classified as physiologic skin changes, changes in pre-existing skin diseases and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 pregnant women with skin manifestations attending Dermatology and Obstetric departments attached to Government General Hospital, Kurnool, were studied. 1. A detailed proforma was taken, which included: a. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. b. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. c. Complete general physical and systemic examination. d. Associated skin/medical disorders. 2. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBsAg, VDRL, HIV 1 and 2 were done routinely. 3. KOH mount, saline mount and skin biopsy performed wherever required. Inclusion criteria- All pregnant women having skin lesions were included in the study irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and gravidity. Exclusion criteria- Pregnant women having any underlying medical diseases. All pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted into wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at KIMS Hospital are studied. 1. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. 2. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. 3. Complete general physical and systemic examination. 4. Associated skin/medical disorders. 5. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBs

  17. Fenproporex increases locomotor activity and alters energy metabolism, and mood stabilizers reverse these changes: a proposal for a new animal model of mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Furlanetto, Camila B; Scaini, Giselli; Valvassori, Samira S; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Jeremias, Isabela C; Resende, Wilson R; Cardoso, Mariane R; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-04-01

    Fenproporex (Fen) is converted in vivo into amphetamine, which is used to induce mania-like behaviors in animals. In the present study, we intend to present a new animal model of mania. In order to prove through face, construct, and predictive validities, we evaluated behavioral parameters (locomotor activity, stereotypy activity, and fecal boli amount) and brain energy metabolism (enzymes citrate synthase; malate dehydrogenase; succinate dehydrogenase; complexes I, II, II-III, and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; and creatine kinase) in rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of fenproporex, treated with lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA). The administration of Fen increased locomotor activity and decreased the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, and creatine kinase, in most brain structures evaluated. In addition, treatment with mood stabilizers prevented and reversed this effect. Our results are consistent with the literature that demonstrates behavioral changes and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by psychostimulants. These findings suggest that chronic administration of Fen may be a potential animal model of mania.

  18. Effects of pregnancy on obesity-induced inflammation in a mouse model of fetal programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Camilla; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Fernandez-Twinn, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. It is not clear whether it is the metabolic changes or chronic low-grade inflammation in the obese state that causes this metabolic programming. We therefore investigated whether low-grade infl......Objective Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. It is not clear whether it is the metabolic changes or chronic low-grade inflammation in the obese state that causes this metabolic programming. We therefore investigated whether low...... of the obese animals, which suggested that monocytes are being recruited from the blood to the liver and adipose tissue in the obese animals. Gestation reversed macrophage infiltration, such that obese dams showed a lower adipose tissue macrophage count at the end of gestation compared to pre-pregnancy obese...

  19. Pregnancy complications and metabolic disease in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant anovulation randomized to receive laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries or ovulation induction with gonadotropins: a 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahuis, Marleen J; Oude Lohuis, Eefje J; Bayram, Neriman; Hompes, Peter G A; Oosterhuis, G Jurjen E; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J; van Wely, Madelon

    2014-01-01

    To assess long-term effects of laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries compared with ovulation induction with gonadotropins in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on the incidence of pregnancy complications like gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, and metabolic or cardiovascular disease. Long-term follow-up study. Twenty-eight hospitals within the Netherlands. One hundred sixty-eight CC-resistant women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial between 1998 and 2001 comparing electrocautery and gonadotropins. Postal questionnaire, search in medical files. Pregnancy complications, metabolic or cardiovascular disease. Eighty-two percent of follow-up data were obtained. Thirteen of 68 women (19%) allocated to electrocautery, and 14 of 63 women (22%) allocated to gonadotropins had evidence for pregnancy complications (relative risk 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.43-1.7). At follow-up, 12 of 69 (17%) women allocated to electrocautery, and 13 of 69 (19%) women allocated to gonadotropins had evidence for metabolic or cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.90; 95% confidence interval 0.39-2.1). The risk of these was modified by body mass index (BMI), but not by female age or treatment allocation. This study is based on questionnaires and data from medical files. In the absence of routine screening, under-reporting in our follow-up study is likely. Electrocautery in women with CC-resistant PCOS does not affect pregnancy complications or metabolic or cardiovascular disease later in life compared with ovulation induction with gonadotropins. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Icariin reverses corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior, decrease in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and metabolic network disturbances revealed by NMR-based metabonomics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Meng-Juan; Han, Bin; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang; Zou, Zhong-jie

    2016-05-10

    Previously published reports have revealed the antidepressant-like effects of icariin in a chronic mild stress model of depression and in a social defeat stress model in mice. However, the therapeutic effect of icariin in an animal model of glucocorticoid-induced depression remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of icariin in a rat model of corticosterone (CORT)-induced depression by using a combination of behavioral and biochemical assessments and NMR-based metabonomics. The depression model was established by subcutaneous injections of CORT for 21 consecutive days in rats, as evidenced by reduced sucrose intake and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, together with an increase in immobility time in a forced swim test (FST). Icariin significantly increased sucrose intake and hippocampal BDNF level and decreased the immobility time in FST in CORT-induced depressive rats, suggesting its potent antidepressant activity. Moreover, metabonomic analysis identified eight, five and three potential biomarkers associated with depression in serum, urine and brain tissue extract, respectively. These biomarkers are primarily involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and gut microbe metabolism. Icariin reversed the pathological process of CORT-induced depression, partially via regulation of the disturbed metabolic pathways. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of icariin against CORT-induced depression and metabolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reverse Algols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reverse Algols, binary systems with a semidetached configuration in which the more massive component is in contact with the critical equipotential surface, are examined. Observational evidence for reverse Algols is presented and the parameters of seven reverse Algols are listed. The evolution of Algols and reverse Algols is discussed. It is suggested that, because reverse Algols represent the premass-reversal semidetached phase of close binary evolution, the evolutionary time scale between regular and reverse Algols is the ratio of the number of confirmed systems of these two Algol types.

  2. Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the analysis of the concept of reverse logistics and actual reverse processes which are implemented in mining industry and finding solutions for the optimization of reverse logistics in this sphere. The objective of this paper was the assessment of the development of reverse logistics in mining industry on the example of potash production. The theoretical part was based on reverse logistics and mining waste related literature and provided foundations for further...

  3. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  4. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    many applications, one of which is desalination of seawater. The inaugural Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to van 't Hoff for his seminal work in this area. The present article explains the principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis. Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis. As the name suggests, reverse osmosis is the ...

  5. Folic acid and homocyst(e)ine metabolic defects and the risk of placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and spontaneous pregnancy loss: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J G; Laskin, C A

    1999-09-01

    Placental infarction or abruption, recurrent pregnancy loss and pre-eclampsia are thought to arise due to defects within the placental vascular bed. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate, or other abnormalities within the methionine-homocyst(e)ine pathway have been implicated in the development of such placental diseases. We conducted a systematic literature review to quantify the risk of placental disease in the presence of these metabolic defects. Studies were identified through OVID Medline between 1966 and February 1999. Terms relating to the measurement of vitamin B12, folic acid, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase or homocyst(e)ine were combined with those of pre-eclampsia, placental abruption/infarction or spontaneous and habitual abortion. Human studies comprising both cases and controls and published in the English language were accepted. Their references were explored for other publications. Data were abstracted on the matching of cases with controls, the mean levels of folate, B12 or homocyst(e)ine in each group or the frequency of the homozygous state for the thermolabile variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. The definition of 'abnormal' for each exposure was noted and the presence or absence of the exposure of interest for each outcome was calculated as an absolute rate with a 95 per cent confidence interval. The crude odds ratios were calculated for each study and then pooled using a random effects model. Eighteen studies were finally included. Eight studies examined the risk of placental abruption/infarction in the presence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, or hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia. Folate deficiency was a prominent risk factor for placental abruption/infarction among four studies, though not statistically significant (pooled odds ratio 25.9, 95 per cent CI 0.9-736.3). Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia was also associated with placental abruption/infarction both without (pooled odds ratio 5.3, 95 per cent CI 1.8-15.9) and with methionine

  6. Teenage pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or family member, your partner, or your labor coach with you. Stay Healthy During Your Pregnancy You ... Pregnancy Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  7. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  8. [Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis. Differential diagnosis of "common" musculoskeletal pain during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, U; Clauss, M; Bürki, N; Lutz, T; Ilchmann, T

    2010-11-01

    Musculoskeletal pain during pregnancy and lactation is a common finding. Differential diagnoses range from"normal" findings to disturbances in bone metabolism and pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO). Imaging options are limited due to pregnancy, and laboratory diagnostics are time-consuming. Treatment of PAO with physiotherapy, pain killers and substitution of vitamin D and calcium leads to a rapid recovery from symptoms.

  9. Associations of Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain with Adult Offspring Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors: The Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Meiner, Vardiella; Sagy, Yael; Avgil-Tsadok, Meytal; Burger, Ayala; Savitsky, Bella; Siscovick, David S.; Manor, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence demonstrates that both maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (mppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) are associated with adult offspring adiposity. However, whether these maternal attributes are related to other cardio-metabolic risk factors in adulthood has not been comprehensively studied. Methods and Results We used a birth cohort of 1400 young adults born in Jerusalem, with extensive archival data as well as clinical information at age 32, to prospectively examine the associations of mppBMI and GWG with adiposity and related cardio-metabolic outcomes. Greater mppBMI, independent of GWG and confounders, was significantly associated with higher offspring BMI, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, insulin and triglycerides and with lower HDL-C. For example, the effect sizes were translated to nearly 5kg/m2 higher mean BMI, 8.4cm higher WC, 0.13mmol/L (11.4mg/dL) higher triglycerides and 0.10mmol/L (3.8mg/dL) lower HDL-C among offspring of mothers within the upper mppBMI quartile (BMI>26.4kg/m2) compared to the lower (BMI14kg) and lower (GWG<9kg) quartiles of GWG were compared. Further adjustment for offspring adiposity attenuated to null the observed associations. Conclusions Maternal size both before and during pregnancy are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in young adult offspring. The associations appear to be driven mainly by offspring adiposity. Future studies that explore mechanisms underlying the intergenerational cycle of obesity are warranted to identify potentially novel targets for cardio-metabolic risk-reduction interventions. PMID:22344037

  10. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by blood loss) lower back pain What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ... protect against sexually transmitted infections (STDs) that can cause PID. If ... about the pregnancy being ectopic, talk to your doctor — it's important ...

  11. Pregnancy & Motherhood >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking when pregnant; Pregnancy and smoking; Smoking during pregnancy; Pregnant women smoking; Smoking when pregnant effects; Pregnancy and smoking effects; Pregnant quit smoking; Pregnant stop smoking; How to quit smoking when pregnant; Smoking and fertility; Smoking and infertility; Mom smoking; Smoking around children; Second hand smoke and children

  12. Combined Treatment of MCF-7 Cells with AICAR and Methotrexate, Arrests Cell Cycle and Reverses Warburg Metabolism through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK and FOXO1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Fodor

    Full Text Available Cancer cells are characterized by metabolic alterations, namely, depressed mitochondrial oxidation, enhanced glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt flux to support rapid cell growth, which is called the Warburg effect. In our study we assessed the metabolic consequences of a joint treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells with AICAR, an inducer of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK jointly with methotrexate (MTX, a folate-analog antimetabolite that blunts de novo nucleotide synthesis. MCF7 cells, a model of breast cancer cells, were resistant to the individual application of AICAR or MTX, however combined treatment of AICAR and MTX reduced cell proliferation. Prolonged joint application of AICAR and MTX induced AMPK and consequently enhanced mitochondrial oxidation and reduced the rate of glycolysis. These metabolic changes suggest an anti-Warburg rearrangement of metabolism that led to the block of the G1/S and the G2/M transition slowing down cell cycle. The slowdown of cell proliferation was abolished when mitotropic transcription factors, PGC-1α, PGC-1β or FOXO1 were silenced. In human breast cancers higher expression of AMPKα and FOXO1 extended survival. AICAR and MTX exerts similar additive antiproliferative effect on other breast cancer cell lines, such as SKBR and 4T1 cells, too. Our data not only underline the importance of Warburg metabolism in breast cancer cells but nominate the AICAR+MTX combination as a potential cytostatic regime blunting Warburg metabolism. Furthermore, we suggest the targeting of AMPK and FOXO1 to combat breast cancer.

  13. [Drugs in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchev, N; Astrug, A; Tsankova, V; Nikolova, I

    2006-01-01

    The use of drugs in pregnancy is being discussed. The influence of different factors, both physiological and drug related (physicochemical characteristics, dose, duration of pharmacotherapy) on the processes of absorption, distribution, protein binding, metabolism and excretion are reviewed. The up-to-date classification of the drugs in relation to their effects on the fetus is presented. Special emphasize is given to drugs (antibiotics, cardio-vascular, psychotropic etc.) used for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions in the course of pregnancy. Drugs used for symptoms like pain, high temperature and constipation are also reviewed. Recommendations for the use of safer drugs in pregnancy are given. Drugs with proven teratogenic effects are presented.

  14. Management of HIV During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Chamma JP; Monteleone VF; V dos Reis L; Bonafe SM; Panão M

    2016-01-01

    According to UNAIDS, in 2015, one hundred and fifty thousand children were infected by HIV worldwide, therefore the use of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) during pregnancy is an important development for the reduction of maternal-fetal transmission. The treatment of a pregnant woman is done by combining two different ARV classes. The combination of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or protease inhibitor (PI) is...

  15. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833

  16. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Gongora

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.

  17. [Metformin in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijok, Julia; Bińkowska, Małgorzata; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    Metformin is an oral insulin-sensitizing anti-diabetic drug. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes (GDM) are both associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Metformin can bring potential benefits in pregnant women due to its favorable metabolic effect. Nevertheless, there is a possibility of adverse effects on the fetus as metformin crosses the placenta. In this review we discuss safety and indications for metformin administration in pregnancy.

  18. Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet with low glycemic index and low glycemic load on body adiposity, metabolic variables, ghrelin, leptin, and pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Geórgia F; Passos, Eduardo P; Moulin, Cileide C

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is related to hormonal disorders that affect the reproductive system. Low-glycemic index (LGI) diets seem to exert a positive effect on weight loss and on metabolic changes that result from obesity. We investigated the effects of a hypocaloric diet with an LGI and low glycemic load on anthropometric and metabolic variables, ghrelin and leptin concentrations, and the pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). The study was a randomized block-design controlled trial in which we analyzed 26 overweight or obese infertile women. Patients were assigned to a hypocaloric LGI-diet group or a control group and followed the protocol for 12 wk. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, serum lipids, reproductive hormones, leptin, acylated ghrelin, number of oocytes retrieved in the IVF cycle, and pregnancy rate were determined. There were greater reductions in body mass, BMI, percentage of body fat, waist:hip ratio, and leptin in the LGI-diet group than in the control group (P diet group had 85.4% more oocytes retrieved than did the control group (7.75 ± 1.44 and 4.18 ± 0.87, respectively; P = 0.039) in the IVF cycle. Three patients (21.4%) in the LGI group experienced a spontaneous pregnancy during the follow-up, which generated 3 live births. The hypocaloric LGI diet promoted a decrease in BMI, percentage of body fat, and leptin concentrations, which improved oocyte development and pregnancy rate. These results support the clinical recommendation to advise overweight and obese women to lose weight through a balanced diet before being submitted for treatment with assisted reproduction technologies. A hypocaloric diet combined with LGI foods seems to be beneficial for these patients, but additional studies are required before this treatment is recommended. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02416960

  19. [Sports and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Karl Oliver; Kuhn, Ulrich

    2004-06-01

    MATERNAL ASPECTS: Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in pregnant women generally don't differ from those in nonpregnant women. Impairment of the cabability of the uteroplacental unit to maintain a sufficient oxygen and substrate supply to the fetus should be avoided by performing exercise in a submaximal range. Increase in body weight, a shift of the center of gravidity, and the ligamentous laxity in pregnancy lead to a certain joint instability and consecutively to an increased risk of injury. Therefore contact sports and sports with a high potential of injury are not suitable in pregnancy. Furthermore the beneficial effects of exercise on glucose metabolism especially in pregnant women with an impaired glusose tolerance, psychological well-being, delivery, and lactation are discussed. Exercise results in an elevation of the fetal heart rate. So far no pathological heart rate alterations could be observed. There are controversial findings concerning the influence of exercise on birth weight. Actually no retardation below the 10th percentile could be demonstrated. To prevent pregnancy complications like preterm labour or placental abruption exercises with a risk of blunt abdominal trauma are not recommended in the 2nd and 3rd trimester. Additionally the effects of exercise on embryogenesis and the possible implications of hyperthermia are presented. In general, pregnant women should practise exercise in a moderate, i. e. submaximal aerobic range. Preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases and pregnancy pathologies have to be considered as contraindications. Thus gestational age adapted exercise represents a safe and effective support for mother and fetus. Recommendations concerning exercise in pregnancy underwent significant changes during the past three decades. Today there is a lot of evidence for the beneficial effects of moderate exercise in pregnancy even in formerly inactive women. This review first presents aspects of maternal and fetal physiology with

  20. Epigenomics, gestational programming and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of

  1. Energetics of Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmission in Aluminum Chloride Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Reversal of Behavioral and Metabolic Deficits by Rasa Sindoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Saba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive loss of cognitive functions and memory. Excessive intake of aluminum chloride in drinking water is associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, which are the hallmark of AD. We have evaluated brain energy metabolism in aluminum chloride (AlCl3 mouse model of AD. In addition, effectiveness of Rasa Sindoor (RS, a formulation used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, for alleviation of symptoms of AD was evaluated. Mice were administered AlCl3 (40 mg/kg intraperitoneally once a day for 60 days. The memory of mice was measured using Morris Water Maze test. The 13C labeling of brain amino acids was measured ex vivo in tissue extracts using 1H-[13C]-NMR spectroscopy with timed infusion of [1,6-13C2]glucose. The 13C turnover of brain amino acids was analyzed using a three-compartment metabolic model to derive the neurotransmitter cycling and TCA cycle rates associated with glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways. Exposure of AlCl3 led to reduction in memory of mice. The glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter cycling and glucose oxidation were found to be reduced in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum following chronic AlCl3 treatment. The perturbation in metabolic rates was highest in the cerebral cortex. However, reduction in metabolic fluxes was higher in hippocampus and striatum following one month post AlCl3 treatment. Most interestingly, oral administration of RS (2 g/kg restored memory as well as the energetics of neurotransmission in mice exposed to AlCl3. These data suggest therapeutic potential of RS to manage cognitive functions and memory in preclinical AD.

  2. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  3. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  4. Weter consumption during pregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Damián Ricardo; Beltrán Montoya Jorge; Espino y Sosa Salvador

    2014-01-01

    During pregnancy, water is retained partially owing to an increase in vasopressin production. Ingested water is used to produce amniotic fluid. Climate conditions and physical activity, gestational nausea and vomit, and a higher caloric intake, increases water needs; during lactation, more water is needed to produce milk. Dehydration during pregnancy is especially dangerous; it must be avoided. Physiological changes during pregnancy modify water metabolism: blood volume and glomerular filtrat...

  5. The favorable effects of garlic intake on metabolic profiles, hs-CRP, biomarkers of oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalami-Harandi, Rezvan; Karamali, Maryam; Asemi, Zatollah

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the favorable effects of garlic on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 44 pregnant women, primigravida, aged 18-40 years old at 27 weeks' gestation with positive roll-over test. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either one garlic tablet (equal to 400 mg garlic and 1 mg allicin) (n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) once daily for 9 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 9 weeks' intervention to measure metabolic profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Administration of garlic compared with the placebo resulted in decreased levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-1425.90 versus 1360.50 ng/mL, p = 0.01) and increased plasma glutathione (GSH) (+98.10 versus. -49.87 µmol/l, p = 0.03). A trend toward a significant effect of garlic intake on reducing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p = 0.07), insulin (p = 0.09) and increasing quantitative insulin sensitivity check (QUICKI) (p = 0.05) was also observed. Consumption of garlic for 9 weeks among pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia led to decreased hs-CRP and increased GSH, but did not affect lipid profiles, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and pregnancy outcomes.

  6. Central acylated ghrelin improves memory function and hippocampal AMPK activation and partly reverses the impairment of energy and glucose metabolism in rats infused with β-amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Kim, Da Sol; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Sunmin

    2015-09-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone released during the fasting state that targets the hypothalamus where it induces hunger; however, emerging evidence suggests it may also affect memory function. We examined the effect of central acylated-ghrelin and DES-acetylated ghrelin (native ghrelin) on memory function and glucose metabolism in an experimentally induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model. AD rats were divided into 3 groups and Non-AD rats were used as a normal-control group. Each rat in the AD groups had intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of β-amyloid (25-35; 16.8nmol/day) into the lateral ventricle for 3 days, and then the pumps were changed to infuse either acylated-ghrelin (0.2nmol/h; AD-G), DES-acylated ghrelin (0.2nmol/h; AD-DES-G), or saline (control; AD-C) for 3 weeks. The Non-AD group had ICV infusion of β-amyloid (35-25) which does not deposit in the hippocampus. During the next 3 weeks memory function, food intake, body weight gain, body fat composition, and glucose metabolism were measured. AD-C exhibited greater β-amyloid deposition compared to Non-AD-C, and AD-G suppressed the increased β-amyloid deposition and potentiated the phosphorylation AMPK. In addition, AD-G increased the phosphorylation GSK and decreased the phosphorylation of Tau in comparison to AD-C and AD-DES-G. Cognitive function, measured by passive avoidance and water maze tests, was much lower in AD-C than Non-AD-C whereas AD-G but not AD-DES-G prevented the decrease (pglucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared to the AD-C and AD-DES-G group (pmemory function, and energy and glucose metabolisms were partially improved, possibly due to less β-amyloid accumulation. This research suggests that interventions such as intermittent fasting to facilitate sustained elevations of acyl-ghrelin should be investigated for cognitive and metabolic benefits, especially in person with early symptoms of memory impairment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Neurosurgical procedures in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirak Bayram

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Over the past few decades maternal mortality has progressively declined because of improved management of the major obstetric problems of hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia. As a result, the relative incidence of deaths resulting from non obstetric causes has increased. Chief among nonobstetric causes are neurologic disorders. Those most common during pregnancy are low back pain, intracranial tumors, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and neurotrauma. The management of the neurosurgical pathologies during pregnancy needs some specifications for both the mother and the fetus. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study evaluating the clinical, radiological, and surgical characteristics of 9 patients who have cranial neuropathologies and have undergone neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS: Most of the patients in this study had vaginal delivery. Prominent neurosurgical disease related to cerebral damage. Every patient underwent a laboratory and radiological evaluation. All except one survived the neurosurgical pathology. Neither baby nor mother had significant problem during delivery and neurosurgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women may face to every kind of neurosurgical pathology that nonpregnant women have faced. In addition, pregnancy itself, gives rise some metabolic changes in the women and those changes may cause some neurologic pathologies to be symptomatic or to aggravate the present symptomatology. Because of those reasons, close neurologic follow up of a pregnant woman is of vital importance. At the end of a pregnancy having experienced some neurologic interventions including diagnostic evaluation or surgical intervention does not necessitates the cesarean section for a neurologically intact infant and mother.

  8. Heritable IUGR and adult metabolic syndrome are reversible and associated with alterations in the metabolome following dietary supplementation of 1-carbon intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferovic, Maxim D; Goodspeed, Danielle M; Chu, Derrick M; Krannich, Laura A; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Pablo J; Cox, James E; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), following intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), is epigenetically heritable. Recently, we abrogated the F2 adult phenotype with essential nutrient supplementation (ENS) of intermediates along the 1-carbon pathway. With the use of the same grandparental uterine artery ligation model, we profiled the F2 serum metabolome at weaning [postnatal day (d)21; n = 76] and adulthood (d160; n = 12) to test if MetS is preceded by alterations in the metabolome. Indicative of developmentally programmed MetS, adult F2, formerly IUGR rats, were obese (621 vs. 461 g; P metabolome at weaning (randomForest analysis; class error metabolome accompany heritable IUGR, precede adult-onset MetS, and are partially amenable to dietary intervention. © FASEB.

  9. GIP receptor antagonism reverses obesity, insulin resistance, and associated metabolic disturbances induced in mice by prolonged consumption of high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClean, Paula L; Irwin, Nigel; Cassidy, Roslyn S

    2007-01-01

    The gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) plays a key role in glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. This study investigated the effects of administration of a stable and specific GIP receptor antagonist, (Pro(3))GIP, in mice previously fed a high-fat diet for 160 days to induce...... obesity and related diabetes. Daily intraperitoneal injection of (Pro(3))GIP over 50 days significantly decreased body weight compared with saline-treated controls, with a modest increase in locomotor activity but no change of high-fat diet intake. Plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and pancreatic......))GIP concentrations peaked rapidly and remained elevated 24 h after injection. These data indicate that GIP receptor antagonism using (Pro(3))GIP provides an effective means of countering obesity and related diabetes induced by consumption of a high-fat, energy-rich diet....

  10. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... data. Highlights of some of our research follow Obesity In the United States, obesity during pregnancy is ... trial among adults with glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Results identified intervention strategies that reduced the ...

  11. Pregnancy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have few or mild symptoms during pregnancy. Many women work their full term and travel while they are pregnant. Others may have to cut back on their hours or stop working. Some women require bed rest ...

  12. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the baby, making plans for relatives or an adoptive family to raise the baby, or terminating the pregnancy. ... The decision to place a baby with an adoptive family is legal and binding. However, most states do ...

  13. Glucotoxicity promotes aberrant activation and mislocalization of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 [Rac1] and metabolic dysfunction in pancreatic islet β-cells: reversal of such metabolic defects by metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidwan, Sartaj; Chekuri, Anil; Hynds, DiAnna L; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2017-11-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that long-term exposure of insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells to hyperglycemic (HG; glucotoxic) conditions promotes oxidative stress, which, in turn, leads to stress kinase activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, loss of nuclear structure and integrity and cell apoptosis. Original observations from our laboratory have proposed that Rac1 plays a key regulatory role in the generation of oxidative stress and downstream signaling events culminating in the onset of dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells under the duress of metabolic stress. However, precise molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the metabolic roles of hyperactive Rac1 remain less understood. Using pharmacological and molecular biological approaches, we now report mistargetting of biologically-active Rac1 [GTP-bound conformation] to the nuclear compartment in clonal INS-1 cells, normal rat islets and human islets under HG conditions. Our findings also suggest that such a signaling step is independent of post-translational prenylation of Rac1. Evidence is also presented to highlight novel roles for sustained activation of Rac1 in HG-induced expression of Cluster of Differentiation 36 [CD36], a fatty acid transporter protein, which is implicated in cell apoptosis. Finally, our findings suggest that metformin, a biguanide anti-diabetic drug, at a clinically relevant concentration, prevents β-cell defects [Rac1 activation, nuclear association, CD36 expression, stress kinase and caspase-3 activation, and loss in metabolic viability] under the duress of glucotoxicity. Potential implications of these findings in the context of novel and direct regulation of islet β-cell function by metformin are discussed.

  14. Use of 15N reverse gradient two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to follow metabolic activity in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell-suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnard, F; Azaroual, N; Marty, D; Fliniaux, M A; Robins, R J; Vermeersch, G; Monti, J P

    2000-02-01

    Nitrogen metabolism was monitored in suspension cultured cells of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy following the feeding of (15NH4)2SO4 and K15NO3. By using two-dimensional 15N-1H NMR with heteronuclear single-quantum-coherence spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple-bond-coherence spectroscopy sequences, an enhanced resolution of the incorporation of 15N label into a range of compounds could be detected. Thus, in addition to the amino acids normally observed in one-dimensional 15N NMR (glutamine, aspartate, alanine), several other amino acids could be resolved, notably serine, glycine and proline. Furthermore, it was found that the peak normally assigned to the non-protein amino-acid gamma-aminobutyric acid in the one-dimensional 15N NMR spectrum was resolved into a several components. A peak of N-acetylated compounds was resolved, probably composed of the intermediates in arginine biosynthesis, N-acetylglutamate and N-acetylornithine and, possibly, the intermediate of putrescine degradation into gamma-aminobutyric acid, N-acetylputrescine. The occurrence of 15N-label in agmatine and the low detection of labelled putrescine indicate that crucial intermediates of the pathway from glutamate to polyamines and/or the tobacco alkaloids could be monitored. For the first time, labelling of the peptide glutathione and of the nucleotide uridine could be seen.

  15. Nutrition in pregnancy: Basic principles and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plećaš Draga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy diet in pregnancy should guarantee proper fetal growth and development, maintain (and promote maternal health and enable lactation. Nutritional counseling and interventions need to be an integral part of antenatal care and continue during pregnancy in order to reduce the risk of maternal, fetal and neonatal complications, as well as the short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Adverse pregnancy outcomes are more common in women who begin the gestation as undernourished or obese in comparison to pregnant women whose weight is within normal ranges. Increased nutritional and energy needs in pregnancy are met through numerous metabolic adaptations; pregnancy is successfully achieved within wide range of variations in energy supply and weight gain. However, if nutrient restriction exceeds the limits of adaptive responses, evidence indicates that fetus will develop the alternative metabolic competence that might emerge as a disease (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease and stroke in adult life.

  16. Thyroid hormones during late pregnancy with special reference to the free hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsch, J.; Bellmann, O.; Oehr, P.; Rasche, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Winkler, C.; Bonn Univ.

    1982-01-01

    In 91 clinically euthyroid pregnants in the last trimenon and in 38 non-pregnant euthyroid women the following parameters were determined: total T 4 (TT 4 ), total T 3 (TT 3 ), reverse T 3 (rT 3 , only in pregnancy), T 3 -uptake (T 3 U), TBG, TSH FT 4 -index (FT 4 I = TT 4 /T 3 U), TT 4 /TBG, free T 4 (FT 4 ) and free T 3 (FT 3 , only 58 pregnants) according to the methods of Corning and Lepetit, respectively. In addition, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed. The results were indicative of an euthyroid status in late pregnancy with slightly decreased FT 4 and normal FT 3 levels. The diagnostic value of the TT 4 /TBG ratio at high TBG-concentrations must be regarded as doubtful. Pregnants with gestational diabetes had lower FT 4 levels which might be due to an altered metabolism of thyroxine. (orig.) [de

  17. Loratadine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loratadine more frequently during pregnancy. Can taking loratadine cause other pregnancy problems? Loratadine is not expected to cause other pregnancy problems. A study of 161 women taking loratadine ...

  18. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  19. [Clozapine and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H N; Lalonde, P

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the relations between clozapine and pregnancy. Six case reports are identified in the literature of pregnant patients who received clozapine. Novartis at Basle, Switzerland, through its pharmacovigilance and epidemiology, service, has data on nearly 200 cases summarized in this article. We also describe the case of a patient with paranoid schizophrenia who was hospitalized 10 times between the age of 22 to 32. She received clozapine when she was 29 years old and, with a daily dosage of 350 mg, she became asymptomatic. At the age of 33 and 37, she became pregnant and continued clozapine during her 2 pregnancies. During her first pregnancy, she received insulin due to gestational diabetes associated with a body weight mass (BWM) of 30.4 (N = 20 to 25). During her second pregnancy, the BWM was 23.7 and she did not develop diabetes. She delivered at term 2 daughters who are at the time of this report 5 and 3 years old. The two girls are doing well and have no developmental delay. Psychotic symptoms exacerbation: the plasma concentration of clozapine diminishes during pregnancy due to a higher hepatic metabolism and distribution volume. Monitoring plasma concentration of clozapine can help to adjust its dosage. In case of psychotic symptoms exacerbation, the following can be recommended: 1) Increase the clozapine dosage; 2) Add a classic antipsychotic like perphenazine, trifluoperazine or haloperidol. Diabetes: obesity, glucose intolerance or a family history of diabetes are risk factors to develop gestational diabetes. The follow-up of patients, who take an atypical antipsychotic, should include constant monitoring of the blood glucose or Hb1A and lipid dosages. Complications at labor: Clozapine increases the secretion of oxytocine and the contraction of the uterine muscle. But, no studies can explain how clozapine affects the labor exactly. Some case studies report use of forceps, vacuum or cesarean. Stoner (1997) described neonatal convulsions 8

  20. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  1. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  2. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, July 2017 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  3. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  4. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ...

  5. Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy has sub items, Reproductive Health & Teen Pregnancy Contraceptive Use STDs Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Trends Negative Impacts Strategies & Approaches for Prevention Engaging Adolescent Males in Prevention Tips for Parents of Teens ...

  6. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum ... Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum ...

  7. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  8. Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Rheumatic Disease Pregnancy & Rheumatic Disease Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Diseases with the potential to affect ... control. What are the effects of pregnancy on rheumatic disease? The effects of pregnancy on rheumatic diseases vary ...

  9. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  10. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

  11. Caffeine in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Nutrition, weight & fitness > Caffeine in pregnancy Caffeine in pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  12. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  13. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  14. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  15. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. Radiation and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  17. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  18. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  19. Pregnancy week by week

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  20. Cystic Fibrosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  1. Pregnancy After Age 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  2. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  3. Your Checkup Before Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  4. Syphilis in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. Pregnancy Complications: HELLP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  6. Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  7. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  8. Getting Ready for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  9. Listeria and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Listeria and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Listeria and Pregnancy ... Pregnancy PFS013, January 2017 PDF Format Listeria and Pregnancy Fact Sheets Food Poisoning in Pregnant Women The ...

  10. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won; Song, Chang Joon; Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong; Kim, Man Deuk

    2001-01-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  12. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  13. Long acting reversible contraception | Kluge | Obstetrics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long acting reversible contraception (LARC) has great potential in reducing these pregnancies as they are highly effective and do not rely a great deal on compliance and correct use. They have better continuation rates than short term hormonal contraception and as per definition require administration less than once per ...

  14. Recurrent pregnancy loss: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hachem H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hady El Hachem,1,2 Vincent Crepaux,3 Pascale May-Panloup,4 Philippe Descamps,3 Guillaume Legendre,3 Pierre-Emmanuel Bouet3 1Department of Reproductive Medicine, Ovo Clinic, Montréal, QC, Canada; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Montreal, Montréal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Angers University Hopsital, Angers, France; 4Department of Reproductive Biology, Angers University Hospital, Angers, France Abstract: Recurrent pregnancy loss is an important reproductive health issue, affecting 2%–5% of couples. Common established causes include uterine anomalies, antiphospholipid syndrome, hormonal and metabolic disorders, and cytogenetic abnormalities. Other etiologies have been proposed but are still considered controversial, such as chronic endometritis, inherited thrombophilias, luteal phase deficiency, and high sperm DNA fragmentation levels. Over the years, evidence-based treatments such as surgical correction of uterine anomalies or aspirin and heparin for antiphospholipid syndrome have improved the outcomes for couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. However, almost half of the cases remain unexplained and are empirically treated using progesterone supplementation, anticoagulation, and/or immunomodulatory treatments. Regardless of the cause, the long-term prognosis of couples with recurrent pregnancy loss is good, and most eventually achieve a healthy live birth. However, multiple pregnancy losses can have a significant psychological toll on affected couples, and many efforts are being made to improve treatments and decrease the time needed to achieve a successful pregnancy. This article reviews the established and controversial etiologies, and the recommended therapeutic strategies, with a special focus on unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses and the empiric treatments used nowadays. It also discusses the current role of preimplantation genetic testing in the management of recurrent pregnancy

  15. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek P Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42-60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%-6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery.

  16. [Epilepsy and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmis, J; Drazancić, A; Tkalcević, T; Ivanisević, M

    1991-01-01

    A total of 132 women with epilepsy were confined in the period from 1978-1989. Their pregnancies and outcomes were analysed. The special aim was to find out if the anticonvulsive therapy has any correlation with the occurrence of fetal malformations in the studied group of women. In 43.9% of pregnant women with epilepsy, methyl-phenobarbitone as an anticonvulsive drug was administered, while carbamazepine was applied in 13.6% cases. A combination of phenytoin and phenobarbitone was prescribed in 18.9% of cases. Primidone was the drug of choice in 8% cases and 5.3% of patients were treated with various combinations of anticonvulsive drugs. Hyperemesis, threatened spontaneous abortion and premature labor complicated significantly more pregnancies in patients with epilepsy than on controls. Pregnancies from the studied group were terminated by the cesarean section in significantly more cases (11.2%) than in the control group (5.4%). Newborns from mothers with epilepsy had a statistically lower birthweight (3173 +/- 575 g) than those born from healthy mothers (3376 +/- 510g). Fifteen newborns or 11.2% were born with congenital malformations, while among the control group of newborns only two were malformed. It is noticed that the newborns from mothers treated with phenitoin and phenobarbitone had dysmorphic anomalies of the face more frequently. The drugs mentioned above interfere with the metabolism of K vitamin and as a result of this interreaction, mothers and newborns can suffer from coagulation disorders. In conclusion it is important to mention that no anticonvulsant drug seems to be absolutely safe when used during pregnancy since each of them has a teratogenic effect on the fetus.

  17. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  18. [Teenage pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-05-01

    In Mexico, 20% of the annual births are presented in women younger than 20 years old. Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development. It has been pointed out that the youths with low education, with minor academic and laboral expectations, with low self-esteem and assertiveness, tend to begin early their active sexual life, to use less frequently contraceptives, and in the case of younger women, to be pregnant, with the risk of abortion because they cannot to make the best decision. It is important to take into account the social context and the special characteristics of the family to understand situation of adolescent at risk of pregnancy.

  19. β-Cell Adaptability during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis; Horn, Signe; Kirkegaard, Jeanette S.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological condition associated with β-cell mass expansion occurring in response to increased insulin demand. If the insulin resistance is not compensated by proper augmented insulin production gestational diabetes will occur. As reviewed herein, pregnancy induced hormonal changes...... have occupied scientists since the beginning of the last century where important discoveries of the hormonal regulation of metabolism during pregnancy have been accomplished. Of the multiple hormonal and metabolic changes the somatolactogenic hormones, placental lactogens (PL) and placental growth...... and function during pregnancy have been elucidated. This has identified contributions of a number of known peptide hormones and growth factors (EGF, NGF, HGF, IGFs, GLP-1) and steroid hormones (progesterone, estrogens, glucocorticoids). In addition, glucokinase has been found to be essential for the both...

  20. Life Assets in Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatsanee Soontrapirom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is an evolving global public health problem. Level of life assets could predict behaviors and take effect to less sexual risk behaviors in teenagers. Objective: To compare life assets between pregnant and non-pregnant teenagers and to evaluate the relationship between basic factors and teenage pregnancy. Methods: A total of 172 female teenagers aged 12-19 years were included. The control group was matched with the case group by age with mean age of 17.07 years old. The case group consisted of 86 pregnant teenagers who attended the Teenage Antenatal Care Unit at Siriraj Hospital. The control group consisted of 86 teenagers who were not pregnant and who had never been pregnant. The research instruments were general information and life assets inventory questionnaires developed by Suriyadeo Tripathi with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient at 0.890. Results: Mean life assets scores were significantly higher in the control group than in the case group (T-test analysis: Mean = 94.70/87.65, SD = 17.45/22.68, p-value =.024, respectively. The control group scored more favorably than the case group on 16 items. In addition, the case group could not meet the minimum assessment criteria on 21 items, which indicated their status as an at risk group. A total of 12 factors were found to be statistically significantly associated with teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: Overall life assets were significantly higher among teenagers who had not experienced pregnancy. The risk factors included level of education, GPA, family income, mothers or family members of teenagers having experience of teenage pregnancy, main guardians, father education, mother occupation, parental relationship, family warmth and smoking were found to be significantly associated with risk of teenage pregnancy in this study. These results will help to facilitate preventive interventions and the development of policies and guidelines to control and perhaps reverse current

  1. Analysis of sequential hair segments reflects changes in the metabolome across the trimesters of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delplancke, Thibaut D J; de Seymour, Jamie V; Tong, Chao

    2018-01-01

    The hair metabolome has been recognized as a valuable source of information in pregnancy research, as it provides stable metabolite information that could assist with studying biomarkers or metabolic mechanisms of pregnancy and its complications. We tested the hypothesis that hair segments could...... mellitus (p metabolome during pregnancy, as well as highlight the potential of the maternal hair metabolome to differentiate pregnancy complications from healthy pregnancies....

  2. Forensic pregnancy diagnostics with placental mRNA markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gauvin (Jeanot); D. Zubakov (Dmitry); J. van Rhee-Binkhorst (Joke); A. Kloosterman (Ate); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCurrent methods for pregnancy diagnostics are based on immunodetection of pregnancy-specific proteins and in a forensic context suffer from sensitivity and specificity issues. Here, we applied reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology to 11 genes previously

  3. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Induced Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Natasha; Ahmed, Seema; Shaffer, Lemuel; Cavens, Paula; Blankstein, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis caused by severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia is a rare complication of pregnancy. Acute pancreatitis has been well associated with gallstone disease, alcoholism, or drug abuse but rarely seen in association with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia may occur in pregnancy due to normal physiological changes leading to abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We report a case of severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia that caused acute pancreatitis at full term an...

  4. Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nathalie; O'Driscoll, Teresa; Becker, Gisela; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-08-01

    on contraceptive methods, especially long-acting reversible contraception methods, as a means to decrease the high rates of repeat pregnancy in this population; discussion of contraception should begin before delivery. (III-A) 18. Breastfeeding should be recommended and sufficient support given to this population at high risk for discontinuation. (II-2A) 19. Postpartum care programs should be available to support adolescent parents and their children, to improve the mothers' knowledge of parenting, to increase breastfeeding rates, to screen for and manage postpartum depression, to increase birth intervals, and to decrease repeated unintended pregnancy rates. (III-B) 20. Adolescent women in rural, remote, northern, and Aboriginal communities should be supported to give birth as close to home as possible. (II-2A) 21. Adolescent pregnant women who need to be evacuated from a remote community should be able to have a family member or other person accompany them to provide support and encouragement. (II-2A) 22. Culturally safe prenatal care including emotional, educational, and clinical support to assist adolescent parents in leading healthier lives should be available, especially in northern and Aboriginal communities. (II-3A) 23. Cultural beliefs around miscarriage and pregnancy issues, and special considerations in the handling of fetal remains, placental tissue, and the umbilical cord, must be respected. (III).

  5. Reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for metabolic profiling of vegetables: Lactuca sativa as an example of its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Reidah, I M; Contreras, M M; Arráez-Román, D; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2013-10-25

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), a leafy vegetal widely consumed worldwide, fresh cut or minimally processed, constitutes a major dietary source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds. In this study, reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of polar and semi-polar metabolites from three lettuce cultivars (baby, romaine, and iceberg). The UHPLC systems allowed the use of a small-particle-size C18 column (1.8 μm), with very fine resolution for the separation of up to seven isomers, and the QTOF mass analyzer enabled sensitive detection with high mass resolution and accuracy in full scan. Thus, a total of 171 compounds were tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals and suggested molecular formula with those previously reported in family Asteraceae. Afterwards, their structures were also corroborated by the MS/MS data provided by the QTOF analyzer. Well-known amino acids, organic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, phenolic acids and flavonoids were characterized, e.g. lactucin, lactucopicrin, caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeoylmalic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid A, luteolin, and quercetin glycosides. For this plant species, this is the first available report of several isomeric forms of the latter polyphenols and other types of components such as nucleosides, peptides, and tryptophan-derived alkaloids. Remarkably, 10 novel structures formed by the conjugation of known amino acids and sesquiterpene lactones were also proposed. Thus, the methodology applied is a useful option to develop an exhaustive metabolic profiling of plants that helps to explain their potential biological activities and folk uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Dietary Medium-Chain Fatty Acid, Decanoic Acid, Inhibits Recruitment of Nur77 to the HSD3B2 Promoter In Vitro and Reverses Endocrine and Metabolic Abnormalities in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao Hui; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Tan, Huey Min; Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is the central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Due to the intricate relationship between hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS, 50%-70% of these patients also present with hyperinsulinemia. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, has been used to reduce insulin resistance and improve fertility in women with PCOS. In previous work, we have noted that a dietary medium-chain fatty acid, decanoic acid (DA), improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile in a mouse model of diabetes. Here, we report for the first time that DA, like metformin, inhibits androgen biosynthesis in NCI-H295R steroidogenic cells by regulating the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-isomerase type 2 (HSD3B2). The inhibitory effect on HSD3B2 and androgen production required cAMP stimulation, suggesting a mechanistic action via the cAMP-stimulated pathway. Specifically, both DA and metformin reduced cAMP-enhanced recruitment of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 to the HSD3B2 promoter, coupled with decreased transcription and protein expression of HSD3B2. In a letrozole-induced PCOS rat model, treatment with DA or metformin reduced serum-free testosterone, lowered fasting insulin, and restored estrous cyclicity. In addition, DA treatment lowered serum total testosterone and decreased HSD3B2 protein expression in the adrenals and ovaries. We conclude that DA inhibits androgen biosynthesis via mechanisms resulting in the suppression of HSD3B2 expression, an effect consistently observed both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of DA in reversing the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of the letrozole-induced PCOS rat model are promising, raising the possibility that diets including DA could be beneficial for the management of both hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS.

  7. Advances in interspecific pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interspecific pregnancy in which the conceptus and female carrying the pregnancy are of different species is a key step to interspecific cloning. Cloning endangered animals by interspecific pregnancy is such a highlight catching people's eyes nowadays. In this article, the history of interspecific pregnancy, the methods for establishment of interspecific pregnancy, the corresponding theories, barriers and applied prospects are reviewed.``

  8. Managing hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen SL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stine Linding Andersen,1,2 Peter Laurberg1,3,† 1Department of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark †Peter Laurberg passed away on June 20, 2016 Abstract: Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves’ disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain. Untreated or inadequately treated hyperthyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications and may even program the fetus to long-term development of disease. Thus, hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be carefully managed and controlled, and proper management involves different medical specialties. The treatment of choice in pregnancy is antithyroid drugs (ATDs. These drugs are effective in the control of maternal hyperthyroidism, but they all cross the placenta, and so need careful management and control during the second half of pregnancy considering the risk of fetal hyper- or hypothyroidism. An important aspect in the early pregnancy is that the predominant side effect to the use of ATDs in weeks 6–10 of pregnancy is birth defects that may develop after exposure to available types of ATDs and may be severe. This review focuses on four current perspectives in the management of overt hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the etiology and incidence of the disease, how the diagnosis is made, the

  9. Exposure of mother rats to chronic unpredictable stress before pregnancy alters the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in the right hippocampus of offspring in early adolescence in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuejun; Shen, Zhiwei; Hu, Liu; Xia, Fang; Li, Yuewa; Zhuang, Jingwen; Chen, Peishan; Huang, Qingjun

    2016-12-30

    There is increasing evidence that mothers' exposure to stress before or during pregnancy is linked to an incidence of psychiatric disorders in offspring. However, a few studies have estimated the role of sex in the detrimental effects of pre-gestational stress on the offspring rats at early adolescence. Sex differences regarding the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in the right hippocampus were investigated by MRS when the offspring rats reached 30 days. Additionally, the impact of pre-gestational stress exposed on an additional short-term acute stressor, such as forced swim, was examined in the male and female offspring rats. Our findings showed female offspring rats were more vulnerable to stressful conditions for either pre-gestational stress or acute stress in early adolescence, and had decreased GABA/Cr+PCr and Glu/Cr+PCr in the right hippocampus. Interestingly, in response to forced swim, male offspring rats whose mothers were exposed to pre-gestational stress were more affected by the short-term acute stressor and this was manifested by change of Glu/GABA and Glu/Gln in the right hippocampus. These data indicated that although female offspring rats were more vulnerable to pre-gestational stress from their mothers than males, in response to an additional acute stressor they showed better response. Therefore, both sexually dimorphic manner and combination of stressful procedures should be carefully considered in the study of stress-related psychiatric disorders in early adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Topical problems of diabetes treatment during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yur'evna Demidova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main causes behind decompensation of diabetes mellitus (DM in pregnant women are consid-ered, such as metabolic and hormonal disturbancesinfluencing insulin requirement in different periods of pregnancy and variability of glycemia related to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamicproperties of insu-lin preparations. Recommended target levels of glycemia in pregnant women with DM are cited. The fre-quencyof self-monitoring blood glucose and principles of intensive insulin therapy are discussed. Advan-tages of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusionand its role in the maintenance of stable control of car-bohydrate metabolism during pregnancy are discussed.

  11. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 days a week. When can I start exercising after pregnancy? If you had a healthy pregnancy ... some guidelines I can follow when I begin exercising after pregnancy? Aim to stay active for 20– ...

  12. Trazodone (Desyrel) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects. Can taking trazodone during my pregnancy cause pregnancy complications? One small study found no greater chance ... I need to take trazodone throughout my entire pregnancy. Will it cause withdrawal symptoms in my baby? Antidepressant use late ...

  13. Echinacea Preparations and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or liver problems. Can taking echinacea during my pregnancy cause birth defects? There have been two studies looking ... avoided in pregnancy. Can taking echinacea during my pregnancy cause other kinds of problems? There are no studies ...

  14. Planning for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Before Pregnancy Home Overview Planning for Pregnancy Women Men Image Library Women Who Want to Become Pregnant Women Who Do Not Want to Become Pregnant Hugging Nutrition Physical Activity Visiting the Doctor Planning for Pregnancy Language: English ( ...

  15. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  16. Planning a pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Planning a pregnancy Lupus Foundation of America September 27, 2017 Resource ... History or presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Planning Your Pregnancy Although many lupus pregnancies will have no complications, ...

  17. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  18. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  19. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  1. Early Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go on to have successful pregnancies. Repeated pregnancy losses are rare. Testing and evaluation can be done ... find a cause if you have several pregnancy losses. Even if no cause is found, most couples ...

  2. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Associated Conditions Asthma & Pregnancy Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  3. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D linked to miscarriage among women with prior pregnancy loss Release: Anti-HIV drug combination does not increase preterm birth risk, study suggests Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance of pregnancy loss All related ...

  4. Medicine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Medicine and Pregnancy Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... reporting problems to FDA . Sign Up for a Pregnancy Registry Pregnancy Exposure Registries are research studies that ...

  5. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Medical Care During Pregnancy What's ... and their babies. What Is Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy? Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

  6. Narcolepsy and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Eszter; Kemlink, David; Högl, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    In a retrospective cohort study undertaken in 12 European countries, 249 female narcoleptic patients with cataplexy (n = 216) and without cataplexy (n = 33) completed a self-administrated questionnaire regarding pregnancy and childbirth. The cohort was divided further into patients whose symptoms...... of narcolepsy started before or during pregnancy (308 pregnancies) and those in whom the first symptoms of narcolepsy appeared after delivery (106 pregnancies). Patients with narcolepsy during pregnancy were older during their first pregnancy (P ...

  7. Vasculitis and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Leah; Clowse, Megan E B

    2017-05-01

    Vasculitis is more often a disease of women beyond their reproductive years, leaving the challenges of pregnancy management difficult to study. Pregnancy complications, including pregnancy loss and preterm birth, are higher among women with all forms of vasculitis. It seems that controlling the disease before pregnancy may improve the chances of pregnancy success. Many medications used for vasculitis are considered low risk in pregnancy, including prednisone, colchicine, azathioprine, and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil should be avoided in pregnancy. Controlling disease with low-risk medications may allow women with vasculitis to have the pregnancies they desire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  9. Hyperhomocysteinemia, pregnancy complications, and the timing of investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.; Iersel, C.A. van; Peer, P.G.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between vitamin-dependent homocysteine metabolism and vascular-related pregnancy complications by considering interval between delivery and postpartum investigation and maternal age. METHODS: Case-control study performed at the University Medical Center Nijmegen in

  10. Managing hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves' disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain. Untreated or inadequately treated hyperthyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications and may even program the fetus to long-term development of disease. Thus, hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be carefully managed and controlled, and proper management involves different medical specialties. The treatment of choice in pregnancy is antithyroid drugs (ATDs). These drugs are effective in the control of maternal hyperthyroidism, but they all cross the placenta, and so need careful management and control during the second half of pregnancy considering the risk of fetal hyper- or hypothyroidism. An important aspect in the early pregnancy is that the predominant side effect to the use of ATDs in weeks 6-10 of pregnancy is birth defects that may develop after exposure to available types of ATDs and may be severe. This review focuses on four current perspectives in the management of overt hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the etiology and incidence of the disease, how the diagnosis is made, the consequences of untreated or inadequately treated disease, and finally how to treat overt hyperthyroidism in pregnancy.

  11. Managing hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves’ disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain. Untreated or inadequately treated hyperthyroidism is associated with pregnancy complications and may even program the fetus to long-term development of disease. Thus, hyperthyroidism in pregnant women should be carefully managed and controlled, and proper management involves different medical specialties. The treatment of choice in pregnancy is antithyroid drugs (ATDs). These drugs are effective in the control of maternal hyperthyroidism, but they all cross the placenta, and so need careful management and control during the second half of pregnancy considering the risk of fetal hyper- or hypothyroidism. An important aspect in the early pregnancy is that the predominant side effect to the use of ATDs in weeks 6–10 of pregnancy is birth defects that may develop after exposure to available types of ATDs and may be severe. This review focuses on four current perspectives in the management of overt hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the etiology and incidence of the disease, how the diagnosis is made, the consequences of untreated or inadequately treated disease, and finally how to treat overt hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. PMID:27698567

  12. Study of serum lipid profile in pregnancy induced hypertension in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At recent times, there has been a great interest on the role of lipid metabolism in the development of pregnancy induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia ... Results: Mean serum triglyceride was higher in (Group 1) pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension than in Groups 2 and 3, this was however not ...

  13. Roles of Melatonin in Fetal Programming in Compromised Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chieh; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung

    2013-01-01

    Compromised pregnancies such as those associated with gestational diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, maternal undernutrition, and maternal stress may negatively affect fetal development. Such pregnancies may induce oxidative stress to the fetus and alter fetal development through the epigenetic process that may affect development at a later stage. Melatonin is an oxidant scavenger that reverses oxidative stress during the prenatal period. Moreover, the role of melatonin in epigenetic modifications in the field of developmental programming has been studied extensively. Here, we describe the physiological function of melatonin in pregnancy and discuss the roles of melatonin in fetal programming in compromised pregnancies, focusing on its involvement in redox and epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:23466884

  14. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder

    2015-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis...... and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood...

  15. Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder

    2015-01-01

    and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood......Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis...

  16. [Post-partum posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaen, Anne Albers; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Obaid, Hayder; Bülow, Hans Henrik

    2015-11-23

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complex clinical condition with vasogenic subcortical oedema caused by hypertension. Oedema is often seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The wide clinical spectrum ranges from headaches to vision loss and even death. Early diagnosis and treatment is important for the reversibility of the condition. In this case report we emphasize the importance of blood pressure control in a post-partum woman, who had a rather complicated pregnancy. The symptoms of PRES were not recognized immediately because of failure to use and acknowledge a blood pressure test.

  17. Calcium and bone disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriraam Mahadevan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant transplacental calcium transfer occurs during pregnancy, especially during the last trimester, to meet the demands of the rapidly mineralizing fetal skeleton. Similarly, there is an obligate loss of calcium in the breast milk during lactation. Both these result in considerable stress on the bone mineral homeostasis in the mother. The maternal adaptive mechanisms to conserve calcium are different in pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, increased intestinal absorption of calcium from the gut mainly due to higher generation of calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D helps in maintaining maternal calcium levels. On the other hand, during lactation, the main compensatory mechanism is skeletal resorption due to increased generation of parathormone related peptide (PTHrP from the breast. Previous studies suggest that in spite of considerable changes in bone mineral metabolism during pregnancy, parity and lactation are not significantly associated with future risk for osteoporosis. However, in India, the situation may not be the same as a significant proportion of pregnancies occur in the early twenties when peak bone mass is not yet achieved. Further, malnutrition, anemia and vitamin D deficiency are commonly encountered in this age group. This may have an impact on future bone health of the mother. It may also probably provide an opportunity for health care providers for prevention. Other metabolic bone diseases like hypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism are rarely encountered in pregnancy. Their clinical implications and management are also discussed.

  18. Impact of Maternal Exercise during Pregnancy on Offspring Chronic Disease Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaize, A Nicole; Pearson, Kevin J; Newcomer, Sean C

    2015-10-01

    Maternal behaviors during pregnancy have been reported to impact offspring health in adulthood. In this article we explore the novel hypothesis that exercise during pregnancy can protect against chronic disease susceptibility in the offspring. To date, research has demonstrated that improvements in metabolic outcomes, cardiovascular risk, and cancer can occur in response to maternal exercise during pregnancy.

  19. Bleeding during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in pregnancy? • What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? • Can bleeding be a sign of preterm labor? • ... the hospital. What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? Several problems with the placenta later in pregnancy ...

  20. pregnancy metabolism In . tWIn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .ficant differences in venous blood sugar values or insulin responses were found ... 4 using an intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) showed that HPL levels were ... Medical School, PO Box 17039, Congella, 4013 RSA. King Edward VIII ...

  1. The cradle of metabolic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Galjaard, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Summary -Vascular development and FETAL body composition during pregnancy- The effects of maternal adiposity (high body mass index - high BMI -), nutrient intake and storage (gestational weight gain - GWG -) and (abnormal) glucose tolerance (gestational diabetes - GDM - ) are regarded important cornerstones in metabolic research in pregnancy. In Chapter 1, I explained, that they play an important role in the development of complications in the mother and the fetus, both short- and long-ter...

  2. Pregnancy complications and metabolic disease in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant anovulation randomized to receive laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries or ovulation induction with gonadotropins: a 10-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, Marleen J.; Oude Lohuis, Eefje J.; Bayram, Neriman; Hompes, Peter G. A.; Oosterhuis, G. Jurjen E.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van Wely, Madelon

    2014-01-01

    To assess long-term effects of laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries compared with ovulation induction with gonadotropins in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on the incidence of pregnancy complications like gestational diabetes, hypertensive

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus: glycemic control during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of twin and singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Sacoto, María Augusta; Barquiel, Beatriz; Hillman, Natalia; Burgos, María Ángeles; Herranz, Lucrecia

    2018-04-20

    To assess the impact of glycemic control in gestational on neonatal weight and metabolic complications of twin and singleton pregnancies. An observational, retrospective study to monitor 120 twin and 240 singleton pregnancies in women with GDM. Maternal glycemic parameters during pregnancy (oral glucose tolerance test results, treatment, insulinization rate, mean HbA1c in the third trimester), and neonatal complications and weight were recorded. A higher infant birth weight ratio (IBWR 1.02±0.12 vs. 0.88±0.12, P<.001) and a lower rate of newborns small for gestational age (severe SGA 2.5% vs. 8.3%, P=.012) were seen after singleton pregnancies as compared to twin pregnancies. The rates of newborns large for gestational age (LGA 12.6% vs. 12.5%, P=.989); macrosomic (6.7% vs. 7.5%, P=.777); or small for gestational age (SGA 6.7% vs. 10.8%, P=.175) were similar in both groups. Neonates from twin pregnancies had a higher risk of hypoglycemia (adjusted OR 4.71; 1.38-16.07, P=.013) and polycythemia (adjusted OR 10.05; 1.82-55.42, P=0.008). A linear relationship was seen between third trimester HbA1c levels and IBWR in singleton (r=.199, P=.003), but not in twin pregnancies (r=0.049, P=0.610). Risk of severe SGA, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia was significantly higher in twin pregnancies of women with GDM. Neonatal weight outcomes and metabolic complications in twin pregnancies of women with GDM were not related to glycemic control. Moreover, in our study population, fasting glucose at diagnosis and mean HbA1c in the third trimester showed a linear relationship with higher birth weights in singleton, but not in twin pregnancies. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Transuteroplacental metabolism of cortisol and cortisone during mid- and late gestation in the baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, G.J.; Albrecht, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    We measured uterine extraction (i.e. metabolism) and transuteroplacental interconversion of cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) to determine whether metabolism across the uterus changes during pregnancy and contributes to the MCR of these corticosteroids. On day 100 (n . 4) or 170 (n . 3) of pregnancy (term . day 184), baboons (Papio anubis; 14-18 kg) were sedated with ketamine, and a constant infusion (0.38 ml/min) of 8-12 microCi [ 3 H]F and 9-15 microCi [ 14 C]E in 80 ml 0.9% NaCl-1% ethanol was initiated (time zero) via a maternal antecubital vein. At 60 min, animals were laparotomized, and at 70, 80, and 90 min, blood samples were obtained from right and left uterine veins and from a maternal saphenous vein. At 95 min, a transverse incision was made in the uterus, the fetus was isolated, and blood samples were obtained from the umbilical vein and artery. The cord was then clamped, and the fetus was delivered. Radio-labeled F and E were extracted from serum and purified by sequential paper chromatography, and metabolic parameters were calculated. Endogenous F and E levels were determined by RIA. In the mother, the percent conversions of E to F at midgestation (mean +/- SE; 72 +/- 4) and late gestation (65 +/- 3) were similar and exceeded (P less than 0.01) respective values for oxidation of F to E (51 +/- 7 and 46 +/- 7, respectively), indicating that maternal corticosteroid metabolism favors F formation and is unchanged during the second half of gestation. In contrast, corticosteroid metabolism across the uterus and placenta (transuteroplacental) was altered during pregnancy. At midgestation, transuteroplacental conversion of E to F (37 +/- 9) exceeded (P less than 0.05) the reverse reaction (18 +/- 3), whereas oxidation of F to E at term (28 +/- 4) was 7-fold greater (P less than 0.05) than reduction of E to F (4 +/- 1)

  5. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Induced Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis caused by severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia is a rare complication of pregnancy. Acute pancreatitis has been well associated with gallstone disease, alcoholism, or drug abuse but rarely seen in association with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia may occur in pregnancy due to normal physiological changes leading to abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We report a case of severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia that caused acute pancreatitis at full term and was successfully treated with postpartum therapeutic plasma exchange. Patient also developed several other complications related to her substantial hypertriglyceridemia including preeclampsia, chylous ascites, retinal detachment, pleural effusion, and chronic pericarditis. This patient had no previous family or personal history of lipid abnormality and had four successful prior pregnancies without developing gestational hypertriglyceridemia. Such a severe hypertriglyceridemia is usually seen in patients with familial chylomicronemia syndromes where hypertriglyceridemia is exacerbated by the pregnancy, leading to fatal complications such as acute pancreatitis.

  6. Weter consumption during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Damián Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, water is retained partially owing to an increase in vasopressin production. Ingested water is used to produce amniotic fluid. Climate conditions and physical activity, gestational nausea and vomit, and a higher caloric intake, increases water needs; during lactation, more water is needed to produce milk. Dehydration during pregnancy is especially dangerous; it must be avoided. Physiological changes during pregnancy modify water metabolism: blood volume and glomerular filtration rate increase; more water is lost trhough sweating and respiration. Placenta con- tains up to 500 mL of water, and there are between 500-1,200 mL of amniotic fluid. Different studies recommend a total water intake of 2,700-4,800 mL/day during pregnancy, of which 1,470-2,370 should be beverages and water. For the Mexican population, the recommendation is 3,000 mL/day. Based on energy intake and the rule of 1-1.5 mL of water per kcal, water intake must increase in at least 300 mL/day at the beginning of the third pregnancy trimester. During lactation the recommended intake is of 3-3.6 L/ day, depending on age. Obesity and overweight during pregnancy are a major health problem, to which sugary beverages contribute. Water must be considered the best choice for hydration during pregnancy and lactation.

  7. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse logistics. The thesis brings insights on reverse logistics decision-making and it lays down theoretical principles for reverse logistics as a research field.In particular it puts together a framework ...

  8. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; við Streym, Susanna; Mosekilde, Leif

    2012-01-01

    In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5, 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone...... in fat mass differed according to breastfeeding status with a slower decline in women who continued breastfeeding. Calcium and vitamin D intake was not associated with BMD changes. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone loss. At 19 months postpartum, BMD has returned to pre-pregnancy...... loss, which, initially, is most pronounced at trabecular sites but also involves cortical sites during prolonged breastfeeding. INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results have been reported on effects of pregnancy and breastfeeding on BMD and body composition (BC). In a controlled cohort study, we elucidate...

  9. Metabolic alterations in dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsler, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Assessing metabolic risk in dialysis patients, three main aspects are important: a) the pathophysiologic effects of metabolic disturbances as known from the general population are unlikely to completely reverse once patients reach dialysis. b) Specific additional problems related to chronic kidney

  10. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  11. Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition exposure leads to reversal learning deficits and striatal disturbance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wu

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition during pregnancy increases susceptibility to metabolic risks in adulthood, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes; however, whether and how it affects the cognitive system associated with the brain remains elusive. Here, we report that pregnant obesity induced by exposure to excessive high fatty or highly palatable food specifically impaired reversal learning, a kind of adaptive behavior, while leaving serum metabolic metrics intact in the offspring of rats, suggesting a much earlier functional and structural defects possibly occurred in the central nervous system than in the metabolic system in the offspring born in unfavorable intrauterine nutritional environment. Mechanically, we found that above mentioned cognitive inflexibility might be associated with significant striatal disturbance including impaired dopamine homeostasis and disrupted leptin signaling in the adult offspring. These collective data add a novel perspective of understanding the adverse postnatal sequelae in central nervous system induced by developmental programming and the related molecular mechanism through which priming of risk for developmental disorders may occur during early life.

  12. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  13. Physiologic and Pharmacokinetic Changes in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged eCostantine

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic changes in pregnancy induce profound alterations to the pharmacokinetic properties of many medications. These changes affect distribution, absorption, metabolism, and excretion of drugs, and thus may impact their pharmacodynamic properties during pregnancy. Pregnant women undergo several adaptations in many organ systems. Some adaptations are secondary to hormonal changes in pregnancy, while others occur to support the gravid woman and her developing fetus. Some of the changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy include, for example, increased maternal fat and total body water, decreased plasma protein concentrations, especially albumin, increased maternal blood volume, cardiac output and blood flow to the kidneys and uteroplacental unit, and decreased blood pressure. The maternal blood volume expansion occurs at a larger proportion than the increase in red blood cell mass, which results in physiologic anemia and hemodilution. Other physiologic changes include increased tidal volume, partially compensated respiratory alkalosis, delayed gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility, and altered activity of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. Understating these changes and their profound impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in pregnancy is essential to optimize maternal and fetal health.

  14. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  15. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 36 weeks of pregnancy. Some domestic airlines restrict travel completely or require a medical certificate during the last month of pregnancy. For international flights, the cutoff point often is earlier, sometimes as early as 28 ...

  16. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  17. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  18. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - vaginal bleeding; Maternal blood loss - vaginal ... Up to 1 in 4 women have vaginal bleeding at some time during their pregnancy. Bleeding is more common in the first 3 months (first trimester), especially with twins.

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  1. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) Last reviewed: April, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  2. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you quit. Or contact: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (800) 622-2255 Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator (800) 662-4357 Last reviewed: November, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  3. Prescription Opioids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Administration Mother to Baby National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence Treating for Two Last reviewed: September, 2017 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  4. Etanercept (Enbrel) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are forming. Can taking etanercept during my pregnancy cause pregnancy complications such as preterm delivery? Two studies found ... of age. Rotavirus is one of the leading causes of vomiting and severe diarrhea in ... breastfeeding, including treatment with TNF inhibitors. Your ...

  5. Venlafaxine (Effexor) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also cause miscarriage. Can taking venlafaxine during my pregnancy cause birth defects in my baby? Studies have looked ... there is no evidence that taking venlafaxine during pregnancy causes changes in the baby’s behavior or intellect. Several ...

  6. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to you. Changes to Expect in Your Body Pregnancy causes lots of physical changes in the body. Here ... your skin is "glowing" when you are pregnant — pregnancy causes an increase in blood volume, which can make ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  9. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  10. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Who Were Treated with hGH Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy Thyroid disease is a group of disorders that ... prescribes. What role do thyroid hormones play in pregnancy? Thyroid hormones are crucial for normal development of ...

  11. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  12. Infections and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  14. Primary omental pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildizhan, R.; Kurdoglu, M.; Kolusari, A.; Erten, R.

    2008-01-01

    Omental pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy and can be seen primarily or secondary to a tubal pregnancy. A 25-yeal-old woman presented with abdominal distention with pain and anemia without vaginal bleeding. After a provisional diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy, laparotomy was performed. On surgical exploration, the bilateral tubes and ovaries were intact, however, an omental pregnancy was detected as the cause of hemoperitoneum. Partial omentectomy was performed. Although most cases are secondary, presented here is an additional case of primary omental pregnancy at 12 weeks according to Studdiford's criteria. Histological evidence of neovascularization into the supporting tissue confirmed our diagnosis. A primary omental pregnancy should always be considered as a possible explanation for severe hemoperitoneum in ectopic pregnancies presenting with acute abdomen and with intact adnexes on surgical exploration. (author)

  15. Inter-Pregnancy Interval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buchi

    1, 2 of the current pregnancy. This definition excludes. 1, 2 miscarriage as a preceding pregnancy event. Often the IPI is .... These include the type of caesarean section, post operative course ... puerperal endometritis, gestational diabetes and.

  16. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  17. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  18. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ...

  19. Pregnancy and the kidneys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal disease in pregnancy may cause a feeling of trepidation, even in the ... the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and gives rise to frequency and nocturia ... because the increased body weight in pregnancy does not typically reflect increased ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  1. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy ... birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy ...

  2. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and Pregnancy Print ...

  3. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleeping During Pregnancy What's in ...

  4. Anemia and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Anemia Anemia and Pregnancy Your body goes through significant changes ... becoming anemic. back to top Is Pregnancy-Related Anemia Preventable? Good nutrition is the best way to ...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  6. Pregnancy and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 17, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 611 Pregnancy and HIV HOW DO BABIES GET AIDS? HOW CAN WE ... doses due to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy, giving HIV a chance to develop resistance The risk of ...

  7. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ... Babies Nacersano Share Your Story OUR CAUSE HEALTH TOPICS RESEARCH & PROFESSIONALS MEDIA GET INVOLVED DONATE Our mission ...

  8. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points:\\ud - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks\\ud - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby\\ud - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  9. Hypopituitarism and successful pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xue; Yuan, Qing; Yao, Yanni; Li, Zengyan; Zhang, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a disorder characterized by the deficiency of one or more of the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Hypopituitarism patients may present the symptoms of amenorrhea, poor pregnancy potential, infertility, and no production of milk after delivery. Successful pregnancy in hypopituitarism patient is rare because hypopituitarism is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abruption, p...

  10. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seal off the fallopian tubes, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, generally aren't reversible. Why ... electrocautery). Some types of sterilization, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, aren't considered reversible. Risks ...

  11. Pregnancy to postpartum transition of serum metabolites in women with gestational diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chorell, Elin; Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Gustavsson, Carolina; Berntorp, Kerstin; Puhkala, Jatta; Luoto, Riitta; Olsson, Tommy; Holmäng, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    Context Gestational diabetes is commonly linked to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a need to characterize metabolic changes associated with gestational diabetes in order to find novel biomarkers for T2DM. Objective To find potential pathophysiological mechanisms and markers for progression from gestational diabetes mellitus to T2DM by studying the metabolic transition from pregnancy to postpartum. Design The metabolic transition profile from pregnancy to postpartum wa...

  12. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dawson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology.

  13. Determination of olanzapine and N-desmethyl-olanzapine in plasma using a reversed-phase HPLC coupled with coulochemical detection: correlation of olanzapine or N-desmethyl-olanzapine concentration with metabolic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mong-Liang Lu

    Full Text Available Olanzapine (OLZ is one of the most prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs but its use is associated with unfavorable metabolic abnormalities. N-desmethyl-olanzapine (DMO, one of the OLZ metabolites by CYP1A2, has been reported to have a normalizing action on metabolic abnormalities, but this remains unclear. Our aim was to explore the correlation between the concentrations of OLZ or DMO with various metabolic parameters in schizophrenic patients.The chromatographic analysis was carried out with a solvent delivery system coupled to a Coulochem III coulometric detector to determine OLZ and DMO simultaneously in OLZ-treated patients. The correlation between the concentration of OLZ or DMO and the metabolic parameters was analyzed by the Spearman rank order correlation method (r s.The established analytical method met proper standards for accuracy and reliability and the lower limitation of quantification for each injection of DMO or OLZ was 0.02 ng. The method was successfully used for the analysis of samples from nonsmoking patients (n = 48 treated with OLZ in the dosage range of 5-20 mg per day. There was no correlation between OLZ concentrations and tested metabolic parameters. DMO concentrations were negatively correlated with glucose (r s = -0.45 and DMO concentrations normalized by doses were also negatively correlated with insulin levels (r s = -0.39; however, there was a marginally positive correlation between DMO and homocysteine levels (r s = +0.38.The observed negative correlations between levels of DMO and glucose or insulin suggest a metabolic normalization role for DMO regardless of its positive correlation with a known cardiovascular risk factor, homocysteine. Additional studies of the mechanisms underlying DMO's metabolic effects are warranted.

  14. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? • What risks are associated with having a seizure ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? Seizure disorders can affect pregnancy in several ways: • ...

  15. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  16. Ectopic ovarian pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.S.; Jatoi, N.; Memon, R.A.; Sachdev, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of ectopic ovarian pregnancy is presented occurring in a 24 years old woman after natural conception. The clinical diagnosis was ruptured tubal pregnancy. Gross findings were suggestive of ruptured corpus luteum cyst on exploration. The histopathological examination of specimen brought forward the diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy. (author)

  17. Hodgkin's disease in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szelc, S.; Szeliga, E.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnancy outcome and its influence on the effect of the MOPP chemotherapy for 30 patients with Hodgkin's disease were analyzed. During the first 6 months after completing the treatment 305 of pregnancies were interrupted. Pregnancy during complete remission of Hodgkin's disease after combined treatment does not increase the risk of relapse and is not a risk to delivery and foetus. (author)

  18. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.

  19. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  20. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, M. V.; Budyal, Sweta; Kasliwal, Rajeev; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented. PMID:23226664

  1. Osteoporosis presenting in pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2014-12-01

    To describe our current state of knowledge about the pathophysiology, incidence, and treatment of osteoporosis that presents during pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation. When vertebral fractures occur in pregnant or lactating women, it is usually unknown whether the skeleton was normal before pregnancy. Maternal adaptations increase bone resorption modestly during pregnancy but markedly during lactation. The net bone loss may occasionally precipitate fractures, especially in women who have underlying low bone mass or skeletal fragility prior to pregnancy. Bone mass and strength are normally restored postweaning. Transient osteoporosis of the hip is a sporadic disorder localized to one or both femoral heads; it is not due to generalized skeletal resorption. Anecdotal reports have used bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, or vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty to treat postpartum vertebral fractures, but it is unclear whether these therapies had any added benefit over the spontaneous skeletal recovery that normally occurs after weaning. These relatively rare fragility fractures result from multifactorial causes, including skeletal disorders that precede pregnancy, and structural and metabolic stresses that can compromise skeletal strength during pregnancy and lactation. Further study is needed to determine when pharmacological or surgical therapy is warranted instead of conservative or expectant management.

  2. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of

  3. Cardiotocografia Anteparto e Prognóstico Perinatal em Gestações Complicadas pelo Diabete: Influência do Controle Metabólico Materno Antepartum Nonstress Test and Perinatal Prognosis in Pregnancies Complicated by Diabetes: Influence of Maternal Metabolic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Sanches Mascaro

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: relacionar a qualidade do controle metabólico com os resultados da cardiotocografia (CTG anteparto e avaliar sua capacidade preditiva no prognóstico perinatal de gestações associadas ao diabete. Pacientes e Métodos: estudo retrospectivo de 125 gestantes, portadoras de diabete gestacional ou clínico, no qual se relacionou a última CTG anteparto (intervalo máximo de 48 horas à qualidade do controle metabólico materno e aos resultados perinatais. A qualidade do controle metabólico foi definida pela média glicêmica do dia do exame (MGd e da gestação (MG e pelo comportamento da requisição de insulina (R/insulina. Para os resultados perinatais foram analisados os índices de Apgar de 1º e 5º minuto, a classificação peso/idade gestacional, o tempo de internação, a necessidade de cuidados de UTI e a ocorrência de óbito neonatal (ONN precoce. A capacidade diagnóstica da CTG anteparto foi avaliada pelos índices de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo e negativo. Resultados: a MGd adequada ( ou = 120 mg/dL, a 26,1% (pBackground: the antepartum nonstress test (NST is the most commonly used test to evaluate fetal well-being in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, its results being related to the quality of maternal metabolic control and perinatal prognosis. Purpose: to relate the quality of metabolic control to the results of the NST and to evaluate its predictive capacity for the perinatal prognosis of pregnancies associated with diabetes. Patients and Methods: this is a retrospective study of 125 pregnant women with gestational or clinical diabetes in which the last NST (maximum interval of 48 h was related to the quality of maternal metabolic control and perinatal results. Quality of metabolic control was defined by the glycemic mean on the test day (GMd, glycemic mean during pregnancy (GM, and behavior of insulin requirement (Insulin/R. For the perinatal results, the following parameters were

  4. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  5. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  6. Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Vanessa H; Ferguson, James E

    2017-10-01

    Routine exercise should be recommended to healthy pregnant women after consultation with an obstetric provider. Even pregnant women who have not been exercising regularly can gradually increase their exercise during pregnancy. Regular exercise during pregnancy promotes overall wellness and helps maintain appropriate gestational weight gain and appropriate fetal weight gain. Exercise in pregnancy may also reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes, and may be associated with shorter first stage of labor and decreased risk for cesarean section. Exercise in pregnancy is safe for pregnant women and their fetuses and can have multiple health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Hyperthyroidism in molar pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Mahdoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2014-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of molar pregnancy. We report a 39-year-old woman who presented a thyrotoxic syndrome accompanying a molar pregnancy. Serum thyroid hormones were elevated and returned to normal level after uterine evacuation of a molar pregnancy. The authors detail the role of thyroid stimulating property of human gonadotropin chorionic hormone and its structural changes during the gestational trophoblastic diseases. These changes give the latter the thyroid stimulating properties and signs of hyperthyroidism. Molar pregnancy may be a cause of hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis of molar pregnancy should be a mention to thyrotoxicosique syndrome in a woman of childbearing age. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  8. Uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptive devices in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-01

    Jul 1, 2015 ... The use of long acting reversible methods (LARC) is proposed as a strategy to ... The chance of pregnancy over a year of use is significant- ly lower than ... Therefore, LARC is associated with sustained long-term potential to ...

  9. Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Philippe; Salenave, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It is usually transient, being due to increased placental production of vasopressinase that inactivates circulating vasopressin. Gestational, transient DI occurs late in pregnancy and disappears few days after delivery. Acquired central DI can also occur during pregnancy, for example in a patient with hypophysitis or neuroinfundibulitis during late pregnancy or postpartum. Finally, pre-existing central or nephrogenic DI may occasionally be unmasked by pregnancy. Treatment with dDAVP (desmopressin, Minirin(®)) is very effective on transient DI of pregnancy and also on pre-existing or acquired central DI. Contrary to vasopressin, dDAVP is not degraded by vasopressinase. Nephrogenic DI is insensitive to dDAVP and is therefore more difficult to treat during pregnancy if fluid intake needs to be restricted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  11. MRI imaging of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome associated with pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Mohamed AbdelMaboud Ibrahim

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The diagnosis of PRES has important therapeutic and prognostic value. The use of diffusion-weighted imaging and ADC maps allows an earlier and clearer differentiation of cytotoxic and vasogenic edema, which can predict the development of infarction.

  12. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish......Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth....../cup/day). Compared to non-coffee drinkers, intake of eight or more cups of coffee per day was associated with an adjusted birth weight difference of −65 g [95% confidence interval (CI) −92 to −39] for non-smokers and −79 g [95% CI −124 to −34] for women smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day. Women drinking eight...

  13. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many irreversible computation models have reversible counterparts, but these are poorly understood at present. We introduce reversible flowcharts with an assertion operator and show that any reversible flowchart can be simulated by a structured reversible flowchart using only three control flow...... operators. Reversible flowcharts are r- Turing-complete, meaning that they can simuluate reversible Turing machines without garbage data. We also demonstrate the injectivization of classical flowcharts into reversible flowcharts. The reversible flowchart computation model provides a theoretical...

  14. Pregnancy Precautions: FAQs on Pregnancy Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your doctor before getting any vaccination during pregnancy. Also tell your doctor if you became pregnant within 4 weeks of having a vaccine. And if your workplace requires certain vaccines, be sure to let them ...

  15. Baking soda pica associated with rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari Childress, Katherine M; Myles, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Pica is a commonly underappreciated disorder in pregnancy that can lead to several complications, including severe metabolic derangements and other adverse outcomes. We report a case of baking soda pica in pregnancy associated with both rhabdomyolysis and cardiomyopathy. A multigravid woman at 37 weeks of gestation presented with weakness and severe hypokalemia. She subsequently had development of rhabdomyolysis and presumed peripartum cardiomyopathy. After delivery, it was discovered that the patient had a long history of consumption of large quantities of baking soda. Her condition improved with cessation of the pica. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for pica in pregnancy because it can lead to complex diagnostic challenges and pregnancy complications. The diagnosis should be considered in a patient with unexplained metabolic abnormalities.

  16. Headache and pregnancy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, A; Delaruelle, Z; Ivanova, T A; Khan, S; Ornello, R; Raffaelli, B; Terrin, A; Reuter, U; Mitsikostas, D D

    2017-10-19

    This systematic review summarizes the existing data on headache and pregnancy with a scope on clinical headache phenotypes, treatment of headaches in pregnancy and effects of headache medications on the child during pregnancy and breastfeeding, headache related complications, and diagnostics of headache in pregnancy. Headache during pregnancy can be both primary and secondary, and in the last case can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. The most common secondary headaches are stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumor, choriocarcinoma, eclampsia, preeclampsia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Migraine is a risk factor for pregnancy complications, particularly vascular events. Data regarding other primary headache conditions are still scarce. Early diagnostics of the disease manifested by headache is important for mother and fetus life. It is especially important to identify "red flag symptoms" suggesting that headache is a symptom of a serious disease. In order to exclude a secondary headache additional studies can be necessary: electroencephalography, ultrasound of the vessels of the head and neck, brain MRI and MR angiography with contrast ophthalmoscopy and lumbar puncture. During pregnancy and breastfeeding the preferred therapeutic strategy for the treatment of primary headaches should always be a non-pharmacological one. Treatment should not be postponed as an undermanaged headache can lead to stress, sleep deprivation, depression and poor nutritional intake that in turn can have negative consequences for both mother and baby. Therefore, if non-pharmacological interventions seem inadequate, a well-considered choice should be made concerning the use of medication, taking into account all the benefits and possible risks.

  17. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy; Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy; Melasma - pregnancy; Prenatal skin changes ... during pregnancy may have other effects on your skin. Some women get brownish or yellowish patches around ...

  18. Higher outcomes of vasectomy reversal in men with the same female partner as before vasectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Polackwich, A Scott; Kent, Joe; Conlin, Michael J; Hedges, Jason C; Fuchs, Eugene F

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed fertility outcomes of vasectomy reversal at a high surgical volume center in men with the same female partner as before vasectomy. We retrospectively studied a prospective database. All vasectomy reversals were performed by a single surgeon (EFF). Patients who underwent microsurgical vasectomy reversal and had the same female partner as before vasectomy were identified from 1978 to 2011. Pregnancy and live birth rates, procedure type (bilateral vasovasostomy, bilateral vasoepididymostomy, unilateral vasovasostomy or unilateral vasoepididymostomy), patency rate, time from reversal and spouse age were evaluated. We reviewed the records of 3,135 consecutive microsurgical vasectomy reversals. Of these patients 524 (17%) who underwent vasectomy reversal had the same female partner as before vasectomy. Complete information was available on 258 patients (49%), who had a 94% vas patency rate. The clinical pregnancy rate was 83% by natural means compared to 60% in our general vasectomy reversal population (p reversal with the same female partner the OR was 2 (p reversal was 38.9 and 33.2 years, respectively. Outcomes of clinical pregnancy and live birth rates are higher in men who undergo microsurgical vasectomy reversal with the same female partner. These outcomes may be related to a shorter interval from vasectomy, previous fertility and couple motivation. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbiome, autoimmunity, allergy, and helminth infection: The importance of the pregnancy period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian; Liu, Su; Tan, Qiao; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Zeng, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy is a special physical period in reproductive age women, which has a beneficial influence on the course of certain autoimmune diseases. It has been recently suggested that the microbiome undergoes profound changes during pregnancy that are associated with host physiological and immunological adaptations. The maternal microbiome remodeling during pregnancy is an active response of the mother, possibly to alter immune system status and to facilitate metabolic and immunological adaptations, which are needed for a successful pregnancy. In this review, we attempt to discuss (i) the role of maternal microbiome in pregnancy outcomes known to adversely influence neonatal and infant health, including preterm birth, cardiometabolic complications of pregnancy, and gestational weight gain; (ii) the association of microbiome with autoimmunity, allergy diseases, and asthma during pregnancy; and (iii) the impact of helminth infection during pregnancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  1. Pyruvate Kinase Triggers a Metabolic Feedback Loop that Controls Redox Metabolism in Respiring Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüning, N.M.; Rinnerthaler, M.; Bluemlein, K.; Mulleder, M.; Wamelink, M.M.C.; Lehrach, H.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Breitenbach, M.; Ralser, M.

    2011-01-01

    In proliferating cells, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is known as the Warburg effect, whose reversal inhibits cancer cell proliferation. Studying its regulator pyruvate kinase (PYK) in yeast, we discovered that central metabolism is self-adapting to synchronize redox metabolism

  2. PREGNANCY LOSS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibary A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss is an important aspect of equine practice due to the economic and emotional loss that it engenders. Pregnancy loss is often divided in two categories: early pregnancy loss (EPL or embryonic death (ED (first 42 days and fetal losses (after 42 days. Diagnosis of the causes of pregnancy loss is often very challenging. Many of the causes of EPL remain poorly documented but studies on embryo development and embryo-uterine interaction have been able to shed some light on predisposing factors. Fetal losses or abortions are dominated by infectious causes and particularly bacterial placentitis. Detailed reviews of pregnancy loss were recently published by the authors (Tibary et al., 2012; Tibary and Pearson, 2012; Tibary et al., 2014. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prevention of pregnancy loss in the mare.

  3. Pregnancy and Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Chauhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual obscurations are common during pregnancy. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological,pathological or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. While most of the described changes are transient in nature, others extend beyond delivery and may lead to permanent visual impairment. Also, pregnancy can affect vision through systemic disease that are either specific to the pregnancy itself or systemic diseases that occur more frequently in relation to pregnancy. Neuro-ophthalmological disorders should be kept in mind in pregnant women presenting with visual acuity or field loss. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the ocular changes in pregnancy in order to counsel and advice women who currently are, or are planning to become pregnant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 1-13

  4. [Sexuality and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueiro, E; Gayoso, P; Perdiz, C; Doval, J L

    1998-10-15

    We intend to describe the sexual behaviour of pregnancies women. Family Planning Center Nóvoa Santos, of Galician Health Service (SERGAS), of Ourense (SPAIN). 206 pregnancies women that are attended in a obstetric psychoprophylaxis's programme, during two years (January/93-January/95). We analysed the social economic, of reproduction, of medical attention and psycho-sexual variables. We use the PRESTA and SPSS statistics programmes. The average age is 28 years old, is married, has elementary studies and this is the first pregnancy. Her pregnancy is desire and normally developed. Her sexual desire and intercourse frequency is the same (1-2 per week); the intercourse is pleasant and the more habitual position is she over. Some times, the couple has relations without coitus and she practises the masturbation, and she enjoy of this practice. The pregnancies women have different sexual behaviours. They are satisfied with all them. The health' professional should favour the complete enjoy of the sexuality during the pregnancy.

  5. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  6. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Sileny N; Kesic, Vesna I; Van Calsteren, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physicians' attitudes and knowledge regarding the treatment possibilities for patients with cancer in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A 30-item questionnaire was mailed electronically to physicians across Europe, who were potentially involved in care of pregnant patients and....../or cancer, using the membership directories of different professional societies. RESULTS: 142 surveys were eligible for analysis. A median of 2 (range 0-100) patients with cancer in pregnancy were treated per center in 2010. The vast majority of respondents (94%) agreed that management of pregnant patients...... with cancer should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. When cancer is diagnosed in the first or early second trimester of pregnancy, 44% of respondents prefer termination of pregnancy: if the patient wishes to preserve the pregnancy, 77% consider deliberate delay and treatment later in pregnancy. When...

  7. Melanoma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haan, Jorine; Lok, Christianne A; de Groot, Christianne J M

    2017-01-01

    The management of melanoma during pregnancy is challenging as maternal benefits and fetal risks need to be balanced. Here, we present an overview of the incidence, the demographic and clinical characteristics and the treatment modalities used. After analysis of obstetric, fetal and maternal outcome......, recommendations for clinical practice are provided. From the 'International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy' database, pregnant patients with melanoma were identified and analysed. Sixty pregnancies were eligible for analysis. Fifty percent of the patients presented with advanced melanoma during...... pregnancy (14 stage III and 16 stage IV), and 27% were diagnosed with recurrent melanoma. Surgery was the main therapeutic strategy during pregnancy. Only four patients with advanced melanoma were treated during pregnancy with systemic therapy (n=1) or radiotherapy (n=3). Premature delivery was observed...

  8. Subacute Thyroiditis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CANAN YILDIZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a case of subacute thyroiditis occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy in a 33-years-old pregnant patient. Thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy is a rare condition and occurs in 0.1 to 0.4% of all pregnancies. Graves' Disease and transient gestational thyrotoxicosis constitute the majority of emerging thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy. Subacute thyroiditis may also cause temporary thyrotoxicosis. Although the majority of the patients recover without treatment, complications in the pregnancy should be considered and each patient must be evaluated individually. As a result, differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy and treatment plan should be done well and subacute thyroiditis should be considered in differential diagnosis. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 1-1

  9. Diabetes insipidus in pregnancy: how to advice the patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refardt, Julie; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2018-02-19

    Diabetes insipidus, characterized by polyuria and polydipsia, is a rare disease during pregnancy. Nevertheless, its recognition is important to avoid complications due to dehydration and hypernatremia. Its manifestation during pregnancy ranges from exacerbation of pre-existing central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus to transient pregnancy-induced diabetes insipidus due to the increased metabolism of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin by the placental vasopressinase. Diagnosis can be challenging, as urinary frequency is common during pregnancy and primary polydipsia also needs to be excluded. Also the standard water deprivation test is not recommended during pregnancy due to the increased risk of complications. Treatment depends upon the final diagnosis, with desmopressin (DDAVP) being the medication of choice in AVP-deficient diabetes insipidus, whereas nephrogenic diabetes insipidus requires treatment of the underlying disease and supportive measures.

  10. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women

    OpenAIRE

    Savasi, V.; Antonazzo, P.; Personeni, C.

    2016-01-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  11. [Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, S; Ciardo, A

    2001-01-01

    Pregnancy is a predisposing factor for urinary tract infection and pregnant women suffering from this pathology are exposed to dangerous risks which may condition maternal wellbeing and fetal prognosis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the common bacterial infection requiring medical treatment in pregnancy. Diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is important as approximately 20-40% of these women, if untreated during pregnancy, will develop a symptomatic urinary tract infection.

  12. Exercise in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  13. Ruptured cornual pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Yasmeen, H.; Noorani, K.

    2003-01-01

    A case of ruptured cornual pregnancy is presented here. The patient presented with history of 30 weeks gestational amenorrhoea and pain in the lower abdomen and epigastrium for the last seven days. Ultrasound revealed a 29 weeks abdominal pregnancy with blood in the pelvic cavity. On laparotomy; there was a ruptured right cornual pregnancy, treated cornual resection and uterine repair. An alive male baby of one kg weight was delivered from the resected cornua of the uterus. (author)

  14. Energy homeostasis and running wheel activity during pregnancy in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, S R; Carter, K M; Grattan, D R

    2018-05-05

    Pregnancy and lactation are metabolically challenging states, where the mother must supply all the energy requirements for the developing fetus and growing pups respectively. The aim of the current study was to characterize many aspects of energy homeostasis before and during pregnancy in the mouse, and to examine the role of voluntary activity on changes in energy expenditure during pregnancy. In a secondary aim, we evaluate measures of energy homeostasis during pregnancy in mice that successfully reared their litter or in mice that went on to abandon their litter, to determine if an impairment in pregnancy-induced adaptation of energy homeostasis might underlie the abandonment of pups soon after birth. During pregnancy, food intake was increased, characterized by increased meal size and duration but not number of meals per day. The duration of time spent inactive, predicted to indicate sleep behaviour, was increased both early and late in pregnancy compared to pre-pregnancy levels. Increased x + y beam breaks, as a measure of activity increased during pregnancy and this reflected an increase in ambulatory behaviour in mid pregnancy and an increase in non-ambulatory movement in late pregnancy. Energy expenditure, as measured by indirect calorimetry, increased across pregnancy, likely due to the growth and development of fetal tissue. There was also a dramatic reduction in voluntary wheel running as soon as the mice became pregnant. Compared with successful pregnancies and lactations, pregnancies where pups were abandoned soon after birth were associated with reduced body weight gain and an increase in running wheel activity at the end of pregnancy, but no difference in food intake or energy expenditure. Overall, during pregnancy there are multiple adaptations to change energy homeostasis, resulting in partitioning of provisions of energy to the developing fetus and storing energy for future metabolic demands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thyroid hormones during late pregnancy with special reference to the free hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsch, J.; Bellmann, O.; Oehr, P.; Rasche, A.; Biersack, H.J.; Winkler, C.

    1982-12-01

    In 91 clinically euthyroid pregnants in the last trimenon and in 38 non-pregnant euthyroid women the following parameters were determined: total T/sub 4/ (TT/sub 4/), total T/sub 3/ (TT/sub 3/), reverse T/sub 3/ (rT/sub 3/, only in pregnancy), T/sub 3/-uptake (T/sub 3/U), TBG, TSH FT/sub 4/-index (FT/sub 4/I = TT/sub 4//T/sub 3/U), TT/sub 4//TBG, free T/sub 4/ (FT/sub 4/) and free T/sub 3/ (FT/sub 3/, only 58 pregnants) according to the methods of Corning and Lepetit, respectively. In addition, an oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) was performed. The results were indicative of an euthyroid status in late pregnancy with slightly decreased FT/sub 4/ and normal FT/sub 3/ levels. The diagnostic value of the TT/sub 4//TBG ratio at high TBG-concentrations must be regarded as doubtful. Pregnants with gestational diabetes had lower FT/sub 4/ levels which might be due to an altered metabolism of thyroxine.

  16. The importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinoer, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    To examine the importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy. Review of existing literature of iodine in pregnancy. Population surveys and metabolic studies. Pregnant women. The main changes in thyroid function associated with pregnancy are due to an increase in hormone requirements that begin in the first trimester of gestation. This increase can only be met by a proportional increase in hormone production, something that depends directly upon the availability of iodine. When dietary iodine is lacking, an adequate physiological adaptation is difficult to achieve and is progressively replaced by pathological alterations that occur in parallel with the degree and duration of iodine deprivation. Iodine prophylaxis should be given systematically to women during pregnancy. In most public health programmes dealing with the correction of iodine deficiency disorders, iodised salt has been used as the preferred means to deliver iodine to households. Iodised salt, however, is not the ideal means of delivering iodine in the specific instances of pregnancy, breast-feeding and complementary feeding because of the need to limit salt intake during these periods. In European countries, presently it is proposed that iodine is given to pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers by systematically administering multivitamin tablets containing iodine in order to reach the recommended dietary allowance of 250 microg iodine day-1.

  17. Current management of gynecologic cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, Christos; Minis, Evelyn Eleni; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2018-04-27

    Cancer during pregnancy is a particularly challenging complication. The incidence has increased in recent years due to childbering at an advanced maternal age due to career choices and/or the development of reproductive technology. Approximately two thirds of cancer cases during pregnancy are comprised of invasive cervical cancers and breast cancer. Cancer during gestation is characterized by a need for specialized treatment due to major changes in the hormonal profile (estrogen-progesterone), metabolism (enhancement of anabolism), hemodynamic changes (hyperdynamic circulation), immunologic changes (cell mediated and humoral immunity), increased angiogenesis (increased blood flow towards the uterus). Moreover, the management of such patients is based on the trimester of pregnancy, type and stage of cancer and informed consent of the mother based on her wishes. The optimal treatment of cancer during pregnancy remains elusive, as there are limited data from retrospective studies with small samples. As a result, it is crucial that data regarding survival of the women and long-term follow up of the children from different cancer centres and registries be shared. This need is dictated by the fact that the incidence of cancer during pregnancy will continue to rise as child-bearing age continues to increase.

  18. Placental Nutrient Transport in Gestational Diabetic Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Castillo-Castrejon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity during pregnancy is rising and is associated with increased risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy (1. Fetal growth is determined by the maternal nutrient supply and placental nutrient transfer capacity. GDM-complicated pregnancies are more likely to be complicated by fetal overgrowth or excess adipose deposition in utero. Infants born from GDM mothers have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic disorders later in life. Diverse factors, such as ethnicity, age, fetal sex, clinical treatment for glycemic control, gestational weight gain, and body mass index among others, represent a challenge for studying underlying mechanisms in GDM subjects. Determining the individual roles of glucose intolerance, obesity, and other factors on placental function and fetal growth remains a challenge. This review provides an overview of changes in placental macronutrient transport observed in human pregnancies complicated by GDM. Improved knowledge and understanding of the alterations in placenta function that lead to pathological fetal growth will allow for development of new therapeutic interventions and treatments to improve pregnancy outcomes and lifelong health for the mother and her children.

  19. Pregnancy tumor: A rare case report in mandibular anteriors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Phore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a woman's life is associated with a variety of physiological, anatomical, and hormonal changes that can affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems. Such hormonal changes may lead to periodontal diseases and may be associated with generalized or localized gingival enlargements. Pregnancy does not cause the condition, but altered tissue metabolism in pregnancy accentuates the response to the local irritants, thereby causing gingival enlargements. In this report, a 25-year-old pregnant female had a localized gingival enlargement in the labial aspect of the mandibular anterior region.

  20. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy...... was unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  1. Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Rossella; Ladu, Cristina; Vezzosi, Chiara; Mannelli, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare condition in the general population and is even less common during pregnancy with only a few cases reported in literature. The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome may be difficult during pregnancy because the typical features of the disorder and pregnancy may overlap. However, Cushing's syndrome results in increased fetal and maternal complications, and diagnosis and treatment are critical. This report describes a case of 26-year-old female at the 19th week of pregnancy with symptoms and signs of hypercortisolism, where ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed and treated by robotic laparoscopic adrenalectomy at the 21th week of gestation.

  2. Pregnancy and melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Marcia S; Martires, Kathryn; Bieber, Amy Kalowitz; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-10-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most common malignancy during pregnancy, and is diagnosed during childbearing age in approximately one-third of women diagnosed with melanoma. The impact of hormonal changes during pregnancy and from iatrogenic hormones on melanoma is controversial. Women undergo immunologic changes during pregnancy that may decrease tumor surveillance. In addition, hormone receptors are found on some melanomas. In spite of these observations, the preponderance of evidence does not support a poorer prognosis for pregnancy-associated melanomas. There is also a lack of evidence that oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy worsens melanoma prognosis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy outcome of monochorionic twins: does amnionicity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Thiran; Contro, Elena; Thilaganathan, Basky; Khan, Hina; Zanardini, Cristina; Mahsud-Dornan, Samina; Bhide, Amar

    2011-12-01

    To compare the fetal loss rate of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies according to their amnionicity. A retrospective review of all MC pregnancy outcomes in a tertiary centre. Pregnancy outcomes were compared for monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) versus monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) pregnancies. 29 MCMA and 117 MCDA twin pregnancies were identified. The overall fetal loss rate was significantly higher in MCMA (23/52, 44.2%) compared to MCDA pregnancies (28/233, 12%, Chi squared = 30.03, p fetal survival rate in MCDA twins were significantly higher than in MCMA twins (Log-rank Chi-squared = 27.9, p fetal losses in some MCMA twins. After exclusion of identifiable causes, the difference in fetal survival was not significant in the two groups (Log-rank chi-squared = 0.373, p = .54). The loss rate for MCMA twins is high and occurs mainly due to discordant congenital abnormality, conjoint twins or twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence. Although the fetal loss rate in MCDA is lower than in MCMA pregnancies, the majority of fetal loss in MCDA pregnancies cannot be predicted at the first scan at presentation. The data of this study questions the widespread policy of a difference in the scheduling of elective delivery for MCMA and MCDA twins.

  4. Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location

    OpenAIRE

    Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2013-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for...

  5. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, Toby [Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom and Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Montanaro, Ashley [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.

  6. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  7. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should I avoid secondhand smoke during pregnancy? • Are e-cigarettes safe to use during pregnancy? • Why is drinking ... smokers, take steps to avoid secondhand smoke. Are e-cigarettes safe to use during pregnancy? Electronic cigarettes (known ...

  8. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  9. Problem in twin pregnancy: Findings of prenatal sonography and autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Hak Jong; Chun, Yi Kyeong; Kim, Yee Jeong; Hong, Sung Ran

    2001-01-01

    Multifetal gestations are high risk pregnancies with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Multifetal gestations are subject to unique complications including conjoined twins, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), acardiac twins, twin embization of co-twin demise and heterotopic pregnancies. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of types and complications of multifetal gestations is important for antenatal care and prediction of fetal outcome. This study was performed to present the prenatal ultrasonographic findings and pathologic findings of the unique complications of twin pregnancy. Acardia is a lethal anomaly occurring in 1% of monozygotic twin. The acardiac twin has a parasitic existence and depends on the donor (pump) twin for its blood supply via placental anastomoses and retrograde perfusion of umbilical cord. This twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is a most extreme manifestation on the TTTS. Doppler verification reversed flow in umbilical cord of the acardiac twin confirms the diagnosis.

  10. Anticoagulation in pregnancy complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Women with acquired and inherited thrombophilia are thought to be at increased risk for pregnancy complications, including recurrent pregnancy loss and, depending on the type of thrombophilia, severe preeclampsia. This review discusses the associations between the types of thrombophilia and types of

  11. Have a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... important that you: Don’t smoke or drink alcohol. Eat healthy foods and get enough folic acid. Stay active. Take ... Learn more: Pregnant? Don’t Smoke! Quit Smoking Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Next ... 7 of 11 sections Take Action: Eat Healthy and Stay Active Eat healthy foods. Making healthy food choices during pregnancy can help ...

  12. Acetaminophen use during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet

    2008-01-01

    information on acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy. We used the National Hospital Registry to identify 3784 (4.3%) children from the cohort diagnosed with 5847 congenital abnormalities. RESULTS: Children exposed to acetaminophen during the first trimester of pregnancy (n = 26,424) did...

  13. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

  14. Pemphigus Foliaceus In Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan S G S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35 year old female developed pemphigus foliaceus for the first time during her second pregnancy. Ultrasonogram done at the hospital had revealed a single live fetus of 28 weeks. But the pregnancy terminated in premature labour and still birth. Baby apparently did not have any skin lesion but was not available for examination or investigation.

  15. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born Too Soon Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ...

  16. Heroin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment to quit. Or contact: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (800) 622-2255 Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator (800) 662-4357 More information National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Last reviewed: July, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  17. Fluconazole and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small increase of birth defects. Can taking fluconazole cause other pregnancy problems? Studies have not found an increase in ... to suggest that a father’s use of fluconazole causes infertility or birth ... to a pregnancy. For more information, please see the MotherToBaby fact ...

  18. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and anus. If I have HPV, will that cause pregnancy problems? It is unclear. Even though HPV is ... HPV can be passed to a newborn during pregnancy or through the birth canal. Usually this causes no problems for the newborn. In rare cases, ...

  19. Intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal liver function tests occur in 3-5% of pregnancies, with many potential causes, including coincidental liver disease (most commonly viral hepatitis or gallstones and underlying chronic liver disease. Pruritus in pregnancy is common, affecting 23% of pregnancies, of which a small proportion will have obstetric cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a cholestatic disorder characterized by pruritus with onset in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, elevated serum aminotransferases and bile acid levels, and spontaneous relief of signs and symptoms within two to three weeks after delivery. ICP is observed in 0.4-1% of pregnancies in most areas of Central and Western Europe and North America. Genetic and hormonal factors, but also environmental factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of ICP. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery (19­60%, meconium staining of amniotic fluid (27%, fetal bradycardia (14%, fetal distress (22-41%, and fetal loss (0.4-4.1%, particularly when associated with fasting serum bile acid levels >40 μmol/L. Important ICP-induced changes in serum profiles of amidated bile acids were observed, involving both a marked increase in cholic acid concentration and a shift towards a higher proportion of taurine-conjugated species. Ursodeoxycholic acid (10-20 mg/kg/d is today regarded as the first line treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Delivery has been recommended in the 37-38th week when lung maturity has been established.

  20. Eating right during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 6. West EH, Hark L, Catalano PM. Nutrition during pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pregnancy and Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  1. Paternal Exposures and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased risk for birth defects. Can the father’s workplace exposures affect my pregnancy? There have been a number of studies looking ... else could a father’s work exposure affect a pregnancy? Men exposed to ... chemicals in the workplace may carry these agents on their clothes and ...

  2. Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W. J.; Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy are reported, both due to an adrenal adenoma. The association of pregnancy and Cushing's syndrome has up to now been described in 48 patients (including our two cases); Cushing's syndrome was ACTH-independent in 59%, ACTH-dependent in 33%, and of

  3. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  4. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bulletins-Gynecology/Early-Pregnancy-Loss What are common symptoms? Causes and Risks How is it diagnosed? Is there a way to prevent? Related A-Z Topics High-Risk Pregnancy Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Stillbirth NICHD News Spotlights Release: Anti-HIV ...

  5. Pregnancy and Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women,

  6. Pregnancy Complications: Placental Abruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk? Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ... high blood pressure, not smoking or using street drugs, and always wearing a seatbelt when riding in a car. ... complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  7. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Storgaard, Lone; Clausen, Mette Borg

    2015-01-01

    Cancer in pregnancy occurs in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. Recent reports have shown that most treatment regimes in second and third trimester are safe for the mother and the child. This has led to a paradigm shift in treating pregnant women with cancer. The management of the pregnant woman sh...

  8. Modeling acardiac twin pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Rosa; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Umur, Asli; Beek, Johan F.; Nikkels, Peter G. J.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Acardiac twin pregnancies are a rare but severe complication of monochorionic twinning, where the acardiac twin lacks cardiac function but nevertheless grows during pregnancy because it is perfused by the pump twin through a set of placental arterioarterial and venovenous anastomoses. Because the

  9. Cancer in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Berit Woetmann; Storgaard, Lone; Clausen, Mette Borg

    2015-01-01

    Cancer in pregnancy occurs in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. Recent reports have shown that most treatment regimes in second and third trimester are safe for the mother and the child. This has led to a paradigm shift in treating pregnant women with cancer. The management of the pregnant woman...

  10. Metal metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Whelton, B.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Peterson, D.P.; Oldham, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This research focuses on the role of pregnancy and lactation in susceptibility to the toxic effects of cadmium and lead. Responses under investigation include lead-induced changes in pathways for vitamin D and calcium metabolism and cadmium-induced alterations in kidney function and skeletal structure. The second area focuses on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements. Studies currently being conducted in nonhuman primates to develop a procedure to determine GI absorption values of uranium and plutonium that does not require sacrifice of the animal. 6 refs

  11. Pregnancies After the Diagnosis of Mild Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Cardiometabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Michael W; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Landon, Mark B; Casey, Brian M; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Rouse, Dwight J; Tita, Alan T N; Thorp, John M; Chien, Edward K; Saade, George R; Peaceman, Alan M; Blackwell, Sean C; Vandorsten, J Peter

    2017-02-01

    To assess the association of subsequent pregnancy with subsequent metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes mellitus after a pregnancy complicated by mild gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We conducted a prospective observational follow-up study of women with mild GDM randomized from 2002 to 2007 to usual care or dietary intervention and glucose self-monitoring. Women were evaluated 5-10 years after the parent study. Participants were grouped according to the number of subsequent pregnancies (group A, none [reference]; group B, one; group C, two or greater). Serum triglycerides, glucose tolerance, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist circumference were assessed. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by American Heart Association and National Heart Lung and Blood Institute criteria. Multivariable regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 905 eligible women from the original trial, 483 agreed to participate, 426 of whom were included in this analysis. Groups A, B, and C consisted of 212, 143, and 71 women, respectively. Of women with subsequent pregnancies, 32% (69/214) had another pregnancy complicated with GDM. No difference between groups was observed for metabolic syndrome (group A, 34%; group B, 33%; group C, 30%). Subsequent pregnancies were associated with diabetes mellitus outside of pregnancy (group A, 5.2%; group B, 10.5%, RR 2.62, 95% CI 1.16-5.91; group C, 11.3%, RR 2.83, 95% CI 1.06-7.59), and if complicated with GDM (no subsequent GDM pregnancy, RR 1.99, 95% CI 0.82-4.84; subsequent GDM pregnancy, RR 3.75, 95% CI 1.60-8.82). In women with prior mild GDM, subsequent pregnancies did not increase the frequency of metabolic syndrome, but subsequent pregnancies with GDM increased the risk of diabetes mellitus outside of pregnancy.

  12. PREGNANCY AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gaberšček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In conditions with appropriate iodine intake, thyroid gland adapts to changes during pregnancy without any consequences. Fetal need for thyroid hormones in the first trimester is directly connected with transplacental transport of thyroid hormones. Fetal synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on availability of iodine in the feto-placental unit. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are risk factors for pregnant woman and for normal development of fetus and child.Conclusions. Pregnant women with appropriately treated thyroid diseases have the same outcome of pregnancy as healthy women, and neuroendocrinological development of children is not impaired. If the disease is unrecognized or untreated, complications of pregnancy and delivery occur more frequently. Therefore, timely recognition and treatment of the diseases with appropriate drugs during pregnancy and, also, after delivery is very important.

  13. Shared constitutional risks for maternal vascular-related pregnancy complications and future cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Berends (Anne); C.J.M. de Groot (Christianne); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); M.P.S. Sie (Mark); S.H. Benneheij (Sofie); R. Pal (Richard); R. Heydanus (Rogier); B.A. Oostra (Ben); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMaternal predisposition to vascular and metabolic disease may underlie both vascular-related pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, as well as future maternal cardiovascular disease. We aimed to substantiate this hypothesis with biochemical and

  14. Heterotopic pregnancy: Sonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Tae Hee

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of the heterotopic pregnancy which is increasing recently. Thirty-nine cases of heterotopic pregnancy after ovulation induction and IVF-ET (In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer) during the recent 3 years were analyzed. They were diagnosed by ultrasonography and proved surgically afterwards. Sonographic findings were analyzed focusing on gestational week of intrauterine pregnancy and location of ectopic pregnancy. In particular, adnexal mass was evaluated with regard to size and the characteristic findings such as ectopic gestational sac (echogenic ring). Also, overian cyst and fluid collection in cul-de-sac space were reviewed carefully. Heterotopic pregnancy was proved surgically by salpingectomy in 33 cases and by resection of cornus in six cases. Sonographic diagnosis using transvaginal ultrasound was made from five weeks to nine weeks two days (six weeks and four days in average) from last menstral period in all 39 cases. Ectopic pregnancy was identified in ampullary part in 29 cases, in the isthmic portion of tube in four cases and in the cornus of uterus in six cases. The intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed by identifying the intrauterine gestational saccontaining a yolk sac in seven cases and the embryo with fetal heart beat in the remaining 32 cases. Adnexal masses of heterotopic pregnancy were less than 3 cm in diameter in 2 cases (57%), 3-4 cm in 11 cases (28%) and more than 4 cm in 6 cases (15%). A characteristic finding of ectopic mass was echogenic ring which was visible in 33 (84.6%) cases by transvaginal ultrasound. Six cases had pelvic hematosalpinx and two had pelvic hematoma. Of 10 cases (26%) which were identified to have ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, eight (21%) had large amount of fluid collection in cul-de-sac and abdomen. Ultrasonographic identification of the intrauterine pregnancy and the ectopic chorion ring is effective for the early diagnosis of the heterotopic pregnancy.

  15. Suspected ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Beata E; Barnhart, Kurt T

    2006-02-01

    Women who present with pain and bleeding in the first trimester are at risk for ectopic pregnancy, a life-threatening condition. Conditions that predispose a woman to ectopic pregnancy are damaged fallopian tubes from prior tubal surgery or previous pelvic infection, smoking, and conception using assisted reproduction. Many women without risk factors can develop an ectopic pregnancy. A diagnostic algorithm that includes the use of transvaginal ultrasonography, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations, and, sometimes, uterine curettage can definitively diagnose women at risk in a timely manner. The absence of an intrauterine pregnancy above an established cut point of hCG is consistent with an abnormal pregnancy but does not distinguish a miscarriage from an ectopic pregnancy. When the initial hCG value is low, serial hCG values can be used to determine whether a gestation is potentially viable or spontaneously resolving. The minimal rise in hCG for a viable pregnancy is 53% in 2 days. The minimal decline of a spontaneous abortion is 21-35% in 2 days, depending on the initial level. A rise or fall in serial hCG values that is slower than this is suggestive of an ectopic pregnancy. Women diagnosed with an unruptured ectopic pregnancy are potential candidates for medical management with methotrexate. Intramuscular injection with methotrexate can be used to safely treat an ectopic pregnancy with success rates, tubal patency rates, and future fertility that are similar to those obtained with conservative surgery. Success rates using methotrexate are inversely rated to baseline hCG values and are higher using "multidose" compared with "single-dose" regimens. Surgical treatment may be conservative or definitive and should be attempted in most cases via laparoscopy.

  16. Thyroid diseases and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the most common endocrine diseases during pregnancy. Internal Medicine doctors could be involved in the management of pregnant women affected by thyroid diseases, in particular if an Endocrine Unit lacks in the hospital; it is mandatory that they have the skills to cope with these diseases. METHODS In this work authors describe the most common thyroid abnormalities that can occur during pregnancy: hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical, hyperthyroidism (clinical and sub-clinical, autoimmune thyroiditis (in particular the so called post-partum thyroiditis, nodular diseases and cancer. They discuss moreover the peculiar pathophysiologic mechanisms by which these diseases appear, the diagnostic tools and the therapies, according to their own experience and the more recent international guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS It is important to evaluate thyroid function tests before and during pregnancy, at 16th and 28th gestational week; it is mandatory to cure also the “sub-clinical” hypothyroidism during pregnancy, when TSH level are higher than 5 μIU/mL; the optimal dose of levo-thyroxine during pregnancy is, average, 30-50% higher than that used before pregnancy; it is not correct to treat mild or sub-clinical hyperthyroidism; propylthyouracil is the best drug to treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy; the post-partum thyroiditis is generally transient, so that a careful monitoring of thyroid function is advisable, in particular after 9-12 months of therapy; thyroid cancer, if discovered during pregnancy, generally has no negative effects on the outcome of the pregnancy; it would be better to treat surgically thyroid cancer during the last trimester of the pregnancy.

  17. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  18. Roles of Melatonin in Fetal Programming in Compromised Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Compromised pregnancies such as those associated with gestational diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, maternal undernutrition, and maternal stress may negatively affect fetal development. Such pregnancies may induce oxidative stress to the fetus and alter fetal development through the epigenetic process that may affect development at a later stage. Melatonin is an oxidant scavenger that reverses oxidative stress during the prenatal period. Moreover, the role of melatonin in epigenetic modifications in the field of developmental programming has been studied extensively. Here, we describe the physiological function of melatonin in pregnancy and discuss the roles of melatonin in fetal programming in compromised pregnancies, focusing on its involvement in redox and epigenetic mechanisms.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in hyperprolactinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) is associated with components of MetS, especially during pregnancy. Endogenous levels...... in patients with T2D. HyperPRL is a biomarker for decreased dopaminergic tonus in the hypothalamic-pituitary circuit. Patients with a prolactinoma, patients with schizophrenia and/or T2D often have disturbances in this balance and the finding of lower prolactin (PRL) levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS......) may indicate increased dopaminergic tonus. Recent studies supported that PRL levels within or above reference range may be differently related to MetS. In healthy study populations and in PCOS, PRL levels were inversely associated with metabolic risk markers. Ongoing research on PRL fragments...

  20. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Michelle Sharon; Otupiri, Easmon; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; de Jonge, Ank; Agyemang, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and

  1. Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, M.S.; Otupiri, E.; Owusu-Dabo, E.; de Jonge, J.; Agyemang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal

  2. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  3. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. METHODS: The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. RESULTS: The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular\\/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular\\/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  4. Pregnancy: an immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies demonstrate the importance of immunological aspects of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the embryo is implanted in the womb, where it will develop until the end of pregnancy. Amongst the immune aspects, the importance of the modulation of T lymphocytes, natural killers (NK cells and many cytokines in maternal organism can be mentioned. The maternal tolerance to the fetus appears to be mediated by specific maternal hormones and by the expression of human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G - characteristic in pregnancy. Other studies suggest that fetal rejection and complications during pregnancy may occur because of the presence of minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAg, acquired by blood sharing of the mother with the fetus, and because of the presence of maternal antibodies against the sperm and against the fetus. The purpose of this review is to describe the immunological aspects that allow maternal tolerance to the fetus during pregnancy, as well as possible causes for rejection of the embryo and complications during pregnancy.

  5. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestman, Jorge H

    2012-10-01

    Successful outcome in pregnancy hyperthyroidism depends on the cause, interpretation of laboratory tests, and careful use of antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy. Planning of a pregnancy in a woman with active or past history of Graves' hyperthyroidism is mandatory in order to avoid complications. Fetal health may be affected by three factors: poor control of maternal hyperthyroidism, titer of maternal TRAb, and inappropriate use of ATD. Careful assessment of thyroid function through pregnancy and evaluation of fetal development by ultrasonography is the cornerstone for a successful outcome. In a subgroup of women previously treated with ablation therapy, those whose serum TSRAb titers remained elevated, are at risk of having a fetus/neonate with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Use of ATD during lactation is well tolerated, if recommended guidelines are followed. Women during their childbearing age with active Graves' hyperthyroidism should plan their pregnancy. Causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy include Graves' disease or autonomous adenoma, and transient gestational thyrotoxicosis as a consequence of excessive production of human chroionic gonadotropin by the placenta. Careful interpretation of thyroid function tests and frequent adjustment of ATD is of utmost importance in the outcome of pregnancy. Graves' hyperthyroidism may relapse early in pregnancy or at the end of the first year postpartum.

  6. Anaemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Malik; Shehata, Mishkat; Hamad, Asma

    2012-02-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy, defined as a haemoglobin concentration (Hb) anaemia in pregnancy, nutritional iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) being the commonest. Underlying inflammatory conditions, physiological haemodilution and several factors affecting Hb and iron status in pregnancy lead to difficulties in establishing a definitive diagnosis. IDA is associated with increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, and long-term adverse effects in the new born. Strategies to prevent anaemia in pregnancy and its adverse effects include treatment of underlying conditions, iron and folate supplementation given weekly for all menstruating women including adolescents and daily for women during pregnancy and the post partum period, and delayed clamping of the umbilical cord at delivery. Oral iron is preferable to intravenous therapy for treatment of IDA. B12 and folate deficiencies in pregnancy are rare and may be due to inadequate dietary intake with the latter being more common. These vitamins play an important role in embryo genesis and hence any relative deficiencies may result in congenital abnormalities. Finding the underlying cause are crucial to the management of these deficiencies. Haemolytic anaemias rare also rare in pregnancy, but may have life-threatening complications if the diagnosis is not made in good time and acted upon appropriately. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 21-year-old female presented with sudden onset suprapubic abdominal pain associated with dysuria. The patient also experienced near syncope during bowel movements three times three days ago without falling or losing consciousness. She denied fever, nausea, and vomiting. She stated that she was five weeks pregnant by last menstrual period. She had an ultrasound a few weeks before that showed no intrauterine pregnancy, but she had not followed up for additional testing. Significant findings: The patient’s serum beta-hCG was 5,637 mIU/mL. The transvaginal ultrasound showed an empty uterus with free fluid posteriorly in the pelvis and Pouch of Douglas (00:00. A 4.5 cm heterogeneous mass was visible in the left adnexa concerning for an ectopic pregnancy (00:10. Discussion: Ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as decreased fertility.1,2 Differentiating between an ectopic pregnancy and a normal early pregnancy may be difficult, since ultrasound and quantitative beta-hCG may show inconclusive results.3,4 Patients who have used fertility treatment may further complicate the picture because they are at risk for heterotypic pregnancies.5 Ectopic pregnancies most commonly implant in the fallopian tube, but may alternatively implant in the ovary, cervix, abdomen, or uterine cornua.4 Ultrasonography may show an empty uterus, adnexal mass, pelvic free fluid, or an extra-uterine gestational sac, yolk sac, and/or embryo.6 Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy include surgery or methotrexate.2,4 Some patients may be candidates for close outpatient surveillance if the diagnosis is unclear or in very limited cases for early, non-ruptured ectopic pregnancies.2,4

  8. Stillbirth in diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Damm, Peter; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2011-01-01

    , but more than 50% of stillbirths are unexplained. Majority of stillbirths are characterised by suboptimal glycaemic control during pregnancy. Foetal hypoxia and cardiac dysfunction secondary to poor glycaemic control are probably the most important pathogenic factors in stillbirths among pregnant diabetic...... women. There is thus a need for new strategies for improving glycaemic control to near-normal levels throughout pregnancy and for preventing and treating hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Antenatal surveillance tests including ultrasound examinations of the foetal growth rate, kick counting and non...

  9. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...

  10. Treating Psoriasis During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Rørbye, Christina; Skov, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a well-documented negative effect on the quality of life of affected patients. Psoriasis often occurs in the reproductive years, during which the issue of pregnancy needs to be addressed. The course of psoriasis during pregnancy is unpredictable......, and many patients face the challenge of needing treatment during pregnancy. In this review we provide an overview of the key considerations for managing psoriasis in pregnant women, covering the potential effects of active psoriasis and co-morbid conditions on the health of the mother and fetus, as well...

  11. Fournier gangrene in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rinkita; Arachchi, Asiri; Lee, Peter; Marwan, Kareem

    2015-06-01

    Fournier gangrene is a rare and rapidly progressive necrosis of the perineal and genitourinary region. Although predominantly affecting men, we describe an unusual presentation in pregnancy. A 30-year old primigravid woman in the third trimester of pregnancy presented with a history of low back pain. Subsequently, a diagnosis of perianal sepsis and associated Fournier gangrene was established. The patient underwent an emergency cesarean delivery followed by radical surgical debridement and colostomy. Expedited delivery, timely diagnosis of gangrene, urgent, extensive debridement, and broad-spectrum antibiotic coverage contributed largely to effective management of this rare presentation in pregnancy.

  12. Cushing disease with pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Raju A; Acharya, Shrikrishna V; Bandgar, Tushar R; Menon, Padma S; Shah, Nalini S

    2012-07-01

    Pregnancy occurs rarely in patients with Cushing syndrome (CS) due to hypercortisolism. So far, about 150 cases of CS in pregnancy have been reported in the literature. We describe a 22-year-old female who presented in pregnancy with clinical features of CS. She delivered at 34 weeks of gestation and baby had transient adrenal insufficiency in the neonatal period. Mother underwent transsphenoidal surgery 1 year postpartum and on follow up she is under remission. Neonatal hypoadrenalism should be anticipated in maternal CS.

  13. Microbial changes during pregnancy, birth and infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meital Nuriel-Ohayon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several healthy developmental processes such as pregnancy, fetal development and infant development include a multitude of physiological changes: weight gain, hormonal and metabolic changes, as well as immune changes. In this review we present an additional important factor which both influences and is affected by these physiological processes- the microbiome. We summarize the known changes in microbiota composition at a variety of body sites including gut, vagina, oral cavity and placenta, throughout pregnancy, fetal development and early childhood. There is still a lot to be discovered; yet several pieces of research point to the healthy desired microbial changes. Future research is likely to unravel precise roles and mechanisms of the microbiota in gestation; perhaps linking the metabolic, hormonal and immune changes together. Although some research has started to link microbial dysbiosis and specific microbial populations with unhealthy pregnancy complications, it is important to first understand the context of the natural healthy microbial changes occurring. Until recently the placenta and developing fetus were considered to be germ free, containing no apparent microbiome. We present multiple study results showing distinct microbiota compositions in the placenta and meconium, alluding to early microbial colonization. These results may change dogmas and our overall understanding of the importance and roles of microbiota from the beginning of life. We further review the main factors shaping the infant microbiome- modes of delivery, feeding, weaning, and exposure to antibiotics. Taken together, we are starting to build a broader understanding of healthy vs. abnormal microbial alterations throughout major developmental time-points.

  14. Pregnancy Intentions and Teenage Pregnancy Among Latinas: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287

  15. Pregnancy intentions and teenage pregnancy among Latinas: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S; Hubbard, Alan E; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. Prospective, time-varying data from 2001-2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low power in a sexual relationship with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  16. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  17. Hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Santema (Job); E. Koppelaar (Elin); H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the incidence and severity of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy and in singleton gestation. Study design: Case-control study in the setting of a University Hospital. Each pregnancy of a consecutive series of 187 twin pregnancies attending

  18. Heart and bile acids - Clinical consequences of altered bile acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavan, Tharni; Ferraro, Elisa; Ibrahim, Effendi; Dixon, Peter; Gorelik, Julia; Williamson, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Cardiac dysfunction has an increased prevalence in diseases complicated by liver cirrhosis such as primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. This observation has led to research into the association between abnormalities in bile acid metabolism and cardiac pathology. Approximately 50% of liver cirrhosis cases develop cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Bile acids are directly implicated in this, causing QT interval prolongation, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and abnormal haemodynamics of the heart. Elevated maternal serum bile acids in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, a disorder which causes an impaired feto-maternal bile acid gradient, have been associated with fatal fetal arrhythmias. The hydrophobicity of individual bile acids in the serum bile acid pool is of relevance, with relatively lipophilic bile acids having a more harmful effect on the heart. Ursodeoxycholic acid can reverse or protect against these detrimental cardiac effects of elevated bile acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  20. Cancer during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us You are here Home > Navigating Cancer Care > Dating, Sex, and Reproduction > Cancer During Pregnancy Request Permissions Cancer ...

  1. Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, C M; McElrath, T F; Scholl, T O

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy is a primary goal of the American Academy of Pediatrics and of many health providers. Nevertheless, many adolescents become pregnant every year in America. Pediatricians therefore should be aware of nutritional recommendations for pregnant adolescents to provide optimal care. The importance of nutrition during pregnancy is here reviewed from a pediatric perspective. Pregnancy, particularly during adolescence, is a time of extreme nutritional risk. The adolescents most likely to become pregnant are often those with inadequate nutritional status and unfavorable socio-economic background. There is increasing evidence of competition for nutrients between the growing pregnant adolescent and her fetus. Also, the prenatal environment has been implicated in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in both the mother and her offspring. Many adolescents have poor diet quality and poor knowledge of appropriate nutrition; these habits may not change during pregnancy. Current knowledge and recommendations regarding the intake of energy, calcium, and folate are discussed in detail.

  2. Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ozsurmeli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia, which is encountered in 7-10% of pregnancies is characterized with decreased number of thrombocytes. The most frequent cause of thrombocytopenia during pregnancy is gestational thrombocytopenia. These patients usually do not have symptoms due to mild thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis is usually established by excluding connective tissue disorders, drug effects and obstetric causes. The etiology of thrombocytopenia during early pregnancy is most frequently due to autoimmune causes. Thrombocytopenia secondary to obstetric causes like preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome should always be kept in mind. Under these circumstances the thrombocytopenia will not resolve unless pregnancy is terminated. The clinician should be able to distinguish between thrombocytopenia that does not require treatment and the causes that require emergent and serious medical interventions. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 420-432

  3. E. Coli and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Escherichia coli (E. coli) Friday, 01 September 2017 In every pregnancy, a ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to E. coli may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  4. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 156. Ibrahim S, Foldvary-Shaefer N. Sleep disorders in pregnancy: implications, evaluation, and treatment. Neurologic ...

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG ... Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice ...

  6. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  7. Radiation risks in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.; Hill, L.T.

    1982-01-01

    A major contraindication of radiodiagnostic procedures is pregnancy. Approximately 1% of all pregnant women are given abdominal x-rays during the first trimester of pregnancy. Evaluation of radiation exposure should involve consideration of the types of examinations performed and when performed, as well as radiation dose and risk estimation. This information is then weighed against other possible risks of the pregnancy as well as personal factors. In the authors' experiences, radiation exposures usually result in doses to the embryo of less than 5 cGy (rad); the resulting radiation risks are usually small compared with other risks of pregnancy. Procedures to minimize diagnostic x-ray exposure of the fetus are also discussed

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  9. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  10. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: June 2010 Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and ... radiation and pregnancy can be found on the Health Physics Society " Ask the Experts" Web site. she should ...

  11. Binge drinking in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2001-01-01

    Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...

  12. Obesity in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    Background: The obesity epidemic has led to an increase in obese women of childbearing age. This gives cause for concern because prepregnancy obesity is associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The newly established Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) has a size that permits......,167), and neonatal mortality in the offspring (n=83,834). Also, the impact of recreational exercise on the risk of preterm birth and obesity-related diseases was considered (n=85,046). Self-reported information about exposures was obtained during pregnancy by means of comprehensive telephone interviews. Pregnancy...... outcomes were obtained from registers and medical records. Cox regression analyses with delayed entry and time-dependent covariates were used to estimate the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.Obese women (BMI≥30) faced an increased risk of both late spontaneous abortion and stillbirth compared to normal...

  13. Pregnancy Complications: Shoulder Dystocia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Shoulder dystocia Shoulder dystocia Now playing: E-mail to a friend Please ... women more likely than others to have shoulder dystocia? A pregnant woman may be at risk for ...

  14. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take. Can taking carbamazepine during pregnancy affect my baby’s development? More studies are needed before we can be ... taking carbamazepine monotherapy does not appear to affect infant growth or development. Some healthcare providers can measure levels of carbamazepine ...

  15. Bisphosphonate Treatment and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rats given bisphosphonates during pregnancy developed calcium deficiency (hypocalcemia), which led to abnormal bone development, and also slow, difficult labor and delivery. Effects related to low calcium are not expected in ...

  16. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  17. Phentermine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... paternal- exposures- pregnancy/ pdf/ . References: Aronne LJ. 1998. Obesity. Womens Health Issues 82(1):161- 181. Hale TW. 2008. Medications and Mothers’ Milk, 13th ed. Amarillo, TX: Hale Publishing. Johnson KA, ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles ... Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  20. Endoscopy in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'mahony, Seamus

    2012-02-03

    Endoscopy is rarely required during pregnancy. The potential risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include foetal hypoxia due to sedative drugs and exposure to radiation. There is no evidence that endoscopy precipitates premature labour, and studies in this area have concluded that endoscopy during pregnancy is generally safe. There should be a strong indication for the procedure, which should be deferred whenever possible to the second trimester. Procedures should be performed without any sedation, or with the lowest dose of sedative medication. Radiation exposure should be kept to a minimum. Support should be obtained from specialists in obstetrics and anaesthesia. Indications for endoscopy during pregnancy are as follows: (1) gastroscopy: upper gastrointestinal bleeding, dysphagia, uncontrolled nausea\\/vomiting; (2) sigmoidoscopy\\/colonoscopy: rectal bleeding, diarrhoea; and (3) ERCP: choledocholithiasis, biliary pancreatitis. Sedative drugs, such as midazolam appear to be safe if used carefully. Radiation exposure during ERCP can be kept well below the danger level for teratogenicity.

  1. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is unlikely that having your home or workplace treated by a professional exterminator will result in a high enough exposure to increase the risk to a pregnancy. To reduce exposure to pesticides found on food, ...

  2. Pregnancy and work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may need to stop working or reduce your work hours. Most women are advised to only lift things that weigh under 20 pounds (9 kilograms) during pregnancy. Repetitively lifting heavier amounts often causes back injury or disability.

  3. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliha, George; Morgan, Jordan; Vrahas, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy (TOP) is a rare yet perhaps under-reported condition that has affected otherwise healthy pregnancies throughout the world. The condition presents suddenly in the third trimester of a usually uneventful pregnancy and progressively immobilizes the mother. Radiographic studies detect drastic loss of bone mass, elevated rates of turnover in the bone, and oedema in the affected portion. Weakness of the bone can lead to fractures during delivery and other complications for the mother. Then, within weeks of labour, symptoms and radiological findings resolve. Aetiology is currently unknown, although neural, vascular, haematological, endocrine, nutrient-deficiency, and other etiologies have been proposed. Several treatments have also been explored, including simple bed rest, steroids, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, induced termination of pregnancy, and surgical intervention. The orthopedist plays an essential role in monitoring the condition (and potential complications) as well as ensuring satisfactory outcomes for both the mother and newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... center my dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature birth: The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report ... us Tools & Resources Born Too Soon Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  6. Pregnancy and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.H.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Neuherberg

    1978-01-01

    In confirmed or presumptive pregnancy it is especially critical to determine the indications for X-ray examination. This assumes that every young woman, before an examination in the pelvic region, be asked explicity when her last normal period was. Examinations of the pelvis which are not acutely necessary should be postponed until the first 10 days after menstruation. If radiologic examination of the true pelvis must be carried out despite pregnancy or is inadvertently done because pregnancy was not recognized, the radiation exposure of the embryo is so small in most cases because of modern dose-sparing equipment, that an interruption of pregnancy is not justified. A dose of less than 1 rad is, as a rule, justifiable, but it is less justifiable that alarmed, uninformed physicians instill a deep-seated fear of giving brith to a freak in a woman through false information. (orig.) [de

  7. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... premature birth: The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need ... Resources Born Too Soon Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or ...

  8. [Chronic hypertension and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecarpentier, Edouard; Tsatsaris, Vassili

    2012-09-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The management of patients with chronic hypertension requires a multidisciplinary approach prior to conception, during pregnancy and post-partum. In the preconception period, fetotoxic agents should be discontinued. It is also essential to undertake a full cardiovascular examination which may, in some cases, question the possibility of pregnancy. During pregnancy, blood pressure should be monitored and controlled, but not necessarily returned to a normal value. Low blood pressure levels could indeed lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction. Close clinical, biological and ultrasound monitoring is recommended, even postpartum, since those patients are at higher risk for preeclampsia.

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online community Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Preeclampsia Preeclampsia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... even if you’re feeling fine. What is preeclampsia? Preeclampsia is a serious blood pressure condition that ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  11. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... my dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature birth: The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our ... Tools & Resources Born Too Soon Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  13. Hyperthyroidism and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo Fernández, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    Association of hyperthyroidism and pregnancy is not an unusual event, and has an impact on both the mother and fetus. After delivery, it may also affect the newborn and the nursing mother. Clinical management of this situation is quite different from that required by non-pregnant hyperthyroid women and poses significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This review addresses aspects related to the unique characteristics of biochemical assessment of thyroid function in pregnancy, the potential causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, and the clinical and therapeutic approach in each case. Special attention is paid to pregnancy complicated with Graves' disease and its different the maternal, fetal, neonatal, and postnatal consequences. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it safe to use e-cigarettes during pregnancy? Electronic cigarettes (also called e-cigarettes or e-cigs) ... this day, throw away all your cigarettes or cigars, lighters and ashtrays. Ask your partner or a ...

  15. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  16. 3. Unplanned pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    Design: Using a cross-sectional study design the disclosure .... violence, upsetting family members, and accusation. 16,17,18,19 .... pregnancies and other studies have also shown violence as an ..... issue: domestic violence and unplanned.

  17. Pregnancy and the kidneys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urinary stasis, increasing the risk of urinary tract infections.[1] ... To ensure the best outcome for mother and child, pre-pregnancy counselling and review of medication are essential. Renal ..... samples for prediction of significant proteinuria.

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants are safe to use during pregnancy. back to top Are Blood Clots Preventable? There ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resource to help stay current with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles ... Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  20. Takayasu's disease and pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    basic disease appears to be unaffected by pregnancy. S Afr Med J ... Takayasu's disease is an idiopathic chronic granulomatous .... prevalence of tuberculosis in Asia." In our 3 .... lower limbs may be significantly lower than the central blood.

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online community Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Anemia Anemia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... anemia at a prenatal care visit . What causes anemia? Usually, a woman becomes anemic (has anemia) because ...

  2. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is possible. Studies have found that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual ... valproic acid to leave your body. Women with epilepsy or bipolar disorder who are planning a pregnancy ...

  3. Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/ by guest on June 19, 2018 Chronic Hypertension in Pregnancy Ellen W. Seely, MD; Cynthia Maxwell, ... M any women have been diag- nosed with hypertension (blood pressure Ͼ 140/ 90 mm Hg) when ...

  4. Nutrition during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals during pregnancy? The United States Department of Agriculture has made it easier to plan meals during ... of folic acid daily to help prevent major birth defects of the fetal brain and spine called ...

  5. Pregnancy and rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayed, M; Gordon, C

    2007-11-01

    Pregnancy is an issue that should be discussed with all patients with rheumatic diseases who are in the reproductive age group. Infertility is rarely due to the disease but can be associated with cyclophosphamide therapy. Most rheumatic diseases that are well controlled prior to pregnancy do not deteriorate in pregnancy, providing that the patient continues with appropriate disease-modifying therapy. Some patients with inflammatory arthritis go in to remission during pregnancy. Patients with renal involvement may be at increased risk of disease flare. This needs to be distinguished from pre-eclampsia. Intrauterine growth restriction is more likely in patients with active systemic disease, hypertension, a history of thrombosis and renal involvement. Premature delivery may need to be planned to reduce the risks of stillbirth and can be associated with a variety of neonatal complications. Post-partum flare is common in all the rheumatic diseases.

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  7. Staying Healthy during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... you smoke, having a baby might be the motivation you need to quit. Talk to your health ...

  8. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some ...

  9. Sexual activity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staruch, Monika; Kucharczyk, Aleksandra; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Szymusik, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is usually associated with significant regression in genito-genital intercourse frequency, sexual desire and satisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine women's sexual habits during the third trimester of gestation and to compare their sexual activity before the current pregnancy and during previous pregnancies in case of multiparas. The study material consisted of women in the third trimester of pregnancy, recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw between January 2013 and February 2014, who filled out a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: demographic data, sexual activity prior to current pregnancy and during gestation, including sexual positions and sources of knowledge regarding the subject. The survey involved 25 questions and was distributed among 220 patients, out of which 165 were returned and 149 properly filled out and analyzed. The average age of the respondents was 29.6 ± 4.85 years; the majority (78.8%) were in an uncomplicated pregnancy. The decrease in sexual activity was evident in all age groups--the majority usually had sex 1 to 3 times a month in contrast to 1-2 times a week prior to conceiving. Sexual activity decreased significantly with increasing age. The main reasons for abandoning sexual activity included: decreased libido (35.5%), the doctor's suggestion (29%) and fears concerning child's health (29%). During pregnancy the frequency of vaginal intercourse significantly decreased (100% prior to vs. 86.6% during pregnancy; p < 0.001); as did oral sex (44.3% vs. 29.5%; p = 0.043) and anal sex (12% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02). 54% of the respondents declared reduced satisfaction with sexual life during pregnancy in comparison with the previous period; almost half (43.5%) felt less attractive while pregnant. The same claim was related to libido--it decreased in 58.8% of respondents. Multiparas tended to have sexual

  10. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Savasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  12. Distinct cardiac transcriptional profiles defining pregnancy and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhee Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the hypertrophic responses of the heart to pregnancy and exercise are both considered to be physiological processes, they occur in quite different hormonal and temporal settings. In this study, we have compared the global transcriptional profiles of left ventricular tissues at various time points during the progression of hypertrophy in exercise and pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following groups of female mice were analyzed: non-pregnant diestrus cycle sedentary control, mid-pregnant, late-pregnant, and immediate-postpartum, and animals subjected to 7 and 21 days of voluntary wheel running. Hierarchical clustering analysis shows that while mid-pregnancy and both exercise groups share the closest relationship and similar gene ontology categories, late pregnancy and immediate post-partum are quite different with high representation of secreted/extracellular matrix-related genes. Moreover, pathway-oriented ontological analysis shows that metabolism regulated by cytochrome P450 and chemokine pathways are the most significant signaling pathways regulated in late pregnancy and immediate-postpartum, respectively. Finally, increases in expression of components of the proteasome observed in both mid-pregnancy and immediate-postpartum also result in enhanced proteasome activity. Interestingly, the gene expression profiles did not correlate with the degree of cardiac hypertrophy observed in the animal groups, suggesting that distinct pathways are employed to achieve similar amounts of cardiac hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that cardiac adaptation to the later stages of pregnancy is quite distinct from both mid-pregnancy and exercise. Furthermore, it is very dynamic since, by 12 hours post-partum, the heart has already initiated regression of cardiac growth, and 50 genes have changed expression significantly in the immediate-postpartum compared to late-pregnancy. Thus, pregnancy

  13. Diabetes in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, G J

    1977-10-01

    Diabetes, while at one time a rarity in pregnancy, is now one of the more common medical problems encountered by the obstetrician. Immaculate control is essential and can only be accomplished by close co-operation between the patient and all her medical attendants. The patient can then anticipate an almost trouble free pregnancy and should deliver a baby of normal weight with none of the usual stigmata associated with babies of diabetic mothers.

  14. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rortveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2007-04-01

    To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence, in addition to type, frequency, and amount of incontinence. Potential risk factors were investigated by logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of incontinence increased from 26% before pregnancy to 58% in week 30. The corresponding figures for nulliparous women were 15% and 48%, and for parous women 35% and 67%. The cumulative incidence was 46%. Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type of incontinence in week 30 of pregnancy, experienced by 31% of nulliparous and 42% of parous women. The majority of pregnant women had leakage less than once per week and droplets only, both before and during pregnancy. Parity was a strong and significant risk factor for incontinence in adjusted analyses both before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-2.7 for primiparous and OR 3.3, 95% CI 3.1-3.5 for multiparous women) and during pregnancy (ORs 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.1 and 2.1, 95% CI 2.0-2.2, respectively). Age and body mass index were weaker, but still statistically significant, risk factors. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increases substantially during pregnancy. Incontinence both before and during pregnancy seems to be associated with parity, age, and body mass index. II.

  15. [Alcohol and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, E; Chapelon, E; Bué, M; Garnier-Lengliné, H; Lebeaux-Legras, C; Loudenot, A; Lejeune, C

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major cause of mental retardation in Western countries. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is mainly characterized by pre- and postnatal stunted growth, neurocognitive disorders, and facial dysmorphism. It compromises the intellectual and behavioral prognosis of the child. Prevention tools exist, through better information of health professionals, for optimal care of high-risk women before, during, and after pregnancy, which would decrease the incidence of SAF in the future.

  16. Pregnancy and Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goland, Sorel

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with Marfan syndrome (MFS) presents challenges to the clinician and the patient due to the increased incidence of maternal complications and involvement of the fetus, and deserves special consideration. The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in MFS is aortic dissection. This article presents an extensive review of available clinical information and provides recommendations for the management of patients with MFS during pregnancy. PMID:29270376

  17. Tumor therapy and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joss, R.; Brunner, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    Many successfully treated tumour patients are children and juveniles. This raises questions as to the effects of tumour therapy on reproductiveness and offspring. The possible extent of damage to the male and female gonads caused by surgical, chemical, and radiological tumour therapy is investigated. Also, the problem of tumour therapy or women developing neoplasms during pregnancy. Pregnancies after successful tumour therapy are quite frequent today. Experience so far suggests that the rate of congenital deformities is not significantly increased. (orig.) [de

  18. Pregnancy and periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sağlam, Ebru; Saruhan, Nesrin; Çanakçı, Cenk Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Some maternal immunological changes due to pregnancy increases susceptibility to infections. Periodontal disease, the main cause is plaque, is a common disease which is seen multifactorial and varying severity. There are many clinical criteria for diagnosis of periodontal disease. Correlation between pregnancy and periodontal inflammation is known for many years. Periodontal disease affects pregnant’s systemic condition and also has negative effects on fetus. Periodontal disease increases the...

  19. Marijuana Use in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Cheryl K; Satran, Lori A; Smith, Shauna M

    2015-01-01

    With the legalization of both medical and recreational use of marijuana in some U.S. states, nurses and other clinicians should be prepared to care for pregnant women who have used marijuana during pregnancy. This column describes the prevalence of cannabis use among women, the effect cannabis has on the body and the potential maternal, fetal and neonatal effects of marijuana use during pregnancy. © 2015 AWHONN.

  20. Analysis of tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.; Iqbal, F.; Tayyeb, R.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the frequency, etiological factors, modes of presentation, accuracy of diagnostic modalities, operative findings and surgical treatment of tubal pregnancies. Design: Observational study. Place and duration of study: This study was conducted in gynae unit iii, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore from January 1995 to December 1996. Subject and Methods: All the patients diagnosed as a case of tubal pregnancy in two years period were included in the study. Detailed history regarding the symptoms and risk factors of tubal pregnancy was taken followed by clinical examination. The diagnostic and treatment modality used and operative findings were also recorded. All the data was recorded on a proforma and finally the results were analysed. Results: Incidence of tubal pregnancy was found out to be 1:305 deliveries. Out of these, 70% of the cases occurred in the age group of 21-30 years and in patients with low parity (in para 0-2) 65% of the patients had high risk factor e.g previous abdominopelvic surgery PID or history of infertility. Pain was the commonest symptom (90% of cases) followed by vaginal bleeding (80%) adnexal masses (70%) and amenorrhea (65%). Acute tubal pregnancy was found in 85% of the cases while 15% of cases had chronic tubal pregnancy. Tubal pregnancy in the ampullary region was detected in 65% patients. Conclusion: Previous abdominopelvic surgery, PID or history of infertility and use of intra-uterine contraceptive device are the main etiologic factors. Most of the patients present at a very late stage with ruptured tubal pregnancy followed by salpingostomy in 95% of cases. Only 5% of cases had conservative surgical treatment i.e salpingostomy. Culdocentesis ultrasonography and laparoscopy were good diagnostic modalities. (author)