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Sample records for pregnancy rates compared

  1. Reduced Ectopic Pregnancy Rate on Day 5 Embryo Transfer Compared with Day 3: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rong; Ding, Lingling; Yan, Lei; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the risk of ectopic pregnancy (EP) after embryo transfer on day 3(D3-ET) and day 5(D5-ET). Design Meta-analysis Patients Women with pregnancy resulting from in vitro undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) Result(s) Twenty-two studies were identified through research conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases and ClinicalTrials.gov. All studies were conducted prior to October 2016. Adding the reproductive data from our center, a total of 143 643 pregnancies were reviewed(D3-ET: n = 62027,D5-ET:n = 81616). A lower EP rate was found in women undergoing D5-ET than in those undergoing D3-ET [relative risk (RR), 0.67;95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54–0.85;143643 pregnancies in 23 studies; I2 = 67%]. These results were validated in subgroups of fresh embryo-transfer (Fre-ET) cycles [RR, 0.78; 95%CI, 0.69–0.88; 91 871 pregnancies in 21 studies; I2 = 29%] and frozen-thawed embryo-transfer (Fro-ET) cycles [RR, 0.43; 95%CI, 0.36–0.51; 51 772 pregnancies in 10 studies; I2 = 33%]. After separating out the randomized controlled trials (RCTs), a significant difference was found in the retrospective studies in both subgroups [both Fre-ET (RR,0.78;95% CI 0.69–0.88);91182 pregnancies in 14 studies; I2 = 45%] and Fro-ET(RR,0.43;95% CI 0.36–0.51; 51751pregnancies in 9 studies;I2 = 33%)], while the RCTs showed no statistical significance for Fre-ET cycles[RR,0.86;95% CI 0.32–2.26); 689 pregnancies in 7 studies; I2 = 0%]. Conclusion(s) The present study indicates that D5-ET reduces the risk for EP in cycles that use IVF or ICSI, compared with D3-ET. It suggests that D5-ET may be a better choice for decreasing the EP rate in assisted reproductive technology. Further high-quality randomized controlled trials are anticipated. PMID:28121989

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Menstruation, Pregnancy and Menopause on Salivary Flow Rate, pH and Gustatory Function

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are five situations in a women’s life during which hormone fluctuations make them more susceptible to oral health problems – during puberty, at certain points in the monthly menstrual cycle, when using birth control pills, during pregnancy, and at menopause. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of menstruation, pregnancy and menopause on salivary flow rate, pH and gustatory function.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Menstruation, Pregnancy and Menopause on Salivary Flow Rate, pH and Gustatory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Saluja, Pulin; Shetty, Vishwaprakash; Dave, Aparna; Arora, Manpreet; Hans, Vibha; Madan, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are five situations in a women’s life during which hormone fluctuations make them more susceptible to oral health problems – during puberty, at certain points in the monthly menstrual cycle, when using birth control pills, during pregnancy, and at menopause. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of menstruation, pregnancy and menopause on salivary flow rate, pH and gustatory function.

  4. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  5. A retrospective cohort analysis comparing pregnancy rates among HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATEL, Rena C.; ONONO, Maricianah; GANDHI, Monica; BLAT, Cinthia; HAGEY, Jill; SHADE, Starley B.; VITTINGHOFF, Eric; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; NEWMANN, Sara J.; COHEN, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Given recent concerns of efavirenz reducing the efficacy of contraceptive implants, we sought to determine if pregnancy rates differ among HIV-positive women using various contraceptive methods and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-positive women aged 15–45 years enrolled in HIV care facilities in western Kenya from January 2011 to December 2013. Pregnancy was diagnosed clinically and the primary exposure was a combination of contraceptive method and ART regimen. We used Poisson models, adjusting for repeated measures, as well as demographic, behavioral and clinical factors, to compare pregnancy rates among women on different contraceptive/ART combinations. Findings 24,560 women contributed 37,635 years of follow-up with 3,337 incident pregnancies. Among women using implants, adjusted pregnancy incidence for nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART users were 1·1 (95% CI 0·72–1·5) and 3·3 (95% CI 1·8–4·8) per 100 women-years (w-y), respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 3·0, 95% CI 1·3–4·6). Among women using depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), adjusted pregnancy incidence for nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART users were 4·5 (95% CI 3·7–5·2) and 5·4 (95% CI 4·0–6·8) per 100 w-y, respectively (aIRR 1·2, 95% CI 0·91–1·5). Women using other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods, experienced 3·1–4·1 higher rates of pregnancy than women using implants, with 1·6–2·8 higher rates specifically among women using efavirenz-based ART. Interpretation While HIV-positive women using implants on efavirenz-based ART faced three times higher risk of contraceptive failure than those on nevirapine-based ART, these women still experienced lower contraceptive failure rates than women on all other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods

  6. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: II. Comparing pregnancy rates among nonestrous heifers based on administration of GnRH at AI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate split-time artificial insemination (AI) in beef heifers following administration of the 14-day controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-prostaglandin F2α (PG) protocol and to compare pregnancy rates among nonestrous heifers based on administration of GnRH at AI. Estrus was synchronized for 1138 heifers across six locations. Heifers received a CIDR insert (1.38 g progesterone) on Day 0 with removal on Day 14. Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG (25 mg), 16 days after CIDR removal on Day 30. Heifers were assigned to balanced treatments based on reproductive tract score and weight, and treatments were represented within each location. Split-time AI was performed at 66 and 90 hours after PG, and estrus was recorded at these times. Heifers in both treatments that exhibited estrus by 66 hours were inseminated and did not receive GnRH, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for heifers that failed to exhibit estrus by 66 hours. For heifers in treatment 1 that were inseminated at 90 hours, GnRH (100 μg) was administered concurrent with AI at 90 hours. Heifers in treatment 2 that were inseminated at 90 hours did not receive GnRH. Estrous response did not differ between treatments at 66 hours after PG (treatment 1 = 70%; treatment 2 = 71%; P = 0.58) or during the 24-hour delay period (treatment 1 = 59%; treatment 2 = 52%; P = 0.21). There was no effect of treatment on pregnancy rates resulting from AI for heifers inseminated at 66 hours (treatment 1 = 58%; treatment 2 = 62%; P = 0.86) or 90 hours (treatment 1 = 44%; treatment 2 = 39%; P = 0.47) after PG; and there was no difference between treatments when considering total AI pregnancy rate (treatment 1 = 54%; treatment 2 = 56%; P = 0.60). Ovulation was confirmed via ultrasonography for a subset of heifers that failed to exhibit estrus prior to 90 hours after PG. For heifers that failed to exhibit estrus by 90

  7. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

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    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison pregnancy rates.

  8. PREDICTION OF FETAL DISTRESS AND POOR OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY BEYOND 40 WEEKS USING DOPPLER ULTRASOUND COMPARED WITH FETAL HEART RATE MONITORING WITH NST

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    Supriya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Postdate pregnancy is the most common indication for Antepartum . F etal heart rate testing because of its increased perinatal morbidity and perinatal mortality. Complications are stillbirth , meconium aspiration , asphyxia , and the dysmaturity syndrome , is increased in post - term pregnancies. The most recent ACOG review of the subject of "post - term" pregnancy cites estimates of 3 - 14 % of all pregna n cies . MATERIALS AND METHODS: 55 patients with pregnancy beyond 40 weeks attending antenatal out - patient department of the Rajiv Gandhi medical college in the period between October 2014 to March 2015 were included. In present study , patients were monitored with twice weekly NST and once a week Doppler. In those with either NST nonreactive or Doppler abnormal , induction was done. Cases with normal results were monitored till 42 weeks when routine induction was done . RESULTS: A reactive non stress test in prolonged pregnancy has good negative predictive value – i.e. adverse outcomes are unlikely to occur in the setting of a reactive non - stress test – but that the positive predictive values are low . W eekly measurement of Doppler waveforms from umbilical artery (PI p=0.02 for Apgar <7 at 5 min , p=0.02 NICU admissions , p=0.003 for meconium staining of amniotic fluid and S/d ratio p=0.02 for Apgar <7 at 5 min , p=0.04 for NICU admission and biweekly NST(p=0.005 for Apgar <7 at 5 min , p=0.0219 for NICU admission , p=0.0039 for meconium staining of amniotic fluid appears to be reliable method of establishing fetal health in pregnancy beyond 40 weeks. CONCLUSION: The most sensitive tests to assess the risks to the fetus of prolonged pregnancy app ear to be combinations of fetal heart rate monitoring with NST combined with umbilical PI and S/D ratio. Reactive NST is reassuring and indicates fetal wellbeing, but non - reactive NST alone cannot be taken as an indicator of fetal jeopardy. Although individual randomized trials

  9. Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan

    2014-09-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.

  10. Pregnancy and birth rates after oocyte donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remohí, J; Gartner, B; Gallardo, E; Yalil, S; Simón, C; Pellicer, A

    1997-04-01

    To determine accumulated conception and live birth rates in ovum donation. Retrospective study from a computer database. Pregnancies with one gestational sac observed by ultrasound have been included as conceptional cycles and pregnancies that resulted in one live child were recorded for the analysis of the live birth rates. Life table analysis was applied. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Three hundred ninety-seven recipients undergoing a total of 627 ETs were analyzed. Ovarian stimulation and ovum pick-up in donors. Uterine ET in recipients after appropriate exogenous steroid replacement. Accumulated and estimated (95% confidence intervals [CI]) conception and live birth rates in the oocyte donation program as well as considering age and cause of infertility of the recipients. Pregnancy rate after one cycle was 53.4% (CI 50.9% to 55.9%), with a delivery rate of 42.6% (CI 40.1% to 45.1%). Accumulated pregnancy rate increased up to 94.8% (CI 90.6% to 99.0%) after four transfers. Similarly, live birth rates reached 88.7% (CI 88.1% to 89.3%) after four attempts of ET by ovum donation. Cycle fecundity rates were maintained at approximately 50% after each attempt. Implantation rate was 18.3% (430/2,340 replaced embryos). Age and cause of entering the program did not influence the overall results of ovum donation. Oocyte donation is a successful treatment modality for infertile couples that offers even higher success rates than natural conception. No difference in cumulative pregnancy rate was observed regardless of recipient age, indication for oocyte donation, or number of cycles attempted.

  11. A comparative study between cleavage stage embryo transfer at day 3 and blastocyst stage transfer at day 5 in in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection on clinical pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhleen; Swarankar, M L; Maheshwari, Manju; Acharya, Veena

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of blastocyst transfer in comparison with cleavage stage transfer. A randomized, prospective study was conducted in Infertility clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jaipur on 300 patients aged 25-40 years undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle from May 2010-April 2011. When three or more Grade-I embryos were observed on day 2 of culture, patients were divided randomly into two study groups, cleavage stage transfer and blastocyst transfer group having 150 patients each. Primary outcomes evaluated were, Clinical pregnancy rate and Implantation rate. The results were analyzed using proportions, standard deviation and Chi-square test. Both the groups were similar for age, indication and number of embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancies after blastocyst transfer were significantly higher 66 (44.0%) compared to cleavage stage embryo transfer 44 (29.33%) (P < 0.01). Implantation rate for blastocyst transfer group was also significantly higher (P < 0.001). Blastocyst transfer having higher implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate lead to reduction in multiple pregnancies.

  12. A comparative study between cleavage stage embryo transfer at day 3 and blastocyst stage transfer at day 5 in in-vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection on clinical pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhleen Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of blastocyst transfer in comparison with cleavage stage transfer. Study Design: A randomized, prospective study was conducted in Infertility clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jaipur on 300 patients aged 25-40 years undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycle from May 2010-April 2011. When three or more Grade-I embryos were observed on day 2 of culture, patients were divided randomly into two study groups, cleavage stage transfer and blastocyst transfer group having 150 patients each. Primary outcomes evaluated were, Clinical pregnancy rate and Implantation rate. The results were analyzed using proportions, standard deviation and Chi-square test. Results: Both the groups were similar for age, indication and number of embryos transferred. Clinical pregnancies after blastocyst transfer were significantly higher 66 (44.0% compared to cleavage stage embryo transfer 44 (29.33% (P < 0.01.Implantation rate for blastocyst transfer group was also significantly higher (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Blastocyst transfer having higher implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate lead to reduction in multiple pregnancies.

  13. Ectopic pregnancy rates with day 3 versus day 5 embryo transfer: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Sunny H; Milki Amin A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Blastocyst transfer may theoretically decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy following IVF-ET in view of the decreased uterine contractility reported on day 5. The purpose of our study is to specifically compare the tubal pregnancy rates between day 3 and day 5 transfers. Methods A retrospective analysis of all clinical pregnancies conceived in our IVF program since 1998 was performed. The ectopic pregnancy rates were compared for day 3 and day 5 transfers. Results Th...

  14. Comparation of multiple-pregnancy rate between cleavage stage embryos transfer and blastocyst transfer%胚胎卵裂期移植与囊胚移植多胎率的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文浩; 张四林; 任文娟; 张鑫; 师娟子

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过胚胎卵裂期移植与囊胚移植的不同移植胚胎数目间比较,寻找降低多胎率的方法和策略。方法2014年1月1日至2015年6月30日在陕西省妇幼保健院生殖中心行常规体外受精/卵胞浆内单精子注射-胚胎移植( IVF/ICSI-ET)的患者为研究对象,其中受精后第三天新鲜移植或解冻胚胎第三天移植为卵裂期组,受精后第五天新鲜移植或解冻后囊胚移植为囊胚期组。根据移植胚胎数目(1~3枚)分别进行两组间临床妊娠及多胎率的比较。结果共计移植7454周期,其中新鲜移植4756周期,冻融胚胎移植2698周期。移植数目相同的情况下,囊胚移植的临床妊娠率比卵裂期胚胎明显增加(移植1枚、2枚、3枚时,P值分别为0.001,0.001,0.033);卵裂期胚胎移植由2枚增加到3枚时,临床妊娠率并未增加反而下降(P=0.002),同时多胎率无明显变化(P=0.252),因此移植3枚胚胎临床妊娠率下降且多胎率无明显变化;囊胚移植由2枚增加到3枚时临床妊娠率略升高(P=0.739),同时多胎率升高(P=0.595),但无统计学差异。结论卵裂期胚胎移植数目为1~3枚,可通过增加移植胚胎数目维持一定的临床妊娠率,多胎风险并无增加;囊胚移植由2枚增加至3枚时并未显著提高临床妊娠率,相反有增加多胎率的风险。故囊胚移植数目应该为1~2枚,并应禁止移植3枚囊胚。%Objective To compare the number of embryo between cleavage stage embryos transfer and blastocyst transfer so as to look for the strategies to reduce the rate of multiple-pregnancies.Methods The patients, undergoing in vitro fertilization /intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) in Reproductive Center of Northwest Women and Children's Hospital during January 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015 were enrolled as research objects.The cleavage stage group

  15. Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis

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    Gaurav Majumdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases. AIM: To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective, case–control study was undertaken in an institution-based tertiary care IVF center to compare the clinical outcomes of twenty patients, who underwent 21 PGS cycles with poor prognosis, with 128 non-PGS patients in the control group, with the same inclusion criterion as for the PGS group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single cells were obtained by laser-assisted embryo biopsy from day 3 embryos and subsequently analyzed by array CGH for all 24 chromosomes. Once the array CGH results were available on the morning of day 5, only chromosomally normal embryos that had progressed to blastocyst stage were transferred. RESULTS: The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate (PR per transfer were found to be significantly higher in the PGS group than in the control group (63.2% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.001 and 73.3% vs. 36.7%, P = 0.006, respectively, while the multiple PRs sharply declined from 31.9% to 9.1% in the PGS group. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we have shown that PGS by array CGH can improve the clinical outcome in patients undergoing IVF with poor prognosis.

  16. Performing ICSI with commercial microinjection pipettes enhanced pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Halvaei, Iman; Ghazali, Shahin; Razi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-06-12

    Many technical factors can affect intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. The role of the injection micropipette could be of vital importance in ICSI programs. The main goal was to compare ICSI pregnancy outcomes between commercial and home-made injection micropipettes in a large population with male factor infertility. Five-hundred and eleven ICSI cycles with severe male factor were included in this retrospective study. ICSI cycles were divided into two groups: A (home-made micropipettes, n = 267) and B (commercial micropipettes, n = 244). Rates of fertilization, embryo formation, and chemical and clinical pregnancies were compared between the groups. The independent samples t-test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were used, whenever appropriate, for statistical analysis. A total of 3621 MII oocytes were retrieved, of which 2003 were fertilized. The rate of normal fertilization was significantly higher in group A (57.9%) compared to group B (52.5%). However, the rate of embryo formation showed an increase in group B compared to group A (90.4% and 85.9%, respectively, P = 0.002). In addition, the clinical pregnancy outcomes improved in group B. Our findings indicate that clinical pregnancy improves when commercial injection micropipettes are used in ICSI programs.

  17. Pregnancy after kidney transplantation: high rates of maternal complications

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    Cristina Candido

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Women regain fertility a few time after renal transplantation. However, viability of pregnancy and maternal complications are still unclear. Objective: To describe the outcomes of pregnancies in kidney transplanted patients, focusing on maternal complications. Methods: Retrospective study of pregnancies in kidney transplanted patients between 2004 and 2014, followed up 12 months after delivery. Each pregnancy was considered an event. Results: There were 53 pregnancies in 36 patients. Mean age was 28 ± 5years. Pregnancy occurred 4.4 ± 3.0 years post-transplant. Immunosuppression before conception was tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisone in 74% of the cases. There were 15% miscarriages in the 1st trimester and 8% in 2nd trimester. In 41% of the cases, it was necessary to induce labor. From all births, 22% were premature and 17% very premature. There were 5% stillbirths and 5% of neonatal deaths. De novo proteinuria occurred in 60%, urinary tract infection in 23%, preeclampsia in 11%, acute rejection in 6%, and graft loss in 2% of the cases. It was observed a significant increase in creatinine at preconception comparing to 3rd trimester and follow-up (1.17 vs. 1.46 vs. 1.59 mg/dL, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Although the sample is limited, the number of miscarriages was higher than in the general population, with high rates of maternal complications. Sustained increase of creatinine suggests increased risk of graft loss in long-term.

  18. Reducing twin pregnancy rates after IVF--elective single embryo transfer (eSET).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Milne, P

    2010-01-01

    Multiple pregnancy is a major complication of IVF and is associated with increased maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity. Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) during IVF, rather than the more standard transfer of two embryos (double embryo transfer or DET), has been shown to significantly reduce the multiple pregnancy rate associated with IVF, while maintaining acceptable pregnancy rates. Couples undergoing IVF in 2008 who met good prognostic criteria had eSET performed. Pregnancy and twinning rates were compared with those for similar couples in 2007 who had DET. Couples unsuccessful with a fresh cycle of treatment had subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycles with DET. The cumulative pregnancy rate was similar for each group. However there were no multiple pregnancies in the eSET group, compared to 4 twins of 5 pregnancies in the DET group. 96% of eligible couples agreed to eSET. ESET is successful in and acceptable to good prognosis Irish couples undergoing IVF.

  19. The effects of laser assisted hatching on pregnancy rates

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    Alireza Ghannadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For infertile women aged over 35 years, failure of the ZP (zona pellucida to rupture is believed to be associated with a decreased implantation rate in in vitro fertilization (IVF or intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI.Objective: In this research, laser assisted hatching (LAH was offered to patients with advanced maternal age to evaluate a possible benefit.Materials and Methods: Nine hundred thirty two cycles of IVF/ICSI in females were analyzed. Women included in this study were allocated in 4 groups. In group I and II, embryos were cultured and transferred with and without LAH in women aged ≤35, whereas embryos of group III and IV were examined with and without LAH in women aged ≥ 35. Laser manipulations were performed using a suturn-Tm3 system using 2-3 pulses of 0.8 millisecond with 400 voltage duration. The size of the hole made in the zona was measured to be 5-10 μm, depending on the zona thickness of each individual embryo.Results: The performance of LAH significantly increased clinical pregnancy rates in all patients. In group I and II, the chemical (50.99% and 31.61% respectively, clinical (50% and 30.69% respectively and multiple pregnancies (22.27% and 5.94% respectively significantly differ between these groups. In the patients with advanced female age ≥35 the performance of LAH significantly increased chemical (30.12% and clinical pregnancy (27.71% rates compared to whom without LAH (18.96% and 16.37% respectively.Conclusion: Our data demonstrate in the patients who were less than 35 years old, multiple pregnancy rates were significantly increased compared to other groups who aged over 35 years old. In addition benefit of LAH in improving pregnancy rates after IVF or ICSI in women of advanced age (≥35 was shown

  20. The effects of laser assisted hatching on pregnancy rates

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    Ghannadi, Alireza; Kazerooni, Marjaneh; Jamalzadeh, Fatemeh; Amiri, Sahar; Rostami, Parifar; Absalan, Forouzan

    2011-01-01

    Background: For infertile women aged over 35 years, failure of the ZP (zona pellucida) to rupture is believed to be associated with a decreased implantation rate in in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Objective: In this research, laser assisted hatching (LAH) was offered to patients with advanced maternal age to evaluate a possible benefit. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred thirty two cycles of IVF/ICSI in females were analyzed. Women included in this study were allocated in 4 groups. In group I and II, embryos were cultured and transferred with and without LAH in women aged ≤35, whereas embryos of group III and IV were examined with and without LAH in women aged ≥ 35. Laser manipulations were performed using a suturn-Tm3 system using 2-3 pulses of 0.8 millisecond with 400 voltage duration. The size of the hole made in the zona was measured to be 5-10 µm, depending on the zona thickness of each individual embryo. Results: The performance of LAH significantly increased clinical pregnancy rates in all patients. In group I and II, the chemical (50.99% and 31.61% respectively), clinical (50% and 30.69% respectively) and multiple pregnancies (22.27% and 5.94% respectively) significantly differ between these groups. In the patients with advanced female age ≥35 the performance of LAH significantly increased chemical (30.12%) and clinical pregnancy (27.71%) rates compared to whom without LAH (18.96% and 16.37% respectively). Conclusion: Our data demonstrate in the patients who were less than 35 years old, multiple pregnancy rates were significantly increased compared to other groups who aged over 35 years old. In addition benefit of LAH in improving pregnancy rates after IVF or ICSI in women of advanced age (≥35) was shown. PMID:25587254

  1. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease according to self-rated health, pregnancy course, and pregnancy complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis......, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD....

  2. New von Hippel-Lindau manifestations develop at the same or decreased rates in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Bisgaard, Søs Marie Luise

    2015-01-01

    diagnosed throughout their lifetimes. We analyzed age-dependent manifestation rates using Poisson regression. We compared the women's rates in intervals where they had been pregnant with their age-matched nonpregnant intervals. We investigated possible long-term effects using pregnancy intervals...... pregnancies. Manifestation rates in women's pregnant intervals were lower compared with their age-matched nonpregnant intervals (1 year: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.439, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.131-1.474, p = 0.18; 3 years: HR = 0.412, 95% CI 0.214-0.796, p = 0.0083; and 5 years: HR = 0.450, 95% CI 0.......136-1.489, p = 0.19). Men and women had similar manifestation rates, both increasing from their 20s. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy does not aggravate vHL tumor development, and we neither discourage pregnancy in VHL mutation carriers nor recommend intensified surveillance during pregnancy. The pregnancy effect...

  3. Maternal and perinatal complications in triplet compared with twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Santema (Job); P. Bourdrez (Petra); H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare maternal and perinatal complications in triplet and twin pregnancies. Study design: Case-controlled study in the setting of a University Hospital. Each pregnancy of a consecutive series of 40 triplet pregnancies of 20 weeks or more was matched for parity and materna

  4. Does ovarian hyperstimulation in intrauterine insemination for cervical factor subfertility improve pregnancy rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steures, Pieternel; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Verhoeve, Harold R; van Dop, Peter A; Hompes, Peter G A; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; van der Veen, Fulco; Habbema, J Dik F; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Mol, Ben W J

    2004-10-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) can be performed with or without controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Studies in which the additional benefit of COH on IUI for cervical factor subfertility is assessed are lacking. We assessed whether COH in IUI improved pregnancy rates in cervical factor subfertility. We performed a historical cohort study among couples with cervical factor subfertility, treated with IUI. A cervical factor was diagnosed by a well-timed, non-progressive post-coital test with normal semen parameters. We compared ongoing pregnancy rate per cycle in groups treated with IUI with or without COH. We tabulated ongoing pregnancy rates per cycle number and compared the effectiveness of COH by stratified univariable analysis. We included 181 couples who underwent 330 cycles without COH and 417 cycles with COH. Ongoing pregnancy rates in IUI cycles without and with COH were 9.7% and 12.7%, respectively (odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 0.85-2.2). The pregnancy rates in IUI without COH in cycles 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 14%, 11%, 6% and 15%, respectively. For IUI with COH, these rates were 17%, 15%, 14% and 16%, respectively. Although our data indicate that COH improves the pregnancy rate over IUI without COH, IUI without COH generates acceptable pregnancy rates in couples with cervical factor subfertility. Since IUI without COH bears no increased risk for multiple pregnancy, this treatment should be seriously considered in couples with cervical factor subfertility.

  5. Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy: a single-centre prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, J P; Martínez Ginés, M L; Martin Barriga, M L; de Andrés, C

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a autoimmune disorder which preferentially affects young women of childbearing age. During pregnancy, the annualized relapse rate (AAR) is modified, but pregnancy has no harm effect on the long-term course of the disease. We aimed to study the clinical course of our MS patients during pregnancy, and compare their obstetrics outcomes with a control group of non-MS patients. A single centre prospective observational study was conducted. We assessed the reproductive history, MS history, pregnancy course and new-born outcome of a cohort of MS patients who had had a pregnancy between january 2007 and july 2012. We compared the global outcomes with a control cohort of 58 age-matched healthy pregnancies. Complete data from 35 consecutive women were analyzed, 40 deliveries. Control groups: 58 patients, 60 deliveries. EDSS at pregnancy 0,7. ARR before pregnancy 0,5. During pregnancy 0,3, after pregnancy 0,4. Twelve patients were on disease-modifying drugs (DMD) before pregnancy, 4 prenatal exposure occurs. The comparison between relapse rate and EDSS before, during and after delivery showed no statistically significant difference. In addition, compared to control group, there were also no differences in the obstetric outcomes. In MS cohort, we found a higher incidence of assisted reproductive treatments and lower breastfeeding rate, both statistically significant. Our series confirms that pregnancy has no negative long term impact on the progression of MS and also suggest that there is no additional morbidity in the pregnancy, comparing to the rest of the population. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Ectopic pregnancy rates and racial disparities in the Medicaid population, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, Debra B; Cain, Loretta R; Dahlquist, Irma; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2014-12-01

    To assess 2004-2008 ectopic pregnancy rates among Medicaid recipients in 14 states and 2000-2008 time trends in three states and to identify differences in rate by race/ethnicity. Secondary analysis of Medicaid administrative claims data. Not applicable. Women ages 15-44 enrolled in Medicaid in Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New York, or Texas in 2004-2008 (n = 19,135,106) and in California, Illinois, and New York in 2000-2003. None. Number of ectopic pregnancies divided by the number of total pregnancies (spontaneous abortions, induced abortions, ectopic pregnancies, and all births). The 2004-2008 Medicaid ectopic pregnancy rate for all 14 states combined was 1.40% of all reported pregnancies. Adjusted for age, the rate was 1.47%. Ectopic pregnancy incidence was 2.3 per 1,000 woman-years. In states for which longer term data were available (California, Illinois, and New York), the rate declined significantly in 2000-2008. In all 14 states, black women were more likely to experience an ectopic pregnancy compared with whites (relative risk, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.47). Ectopic pregnancy remains an important health risk for women enrolled in Medicaid. Black women are at consistently higher risk than whites. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Progesterone elevation does not compromise pregnancy rates in high responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesinger, Georg; Mannaerts, Bernadette; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    To compare the impact of elevated P during the late follicular phase on the chance of pregnancy in low, normal, and high responders.......To compare the impact of elevated P during the late follicular phase on the chance of pregnancy in low, normal, and high responders....

  8. Analysis of Factors Influencing Pregnancy Rate in Frozen-thawed Embryo Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu LI; Xiao-xi SUN; Jun-ling CHEN; Xiao-hong GAO; Yong-wei WANG; Jie-wei TAO; Li-nan CHENG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To analyse factors influencing the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)Method A retrospective analysis was performed in our center on 129 thawing cycles from March 2001 to April 2003. The related parameters were compared between conceived and non-conceived cycles.Results There were totally 129 clinical pregnancies in these transfers (pregnancy rate: 27.1%). Frozen-thawed embryos were transferred to natural cycles and CC cycling and hormone replacement treatment had equal success. Groups of IVF and ICSI did not differ significantly in pregnancy rates (P>0. 05). The pregnancy rates for one, two, three and four pre-embryos transfer were 0, 20.0%,44.1% and 75.0%,respectively (P<0. 05). There were statistical differences between pregnancy group or non- pregnancy group in the endometrial thickness, CES, CES/No. Of embryo. A higher pregnancy rate was observed in embryo transfers which had at least one 4-cell grade I embryo (d 2)(P<0.01). Conclusions The most important factors influencing the implantation rate and pregnancy rate of frozen-thawed embryo transfer are age, endometrium thickness, and the number, morphology and growth rate of transferred frozen embryos of women participants.

  9. Theoretical Model of the Relationship between Single Embryo Transfer Rate and Multiple Pregnancy Rate in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Syuichi Ooki

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of single embryo transfer (SET) in assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the reduction of the multiple pregnancy rate. We also estimated the monozygotic (MZ) twinning rates according to the SET diffusion indirectly. A reverse sigmoid curve was assumed and examined using nationwide data of SET from 2007 to 2009 in Japan. The multiple pregnancy rate decreased almost linearly where the SET pregnancy rate was between about 40% and 80%...

  10. Observed Rate of Down Syndrome in Twin Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Teresa N; Norton, Mary E; Flessel, Monica; Goldman, Sara; Currier, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the observed incidence of Down syndrome in twins compared with that expected based on maternal age-matched singletons, which is the current clinical approach. This was a retrospective review of California Prenatal Screening Program participants with expected delivery dates between July 1995 and December 2012. Cases confirmed prenatally or postnatally with a genetic imbalance leading to phenotypic Down syndrome (trisomy 21, mosaic trisomy 21, or translocations) were included. Pregnancies conceived with ovum donation and women older than 45 years were excluded. We compared the observed Down syndrome incidence per pregnancy for twins with expected incidence by extrapolating from singleton data and expected zygosity as is the current clinical approach. This extrapolation assumes that monozygotic pregnancies have equivalent Down syndrome risk per pregnancy relative to maternal age-matched singletons and dizygotic pregnancies have twice the risk of at least one affected fetus. Zygosity for affected cases was presumed to be monozygotic with Down syndrome concordance and dizygotic with Down syndrome discordance. Counts were compared using cumulative Poisson distributions. Of 77,279 twin pregnancies, 182 (0.2%) had at least one fetus with Down syndrome confirmed by karyotype. The ratio of observed-to-expected Down syndrome incidence per pregnancy was 33.6%, 75.2%, and 70.0% for monozygotic, dizygotic, and all twins, respectively (PDown syndrome incidence was seen for women aged 25 to 45 years with monozygotic pregnancies and overall for women aged 25 to 45 years with dizygotic pregnancies. The observed incidence of Down syndrome in twin pregnancies is lower than expected, most notably for monozygotic pregnancies and with increasing maternal age. Risk-based counseling can strongly affect women's choices regarding testing and management during pregnancy, so an understanding of the true Down syndrome risk in twin gestations is crucial.

  11. Rate, correlates and outcomes of repeat pregnancy in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridia, M; Tamburrini, E; Masuelli, G; Martinelli, P; Spinillo, A; Liuzzi, G; Vimercati, A; Alberico, S; Maccabruni, A; Pinnetti, C; Frisina, V; Dalzero, S; Ravizza, M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the rate, determinants, and outcomes of repeat pregnancies in women with HIV infection. Data from a national study of pregnant women with HIV infection were used. Main outcomes were preterm delivery, low birth weight, CD4 cell count and HIV plasma viral load. The rate of repeat pregnancy among 3007 women was 16.2%. Women with a repeat pregnancy were on average younger than those with a single pregnancy (median age 30 vs. 33 years, respectively), more recently diagnosed with HIV infection (median time since diagnosis 25 vs. 51 months, respectively), and more frequently of foreign origin [odds ratio (OR) 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.68], diagnosed with HIV infection in the current pregnancy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.35-2.11), and at their first pregnancy (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.66). In women with sequential pregnancies, compared with the first pregnancy, several outcomes showed a significant improvement in the second pregnancy, with a higher rate of antiretroviral treatment at conception (39.0 vs. 65.4%, respectively), better median maternal weight at the start of pregnancy (60 vs. 61 kg, respectively), a higher rate of end-of-pregnancy undetectable HIV RNA (60.7 vs. 71.6%, respectively), a higher median birth weight (2815 vs. 2885 g, respectively), lower rates of preterm delivery (23.0 vs. 17.7%, respectively) and of low birth weight (23.4 vs. 15.4%, respectively), and a higher median CD4 cell count (+47 cells/μL), with almost no clinical progression to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage C (CDC-C) HIV disease (0.3%). The second pregnancy was significantly more likely to end in voluntary termination than the first pregnancy (11.4 vs. 6.1%, respectively). Younger and foreign women were more likely to have a repeat pregnancy; in women with sequential pregnancies, the second pregnancy was characterized by a significant improvement in several outcomes, suggesting that women with HIV infection who desire multiple

  12. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  13. Rapid policy change to single-embryo transfer while maintaining pregnancy rates per initiated cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, M P; Kadoch, I-J; Phillips, S J; Bissonnette, F

    2013-05-01

    Public financing of IVF aims at increasing access to treatment while decreasing the expenses associated with multiple pregnancies. Critics argue that it is associated with lower pregnancy rates. This study compared cycles performed during 2009 (before implementation of Quebec's public IVF programme; period I) to those performed in the year following implementation (period II) in a single IVF centre. First fresh cycles in period I (499 women) and first fresh cycles (815 women) along with their corresponding first vitrified-warmed transfer (271 women) in period II were evaluated. From period I to period II, single-embryo transfer increased from 17.3% to 85.0% (Ppregnancy rate decreased from 25.8% to 1.6% (Ppregnancy rate decreased from 31.9% to 23.3% (P=0.001). During period II, the ongoing pregnancy rate per vitrified-warmed embryo transfer was 19.2%, leading to a cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate per initiated cycle of 29.7%, which was not different to the pregnancy rate per fresh cycle during period I (31.9%). To conclude, Quebec's public IVF programme decreased multiple pregnancy rates while maintaining an acceptable cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate, a more precise outcome to evaluate the impact of public IVF programmes.

  14. Socioeconomic status and stress rate during pregnancy in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishehgar, Sara; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Bakhtiary, Maryam

    2014-04-22

    Stress during pregnancy can have serious adverse outcomes on the mother, the fetus, newborn, children and even adolescents. Socioeconomic status has been recognized as a predictor of stress amongst pregnant women. The first aim of this study was to investigate the role of socioeconomic status in pregnancy stress rates. The second aim was to examine the most important items of socioeconomic status including monthly family income, husband occupational status as well as mother's educational level and their influence on the rate of maternal stress. This study was cross-sectional research and was conducted on 210 pregnant women in three trimesters of pregnancy who attended Shahryar hospital for prenatal care between August-October 2012. They completed two questionnaires of Socioeconomic Status and Specific Pregnancy Stress. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19 including T-test, one-way ANOVA and Spearman correlation. In this study, we considered family income, education and husbands' occupations as the most important variables which may influence perceived stress during pregnancy. The mean age of women was 27±4.8 years. The final result showed that there is no significant relationship between SES and pregnancy stress level (P > 0.05), while we found a significant relationship, as well as indirect correlation between husbands' occupational status and pregnancy stress (P pregnancy stress levels or not.

  15. Effect of breed and corpus luteum on pregnancy rate of bovine embryo recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériklis Nogueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate pregnancy rates of recipients of different breed groups (Nellore and crossbreed, as well as the effects of size and type of the corpus luteum (CL on plasmatic concentrations of progesterone and pregnancy rates of embryo recipients. A total of 152 heifers were synchronized with progesterone implants and on the day of embryo transfer, previously obtained by superovulation and frozen in ethylene glycol, the diameter and type of the corpus luteum (cavitary and compact was measured and blood was collected for progesterone measurement. The pregnancy rate was 44.1%, with a diameter of corpus luteum higher in recipients that became pregnant (2.03±0.41 compared with non-pregnant ones (1.86±0.34 cm. Plasmatic concentrations of progesterone did not differ between pregnant (1.50±1.05 and non-pregnant (1.31±0.91 ng/mL animals. The type of corpus luteum did not influence the pregnancy rates. Only Angus and crossbred Marchigiana differ among themselves in pregnancy rates (33.3 and 59.2%, respectively. The pregnancy probability was affected only by CL diameter, but not by P4 plasmatic concentration. Selection of the corpus luteum size at the time of embryo transfer is an important factor to increase pregnancy rates in recipients, and compact and cavitary corpora lutea do not influence the pregnancy rates of bovine embryo recipients. Nellore recipients have pregnancy rates that are satisfactory and comparable to crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus recipients.

  16. The effect of medical clowning on pregnancy rates after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedler, Shevach; Glasser, Saralee; Azani, Liat; Freedman, Laurence S; Raziel, Arie; Strassburger, Dvora; Ron-El, Raphael; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-05-01

    This experimental prospective quasi-randomized study examining the impact of a medical clowning encounter after embryo transfer (ET) after in vitro fertilization (IVF) found that the pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 36.4%, compared with 20.2% in the control group (adjusted odds ratio, 2.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-5.24). Medical clowning as an adjunct to IVF-ET may have a beneficial effect on pregnancy rates and deserves further investigation.

  17. Elective transfer of two embryos: Reduction of multiple gestations while maintaining high pregnancy rates

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling-Lacey, Donna; Jones, Estella; Mayer, Jacob; Bocca, Silvina; Stadtmauer, Laurel; Oehninger, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if the elective transfer of two embryos reduced the incidence of multiple gestations while maintaining high pregnancy rates. Methods: IVF patients and recipients of oocyte donation with an elective day-3 transfer of 2 or 3 embryos were studied. Result(s): In IVF, the elective transfer of 2 embryos resulted in similar pregnancy rate but significantly reduced the overall incidence of multiple gestations (20% versus 39%) when compared to the elective transfer of 3 embryos. ...

  18. Effects of Exercise During Pregnancy on Maternal Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Linda E; Knowlton, Jennifer; Hanson, Jessica; Suminski, Richard; Paynter, Christopher; Fang, Xiangming; Gustafson, Kathleen M

    2016-07-01

    Pregnancy is associated with an increased sympathetic state, which can be exacerbated by gestational conditions. Research has shown that exercise during pregnancy lowers heart rate (HR) and can attenuate the symptoms of gestational conditions associated with increased sympathetic control. However, changes in maternal heart autonomic function in response to exercise have not been reported across multiple time points during pregnancy. This analysis is designed to address this gap. To determine if exercise throughout gestation improves maternal cardiac autonomic nervous system functioning, as evidenced by decreased HR and increased heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Case control study. Academic medical institution. A total of 56 women with healthy, singleton, low-risk pregnancies. Participants were asked to complete 3 resting 18-minute HRV recordings at 28, 32, and 36 weeks' gestation, along with a physical activity questionnaire. HRV indices were calculated for time (R peak to R peak interval standard deviation and root mean squared of successive differences) and frequency (very low, low, and high frequency) domain measures. The differences between groups were compared for HRV indices at 28, 32, and 36 weeks. Resting HR was significantly lower in the exercise group at 28 weeks (P exercise group had significantly (P exercise group relative to the control group. No differences occurred in sympathovagal balance (low frequency/high frequency ratio) between groups. Exercise throughout pregnancy can significantly improve cardiac autonomic control. More research is needed to determine if this adaptation to exercise may reduce the risk of adverse outcomes associated with gestational conditions with poor autonomic control, such as diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and excessive weight gain. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The pregnancy rate and live birth rate after kidney transplantation: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, I; Santori, G; Fazio, F; Valente, U

    2012-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney transplantation recipients live longer and have better quality of life than patients on dialysis. Hypothalamic gonadal dysfunction in females who have ESRD may be reversed within the first few months after kidney transplantation, such as the ability to have children. Despite thousands of successful pregnancies in transplantation recipients, there is limited information about it. In this study, we evaluated the pregnancy rates and live birth rates in women (n = 133) who underwent kidney transplantation in our center from 1983 to 2010. Recipients of a second kidney transplantation and recipients of multiorgan transplantations were excluded. We observed 33 pregnancies with 11 live births (33.3%), 12 spontaneous abortions (36.36%), and 10 therapeutic abortions (30.3%). The pregnancy rate was 18%. The live birth rate was 33.3%. Therapeutic abortions were 36.3%, and the pregnancies resulting in fetal loss were 30.3%. The pregnancies were identified in 32 women. The majority of women (n = 32; 96.9%) had a single pregnancy, whereas 1 woman (3.1%) had two pregnancies. In our series, the pregnancy rates for kidney transplantation recipients were markedly lower and decreased more rapidly than those reported in the general population.

  20. Comparative hemostatic protein alterations accompanying pregnancy and parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, P A; Liptrap, R M

    1988-06-01

    Pregnancy and parturition represent adaptive, physiological stress situations that elicit both blood coagulation protein changes and endocrine alterations. This paper briefly reviews the interrelationships of these responses by comparing the available data in several mammalian species including man, dog, cow, and pig. Hemostasis is an enzymatically controlled cascade process involving platelets and specific coagulation proteins that results in the formation of insoluble strands of fibrin. Although qualitatively similar in most mammals, quantitative differences exist in the circulating levels of individual coagulation proteins which may contribute towards the different rates of clot formation. In the late gestation stage of human pregnancy, significant increases are observed in the circulating biological activities of the coagulation factors VII, VIII:C, IX, and X. In the dog, the activities of factors VII and IX reach peak values in midpregnancy, while in the cow little or no changes are observed except for factor VII values which show a significant increase only around the time of parturition. These coagulation changes appear to be associated with fluctuations in circulating hormone values, particularly plasma estrogen. In human pregnancy, the circulating levels of fibrinogen, the precursor of fibrin, increase during the gestation period reaching maximum values during and immediately following parturition. In the dog and the cow two distinct increases in fibrinogen values are observed, the first in the midgestation period and the second in the immediate postparturition period. In the pig, fibrinogen values also rise significantly at parturition. Oral contraceptive studies in the human female have indicated that changes in circulating activities of coagulation proteins are hormonally influenced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Fetal Behavior and Heart Rate in Twin Pregnancy : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendais, Iva; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Figueiredo, Barbara; Montenegro, Nuno; Mulder, Eduard J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal movements and fetal heart rate (FHR) are well-established markers of fetal well-being and maturation of the fetal central nervous system. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the available knowledge on fetal movements and heart rate patterns in twin pregnancies. There is some evi

  2. Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives to reduce the rate of teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are safe for use in adolescents and do not rely on compliance or adherence for effectiveness. Continuation rates are higher and pregnancy rates are lower for adolescent users of LARCs compared with short-acting methods such as oral contraceptives. Similarly, repeat pregnancy rates are lower when LARCs are used compared with other forms of contraception. Myths and misconceptions about LARCs and other contraceptives remain a barrier to their use. Health care providers are in a unique position to provide confidential care to adolescents, and should provide education to them about the various contraceptive options, especially LARCs.

  3. Highlights of Trends in Pregnancies and Pregnancy Rates by Outcome: Estimates for the United States, 1976-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Stephanie J.; Mosher, William D.; Curtin, Sally C.; Abma, Joyce C.; Henshaw, Stanley

    1999-01-01

    This report presents key findings from a comprehensive report on pregnancies and pregnancy rates for U.S. women. The study incorporates birth, abortion, and fetal loss data to compile national estimates of pregnancy rates according to a variety of characteristics, including age, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Data from the National…

  4. Effects of Stretching Exercise on Heart Rate Variability During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jeongok G; Yeo, SeonAe

    Little evidence exists for effects of low-intensity exercises such as stretching on cardiovascular health in pregnant women. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a 20-minute stretching exercise on heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) in healthy pregnant women. In 15 pregnant women with a mean (SD) age of 29.47 (4.07) years and mean (SD) gestational weeks of 26.53 (8.35), HRV, and BP were measured before and after the 20-minute stretching exercise. Compared with before the stretching exercise, standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals, total variability of heart rate, increased by 7.40 milliseconds (t = -2.31, P = .04) and root mean square of successive differences, a surrogate measure of parasympathetic outflow, also increased by 11.68 milliseconds (Z = -2.04, P = .04) after the stretching exercise. Diastolic BP and HR decreased by 2.13 mm Hg (t = 1.93, P = .07) and 3.31 bpm (t = 2.17, P = .05), respectively, but they did not reach statistical significance. These preliminary data suggest that 20 minutes of stretching exercise may promote cardiovascular health by attenuating the loss of parasympathetic tone associated with pregnancy.

  5. Obstetrics and perinatal outcomes of dichorionic twin pregnancy following ART compared with spontaneous pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Pourali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the recent advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART, twin and multiple pregnancies have increased during past years. Objective: This study was performed to compare obstetrics and perinatal outcomes of dichorionic twin pregnancy following ART with spontaneous pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was performed in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 107 dichorionic twin pregnancy were enrolled in two groups: spontaneous group (n=96 and ART group (n=31. Basic criteria and obstetrics and neonatal outcomes information including demographic data, gestational age, mode of delivery, pregnancy complications (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR, postpartum hemorrhage, neonatal outcomes (weight, first and fifth minuteP PApgar score, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU admission, mortality, respiratory distress, and icterus were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: Preterm labor, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia were significantly higher in ART group compared to spontaneous pregnancy group. However, other factors such as anemia, IUGR, postpartum hemorrhage, and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of neonatal outcomes (weight, 1PstP and 5PthP min Apgar score <7, NICU hospitalization, mortality, respiratory distress, and icterus. Conclusion: With regard of significantly higher poor outcomes such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm labor in ART group, the couples should be aware of these potential risks before choosing ART.

  6. Metamizol (dipyrone, optalgin) in pregnancy, is it safe? A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Oz, Benjamin; Clementi, Maurizio; Di Giantonio, Elena; Greenberg, Revital; Beer, Monic; Merlob, Paul; Arnon, Judy; Ornoy, Asher; Zimmerman, Deena M; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2005-04-01

    To assess the teratogenic effect of metamizol when used during the first trimester of pregnancy. One hundred and eight women who used metamizol during the first trimester of pregnancy were recruited from 4 teratogen information centers in Israel (3) and in Italy (1). The study group was paired for age, smoking habits and alcohol consumption with a comparative group exposed to acetaminophen. Maternal demographics and history, birth weight, gestational age at delivery, rate of live births, spontaneous abortions and fetal distress were comparable in both groups. The rate of major malformations in the metamizol group (3%) did not differ significantly from the rate in the comparative group (2%) (P = 0.57, relative risk = 1.55, 95% confidence interval 0.26-9.05). Our data may suggest that exposure to metamizol during the first trimester of pregnancy is probably not associated with a significantly increased risk for malformations or spontaneous abortions.

  7. Psychotherapeutic Counseling and Pregnancy Rates in In Vitro Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Poehl, Michaela; Bichler, Katherina; Wicke, Veronika; Dörner, Veronika; Feichtinger, Wilfried

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:Since the Austrian propagation bill of July 1, 1992, was passed into law, Austrian physicians are committed to offer psychological counseling to women before performing assisted reproductive techniques, unless refused by the patient. The acceptance of psychotherapeutic counseling (PSITCO) and its influence on pregnancy rate were carefully reviewed.

  8. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy decreases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcome: a controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Campos Passanezi Sant'Ana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG - "no intervention" (n=17 or IG- "intervention" (n=16. IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP, professional prophylaxis (PROPH and oral hygiene instruction (OHI. NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL, plaque index (PI and sulcular bleeding index (SBI at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (0.05 at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (p<0.0001, except for PI. Signifcant differences in periodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (p<0.001. The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  9. Changes in heart rate variability and QT variability during the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, R E; D'Silva, L A; Emery, S J; Uzun, O; Rassi, D; Lewis, M J

    2015-03-01

    The risk of new-onset arrhythmia during pregnancy is high, presumably relating to changes in both haemodynamic and cardiac autonomic function. The ability to non-invasively assess an individual's risk of developing arrhythmia during pregnancy would therefore be clinically significant. We aimed to quantify electrocardiographic temporal characteristics during the first trimester of pregnancy and to compare these with non-pregnant controls. Ninety-nine pregnant women and sixty-three non-pregnant women underwent non-invasive cardiovascular and haemodynamic assessment during a protocol consisting of various physiological states (postural manoeurvres, light exercise and metronomic breathing). Variables measured included stroke volume, cardiac output, heart rate, heart rate variability, QT and QT variability and QTVI (a measure of the variability of QT relative to that of RR). Heart rate (p variability (p heart rate variability was reduced in pregnancy in all states (p heart rate variability, reflecting a reduction in parasympathetic tone and an increase in sympathetic activity. QTVI shifted to a less favourable value, reflecting a greater than normal amount of QT variability. QTVI appears to be a useful method for quantifying changes in QT variability relative to RR (or heart rate) variability, being sensitive not only to physiological state but also to gestational age. We support the use of non-invasive markers of cardiac electrical variability to evaluate the risk of arrhythmic events in pregnancy, and we recommend the use of multiple physiological states during the assessment protocol.

  10. Pregnancy rate following bromocriptine treatment in infertile women with galactorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Nahid; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh

    2009-02-01

    Infertility is one of the most common causes of women refer to gynecology clinics. Galactorrhea is defined as one of the causes of infertility caused by luteal phase defect and anovulatory cycles. The study aim was to investigate the effect of bromocriptine on pregnancy rate in infertile women with galactorrhea with or without high prolactin level. In a prospective study, consecutive women with infertility and galactorrhea who referred to Afzalipour Hospital and a private clinic during 5 years from May 2001 to May 2006 were included. The study was conducted on 205 infertile women (18-39 years) with galactorrhea. They were treated with 2.5 mg bromocriptine BID for up to 6 months. The mean duration of sterility was 43.1 +/- 37.1 months (range, 12-16). 76.1% of patients showed positive signs for pregnancy. The pregnancy rate was 81.7% in the patients with high prolactin level (>20 ng/dl) and 74.3% in the patients with normal prolactin level (P = 0.26). There was a significant difference between mean duration of treatment with bromocriptine in women with and without pregnancy, 103.71 and 193.03 days, respectively (P galactorrhea, we suggest treatment with bromocriptine in these patients regardless of serum prolactin level.

  11. Short-term variability of fetal heart rate in cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammälä, P; Kariniemi, V

    1981-09-15

    Maternal cholestasis affects about 1% of pregnancies in Finland. Although maternal prognosis in obstetric cholestasis is always good, an increased fetal risk has been reported by several authors. In this paper the differential index (DI), describing the short-term variability of fetal heart rate, was measured in 64 pregnancies with colestasis of pregnancy by a microprocessor-based "on-line" method, which uses abdominal fetal electrocardiogram as a triggering signal. The analysis was successfull in 117 of 131 trials. In five pregnancies no successful analysis was obtained. Fetal distress developed in five fetuses of 59 but not perinatal deaths occurred. The sensitivity of the antepartum DI in predicting fetal distress in labor was 80% and the predictive value was 44%. The relative risk for intrapartum fetal distress in labor after a pathologic antepartal DI compared with normal DI was 22, which is highly significant (p less than 0.001).

  12. The Relations Between HSG Proven Tubal Occlusion, Stimulated Intrauterine Insemination and Pregnancy Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkin Yıldırım, Gonca; Orta Korkut, Ahu; Köroğlu, Nadiye; Susan Türkgeldi, Lale

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tubal factor infertility is one of the main causes of female infertility. Although its sensitivity is low, hysterosalpingography (HSG) is remains the first-line method for evaluating tubal patency. Aims: To compare pregnancy rates in patients with HSG proven proximal or distal unilateral tubal occlusion, and unexplained infertility undergoing both controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). Study Design: Case control study. Methods: In total, 237 patients undergoing ovulation induction (OI) with gonadotropins and IUI were divided into two groups and evaluated. Study group consisted 59 patients with HSG proven unilateral tubal pathology, and 178 patients with unexplained infertility taken as control subjects. Cumulative pregnancy rate was the primary endpoint. Results: Cumulative pregnancy rates after three cycles of OI and IUI were 15.25% in study group and 20.79% in control group. Pregnancy rates between two groups were not statistically significant. Although, pregnancy rates in patients with proximal tubal occlusion (21.8%) were higher than in those with distal tubal occlusion (7.4%), the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Our study data shows that, regardless of the HCG proven occlusion area, COS and IUI might be a preferred treatment modality in patient with unilateral tubal occlusion. PMID:28251025

  13. Asian ethnicity is associated with decreased pregnancy rates following intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Julie D; Huddleston, Heather G; Purcell, Karen J; Modan, Aisha; Farsani, Taraneh T; Dingeldein, Margaret A; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2009-08-01

    Asian ethnicity has been associated with decreased pregnancy outcomes in patients undergoing IVF. The objective of this study was to determine if a difference exists in pregnancy rates between Asian and Caucasian patients undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI). A retrospective cohort of Asian and Caucasian patients treated with IUI between December 2002 and 2006 was analysed, including 2327 IUI cycles among 814 patients. Baseline characteristics were similar between Asian and Caucasian women. A significantly greater proportion of Asians (43.9%) presented for treatment after more than 2 years of infertility compared with Caucasians (24.6%) (P decreased pregnancy rates associated with Asian ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) 0.71, 95% CI 0.50-1.01, not significant). Age, stimulation protocol, differences in gravity and parity, and duration of infertility did not account for this difference (adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.98, P = 0.039). Asian ethnicity is associated with lower pregnancy rates in IUI treatment. The increased duration of infertility in Asians does not explain the reduced pregnancy rates.

  14. Heart rate variability in neonates of type 1 diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Noirin E; Higgins, Mary F; Kinsley, Brendan F; Foley, Michael E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common finding in offspring of pre-gestational type 1 diabetic pregnancy. Echocardiographic and biochemical evidence of fetal cardiac dysfunction have also been reported. Studies suggest that offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) undergo a fetal programming effect due to the hyperglycaemic intrauterine milieu which increases their risk of cardiovascular morbidity in adult life. Decreased neonatal heart rate variability (HRV) has been described in association with in-utero growth restriction, prematurity, sudden infant death syndrome and congenital heart disease. The effect of in-utero exposure to hyperglycaemia in diabetic pregnancy on neonatal HRV is unknown. Our aim was to determine if neonatal HRV differs between normal and diabetic pregnancy. This was a prospective observational study of 38 patients with pregestational type 1 diabetes and 26 controls. HRV assessment was performed using Powerlab (ADI Instruments Ltd). Heart rate variability assessment and cord blood sampling for pH and glucose were performed for all neonates. Maternal glycaemic control was assessed via measurement of glycosylated haemoglobin in each trimester in the diabetic cohort. Neonates of diabetic mothers had evidence of altered heart rate variability, with increased low frequency to high frequency ratio (LF: HF), suggestive of a shift towards sympathetic predominance (pheart to fluctuations in maternal glycaemia with subsequent alterations in HRV may explain why infants of diabetic mothers are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…

  16. Comparing School-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programming: Mixed Outcomes in an At-Risk State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…

  17. Significantly enhanced pregnancy rates per cycle through cryopreservation and thaw of pronuclear stage oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeck, L L; Amundson, C H; Brothman, L J; DeScisciolo, C; Maloney, M K; Muasher, S J; Jones, H W

    1993-06-01

    To examine the results of a 5-year trial using cryopreservation to limit multiple pregnancy and optimize overall pregnancy per cycle. Retrospective clinical evaluation of pregnancy rates (PRs) per cycle after freezing pronuclear stage human oocytes. Tertiary care academic center. Six hundred seventeen patients treated in 776 IVF-ET cycles from January 1987 to December 1991 (less oocyte donation cycles). Pregnancy rate per cycle after transfer of pre-embryos developed from thawed pronuclear stage oocytes. Three thousand seven hundred thirty-one oocytes were frozen. Of these, 2,039 were thawed. One thousand three hundred seventy-seven survived thawing (68%), and 1,370 were transferred after passing through syngamy to at least the first cleavage (68%). Of patients with thawing, 359 of 401 (90%) (449 of 505 cycles [89%]) received intrauterine transfer. One hundred thirty-three separate clinical pregnancies were established from 128 different cycles (128/449; 29%); 5 cycles had two thaws, each of which resulted in pregnancy. This PR is less than the overall fresh PR observed in patients who had excess pronucleate oocytes frozen (279/776; 36%) but is remarkably similar when adjusted for the number of pre-embryos transferred per cycle. The age of the patient at the time of cryopreservation and the number of quality of pre-embryos ultimately available for transfer were important factors in the establishment of pregnancy. The mode of ovarian stimulation and duration of cryostorage did not prove meaningful. Cryopreserved pronucleate oocytes that survive freezing, thawing, and progress through syngamy demonstrate a similar potential for implantation and pregnancy when compared with fresh conceptuses, the cumulative effect of which is an enhanced total PR per cycle.

  18. Effect of age of equine embryos and method of transfer on pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuliano, M F; Squires, E L; Cook, V M

    1985-01-01

    A 2 X 2 cross-classified experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of age of equine embryo (7 vs 8 d postovulation) and method of transfer (surgical vs nonsurgical) on pregnancy rates at 50 d of gestation. Embryos were recovered 7 or 8 d postovulation using a Foley catheter and 3 liters of modified Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Upon identification, the embryos were placed in millipore-filtered PBS containing 20% heat-inactivated steer serum and maintained at room temperature until transferred. At the time of recovery, embryos were randomly assigned to be transferred either nonsurgically using a sterile insemination pipette or surgically via a flank incision. For nonsurgical transfer, the embryo was deposited into the uterine body; whereas, in surgical transfer, the embryo was placed in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum. Recovery rates for embryos collected on d 7 (75.5%) or 8 (81.9%) were similar (P greater than .05). Age of embryo did not affect (P greater than .05) pregnancy rate. At 50 d, pregnancy rates were 60 and 57% for mares receiving d 7 or 8 embryos. However, more (P less than .05) pregnancies were obtained after transfer of embryos surgically (72%) than nonsurgically (45%). More (P less than .05) pregnancies were obtained after transfer of d 8 embryos surgically (75%) compared with nonsurgically (40%). Within method of transfer, pregnancy rates were similar (P less than .05) for surgical transfer of d 7 and 8 embryos (69 and 75%), but tended (P less than .25) to be higher for nonsurgical transfer of d 7 embryos (50%) compared with d 8 embryos (40%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Transfer of spontaneously hatching or hatched blastocyst yields better pregnancy rates than expanded blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natachandra M Chimote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blastocyst stage embryo transfer (ET has become routine practice in recent years. However, probably due to limitations of assisted hatching techniques, expanded blastocyst transfer (EBT is still the preferred mode. Inexplicably, not much consideration has been given to spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst transfer (SHBT. Aim: This study aimed to investigate developmental potential of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst against EBT in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of 146 women undergoing their first IVF- ET cycle. SUBJECTS AND Methods: On the basis of blastocyst status, women were classified into SHBT and EBT groups. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were excluded to remove male factor bias. Implantation rate (IR, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate were the main outcome measures. Statistical Analysis: Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. Results: SHBT group showed significantly higher blastocyst formation rate (53.3 ± 17.5 vs. 43.1 ± 14.5%, P = 0.0098, top-quality blastocysts (71.8 vs. 53.7%, P = 0.0436, IR (43.6 vs. 27.9%, P = 0.0408, pregnancy rate (59.4 vs. 45.1%, P = 0.0173, and live birth rate (36.8 vs. 22.8%, P = 0.003 compared to EBT group. Multiple pregnancy rates remained comparable between the two groups. Implantation correlated strongly with top-quality blastocysts (Pearson, r = 0.4441 in SHBT group, while the correlation was nonsignificant in EBT group. Conclusion: Extending culture of expanded blastocysts by a few hours to allow transfer of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts gives higher implantation and pregnancy rates with no added risk of multiple gestations. Spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts have a better potential to implant and develop into a positive pregnancy.

  20. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on pregnancy rates and early pregnancy loss after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishafiha, Masomeh; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad; Memari, Aishe; Naji, Siamak; Mladkova, Nikol; Saeedi, Vida

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to elucidate what affects the implantation and early pregnancy course in pregnancies conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) so that pregnancy rates and outcomes can be improved. Our aim was to determine the role of maternal Helicobacter pylori infection. We did a prospective study of 187 infertile couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and segregated those according to underlying infertility etiology. We assessed the status of H. pylori IgG antibodies and anti-CagA IgG antibodies by ELISA assay. All pregnancies were followed for early pregnancy loss (EPL, first 12 weeks). The likelihood of H. pylori infection increased with age (1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.13; P = 0.040) but there was no association with EPL. Women infected with CagA-positive strains were more likely to have EPL (19.39, 95% CI: 1.8-208.4; P = 0.014). Women with tubal factor or ovulatory disorder infertility were more likely to abort early (12.95, 95% CI: 1.28-131.11; P = 0.030, 10.84, 95% CI: 1.47-80.03; P = 0.020, respectively). There was no association between EPL and age, number of embryos formed or transferred, or number of oocytes retrieved. Our findings suggest that infection with CagA-positive H. pylori strains is linked to an increase in women's potential to abort early (possibly through increased release of inflammatory cytokines). In addition, tubal factor and ovulatory disorder infertility are linked to EPL after ICSI due to unknown mechanisms. Proposals to eradicate H. pylori infection prior to ICSI could lead to a decrease in EPL after ART.

  1. Spray-dried plasma attenuates inflammation and improves pregnancy rate of mated female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M; Liu, Y; Lee, J J; Che, T M; Soares-Almeida, J A; Chun, J L; Campbell, J M; Polo, J; Crenshaw, J D; Seo, S W; Pettigrew, J E

    2015-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary spray-dried plasma (SDP) might improve pregnancy rate by ameliorating inflammation, using mice in an experimental model that produces a low pregnancy rate. Mated female mice (C57BL/6 strain) were purchased and shipped from a vendor (Bar Harbor, ME) to the university facility (Urbana, IL) on the day the vaginal plug was found (gestation day [GD] 1), arriving at the laboratory on GD 3 after 2 d transport by air and ground. Mice (Exp. 1: n = 250, 16.0 ± 1.2 g BW; Exp. 2: n = 202, 16.2 ± 1.2 g BW; Exp. 3: n = 156, 16.4 ± 1.1 g BW) were housed in individual cages and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (Exp. 1: 0 [CON] and 8% SDP in the diet, ≥ 90 mice/diet; Exp. 2: 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8% SDP in the diet, ≥ 40 mice/diet; Exp. 3: 0, 1, and 8% SDP in the diet, 48 mice/diet) fed from arrival. In Exp. 1 and 2, pregnancy of each mouse was determined on GD 17 based on BW, shape of abdomen, and inspection postmortem, and maternal growth performance from GD 3 to 17 was measured. On GD 19, pregnant mice in Exp. 2 were euthanized to measure number of fetuses and fetal and placental weights. Pregnancy rates in CON were low in both Exp. 1 (11%) and Exp. 2 (7%). The SDP consistently and markedly increased (P pregnancy rates in both Exp. 1 (49%) and Exp. 2 (35-43%) compared with the CON. In Exp. 3, 12 randomly selected mice were euthanized immediately after they arrived as an initial group. From GD 4 to 7, randomly selected mice were also euthanized each day (12 mice/diet). After euthanasia, the abdominal cavity was opened to check pregnancy by uterine inspection and to collect blood and uterus samples for immune measurements. The SDP increased (P pregnancy rate compared with the CON. Concentrations of indicators of inflammation and stress (uterine TNF-α and IFN-γ, and serum TNF-α, C-reactive protein, and cortisol) were greatest (P decreased (P pregnancy rates in this model, apparently by attenuating

  2. Effect of intrauterine injection of human chorionic gonadotropin before embryo transfer on pregnancy rate: A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostajeran, Fatemeh; Godazandeh, Farzaneh; Ahmadi, Sayed Mehdi; Movahedi, Minoo; Jabalamelian, Seyed Abolfazl

    2017-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the most important factor to controlled implantation is one of the early embryonic signals in primates that is secreted by the embryo before its implantation. This study was designed to assess the effects of intrauterine injection of hCG before the embryo transfer in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle on pregnancy rate in infertile patients. This randomized study was done on 100 infertile patients in two groups: intervention group received injection of 700 IU of intrauterine hCG 10 min before embryo transfer and control group did not receive hCG. The pregnancy rate was tested 2 weeks after embryo transfer, and if the pregnancy test was positive, a transvaginal ultrasound was performed 3 weeks later to search for signs of pregnancy, such as the presence of a gestational sac, embryo, and fetal heart rate, and confirmed as successful pregnancy. Pregnancy test was positive in 13 (28.6%) of 46 patients in hCG group and in control group was positive in 6 (12.5%) of 48 patients. The pregnancy rate between hCG group and control group was not significantly different (P = 0.54). The pregnancy rate in hCG group with IVF fertilization was 20.8% and in their controls was 7.4% (P = 0.51). The pregnancy rate in hCG group with ICSI fertilization was 36.4% and in their controls was 19% (P = 0.16). The intrauterine injection of 700 IU of hCG before embryo transfer improved pregnancy rate compared to control group but was not significantly different.

  3. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on pregnancy rates and early pregnancy loss after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishafiha M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishafiha1, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad1, Aishe Memari1, Siamak Naji1, Nikol Mladkova2, Vida Saeedi1 1Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; 2Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, UK Background: There is a need to elucidate what affects the implantation and early pregnancy course in pregnancies conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART so that pregnancy rates and outcomes can be improved. Our aim was to determine the role of maternal Helicobacter pylori infection. Material and methods: We did a prospective study of 187 infertile couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and segregated those according to underlying infertility etiology. We assessed the status of H. pylori IgG antibodies and anti-CagA IgG antibodies by ELISA assay. All pregnancies were followed for early pregnancy loss (EPL, first 12 weeks. Results: The likelihood of H. pylori infection increased with age (1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.13; P = 0.040 but there was no association with EPL. Women infected with CagA-positive strains were more likely to have EPL (19.39, 95% CI: 1.8–208.4; P = 0.014. Women with tubal factor or ovulatory disorder infertility were more likely to abort early (12.95, 95% CI: 1.28–131.11; P = 0.030, 10.84, 95% CI: 1.47–80.03; P = 0.020, respectively. There was no association between EPL and age, number of embryos formed or transferred, or number of oocytes retrieved. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that infection with CagA-positive H. pylori strains is linked to an increase in women's potential to abort early (possibly through increased release of inflammatory cytokines. In addition, tubal factor and ovulatory disorder infertility are linked to EPL after ICSI due to unknown mechanisms. Proposals to eradicate H. pylori infection prior to ICSI could lead to a decrease in EPL after ART.Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, early pregnancy loss, early abortion, infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm

  4. Comparative incidence of pregnancy outcomes in treated obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome: the NOH-APS observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Sylvie; Cochery-Nouvellon, Eva; Lavigne-Lissalde, Géraldine; Mercier, Erick; Marchetti, Tess; Balducchi, Jean-Pierre; Marès, Pierre; Gris, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-16

    The incidence of pregnancy outcomes for women with the purely obstetric form of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) treated with prophylactic low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus low-dose aspirin (LDA) has not been documented. We observed women without a history of thrombosis who had experienced 3 consecutive spontaneous abortions before the 10th week of gestation or 1 fetal loss at or beyond the 10th week. We compared the frequencies of complications during new pregnancies between treated women with APS (n = 513; LMWH + LDA) and women negative for antiphospholipid antibodies as controls (n = 791; no treatment). Among APS women, prior fetal loss was a risk factor for fetal loss, preeclampsia (PE), premature birth, and the occurrence of any placenta-mediated complication. Being positive for anticardiolipin immunoglobulin M antibodies was a risk factor for any placenta-mediated complication. Among women with a history of recurrent abortion, APS women were at a higher risk than other women of PE, placenta-mediated complications, and neonatal mortality. Among women with prior fetal loss, LMWH + LDA-treated APS women had lower pregnancy loss rates but higher PE rates than other women. Improved therapies, in particular better prophylaxis of late pregnancy complications, are urgently needed for obstetric APS and should be evaluated according to the type of pregnancy loss.

  5. Estimating the Attack Rate of Pregnancy-Associated Listeriosis during a Large Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho Imanishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2011, a multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to contaminated cantaloupes raised concerns that many pregnant women might have been exposed to Listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis during pregnancy can cause fetal death, premature delivery, and neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Little information is available to guide healthcare providers who care for asymptomatic pregnant women with suspected L. monocytogenes exposure. Methods. We tracked pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases using reportable diseases surveillance and enhanced surveillance for fetal death using vital records and inpatient fetal deaths data in Colorado. We surveyed 1,060 pregnant women about symptoms and exposures. We developed three methods to estimate how many pregnant women in Colorado ate the implicated cantaloupes, and we calculated attack rates. Results. One laboratory-confirmed case of listeriosis was associated with pregnancy. The fetal death rate did not increase significantly compared to preoutbreak periods. Approximately 6,500–12,000 pregnant women in Colorado might have eaten the contaminated cantaloupes, an attack rate of ~1 per 10,000 exposed pregnant women. Conclusions. Despite many exposures, the risk of pregnancy-associated listeriosis was low. Our methods for estimating attack rates may help during future outbreaks and product recalls. Our findings offer relevant considerations for management of asymptomatic pregnant women with possible L. monocytogenes exposure.

  6. Pregnancy Rate after Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation and Intrauterine Insemination for the Treatment of Endometriosis following Surgery

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    Attila Keresztúri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare pregnancy rate after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intrauterine insemination (COH-IUI with no treatment in patients with endometriosis-associated infertility treated with laparoscopy. Design. A clinical cohort study. Setting. University-level tertiary care center. Patients. 238 women with various stages of endometriosis after laparoscopic treatment. Interventions. Either COH-IUI or follow-up for 12 months. Main Outcome Measures. The primary outcome measures were clinical pregnancy and live birth rate. Predictive factors evaluated were female age, maternal BMI, and duration of infertility. Results. The pregnancy rate attained after the integrated laparoscopy–COH-IUI approach was 53.4%, while it was significantly lower (38.5% in the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in live births (48.3% versus 34.2%. Patients with severe endometriosis were less likely to achieve pregnancy (38% and live birth (35% than their counterparts with milder forms (57% and 53%. Conclusions. In patients with endometriosis-based infertility, surgery followed by COH-IUI is more effective than surgery alone.

  7. Transfer of human frozen-thawed embryos with further cleavage during culture increases pregnancy rates

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    Bharat V Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the pregnancy rate following transfer of frozen-thawed embryos with or without overnight culture after thawing. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective analysis of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET cycles performed between January 2006 and December 2008. Materials and Methods: Out of 518 thaw cycles, 504 resulted in embryo transfers (ETs. Of the total FET cycles, 415 were performed after an overnight culture of embryos (group A; and in 89 cycles, ET was performed within 2 hours of embryo thawing (group B. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. Results: We observed that with FET, women ≤30 years of age had a significantly higher (P=0.003 pregnancy rate (PR=28.9% as compared to women >30 years of age (17.5%. A significantly higher (P<0.001FNx08 pregnancy rate was also observed in women receiving 3 frozen-thawed embryos (29% as compared to those who received less than 3 embryos (10.7%. The difference in PR between group A (PR=24.3% and group B (PR=20.3% was not statistically significant. However, within group A, ET with cleaved embryos showed significantly ( P≤0.01 higher pregnancy rate compared to the uncleaved embryos, depending on the number of cleaved embryos transferred. Conclusion: No significant difference was noticed between FETs made with transfer of embryos with overnight culture and those without culture. However, within the cultured group, transfer of embryos cleaved during overnight culture gave significantly higher PR than transfers without any cleavage.

  8. Ethnic discrimination predicts poor self-rated health and cortisol in pregnancy: insights from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2015-03-01

    Despite growing research emphasis on understanding the health effects of ethnic discrimination, little work has focused on how such exposures may influence a woman's biology and health during pregnancy. Understanding such effects is important given evidence that maternal stress experience in pregnancy can have long term effects on offspring health. Here we present data evaluating the relationship between perceived discrimination, self-rated health, and the stress hormone cortisol measured in late pregnancy among a diverse sample of women living in Auckland, New Zealand (N = 55). We also evaluated possible intergenerational impacts of maternal discrimination on stress reactivity in a subset of offspring (N = 19). Pregnant women were recruited from two antenatal care clinics in Auckland. Women were met in their homes between 34 and 36 weeks gestation, during which time a prenatal stress questionnaire was administered and saliva samples (morning and evening from two days) were obtained. Offspring cortisol reactivity was assessed at the standard six week postnatal vaccination visit. We found that 34% of women reported having experienced ethnic discrimination, with minority and immigrant women being more likely to report being angry or upset in response to discrimination experience compared with NZ-born women of European descent. Women reporting discrimination experience had worse self-rated health, higher evening cortisol and gave birth to infants with higher cortisol reactivity, all independent of ethnicity and material deprivation. These findings suggest that discrimination experience can have biological impacts in pregnancy and across generations, potentially contributing to the ethnic gradient in health.

  9. Comparison of pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing clomiphene citrate and IUI treatment with different leading follicular sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckin, Berna; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Bostancı, Esra Isci; Inal, Hasan Ali; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing clomiphene citrate (CC) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment with different leading follicular sizes. A total of 358 infertile women with PCOS who underwent 563 clomiphene citrate and IUI treatment cycles were included in this prospective study. Treatment cycles were divided into three groups according to leading follicular size on the day of hCG administration: Group I: follicular size 17-18 mm (n = 177), Group II: 19-22 mm (n = 321), and Group III : >22 mm (n = 65). Pregnancy rates were evaluated. Treatment outcomes of the groups were further analyzed related to endometrial thickness measurement on the day of hCG. For this purpose, cycles were placed into three subgroups as follows: endometrial thickness 9 mm. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate per cycle between the groups (8.5, 10, and 9.2 % for Group I, II, and III, respectively, p = 0.86). In further analyses related to endometrial thickness, no significant difference was also found in pregnancy rate among the groups. This results suggest that pregnancy rate is not related to leading follicle size on the day of hCG administration in PCOS patients treated with CC and IUI. In addition, pregnancy rate in women with different follicular sizes is not influenced by the endometrial thickness.

  10. Timing of IUI Treatment after hCG Administration 1-48 h Affecting Pregnancy Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan YANG; Zu-mei SHI; Hui JIN; Li-ping ZHU; Kun-ming LI; Jian-zhi YANG; Zhi-qin CHEN; Xiao-ming TENG; Hui-fen CHEN; Yu WANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the different time of administration of hCG affecting pregnancy rate of IUI. Methods A total of 189 infertile couples underwent 331 cycles of IUI with husband’s sperm.They were separated into 3 groups according to the time of hCG administration in IUI:hCG 1-23 h(group A):hCG 24-36 h (group B);hCG 37—48 h(group C). Results There were no statistical differences among 3 groups.None of the other relative factors,such as the female age,the different methods of ovulation and the cause of infertility,showed differences in pregnancy rate among 3 groups. Conclusion IUI can be performed any time after administration of hCG(1—48 h).

  11. Average acceleration and deceleration capacity of fetal heart rate in normal pregnancy and in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graatsma, E M; Mulder, E J H; Vasak, B; Lobmaier, S M; Pildner von Steinburg, S; Schneider, K T M; Schmidt, G; Visser, G H A

    2012-12-01

    To study fetal heart rate (FHR), its short term variability (STV), average acceleration capacity (AAC), and average deceleration capacity (ADC) throughout uncomplicated gestation, and to perform a preliminary comparison of these FHR parameters between small-for dates (SFD) and control fetuses. Prospective observational study of 7 h FHR-recordings obtained with a fetal-ECG monitor in the second half of uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 90) and pregnancies complicated by fetal SFD (n = 30). FHR and STV were calculated according to established analysis. True beat-to-beat FHR, recorded at 1 ms accuracy, was used to calculate AAC and ADC using Phase Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA). Mean values of FHR, STV, AAC, and ADC derived from recordings in SFD fetuses were compared with the reference curves. Compared with the control group the mean z-scores for STV, AAC, and ADC in SFD fetuses were lower by 1.0 SD, 1.5 SD, and 1.7 SD, respectively (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). In SFD fetuses, both the AAC and ADC z-scores were lower than the STV z-scores (p < 0.02 and p < 0.002, respectively). Analysis of the AAC and ADC as recorded with a high resolution fECG recorder may differentiate better between normal and SFD fetuses than STV.

  12. Stillbirth rates in singleton pregnancies in a stable population at Karl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stillbirth rates for singleton pregnancies where the fetus weighed ≥1 000 g were collected from 1962 to 2011. From 1972 to ... Stillbirth rates only applied to fetuses ≥1 000 g, as stillbirths of fetuses weighing <1 ... stillbirths, neonatal deaths and deliveries, from which the stillbirth rates ... Stillbirths from multiple pregnancies.

  13. The presence of a sponsoring embryo in a batch of poor quality thawed embryos significantly increases pregnancy and implantation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, A; Kol, S; Wayner, V; Vertman, D; Manor, D; Itskovitz-Eldor, J

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate quantitatively the effect of one good-quality (sponsoring) embryo in a batch of low-quality thawed embryos on the implantation and pregnancy rates (PR). Retrospective analysis of data. Tertiary care center IVF clinic affiliated with a university medical school. Between March 1988 and April 1995, 392 IVF patients underwent a total of 440 thawing and ET cycles of 1,436 multicellular embryos. Implantation, clinical pregnancy, and multiple pregnancy rates. In the absence of sponsoring embryos in the thawed batch of embryos, a PR of 9.8% with an implantation rate of 3.1% was achieved. In the presence of a single sponsoring embryo, the PR nearly doubled (18.2%), with a significantly higher implantation rate of 7.0%. Only singleton pregnancies were achieved in the absence of sponsoring embryos compared with 21.7% multiple pregnancies in the single sponsoring embryo group. The presence of a sponsoring embryo in a batch of poor quality thawed embryos is an important factor that significantly increased pregnancy and implantation rates. The optimal strategy for planning batches of multicellular frozen embryos is to include at least one sponsoring embryo in each batch when possible. We speculate that the sponsoring embryo may favorably influence the chances of low-quality embryos to undergo successful implantation.

  14. Ovarian Drilling Efficacy, Estradiol Levels and Pregnancy Rate in Females With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moramezi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common cause of oligoovulation and anovulation in general population and in females with infertility. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of ovarian laparoscopic drilling procedure (LOD in females with PCOS, resistant to treatment with estradiol (E2 level less than 40 pg/mL versus more than 40 pg/mL. Materials and Methods Females with PCOS, resistant to drug for ovary stimulation, were grouped based on the Estradiol levels of ≤ 40 pg/mL (n = 13 and > 40 pg/mL (n = 15. To survey the ovulation, continuing spontaneous ovulation and cumulative pregnancy rate, ovarian laparoscopic drilling was carried out after the analysis of serum E2. Results There was significant difference in the average starting time of ovulation and continuing spontaneous ovulation of cases with PCOS with E2 levels > 40 pg/mL, compared with ones with E2 ≤ 40 pg/mL (P = 0.029, P = 0.05, respectively. Significant differences were also found in pregnancy rates of cases with PCOS with E2 levels > 40 pg/mL compared with ones with E2 ≤ 40 pg/mL (P = 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed that LOD in females with PCOS with a serum E2 > 40 pg/mL was sufficient and safe to trigger development of ovarian follicles followed by clinical pregnancy.

  15. [Can we decrease cesarean rate at a university hospital treating high risk pregnancies?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembrouck, C; Mottet, N; Bourtembourg, A; Ramanah, R; Riethmuller, D

    2016-06-01

    To determine which clinical practice changes were responsible for a decrease in cesarean rate from 19.2% in 2003 to 15.5% in 2012 at our university hospital treating high risk pregnancies, while verifying the absence of any increase in neonatal morbidity and death. A descriptive retrospective study was undertaken at our labour ward including all patients delivering in 2003 and in 2012. Maternal, obstetrical and neonatal characteristics of the two populations were compared. Cesarean rates were analysed following : (1) Robson classification, (2) some maternal and obstetrical characteristics, and (3) indications for cesarean. Mean age, BMI and rate of scarred uterus significantly increased in 2012. The two populations remained comparable in terms of other criteria studied. The main cause responsible for decrease in cesarean rate was breech presentations (pdecreased our elective cesarean rate by more than 3% without increasing cesarean sections during labour, showing a rise in successful vaginal delivery trials. The impact of in utero transfers on the global rate of cesarean is highly significant since the latter has been divided by half in 10 years in this population considered to be of high risk for cesareans. These significant decreases reflect our experience in allowing vaginal deliveries in breech presentations, and also a better selection of patients for labour induction. Furthermore, it should be noted that increasing vaginal delivery trials in various obstetrical situations participated in this decrease. We clearly found that some indications for elective cesarean can be avoided, such as multiple pregnancies and scarred uterus, thus showing the importance of restricting the first indication for cesarean. Finally, the decrease in cesarean rate had no negative effect on neonatal outcome. Decreasing cesarean rate is possible in a university hospital treating high risk pregnancies. It requires daily obstetrical case by case critical analysis, allowing wide

  16. Maternal glomerular filtration rate in pregnancy and fetal size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Halvdan Morken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship of maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR in pregnancy to fetal size needs to be better characterized as it impacts an ongoing debate about confounding effect of maternal GFR in investigations of important environmental contaminants. We aimed to characterize the size of the association between maternal GFR and infant birth weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sub-cohort of 953 selected women (470 women with and 483 women without preeclampsia in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa, recruited during 2003-2007 were analyzed. GFR in the second trimester was estimated based on plasma creatinine. Birth weight was ascertained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the association between maternal GFR in second trimester (estimated by the Cockroft-Gault [GFR-CG] and the modification of diet in renal disease [GFR-MDRD] formulas and infant birth weight. Partial correlation coefficients were also calculated. RESULTS: Maternal GFR-CG (β: 0.73 g/ml/min, p = 0.04 and GFR-MDRD (β: 0.83 g/ml/min, p = 0.04 were associated with infant birth weight in models adjusted for maternal weight in kilograms, preeclampsia, and gestational age at delivery (days. Partial correlation coefficients for the association between infant birth weight and GFR were 0.07 for both formulas. Although the birth weight-GFR association was stronger among the women with preeclampsia, the difference from women without preeclampsia was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: These data support an association between GFR during pregnancy and infant birth weight, and indicate that GFR may confound selected epidemiologic associations.

  17. Abnormal vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria is significantly higher in pregnancy conceived through infertility treatment compared to natural pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Y; Sung, Ji-Hee; Chang, Kylie Hae-Jin; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    To compare abnormal vaginal colonization between natural pregnancy and pregnancy by infertility treatment in high-risk parturient women and to examine the association between abnormal vaginal colonization and early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). The clinical characteristics, vaginal culture result, and delivery outcome of patients who admitted to our high-risk unit between 2005 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and compared. We investigated the prevalence of EONS according to maternal vaginal colonization and examined the concordance between maternal vaginal bacteria and etiologic microorganism causing EONS. Among 1096 pregnancies, the rate of vaginal colonization by gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli was significantly higher in pregnancies by infertility treatment after adjustment of confounding variables (E. coli, OR [95% CI]: 2.47 [1.33-4.57], p = 0.004). The rate of EONS was significantly higher in neonates with maternal abnormal vaginal bacteria colonization (OR [95% CI]: 3.38 [1.44-7.93], p = 0.005) after adjusting for confounding variables. Notably, among microorganisms isolated from maternal vagina, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus were consistent with the results from neonatal blood culture in EONS. Our data implicate a possible association between gram-negative bacteria colonization and infertility treatment and suggest that maternal vaginal colonization may be associated with EONS of neonates in high-risk pregnancy.

  18. Large nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa negatively affect pregnancy rate in IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Shahin; Talebi, Ali Reza; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Esfandiari, Navid

    2015-07-01

    Recently, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) criteria as a new real time tool for evaluation of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles has been considered. The aim was to investigate the predictive value of MSOME in in vitro fertilization (IVF) in comparison to ICSI cycles and evaluation of the association between MSOME parameters and traditional sperm parameters in both groups. This is a cross sectional prospective analysis of MSOME parameters in IVF (n=31) and ICSI cycles (n=35). MSOME parameters were also evaluated as the presence of vacuole (none, small, medium, large or mix); head size (normal, small or large); cytoplasmic droplet; head shape and acrosome normality. In sub-analysis, MSOME parameters were compared between two groups with successful or failed clinical pregnancy in each group. In IVF group, the rate of large nuclear vacuole showed significant increase in failed as compared to successful pregnancies (13.81±9.7vs7.38±4.4, respectively, p=0.045) while MSOME parameters were the same between successful and failed pregnancies in ICSI group. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between LNV and sperm shape normalcy. In ICSI group, a negative correlation was established between cytoplasmic droplet and sperm shape normalcy. In addition, there was a positive correlation between sperm shape normalcy and non-vacuolated spermatozoa. The high rate of large nuclear vacuoles in sperm used in IVF cycles with failed pregnancies confirms that MSOME, is a helpful tool for fine sperm morphology assessment, and its application may enhance the assisted reproduction technology success rates.

  19. Large nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa negatively affect pregnancy rate in IVF cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Ghazali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME criteria as a new real time tool for evaluation of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles has been considered. Objective: The aim was to investigate the predictive value of MSOME in in vitro fertilization (IVF in comparison to ICSI cycles and evaluation of the association between MSOME parameters and traditional sperm parameters in both groups. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional prospective analysis of MSOME parameters in IVF (n=31 and ICSI cycles (n=35. MSOME parameters were also evaluated as the presence of vacuole (none, small, medium, large or mix; head size (normal, small or large; cytoplasmic droplet; head shape and acrosome normality. In sub-analysis, MSOME parameters were compared between two groups with successful or failed clinical pregnancy in each group. Results: In IVF group, the rate of large nuclear vacuole showed significant increase in failed as compared to successful pregnancies (13.81±9.7vs7.38±4.4, respectively, p=0.045 while MSOME parameters were the same between successful and failed pregnancies in ICSI group. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between LNV and sperm shape normalcy. In ICSI group, a negative correlation was established between cytoplasmic droplet and sperm shape normalcy. In addition, there was a positive correlation between sperm shape normalcy and non-vacuolated spermatozoa. Conclusion: The high rate of large nuclear vacuoles in sperm used in IVF cycles with failed pregnancies confirms that MSOME, is a helpful tool for fine sperm morphology assessment, and its application may enhance the assisted reproduction technology success rates.

  20. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  1. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  2. Pregnancy rates after artificial insemination with cooled stallion spermatozoa either with or without single layer centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Richter, J; Martinsson, G; Stuhtmann, G; Hoogewijs, M; Roels, K; Dalin, A-M

    2014-11-01

    A successful outcome after artificial insemination with cooled semen is dependent on many factors, the sperm quality of the ejaculate being one. Previous studies have shown that spermatozoa with good motility, normal morphology, and good chromatin integrity can be selected by means of colloid centrifugation, particularly single layer centrifugation (SLC) using species-specific colloids. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an insemination trial with spermatozoa from "normal" ejaculates, i.e., from stallions with no known fertility problem, to determine whether the improvements in sperm quality seen in SLC-selected sperm samples compared with uncentrifuged controls in laboratory tests are reflected in an increased pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In a multicentre study, SLC-selected sperm samples and uncentrifuged controls from eight stallions were inseminated into approximately 10 mares per treatment per stallion. Ultrasound examination was carried out approximately 16 days after insemination to detect an embryonic vesicle. The pregnancy rates per cycle were 45% for controls and 69% for SLC-selected sperm samples, which is statistically significant (P < 0.0018). Thus, the improvement in sperm quality reported previously for SLC-selected sperm samples is associated with an increase in pregnancy rate, even for ejaculates from stallions with no known fertility problem.

  3. Association between Number of Formed Embryos, Embryo Morphology and Clinical Pregnancy Rate after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Caroline Mantovani da; Giorgi, Vanessa Silvestre Innocenti; Coelho Neto, Marcela Alencar; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Infertility has a high prevalence in the general population, affecting ∼ 5 to 15% of couples in reproductive age. The assisted reproduction techniques (ART) include in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos and are an important treatment indicated to these couples. It is well accepted that the implantation rate is positively influenced by the morphology of transferred embryos. However, we question if, apart from the assessment of embryo morphology, the number of produced embryos per cycle is also related to pregnancy rates in the first fresh transfer cycle. Purpose To evaluate the clinical pregnancy rate according to the number of formed embryos and the transfer of top quality embryos (TQEs). Methods In a retrospective cohort study, between January 2011 and December 2012, we evaluated women who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), aged < 40 years, and with at least 1 formed embryo fresh transferred in cleavage stage. These women were stratified into 3 groups according to the number of formed embryos (1 embryo, 2-3 and ≥ 4 embryos). Each group was divided into 2 subgroups according to the presence or not of at least 1 transferred TQE (1 with TQE; 1 without TQE; 2-3 with TQE, 2-3 without TQE; ≥ 4 with TQE; ≥ 4 without TQE). The clinical pregnancy rates were compared in each subgroup based on the presence or absence of at least one transferred TQE. Results During the study period, 636 women had at least one embryo to be transferred in the first fresh cycle (17.8% had 1 formed embryo [32.7% with TQE versus 67.3% without TQE], 42.1% of women had 2-3 formed embryos [55.6% with TQE versus 44.4% without TQE], and 40.1% of patients had ≥ 4 formed embryos [73.7% with TQE versus 26.3% without TQE]). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the subgroup with ≥ 4 formed embryos with at least 1 transfered TQE (45.2%) compared with the subgroup without TQE (28.4%). Conclusions Having at

  4. Risk of ectopic pregnancy following day-5 embryo transfer compared with day-3 transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura P; Oskowitz, Selwyn P; Dodge, Laura E; Hacker, Michele R

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy after IVF is increased approximately 2.5-5-fold compared with natural conceptions; however, the aetiology for this increased risk remains unclear. One proposed practice change to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy is blastocyst embryo transfer on day 5 rather than cleavage-stage embryo transfer on day 3. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare the risk of ectopic pregnancy following fresh day-5 embryo transfer with day-3 embryo transfer among women who underwent IVF and achieved pregnancy from 1998 to 2011. There were 13,654 eligible pregnancies; 277 were ectopic. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 2.1% among day-3 pregnancies and 1.6% among day-5 pregnancies. The adjusted risk ratio for ectopic pregnancy from day-5 compared with day-3 transfer was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.46-1.10). Although this analysis included 13,654 cycles, with a two-sided significance level of 0.05, it had only 21.9% power to detect a difference between the low incidence of ectopic pregnancy among both day-3 and day-5 transfers. In conclusion, this study was not able to demonstrate a difference in the risk of ectopic pregnancy among day-3 compared with day-5 transfers.

  5. What's behind the Good News: The Decline in Teen Pregnancy Rates during the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Christine

    Noting that rates of teen pregnancies and births have declined over the past decade, this analysis examined how much of the progress is due to fewer teens having sex and how much to lower rates of pregnancy among sexually active teens. The analysis drew on data from the federal government's National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a large,…

  6. HSMR : Comparing Death Rates Across UK Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Frans; Teeuwen, Ben; Ngo, Thuy

    2011-01-01

    The Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR) is a measurement tool that shows hospitals’ death rates. The HSMR compares deaths that occur in hospitals with death ratios that one would normally expect based on patients’ diseases. It is used as a benchmark for adjusted hospital death rates. These

  7. ECTOPIC PREGNANCY RATES WITH CLEAVAGE STAGE EMBRYO TRANSFER AT DAY 3 VERSUS BLASTOCYST STAGE TRANSFER AT DAY 5: A PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhleen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to compare the tubal pregnancy rates between day 3 and day 5 transfers. As theoretically blastocyst transfer is said to decrease the incidence of ectopic pregnancy following IVF-ET due to the decreased uterine contractility reported on day 5. METHODS: A prospective analysis of all clinical pregnancies conceived in our IVF program between May 2010 to April 2011 was performed. The ectopic pregnancy rates were compared for day 3 and day 5 transfers. RESULTS: There were 44 pregnancies resulting from day 3 transfers of which one was ectopic (2.27%. In day 5 transfers, there was also one ectopic pregnancies out of 66 clinical pregnancies (1.52%, difference between these rates was not statistically significant (P>0.05 CONCLUSION: This suggests that the ectopic pregnancy rate is not reduced following blastocyst transfer on day 5 compared to cleavage stage embryo on day 3. While there may be several benefits to extended culture in IVF, the decision to offer blastocyst transfer should be made independently from the issue of ectopic pregnancy risk.

  8. Association of State-Mandated Abstinence-only Sexuality Education with Rates of Adolescent HIV Infection and Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, L M; Booth, M M; Patterson, G; Althoff, M; Bush, C K; Dery, M A

    2017-01-01

    Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);. We calculated the relative proportion of Black students in public schools and the proportion of families below the federal poverty line then ranked them by state. We compared the states' ranks to the incidence of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy in those states to identify associations between variables. The majority of states (~44 percent ); have legally mandated AOSE policies (Level 3); and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates were highest in these Level 3 states. There were significant, positive correlations between HIV incidence rates of 13-19 year olds, HIV rates of 20-24 year olds, teen pregnancy rates, and AOSE level, with the proportion of the population that lives below the federal poverty level, and whether they attended schools that had a greater than 50 percent of an African American population. These data show a clear association between state sexuality education policies and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates not previously demonstrated. Our data further show that states that have higher proportions of at-risk populations, with higher adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates, are more likely to also have restrictive AOSE policies. These populations may be more likely to attend public schools where AOSE is taught, increasing their risk for HIV and teen pregnancy. The World Health Organization considers fact-based Comprehensive Sexuality Education a human right, and the authors believe it is past time to end harmful, discriminatory sexuality

  9. Photoperiod length and the estrus synchronization protocol used before AI affect the twin pregnancy rate in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Vázquez, C; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2012-10-01

    This study addresses potential management risk factors affecting the incidence of twin pregnancies in high-producing dairy cows. Special attention was paid to the estrus synchronization protocol used before the AI resulting in pregnancy. Possible factors affecting the twin pregnancy rate were analyzed through binary logistic regression procedures on 2015 pregnant cows from July 2010 to July 2011. Twin pregnancy was recorded in 361 of the 2015 pregnancy diagnoses made (17.9%). Twin pregnancy rates differed among herds (P twin pregnancy was reduced by factors of 0.65 or 0.71 when AI was performed during the warm season or an increasing photoperiod, respectively and increased by a factor of 1.11 for each unit increase in lactation number; by factors of 4.57 or 6.33 in cows that received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) plus 500 or 750 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) 28 days before the pregnancy AI, respectively; by a factor of 2.39 in cows with an ovarian cyst diagnosed in the 14 days prior to AI and treated with prostaglandins (PG); by factors of 1.94 or 3.91 in cows that received two PG doses during the 14 days prior to AI or cows that following failed PRID treatment had received PG started over the 28 days prior to AI, respectively; and by a factor of 2.58 in cows that had previously delivered twins compared to cows delivering singletons. Our results indicate that cow factors, such as lactation number and previous twining, as well as environmental factors, such as photoperiod and season and management related to synchronization protocols affect significantly the incidence of twin pregnancies.

  10. Effect of mastitis on luteal function and pregnancy rates in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Mohsen; Hendawy, Amin O; Zeitoun, Moustafa M

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mastitis on CL development and function and pregnancy rate in buffaloes. Sixty-six buffaloes (Bubalus bubalus) reared in a commercial farm at El-Beheira governorate, north of Egypt were used in this study. According to the visual observation of milk, physical examination of the udder and actual somatic cell count in milk, buffalo cows were divided into three groups: without mastitis (W), n = 23; subclinical mastitis (SC), n = 18; and clinical mastitis (C), n = 25. All buffalo cows were synchronized by double dose of PGF2α (11-day interval) and inseminated by frozen-thawed semen of fertile bull. Mean CL diameter was ultrasonically examined on Days 5, 9, 12, 16, 21, and 25 after artificial insemination (AI). Blood samples were taken on the days of ultrasonography for progesterone (P4) assay. Results indicated that pregnancy rates were lower (P mastitis occurred during Day -15 before to Day +30 after AI, compared with 59.22% in the uninfected cows. The diameter of CL was greater (P mastitis revealed suppression to both CL diameter and function leading to significant reduction in pregnancy outcome of buffalo cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pregnancy rates in cattle with cryopreserved sexed sperm: effects of sperm numbers per inseminate and site of sperm deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, G E; Schenk, J L

    2008-04-01

    In six field trials, doses between 1.0 and 6.0 x 10(6) total sexed, frozen-thawed sperm were inseminated into the uterine body or bilaterally into the uterine horns of heifers and nursing Angus cows 12 or 24h after observed estrus. Except for one comparison in one trial in which uterine body insemination was slightly superior (P0.1) difference between sites of semen deposition. Additionally, except for one small study with limited numbers, there was essentially no difference in pregnancy rates in the range between 1.5 and 6 x 10(6) sexed, frozen-thawed sperm per inseminate. Pregnancy rates with smaller doses of sexed sperm averaged about 75% of controls of 20 x 10(6) total frozen-thawed, unsexed sperm. While 1.0 x 10(6) sexed, frozen-thawed sperm per insemination dose resulted in decreased pregnancy rates compared to larger doses, the lesser fertility with sexed sperm could not be compensated by increasing sperm numbers in the range of 1.5-6 x 10(6) sperm per dose. Pregnancy rates with 2 x 10(6) sexed, frozen-thawed sperm per dose were not markedly less than control pregnancy rates with 20 x 10(6) frozen-thawed unsexed sperm/dose in well-managed herds.

  12. Pregnancy Rates Among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two RCTs of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. The present study examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (ages 13–17) with histories of criminal referrals (Mdn = 10) were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as part of two randomized controlled trials. Pregnancy...

  13. Failure Rate of Single Dose Methotrexate in Managment of Ectopic Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Feras Sendy; Eman AlShehri; Amani AlAjmi; Elham Bamanie; Surekha Appani; Taghreed Shams

    2015-01-01

    Background. One of the treatment modalities for ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. The purpose of this study is to identify the failure rate of methotrexate in treating patients with ectopic pregnancy as well as the risk factors leading to treatment failure. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 225 patients who received methotrexate as a primary management option for ectopic pregnancy. Failure of single dose of methotrexate was defined as drop of BHCG level less than or equal to 14% in th...

  14. ROMANIAN COUNTY RATING MEASUREMENT. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan BĂTRÂNCEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the second wave of financial crisis, namely the sovereign debt crisis, the country’s most affected by this phenomenon are Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and last year Cyprus joined. Future more the crisis in Greece in 2015 requires local authorities to evaluate constantly their rating in order to prevent bankruptcy. In this paper we conducted a comparative analysis using Altman method and the Stickney method and correlate the scores with ratings agencies Standard & Poor's and Moody's.

  15. Comparing Infant Nutrition in Wanted and Unwanted Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khosravi Anbaran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between unwanted pregnancy based on couples’ opinions and infant nutrition type in women referred to the health centers in Mashhad city and their husbands.Materials and MethodsIn this analytical-descriptive study, unwanted or wanted progenies were studied from the viewpoints of 366 women referred to the health centers in Mashhad city, Iran and their husbands, and also their relationships with infant nutrition type at the age of 4 months. The data were collected through questionnaires. The validity and reliability of the method and instruments were confirmed by content validity and test-retest. Moreover, data analysis was done using SPSS-16.0 software.ResultsThe average age of women in wanted pregnancy was 26.43±4.57 years and 27.57±5.22 years in unwanted women. The results showed a statistically significant relationship between unwanted pregnancy from the viewpoints of couples and infant's nutritional status (P=0.03. The prevalence of unwanted pregnancy in women with lower education (middle and high school was higher than those with higher education.ConclusionOur results showed a significant association between baby’s nutrition and unwanted pregnancy. Furthermore, an increased use of non-exclusive breastfeeding in unwanted pregnancy is necessary. Hence, proper use of contraceptive methods, preventing the adverse consequences of unwanted pregnancy such as non-exclusive breastfeeding, useful educational strategies, counseling and health services are necessary to be taken into account.

  16. Nonweightbearing exercise during pregnancy on land and during immersion: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, V L; McMurray, R; Goodwin, W E; Cefalo, R C

    1990-07-01

    Seven women at 25 weeks' gestation exercised on land and in the water at 70% maximum oxygen capacity (VO2max) on a bicycle ergometer. Women had significantly lower heart rates and lower systolic blood pressures during immersion exercise. Women had a mean diuresis of 207 ml (6.5 ml/min) during water exercise compared with 98 ml. (2.4 ml/min) during land exercise. Fetal heart rates showed a tendency toward being higher after land exercise compared with water exercise. Six of seven fetuses displayed tachycardia after land exercise compared to one of seven after water exercise. Exercise on land and during immersion at 70% VO2max was well tolerated. However, exercise during immersion offers several physiologic advantages during pregnancy.

  17. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  18. Pregnancy rates after ewes were treated with estradiol-17beta and oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical dilation may improve transcervical sheep embryo-transfer procedures, if the cervical dilation method does not reduce pregnancy rates. This experiment was conducted to determine whether estradiol-17beta-oxytocin treatment, which dilates the cervix in luteal-phase ewes, affects pregnancy rat...

  19. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation.......003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts...

  20. Increasing The Number of Embryos Transferred from Two to Three, Does not Increase Pregnancy Rates in Good Prognosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the pregnancy outcomes after two embryos versus three embryos transfers (ETs in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on three hundred eighty seven women with primary infertility and with at least one fresh embryo in good quality in order to transfer at each IVF/ICSI cycle, from September 2006 to June 2010. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the number of ET as follows: ET2 and ET3 groups, indicating two and three embryos were respectively transferred. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between ET2 and ET3 groups. Chi square and student t tests were used for data analysis. Results: Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar between two groups. The rates of multiple pregnancies were 27 and 45.2% in ET2 and ET3 groups, respectively. The rate of multiple pregnancies in young women was significantly increased when triple instead of double embryos were transferred. Logistic regression analysis indicated two significant prognostic variables for live birth that included number and quality of transferred embryos; it means that the chance of live birth following ICSI treatment increased 3.2-fold when the embryo with top quality (grade A was transferred, but the number of ET had an inverse relationship with live birth rate; it means that probability of live birth in women with transfer of two embryos was three times greater than those who had three ET. Conclusion: Due to the difficulty of implementation of the elective single-ET technique in some infertility centers in the world, we suggest transfer of double instead of triple embryos when at least one good quality embryo is available for transfer in women aged 39 years or younger. However, to reduce the rate of multiple pregnancies, it is recommended to consider the elective single ET strategy.

  1. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    .003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts...

  2. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    .003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts...

  3. Smoking and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is considered to be one of the most significant causes of complications in pregnancy and is associated with an unfavourable outcome in childbirth compared with pregnancy in non-smokers. Specifically, smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of placenta praevia, abruptio placentae, ectopic gestation and premature rupture of the membranes (PRM). In addition, research has established that smoking during pregnancy increases the rates of low birt...

  4. The Effects of Parental Involvement Laws and the AIDS Epidemic on the Pregnancy and Abortion Rates of Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman-Palm, Nancy; Tremblay, Carol Horton

    1998-01-01

    Explores the effects of legislation requiring parental consent for a minor's abortion and the risk of acquiring AIDS on adolescent pregnancy and abortion rates. Finds lower pregnancy and abortion rates for women 15-17 in states with parental involvement legislation, while abortion doubles and pregnancy rates decline with the incidence of AIDS.…

  5. A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoran Olorunfemi E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Teenagers younger than 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth than women in their twenties and mortality rates for their infants are higher as well. This study was therefore designed to determine the recent prevalence and identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in a rural town in Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. A total sample of all pregnant women attending the primary health care in Sagamu local government area, Ogun State within a 2 months period were recruited into the study. Results A total of 225 pregnant women were recruited into the study. The prevalence of teenage pregnancy was 22.9%. Teenagers [48.2%] reported more unwanted pregnancy when compared with the older age group [13.6%] [OR = 5.91, C.I = 2.83-12.43]. About half 33 [41.1%] of the teenage pregnant women and 28.6% of the older pregnant women did not know how to correctly use condom to prevent pregnancy [OR = 0.57, C.I = 0.29-1.13]. Predictors of teenage pregnancy were low social class (OR = 2.25, C.I = 1.31-3.85], Religion (OR = 0.44, C.I = 0.21-0.91], being a student (OR = 3.27, C.I = 1.02-10.46 and having a white collar job (OR = 0.09, C.I = 0.01-0.81. Conclusion The study concludes that employment in an established organization (white collar job is highly protective against teenage pregnancy while students are becoming increasingly prone to early pregnancy. Government should structure employment in low income countries in such a way as to give a quota to adolescents who are unable to continue their education.

  6. A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoran, Olorunfemi E

    2012-07-30

    Teenagers younger than 15 are five times more likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth than women in their twenties and mortality rates for their infants are higher as well. This study was therefore designed to determine the recent prevalence and identify factors associated with teenage pregnancy in a rural town in Nigeria. This study is an analytical comparative cross-sectional study. A total sample of all pregnant women attending the primary health care in Sagamu local government area, Ogun State within a 2 months period were recruited into the study. A total of 225 pregnant women were recruited into the study. The prevalence of teenage pregnancy was 22.9%. Teenagers [48.2%] reported more unwanted pregnancy when compared with the older age group [13.6%] [OR = 5.91, C.I = 2.83-12.43]. About half 33 [41.1%] of the teenage pregnant women and 28.6% of the older pregnant women did not know how to correctly use condom to prevent pregnancy [OR = 0.57, C.I = 0.29-1.13]. Predictors of teenage pregnancy were low social class (OR = 2.25, C.I = 1.31-3.85], Religion (OR = 0.44, C.I = 0.21-0.91], being a student (OR = 3.27, C.I = 1.02-10.46) and having a white collar job (OR = 0.09, C.I = 0.01-0.81). The study concludes that employment in an established organization (white collar job) is highly protective against teenage pregnancy while students are becoming increasingly prone to early pregnancy. Government should structure employment in low income countries in such a way as to give a quota to adolescents who are unable to continue their education.

  7. Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Cho

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, large for gestational age (LGA infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS. The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese, based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes

  8. Analysis of heart rate variability in pre-eclamptic pregnancy: a study employing frequency domain analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Ar Navi Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a disorder characterized by development of hypertension to the extent of 140/90 mmHg or more with proteinuria after 20th weeks of pregnancy in a previously normotensive and non proteinuric woman. Physiologically blood pressure is controlled by Autonomic Nervous System (ANS so study of ANS during pregnancy plays a significant role to extract some vital information which may be helpful to deal with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH or preeclampsia. The autonomic nervous system and changes in ANS during different pathophysiological conditions could be evaluated with heart rate variability analysis test. The modification in the autonomic control occurs during pregnancy and its evaluation through Heart Rate Variability (HRV analysis is very informative technique now a day but studied little thus the main objective of our project is to compare the maternal HRV changes between normal pregnancy and pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Methods: 48 subjects (33 of normotensive pregnant women i.e., control group and 15 pre-eclamptic pregnant women i.e, study group of more than 20 weeks pregnancy were recruited from the outpatients, antenatal unit and wards of obstetrics and gynaecology department of JNMC, AMU, Aligarh. Physical examination was done and anthropometric measurement like height and weight were taken. BMI was calculated as per Quetlet's index. Urine test was conducted to every pregnant woman for urine albumin and we designated the pregnant women as pre-eclamptic women on the basis of definition. The subject was advised to take complete bed rest in supine position for 15 minutes in a cool and calm environment. The recording of short term HRV was done according to recommendation of the task force on HRV. The data was transferred from Medicaid machine to window based computer with HRV analysis software. Frequency domain analysis of HRV was taken for further statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference of

  9. Pregnancy outcomes in women with bariatric surgery as compared with morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenhaim, Haim A; Alrowaily, Nouf; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Spence, Andrea R; Klam, Stephanie L

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancies among morbidly obese women are associated with serious adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Our study objective is to evaluate the effect of bariatric surgery on obstetrical outcomes. We carried out a retrospective cohort study using the healthcare cost and utilization project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2011 comparing outcome of births among women who had undergone bariatric surgery with births among women with morbid obesity. Logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted effect of bariatric surgery on maternal and newborn outcomes. There were 8 475 831 births during the study period (221 580 (2.6%) in morbidly obese women and 9587 (0.1%) in women with bariatric surgery). Women with bariatric surgery were more likely to be Caucasian and ≥35 years old as compared with morbidly obese women. As compared with women with morbid obesity, women with bariatric surgery had lower rates of hypertensive disorders, premature rupture of membrane, chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery, instrumental delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, and postpartum infection. Induction of labor, postpartum blood transfusions, venous thromboembolisms, and intrauterine fetal growth restriction were more common in the bariatric surgery group. There were no differences observed in preterm births, fetal deaths, or reported congenital anomalies. In general, women who undergo bariatric surgery have improved pregnancy outcomes as compared with morbidly obese women. However, the bariatric surgery group was more likely to have venous thromboembolisms, to require a blood transfusion, to have their labor induced and to experience fetal growth restriction.

  10. Green tea polyphenols added to IVM and IVC media affect transcript abundance, apoptosis, and pregnancy rates in bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengguang; Fu, Chunquan; Yu, Songdong

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) during IVM and IVC on apoptosis and relative transcript abundance (RA) of three genes controlling antioxidant enzymes, as well as subsequent pregnancy rates. In experiment 1, oocytes were matured in the presence of 0, 10, 15, or 25 μM GTP for 24 hours. The GTP dose applied to IVM medium was followed by the same dose supplemented to IVC medium, so oocytes and embryos of a given group were cultured in similar conditions. This resulted in a total of four groups (three experimental groups and the control). After IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in medium containing 0 to 25 μM GTP for 8 days. The addition of 15 μM GTP during IVM and IVC increased RA of SOD1, CAT, and GPX genes in blastocysts compared with the control (P decreased the apoptotic index (AI) in blastocysts (7.4% and 6.2% respectively) compared with the control (9.3%; P pregnancy rate was evaluated after embryo transfer in experiment 3. Cows receiving embryos treated with 15 μM GTP had higher pregnancy rates on Day 30 (34.8% vs. 28.6%) and Day 60 (34.8% vs. 23.9%) than those receiving control embryos (P pregnancy rates; this improvement seemed to be associated with the increase of RA of antioxidant enzyme genes and the decrease in AI in bovine blastocysts.

  11. Social media messaging in pregnancy: comparing content of Text4baby to content of free smart phone applications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowitz, Adam K; O'Donnell, Betsy E; Nakagawa, Sanae; Vargas, Juan E; Zlatnik, Marya G

    2016-03-01

    Text4baby is the only free text-message program for pregnancy available. Our objective was to determine whether content differed between Text4baby and popular pregnancy smart phone applications (apps). Researchers enrolled in Text4baby in 2012 and downloaded the four most-popular free pregnancy smart phone apps in July 2013; content was re-extracted in February 2014. Messages were assigned thematic codes. Two researchers coded messages independently before reviewing all the codes jointly to ensure consistency. Logistic regression modeling determined statistical differences between Text4baby and smart phone apps. About 1399 messages were delivered. Of these, 333 messages had content related to more than one theme and were coded as such, resulting in 1820 codes analyzed. Compared to smart phone apps, Text4baby was significantly more likely to have content regarding Postpartum Planning, Seeking Care, Recruitment and Prevention and significantly less likely to mention Normal Pregnancy Symptoms. No messaging program included content regarding postpartum contraception. To improve content without increasing text message number, Text4baby could replace messages on recruitment with messages regarding normal pregnancy symptoms, fetal development and postpartum contraception.

  12. Prevalence rate of signs and symptoms in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available "Every pregnancy faces risks" with occurrence of various signs and symptoms including danger signs during antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum phases which require regular antenatal services. The current retrospective study was aimed to assess the prevalence of signs/symptoms of pregnancy. It was being conducted in Obstetrics Department, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar (India during April to June, 2012. Socioeconomic variables, parity, antenatal care and event outcomes were explored. Majority of mothers belonged to 21-30 years age group (75.00% and middle socioeconomic status (67.00%. 42% mothers conceived within year of marriage and were referred from periphery (57.00%. 44% suffered from Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy whereas, anorexia reported among 12% women. 76% mothers took regular iron and calcium while 5% reported intolerance to iron tablets. 61% and 22% mothers experienced ankle edema in second and third trimester, respectively. Backache, leg cramps, abdominal pain and increased urinary frequency was complained in 47%, 14%, 33% and 50% mothers, respectively. Similarly, 32% experienced constipation and discharge per vaginum was seen among 12% mothers. While, 03%, 05%, 13% and 16% of mothers had leakage per vaginum, bleeding per vaginum, urinary tract infection and headaches, respectively. Various unusual signs/symptoms appear during pregnancy due to physiological hormonal changes. If ignored, they may lead to complications which may prove dangerous for mother and baby. Pregnant women should be able to recognize these symptoms and approach for emergency care for the same. Education programs should be promoted to enhance knowledge of danger signs among pregnant females including family members.

  13. Pregnancy Rates Among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two RCTs of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. The present study examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (ages 13–17) with histories of criminal referrals (Mdn = 10) were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as part of two randomized controlled trials. Pregnancy histories were assessed from baseline through 24 months. Fewer postbaseline pregnancies were reported for MTFC girls (26.9%) than for GC girls (46.9%), an effect that remained significant after controlling for baseline criminal referrals, pregnancy history, and sexual activity. MTFC has previously been shown to decrease arrest and lock-up rates. The present findings support the long-term preventive effects of MTFC on adolescent girls’ pregnancy rates. Findings are consistent with the notion that programs that target delinquency by impacting general risk behavior pathways and contexts may more successfully prevent teen pregnancy than those that directly target sexual behaviors. PMID:19485598

  14. Long-term ongoing pregnancy rate and mode of conception after a positive and negative post-coital test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Marloes; Brandes, Monique; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Bots, Rob S G M; Kremer, Jan A M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Hamilton, Carl J C M

    2014-09-01

    Many fertility clinics have decided to abolish the post-coital test. Yet, it is a significant factor in prognostic models that predict the spontaneous pregnancy rate within one year. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the long-term outcome of infertile couples with a positive or a negative post-coital test during their fertility work-up and (2) the contribution of the different modes of conception. Retrospective cohort study. Three fertility clinics in the Netherlands, of which two are secondary care training hospitals and is a one tertiary care academic training hospital. 2476 newly referred infertile couples, where a post-coital test was performed in 1624 couples. After basic fertility work-up, couples were treated according to the national treatment protocols. Spontaneous and overall ongoing pregnancy rate. The spontaneous and overall ongoing pregnancy rates after three years were 37.7 and 77.5% after a positive post-coital test compared with 26.9 and 68.8% after a negative test (p post-coital test is still associated with a higher spontaneous and a higher overall ongoing pregnancy rate, even in couples with severe male factor infertility. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Does sequential embryo transfer improve pregnancy rate in patients with repeated implantation failure? A randomized control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael A. Ismail Madkour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repeated failure of in vitro fertilization treatment is frustrating to the patients and their clinicians. Various treatment plans and a change of protocol have been suggested for “low responders”; however, patients who fail treatment repeatedly inspite of good quality embryos pose a special therapeutic challenge. Additional challenge would be imposed on that particular group when the local IVF regulating low does not permit surplus embryo freezing. Objective: To examine whether sequential transfer of embryos on day 3 and on day 5 after ovum pick-up improves IVF/ET success rates in patients with repeated consecutive IVF failures (⩾ 3 trials compared to day 3 alone, with the background that local regulation prohibits embryo freezing. Study design: Randomized controlled study. Women scheduled for IVF/ET with repeated consecutive IVF failures (⩾ 3 trials were randomized to either sequential transfer of embryos on day 3 and on day 5 after ovum pick-up (Group I = 74 or conventional day 3 transfer (Group II = 73 as a control. The primary outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate. The secondary outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rate and early pregnancy loss. Results: Baseline and cycle characteristics were comparable in both groups. Clinical pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer was significantly higher in sequential ET group (37. 8% compared to that in day 3 group (21.9% (P value <0.05. Also, implantation rate (per embryos transferred was significantly higher in sequential ET group (17.1% compared to that in control group (10.5% (P value <0.01. Similarly, ongoing pregnancy (per embryo transfer was significantly higher in sequential ET group (33. 8% compared to that in day 3 group (19.2% (P value <0.05. Conclusions: Patients with repeated implantation failures, treatment with the sequential embryo transfer approach had significantly improved pregnancy outcomes compared to regular day 3 transfers

  16. Sperm retrieval rate and pregnancy rate in infertile couples undergoing in-vitro fertilisation and testicular sperm extraction for non-obstructive azoospermia in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J Ky; Chai, J; Lee, V Cy; Li, R Hw; Lau, E; Ho, K L; Tam, P C; Yeung, W Sb; Ho, P C; Ng, E Hy

    2016-12-01

    There are currently no local data on the sperm retrieval and pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilisation and testicular sperm extraction cycles, especially with regard to the presence of genetic abnormalities. This study aimed to determine the sperm retrieval and pregnancy rates in infertile couples who underwent in-vitro fertilisation and testicular sperm extraction for non-obstructive azoospermia. This retrospective case series was conducted at a tertiary assisted reproduction unit in Hong Kong. Men with non-obstructive azoospermia who underwent in-vitro fertilisation and testicular sperm extraction between January 2001 and December 2013 were included. The main outcome measures were sperm retrieval and pregnancy rates. During the study period, 89 men with non-obstructive azoospermia underwent in-vitro fertilisation and testicular sperm extraction. Sperm was successfully retrieved in 40 (44.9%) men. There was no statistically significant difference in the sperm retrieval rate of those with karyotypic abnormalities (2/5, 40.0% vs 28/61, 45.9%; P=1.000) and AZFc microdeletion (3/6, 50.0% vs 28/61, 45.9%; P=1.000) compared with those without. Sperms were successfully retrieved in patients who had mosaic Klinefelter syndrome (2/3, 66.7%) but not in the patient with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome. No sperms were found in men with AZFa or AZFb microdeletions. Pregnancy test was positive in 15 (16.9%) patients and the clinical pregnancy rate was 13.5% (12/89) per cycle. The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer was 34.3% (12/35). The sperm retrieval rate and clinical pregnancy rate per initiated cycle in men undergoing in-vitro fertilisation and testicular sperm extraction in our unit were 44.9% and 13.5%, respectively. No sperms could be retrieved in the presence of AZFa and AZFb microdeletions, but karyotype and AZFc microdeletion abnormalities otherwise did not predict the success of sperm retrieval in couples undergoing in-vitro fertilisation and testicular sperm

  17. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared with inactive obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinius, Rachel A; Cahill, Alison G; Strand, Eric A; Cade, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive (OBI; means ± SD; age, 25.0 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); body fat percentage in late gestation, 37.7% ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active (OBA; age, 28.9 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy BMI, 34.0 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); body fat in late gestation, 36.6% ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-min bout of low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared with OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L vs. 6.3 ± 2.5 mg/L, p = 0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r = 0.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation.

  18. Pregnancy rates and predictors in women with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Khalili Friedman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence and predictors of first pregnancy among women with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Prospective cohort study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1996 and 2003. This study comprised 225 women with HIV/AIDS followed up until their first pregnancy or first censored event (hysterectomy, tubal ligation, menopause, 50 years of age, loss to follow-up, death or the end of December 2003. Pregnancy and abortion rates were estimated, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify baseline characteristics associated with pregnancy risk. RESULTS: The women were followed up for 565 person/years with a median follow-up of 3 years per women. The mean age was 32 years (SD: 7, and 54.7% were white. There were 60 pregnancies in 39 women, and 18 were terminated (induced abortions, accounting for a rate of 6.9% and 2.1% women/year, respectively. Repeated pregnancies occurred in 33.3% of the women (13/39. Higher pregnancy risk was seen among younger women (HR=3.42; 95%CI: 1.69;6.95 and those living with their partners (HR=1.89; 95%CI: 1.00;3.57. Lower pregnancy risk was associated with higher education level (HR=0.43; 95%CI: 0.19;0.99 and use of antiretroviral therapy (HR=061; 95%CI: 0.31;1.17. CONCLUSIONS: Lower pregnancy rates were found in our cohort than in the general population. Sociodemographic characteristics should be taken into consideration in the management of reproductive health in HIV-positive childbearing age women. Reproductive and family planning counseling must be incorporated into HIV/AIDS programs for women to help preventing HIV transmission to their partners and offspring.

  19. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  20. Beat-to-beat heart rate and blood pressure variability and hypertensive disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Pamela; McKinley, Paula; Monk, Catherine; Muntner, Paul; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Goetzl, Laura; Hatch, Maureen; Sloan, Richard P

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between heart rate and/or blood pressure variability, measured at 28 weeks' gestation, and the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia. Secondary analysis of data from a prospectively enrolled cohort of 385 active military women in whom spectral analysis of continuous heart rate and variability was measured at 28 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome was the predictive value of spectral analysis of heart rate and blood pressure for hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. High-frequency heart rate variability was reduced and low-frequency variability of systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased in women who would develop pregnancy-induced hypertension but not preeclampsia. Low-frequency variability of diastolic blood pressure remained a significant predictor of pregnancy-induced hypertension but not preeclampsia after adjustment for age, weight, and blood pressure in a multivariate model. Early identification of pregnancy-induced hypertension can facilitate treatment to avoid maternal morbidity. Understanding the physiological underpinnings of the two very different diseases may lead to improved treatment and prevention. If proven effective in a broader population, the ability to differentiate pregnancy-induced hypertension from preeclampsia may reduce unnecessary iatrogenic interventions or inappropriate preterm delivery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Change of Diurnal Heart Rate Patterns During Pregnancy and Lactation in Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggström J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and lactation involve great demands on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the heart rate and diurnal heart rate pattern change when dogs become pregnant or lactate. Five clinically healthy female beagle dogs were mated, and delivered three to seven healthy puppies. The heart rate was investigated with 24-h ECG (Holter once during anoestrus, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of pregnancy, and at week 4 postpartum (lactation. However, at 9 weeks, the ECG could not be recorded for the fully 24 h in 4 of 5 dogs, because labour started and the dogs then appeared disturbed by the recordings. The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison. The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation. During late pregnancy the difference in heart rates between daytime and nighttime became smaller, but the heart rate was significantly higher in daytime in all periods. In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

  2. Factors affecting conception rate after artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebel, Ricardo C; Santos, José E P; Reynolds, James P; Cerri, Ronaldo L A; Juchem, Sérgio O; Overton, Michael

    2004-09-01

    Objectives were to determine factors associated with conception rate (CR) and pregnancy loss (PL) in high producing lactating Holstein cows. In Study 1, CR was evaluated in 7633 artificial inseminations (AI) of 3161 dairy cows in two dairy farms. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by palpation per rectum 39+/-3 days after AI. Environmental temperature was recorded at different intervals prior to and after AI. In Study 2, 1465 pregnancies from 1393 cows diagnosed at 31+/-3 days after AI by ultrasonography on three dairy farms were re-examined 14 days later to determine PL. Temperature > or =29 degrees C was considered to be heat stress (HS). Exposure to HS was defined as following: NH, no heat stress; HS1, exposure to at least 1 day of maximum temperature > or =29 degrees C and average daily maximum temperature (ADMT) or =29 degrees C. In Study 1, exposure of cows to HS1 and HS2 from 50 to 20 prior to AI was associated with reduced CR compared to cows not exposed to HS (28.8, 23.0, and 31.3%, respectively). Post-AI HS was not associated with CR. Cows inseminated following estrus detection or timed AI had similar CR. As the number of AI increased, CR decreased. Multiparous cows had lower CR than primiparous cows, and occurrence of milk fever and retained placenta was associated with decreased CR. In Study 2, PL was not associated with exposure to HS either prior to or after AI. Cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis experienced increased PL, but parity, number of AI, AI protocol, milk production, and days postpartum at AI were not associated with PL. In conclusion, CR was affected by HS prior to AI, parity, number of AI, and postparturient diseases, whereas PL was affected by clinical mastitis.

  3. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2003-01-01

    .003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts......BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the effect of a multimodal smoking cessation intervention regimen on a number of pregnant smokers. METHODS: A prospective intervention study was designed where participants were allocated to intervention or control based on their birth date. The study included 647...... pregnant smokers. The intervention group (n = 327) received initial individual smoking cessation counseling supplemented by an invitation to join, individually or in a group, a smoking cessation program with nicotine replacement therapy as a voluntary option. Intervention was designed as an integral part...

  4. Prediction of pregnancy success rate through in vitro fertilization based on maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegiharto Soebijanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the correlation between the success of pregnancy through in vitro fertilization and maternal age. Methods Assessment of pregnancy was performed in eight in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia: Harapan Kita Pediatric and Obstetric Hospital from 1997 to 2001, and seven in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia. Follicular induction was performed through the long protocol, short protocol and natural cycle. Insemination was performed through ICSI (intra cytoplasmic sperm injection on petri dish. Spermatozoa were obtained through masturbation, testicular biopsy and epididimical biopsy. A successful pregnancy was indicated chemically, with the presence of fetal heart beat and the birth of a baby (take home baby. Results There was a 34% pregnancy rate for the age group below 30 years, 33.75% for those between 31 and 35 years olds, and 26% for the age group 36 to 40 years old, and 8% for the age group above 40 years. Conclusion The higher the maternal age, the lower pregnancy rate. In other words, the higher the maternal age, the higher the rate of miscarriage. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 244-8Keywords: pregnancy, in vitro fertilization

  5. Blastocyst transfer ameliorates live birth rate compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer in fresh in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: reviews and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Sun, Hai-Xiang

    2014-05-01

    Blastocyst transfer has been recommended to raise the implantation rate without affecting the pregnancy rate. The objective of this meta-analysis is to systematically evaluate whether the live birth rate and other pregnancy outcomes can be improved by blastocyst transfer compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer. EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers published between March 2004 and March 2013. An extensive range of the electronic databases yielded initially 317 studies from which seven trials met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Our outcome measures were the live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, first trimester miscarriage rate and ectopic pregnancy rate. Fixed effects models were chosen to calculate the odds ratio (OR). Seven trials (n=1446 cases) were finally analyzed. Compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer, the blastocyst transfer was statistically significantly associated with an increase in clinical pregnancy rate [OR 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.78], implantation rate (OR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.74) and ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 2.15; 95% CI, 1.57-2.94), and also a reduction in the probability of first trimester miscarriage rate (OR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.87). The improvement in the live birth rate was also observed (OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.32-2.37). Moreover, there was no evidence of difference in multiple pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy rates. The available evidences suggest that live birth and other pregnancy outcomes after fresh in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) are significantly improved following blastocyst transfer as compared to cleavage-stage embryo transfer.

  6. FSH treatment in infertile males candidate to assisted reproduction improved sperm DNA fragmentation and pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Andrea; Ghezzi, Marco; Cosci, Ilaria; Sartini, Barbara; Bottacin, Alberto; Engl, Bruno; Di Nisio, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

    2016-07-27

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether follicle-stimulating hormone treatment improves sperm DNA parameters and pregnancy outcome in infertile male candidates to in-vitro fertilization.Observational study in 166 infertile male partners of couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization. Eighty-four patients were receiving follicle-stimulating hormone treatment (cases) and 82 refused treatment (controls). Semen parameters, sexual hormones, and sperm nucleus (fluorescence in-situ hybridization, acridine orange, TUNEL, and γH2AX) were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T1), when all subjects underwent assisted reproduction techniques. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance.Compared to baseline, cases showed significant improvements in seminal parameters and DNA fragmentation indexes after follicle-stimulating hormone therapy (all P fragmentation index and lower double strand breaks (P fragmentation, which in turn leads to increased pregnancy rates in infertile males undergoing in-vitro fertilization. In particular, double strand breaks (measured with γH2AX test) emerged as the most sensible parameter to follicle-stimulating hormone treatment in predicting reproductive outcome.

  7. Effect of meloxicam on pregnancy rate of recipient heifers following transfer of in vitro produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, T S; Araújo, C V; Tirloni, R R; Martins, L R

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if administration of meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase (COX) two inhibitor, to heifers in which embryo transfer (ET) is more difficult and requires a greater manipulation of the tract, would be beneficial. Nulliparous recipient heifers were divided in two groups: CON (n = 102), in which animals received 10 ml of saline IM (the same volume of meloxicam) and MEL (n = 105) animals that were treated with meloxicam. According to the degree in passing the catheter, recipients from both groups were classified as Grade I, easy (meloxicam (10 ml).There was no difference in the pregnancy rates on Day 35 considering animals which presented Grade I cervix independently whether the treatment was performed or not (p = 0.22). There was a statistical difference in the pregnancy rates (p meloxicam had a positive influence on general pregnancy rate of treated heifers in comparison to non-treated heifers. It was also observed that pregnancy rate was not influenced by meloxicam administration in Grade I heifers. Treatment increased the pregnancy rate of Grade II heifers.

  8. Pregnancy rates to timed artificial insemination in dairy cows treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone or porcine luteinizing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, M G; Gordon, M B; Rajamahendran, R; Mapletoft, R J; Ambrose, D J

    2009-07-15

    We compared the effects of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on ovulatory response and pregnancy rate after timed artificial insemination (TAI) in 605 lactating dairy cows. Cows (mean+/-SEM: 2.4+/-0.08 lactations, 109.0+/-2.5 d in milk, and 2.8+/-0.02 body condition score) at three locations were assigned to receive, in a 2x2 factorial design, either 100 microg GnRH or 25mg pLH im on Day 0, 500 microg cloprostenol (PGF) on Day 7, and GnRH or pLH on Day 9, with TAI 14 to 18h later. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed in a subset of cows on Days 0, 7, 10, and 11 to determine ovulations, presence of corpus luteum, and follicle diameter and in all cows 32 d after TAI for pregnancy determination. In 35 cows, plasma progesterone concentrations were determined 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 12 d after ovulation. The proportion of noncyclic cows and cows with ovarian cysts on Day 0 were 12% and 6%, respectively. Ovulatory response to first treatment was 62% versus 44% for pLH and GnRH and 78% versus 50% for noncyclic and cyclic cows (PpLH or GnRH, cyclic status, presence of an ovarian cyst, and preovulatory follicle size did not affect pregnancy rate. Plasma progesterone concentrations after TAI did not differ among treatments. Pregnancy rate to TAI was greater (PpLH group (42%) than in the other three groups (28%, 30%, and 26% for GnRH/PGF/GnRH, pLH/PGF/GnRH, and pLH/PGF/pLH, respectively). Although only 3% of cows given pLH in lieu of GnRH on Day 9 lost their embryo versus 7% in those subjected to a conventional TAI using two GnRH treatments, the difference was not statistically significant. In summary, pLH treatment on Day 0 increased ovulatory response but not pregnancy rate. Cows treated with GnRH/PGF/pLH had the highest pregnancy rate to TAI, but progesterone concentrations after TAI were not increased. In addition, preovulatory follicle diameter did not affect pregnancy rate.

  9. Hispanic Teen Pregnancy and Birth Rates: Looking Behind the Numbers. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2005-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…

  10. FETAL HEART-RATE IN EARLY-PREGNANCY AND CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; VISSER, GHA; MANTINGH, A; BEEKHUIS, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    Objective To investigate normal fetal heart rate in early pregnancy and assess the hypothesis that abnormal fetal heart rate is associated with fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Design Prospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting Antenatal clinic associated to the University Clinic of Obste

  11. Comparative evaluation of pregnancy outcome in gonadotrophin-clomiphene combination vs clomiphene alone in polycystic ovarian syndrome and unexplained infertility-A prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuli Mukherjee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A large prospective clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of single dose uFSH and clomiphene citrate combination with clomiphene citrate alone for ovulation induction to improve the pregnancy rate. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, prospective clinical trial. Totally, 1527 infertile women (4381 cycles with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS (n=911/2573 cycles and unexplained infertility (n=616/1808 cycles were randomized into two groups. Group A received single dose of uFSH on D 3 of menstrual cycle along with clomiphene. Group B received clomiphene only for ovulation induction. We compared the pregnancy rate and miscarriage rate between two groups. Results: Group A had a pregnancy rate of 17% compared to 8.3% of Group B which was significantly higher (P=0.0001. The miscarriage rate was 11% in Group A and 10% in Group B which was not significant (P=0.99. Pregnancy rates in PCOS women were 22% in Group A and 9.3% in Group B which shows significantly higher pregnancy rate (P=0.0001 in anovulatory infertility. But in unexplained infertility, there was no significant difference in pregnancy rate between Group A (11% and Group B(6.3%. Miscarriage rates were 8.8% and 9.5% in Group A and Group B, respectively, in PCOS women and 14% and 13% in women with unexplained infertility. Conclusion: Addition of single dose of uFSH improves pregnancy outcome particularly in anovulatory infertility (WHO II. Correction of unexplained infertility may need more than simple correction of possible subtle ovulatory effect.

  12. Effects of flunixin meglumine, recombinant bovine somatotropin and/or human chorionic gonadotropin on pregnancy rates in Nelore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, R C; Perdigão, A; Mesquita, F S; Sá Filho, M; Nogueira, G P; Machado, R; Membrive, C M B; Binelli, M

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to compare pharmacological strategies aiming to inhibit prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF(2α)) synthesis (flunixin meglumine; FM), stimulate growth of the conceptus (recombinant bovine somatotropin; bST) and progesterone (P(4)) synthesis (human chorionic gonadotropin; hCG), as well as their combinations, regarding their ability to improve pregnancy rates in beef cattle. Lactating Nelore cows (N = 975), 35 to 70 days postpartum, were synchronized and inseminated by timed artificial insemination (TAI) on Day 0. On Day 7, cattle were allocated into eight groups and received one of the following treatments: saline (S) on Days 7 and 16 (Group Control); S on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group FM); bST on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group bST); bST on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group bST + FM); hCG on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group hCG); hCG on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group hCG + FM); bST and hCG on Day 7 and S on Day 16 (Group bST + hCG), or bST and hCG on Day 7 and FM on Day 16 (Group bST + hCG + FM). The aforementioned treatments were administered at the following doses: 2.2 mg/kg FM (Banamine®; Intervet Schering-Plough, Cotia, SP, Brazil), 500 mg bST (Boostin®; Intervet Schering-Plough), and 2500 IU hCG (Chorulon®; Intervet Schering-Plough). Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 40 days after TAI by transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnancy rates were not significantly different among treatments. However, there was a main effect of hCG treatment to increase pregnancy rates (63.0 vs. 55.4%; P = 0.001). Concentrations of P(4) did not differ significantly among groups on Day 7 or on Day 16. However, consistent with the higher pregnancy rates, hCG increased P(4) concentrations on Day 16 (10.6 vs. 9.6 ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.05). We concluded that hCG treatment 7 days after TAI improved pregnancy rates of lactating Nelore cows, possibly via a mechanism leading to induction of higher P(4) concentrations, or by reducing the luteolytic stimulus during maternal recognition of

  13. Cumulative clinical pregnancy rates after COH and IUI in subfertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhi, Jacob; Orvieto, Raoul

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of female age and cause of infertility on the outcome of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and intrauterine insemination (IUI), we studied 2717 COH cycles in 1035 subfertile couples. The cumulative clinical pregnancy rates were 39% and 58% after three and six COH cycles, respectively. The cumulative pregnancy rate significantly decreased with maternal age and differed by cause of infertility. The cumulative pregnancy rate continued to increase with an increase in COH cycle number up to the third, or forth cycle, in patients with mechanical and combined infertility, respectively, and in up to the second cycle in patients aged 40 years or more. These findings provide treatment guidelines for clinicians in determining the likelihood of treatment success and the point at which to proceed to the next treatment strategy.

  14. Pregnancy-related low back pain and pelvic girdle pain approximately 14 months after pregnancy - pain status, self-rated health and family situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Cecilia; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid

    2014-01-25

    Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) in pregnancy is distinct from pregnancy-related low back pain (PLBP). However, women with combined PLBP and PGP report more serious consequences in terms of health and function. PGP has been estimated to affect about half of pregnant women, where 25% experience serious pain and 8% experience severe disability. To date there are relatively few studies regarding persistent PLBP/PGP postpartum of more than 3 months, thus the main objective was to identify the prevalence of persistent PLBP and PGP as well as the differences over time in regard to pain status, self-rated health (SRH) and family situation at 12 months postpartum. The study is a 12 month follow-up of a cohort of pregnant women developing PLBP and PGP during pregnancy, and who experienced persistent pain at 6 month follow-up after pregnancy. Women reporting PLBP/PGP (n = 639) during pregnancy were followed up with a second questionnaire at approximately six month after delivery. Women reporting recurrent or persistent LBP/PGP at the second questionnaire (n = 200) were sent a third questionnaire at 12 month postpartum. A total of 176 women responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-four women (19.3%) reported remission of LBP/PGP, whereas 65.3% (n = 115) and 15.3% (n = 27), reported recurrent LBP/PGP or continuous LBP/PGP, respectively. The time between base line and the 12 months follow-up was in actuality 14 months. Women with previous LBP before pregnancy had an increased odds ratio (OR) of reporting 'recurrent pain' (OR = 2.47) or 'continuous pain' (OR = 3.35) postpartum compared to women who reported 'no pain' at the follow-up. Women with 'continuous pain' reported statistically significant higher level of pain at all measure points (0, 6 and 12 months postpartum). Non-responders were found to report a statistically significant less positive scoring regarding relationship satisfaction compared to responders. The results from this study demonstrate that persistent PLBP/PGP is a

  15. A comparison of implantation, miscarriage and pregnancy rates of single and double day 3 embryo transfer between fresh and frozen thawed transfer cycles: a retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Liu; Tong Xiaomei; Jiang Lingying; Tinchiu Li; Zhou Feng; Zhang Songying

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced endometrial receptivity in hyperstimulated cycles may lead to a lower implantation rate and a lower clinical pregnancy rate,but it is unclear if it is also associated with an increase in pregnancy loss rate.The aim of this study was to compare the implantation,miscarriage,and pregnancy rates between fresh and frozen thawed transfer of one or two day-3 embryos,with a view to understanding whether or not reduced endometrial receptivity encountered in hyperstimulated cycles is associated with an increase in miscarriage rate.Methods This study involved a consecutive series of 1 551 single day-3 embryo transfer cycles and consecutive 5 919 double day-3 embryo transfer cycles in the Assisted Reproductive Unit of the Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital,Hangzhou,China,between January 2010 and December 2012.Results The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates (single embryo 30.7% and double embryos 33.4% and 51.4%)using fresh cycle were both significantly lower than that of frozen-thawed cycles (single embryo 35.8% and double embryos 38.1% and 57.8%).There was no difference in biochemical loss or clinical miscarriage rates between the two groups.Conclusions Impairment of endometrial receptivity associated with ovarian hyperstimulation leads to implantation failure at a very early stage,resulting in an increased number of non-pregnancy.It does not lead to increase in biochemical or clinical losses.The significantly reduced ongoing pregnancy rates in both fresh single and double embryo transfer are therefore due to failure to achieve a pregnancy,rather than pregnancy loss after conception.

  16. Pregnancy rates in cattle with cryopreserved sexed spermatozoa: effects of laser intensity, staining conditions and catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, J L; Seidel, G E

    2007-01-01

    The overall aim of this research was to improve fertility of cattle inseminated with sexed spermatozoa by improving sperm sorting procedures. Six field trials were conducted in which 4,264 heifers were inseminated into the uterine body with cryopreserved sexed or unsexed control spermatozoa. Pregnancy or calving rates with doses of 2 x 10(6) sexed spermatozoa ranged from 32 to 51%; these averaged 69% of the pregnancy rates with 20 x 10(6) unsexed, control spermatozoa (range 53 to 79% of controls). Fertility of sexed spermatozoa was especially low on farms where control fertility was low. Accuracy of sexing ranged from 86 to 91%. Laser power of 150 mW for interrogating spermatozoa did not result in lower pregnancy rates (43%) than when power was decreased as much as possible for a particular sorting batch (50 to 130 mW) to still achieve sexing accuracy (38% pregnant). Addition of catalase to fluids containing spermatozoa was beneficial when thawed spermatozoa were incubated in vitro for 2 h but had no effect on pregnancy rates. There also was no effect on pregnancy rates between two concentrations of Hoechst 33342 for staining spermatozoa. Freezing 2 x 10(6) sexed spermatozoa at 20 x 10(6)/ml resulted in a slightly higher rate of pregnancy (P < 0.05) than at 10 x 10(6)/ml. The information obtained in these trials, along with other improvements, notably lowering pressure in the sorting system from 50 to 40 psi, has been used to improve procedures for sexing spermatozoa commercially.

  17. The role of pregnancy outcomes in the maternal mortality rates of two areas in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mizanur; DaVanzo, Julie; Razzaque, Abdur

    2010-12-01

    The Matlab Maternal Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) project provides maternity care as part of its reproductive health services. It is important to assess whether this project has reduced maternal mortality and, if so, whether this was due to differences between the MCH-FP area (which received project services) and the comparison area (which did not) in pregnancy rates, pregnancy outcomes or case-fatality rates. Data from the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System on 165,894 pregnancies over the period 1982-2005 were used to calculate four measures of maternal mortality for the MCH-FP and comparison areas. Mortality risk was examined by type of pregnancy outcome and by area, and bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to generate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios, respectively. The maternal mortality rate of 35 deaths per 100,000 women of reproductive age in the MCH-FP area was 37% lower than that in the comparison area (56 deaths per 100,000). In both areas, the maternal mortality risk was considerably higher for pregnancies that ended in induced abortion, miscarriage or stillbirth than for those that resulted in live birth (odds ratios, 4.2, 2.0 and 17.4, respectively). The difference in maternal mortality rates between the two areas was mainly a result of the MCH-FP area's lower pregnancy rate and its lower case-fatality rates for induced abortions, miscarriages and stillbirths. Interventions to increase contraceptive use; to reduce the incidence of induced abortion, miscarriage and stillbirth; to improve the management of such outcomes; and to strengthen antenatal care could substantially reduce maternal mortality in Bangladesh and similar countries.

  18. 双胎妊娠与单胎妊娠的并发症及妊娠结局比较%The comparative observation of complications and pregnancy outcomes between twin pregnancy and singleton preg-nancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏景仙; 申更存; 霍强; 赵继广; 李存娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To comparative observation the complications and pregnancy outcomes between twin pregnancy and singleton pregnancies .Methods Selected 100 patients with twin preanancy ,and 100 patients with singleton pregnancies . After treatment,compared the complications,postpartum hemorrhage,the incidence of low-weight children,neonatal asphyxia rate and the perinatal child mortality of 2 groups .Results The complication rate of twin pregnancy was higher than that of control group,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).The postpartum hemorrhage,the incidence of low-weight children,nenoatal asphyxia rate and the perinatal child mortality were higher than that of control group ,the difference was sta-tistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion The twin pregnancy can improve the complication rate ,increase the adverse out-comes,Strengthen the Prenatal guidance and guardianship has an important significant .%目的:观察双胎妊娠与单胎妊娠孕产妇并发症和妊娠结局的差异。方法选择待产双胎妊娠孕产妇(双胎妊娠组)和单胎妊娠孕产妇(单胎妊娠组)各100例,比较2组孕产妇的并发症、产后出血量、低体质量儿发生率、新生儿窒息率、围生儿病死率,评价单胎妊娠与双胎妊娠并发症、妊娠结局差异。结果双胎妊娠组的并发症发生率高于单胎妊娠组(P<0.05),产后出血量、低体质量儿发生率、新生儿窒息率、围生儿病死率明显高于单胎妊娠组(P<0.05)。结论双胎妊娠使孕产妇并发症增多,增加了新生儿预后不良的出现,加强对双胎妊娠的产前指导和监护,对双胎妊娠结局具有重要意义。

  19. Stochastic optimization for the detection of changes in maternal heart rate kinetics during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Barakat, R. O.; Cordente Martínez, C. A.; Sampedro Molinuevo, J.

    2011-03-01

    The stochastic optimization method ALOPEX IV has been successfully applied to the problem of detecting possible changes in the maternal heart rate kinetics during pregnancy. For this reason, maternal heart rate data were recorded before, during and after gestation, during sessions of exercises of constant mild intensity; ALOPEX IV stochastic optimization was used to calculate the parameter values that optimally fit a dynamical systems model to the experimental data. The results not only demonstrate the effectiveness of ALOPEX IV stochastic optimization, but also have important implications in the area of exercise physiology, as they reveal important changes in the maternal cardiovascular dynamics, as a result of pregnancy.

  20. Linking Changes in Contraceptive Use to Declines in Teen Pregnancy Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Manlove; Quentin Karpilow; Kate Welti; Adam Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Using a unique microsimulation tool, Teen FamilyScape, the present study explores how changes in the mix of contraceptive methods used by teens contributed to the decline in the U.S. teen pregnancy rate between 2002 and 2010. Results indicate that changes in contraceptive use contributed to approximately half of the decline in the teen pregnancy rate during this time period (48%) and that a little more than half of this “contraceptive effect” was due to an increase in teen condom use (58%). T...

  1. Does intrauterine injection of low-molecular-weight heparin improve the clinical pregnancy rate in intracytoplasmic sperm injection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed Mohamed; El-Faissal, Yahia; Aboulghar, Mona; Mansour, Ragaa; Serour, Gamal I; Aboulghar, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    Heparin can modulate proteins, and influence processes involved in implantation and trophoblastic development. This study aimed to assess the improvement of clinical pregnancy and implantation rates after local intrauterine injection of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A randomised case/control design was followed in women scheduled for ICSI. The study arm was injected with intrauterine LMWH during mock embryo transfer immediately following the ovum pickup procedure, while the control arm was given an intrauterine injection with a similar volume of tissue culture media. Side effects, the clinical pregnancy rate, and the implantation rate were recorded. The pregnancy rate was acceptable (33.9%) in the LMWH arm with no significant reported side effects, confirming the safety of the intervention. No statistically significant differences were found in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rates between both groups (p=0.182 and p=0.096, respectively). The odds ratio of being pregnant after intrauterine injection with LMWH compared to the control group was 0.572 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-1.22), while the risk ratio was 0.717 (95% CI, 0.46-1.13; p=0.146). No statistical significance was found between the two groups in other factors affecting implantation, such as day of transfer (p=0.726), number of embryos transferred (p=0.362), or embryo quality. Intrauterine injection of LMWH is a safe intervention, but the dose used in this study failed to improve the outcome of ICSI. Based on its safety, further research involving modification of the dosage and/or the timing of administration could result in improved ICSI success rates.

  2. Predictive factors for the methotrexate treatment outcome in ectopic pregnancy: A comparative study of 400 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Lucie; Pedreiro, Cécile; Moret, Stéphanie; Chene, Gautier; Gaucherand, Pascal; Lamblin, Géry

    2017-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the global success rate of intramuscular methotrexate for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy, identify factors predictive of treatment success or failure, and study methotrexate tolerability in a large patient cohort. For this single-center retrospective observational study, we retrieved the records of all women who had a clinically or echographically confirmed ectopic pregnancy with a Fernandez score ectopic pregnancy. The medical treatment protocol was effective for 314 patients, i.e., an overall success rate of 78.5%. A single methotrexate dose was sufficient for 63.5% of the women and a second dose was successful for 73.2% of the remaining women. The medical treatment success rate fell as initial hCG levels climbed. The main factors associated with methotrexate failure included day (D) 0, D4 and D7 hCG levels, pretherapeutic blood progesterone, hematosalpinx at D0 and pain at D7. Early favorable kinetics of hCG levels was predictive of success. Methotrexate treatment was successful in 90% of women who had D0 hCG ectopic pregnancy was 80.7%. In this study, we showed that an initial hCG value ectopic pregnancy by methotrexate, and hematosalpinx and pretherapeutic blood progesterone >5ng/ml at diagnosis were predictive of its failure. We also confirmed good tolerability for single-dose methotrexate protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does an increased cesarean section rate improve neonatal outcome in term pregnancies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupari, Marja; Talola, Nina; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tihtonen, Kati

    2016-07-01

    To clarify whether an increased cesarean section rate improves the short-term neonatal outcome in singleton term pregnancies with cephalic presentation. A retrospective study of institutional data on the mode of delivery and neonatal outcome. The study included two cohorts: 1998-1999 (n = 7437) and 2004-2005 (n = 8505), since the institutional cesarean section rate increased sharply between these cohorts and has remained stable after the latter study period. The caesarean section rate almost doubled from 6.8 to 11.3 % (p cesarean section rate from a low to a moderate does not improve the short-term neonatal outcome in term singleton pregnancies. On the contrary neonatal intensive care unit admissions increased with increasing caesarean section rate. Furthermore it is possible to achieve good neonatal outcome with a low cesarean section rate.

  4. Comparative analysis of ovarian pregnancy with tubal pregnancy%卵巢妊娠与输卵管妊娠的临床比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 丁翔; 宜小如

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of ovarian pregnancy. Methods From January 2002 to December 2011, 26 cases of ovarian pregnancy were diagnosed and treated in Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Haidian District. The data of them were retrospectively analyzed and compared with that of 52 cases of tubal pregnancy at the same period. Results Ovarian pregnancy occupied 0. 52% of ectopic pregnancy of the same period, and there was not increasing trend year by year (χ2 =2. 398,P = 0. 663 >0. 05 ). Tubal pregnancy occupied 86. 45% , and the incidence rate decreased year by year (χ2 =97.94,P = 0.000 0.05);输卵管妊娠占86.45%,发病率逐年下降(χ2=97.940,P=0.000<0.01);②卵巢妊娠与输卵管妊娠临床表现相似,术前确诊困难,误诊率高达96.15%.卵巢妊娠停经史占76.92%,停经时间短,平均38.65±10.57天,与输卵管妊娠(45.37±7.81天)比较,差异有显著性(t=-3.171,P=0.002<0.01);两组腹痛发生率、阴道出血发生率及休克发生率差异均有显著性(χ2值分别为5.880、10.054、8.432,均P<0.05).结论 卵巢妊娠仍以手术治疗为主,输卵管妊娠逐渐趋向药物治疗,腹腔镜手术治疗异位妊娠呈上升趋势.

  5. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazici AB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Bulent Yazici,1 Hilal Uslu Yuvaci,2 Esra Yazici,3 Ebru Halimoglu Caliskan,4 Arif Serhan Cevrioglu,2 Atila Erol3 1Department of Psychiatry, Training and Research Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 3Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey Background: Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant.  Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy.  Method: This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results: The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively, alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively, and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively. Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion: Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic

  6. Blood pressure and heart rate variability analysis of orthostatic challenge in normal human pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Saarelainen, Heli; Valtonen, Pirjo; Lyyra-Laitinen, Tiina; Laitinen, Tomi; Vanninen, Esko; Heinonen, Seppo

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate pregnancy-related changes in autonomic regulatory functions in healthy subjects. We studied cardiovascular autonomic responses to head-up tilt (HUT) in 28 pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy and 3 months after parturition. The maternal ECG and non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure were recorded in the horizontal position (left-lateral position) and during HUT in the upright position. Stroke volume was assessed from blood pressure signal by using the arterial pulse contour method. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analysed in frequency domain, and baroreflex sensitivity by the cross-spectral and the sequence methods. In the horizontal position, all frequency components of HRV were lower during pregnancy than 3 months after parturition (P < 0.01 to <0.001), while pregnancy had no influence on normalized low frequency and high frequency powers. During pregnancy haemodynamics was well balanced with only minor changes in response to postural change while haemodynamic responses to HUT were more remarkable after parturition. In pregnant women HRV and especially its very low frequency component increased in response to HUT, whereas at 3 months after parturition the direction of these changes was opposite. Parasympathetic deactivation towards term is likely to contribute to increased heart rate and cardiac output at rest, whereas restored sympathetic modulation with modest responses may contribute stable peripheral resistance and sufficient placental blood supply under stimulated conditions. It is important to understand cardiovascular autonomic nervous system and haemodynamic control in normal pregnancy before being able to judge whether they are dysregulated in complicated pregnancies.

  7. Role of cardiotocography in high risk pregnancy and its correlation with increase cesarean section rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: FHR monitoring plays the most important role in management of labouring patient when incidence of fetal hypoxia and progressive asphyxia increases. Now a day’s cardiotocography (CTG become a popular method for monitoring of fetal wellbeing and it is assisting the obstetrician in making the decision on the mode of delivery to improve perinatal outcome. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of cardiotocography on perinatal outcome and its correlation with caesarean section rate. Methods: In this prospective observational study 201 gravid women with high risk pregnancy in first stage of labour were taken. Result was assessed in the form of Apgar score at five minute, NICU admission, perinatal mortality and mode of delivery. Statistical analysis is done by using Chi square test and p<0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: Perinatal morbidity in the form of NICU admission is higher in nonreactive group as compare to reactive group (75.7% v/s 22.8%. Cesarean section rate for fetal distress were higher in nonreactive group (87.8% in comparison to reactive group (20.5%. So this study suggest that there is significant difference in mode of delivery with increasing chances of caesarean section in cases belong to non-reactive traces (p<0.001. Conclusions: Admission test is non-invasive and the best screening test to evaluate the fetal health and to predict the perinatal outcome but it also associated with increase caesarean section rate.

  8. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde;

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  9. Reproductive outcomes in adolescents who had a previous birth or an induced abortion compared to adolescents' first pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzlaff Paul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, attention has been focused on subsequent pregnancies among teenage mothers. Previous studies that compared the reproductive outcomes of teenage nulliparae and multiparae often did not consider the adolescents' reproductive histories. Thus, the authors compared the risks for adverse reproductive outcomes of adolescent nulliparae to teenagers who either have had an induced abortion or a previous birth. Methods In this retrospective cohort study we used perinatal data prospectively collected by obstetricians and midwives from 1990–1999 (participation rate 87–98% of all hospitals in Lower Saxony, Germany. From the 9742 eligible births among adolescents, women with multiple births, >1 previous pregnancies, or a previous spontaneous miscarriage were deleted and 8857 women Results In bivariate logistic regression analyses, compared to nulliparous teenagers, adolescents with a previous birth had higher risks for perinatal [OR = 2.08, CI = 1.11,3.89] and neonatal [OR = 4.31, CI = 1.77,10.52] mortality and adolescents with a previous abortion had higher risks for stillbirths [OR = 3.31, CI = 1.01,10.88] and preterm births [OR = 2.21, CI = 1.07,4.58]. After adjusting for maternal nationality, partner status, smoking, prenatal care and pre-pregnancy BMI, adolescents with a previous birth were at higher risk for perinatal [OR = 2.35, CI = 1.14,4.86] and neonatal mortality [OR = 4.70, CI = 1.60,13.81] and adolescents with a previous abortion had a higher risk for very low birthweight infants [OR = 2.74, CI = 1.06,7.09] than nulliparous teenagers. Conclusion The results suggest that teenagers who give birth twice as adolescents have worse outcomes in their second pregnancy compared to those teenagers who are giving birth for the first time. The prevention of the second pregnancy during adolescence is an important public health objective and should be addressed by health care providers who attend the first birth or the abortion

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN LOW RISK PREGNANCIES WITH CTG MONITORING AND INTERMITTENT AUSCULTATION

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    Velimala Ratna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available EFM was introduced into widespread clinical practice in the 1970s to 1980s on the premise that it would facilitate early detection of abnormal FHR patterns thought to be associated with hypoxia thus allowing earlier intervention to prevent foetal neurological damage and/or death. There is a lack of evidence of benefit supporting the use of the admission CTG in low-risk pregnancy. In this study we the aim to evaluate the effects of Cardiotocograph Foetal Monitoring on perinatal outcome in low risk Obstetric population and determine the cost effective and reliable method of fetal monitoring that is applicable to low-risk population. METHODOLOGY A prospective randomized study conducted on 200 low risk pregnant women in labour divided into 2 groups of 100 each. Group A includes those monitored with admission CTG and Group B includes those monitored with intermittent auscultation (IA. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS The demographic features, parity and gestational age in both the groups were comparable; 10 out of the 100 in CTG group had meconium stained liquor whereas 15 of them had meconium in IA group; 71% of the patients in CTG group had normal delivery, whereas it was 84% in IA group. Incidence of LSCS was 23% in CTG group as against 9% in IA group. A ‘P’ value of 0.02, RR of 2 5 for operative deliveries in CTG group was observed which was significant. Incidence of AVD was 6% in CTG group and 7% in IA group with a p value of <0.05, which is statistically significant. The incidence of MSL, APGAR scores at 1, 5 and 10 minutes and NICU admissions were comparable in both the groups. There was no significant difference in babies with low APGAR <7 at 5 min and NICU admissions in both the groups. In our study the sensitivity of CTG was 63.63%, specificity 80.35%, positive predictive value 33.3%, negative predictive value 94.93%. The low sensitivity and high false positives led to the intervention in delivery and increase in operative delivery with no

  11. The effects of laser assisted hatching on pregnancy rates

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Ghannadi; Marjaneh Kazerooni; Fatemeh Jamalzadeh; Sahar Amiri; Parifar Rostami; Forouzan Absalan

    2011-01-01

    Background: For infertile women aged over 35 years, failure of the ZP (zona pellucida) to rupture is believed to be associated with a decreased implantation rate in in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Objective: In this research, laser assisted hatching (LAH) was offered to patients with advanced maternal age to evaluate a possible benefit. Materials and Methods: Nine hundred thirty two cycles of IVF/ICSI in females were analyzed. Women included in this s...

  12. Does ovarian hyperstimulation in intrauterine insemination for cervical factor subfertility improve pregnancy rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steures, P; van der Steeg, JW; Verhoeve, HR; van Dop, PA; Hompes, PGA; Bossuyt, PMM; van der Veen, F; Habbema, JDF; Eijkemans, MJC; Mol, BWJ

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) can be performed with or without controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Studies in which the additional benefit of COH on IUI for cervical factor subfertility is assessed are lacking. We assessed whether COH in IUI improved pregnancy rates in cervical

  13. Does ovarian hyperstimulation in intrauterine insemination for cervical factor subfertility improve pregnancy rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steures, P; van der Steeg, JW; Verhoeve, HR; van Dop, PA; Hompes, PGA; Bossuyt, PMM; van der Veen, F; Habbema, JDF; Eijkemans, MJC; Mol, BWJ

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) can be performed with or without controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Studies in which the additional benefit of COH on IUI for cervical factor subfertility is assessed are lacking. We assessed whether COH in IUI improved pregnancy rates in cervical

  14. Cesarean section in twin pregnancies in two Danish counties with different cesarean section rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, T B; Sperling, Lene; Hedegaard, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Based on a comparison of the clinical indications for cesarean section (CS) in two Danish counties and a review of the literature regarding this issue the aim of this study was to discuss possible explanations for variations in CS rates in twin pregnancies. The comparison of indications...

  15. Does ovarian hyperstimulation in intrauterine insemination for cervical factor subfertility improve pregnancy rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Steures (Pieternel); J.W. van der Steeg (Jan Willem); H.R. Verhoeve (Harold); P.A. van Dop; P.G. Hompes (Peter); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); F. Veen (Fulco); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); B.W.J. Mol (Ben)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) can be performed with or without controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Studies in which the additional benefit of COH on IUI for cervical factor subfertility is assessed are lacking. We assessed whether COH in IUI improved pregnancy rates

  16. [Cesarean section incidence and vaginal birth success rate at term pregnancy after myomectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekiňová, L; Janků, P; Filipinská, E; Kadlecová, J; Ventruba, P

    To compare the incidence of primary and acute cesarean section (CS) and to compare success rate of vaginal delivery. To determine the frequency of maternal complications and evaluation of post-partum condition of the newborn. Prospective, pilot, cohort study. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno. Analysis of patients with physiologically ongoing singleton pregnancy and term delivery, vertex presentation. Women from the study group (n = 67) underwent myomectomy because of symptomatic, solitary uterine fibroid. Women from the control group (n = 4079) had no history of myomectomy. Analysis was aimed at comparing the incidence of primary and acute CS and comparing success rate of vaginal delivery in both groups and determing the frequency of maternal complications and evaluation of post-partum condition of the newborn. A significantly higher incidence of primary cesarean section was observed in the study group with a history of myomectomy compared to the control group (n = 20, 29.9%; versus n = 396, 9.7 %, p cesarean section in both groups was recorded (n = 7, 10.4%; versus n = 570, 14.0%, p = 0.079). No statistically significant difference in the success of vaginal delivery in both groups was recorded (n = 40, 85.1%; versus n = 3113, 84.5%, p = 0.079). The excessive blood loss was the most frequent complication in both group (n = 9, 13.4%; versus n = 214, 5.2%, p = 0.057). No statistically significant difference in the incidence of uterine rupture and postpartum hysterectomy was recorded. No maternal or fetal death related to childbirth was observed. The history of myomectomy does not increase the incidence of acute cesarean section in the group of strictly selected patients suitable for vaginal birth and has no impact on the success of vaginal delivery. Careful management of labor is a prerequisite for a low risk of maternal complications and good perinatal outcomes.

  17. A study of respiratory rate, tidal volume, inspiratory capacity and inspiratory reserve volume in different trimesters of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Teli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anatomical, physiological and biochemical adaptations in pregnancy are profound. Many of these changes begin soon after fertilization and continue throughout the gestation and changes in the respiratory system are part of the same process. However there is insufficient information regarding the changes in respiratory parameters in different trimesters of pregnancy. Aims: The aim of the study was designed to evaluate the pulmonary function tests in 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd trimesters of pregnancy and compare them with non-pregnant control group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried in 200 healthy women in the age range of 19-35 years. The subjects were distributed in four groups, as control (non-pregnant group and 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd trimester pregnant groups. Number of subjects in each group was 50. Respiratory parameters in control and study groups were recorded. Statistical Analysis: By ′Z ′ test. Results: There was gradual significant increase in respiratory rate in all trimesters of pregnancy. There was a gradual decrease in tidal volume in 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd trimesters of pregnancy when compared to non pregnant women. There was significant decrease in Inspiratory Reserve Volume and Inspiratory Capacity. Conclusion: The changes in pulmonary function are attributed to major adaptations in the maternal respiratory system and are influenced by the mechanical pressure of enlarging gravid uterus, elevating the diaphragm and restricting the movements of lungs thus hampering the forceful expiration and also might be due to decline in alveolar Pco 2 caused by hyperventilation which acts as bronchoconstrictor; in addition to sensitization of respiratory center due to progesterone

  18. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur between 34 and 36 weeks—these are late-preterm births. 5 Infants born in the 37th and 38th ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  19. Physical activity changes during pregnancy in a comparative impact trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, physical activity, and other health behaviors of rural, Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to physical activity outcomes in the gestat...

  20. Background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes for assessing the safety of maternal vaccine trials in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A V Orenstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal immunization has gained traction as a strategy to diminish maternal and young infant mortality attributable to infectious diseases. Background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes are crucial to interpret results of clinical trials in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model that calculates a clinical trial's expected number of neonatal and maternal deaths at an interim safety assessment based on the person-time observed during different risk windows. This model was compared to crude multiplication of the maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate by the number of live births. Systematic reviews of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM, low birth weight (LBW, prematurity, and major congenital malformations (MCM in Sub-Saharan African countries were also performed. FINDINGS: Accounting for the person-time observed during different risk periods yields lower, more conservative estimates of expected maternal and neonatal deaths, particularly at an interim safety evaluation soon after a large number of deliveries. Median incidence of SAMM in 16 reports was 40.7 (IQR: 10.6-73.3 per 1,000 total births, and the most common causes were hemorrhage (34%, dystocia (22%, and severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (22%. Proportions of liveborn infants who were LBW (median 13.3%, IQR: 9.9-16.4 or premature (median 15.4%, IQR: 10.6-19.1 were similar across geographic region, study design, and institutional setting. The median incidence of MCM per 1,000 live births was 14.4 (IQR: 5.5-17.6, with the musculoskeletal system comprising 30%. INTERPRETATION: Some clinical trials assessing whether maternal immunization can improve pregnancy and young infant outcomes in the developing world have made ethics-based decisions not to use a pure placebo control. Consequently, reliable background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes are necessary to distinguish between vaccine benefits and safety concerns. Local studies

  1. Corticosteroids compared with intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongmei; Shehata, Nadine; Ye, Xiang Y; Gregorovich, Sandra; De France, Bryon; Arnold, Donald M; Shah, Prakesh S; Malinowski, Ann Kinga

    2016-09-08

    Treatment options for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in pregnancy are limited, and evidence to guide management decisions is lacking. This retrospective study of singleton pregnancies from 2 tertiary centers compared the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and corticosteroids in treatment of ITP. Data from 195 women who had 235 pregnancies were reviewed. Treatment was not required in 137 pregnancies (58%). Of the remaining 98 pregnancies in 91 women, 47 (48%) were treated with IVIg and 51 were treated with corticosteroids as the initial intervention. Mean maternal platelet count at birth did not differ between groups (IVIg 69 × 10(9)/L vs corticosteroids 77 × 10(9)/L; P = .71) nor did the proportion of mothers who achieved a platelet count response (IVIg 38% vs corticosteroids 39%; P = .85). There were no fatal or severe maternal, fetal, or neonatal hemorrhages. Of 203 neonates in whom platelet counts were available, 56 (28%) had a birth platelet count <150 × 10(9)/L and 18 (9%) had platelet counts <50 × 10(9)/L. Nadir platelet counts for most affected neonates occurred at birth, although for some neonates, nadir platelet counts occurred up to 6 days postnatally. Intracranial hemorrhage was noted in 2 neonates (nadir platelet counts were 135 and 18 × 10(9)/L). There were no neonatal deaths. The majority of pregnant women with a history of ITP did not require treatment, and neonatal outcomes were comparable for mothers who received IVIg or corticosteroids for treatment of maternal ITP.

  2. Effect of follicle-stimulating hormone on sperm quality and pregnancy rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Baccetfi; P.Piomboni; E.Bruni; S.Capitani; L.Gambera; E.Moretti; K.Sterzik; E.Strehler

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the possible links between ultrastructural sperm quality and the clinical pregnancy rate in infertile males treated with FSH before intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods: Forty-four infertile males with idiopathic oligo-asthenozoospermia were randomly allocated to the treated (n=24) and non-treated (control,n=20) groups. Semen analysis was carried out by light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before and 12 weeks after FSH therapy. ICSI was performed in all couples. Results: TEM revealed a significant improvement in sperm quality after FSH treatment, particularly in men with their partners achieving clinical pregnancy. The pregnancy rate was 33% in the treated group and 20% in the control. Conclusion: Results highlight a positive role of FSH therapy in infertile males before ICSI, which was correlated with an increased pregnancy rate in treated couples.We believe that improved sperm ultrastructure after FSH therapy could positively influence the quality and early stage of embryo development, thereby increasing the probability of embryo implantation.

  3. Effect of low dose oxytocin treatment on the pregnancy rate of the dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hamali,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that during the natural mating, stimulation of the female genital system by the bull causes oxytocin release from the caudal part of the female pituitary gland and this hormone enhances the sperm transport in the genital tract. During the artificial insemination (A.I, this hormone dose not release perfectly. For determine of the oxytocin effect on the pregnancy rates of the cows, a total 100 cows were chosen in a dairy herd located in a suburb of Tabriz (North-west of Iran. These cows were randomly divided into two groups. In the group A, during the A.I, 30 IU oxytocin (3cc Vetocin was injected to the cows intramuscularly. In the group of B, 3cc saline was injected intramuscularly to the control cows. After 45 days of A.I, all of the cows were examined by rectal palpation for pregnancy detection. The pregnancy rates were 58% and 54% in the groups of oxytocin treated and control respectively. The difference between two groups did not differ significantly. These results indicated that oxytocin administration during the A.I had not significant effect on the cow's pregnancy rates.

  4. Serum α-klotho concentrations during preimplantation can predict aging or quality of human oocytes and clinical pregnancy rates

    OpenAIRE

    Takemura, Takashi; Okabe, Midori

    2016-01-01

    Background To discover simple biomarkers to evaluate the aging or quality of human oocytes and clinical pregnancy rates is needed. However, the association among serum α-klotho concentrations during preimplantation, the aging or quality of human oocytes and clinical pregnancy rates has not been investigated. Findings The serum α-klotho concentrations during preimplantation decreased due to aging (p 

  5. Relationship between the length of the uterine cavity and clinical pregnancy rates after in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sang Sik; Chung, Min Ji; Chong, Gun Oh; Park, Kee Sang; Lee, Taek Hoo

    2010-02-01

    In this prospective clinical study involving 354 IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, we determined the influence of the length of the uterine cavity on clinical pregnancy rates. Our data showed that clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are associated positively with an increased length of the uterine cavity.

  6. Lipoprotein lipase and lipid profiles in plasma and placenta from normal pregnancies compared with patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z M; Ye, Y F; Zhang, Y K; Yang, S F; Ye, X L

    2016-08-01

    To analyse lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression and lipid levels in placenta and plasma of patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and normal pregnancies. This prospective study included 30 patients with ICP and 30 gestational-age-matched pregnancies without any complications. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to investigate plasma LPL levels from 28 weeks of gestation, at 4-weekly intervals, to 38 weeks of gestation, and data were assessed longitudinally. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect placental LPL expression and activity. Placental triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were also analysed. The clinical data related to ICP and lipid profiles were collected retrospectively. Plasma LPL concentration increased with gestational age in both groups, but the increase was limited in the ICP group. Immunohistochemistry revealed LPL staining mainly in syncytiotrophoblasts, and 3,3'-diamino-benzidine tetrahydrochloride wt% was lower in ICP placenta compared with normal placenta (p<0.01). LPL protein and mRNA expression in ICP placenta were significantly lower than in normal placenta (p<0.01). LPL activity was not significantly different in both groups. Correlation analysis indicated that the plasma LPL level was negatively associated with the corresponding concentration of total bile acid (r=-0.57) in the ICP group. Reduced LPL expression in placenta, limited increase in LPL level in maternal plasma, and abnormal lipid profiles were found in patients with ICP. LPL was possibly related to ICP by participating abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of flunixin meglumine and carprofen on pregnancy rates in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krueger, X; Heuwieser, W

    2010-11-01

    Embryonic losses contribute considerably to low pregnancy rates. Between d 8 and 17 after breeding, the conceptus secretes interferon-τ as a mechanism for maternal recognition of pregnancy and maintenance of the corpus luteum. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin F(2α) by suppressing the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Flunixin meglumine (FM) has been demonstrated to delay luteolysis and to support embryonic survival. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of FM and carprofen on conception rates in dairy heifers and cows, respectively. In experiment 1, the effect of FM on pregnancy rates and progesterone concentrations in dairy heifers was tested. A total of 391 heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Heifers in the treatment group (n=197) received 2.2 mg of FM i.m./kg of body weight twice on d 14/15 and 15/16 after insemination, whereas heifers in the control group (n=194) remained untreated. Blood samples from 388 heifers were taken on d 14/15 and 21/22 after artificial insemination and analyzed for progesterone. Pregnancy rates were 58.2 and 54.8% for the control and treatment groups, respectively. Mean progesterone concentrations were not affected by treatment and number of artificial insemination service (first or second artificial insemination service), but were affected by time and time × pregnancy status. In experiment 2, the objective was to verify the effects of carprofen, a longer acting nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and to evaluate its effect on conception rate to first service in dairy cows. A total of 380 cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows in the treatment group (n=194) received 1.4 mg of carprofen s.c./kg of body weight on d 15 after insemination, whereas cows in the control group (n=186) remained untreated. Pregnancy was diagnosed between d 40 and 47 after insemination. Conception rates to first service were 35.5 and 33.0% in the control and treatment groups

  8. Mental health, pregnancy and self-rated health in antenatal women attending primary health clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkusare, S; Adinegara; Hebbar, S

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the determinants of self rated health in the low-risk pregnant women of Melaka Tengah in Malaysia. A total of 387 subjects were analysed. The role of mental health, psychosocial stressors, support from husband, coping skills, socio-economic status and pregnancy characteristics in determining self- rated health were studied. Health items were taken from the Duke Health Profile. Bad obstetric history, poor mental health, stress from the family were found to be significantly associated with poor self - rated health whereas good support from the husband was related to good self - rated health.

  9. Failure Rate of Single Dose Methotrexate in Managment of Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Sendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the treatment modalities for ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. The purpose of this study is to identify the failure rate of methotrexate in treating patients with ectopic pregnancy as well as the risk factors leading to treatment failure. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 225 patients who received methotrexate as a primary management option for ectopic pregnancy. Failure of single dose of methotrexate was defined as drop of BHCG level less than or equal to 14% in the seventh day after administration of methotrexate. Results. 225 patients had methotrexate. Most of the patients (151 (67% received methotrexate based on the following formula: f 50 mg X body surface area. Single dose of methotrexate was successful in 72% (162/225 of the patients. 28% (63/225 were labeled as failure of single dose of methotrexate because of suboptimal drop in BhCG. 63% (40/63 of failure received a second dose of methotrexate, and 37% (23/63 underwent surgical treatment. Among patient who received initial dose of methotrexate, 71% had moderate or severe pain, and 58% had ectopic mass size of more than 4 cm on ultrasound. Conclusion. Liberal use of medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy results in 71% success rate.

  10. Failure rate of single dose methotrexate in managment of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendy, Feras; AlShehri, Eman; AlAjmi, Amani; Bamanie, Elham; Appani, Surekha; Shams, Taghreed

    2015-01-01

    Background. One of the treatment modalities for ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. The purpose of this study is to identify the failure rate of methotrexate in treating patients with ectopic pregnancy as well as the risk factors leading to treatment failure. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 225 patients who received methotrexate as a primary management option for ectopic pregnancy. Failure of single dose of methotrexate was defined as drop of BHCG level less than or equal to 14% in the seventh day after administration of methotrexate. Results. 225 patients had methotrexate. Most of the patients (151 (67%)) received methotrexate based on the following formula: f 50 mg X body surface area. Single dose of methotrexate was successful in 72% (162/225) of the patients. 28% (63/225) were labeled as failure of single dose of methotrexate because of suboptimal drop in BhCG. 63% (40/63) of failure received a second dose of methotrexate, and 37% (23/63) underwent surgical treatment. Among patient who received initial dose of methotrexate, 71% had moderate or severe pain, and 58% had ectopic mass size of more than 4 cm on ultrasound. Conclusion. Liberal use of medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy results in 71% success rate.

  11. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Xu, Bo; Wu, Li-Min; Jin, Ren-Tao; Luan, Hong-Bing; Luo, Li-Hua; Zhu, Qing; Johansson, Lars; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Tong, Xian-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP) correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group), whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A). In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B). No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B) were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  12. The value of HCG serum concentrations after trigger in predicting pregnancy and live birth rates in IVF-ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Junxia; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Ningyuan; Hu, Yali; Sun, Haixiang

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if an association existed between serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) level at 12 h after trigger and IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm (ICSI) treatment outcomes. Women undergoing initial IVF-ICSI and embryo transfer treatment using the long luteal phase gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol between April 2012 and March 2013 for tubal factor were included (n = 699). In the clinical pregnancy group, HCG after trigger was significantly elevated (276.0 ± 5.1 versus 198.5 ± 6.1 mIU/mL; P HCG was 201.2 mIU/ml. Compared with the lower HCG group, the clinical pregnancy rate in the higher HCG group was increased in obese and non-obese patients (77.8% versus 57.3%, P HCG was associated with a better IVF-ICSI treatment outcome (OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.99 to 6.45). Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher across increasing quartiles of HCG. An elevated level of serum HCG at 12 h after trigger was associated with a better IVF-ICSI outcome. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pregnancy outcomes in women with childhood-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Hernández, Dafhne; Sánchez, Antonio; Morales, Sara; Cruz-Domínguez, Pilar; Medina, Gabriela; Jara, Luis Javier

    2016-10-01

    To compare the maternal and fetal outcomes between childhood-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we reviewed the medical records of SLE pregnant women treated from January 2005 to August 2013. For comparison, patients were allocated to one of the two groups, those pregnant patients with SLE onset before 18 years of age (childhood-onset) and ≥18 years (adult-onset). The patients were evaluated at least once in each trimester and postpartum. Relevant maternal and fetal outcomes were extracted, such as lupus flare, preeclampsia/eclampsia, rate of liveborns, fetal loss (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth), term delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, low birth weight, low birth weight at term, and congenital malformations. We studied 186 pregnancies (in 180 women), 58 of them had childhood-onset SLE, and the remaining 128 had adult-onset SLE. The rate of maternal and fetal complications was similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that active SLE before pregnancy, primigravida, renal flare, preeclampsia, lupus flare, anticardiolipin antibodies, and low serum complement were associated with an increased risk of poor maternal and fetal outcomes. The diagnosis of childhood-onset had no impact on maternal-fetal outcome. The maternal and fetal outcome in women with childhood-onset SLE is similar to that reported in women with adult-onset SLE. Pregnancy in women with childhood-onset SLE should not be contraindicated if the disease is well controlled.

  14. Antiepileptic drugs prescribed in pregnancy and prevalence of major congenital malformations: comparative prevalence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Irene; Collings, Shuk-Li; McCrea, Rachel L; Nazareth, Irwin; Osborn, David P; Cowen, Phil J; Sammon, Cormac J

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of major congenital malformations associated with antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment in pregnancy. Patients and methods Using data from The Health Improvement Network, we identified women who have given live birth and their offspring. Four subgroups were selected based on the AED treatment in early pregnancy, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and women not receiving AED treatment. We compared the prevalence of major congenital malformations within children of these four groups and estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) using Poisson regression adjusted for maternal age, sex of child, quintiles of Townsend deprivation score and indication for treatment. Results In total, 240,071 women were included in the study. A total of 229 women were prescribed valproate in pregnancy, 357 were prescribed lamotrigine and 334 were prescribed carbamazepine and 239,151 women were not prescribed AEDs. Fifteen out of 229 (6.6%) women prescribed valproate gave birth to a child with a major congenital malformation. The figures for lamotrigine, carbamazepine and women not prescribed AEDs were 2.7%, 3.3% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of major congenital malformation was similar for women prescribed lamotrigine or carbamazepine compared to women with no AED treatment in pregnancy. For women prescribed valproate in polytherapy, the prevalence was fourfold higher. After adjustments, the effect of estimates attenuated, but the prevalence remained two- to threefold higher in women prescribed valproate. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that lamotrigine and carbamazepine are safer treatment options than valproate in pregnancy and should be considered as alternative treatment options for women of childbearing potential and in pregnancy. PMID:28243149

  15. Relationship between Receipt of a Social Protection Grant for a Child and Second Pregnancy Rates among South African Women: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Social protection programs issuing cash grants to caregivers of young children may influence fertility. Grant-related income could foster economic independence and/or increase access to job prospects, education, and health services, resulting in lower pregnancy rates. In the other direction, these programs may motivate family expansion in order to receive larger grants. Here, we estimate the net effect of these countervailing mechanisms among rural South African women.We constructed a retrospective cohort of 4845 women who first became eligible for the Child Support Grant with the birth of their first child between 1998 and 2008, with data originally collected by the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. We fit Cox regression models to estimate the hazard of second pregnancy in women who reported grant receipt after birth of first child, relative to non-recipients. As a secondary analysis to explore the potential for grant loss to incentivize second pregnancy, we exploited a natural experiment created by a 2003 expansion of the program's age eligibility criterion from age seven to nine. We compared second pregnancy rates between (i women with children age seven or eight in 2002 (recently aged out of grant eligibility to (ii women with children age seven or eight in 2003 (remained grant-eligible.The adjusted hazard ratio for the association between grant exposure and second pregnancy was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.75. Women with first children who aged out of grant eligibility in 2002 had similar second pregnancy rates to women with first children who remained grant-eligible in 2003 [IRR (95% CI: 0.9 (0.5, 1.4].Across both primary and secondary analyses, we found no evidence that the Child Support Grant incentivizes pregnancy. In harmony with South African population policy, receipt of the Child Support Grant may result in longer spacing between pregnancies.

  16. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy and presence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance.In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data.The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates.

  17. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy and presence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Gustafson, Kathleen M; Cysarz, Dirk; Geue, Daniel; May, Linda E; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization. In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance. In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data. The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates.

  18. Effects of acclimation to human interaction on performance, temperament, physiological responses, and pregnancy rates of Brahman-crossbred cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Araujo, D B; Lamb, G C

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate, over 2 consecutive years, the effects of acclimation to human interaction on performance, temperament, plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites, and pregnancy rates of Brahman-crossbred cows. A total of 160 Braford and 235 Brahman x British cows were assigned to the 2-yr study. Approximately 45 d after weaning (August 2006) in yr 1, cows were evaluated for BW, BCS, and temperament (chute score, pen score, and exit velocity), stratified by these measurements in addition to breed and age, and randomly allocated to 14 groups (Braford = 8; Brahman x British = 6). Groups were randomly assigned to the control or acclimation treatment. In yr 2, cows were reevaluated within 45 d after weaning (August 2007) for BW, BCS, and temperament, stratified, and divided into 14 groups similarly as in yr 1, but in such a way that cows received the same treatment assigned in yr 1. Cows were acclimated to human interaction from August to January, and the acclimation process consisted of the same person visiting groups twice weekly and offering approximately 0.05 kg of range cubes per cow (as-fed basis). In January of both years, cow temperament, BW, and BCS were reassessed and cows were exposed to a 90-d breeding season. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the acclimation period (August) and breeding season (January) for determination of plasma cortisol, IGF-I, and acute phase proteins. A treatment x breed interaction was detected during yr 1 (P < 0.01) for pregnancy analysis because acclimated Braford cows conceived earlier and at a greater percentage (P < 0.01) compared with control cows. According to values obtained at the beginning of breeding and pooled across treatments and breeds, IGF-I concentrations and BCS affected quadratically (P < 0.05), and concentrations of ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin decreased linearly (P < 0.05), the probability of pregnancy during both years. Temperament and cortisol concentrations

  19. Monitoring Fetal Heart Rate during Pregnancy: Contributions from Advanced Signal Processing and Wearable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring. PMID:24639886

  20. Monitoring fetal heart rate during pregnancy: contributions from advanced signal processing and wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Maria G; Fanelli, Andrea; Magenes, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring.

  1. Monitoring Fetal Heart Rate during Pregnancy: Contributions from Advanced Signal Processing and Wearable Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Signorini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring.

  2. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy influences fetal cardiac autonomic control of heart rate and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Linda E; Glaros, Alan; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Clapp, James F; Gustafson, Kathleen M

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies using ultrasound technology showed that fetal heart rate (HR) may be responsive to maternal aerobic exercise. Although it is recognized that cardiac autonomic control may be influenced by the intrauterine environment, little is known about how maternal exercise affects fetal heart development. This study tested the hypothesis that regular maternal exercise throughout gestation influences fetal cardiac autonomic control of HR and heart rate variability (HRV) when compared to fetuses of non-exercising women. Magnetocardiograms (MCGs) were recorded using a dedicated fetal biomagnetometer at 28, 32 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA) from 26 regularly exercising (>30 min of aerobic exercise, 3x per week) and 35 healthy, non-exercising pregnant women. Fetal MCG was isolated and normal R-peaks were marked to derive fetal HR and HRV in the time and frequency domains. We applied a mixed-effects model to investigate the effects of exercise, GA and fetal activity state. At 36 weeks GA, during the active fetal state, fetal HR was significantly lower in the exercise group (p=exercise group during the active fetal state at 36 weeks GA for both time and frequency domain measures. These results indicate that regular maternal exercise throughout gestation results in significantly lower fetal HR and increased HRV. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extraction of fetal heart rate from maternal surface ECG with provisions for multiple pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, A; Signorini, M G; Heldt, T

    2012-01-01

    Twin pregnancies carry an inherently higher risk than singleton pregnancies due to the increased chances of uterine growth restriction. It is thus desirable to monitor the wellbeing of the fetuses during gestation to detect potentially harmful conditions. The detection of fetal heart rate from the maternal abdominal ECG represents one possible approach for noninvasive and continuous fetal monitoring. Here, we propose a new algorithm for the extraction of twin fetal heart rate signals from maternal abdominal ECG recordings. The algorithm detects the fetal QRS complexes and converts the QRS onset series into a binary signal that is then recursively scanned to separate the contributions from the two fetuses. The algorithm was tested on synthetic singleton and twin abdominal recordings. It achieved an average sensitivity and accuracy for QRS complex detection of 97.5% and 93.6%, respectively.

  4. Maternal rectal temperature and fetal heart rate responses to upright cycling in late pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess maternal rectal temperature and fetal heart rate responses to dynamic exercise. METHODS--11 healthy women with low risk pregnancies completed three separate upright cycling tests at 34 to 37 weeks gestation: 15 min at 62.5 W (mean maternal heart rate [MHR] 138 beats.min-1 (test A); 15 min at 87.5 W (MHR 156 beats.min-1) (test B); and 30 min at 62.5 W (MHR 142 beats.min-1) (test C). Rectal temperature and fetal heart rate were measured. RESULTS--Mean temperature increase a...

  5. Pregnancy rates with recombinant versus urinary human chorionic gonadotropin in in vitro fertilization: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeke, József; Kanyó, Katalin; Zeke, Helga; Cseh, Aron; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Szilágyi, András; Konc, János

    2011-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated the equal efficacy of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (uhCG) and recombinant hCG (rhCG) products in in vitro fertilisation (IVF). However, limitations inherent with RCTs necessitate the reinforcement of RCT results in real-life. We retrospectively analyzed pregnancies after treatment with rhCG and uhCG products (n = 391, and 96, resp.). We found that laboratory-verified pregnancy occurred more frequently in rhCG patients than in those on uhCG (43% versus 30%, P = 0.02). The association remains significant (P = 0.002) after its adjustment for clinical characteristics. The prevalence of laboratory-verified pregnancies was higher with GnRH agonist use (P = 0.012) and BMI under 30 kg/m(2) (P = 0.053) while decreased the age (P = 0.014) and the number of previous failed attempts (P = 0.08). Similar (but not significant) trends were observed with rates of pregnancy filled the 24th week. These results reinforce RCTs supporting the notion that rhCG is more efficient as uhCG during IVF.

  6. Use of complementary and alternative medicines associated with a 30% lower ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate during 12 months of fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boivin, J; Schmidt, L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND There seems to be little discussion between patient and physician about the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), perhaps because they are not perceived to have adverse effects on fertility. We therefore compared ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate in spontaneous users...

  7. Maternal metabolic changes with dietary intake of blueberry during pregnancy and lactation predispose adult progeny to lower mammary tumor growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have shown lower growth rates of tumors that developed from Wnt1-transgenic (Tg) offspring of dams consuming whole blueberry powder (3% BB) during pregnancy and lactation, compared to those of control (Casein) dams. Dietary exposure at post-weaning through lifetime did not mimic the effects of ea...

  8. Comparison of methionine hydroxy analogue chelated versus sulfate forms of copper, zinc, and manganese on growth performance and pregnancy rates in yearling beef replacement heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to compare growth performance and pregnancy rates of heifers supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn as either methionine hydroxy analog chelate (provided as MINTREX) or in the S04 form. The experiment used 3 ranches, each having 2 replicate pens per treatment. Performance data were ana...

  9. The Effect of Thyroidectomy on Sexual Cycle and Pregnancy Rates in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    RİŞVANLI, Ali; AYDIN, Muhterem; KAYGUSUZOĞLU, Erdal; TİMURKAN, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hypothyroidism caused by thyroidectomy on the sexual cycle and pregnancy rates in rats. Twenty female rats were divided into two groups. The thyroid glands were totally extirpated in the first group (n = 10). An operation was performed but the thyroid glands were not extirpated in the second group (n = 10). In both groups, the differences in vaginal cytology were examined daily with vaginal irrigation, for 1 month starting 3 days after the operation. Preparations...

  10. Factors influencing the adolescent pregnancy rate in the Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province – South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lenny Mushwana; Lydia Monareng; Solina Richter; Helene Muller

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative, descriptive and explorative survey was conducted to determine factors that influence adolescent pregnancy rate among teenage girls (n = 147) attending four high schools in the Greater Giyani Municipality in South Africa. Data was collected using a validated questionnaire which had a reliability of 0.65. Response frequency distributions, two-way frequency tables, Chi-square tests and Cochran–Armitage Trend Tests were used to determine the effect with the demographic characteris...

  11. Linking Changes in Contraceptive Use to Declines in Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Manlove

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a unique microsimulation tool, Teen FamilyScape, the present study explores how changes in the mix of contraceptive methods used by teens contributed to the decline in the U.S. teen pregnancy rate between 2002 and 2010. Results indicate that changes in contraceptive use contributed to approximately half of the decline in the teen pregnancy rate during this time period (48% and that a little more than half of this “contraceptive effect” was due to an increase in teen condom use (58%. The remaining share of the contraceptive effect can be attributed to an increase in the use of more effective hormonal (pill, patch, ring and long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC/injectable methods (Intrauterine Devices (IUD, implant and injectable. Results from an additional counterfactual analysis suggest that the contraceptive effect was driven by the fact that the percentage of teens using no birth control fell during the study time period, rather than by the fact that some teens switched from less effective methods (condoms to more effective hormonal and LARC/injectable methods. However, very high typical use failure rates for teen condom users suggest the need for a two-pronged approach for continuing reductions in teen pregnancy for sexually active teens: first, targeting the youth most at risk of not using contraception and helping them choose contraception, and second, increasing the effectiveness of method use among existing contraceptors.

  12. Reducing the rate of teen pregnancy in Canada: a framework for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Dianne; Dilworth, Kelli

    2002-01-01

    In partnership with the Young/Single Parent Support Network of Ottawa-Carleton and Timmin's Native Friendship Centre, the Canadian Institute of Child Health has completed a framework to reduce the rate of teen pregnancy in Canada. The final document is called Pro-Action, Postponement, and Preparation/Support: A Framework for Action to Reduce the Rate of Teen Pregnancy in Canada. The objectives were to learn what is currently being done and what needs to be done on this issue across the country, and to explore the potential role of projects funded by the federal Canada Action Program for Children (CAPC) and Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP) in reducing the rate of teen pregnancy. Being an extremely complex and sensitive issue, the report was a culmination of a number of research methods: over 40 key informants from diverse backgrounds and expertise were interviewed to determine the scope of the problem and potential solutions; a detailed literature review identified existing date and documentation on the topic, using both Canadian and international studies; youth surveys and focus groups were conducted in both on-reserve Aboriginal communities and non-Aboriginal communities.

  13. A Comparative Study of Vaginal Misoprostol and High Dose Intravenous Oxytocin for Second Trimester Pregnancy Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajaee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Second trimester labor induction is a major problem in obstetrics and is the cause of two-thirds of all abortion related complications and more than half of the maternal deaths associated with abortion. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol and intravenous oxytocin for termination of second trimester pregnancy.Materials & Methods: One hundred women were allocated in a randomized controlled way to one of the two induction groups: oxytocin group patients initially received an infusion of 50 units of oxytocin in 500 ml of ringer over 3 hours, 1 hour of no oxytocin followed by alternating 3 hours of oxytocin with 1 hour of rest. Oxytocin was increased by 50 units in each successive period until a final concentration of 300 units per 500 ml has been reached. Another group received 200 µg misoprostol tablets in posterior fornix vagina and was repeated after 12 hours if needed. The two groups were compared for induction to delivery intervals and their safety during induction. Results: The success rate within 24 hours of induction was 94% in the misoprostol group and 86% in oxytocin group (p= 0.182. The mean induction to delivery time was significantly longer in the oxytocin group compared with the misoprostol group.(13.5 versus 9.93 hours ; P=0.0057. Retained placenta requiring curettage was lower in the misoprostol group than the oxytocin group.Conclusion: Intravaginal misoprostol is more effective than high dose intravenous oxytocin in women with second trimester termination.

  14. Association between long-acting reversible contraceptive use, teenage pregnancy, and abortion rates in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne Connolly,1 Guilhem Pietri,2 Jingbo Yu,3 Samantha Humphreys4 1The Ridge Medical Practice, Cousen Road, Bradford, UK; 2HERON – A PAREXEL® Company, London, UK; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 4Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited, Hertfordshire, UK Background: Since the late 1990s, the British government has launched major strategies to address high teenage pregnancy and abortion rates in England. These have focused in part on improving access to contraception through national campaigns. This study assessed teenage pregnancy and abortion rate trends since 1998 and possible associations with usage of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs. Methods: Teenage conception rates and age-specific abortion rates were obtained from the Office for National Statistics and the Department of Health. LARC usage data was obtained for Depo-Provera, Implanon/Nexplanon, intrauterine devices, Mirena, and Noristerat from the IMS British Pharmaceutical Index, IMS Hospital Pharmacy Audit, IMS Disease Analyzer, and KT-31 reports. Through linear regression methods, changes in conception and abortion-related outcomes during 1998–2011 and the associations with LARC usage were assessed. Results: Conception rates for girls younger than 18 years of age decreased significantly between 1998–2011, from 46.6 to 30.7 per 1,000 girls. A statistically significant association was observed between this decrease and increased LARC usage (P=0.0024 in this population. Abortion rates among females aged <18 years or aged 18–19 years decreased between 1998–2011, and their associations with increased LARC usage were statistically significant (P=0.0029 and P=0.0479, respectively. The pattern in older women was complex; abortion rates in women aged 20–24 years or 25–34 years increased slightly from 1998 to 2011, with stabilization during 2007–2011. Conclusion: Increased LARC usage in England was significantly associated with decreased teenage pregnancy rates

  15. Comparison of the Effects of Letrozole and Clomiphene Citrate on Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Sedigheh Dehbashi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: For more than four decades clomiphene citratehas been the first line of the treatment for ovulatory disorders.The aim of this study was to compare the effects of letrozoleand clomiphene citrate on ovulation and pregnancy rate in patientswith polycystic ovary syndrome.Methods: In this prospective double-blind study, 100 patientswith polycystic ovary syndrome were randomized into twoequal groups. The first group received letrozole, 5mg daily(per oral and the second group received clomiphene, 100mgdaily during the 3rd-7th days of the menstrual cycles. Intramuscularhuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (10,000 IUwas administered to trigger ovulation when at least one maturefollicle (≥ 18mm was developed.Results: Ovulation occurred in 30 patients (60% of the letrozolegroup and in 16 patients (32% of the clomiphene group,which showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.009.The mean number of follicles with diameter >14 mm on theday of administration of hCG was 1.06±0.95 in the letrozolegroup and 1.14±1.17 in the clomiphene group, which showednon-significant difference (P=0.962.No difference was found in the endometrial thicknessbetween the two groups. A non-significant increase inpregnancy rate was observed in the letrozole group (26% v14% P=0.21.Conclusion: Ovulation rate was higher in letrozole group andadministration of letrozole was associated with a nonsignificantincrease in pregnancy rate.

  16. Study of Continuance Rate and Related Causes of Discontinuance of Pregnancy Prevention Methods among Women in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Fallahzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From maturity to menopause, women are worried about pregnancy. Abstinence from sex or use of pregnancy prevention methods are choices for them. As abstinence is impossible, the only remaining choice is use of pregnancy prevention methods. Effective control of pregnancy is really essential for the health of mother and infant and also control of unplanned increase in population. Regarding the importance of continuance rate of pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom &DMPA & the reasons for their disruption, this study was carried out with the aim of determining the continuance rate and reasons for discontinuance of pregnancy prevention methods in Yazd women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Six urban health care centers of Yazd were selected as study clusters and information of 15-49 year old women using the pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom& injection was collected via a questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed by Coplan- Mayer statistic method and variance analysis test. Results: Pregnancy prevention methods were most prevalent in the 25-34 years old age group (57%. Mean duration of pregnancy prevention method usage was 27.98 months using Caplan-mayer method with a median of 24 months. 86.3% for 6 months, 72.8% for 12 months, 62.5% for 18 months, 47.9% for 24 months, 39.9% for 30 months and 37% for 37 months had used four certain methods of pregnancy prevention (OCP, IUD, Condom and Injection. The reasons of discontinuance were disease (15.6% for OCPS, bleeding (27% for IUD, unwanted pregnancy (21% for Condoms and also disease (75% for Injection method. Discussion: According to the results, not only education programs regarding family planning before starting each pregnancy prevention method to women is recommended, but a complete incentive consultation about these methods is essential. This educational & consultation programs should be implemented initially for women using OCP method.

  17. Antiepileptic drugs prescribed in pregnancy and prevalence of major congenital malformations: comparative prevalence studies

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    Petersen I

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Irene Petersen,1,2 Shuk-Li Collings,1,3 Rachel L McCrea,1 Irwin Nazareth,1 David P Osborn,4 Phil J Cowen,5 Cormac J Sammon1 1Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus N, Denmark; 3OXON Epidemiology, London, UK; 4Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK; 5University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of major congenital malformations associated with antiepileptic drug (AED treatment in pregnancy.Patients and methods: Using data from The Health Improvement Network, we identified women who have given live birth and their offspring. Four subgroups were selected based on the AED treatment in early pregnancy, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and women not receiving AED treatment. We compared the prevalence of major congenital malformations within children of these four groups and estimated prevalence ratios (PRs using Poisson regression adjusted for maternal age, sex of child, quintiles of Townsend deprivation score and indication for treatment.Results: In total, 240,071 women were included in the study. A total of 229 women were prescribed valproate in pregnancy, 357 were prescribed lamotrigine and 334 were prescribed carbamazepine and 239,151 women were not prescribed AEDs. Fifteen out of 229 (6.6% women prescribed valproate gave birth to a child with a major congenital malformation. The figures for lamotrigine, carbamazepine and women not prescribed AEDs were 2.7%, 3.3% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of major congenital malformation was similar for women prescribed lamotrigine or carbamazepine compared to women with no AED treatment in pregnancy. For women prescribed valproate in polytherapy, the prevalence was fourfold higher. After adjustments, the effect of estimates attenuated, but the prevalence remained two- to

  18. Pregnancy rate in Bulgarian White milk goats with natural and synchronized estrus after artificial insemination by frozen semen during breeding season

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    Stanimir A. Yotov

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The goats with natural estrus and GnRH treatment tend to enhance pregnancy rate after double artificial insemination 8 h apart. The insemination number has no significant impact on pregnancy rate in synchronized goats as the overall pregnancy rate is better than in animals with natural estrus without GnRH administration.

  19. Rate of teenage pregnancy in Jordan and its impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef S; Batieha, Anwar; Al Fursan, Rana Kareem; Al-Hader, Rami; Hijazi, Sa'ad S

    2017-07-26

    Objective Research regarding the adverse outcomes of adolescent childbearing has suffered from many limitations such as a small sample size and non-representative samples. This study was conducted to determine the rate of teenage pregnancy among Jordanian adolescents and its associated adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods The study is a part of a comprehensive national study of perinatal mortality that was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in Jordan. All women who gave birth after 20 weeks of gestation in 18 maternity hospitals in Jordan between 2011 and 2012 were invited to participate in the study. Consenting women were interviewed by the trained midwives in these hospitals using a structured questionnaire prepared for the purpose of this study. Additional information was also collected based on the physical examination by the midwife and the obstetrician at admission and at discharge. Data on the newborn were also collected by the pediatric nurses and the neonatologists in these hospitals. Results The overall rate of teenage pregnancy [95% confidence interval (CI) was 6.2% (5.9%, 6.5%)]. Of the studied maternal and neonatal outcomes, women aged Teenage pregnancy was associated with increased risk of premature delivery, apart from the effects of socioeconomic factors.

  20. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  1. Decreased sperm DNA fragmentation after surgical varicocelectomy is associated with increased pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Marij; Romijn, Johannes C; Wildhagen, Mark F; Veldhoven, Joke L M; Weber, Robertus F A; Dohle, Gert R

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated changes in sperm chromatin structure in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele, and the impact on the pregnancy rate. Included in the study were 49 men with at least a 1-year history of infertility, a palpable varicocele and oligospermia. World Health Organization semen analysis and sperm DNA damage expressed as the DNA fragmentation index using the sperm chromatin structure assay were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. Pregnancy (spontaneous and after assisted reproductive technique) was recorded 2 years after surgery. Mean sperm count, sperm concentration and sperm progressive motility improved significantly after varicocelectomy from 18.3 × 10(6) to 44.4 × 10(6), 4.8 × 10(6)/ml to 14.3 × 10(6)/ml and 16.7% to 26.6%, respectively (p DNA fragmentation index decreased significantly after surgery from 35.2% to 30.2% (p = 0.019). When the definition of greater than 50% improvement in sperm concentration after varicocelectomy was applied, 31 of 49 patients (63%) responded to varicocelectomy. After varicocelectomy 37% of the couples conceived spontaneously and 24% achieved pregnancy with assisted reproductive technique. The mean postoperative DNA fragmentation index was significantly higher in couples who did not conceive spontaneously or with assisted reproductive technique (p = 0.033). After varicocelectomy sperm parameters significantly improved and sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased. Low DNA fragmentation index values are associated with a higher pregnancy rate (spontaneous and with assisted reproductive technique). We suggest that varicocelectomy should be considered in infertile men with palpable varicocele, abnormal semen analysis and no major female factors. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE RATE OF THE PREVALENCE OF HIGH-RISK PREGNANCIES AND THE RESULTS ON PREGNANT MOTHERS AND THE EFFECT ON PARAMETERS AFTER THE BIRTH

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    Sam Firozi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy causes large physiologic changes in most body systems and these changes may lead to ease or harden examining some events. The purpose of this study is to define the rate of risk in pregnant women and the results in mother and fetus and also to define the risk rate of pregnancy in pregnant women and its effect on parameters after birth in patients of Educational and Medical center of Gorgan, Dezyani. This case - control study was performed in Educational and Medical Center Dezyany, of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in 1390. In this study, 1266 pregnant women were enrolled of which 804 cases (63.5% according to the criteria for scoring in the questionnaire with a score greater than or equal to 7 were considered as high risk pregnancies (case group, 462 patients (36.5% were considered as low-risk pregnancies (control group. Parameters after the birth and pregnancy results such as delivery type, infant difficulties, mother health after labor were compared and analyzed by T-test and ANOVA in both groups. About the history of infertility almost 80% of the people who had a 2-year history of infertility were in high-risk group and the difference was significant. (P = 0.02 About the history of abortion also almost 90% of the people who had a 2-year history of abortion were in high-risk group and the difference was significant. (P<0.05 Post-term infant was found in 77 cases that were entirely in high-risk group. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. According to results and comparing them to other studies we can conclude that pregnant mothers who have pregnancy difficulties history such as history of abortion or infertility, visits during pregnancy should be paid attention and warn them about the risk of not being visited and timely pursuits.

  3. Comparison of pregnancy rate between fresh embryo transfers and frozen-thawed embryo transfers following ICSI treatment

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    Zahra Basirat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART is increasing in the world. The rate, efficacy and safety of ART are very different among countries. There is an increase in the use of intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, single fresh embryo transfer (ET and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare pregnancy rate in fresh ET and FET. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study 1014 ICSI-ET cycles (426 fresh ET and 588 FET from 753 women undergoing ICSI treatment referred to Fatemezahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center in Babol, Iran from 2008 to 2013 were reviewed. Results: There were no significant differences between biochemical pregnancy rate (23% versus 18.8%, OR 1.301; 95% CI .95-1.774, gestational sac (95.6% versus 100% in FET, OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.54-0.67, and fetal heart activity (87.2% versus 93.6% OR .46; 95% CI .16-1.32 in fresh ET and FET cycles, respectively. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all measures. Conclusion: Although, the result showed no significantly difference between the fresh ET and the FET cycles, however the embryos are able to be stored for subsequent ART. Therefore, we recommend FET cycles as an option alongside the fresh ET.

  4. Platelet reactivity changes significantly throughout all trimesters of pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state: a prospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N

    2013-12-01

    Platelets play an important role in the pathophysiology of uteroplacental disease and platelet reactivity may be an important marker of uteroplacental disease activity. However, platelet reactivity has not been evaluated comprehensively in normal pregnancy. We sought to evaluate platelet reactivity using a number of agonists at defined time points in pregnancy using a novel platelet assay and compare these with a nonpregnant cohort.

  5. Pregnancy rates in heifers and cows with cryopreserved sexed sperm: effects of sperm numbers per inseminate, sorting pressure and sperm storage before sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, J L; Cran, D G; Everett, R W; Seidel, G E

    2009-03-15

    Field trials were conducted to increase fertility with AI of flow-sorted, sexed bovine sperm. In the first trial, a novel competitive fertilization approach was used to compare pressures (30psi vs 50psi) for sorting sperm. Both X- and Y-sperm were sorted to approximately 95% purity at 30 and at 50psi; X-50+Y-30 (and the converse) were mixed in equal numbers for AI of heifers. Fetal sex divulged which treatment produced the pregnancy; 82% of pregnancies resulted from the 30psi treatment (Ppregnancy rates in heifers relative to 50psi (42.3% vs 34.1%, n=367/group, Pdecreased pregnancy rates from 42.3% (n=367) to 36.8% (n=368; P0.1). Lactating dairy cows pre-screened for normal reproductive tracts when OvSynch injections (GnRH, prostaglandin, GnRH) were initiated, had similar (P>0.1) pregnancy rates to timed AI, with 10x10(6) sexed sperm (43.9%, n=57), 2x10(6) sexed sperm (40.5%, n=57) and 10x10(6) unsexed control sperm (55.6%, n=58). A final field trial with unselected, lactating dairy cows resulted in similar pregnancy rates for 2x10(6) sexed sperm in 0.25mL straws (25.0%, n=708) and 0.5mL straws (24.4%, n=776), but lower (P84 days in milk had the highest pregnancy rates for both sexed and unsexed sperm. These studies improved sperm sexing procedures, and provided insight into appropriate commercial use of sexed sperm.

  6. Does parental consent for birth control affect underage pregnancy rates? The case of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Sourafel; Paton, David

    2013-12-01

    Previous work based on conjectural responses of minors predicted that the 2003 Texas requirement for parental consent for state-funded birth control to minors would lead to a large increase in underage pregnancies. We use state- and county-level data to test this prediction. The latter allow us to compare the impact of parental consent in counties with and without state-funded family planning clinics. We control for characteristics systematically correlated with the presence of state-funded clinics by combining difference-in-difference estimation with propensity score-weighted regressions. The evidence suggests that the parental consent mandate led to a large decrease in attendance at family planning clinics among teens but did not lead to an increase in underage pregnancies.

  7. Single-embryo transfer reduces clinical pregnancy rates and live births in fresh IVF and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis

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    Oliveira João

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become an accepted procedure to transfer more than one embryo to the patient to achieve acceptable ongoing pregnancy rates. However, transfers of more than a single embryo increase the probability of establishing a multiple gestation. Single-embryo transfer can minimize twin pregnancies but may also lower live birth rates. This meta-analysis aimed to compare current data on single-embryo versus double-embryo transfer in fresh IVF/ICSI cycles with respect to implantation, ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates. Methods Search strategies included on-line surveys of databases from 1995 to 2008. Data management and analysis were conducted using the Stats Direct statistical software. The fixed-effect model was used for odds ratio (OR. Fixed-effect effectiveness was evaluated by the Mantel Haenszel method. Seven trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results When pooling results under the fixed-effect model, the implantation rate was not significantly different between double-embryo transfer (34.5% and single-embryo transfer group (34.7% (P = 0.96; OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.78, 1.25. On the other hand, double-embryo transfer produced a statistically significantly higher ongoing clinical pregnancy rate (44.5% than single-embryo transfer (28.3% (P Conclusion Meta-analysis with 95% confidence showed that, despite similar implantation rates, fresh double-embryo transfer had a 1.64 to 2.60 times greater ongoing pregnancy rate and 1.44 to 2.42 times greater live birth rate than single-embryo transfer in a population suitable for ART treatment.

  8. Cesarean Section and Rate of Subsequent Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Ectopic Pregnancy: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Sinéad M.; Agerbo, Esben; Kenny, Louise C.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Greene, Richard A.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Khashan, Ali S.

    2014-01-01

    Background With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996), with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy) or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28) was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI) of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH) of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31) and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35), although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15) and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21), yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85). Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment, causes of

  9. Cesarean section and rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy: a Danish register-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinéad M O'Neill

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996, with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28 was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31 and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35, although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15 and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21, yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85. Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment

  10. Impact of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist addition on pregnancy rates in gonadotropin-stimulated intrauterine insemination cycles

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    Shikha Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist in improving clinical pregnancy rate in gonadotropin-stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles in patients of unexplained infertility. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective, randomized case-controlled study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in the infertility clinic of a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred twenty-seven women undergoing IUI following controlled ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins (recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone [r-FSH] 75 IU/day were randomly divided into two groups. Women in Group I received GnRH antagonist (Cetrorelix 0.25 mg/day in a multiple dose flexible protocol. Women in Group II received r-FSH alone. Ovulatory trigger was given with human chorionic gonadotropin 5000 IU when dominant follicle was ≥18 mm. IUI was performed within 44-48 h. Both groups received similar luteal phase support. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. The trial was powered to detect an absolute increase in clinical pregnancy rate by 13% from an assumed 20% clinical pregnancy rate in the control group, with an alpha error level of 0.05 and a beta error level of 0.20. RESULTS: Clinical pregnancy rate in Groups I and II was 27.6% (n = 56 and 26.5% (n = 54, respectively (P=0.800. Ongoing pregnancy and multiple pregnancy rates were likewise similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of GnRH antagonist to gonadotropin-stimulated IUI cycles results in no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate.

  11. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group, whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A. In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B. No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  12. The effect of diazepam administration during pregnancy or labor on the heart rate variability of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geijn, H P; Jongsma, H W; Doesburg, W H; Lemmens, W A; de Haan, J; Eskes, T K

    1980-03-01

    Maternal diazepam medication during labor reduces beat-to-beat variability of the fetal heart rate. In this study, the prolongation of the effect was examined in the newborn. The mother received diazepam: (A) during labor as a tranquilizer, (B) daily in low doses at the end of pregnancy, or (C) in high doses i.v. for (pre-)eclampsia. A control group had no analgesic or sedative during pregnancy or labor. The electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded daily from each newborn during the first 6 days after birth. After preprocessing of the ECG, the median R-R interval, the long-term irregularity index (LTI index) and the interval difference index (ID index) were calculated. A cubic spline interpolation method was applied to compare the various groups with respect to these heart rate parameters. The median R-R interval showed no particular differences in trend for all groups. The LTI index was decreased in the first days after birth in the chronic diazepam (B), and in the diazepam infusion groups (C), but statistical significance was not reached. The ID index was significantly decreased in the first 1-2 days in the newborns of the acute and chronic diazepam group. In the diazepam infusion group, an even longer lasting effect was observed. Maternal diazepam medication affects the beat-to-beat variability in the newborn. The duration of the effect is dependent on dosage and route of administration.

  13. Effects of Sperm Acrosomal Integrity and Protamine Deficiency on In Vitro Fertilization and Pregnancy Rate

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    Marziyeh Tavalaee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between protaminedeficiency, and acrosomal integrity with fertilization and pregnancy rate in patients undergone in vitrofertilization (IVF.Material &Methods: Semen samples from 70 infertile couples undergoing IVF at Isfahan Fertility andInfertility center were assessed in this study. Semen analysis was carried out according to WHO criteria.Protamine deficiency, Sperm morphology and acrosin activity were assessed by Chromomycin A3(CMA3, Papanicolaou staining and Gelatinolysis tests, respectively. Coefficients of correlation andstudent t-test were carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Studies (SPSS 11.5 and Pvaluelower than 0.05 was considered as significant.Results: Fertilization rate, percentage of halo formation, mean halo diameter and abnormalmorphology show a significant correlation with percentage of CMA3 positivity. CMA3 positivity,percentage of halo, mean halo and sperm morphology showed a significant correlation with fertilizationrate. Among the aforementioned parameters percentage of halo had the highest correlation. In thepresent study patients were divided into two groups according to pregnancy status. None of the studiedparameters were significantly different between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. However,percentage of halo formation showed a slightly significant difference (r=0.306; P=0.058.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that, even though sperm morphology, sperm protaminecontent and acrosome formation are events related to spermiogenesis, sperm acrosomal integrityassessed by percentage of halo formation has more profound effect on fertilization rate and pregnancyoutcome during IVF procedure.

  14. A six-year investigation on reproductive performance of hybrid rabbits. 1. Pregnancy rate and numerical productivity at weaning as affected by season

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marongiu, M. L; Dimauro, C; Floris, B

    2010-01-01

    ...: 33588 matings and subsequent pregnancy diagnosis; 245743 young rabbits at weaning. From the statistical analysis, pregnancy rate and numerical productivity at weaning appeared to be significantly (P<0.001...

  15. Effect of maternal position on fetal behavioural state and heart rate variability in healthy late gestation pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Peter R; Burgess, Wendy; McIntyre, Jordan P R; Gunn, Alistair J; Lear, Christopher A; Bennet, Laura; Mitchell, Edwin A; Thompson, John M D

    2017-02-15

    Fetal behavioural state in healthy late gestation pregnancy is affected by maternal position. Fetal state 1F is more likely to occur in maternal supine or right lateral positions. Fetal state 4F is less likely to occur when the woman lies supine or semi-recumbent. Fetal state change is more likely when the woman is supine or semi-recumbent. Fetal heart rate variability is affected by maternal position with variability reduced in supine and semi-recumbent positions. Fetal behavioural states (FBS) are measures of fetal wellbeing. In acute hypoxaemia, the human fetus adapts to a lower oxygen consuming state with changes in the cardiotocograph and reduced fetal activity. Recent studies of late gestation stillbirth described the importance of sleep position in the risk of intrauterine death. We designed this study to assess the effects of different maternal positions on FBS in healthy late gestation pregnancies under controlled conditions. Twenty-nine healthy women had continuous fetal ECG recordings under standardized conditions in four randomly allocated positions, left lateral, right lateral, supine and semi-recumbent. Two blinded observers, assigned fetal states in 5 min blocks. Measures of fetal heart rate variability were calculated from ECG beat to beat data. Compared to state 2F, state 4F was less likely to occur when women were semi-recumbent [odds ratio (OR) = 0.11, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.02, 0.55], and supine (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.07, 1.10). State 1F was more likely on the right (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.11, 5.04) or supine (OR = 4.99, 95% CI 2.41, 10.43) compared to the left. State change was more likely when the mother was semi-recumbent (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.19, 3.95) or supine (OR = 2.67, 95% CI 1.46, 4.85). There was a significant association of maternal position to mean fetal heart rate. The measures of heart rate variability (SDNN and RMSSD) were reduced in both semi-recumbent and supine positions. In healthy late gestation pregnancy

  16. Pregnancy rates and corpus luteum-related factors affecting pregnancy establishment in bovine recipients synchronized for fixed-time embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, L G B; Torres, C A A; Souza, E D; Monteiro, P L J; Arashiro, E K N; Camargo, L S A; Fernandes, C A C; Viana, J H M

    2009-10-15

    The objective was to investigate the influence of corpora lutea physical and functional characteristics on pregnancy rates in bovine recipients synchronized for fixed-time embryo transfer (FTET). Crossbred (Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus) nonlactating cows and heifers (n=259) were treated with the following protocol: 2mg estradiol benzoate (EB) plus an intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR 1.9g progesterone; Day 0); 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; Day 5); prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and CIDR withdrawal (Day 8); and 1mg EB (Day 9). Ovarian ultrasonography and blood sample collections were performed on Day 17. Of the 259 cattle initially treated, 197 (76.1%) were suitable recipients; they received a single, fresh, quality grade 1 or 2 in vivo-derived (n=90) or in vitro-produced (n=87) embryo on Day 17. Pregnancy rates (23 d after embryo transfer) were higher for in vivo-derived embryos than for in vitro-produced embryos (58.8% vs. 31.0%, respectively; Pcattle that became pregnant than that in nonpregnant cattle (5.2+/-5.0 vs. 3.8+/-2.4 ng/mL; P=0.02). Mean pixel values (71.8+/-1.3 vs. 71.2+/-1.1) and pixel heterogeneity (14.8+/-0.3 vs. 14.5+/-0.5) were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant recipients (P>0.10). No significant relationship was detected between pregnancy outcome and plasma P(4), corpus luteum area, or corpus luteum echotexture. Embryo type, however, affected the odds of pregnancy. In conclusion, corpus luteum-related traits were poor predictors of pregnancy in recipients. The type of embryo, however, was a major factor affecting pregnancy outcome.

  17. [Teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Roza, Daiane Leite da; Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Dal-Fabbro, Amaury Lelis

    2011-05-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a common public health problem worldwide. The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the spatial association between teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil. We used a Bayesian model with a spatial distribution following a conditional autoregressive (CAR) form based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We used data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Early pregnancy was more frequent in municipalities with lower per capital gross domestic product (GDP), higher poverty rate, smaller population, lower human development index (HDI), and a higher percentage of individuals with State social vulnerability index of 5 or 6 (more vulnerable). The study demonstrates a significant association between teenage pregnancy and socioeconomic indicators.

  18. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (Prate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (Pglucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (Pfeed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point.

  19. Factors influencing the adolescent pregnancy rate in the Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province – South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Mushwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative, descriptive and explorative survey was conducted to determine factors that influence adolescent pregnancy rate among teenage girls (n = 147 attending four high schools in the Greater Giyani Municipality in South Africa. Data was collected using a validated questionnaire which had a reliability of 0.65. Response frequency distributions, two-way frequency tables, Chi-square tests and Cochran–Armitage Trend Tests were used to determine the effect with the demographic characteristics of participants. Participants reported that health services were not conveniently available for them. Their relationship with nurses was poor (p < 0.05 as reported by 73% of participants with regard to maintenance of confidentiality. Participants reported key psychosocial variables such as inadequate sexual knowledge (61%, changing attitudes towards sex (58.9% and peer pressure (56.3% as contributory to high pregnancy rate. Recommendations were made to improve school health services, reproductive education in school curricula focussing on reproductive health, sexuality and guidance for future research.

  20. Short inter-pregnancy intervals, parity, excessive pregnancy weight gain and risk of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.

  1. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Natural Conception: A Comparison of Live Birth Rates in Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Associated with Translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Ikuma

    Full Text Available Established causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL include antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocations, and abnormal embryonic karyotypes. The number of centers performing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for patients with translocations has steadily increased worldwide. The live birth rate with PGD was reported to be 27-54%. The live birth rate with natural conception was reported to be 37-63% on the first trial and 65-83% cumulatively. To date, however, there has been no cohort study comparing age and the number of previous miscarriages in matched patients undergoing or not undergoing PGD. Thus, we compared the live birth rate of patients with RPL associated with a translocation undergoing PGD with that of patients who chose natural conception.After genetic counseling, 52 patients who desired natural conception and 37 patients who chose PGD were matched for age and number of previous miscarriages and these comprised the subjects of our study. PGD was performed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The live birth rates on the first PGD trial and the first natural pregnancy after ascertainment of the carrier status were 37.8% and 53.8%, respectively (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.22-1.23. Cumulative live birth rates were 67.6% and 65.4%, respectively, in the groups undergoing and not undergoing PGD. The time required to become pregnancy was similar in both groups. PGD was found to reduce the miscarriage rate significantly. The prevalence of twin pregnancies was significantly higher in the PGD group. The cost of PGD was $7,956 U.S. per patient.While PGD significantly prevented further miscarriages, there was no difference in the live birth rate. Couples should be fully informed of the similarity in the live birth rate, the similarity in time to become pregnancy, the advantages of PGD, such as the reduction in the miscarriage rate, as well as

  2. Influence of early pregnancy on reproductive rate in lines of mice selected for litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, E J

    1980-09-01

    The influence of male-induced early puberty on female reproductive rate was determined in three lines of mice differing in litter size and body weight. The lines originated from a single base population and had undergone 20 generations of selection for the following criteria: large litter size at birth (L(+)), large litter size and small 6-week body weight (L(+)W(-)), or small litter size and large 6-week body weight (L(-)W(+)). Females were paired with a mature intact male of the same line at 3, 5 or 7 weeks of age. Mean mating age, averaged over lines, was 26.5 ± .3, 38.3 ± .3 and 52.7 ± .3 days. Exposure to a mature male accelerated female sexual maturation in each line. When contrasted with their sibs mated at a later age, early-pregnant females from each line exhibited a decline in one or more component of reproductive performance, suggesting that the physiological state of the very young female was not optimum for normal pregnancy. In comparisons of early and later mating ages, all three lines showed a decreased littering rate at first mating, number born alive, and individual birth weight of progeny adjusted for litter size; L(+) and L(+)W(-) mice showed an increased perinatal mortality rate; L(+) and L(-)W(+) had a reduction in litter size at birth. When the L(+), L(+)W(-) and L(-)W(+) lines were compared with an unselected strain and a line selected for high postweaning gain in similar experiments, a genotype by environment interaction was apparent since all lines did not respond in a similar manner to early mating. The line ranking for litter size at birth for each age at male-exposure was L(+)>L(+)W(-)>L(-)W(+), despite the significant line by age interaction. When litter size was adjusted by covariance for body weight at mating, the significant effects of age at male-exposure and line by age interaction were eliminated. All fertile females were remated after they had weaned their first litter to obtain information on litter size in parity two. Line

  3. Success and spontaneous pregnancy rates following systemic methotrexate versus laparoscopic surgery for tubal pregnancies: A randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lars Bo Krag; Moeller, Charlotte; Thomsen, Sten Grove

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To determine which treatment should be offered to women with a non-ruptured tubal pregnancy: a single dose of methotrexate (MTX) or laparoscopic surgery. Design. Prospective, randomized, open multicenter study. Setting. Seven Danish departments of obstetrics and gynecology. Sample. A t...

  4. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  5. More vasomotor symptoms in menopause among women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy diseases compared with women with normotensive pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, J.T.D.; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Herber-Gast, G.C.; Maas, A.H.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in women worldwide. In recent years, several female-specific cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertensive pregnancy diseases (HPDs) and vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS), have been identified. In this study, we evaluated the as

  6. Perinatal outcome of illicit substance use in pregnancy--comparative and contemporary socio-clinical profile in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Nitin; Beasley, Dana; Rajkumar, Veena; Banerjee, Sujoy

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contemporary socio-clinical profile and perinatal outcome of illicit substance use in pregnancy in a large UK city and compare with published literature. Cases were identified retrospectively from the 'cause for concern' referrals over 5 years (2003-2007). Data was collected on mother-infant pair from medical notes and laboratory records. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used where appropriate for statistical analysis. One hundred sixty-eight women were identified as using illicit substance in pregnancy. Smoking (97.4%), unemployment (85.4%) and single status (42.3%) were frequent. Besides controlled use of methadone, heroin, cannabis and benzodiazepines were the most commonly used drugs. Hepatitis C prevalence was high (29.9%) despite low antenatal screening rates (57.7%). Neonatal morbidity was related to prematurity (22.9%), small for dates (28.6%) and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS; 58.9%). By day 5 of life, 95.1% of the babies developing NAS and 96.1% of those requiring pharmacological treatment were symptomatic. Of the infants developing NAS, 31.7% required pharmacological treatment. A total of 82.5% babies went home with their mother, and 21.2% were placed on the Child Protection Register. Only 14.3% were breast feeding at discharge. Illicit substance use in pregnancy continues to be associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity, and the socio-clinical profile in this decade appears unchanged in the UK. Hepatitis C prevalence is high, and detection should be improved through targeted antenatal screening. Where facility in the community is unavailable, 5 days of hospital stay is sufficient to safely identify babies at risk of developing NAS. Most babies were discharged home with their mother.

  7. Lower sedentary metabolic rate in women compared with men.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, R.; Lillioja, S; Fontvieille, A M; Rising, R; Bogardus, C; Ravussin, E

    1992-01-01

    Since females have a greater prevalence of obesity compared with males, the question arises whether females have lower metabolic rate than males after adjusting for differences in body weight and composition. 24-h energy expenditure (24EE), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) were measured in a respiratory chamber in 235 healthy, nondiabetic Caucasian subjects (114 males, 121 females). Body composition was determined by hydrodensitometry. 24EE was 124 +/- 38 kcal/d (...

  8. Eisenmenger's syndrome in pregnancy: does heparin prophylaxis improve the maternal mortality rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J A; Crosby, W M; Basta, L L

    1977-03-01

    Seven consecutive patients with Eisenmenber's syndrome, cared for by the obstetric team in conjunction with the cardiology service, were reviewed to assess the possible role of prophylactic heparin therapy and intensive care on the outcome of these patients. In each patient, the diagnosis of Eisenmenger's syndrome was established by the demonstration of equal pulmonary arterial and aortic pressures with a predominantly right-to-left shunt at cardiac catheterization. Five of the seven patients died as follows: Three patients died between the fifth and eighth post-partum days, one patient died during the twenty-sixth week of pregnancy, and one patient died on the fifth postoperative day following tubal ligation. All of these five patients received prophylactic heparin therapy. In three patients, heparin therapy was complicated by excessive bleeding during the postoperative or postpartum period. Autopsy examination in two patients revealed no evidence of thrombosis in the main pulmonary arteries and no pulmonary infarction, contrary to the antemortem clinical suspicion. The two survivors did not receive prophylactic heparin. They comprised one patient who had normal delivery and one patient who underwent tubal ligation and induction of abortion. We conclude that the prohibitive mortality rate of Eisenmenger's syndrome during pregnancy, puerpurium, or surgical procedures probably cannot be modified with prophylactic heparin therapy. Anticoagulant treatment does not prevent deterioration of patients and probably compounds the problem by causing significant bleeding.

  9. High Rates of Pregnancy among Vocational School Students: Results of Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Survey in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Kilmarx, Peter H.; van Griensven, Frits; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Jeeyapant, Supaporn; Limpakarnjanarat, Khanchi; Uthaiworavit, Wat

    2003-01-01

    Examined prevalence of and factors associated with pregnancy and abortion among vocation school students in northern Thailand. Age, current contraceptive use, early initiation of sexual intercourse, alcohol and drug use, and sexual coercion were associated with self or partner pregnancy. High rates of pregnancy and abortion indicate the need for…

  10. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  11. Changes in basal rates and bolus calculator settings in insulin pumps during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jonathan M; Secher, Anna L; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    and HbA1c were recorded. Results were compared with 96 women with type 1 diabetes on multiple daily injection therapy. RESULTS: Throughout pregnancy, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio decreased at all three main meals. The most pronounced decrease was observed at breakfast, where the carbohydrate......-to-insulin ratio was reduced, from median 12 (range 4-20) in early pregnancy to 3 (2-10) g carbohydrate per unit insulin in late pregnancy. Basal insulin delivery increased by ∼50%, i.e. from 0.8 (0.5-2.2) to 1.2 (0.6-2.5) IU/h at 5 a.m. and from 1.0 (0.6-1.5) to 1.3 (0.2-2.3) IU/h at 5 p.m. during pregnancy. HbA1......c levels during pregnancy, the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia and pregnancy outcomes were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In women with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy with a bolus calculator, the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio declined 4-fold from early to late pregnancy, whereas...

  12. Ascorbic acid is lower during pregnancy in diabetic women compared to controls: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, B.; Lauszus, Finn; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.Few studies have examined how vitamin C status is affected in diabetic pregnancy and no comparison between normal and diabetic pregnancies has been found. This study evaluated vitamin C status prospectively during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=76), in non-diabetic w...

  13. Ascorbic acid is lower during pregnancy in diabetic women compared to controls: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, B.; Lauszus, Finn; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined how vitamin C status is affected in diabetic pregnancy and no comparison between normal and diabetic pregnancies has been found. This study evaluated vitamin C status prospectively during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=76), in non-diabetic women (n=6...

  14. Effect of the administration of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy rates in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeloglu, A; Erdem, H; Saribay, M K; Thatcher, W W; Tekeli, T

    2007-03-24

    Fifty-two 15-month-old Holstein heifers were synchronised with single or double injections of prostaglandin F(2alpha), followed by an injection of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh) 48 hours later, and inseminated 12 to 14 hours after the injection of gnrh (day 0). Half of them were then injected twice intramuscularly with 1.1 mg/kg flunixin meglumine 12 hours apart, on the evening of day 15 and the morning of day 16, and the other 26 were not treated. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 29 and 65 days after they were inseminated. On day 29, 20 of the treated heifers were pregnant compared with 13 of the control heifers (P<0.05); on day 65, 18 of the treated heifers were still pregnant compared with 12 of the control heifers (P<0.10).

  15. Abstinence-only education and teen pregnancy rates: why we need comprehensive sex education in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Hall, David W

    2011-01-01

    The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48), we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.

  16. Abstinence-only education and teen pregnancy rates: why we need comprehensive sex education in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin F Stanger-Hall

    Full Text Available The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005 from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48, we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.

  17. Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Hall, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48), we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future. PMID:22022362

  18. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Olivia L; Larimore, Erin L; McNeel, Anthony K; Chase, Chad C; Cushman, Robert A; Freetly, Harvey C; Perry, George A

    2016-10-01

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n=150) were matched by breed, age, and body weight then randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) Control (10% CP) or 2) High protein (14% CP) over three replicates (n=40/replicate). Estrus was synchronized with an injection of PGF2α. Uterine pH, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), ammonia, and glucose concentrations were determined on d 7 of the estrous cycle. Pregnancy status was determined by ultrasonography 30 d following the breeding season. In vitro fertilization was performed on heifers precluded from uterine analysis (n=15/diet) to determine the effect of a High Protein diet on oocyte quality. Plasma urea concentrations were greater in the High Protein diet compared to Control (P0.40) on the number of oocytes collected, number of oocytes cleaved, amount of blastocysts, percentage of oocytes cleaved and percentage of blastocysts present. In summary, high nitrogen diets increased PUN concentrations in heifers; however, there were no deleterious effects on reproduction.

  19. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on pregnancy rates in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ropstad

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 1990, a total of 69 calves with a minimum body weight of 46 kg were allocated into two groups, one treated with a single injection of 75 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (N = 35, the other serving as control (N=34. Blood samples were collected for progesterone analysis in December 1990 and 1991. Udder palpation was performed in July and September 1990. Treated animals had significantly lower plasma progesterone levels in December 1990. The pregnancy rate as determined by udder palpation was 16.7% for treated animals and 48.3% for controls (P<0.01. All animals which were found to be pregnant had high progesterone levels (>5 ng/ml the following winter. The mean body weight increase was 5.1 kg lower in females which kept their calves until September than in barren females (P<0.05. More than 50% of the pregnant females lost their calves during the summer.

  20. Comparison of methionine chelated versus sulfate trace minerals on rate and efficiency of gain and pregnancy rates in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this experiment were to compare rate and efficiency of gain, and conception rates of yearling heifers supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn as either metal methionine hydroxy analogue chelated trace minerals (CTM; provided as MINTREX) or the same trace minerals in SO4 form. The experimental...

  1. Rates of fetal polydrug exposures in methadone-maintained pregnancies from a high-risk population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn Delano

    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is the standard of care during pregnancy for opioid-dependency, showing efficacy in improving prenatal care and reducing risk of relapse. By design, however, MMT is only intended to prevent withdrawal thus facilitating cognitive behavioural interventions. In order to maximize the benefits of MMT, it is essential that methadone is both properly prescribed and that additional addiction treatment is concurrently administered. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of MMT engagement in high-risk pregnant women in reducing polydrug use by objective laboratory examination of neonatal meconium.Over a 29-month period, the Motherisk Laboratory at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto analyzed meconium samples as per request by social services and hospitals for drugs of abuse.Of the 904 meconium samples received, 273 were tested for methadone with 164 positive and 109 negative for methadone. Almost half of the methadone positive samples (46.34% were also positive for at least one other opioid compound, which did not differ statistically from the methadone-negative control samples (46.79%; Chi square test, p=0.94. No differences were found between the methadone positive and negative groups in rates of concurrent amphetamines, cocaine, cannabis, and alcohol use indicating a similar risk of polydrug use between pregnant women taking or not taking methadone in this population.The high rates of additional opioid and other drug use in the MMT group, suggest that MMT is failing this population of patients. It is possible that methadone doses during pregnancy are not appropriately adjusted for changes in pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g. blood volume, renal function during the second and third trimesters. This may result in sub-therapeutic dosing creating withdrawal symptoms leading to additional substance use. Alternatively, these results may be demonstrating a substantial lack in delivery of addiction support

  2. Rates of fetal polydrug exposures in methadone-maintained pregnancies from a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, Kaitlyn; Gareri, Joey; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the standard of care during pregnancy for opioid-dependency, showing efficacy in improving prenatal care and reducing risk of relapse. By design, however, MMT is only intended to prevent withdrawal thus facilitating cognitive behavioural interventions. In order to maximize the benefits of MMT, it is essential that methadone is both properly prescribed and that additional addiction treatment is concurrently administered. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of MMT engagement in high-risk pregnant women in reducing polydrug use by objective laboratory examination of neonatal meconium. Over a 29-month period, the Motherisk Laboratory at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto analyzed meconium samples as per request by social services and hospitals for drugs of abuse. Of the 904 meconium samples received, 273 were tested for methadone with 164 positive and 109 negative for methadone. Almost half of the methadone positive samples (46.34%) were also positive for at least one other opioid compound, which did not differ statistically from the methadone-negative control samples (46.79%; Chi square test, p=0.94). No differences were found between the methadone positive and negative groups in rates of concurrent amphetamines, cocaine, cannabis, and alcohol use indicating a similar risk of polydrug use between pregnant women taking or not taking methadone in this population. The high rates of additional opioid and other drug use in the MMT group, suggest that MMT is failing this population of patients. It is possible that methadone doses during pregnancy are not appropriately adjusted for changes in pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g. blood volume, renal function) during the second and third trimesters. This may result in sub-therapeutic dosing creating withdrawal symptoms leading to additional substance use. Alternatively, these results may be demonstrating a substantial lack in delivery of addiction support services in this

  3. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy influences infant heart rate variability at one month of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Linda E; Scholtz, Susan A; Suminski, Richard; Gustafson, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that regular maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower fetal heart rate (HR) and higher heart rate variability (HRV) at 36weeks gestation. We now report the effect of maternal exercise on infant HR and HRV in subjects who remained active in the study at the one-month follow up visit. We aimed to determine whether differences in fetal cardiac autonomic control related to maternal physical activity were an in utero phenomenon or would persist 1month after birth. Magnetocardiograms (MCGs) of infants born to regularly exercising (≥30min of aerobic activity, 3 times per week; N=16) and non-exercising (N=27) pregnant women were recorded using a fetal biomagnetometer. Normal R-peaks were marked to derive infant HR and HRV in time and frequency domains, including the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), the standard deviation of normal-to-normal interbeat intervals (SDNN), and power in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands. Group differences were examined with Student's t-tests. Infants born to exercising women had significantly higher RMSSD (P=0.010), LF power (P=0.002), and HF power (P=0.004) than those born to women who did not engage in regular physical activity while pregnant. Infants born to women who participated in regular physical activity during pregnancy continued to have higher HRV in the infant period. This suggests that the developing cardiac autonomic nervous system is sensitive to the effects of maternal physical activity and is a target for fetal programming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. No evidence to support the concept that low serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate (s) levels are associated with less oocyte production or lower pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, E; Check, J H; Mitchell-Williams, J; Cohen, R

    2012-01-01

    To determine if in a population of women with diminished oocyte reserve as evidenced by day 3 serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels > 12 mIU/ml women with lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) levels produce fewer oocytes or have lower pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) compared to women with higher levels. The women were divided into poor responders (producing or = 5 oocytes). Mean DHEA-s levels were compared in poor vs good responders and in the subgroups of those who conceived vs those who did not conceive. The data clearly showed no association with low DHEA-s levels and response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation or pregnancy rates. In women with elevated serum FSH low DHEA levels do not suggest that supplementation with DHEA would improve response or pregnancy rate. These data do not preclude the possibility that there is a small subset of women with normal oocyte reserve who also fail to respond to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for some unknown reason and the problem could be remediable by DHEA supplementation.

  5. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  6. Comparing Public Quality Ratings for Accredited and Nonaccredited Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott C; Morton, David J; Braun, Barbara I; Longo, Beth Ann; Baker, David W

    2017-01-01

    Compare quality ratings of accredited and nonaccredited nursing homes using the publicly available Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Nursing Home Compare data set. This cross-sectional study compared the performance of 711 Joint Commission-accredited (TJC-accredited) nursing homes (81 of which also had Post-Acute Care Certification) to 14,926 non-Joint Commission-accredited (non-TJC-accredited) facilities using the Nursing Home Compare data set (as downloaded on April 2015). Measures included the overall Five-Star Quality Rating and its 4 components (health inspection, quality measures, staffing, and RN staffing), the 18 Nursing Home Compare quality measures (5 short-stay measures, 13 long-stay measures), as well as inspection deficiencies, fines, and payment denials. t tests were used to assess differences in rates for TJC-accredited nursing homes versus non-TJC-accredited nursing homes for quality measures, ratings, and fine amounts. Analysis of variance models were used to determine differences in rates using Joint Commission accreditation status, nursing home size based on number of beds, and ownership type. An additional model with an interaction term using Joint Commission accreditation status and Joint Commission Post-Acute Care Certification status was used to determine differences in rates for Post-Acute Care Certified nursing homes. Binary variables (eg, deficiency type, fines, and payment denials) were evaluated using a logistic regression model with the same covariates. After controlling for the influences of facility size and ownership type, TJC-accredited nursing homes had significantly higher star ratings than non-TJC-accredited nursing homes on each of the star rating component subscales (P homes with Post-Acute Care Certification performed statistically better on the overall star rating, as well as 3 of the 4 subscales (P homes had statistically fewer deficiencies than non-TJC-accredited nursing homes (P homes accredited by The

  7. Comparing audio and video data for rating communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristine; Herman, Ruth; Bontempo, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Video recording has become increasingly popular in nursing research, adding rich nonverbal, contextual, and behavioral information. However, benefits of video over audio data have not been well established. We compared communication ratings of audio versus video data using the Emotional Tone Rating Scale. Twenty raters watched video clips of nursing care and rated staff communication on 12 descriptors that reflect dimensions of person-centered and controlling communication. Another group rated audio-only versions of the same clips. Interrater consistency was high within each group with Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) (2,1) for audio .91, and video = .94. Interrater consistency for both groups combined was also high with ICC (2,1) for audio and video = .95. Communication ratings using audio and video data were highly correlated. The value of video being superior to audio-recorded data should be evaluated in designing studies evaluating nursing care.

  8. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  9. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (Precovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (Prate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; Precovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03).

  10. Selenium–vitamin E supplementation in infertile men: effects on semen parameters and pregnancy rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad K Moslemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad K Moslemi1,2, Samaneh Tavanbakhsh31Highly Specialized Jihad Daneshgahi Infertility Center, Qom Branch (ACECR, Qom, Iran; 2Department of Urology, 3School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IranObjectives: Infertility is an important medical and social problem that has an impact on well-being. A significant development in the last 10 years in the study of human infertility has been the discovery that oxidative sperm DNA damage has a critical role in the etiology of poor semen quality and male infertility. Selenium (Se is an essential element for normal testicular development, spermatogenesis, and spermatozoa motility and function. The predominant biochemical action of Se in both humans and animals is to serve as an antioxidant via the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase and thus protect cellular membranes and organelles from peroxidative damage. We explored the efficacy of Se in combination with vitamin E for improving semen parameters and pregnancy rates in infertile men.Materials and methods: The study included 690 infertile men with idiopathic asthenoteratospermia who received supplemental daily Se (200 µg in combination with vitamin E (400 units for at least 100 days. The mean age of cases was 28.5 years (range 20–45, and the median age was 30 years. These cases had presented with male factor infertility (primary or secondary for at least 1 year. The longest and shortest duration of infertility was 10 years and 1 year, respectively. The median time of diagnosis of infertility was 1 year with a mean of 2.5 years.Results: We observed 52.6% (362 cases total improvement in sperm motility, morphology, or both, and 10.8% (75 cases spontaneous pregnancy in comparison with no treatment (95% confidence interval: 3.08 to 5.52. No response to treatment occurred in 253 cases (36.6% after 14 weeks of combination therapy. Mean difference between semen analyses of cases before and after treatment was 4.3% with a standard

  11. Comparing Three Jet Rates with and without Hadronic Rindler Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2017-01-01

    Recently, some researchers, (Sepehri and Shoorvazi Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(2), 021301, [2013]), have considered the effect of Rindler horizon on three jet rate. This paper confirms their results and by comparing usual models with this new model for different energies, shows that regarding Rindler horizon gives us the results which more close to experimental data respect to usual models.

  12. Comparing Three Jet Rates With and Without Hadronic Rindler Horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    Recently some researchers, (A. Sepehri, S. Shoorvazi, CHIN. PHYS. LETT. Vol. 30, No. 2 (2013)), have considered the effect of Rindler horizon on three jet rate. This paper confirms their results and by comparing usual models with this new model for different energies, shows that regarding Rindler horizon gives us the results which more close to experimental data respect to usual models

  13. Relationships between ovulation rate and embryonic and placental characteristics in multiparous sows at 35 days of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Da C.L.; Brand, van den H.; Laurenssen, B.F.A.; Broekhuijse, M.L.W.J.; Knol, E.F.; Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between ovulation rate (OR) and embryonic and placental development in sows. Topigs Norsvin® sows (n=91, parity 2 to 17) from three different genetic backgrounds were slaughtered at 35 days of pregnancy and the reproductive tract was colle

  14. Human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with high pregnancy rates during ovarian stimulation and timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razeq Sonya

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are different factors that influence treatment outcome after ovarian stimulation and timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI. After patient age, it has been suggested that timing of insemination in relation to ovulation is probably the most important variable affecting the success of treatment. The objective of this study is to study the value of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration and occurrence of luteinizing hormone (LH surge in timing insemination on the treatment outcome after follicular monitoring with timed-intercourse or intrauterine insemination, with or without ovarian stimulation. Methods Retrospective analysis of 2000 consecutive completed treatment cycles (637 timed-intercourse and 1363 intrauterine insemination cycles. Stimulation protocols included clomiphene alone or with FSH injection, letrozole (an aromatase inhibitor alone or with FSH, and FSH alone. LH-surge was defined as an increase in LH level ≥200% over mean of preceding two days. When given, hCG was administered at a dose of 10,000 IU. The main outcome was clinical pregnancy rate per cycle. Results Higher pregnancy rates occurred in cycles in which hCG was given. Occurrence of an LH-surge was associated with a higher pregnancy rate with clomiphene treatment, but a lower pregnancy rate with FSH treatment. Conclusions hCG administration is associated with a favorable outcome during ovarian stimulation. Awaiting occurrence of LH-surge is associated with a better outcome with CC but not with FSH treatment.

  15. Pregnancy reduces the accuracy of the estimated glomerular filtration rate based on Cockroft-Gault and MDRD formulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetje, P.M.; Spaan, J.J.; Kooman, J.P.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Peeters, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the effect of pregnancy on the accuracy of 3 commonly used methods to estimate glomerular filtration rate ([GFR] creatinine clearance, the Cockroft-Gault, and modification of diet in renal disease [MDRD] formulas) using the inulin clearance as a reference. DES

  16. Long-term ongoing pregnancy rate and mode of conception after a positive and negative post-coital test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, M.; Brandes, M.; Bruin, J.P.; Bots, R.S.; Kremer, J.A.; Nelen, W.L.; Hamilton, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many fertility clinics have decided to abolish the post-coital test. Yet, it is a significant factor in prognostic models that predict the spontaneous pregnancy rate within one year. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the long-term outcome of infertile couples with a positive or a

  17. Long-term ongoing pregnancy rate and mode of conception after a positive and negative post-coital test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, M.; Brandes, M.; Bruin, J.P.; Bots, R.S.; Kremer, J.A.; Nelen, W.L.; Hamilton, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many fertility clinics have decided to abolish the post-coital test. Yet, it is a significant factor in prognostic models that predict the spontaneous pregnancy rate within one year. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the long-term outcome of infertile couples with a positive or a

  18. Immediate versus delayed initiation of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system following medical termination of pregnancy - 1 year continuation rates: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, R; Mentula, M; Heikinheimo, O

    2017-06-26

    To assess the 1-year continuation rates and new pregnancies following immediate versus delayed insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) after medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) up to 20 weeks of gestation. A randomised controlled trial. Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 267 women requesting MTOP and planning LNG-IUS for post-MTOP contraception. Insertion of LNG-IUS occurred immediately (0-3 days) or after a delay (2-4 weeks) following MTOP. Follow-up visits were at 3 months and 1 year after MTOP. LNG-IUS use at 1 year after MTOP. Women were randomised to immediate (n = 134) or delayed (n = 133) insertion of the LNG-IUS, and 133 and 131 were analysed; 127 (95.5%) women received immediate insertion and 111 (84.7%) women had delayed insertion of the LNG-IUS (risk ratio [RR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). The verified numbers of women continuing the LNG-IUS use at 1 year were 83 (62.4%) and 52 (39.7%) (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.23-2.02). The numbers of new pregnancies were 6 (4.5%) and 16 (12.2%) (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and numbers of subsequent TOPs were 4 (3.0%) and 5 (3.8%) (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.22-2.87). Immediate insertion of the LNG-IUS following MTOP resulted in higher 1-year continuation rates compared with delayed insertion. In addition, those receiving immediate insertion demonstrated a decreased new pregnancy rate, but no difference in the numbers of another TOP. Immediate LNG-IUS insertion after MTOP results in a higher 1-year continuation compared with delayed insertion. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. The Role of Infertility Etiology in Success Rate of Intrauterine Insemination Cycles: An Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Pregnancy Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Rashidi, Mandana; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Daghighi, Sara; Pourasghari, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of ovarian stimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in couples with different infertility etiology. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in data of 1348 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation by clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or gonadotropins in 632 women with five different infertility etiology subgroups at Akbarabbadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Results: The pregnancy rate (PR)/ cycle was highest (19.9%) among couples with unexplained infertility and lowest (10.6%) in couples with multiple factors infertility. In cases of unexplained infertility, the best PRs were seen after CC plus gonadotropins stimulation (26.3%) and with inseminated motile sperm count>30×106 (21.9%), but the tendency didn’t reach statistical significant. In the ovarian factor group, the best PRs were observed in women aged between 30 and 34 years (20.8%), with 2-3 preovulatory follicles (37.8%) and infertility duration between 1and 3 years (20.8%), while only infertility duration (p=0.03) and number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.01) were statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis determined that number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.02), duration of infertility (p=0.015), age (p=0.019), infertility etiology (p=0.05) and stimulation regimen (p=0.01) were significant independent factors in order to predict overall clinical PR. Conclusion: The etiology of infertility is important to achieve remarkable IUI success. It is worth mentioning that within different etiologies of infertility, the demographic and cycles characteristics of couples did not show the same effect. Favorable variables for treatment success are as follows: age infertility ≤5 years and a cause of infertility except of multiple factors. PMID:24520471

  20. Efficacy of timed embryo transfer with fresh and frozen in vitro produced embryos to increase pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, J D; Drost, M; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Leibfried-Rutledge, M L; Thatcher, M J; Kassa, T; Binelli, M; Hansen, P J; Chenoweth, P J; Thatcher, W W

    1999-11-01

    Our objective was to determine whether pregnancy rates in heat-stressed dairy cattle could be enhanced by timed embryo transfer of fresh (nonfrozen) or frozen-thawed in vitro-derived embryos compared to timed insemination. Ovulation in Holstein cows was synchronized by a GnRH injection followed 7 d later by PGF2 alpha and a second treatment with GnRH 48 h later. Control cows (n = 129) were inseminated 16 h (d 0) after the second GnRH injection. On d 7, a fresh (n = 133) or frozen-thawed (n = 142) in vitro-derived embryo was transferred to cows assigned for timed embryo transfer after categorizing the corpus luteum by palpation per rectum as 3 (excellent), 2 (good or fair), 1 (poor), and 0 (nonpalpable). Response to the synchronization treatment, determined by plasma progesterone concentration (ng/ml) or = 2.0 on d 7, was 76.2%. Mean plasma progesterone concentration on d 7 increased as the quality of corpus luteum improved from category 0 to 3. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma were elevated (> or = 2.0 ng/ml) at 21 d in 64.7 (fresh embryo), 40.3 (frozen embryo), and 41.4 +/- 0.1% (timed insemination) of cows, respectively. Cows that received a fresh embryo had a greater pregnancy rate at 45 to 52 d than did cows that received a frozen-thawed embryo or timed insemination (14.3 > 4.8, 4.9 +/- 2.3%). Body condition (d 0) of cows influenced the pregnancy rate and plasma progesterone concentrations. In summary, timed embryo transfer with fresh in vitro-produced embryos in heat-stressed dairy cattle improved pregnancy rate relative to timed insemination.

  1. Delayed insemination of nonestrous cows improves pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in timed artificial insemination of suckled beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Lock, S L; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2014-04-01

    This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that delayed insemination of nonestrous cows would increase pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in conjunction with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Estrus was synchronized for 656 suckled beef cows with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR [1.38 g progesterone] on d 0, 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR removal on d 7, and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after CIDR removal) with conventional semen regardless of estrous expression, 2) FTAI with sex-sorted semen regardless of estrous expression, or 3) FTAI with sex-sorted semen for cows having expressed estrus and delayed AI 20 h after final GnRH for cows failing to express estrus. A treatment × estrous expression interaction was found (P insemination with sex-sorted semen yielded higher (P < 0.0001) pregnancy rates than with sex-sorted semen at the standard time (Treatments 2 and 3; 3 versus 36%, respectively). Furthermore, among cows that failed to express estrus, FTAI pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen at the delayed time (36%) were comparable (P = 0.9) to those achieved using conventional semen at the standard time (Treatment 1; 37%). These results indicate that delaying AI of nonestrous cows by 20 h from the standard FTAI improves pregnancy rates when sex-sorted semen is used with FTAI.

  2. Lower sedentary metabolic rate in women compared with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, R; Lillioja, S; Fontvieille, A M; Rising, R; Bogardus, C; Ravussin, E

    1992-01-01

    Since females have a greater prevalence of obesity compared with males, the question arises whether females have lower metabolic rate than males after adjusting for differences in body weight and composition. 24-h energy expenditure (24EE), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) were measured in a respiratory chamber in 235 healthy, nondiabetic Caucasian subjects (114 males, 121 females). Body composition was determined by hydrodensitometry. 24EE was 124 +/- 38 kcal/d (P less than 0.002) higher in males than females after adjusting for differences in fat-free mass, fat mass, and age. Spontaneous physical activity was not significantly different between males and females. Since adjusted 24EE was 106 +/- 39 kcal/d (P less than 0.01) higher in females during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle compared with females during the follicular phase, energy expenditure was analyzed in a subset (greater than 50 yr) to minimize the confounding effect of menstrual status. 24EE (160 +/- 66 kcal/d; P less than 0.03), BMR (116 +/- 45; P less than 0.02), and SMR (208 +/- 68 kcal/d; P less than 0.005) were higher in males compared with females of the older subset after adjusting for differences in body composition, age, and activity. In summary, sedentary 24EE is approximately 5-10% lower in females compared with males after adjusting for differences in body composition, age, and activity. PMID:1522233

  3. The effects of acupuncture on rates of clinical pregnancy among women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric; van der Windt, Daniëlle; Cheng, Ke; Stafford, Kristen; Liu, Jianping; Tierney, Jayne; Lao, Lixing; Berman, Brian M.; Langenberg, Patricia; Bouter, Lex M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent systematic reviews of adjuvant acupuncture for IVF have pooled heterogeneous trials, without examining variables that might explain the heterogeneity. The aims of our meta-analysis were to quantify the overall pooled effects of adjuvant acupuncture on IVF clinical pregnancy success rates, and evaluate whether study design-, treatment- and population-related factors influence effect estimates. METHODS We included randomized controlled trials that compared needle acupuncture administered within 1 day of embryo transfer, versus sham acupuncture or no adjuvant treatment. Our primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rates. We obtained from all investigators additional methodological details and outcome data not included in their original publications. We analysed sham-controlled and no adjuvant treatment-controlled trials separately, but since there were no large or significant differences between these two subsets, we pooled all trials for subgroup analyses. We prespecified 11 subgroup variables (5 clinical and 6 methodological) to investigate sources of heterogeneity, using single covariate meta-regressions. RESULTS Sixteen trials (4021 participants) were included in the meta-analyses. There was no statistically significant difference between acupuncture and controls when combining all trials [risk ratio (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–1.31; I2 = 68%; 16 trials; 4021 participants], or when restricting to sham-controlled (RR 1.02, 0.83–1.26; I2 = 66%; 7 trials; 2044 participants) or no adjuvant treatment-controlled trials (RR 1.22, 0.97–1.52; I2 = 67%; 9 trials; 1977 participants). The type of control used did not significantly explain the statistical heterogeneity (interaction P = 0.27). Baseline pregnancy rate, measured as the observed rate of clinical pregnancy in the control group of each trial, was a statistically significant effect modifier (interaction P acupuncture across all trials (adjusted R2 = 93%; I2 residual = 9

  4. The INeS study: prevention of multiple pregnancies: a randomised controlled trial comparing IUI COH versus IVF e SET versus MNC IVF in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers Nicole

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple pregnancies are high risk pregnancies with higher chances of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. In the past decades the number of multiple pregnancies has increased. This trend is partly due to the fact that women start family planning at an increased age, but also due to the increased use of ART. Couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility generally receive intrauterine insemination IUI with controlled hormonal stimulation (IUI COH. The cumulative pregnancy rate is 40%, with a 10% multiple pregnancy rate. This study aims to reveal whether alternative treatments such as IVF elective Single Embryo Transfer (IVF e SET or Modified Natural Cycle IVF (MNC IVF can reduce the number of multiple pregnancy rates, but uphold similar pregnancy rates as IUI COH in couples with mild male or unexplained subfertility. Secondly, the aim is to perform a cost effective analyses and assess treatment preference of these couples. Methods/Design We plan a multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial in the Netherlands comparing six cycles of intra-uterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation or six cycles of Modified Natural Cycle (MNC IVF or three cycles with IVF-elective Single Embryo Transfer (eSET plus cryo-cycles within a time frame of 12 months. Couples with unexplained subfertility or mild male subfertility and a poor prognosis for treatment independent pregnancy will be included. Women with anovulatory cycles, severe endometriosis, double sided tubal pathology or serious endocrine illness will be excluded. Our primary outcome is the birth of a healthy singleton. Secondary outcomes are multiple pregnancy, treatment costs, and patient experiences in each treatment arm. The analysis will be performed according tot the intention to treat principle. We will test for non-inferiority of the three arms with respect to live birth. As we accept a 12.5% loss in pregnancy rate in one of the two IVF arms

  5. Changes in ectocervical surface area in women throughout pregnancy compared to non-pregnant and postpartum states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueya; Jiang, Yanmin; Liu, Lei; Shi, Shao-Qing; Garfield, Robert E; Liu, Huishu

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate changes in the surface area of the ectocervix (CA) in women during pregnancy and compare this to postpartum and non-pregnant states. CA was evaluated in 210 normal nulliparous women divided into groups from early to late gestation, 40 postpartum women, and 25 non-pregnant women. CA in cm(2) was estimated from analysis of images taken with an endoscope of the cervical face and an mm scale. An mm scale was also used to determine fornix length and fornix area computed. The face, fornix, and total areas of the CA of non-pregnant and postpartum groups are significantly smaller (p 75% area compared with CA of non-pregnant patients and then reverts back to low CA postpartum. (2) Increases in CA during pregnancy occur in both the face and fornix areas. (3) Increases in CA reflect enlargement in cervical volume and remodeling during pregnancy.

  6. Obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and associated obesity risk among adult daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraik, José G B; Ahlsson, Fredrik; Diderholm, Barbro; Lundgren, Maria

    2015-11-13

    We examined changes in obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and assessed the effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) on the risk of overweight or obesity among adult daughters. This study covered an intergenerational retrospective cohort of 26,561 Swedish mothers and their 26,561 first-born daughters. There was a 4-fold increase in obesity rates, which rose from 3.1% among women entering pregnancy in 1982-1988 to 12.3% among their daughters in 2000-2008 (p pregnancy. The greater the maternal BMI, the greater the odds of overweight and/or obesity among daughters. Underweight mothers had half the odds of having an overweight or obese daughter in comparison to mothers of normal BMI (p obese mothers having obese daughters was 3.94 (p obesity and the risk of obesity among their first-born daughters. In addition, we observed a considerable increase in obesity rates across generations in mother-daughter pairs of Swedish women entering pregnancy. Thus, it is important to have preventative strategies in place to halt the worsening intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  7. A randomised controlled trial to compare intravenous iron sucrose and oral iron in treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avantika; Manaktala, Usha; Rathore, Asmita Muthal

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous iron sucrose with oral iron therapy in pregnant patients with anemia. The primary outcome of the study was increase in haemoglobin on day 7, 14 & 28 and rise of serum ferritin over 28 days. The study population consisted of 100 patients with singleton pregnancy between 24 and 34 weeks, hemoglobin levels between 7.0-9.0 gm/dL and serum ferritin levels less than 15 ng/mL. The participants in the oral group were given daily 180 mg elemental iron in three divided oral doses for 4 weeks. Total calculated dose of iron sucrose with a target hemoglobin of 11 gm %, was given in 200 mg dose on alternate days. Mean haemoglobin rise was 0.58 gm/dL in the IV group as compared to 0.23 gm/dL in the oral group on day 14 and 1.9 gm/dL in the IV group & 1.3 gm/dL in the oral group on day 28, (p <0.05). In the IV group, 76% of the subjects achieved haemoglobin levels of ≥11 gm% at the time of delivery, as compared to only 54% of the subjects in the oral group who achieved these levels. Serum ferritin value was significantly higher in the IV group, 37.45 ± 5.73 ng/mL as compared to 13.96 ± 1.88 ng/mL in the oral group at 4th week (p <0.001). There was no major side effect in the IV group. 36% subjects in the oral group developed gastrointestinal side effects & 10% of the subjects were non compliant. The rate of hemoglobin rise is faster with intravenous iron sucrose therapy as compared to oral iron therapy which can be beneficial in pregnant women presenting with anemia at a later period of gestation. Intravenous iron sucrose is very well tolerated during pregnancy.

  8. A comparative study of pregnancy complications and outcomes for the years 1999 and 2004 at a rural hospital in South Africa: Implications for antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjurul Hoque

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection and management of high-risk pregnancies, all the way through antenatal care, have been advocated as a high-quality mean of reducing maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.Objectives: This study reviewed the demographic variables, pregnancy and obstetric complications and perinatal outcomes for the years 1999 and 2004 in a rural hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with the aim of evaluating trends and gaps that may enhance appropriate strategies for improvement of antenatal care.Method: A retrospective comparative study, with representative samples of pregnant women, were randomly selected for the respective years 1999 and 2004. Descriptive statistics were calculated depending on measurement scale. A Z-test was carried out to assess the significant difference (p < 0.05 in proportions between pregnancy complications and outcomes of the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the significant predictors for outcome variables.Results: The numbers of pregnancies among young women (< 25 years increased significantly by 8% (p < 0.05 in the year 2004. Compared with 1999, the reduction in the numbers of pregnancies (1% among higher parity (parity 5 or more women in 2004 was remarkable. There were significant reductions of eclampsia, anaemia and post partum haemorrhage. Women with breech presentation were 3.75 times more likely to deliver preterm, and 5.45 times more likely to deliver low birth-weight babies. Similarly, women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were more likely to have preterm (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 2.83; 4.35 and low birth-weight babies (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.62; 2.71. Eclampsia was also a risk factor associated with preterm deliveries (OR = 6.14, 95% CI 3.74; 10.09 and low birth-weight babies (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 1.83; 6.28.Conclusion: This study suggests that further research is needed to find the causes of higher rate of teenage pregnancies and an increase in

  9. A comparative study of pregnancy complications and outcomes for the years 1999 and 2004 at a rural hospital in South Africa: Implications for antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjurul Hoque

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection and management of high-risk pregnancies, all the way through antenatal care, have been advocated as a high-quality mean of reducing maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.Objectives: This study reviewed the demographic variables, pregnancy and obstetric complications and perinatal outcomes for the years 1999 and 2004 in a rural hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with the aim of evaluating trends and gaps that may enhance appropriate strategies for improvement of antenatal care.Method: A retrospective comparative study, with representative samples of pregnant women, were randomly selected for the respective years 1999 and 2004. Descriptive statistics were calculated depending on measurement scale. A Z-test was carried out to assess the significant difference (p < 0.05 in proportions between pregnancy complications and outcomes of the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the significant predictors for outcome variables.Results: The numbers of pregnancies among young women (< 25 years increased significantly by 8% (p < 0.05 in the year 2004. Compared with 1999, the reduction in the numbers of pregnancies (1% among higher parity (parity 5 or more women in 2004 was remarkable. There were significant reductions of eclampsia, anaemia and post partum haemorrhage. Women with breech presentation were 3.75 times more likely to deliver preterm, and 5.45 times more likely to deliver low birth-weight babies. Similarly, women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were more likely to have preterm (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 2.83; 4.35 and low birth-weight babies (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.62; 2.71. Eclampsia was also a risk factor associated with preterm deliveries (OR = 6.14, 95% CI 3.74; 10.09 and low birth-weight babies (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 1.83; 6.28.Conclusion: This study suggests that further research is needed to find the causes of higher rate of teenage pregnancies and an increase in

  10. Maternal blood pressure and heart rate response to pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cristine H; Naldoni, Luciane M V; Ribeiro, Juliana Dos Santos; Meirelles, Maria Cristina C C; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Bø, Kari

    2014-07-01

    To assess whether maternal blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) change significantly in response to pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. Longitudinal exploratory study with repeated measurements. Twenty-seven nulliparous healthy women of mean age 23.3 years (range 18-36) and mean body mass index 23.4 (range 23.1-29.5). Individual supervised pelvic floor muscle training from gestational week 20 till 36 with assessment of BP and HR at gestational weeks 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured before and after each training session and HR was monitored during each session. Pelvic floor muscle training did not change BP. 77% (n = 21) of participants exceeded 70% of estimated maximum HR during at least one session. The time for exceeding 70% of estimated maximum HR was between 2.2 and 3.2 % of the total exercise session. Increases in BP and HR from gestational weeks 20 till 36 were within normal limits for pregnant women. Pelvic floor muscle training in nulliparous sedentary pregnant women does not increase BP. It significantly increases HR during the exercise sessions, but only for a limited period of time and with no negative long-term effect on BP or HR. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Pregnancy rate in women with adenomyosis undergoing fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycles following gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Choi, Min Hye; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok

    2016-09-01

    To determine the preferred regimen for women with adenomyosis undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we compared the IVF outcomes of fresh embryo transfer (ET) cycles with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist pretreatment and of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles following GnRH agonist treatment. This retrospective study included 241 IVF cycles of women with adenomyosis from January 2006 to January 2012. Fresh ET cycles without (147 cycles, group A) or with (105 cycles, group B) GnRH agonist pretreatment, and FET cycles following GnRH agonist treatment (43 cycles, group C) were compared. Adenomyosis was identified by using transvaginal ultrasound at the initial workup and classified into focal and diffuse types. The IVF outcomes were also subanalyzed according to the adenomyotic region. GnRH agonist pretreatment increased the stimulation duration (11.5±2.1 days vs. 9.9±2.0 days) and total dose of gonadotropin (3,421±1,141 IU vs. 2,588±1,192 IU), which resulted in a significantly higher number of retrieved oocytes (10.0±8.2 vs. 7.9±6.8, p=0.013) in group B than in group A. Controlled ovarian stimulation for freezing resulted in a significantly higher number of retrieved oocytes (14.3±9.2 vs. 10.0±8.2, p=0.022) with a lower dose of gonadotropin (2,974±1,112 IU vs. 3,421±1,141 IU, p=0.037) in group C than in group B. The clinical pregnancy rate in group C (39.5%) tended to be higher than those in groups B (30.5%) and A (25.2%) but without a significant difference. FET following GnRH agonist pretreatment tended to increase the pregnancy rate in patients with adenomyosis. Further large-scale prospective studies are required to confirm this result.

  12. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    Full Text Available The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68% but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1% of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80% were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100 were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  13. Application of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST in FTAI protocols and its effect on estrus detection and pregnancy rates in dairy cattle in a humid tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez-Reinoso MA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the application of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST in different FTAI protocols to determine its influence on estrus detection and pregnancy rates in dairy cattle (Bos taurus mantained under humid tropical conditions in order to apply a differentiated FTAI protocol that optimises fertility in this environment. Different fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols were applied by including rbST in three groups of Brown Swiss breed cows: T1 (Control, no rbST, T2 (rbST application on Day-7, at P4 implant removal and T3 (rbST application on Day-9, 48 h after P4 implant removal. Estrus detection rates were significantly higher when compared T2 (100 % with T1/T3 (62.5 % and 75 %, respectively, being a 37.5% higher when compared to T1 and a 25% higher when compared to T3 (p<0.05. With regard to pregnancy rate, statistically significant differences were observed among T2 (62.5 % and T1/T3 (50 % treatments, being a 12.5% higher in T2 (p<0.05. In conclusion, the application of rbST in different FTAI protocols had a positive influence on estrus detection and pregnancy rates which were significantly higher when applying rbST on Day-7 (at P4 implant removal, being possible to develop efficient estrus synchronization and FTAI protocols and optimize fertility in dairy cattle (Bos taurus in humid tropical environments

  14. Economic evaluation of misoprostol in the treatment of early pregnancy failure compared to curettage after an expectant management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, GCM; van der Steeg, JW; Reuwer, PHW; Drogtrop, AP; Bruinse, HW; Mol, BWJ

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increased pressure on health care expenses implies that physicians should consider economic aspects as part of the clinical decision-making process. Direct and indirect costs of a strategy starting with misoprostol in treatment of early pregnancy failure as compared to curettage is t

  15. Social change in adolescent sexual behavior, mate selection, and premarital pregnancy rates in a Kikuyu community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthman, C M; Whiting, J W

    1987-06-01

    increasing rates of premarital pregnancy.

  16. Comparing measured and modeled firn compaction rates in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C.; MacFerrin, M. J.; Waddington, E. D.; Vo, H.; Yoon, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets using satellite and/or airborne altimetry requires a firn-densification model to correct for firn-air content and transient firn-thickness changes. We have developed the Community Firn Model (CFM) that allows users to run firn-densification physics from a suite of published models. Here, we use the CFM to compare model-predicted firn depth-density profiles and compaction rates with observed profiles and compaction rates collected from a network of in situ strain gauges at eight different sites in Greenland. Additionally, we use regional-climate-model output to force the CFM and compare the depth-density profiles and compaction rates predicted by the different models. Many of the models were developed using a steady-state assumption and were tuned for the dry-snow zone. Our results demonstrate the challenges of using these models to simulate firn density in Greenland's expanding wet firn and percolation zones, and they help quantify the uncertainty in firn-density model predictions. Next-generation firn models are incorporating more physics (e.g. meltwater percolation and grain growth), and field measurements are essential to inform continuing development of these new models.

  17. Personality assessment in the Great Apes: comparing ecologically valid behavior measures, behavior ratings, and adjective ratings

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Three methods of personality assessment (behavior measures, behavior ratings, adjective ratings) were compared in 20 zoo-housed Great Apes: bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). To test a new bottom-up approach, the studied trait constructs were systematically generated from the species’ behavioral repertoires. The assessments were reliable, temporally stable, and showed substantial cross-method...

  18. Sublingual versus vaginal misoprostol for medical termination of pregnancy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayswary Shanmugam

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: There is no significant difference in efficacy and side effects between sublingual and vaginal route of misoprostol for termination of pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3398-3403

  19. Pregnancy rates following timed embryo transfer with fresh or vitrified in vitro produced embryos in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Katanani, Y M; Drost, M; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Krininger, C E; Block, J; Thatcher, W W; Hanse, P J

    2002-07-01

    Timed embryo transfer (TET) using in vitro produced (IVP) embryos without estrus detection can be used to reduce adverse effects of heat stress on fertility. One limitation is the poor survival of IVP embryos after cryopreservation. Objectives of this study were to confirm beneficial effects of TET on pregnancy rate during heat stress as compared to timed artificial insemination (TAI), and to determine if cryopreservation by vitrification could improve survival of IVP embryos transferred to dairy cattle under heat stress conditions. For vitrified embryos (TET-V), a three-step pre-equilibration procedure was used to vitrify excellent and good quality Day 7 IVP Holstein blastocysts. For fresh IVP embryos (TET-F), Holstein oocytes were matured and fertilized; resultant embryos were cultured in modified KSOM for 7 days using the same method as for production of vitrified embryos. Excellent and good quality blastocysts on Day 7 were transported to the cooperating dairy in a portable incubator. Nonpregnant, lactating Holsteins (n = 155) were treated with GnRH (100 microg, i.m., Day 0), followed 7 days later by prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha, 25 mg, i.m.) and GnRH (100 microg) on Day 9. Cows in the TAI treatment (n = 68) were inseminated the next day (Day 10) with semen from a single bull that also was used to produce embryos. Cows in the other treatments (n = 33 for TET-F; n = 54 for TET-V) received an embryo on Day 17 (i.e. Day 7 after anticipated ovulation and Day 8 after second GnRH treatment). The proportion of cows that responded to synchronization based on plasma progesterone concentrations on Day 10 and Day 17 was 67.7%. Pregnancy rate for all cows on Day 45 was higher (P cows responding to synchronization, pregnancy rate was also higher (P cows producing more milk had lower (P cows producing less milk. In conclusion, ET of fresh IVP embryos can improve pregnancy rate under heat stress conditions, but pregnancy rate following transfer of vitrified embryos was no

  20. The unplanned teenage pregnancy

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    S.M. Ross

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveys conducted in the Durban area of Natal showed that 18 per cent of all pregnancies occurred amongst teenagers with the incidence amongst the various population groups varying bëtween Whites 14 per cent, Indians 17 per cent, Coloureds and Blacks 20 per cent. This compares with a world-wide teenage pregnancy rate of 10-15 per cent. Amongst primigravid pregnancies 33 per cent Indians and 53 per cent of Africans were found to be 18 years of age or less.

  1. Low-dose growth hormone supplementation increases clinical pregnancy rate in poor responders undergoing in vitro fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattes, Karinna; Brassesco, Mario; Gomez, Manuel; Checa, Miguel A

    2015-07-01

    Poor ovarian response (POR) often means low success rates after in vitro fertilisation (IVF). We aim to study the impact of a low-dose growth hormone (GH) supplementation in pregnancy rates in poor responders in a prospective, self-controlled study of 64 poor responders to previous IVF cycles, who failed to achieve pregnancy and were supplemented with low-doses of GH in a subsequent cycle using the same gonadotropin dose and protocol. Our primary endpoint was the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), considering secondary endpoints, the number of retrieved oocytes, embryos, embryo quality and the proportion of cycles with embryo transfer. CPR in the GH group was 34.4%. Significant differences were observed for the GH group both in the number of top quality embryos (0.64 ± 0.88 versus 1.03 ± 1.17, p < 0.05) and cryopreserved embryos (0.3 ± 0.81 versus 0.85 ± 1.49, p < 0.05). This is, to our knowledge, the first clinical trial to use a low dose of GH as a supplement for IVF in POR patients. Despite this low dose, we achieved excellent success rates in patients with a very poor prognosis, at a reasonable cost and without side effects, which makes this a safe and cost-effective alternative.

  2. GnRH treatment at artificial insemination in beef cattle fails to increase plasma progesterone concentrations or pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G A; Perry, B L

    2009-03-15

    Treatment with GnRH at the onset of standing estrus increased pregnancy percentages and circulating concentrations of progesterone in repeat breeder dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of treatment with GnRH at AI on concentrations of progesterone and conception rates in beef cattle that exhibited estrus. Two hundred ninety-three heifers at four locations were synchronized with the Select Synch plus CIDR protocol (given GnRH and a CIDR was placed into the vagina, and 7 d later, given PGF(2alpha) and CIDR removed; n=253) or the 14-19 melengestrol acetate (MGA) protocol (MGA fed at 0.5mg/head/d for 14 d, with PGF(2alpha) 19 d after MGA withdrawal n=40) and AI was done after detection of estrus. At Location 1, blood samples were collected on Day 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 after AI (Day 0=AI). Two hundred and fifty postpartum cows at two locations were synchronized with the Select Synch plus CIDR protocol, and AI was performed after detection of estrus. At AI, cattle were alternately assigned to one of two treatments: (1) treatment with GnRH (100microg) at AI (n=127 heifers and n=108 cows); or (2) non-treated control (n=120 heifers and n=119 cows). Concentrations of progesterone tended to be greater in control heifers compared to GnRH-treated heifers on Days 6 (P=0.08), 10 (P=0.07), and 15 (P=0.11). Overall conception rates were 68% and 66% for GnRH treated and control, respectively, and were not different between treatments (P=0.72). In summary, treatment with GnRH at time of AI had no influence on conception rates in cattle that had exhibited estrus.

  3. Advanced paternal age and stillbirth rate: a nationwide register-based cohort study of 944,031 pregnancies in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhoj, Stine Kjaer; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Davey Smith, George; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-07

    Advanced paternal age has been associated with a variety of rare conditions and diseases of great public health impact. An increased number of de novo point mutations in sperm with increasing age have been suggested as a mechanism, which would likely also affect fetal viability. We examined the association between paternal age and stillbirth rate in a large nationwide cohort. We identified all pregnancies in Denmark from 1994 to 2010 carried to a gestational age of at least 22 completed weeks (n = 944,031) as registered in national registers and linked to individual register data about the parents. The hazard ratio of stillbirth according to paternal age was estimated, adjusted for maternal age in 1-year categories, year of outcome, and additionally parental educational levels. The relative rate of stillbirth (n = 4946) according to paternal age was found to be J-shaped with the highest hazard ratio for fathers aged more than 40 years when paternal age was modelled using restricted cubic splines. When modelled categorically, the adjusted hazard ratios of stillbirth were as follows: <25, 1.16 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.01-1.34); 25-29, 1.03 (95% CI 0.95-1.11); 35-39, 1.16 (95% CI 1.07-1.26); 40-44, 1.41 (95% CI 1.26-1.59); 45-49, 1.20 (95% CI 0.97-1.49); 50+, 1.58 (95% CI 1.18-2.11), compared with fathers aged 30-34 years. These estimates attenuated slightly when further adjusted for parental education. Our study showed that paternal age was associated with the relative rate of stillbirth in a J-shaped manner with the highest hazard ratios among fathers aged more than 40 years.

  4. Influence of position and length of uterus on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF and embryo transfer treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbase, P E; Al-Sharhan, M; Grudzinskas, J G

    2000-09-01

    In a prospective study of 807 consecutive women shown to have an apparently normal uterus after hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy or pelvic ultrasonography prior to IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer, the position and length of the uterine cavity was measured routinely at a pre-treatment mock transfer procedure. The apparent length of the uterine cavity was 9 cm in 85 women (group 3). The uterus was noted to be retroverted in 38. 2% (308) women. The embryo transfer catheter was advanced to 5 mm from the uterine fundus based on the previously determined cavity length in all the embryo transfer procedures at 48 h after oocyte collection. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly different with respect to position of the uterus, difficulties encountered in passage of the catheter, mean age of the women, aetiology or duration of infertility or embryology events. An apparently greater cavity length was seen in older and/or parous women, but the difference was not statistically significant. Although the highest implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were seen in women with a cavity length of 7-9 cm (group 2) the differences were not statistically significant: group 1, 18.9 and 36. 7%; group 2, 21.0 and 46.5%; and group 3, 17.3 and 32.9% respectively. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy per reported clinical pregnancy was highest in group 1 women, being 14.9% (7/47) in comparison with group 2 (1.8%, 5/276) and group 3 (0%, 0/27) (P: size of the uterus is a critical factor in the aetiology of ectopic pregnancy in IVF/ICSI-embryo transfer.

  5. Comparative rates of evolution in endosymbiotic nuclear genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Patrick J

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleomorphs associated with secondary plastids of cryptomonads and chlorarachniophytes are the sole examples of organelles with eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Although not as widespread as their prokaryotic equivalents in mitochondria and plastids, nucleomorph genomes share similarities in terms of reduction and compaction. They also differ in several aspects, not least in that they encode proteins that target to the plastid, and so function in a different compartment from that in which they are encoded. Results Here, we test whether the phylogenetically distinct nucleomorph genomes of the cryptomonad, Guillardia theta, and the chlorarachniophyte, Bigelowiella natans, have experienced similar evolutionary pressures during their transformation to reduced organelles. We compared the evolutionary rates of genes from nuclear, nucleomorph, and plastid genomes, all of which encode proteins that function in the same cellular compartment, the plastid, and are thus subject to similar selection pressures. Furthermore, we investigated the divergence of nucleomorphs within cryptomonads by comparing G. theta and Rhodomonas salina. Conclusion Chlorarachniophyte nucleomorph genes have accumulated errors at a faster rate than other genomes within the same cell, regardless of the compartment where the gene product functions. In contrast, most nucleomorph genes in cryptomonads have evolved faster than genes in other genomes on average, but genes for plastid-targeted proteins are not overly divergent, and it appears that cryptomonad nucleomorphs are not presently evolving rapidly and have therefore stabilized. Overall, these analyses suggest that the forces at work in the two lineages are different, despite the similarities between the structures of their genomes.

  6. Sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in Swedish warmblood stallions and their relationship to pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandebert Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination is not as widely used in horses as in other domestic species, such as dairy cattle and pigs, partly because of the wide variation in sperm quality between stallion ejaculates and partly due to decreased fertility following the use of cooled transported spermatozoa. Furthermore, predictive tests for sperm fertilising ability are lacking. The objective of the present study was to assess sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in ejaculates obtained from 11 warmblood breeding stallions in Sweden, and to evaluate the relationship of these parameters to pregnancy rates to investigate the possibility of using these tests predictively. Methods Aliquots from fortyone ejaculates, obtained as part of the normal semen collection schedule at the Swedish National Stud, were used for morphological analysis by light microscopy, whereas thirtyseven were used for chromatin analysis (SCSA by flow cytometry. The outcome of inseminations using these ejaculates was made available later in the same year. Results Ranges for the different parameters were as follows; normal morphology, 27–79.5%; DNA-fragmentation index (DFI, 4.8–19.0%; standard deviation of DNA fragmentation index (SD_DFI 41.5–98.9, and mean of DNA fragmentation index (mean_DFI, 267.7–319.5. There was considerable variation among stallions, which was statistically significant for all these parameters except for mean_DFI (P P P P P P P P P Conclusion Either or both of the parameters, sperm morphology and sperm chromatin integrity, seem to be useful in predicting the fertilising ability of stallion ejaculates, particularly in determining cases of sub-fertility.

  7. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention or standard care (control. Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12 and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48 occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake (p = 0.03, specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA (p = 0.045 with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06. There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  8. Bovine somatotropin increases embryonic development in superovulated cows and improves post-transfer pregnancy rates when given to lactating recipient cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F; Badinga, L; Burnley, C; Thatcher, W W

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies indicated that the use of bovine somatotropin (bST) in concurrence with a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol increased pregnancy rates. However, the mechanisms for such a bST effect on fertility were not clear. Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of bST on fertilization and early embryonic development after cows received a superovulation treatment, test whether embryos recovered from bST-treated cows were more likely to survive after transfer to recipients, and evaluate whether treatment of recipient cows with bST affects pregnancy rates. Lactating (n = 8) and nonlactating (n = 4) Holstein donor cows were superovulated, inseminated at detected estrus and assigned to a nontreated control group or to a treatment group receiving a single injection of bST (500 mg, sc) at insemination. Embryos were nonsurgically flushed 7 days after AI and frozen in ethylene glycol for direct transfer. Embryos derived from bST-treated (bST-embryos) or control (control-embryos) donors were transferred to lactating Holstein recipient cows that received either bST treatment 1 day after estrus (500 mg, sc; bST-recipients) or were untreated controls (control-recipients). Thus, there were four treatment groups: control-embryos/control-recipients (n = 43), bST-embryos/control-recipients (n = 41), control-embryos/bST-recipients (n = 37), and bST-embryos/bST-recipients (n = 60). Pregnancy was determined by palpation per rectum 33-43 days after embryo transfer. Unfertilized ova per flush was less for bST than for control (1.0 +/- 0.9 56.4%; P 0.4 +/- 0.7; P cows with bST increased pregnancy rates as compared to control-recipients that received a control-embryo. However, there was no additive effect when bST-recipients received a bST-embryo. Administration of bST at AI decreased the number of unfertilized ova, increased the percentage of transferable embryos, and stimulated embryonic development to the blastocyst stage. Moreover, bST affected both

  9. Has Roe v. Wade Reduced U.S. Crime Rates?: Examining the Link between Mothers' Pregnancy Intentions and Children's Later Involvement in Law-Violating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carter; Evans, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Rates of serious crime in the United States dropped greatly throughout the 1990s for virtually all offenses. John Donohue and Steven Levitt have argued that this reduction relates strongly to the 1973 "Roe v. Wade" decision that legalized the abortion of unwanted pregnancies. If such pregnancies result in children with higher lifetime risks of…

  10. Has Roe v. Wade Reduced U.S. Crime Rates?: Examining the Link between Mothers' Pregnancy Intentions and Children's Later Involvement in Law-Violating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Carter; Evans, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Rates of serious crime in the United States dropped greatly throughout the 1990s for virtually all offenses. John Donohue and Steven Levitt have argued that this reduction relates strongly to the 1973 "Roe v. Wade" decision that legalized the abortion of unwanted pregnancies. If such pregnancies result in children with higher lifetime risks of…

  11. Depression during pregnancy: rates, risks and consequences--Motherisk Update 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sheila M

    2009-01-01

    Affective illness is common in women, and the puerperium is a time of particular vulnerability. Gender differences in the expression of affective disorders have been attributed to the impact of hormonal influence, socialization, and genetics. Dramatic fluctuations in gonadal hormones that occur following childbirth, influences the increased incidence of mood disorders during this time. Numerous tools including the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale can be used to screen for depression during pregnancy and postpartum. While screening tools may assist with appropriately identifying women who should be further assessed, their use alone does not significantly increase treatment seeking in women, even when their providers are notified about risk. Many studies demonstrate that only a small number (18%) of women who meet criteria for major depressive disorder seek treatment during pregnancy and postpartum. Additionally, common symptoms of depression (sleep, energy and appetite change) may be misinterpreted as normative experiences of pregnancy.Treatment engagement is important as untreated depression during pregnancy may have unfavorable outcomes for both women and children. Complications of pregnancy associated with depression include: inadequate weight gain,under utilization of prenatal care, increased substance use, and premature birth. Human studies demonstrate that perceived life-event stress, as well as depression and anxiety predicted lower birth weight, decreased Apgar scores, and smaller head circumference, and small for gestational age babies. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common clinical disorder occurring in 15% of deliveries,making it one of the most frequent conditions to complicate pregnancy. Risk factors include past personal or family history of depression, sing marital status, poor health functioning, lower SES, and alcohol use. Women who have a prior history of postpartum depression, particularly with features of bipolarity or psychosis may be at

  12. The pregnancy rates with intrauterine insemination (IUI) in superovulated cycles employing different protocols (clomiphen citrate (CC), human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) and HMG+CC) and in natural ovulatory cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, I M; Afnan, M

    2004-10-01

    To compare the result of IUI in infertile couples with different protocols of induction ovulation. In a retrospective study, 209 infertile couples with different diagnosis (unexplained, male factor, endometriosis, tubal disease, ovulatory dysfunction and multifactorial infertility) were subjected to different protocol of induction ovulation: 50-100 mg CC in day 2-6, 50 mg CC in day 2-6 + 2 amp HMG in day 5, 7, 9, 11, and 2 amp HMG per day. Natural ovulatory cycle + IUI was used for sperm stored patients. 441 consecutive cycles of IUI was performed 36-40 hours after HCG injection. The data were analysed with student T-test and Mann-Whitney test. The significance was defined as P<0.005. Thirty one pregnancies (7% per cycle, 15% per patient) occurred. One pregnancy occurred (pregnancy per cycle was 2% and per patient was 12%) in 8 patients undergoing 37 cycles of IUI with natural ovulation. The result with CC in 27 patients undergoing 41 cycles IUI was 2 pregnancies (4% per cycle, 7% per patient). In 129 patients receiving 283 cycles of IUI with CC+HMG 21 pregnancies occurred (7% per cycle, 16% per patient). In 35 patients receiving 80 cycles of IUI with HMG 8 pregnancies occurred (9% per cycle, 23% per patient). The method chosen for ovulation induction had a critical bearing on the success of IUI. The result of IUI will be better by using induction ovulation compared to natural ovulatory cycle. In our programme the combined use of HMG+IUI yielded a higher rate of pregnancy rate compared with CC+IUI, CC+HMG+IUI and natural ovulatory cycle+IUI.

  13. Orlistat in polycystic ovarian syndrome reduces weight with improvement in lipid profile and pregnancy rates

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    Pratap Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of exercise, metformin, and orlistat on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, endocrine parameters, and ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women were compared. AIM: The aim was to study the efficacy of orlistat compared with metformin and exercise in PCOS. DESIGN: Randomized control trial. Methods: A total of 90 eligible PCOS women were randomly assigned to receive either of the two drugs (orlistat or metformin in combination with lifestyle interventions or as controls where they received lifestyle interventions alone. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline and 4 weekly intervals for 3 months. Androgen levels, insulin resistance, ovulation and conception rates and lipid profile were also assessed at the end of study. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 17.0. Results: The levels of fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance were comparable in three treatment groups. Mean total testosterone, serum hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in all arms were comparable and statistically nonsignificant. However, orlistat and metformin were more effective in reducing weight, body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. However, side-effects were less with orlistat. Ovulation rate was 33.3%, 23.35% with orlistat and metformin group respectively, but were not statistically significant. In orlistat group, significant improvement was observed in lipid profile at the end of 3 months. Conception rates were 40% and 16.7% and 3.3% in orlistat, metformin group and control group respectively (P - 0.003. Weight loss was found to be the best predictor of ovulation with sensitivity with good sensitivity. Conclusion: Orlistat is as effective as metformin in reducing weight and achieves similar ovulation rates in obese PCOS patients. However, orlistat has minimal side

  14. Changes in cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy and compared to non-pregnant controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Teelkien R; Panerai, Ronney B; Haeri, Sina; van den Berg, Paul P; Zeeman, Gerda G; Belfort, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism by which pregnancy affects the cerebral circulation is unknown, but it has a central role in the development of neurological complications in preeclampsia, which is believed to be related to impaired autoregulation. We evaluated the cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy, and compared this with a control group of healthy, fertile non-pregnant women. In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (noninvasive arterial volume clamping), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) were simultaneously collected for 7min. The autoregulation index (ARI) was calculated. ARI values of 0 and 9 indicated absent and perfect autoregulation, respectively. ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used, with ppregnant and 18 non-pregnant women were included. The ARI did not change during pregnancy, but pregnant women had a significantly higher ARI than non-pregnant controls (ARI 6.7±0.9 vs. 5.3±1.4, ppregnant fertile women, even after controlling for EtCO2. The autoregulation does not change with advancing gestational age. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gravidez na adolescência: estudo comparativo Adolescent pregnancy: a comparative study

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    Fanny Viviana Lopez Alegria

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se uma população de 349 mulheres que deram à luz no período de 01/05/86 a 31/07/86, num Serviço de Obstetrícia da Grande São Paulo. Os resultados revelam que o grupo de gestantes adolescentes (22,2% teve uma assistência pré-natal deficiente, já que a grande maioria (70,6% teve a primeira consulta no segundo trimestre, tendo em média duas consultas. Durante a gestação, este grupo apresentou menor incidência de patologias com tratamento ambulatorial (39,3% e hospitalar (7,9%, em comparação com as gestantes adultas (44,4% e 14,7%, respectivamente. Em relação ao tipo de parto, as adolescentes apresentaram maior proporção de partos operatórios, sendo 25,7% por fórceps e 22,9% cesárea, contra 14,7% e 19,7% nas gestantes adultas, respectivamente. Verificou-se nas gestantes adolescentes maior proporção de intercorrências intraparto (12,9% contra 8,2% nas gestantes adultas, predominando neste período a hemorragia e a toxemia. Quanto as intercorrências no puerpério, estas se verificaram em 15,7% das gestantes adolescentes e era 11,8% das adultas, sendo a anemia pós-parto, a toxemia e a infecção puerperal as patologias mais comuns.A population of 349 women who gave birth, in an Obstetric Clinic in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, during the period from 01/05/86 to 31/07/86 were studied. The results show that the group of pregnant adolescents (22.2% received inadequate prenatal assistance, as the large majority of them (70.6% started consultations during the second trimester of their pregnancy, and had an average of two consultations. During pregnancy this group presented a lower incidence of pathological disorders leading to out-patient and hospital treatment (39.3% and 7.9%, respectively than did the adult pregnant women (44.4% and 14.7%, respectively. With regard to the type of delivery, the adolescents underwent a larger proportion of surgical deliveries, 25.7% of forceps births and 22.9% of cesarian sections, as

  16. Pregnancy outcomes in advanced maternal age pregnancies after taking measures to reduc-ing caesarean section rate%控制剖宫产率对高龄初产母婴结局影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冬如; 张小燕; 包狄

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare pregnancy outcomes in advanced maternal age pregnancies after taking measures to reducing caesarean section rate. Method A total of 1062 pregnant women aged 35 years or older who gave birth in beijing haidian district maternal and children healthcare hospital from 2013 to 2014 were retrospectively studied. 490 Pregnant women aged 35 years and over delivered in 2014 were included in study group and those 572 patients delivered in 2013 were included in the control group. Pregnant complications,delivery mode,postpartum hemorrhage rate,neonatal asphyxia rate were compared in both groups. Result ①No statistically significant difference was ob-served in the frequency of premature rupture of membrane,gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta previa,uterine my-oma,hypertensive disorders, preterm birth, or macrosomia in both groups;②The caesarean section rate in study group was statistically significantly lower than that in the control group(51. 63%vs 68. 88%,P0. 05). Conclusion With the measures of strengthening prenatal and intrapartum care, it is possible to reducing the caesarean section rate in advanced maternal aged pregnancies.%目的:探讨采取控制剖宫产率相关措施对高龄初产妇母婴结局的影响。方法回顾性分析1062例高龄初产孕产妇临床资料,2014年分娩的490例高龄初产妇作为研究组,2013年分娩的高龄初产妇572例作为对照组,比较两组妊娠并发症、分娩方式、产后出血率、新生儿窒息率。结果①两组胎膜早破、妊娠期糖尿病、前置胎盘、子宫肌瘤、妊娠期高血压疾病、早产、巨大儿发生率差异无显著性(P>0.05);②研究组和对照组剖宫产率分别为51.63%、68.88%,两者比较差异有显著性(P0.05)。结论综合孕期和产时管理,将高龄初产孕妇剖宫产率控制在较合理的水平是可能的。

  17. Adequate ovarian follicular status does not prevent the decrease in pregnancy rates associated with high sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Nelly; Prisant, Nadia; Hesters, Laetitia; Frydman, René; Tachdjian, Gérard; Cohen-Bacrie, Paul; Fanchin, Rénato

    2008-01-01

    Potential reparation of sperm DNA fragmentation in the oocyte may disturb any relationship between DNA-damaged sperm and the implantation ability of resulting embryos. To rule out this factor, we analyzed the consequences of sperm DNA fragmentation on IVF-ET outcome in women with healthy ovarian function. Prospective study. Teaching hospital, France. All 117 women were <38 years old, who combined normal serum day-3 FSH and inhibin B levels with an adequate response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. The DNA fragmentation rate was determined in the raw sperm used for conventional IVF by flow cytometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. Cycles were sorted into two groups according to whether DNA fragmentation exceeded (high fragmentation [HF], n = 52) or did not exceed (low fragmentation [LF], n = 65) the 50th percentile of values (35%). D2 embryo quality and implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates. Patients' characteristics, raw semen parameters, fertilization rates, and embryology data were similar in HF and LF groups. Clinical (37.5% vs. 62.5%) and ongoing (23.5% vs. 57.8%) pregnancy rates per ET and implantation rates (24.5% vs. 42.4%) were lower in the HF group than in the LF group. High sperm DNA fragmentation spares fertilization and top embryo morphology rates but is associated with decreased IVF-ET outcome.

  18. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n...

  19. State Variation in Rates of Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing. Final Report [and] Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A.; Blumenthal, Connie; Sugland, Barbara W.; Hyatt, Byoung-gi; Snyder, Nancy O.; Morrison, Donna Ruane

    Recent declines in funding for contraceptive services have led to questions regarding the role of contraceptive services and social policy in shaping adolescent reproductive behavior. This 2-year study examined the impact of state-level policies on adolescent pregnancy and fertility. Data were obtained from a variety of sources, including the…

  20. The influence of prenatal screening and termination of pregnancy on perinatal mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Graafmans, W.; Biermans, M.C.J.; Richardus, J.H.; Zijlstra, A.G.; Reefhuis, J.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives This study concerns the possible effect of practice of prenatal screening of congenital anomalies followed by termination of pregnancy on the perinatal mortality between European countries. Methods Data of nine region-specific EUROCAT registries from five European countries were used to c

  1. Effect of pregnancy and correlation of weight and heart rate with electrocardiographic parameters in the American Miniature Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Santarosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are studies on electrocardiogram (ECG in several breeds of horses, which highlights the growing importance of cardiology in this species. But few authors have addressed the influence of pregnancy on the cardiac physiology of the mare, and specifically, there are no studies on the Mini-horse breed, as well as no correlation of body weight (BW and heart rate (HR with electrocardiographic parameters in this breed. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of pregnancy on ECG parameters and to examine the relationships between these variables and body weight (BW and heart rate (HR. A total of 203 animals were used, including 143 females (66 pregnant and 60 males. Electrocardiographic examinations were performed by computerized electrocardiogram (TEB, and the parameters were evaluated in six leads in the frontal plane (Lead I, II, III, aVR, aVL and aVF and base-apex (BA. BW was inversely proportional to HR, which in turn showed an inverse relationship with the duration of the P-wave and the PR and QT intervals. The P-wave amplitude (lead II was higher in pregnant animals than in non-pregnant animals. The effect of reproductive status should be monitored by ECG throughout the entire gestational period. The 66 pregnant mares in this study were examined during the first third of their pregnancies, thus, few differences were observed between pregnant and non-pregnant animals.

  2. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery in primiparous women compared with a control group of nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bent Brandt; Svare, Jens; Viktrup, Lars

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the impact of the first pregnancy and delivery on the prevalence and types of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery. METHODS: The study was a prospective cohort study with a control group. Primiparous women, who delivered in our department from June......, the prevalence of any type of urinary incontinence in the primiparous group was 32.1%, compared to 13.8% in the control group. Adjusted OR¿=¿3.3 (95%CI¿=¿2.4-4.4). One year after delivery, the prevalence in the primiparous group was 29.3%, compared to 16.6% in the control group. Adjusted OR¿=¿2.5 (95%CI¿=¿1...... in the primiparous group. The symptoms and impact on quality of life seemed to be mild to moderate in both groups. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  3. Narcolepsy and pregnancy: a retrospective European evaluation of 249 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Eszter; Kemlink, David; Högl, Birgit; Frauscher, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Geisler, Peter; Ettenhuber, Katharina; Mayer, Geert; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Calvo, Elena; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van der Heide, Astrid; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Poli, Francesca; Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Leonthin, Helle; Mathis, Johannes; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Puertas, Francisco J; Beitinger, Pierre A; Arnulf, Isabelle; Riha, Renata L; Tormášiová, Maria; Slonková, Jana; Nevšímalová, Sona; Sonka, Karel

    2013-10-01

    In a retrospective cohort study undertaken in 12 European countries, 249 female narcoleptic patients with cataplexy (n = 216) and without cataplexy (n = 33) completed a self-administrated questionnaire regarding pregnancy and childbirth. The cohort was divided further into patients whose symptoms of narcolepsy started before or during pregnancy (308 pregnancies) and those in whom the first symptoms of narcolepsy appeared after delivery (106 pregnancies). Patients with narcolepsy during pregnancy were older during their first pregnancy (P narcolepsy-cataplexy during pregnancy had impaired glucose metabolism and anaemia. Three patients experienced cataplexy during delivery. The rate of caesarean sections was higher in the narcolepsy-cataplexy group compared to the narcolepsy group (P narcolepsy in 60.1% of those with narcolepsy during pregnancy. This study reports more obstetric complications in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy during pregnancy; however, these were not severe. This group also had a higher BMI and higher incidence of impaired glucose metabolism during pregnancy. Caesarian section was conducted more frequently in narcolepsy-cataplexy patients, despite cataplexy being a rare event during delivery. Furthermore, symptoms of narcolepsy may render care of the infant more difficult.

  4. Updated Estimates of Ectopic Pregnancy among Commercially and Medicaid-Insured Women in the United States, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Guoyu; Patel, Chirag; Hoover, Karen W

    2017-01-01

    To update trends in the rates of ectopic pregnancy, to compare rates of ectopic pregnancy between commercially insured and Medicaid-insured women, and to assess the differences in rates of ectopic pregnancy by different measures of ectopic pregnancy. We analyzed data from 2002 to 2013 using the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Claims Database. We limited the study population to women aged 15 to 44 years with any pregnancy in each year. Pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy were identified by clinical services with diagnostic or procedural codes. Ectopic pregnancy was measured in two ways: diagnosed and treated compared with diagnosed only; pregnancy was measured in two ways: any pregnancy compared with pregnancy with delivery. We did not observe a substantial trend in the rate of ectopic pregnancy from 2002 to 2013. The rate of diagnosed and treated ectopic pregnancy substantially increased by age: 0.29% in women aged 15 to 19 years and 0.89% in women aged 40 to 44 years among the commercially insured population and 0.23% and 0.85% among the Medicaid-insured population, respectively. The rate of ectopic pregnancy also varied by the different methodologies used to estimate rates. The rate of ectopic pregnancy is relatively low and stable for women of reproductive age in the United States. Our findings highlight that it is important to clearly define the numerator and denominator in the measure of ectopic pregnancy rates.

  5. Uterine artery remodeling in pseudopregnancy is comparable to that in early pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, O.W. van der; Essers, Y.P.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Mey, J.G. de; Eys, G. van; Peeters, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    During pregnancy, the lumenal diameter and wall mass of the uterine artery (UA) increase, most likely in response to the increased hemodynamic strain resulting from the chronically elevated uterine blood flow (UBF). In this remodeling process, the phenotype of vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMC) is

  6. Early gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist start improves follicular synchronization and pregnancy outcome as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Hwang, Yu Im; Koo, Hwa Seon; Kang, Inn Soo; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok

    2014-12-01

    To assess whether an early GnRH antagonist start leads to better follicular synchronization and an improved clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). A retrospective cohort study. A total of 218 infertile women who underwent IVF between January 2011 and February 2013. The initial cohort (Cohort I) that underwent IVF between January 2011 and March 2012 included a total of 68 attempted IVF cycles. Thirty-four cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, and 34 cycles with an early GnRH antagonist start protocol. The second cohort (Cohort II) that underwent IVF between June 2012 and February 2013 included a total of 150 embryo-transfer (ET) cycles. Forty-three cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, 34 cycles with the modified early GnRH antagonist start protocol using highly purified human menopause gonadotropin and an addition of GnRH agonist to the luteal phase support, and 73 cycles with the GnRH agonist long protocol. The analysis of Cohort I showed that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was significantly higher in the early GnRH antagonist start cycles than in the conventional antagonist cycles (11.9 vs. 8.2, p=0.04). The analysis of Cohort II revealed higher but non-significant CPR/ET in the modified early GnRH antagonist start cycles (41.2%) than in the conventional antagonist cycles (30.2%), which was comparable to that of the GnRH agonist long protocol cycles (39.7%). The modified early antagonist start protocol may improve the mature oocyte yield, possibly via enhanced follicular synchronization, while resulting in superior CPR as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol, which needs to be studied further in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  7. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Term Structure of Interest Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agata Gemzik-Salwach

    2010-01-01

    .... The first section of this article describes theories of the term structure of interest rates, determinants of the relationship between the interest rate and the time to maturity, and mechanisms...

  9. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  10. Comparison between allantochorion membrane and amniotic sac detection by per rectal palpation for pregnancy diagnosis on pregnancy loss, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Juan E; Pinedo, Pablo; Bryan, Kelsey; Ramos, Roney S; Solano, Karol G; Merchan, Daniel; Velez, Juan

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the pregnancy diagnosis by detection of either the allantochorion membrane (FMS) or amniotic sac (ASP) by per rectum palpation (PRP) during late embryonic or early fetal period on pregnancy loss (PRL) at reexamination, calving rates, and abnormalities in newborn calves. A controlled randomized blind design with 800 lactating dairy pregnant cows diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) between Days 35 and 57 of gestation from one dairy farm were included. The cows were randomly divided according to detection of allantochorion membrane (FMS group; n = 264), detection of amniotic sac (ASP group; n = 266), and TRUS (control [CON] group; n = 270). TRUS was considered as the criterion standard method of comparison. The entire PRP was performed by one experienced veterinarian. Then, all the cows were reexamined only by TRUS between 2 and 4 weeks later by two independent veterinarians to assess PRL. The calving rate one (number of cows calved divided by the number of cows initially pregnant) and calving rate two (number of cows calved divided by the number of cows pregnant at reexamination) for each group was calculated. All abortions and stillborns were necropsied, and calves alive were followed for 5 days. The overall initial PRL (between initial pregnant cows and reexamination) for FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 7.4% (19/258), 8.8% (23/262), and 9.2% (24/260), respectively (P = 0.75). The overall late PRL (between reexamination and calving) for FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 4.2% (9/213), 5.7% (12/209), and 4.2% (9/216), respectively (P = 0.71). The calving rate one for FMS, ASP, and TRUS groups was 79.1% (204/258), 75.2% (197/262), and 79.6% (207/260), respectively (P = 0.63). The calving rate two for the same groups was 85.4% (204/239), 82.4% (197/239), and 87.7% (207/236), respectively (P = 0.27). The number of fetuses aborted late, premature, and mature dead from FMS, ASP, and CON groups was 6

  11. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter: e0127586

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle Joly; Samuel K Wasser; Rebecca Booth

    2015-01-01

    .... We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress...

  12. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    .... We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress...

  13. A comparative study of pulse rate variability and heart rate variability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jih-Sen; Lu, Wan-An; Wu, Kung-Tai; Liu, Margaret; Chen, Gau-Yang; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2012-04-01

    Both heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse rate variability (PRV) are noninvasive means for the assessment of autonomic nervous control of the heart. However, it is not settled whether or not the PRV obtained from either hand can be the surrogate of HRV. The HRV measures obtained from electrocardiographic signals and the PRV measures obtained from the pulse waves recorded from the index fingers of both hands were compared in normal subjects by using linear regression analysis and Bland and Altman method. Highly significant correlations (P < 0.001, 0.89 < r < 1.0) were found between all HRV measures and the corresponding PRV measures of both hands. However, there were insufficient agreements in some measures between pairwise comparisons among HRV, right PRV and left PRV except heart rate and ultra-low frequency power (ULFP). The PRV of either hand is close to, but not the same as the HRV in healthy subjects. The HRV, right PRV and left PRV are not surrogates of one another in normal subjects except heart rate and ULFP. Since HRV is generally accepted as the standard method for the assessment of the autonomic nervous modulation of a subject, the PRV of either hand may not be suitable for the assessment of the cardiac autonomic nervous modulation of the subject.

  14. A six-year investigation on reproductive performance of hybrid rabbits. 1. Pregnancy rate and numerical productivity at weaning as affected by season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Floris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to clarify the effect of seasonal variation on reproductive performance of hybrid rabbits, a six-years investigation was carried out. Traits analysed were pregnancy rate of does and numerical productivity at weaning. The data set included: 33588 matings and subsequent pregnancy diagnosis; 245743 young rabbits at weaning. From the statistical analysis, pregnancy rate and numerical productivity at weaning appeared to be significantly (P<0.001 affected by seasonal variation. Furthermore a statistically significant (P<0.001 month influence was also found. Nevertheless a correlation between the two parameters needs to be performed to supplement our analysis.

  15. The effect of oxytocin and PGF2alpha on the uterine involution and pregnancy rates in postpartum Arabian mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Mehmet Can; Kaşikçi, Güven; Kaya, Huriye H

    2008-03-03

    In this study, the effects of oxytocin and an analog of prostaglandin (cloprostenol) on the uterine involution and pregnancy rates were investigated. Mares received 3 ml of 0.9% NaCl in Group C (n=10), 30 IU/mare of oxytocin in Group O (n=10) and 250 microg/mare of cloprostenol in Group P (n=10) within 12h after parturition. The gravid uterine horn's cross-sectional diameter was measured by ultrasonography. The mean uterine diameters did not differ significantly between the treatment (O and P) and the control (C) groups (p>0.05). The difference between the postpartum ovulation periods (Group C: 12.6+/-0.72 days, Group O: 15+/-1.33 days, Group P: 14.6+/-1.11 days), the pregnancy rates at foal heat (Group C: 60%, Group O: 60%, Group P: 80%) and the embryonic death rates at foal heat (Group C: 33.3%, Group O: 16%, Group P: 25%) were not found to be statistically significant between the treatment and the control groups. The mean progesterone concentrations were similar in all groups and decreased continuously from parturition to until foal heat (Group C: from 2.43+/-0.24 to 0.66 ng/ml, Group O: from 3.07+/-0.6 to 0.27+/-0.27 ng/ml and Group P: from 2.8+/-0.44 to 0 ng/ml) (p>0.05). In conclusion, it was decided that the oxytocin and PGF2alpha treatments performed on the mares with the purpose of stimulating involution had no effect on the duration of parturition-first ovulation, the shrinkage of the uterus diameter, the pregnancy and embryonic death rates.

  16. Cross sectional, comparative study of serum erythropoietin, transferrin receptor, ferritin levels and other hematological indices in normal pregnancies and iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jai B; Bumma, Sirisha D; Saxena, Renu; Kumar, Sunesh; Roy, Kallol K; Singh, Neeta; Vanamail, P

    2016-08-01

    To test the correlation of the serum erythropoietin levels, serum transferrrin receptor levels and serum ferritin levels along with other hematological parameters in normal pregnant and anemic pregnant patients. In a prospective study, 120 pregnant women were recruited between 18 and 36 weeks of gestation; 53 normal pregnant patients, 67 anemic pregnant patients, in which, 17 had mild, 30 had moderate anemia, 20 had severe anemia. A blood sample was taken. The various hematological parameters, hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum ferritin, percentage saturation of iron, serum erythropoietin (SEPO) levels, serum transferrin receptors (STfRS) were performed. For statistics, Student's 't' test, Pearson's Chi test, Mann Whitney test and Bartlett test were used as per data. MCV was significantly reduced in anemic pregnancies as compared to non-anemic pregnancies (80.2±9.6 vs 94.12±9.8fl, p=0.001), MCHC was also reduced in them (30.2±3.38% vs 34.2±2.33%, p=0.176), TIBC was significantly increased in anemic pregnancies (343.31±28.54% vs 322.88±23.84%, p=0.001), serum ferritin was significantly reduced (24.9±10.48μg/L vs 31.03±9.98μg/L, p=0.001), percentage saturation of iron was also reduced (53.85±13.21% vs 62.04±15.79%, p=0.0024), serum erythropoietin levels were significantly higher in anemic women (26.24±26.61mU/ml vs 18.12±19.08mU/ml, p=0.064). The levels were significantly higher in severe anemia (46.5±46.8mU/ml than in moderate anemia 27.4±28.1mU/ml and mild anemia 22.8±22.8mU/ml. Serum transferrin receptors were significantly higher in anemic pregnancies than in non-anemic pregnancies (1.40±0.0802μg/ml vs 1.08±0.641μg/ml, p=0.019) with rise being higher in severe anemia (2.28±0.986μg/ml) than in moderate (1.4±0.816μg/ml) and mild anemia (1.16±0.702μg/ml). Various hematological parameters especially sTfR, serum erythropoietin, serum

  17. Comparison of the Effect of Clomiphene- Estradiol Valerate vs Letrozole on Endometrial Thickness, Abortion and Pregnancy Rate in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedoshohadaei, Fariba; Zandvakili, Farnaz; Rashadmanesh, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clomiphene citrate is the first-line therapy for ovulation induction in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). This drug binds and blocks estrogen receptors and thought to have an anti estrogenic effect on endometrium volume, thus may have adverse effect on fertility. Aim This study aimed to compare the effect of Clomiphene citrate plus Estradiol Valerate with Letrozole on endometrial thickness, abortion and pregnancy rate in infertile women with PCOS undergoing ovulation induction. Materials and Methods This was a randomized double blind clinical trial study on 100 women with PCOS, with an endometrial thickness less than 7mm in spite of follicles greater than 18mm after administration of Clomiphene citrate 100mg/d from 3th to 7th day of menstruation. They were randomly divided in two groups. Group A received 100mg Clomiphene citrate from day 3 to day 7 of menstruation and 4 mg Estradiol Valerate after the 8th day of menstruation until 14th day. Group B treated by 5mg Letrozole from day 3 to 7 of menstruation with placebo from 8th to 14th day of menstruation. In both groups endometrial thickness was measured by transvaginal sonography in the 14th day of menstruation. Data were analysed using SPSS Ver.18.0. Results The mean age was 30.34 years in group A and 29.62 years in group B (p=0.381). The number of infertility years in group A was 3.73 years and in group B was 3.85 years. There was no significant relationship statistically between the two groups in terms of mean age and infertility years (p=0.99). Endometrial thickness in group A was 7.26mm and in group B was 8.17 mm. Pregnancy rates in group A and group B was 32% and 16% respectively. There was significant relationship statistically between the two groups in terms of endometrial thickness and pregnancy rates (p=0.021 and p=0.05). There was no abortion in group A and 5 cases had abortion in group B, there was a significant relationship between the two groups statistically (p=0.028). Conclusion

  18. Smoking and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Behrakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is considered to be one of the most significant causes of complications in pregnancy and is associated with an unfavourable outcome in childbirth compared with pregnancy in non-smokers. Specifically, smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of placenta praevia, abruptio placentae, ectopic gestation and premature rupture of the membranes (PRM. In addition, research has established that smoking during pregnancy increases the rates of low birth weight (LBW, perinatal mortality, premature birth and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. As these children grow up they present a variety of health problems, including respiratory illness, behaviour disturbances, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and high arterial blood pressure. LBW is also associated with an increased incidence of health problems in the neonatal period. Effects have been documented of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the future fertility of male infants and the occurrence of congenital abnormalities, and a connection has been reported between daily maternal smoking in early pregnancy and infantile autism. Pneumon 2010, 23(2:153-167.

  19. Comparative Study of Pregnancy Outcome in Premature Rupture of Membranes With Amniotic Fluid Indices of less and more than 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tavassoli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM is one of the most important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcome in preterm premature rupture of the membranes with amniotic fluid index less than 5 and more than 5. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 137 pregnant women with gestational age of 28-34 weeks with PPROM from Oct 2006 to Oct 2008. The patients were divided in two groups according to amniotic fluid index: AFI<5 (77 cases, AFI≥5 (60 cases. Chi-square test was used for qualitative variables, while T-student test was used for quantitative test. Results: Both groups were similar with respect to number of pregnancies, gestational age at rupture of the membranes and birth weight. In the group with AFI<5, applied latency was significantly shorter (PV=0.049, rate of cesarean section was higher due to fetal distress (PV=0.008, neonatal Apgar score in first minute was lower during the first week (PV=0.0127 and the rate of neonatal death was higher (PV=0.045 during the first week. Conclusion: An AFI<5 cm after PPROM is associated with earlier delivery, higher rate of cesarean due to fetal distress, higher rate of neonatal death, and lower neonatal Apgar score in first minute during the first week

  20. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Unique Rating System for Green Building: By Comparing Various Existing Rating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Rishabh G. Saigaonkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industries are known to be the pioneer of a country‟s development. In modern days the infrastructure of a country defines its true development, thus making construction sector more prominent. Countries like India are thus solemnly dependent on its construction sector for its rapid development. In 21st century, one of the major challenges faced by mankind is that of global climate change, which has highly alerted to the concern for conservation of nature. In a way, making environmental sustainability to be of much more importance in actual execution of work is the focus. World-wide there are various building evaluation tools that focus on different areas of sustainable development and are designed for different types of projects. This research attempts to understand the various Green building rating system assessment criteria that need to be considered during comparison. Finally based on comparative study an attempt is made to recommend one unique rating system which will cover each and every aspect required for assessment and certification for any green building. This system would be comparatively less complex and able to provide the necessary perception about the project with ease.

  2. Pulse rate variability compared with Heart Rate Variability in children with and without sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Parastoo; Garde, Ainara; Karlen, Walter; Wensley, David; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV), the variation of time intervals between heartbeats, is one of the most promising and widely used quantitative markers of autonomic activity. Traditionally, HRV is measured as the series of instantaneous cycle intervals obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG). In this study, we investigated the estimation of variation in heart rate from a photoplethysmography (PPG) signal, called pulse rate variability (PRV), and assessed its accuracy as an estimate of HRV in children with and without sleep disordered breathing (SDB). We recorded raw PPGs from 72 children using the Phone Oximeter, an oximeter connected to a mobile phone. Full polysomnography including ECG was simultaneously recorded for each subject. We used correlation and Bland-Altman analysis for comparing the parameters of HRV and PRV between two groups of children. Significant correlation (r > 0.90, p < 0.05) and close agreement were found between HRV and PRV for mean intervals, standard deviation of intervals (SDNN) and the root-mean square of the difference of successive intervals (RMSSD). However Bland-Altman analysis showed a large divergence for LF/HF ratio parameter. In addition, children with SDB had depressed SDNN and RMSSD and elevated LF/HF in comparison to children without SDB. In conclusion, PRV provides the accurate estimate of HRV in time domain analysis but does not reflect precise estimation for parameters in frequency domain.

  3. Sternal pulse rate variability compared with heart rate variability on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chreiteh, Shadi S; Belhage, Bo; Hoppe, Karsten; Branebjerg, Jens; Thomsen, Erik V

    2014-01-01

    The heart rate variability (HRV) is a commonly used method to quantify the sympathetic and the parasympathetic modulation of the heart rate. HRV is mainly conducted on electrocardiograms (ECG). However, the use of photo-plethysmography (PPG) as a marker of the autonomic tone is emerging. In this study we investigated the feasibility of deriving pulse rate variability (PRV) using PPG signals recorded by a reflectance PPG sensor attached to the chest bone (sternum) and comparing it to HRV. The recordings were conducted on 9 healthy subjects being in a relaxed supine position and under forced respiration, where the subjects were asked to breathe following a visual scale with a rate of 27 breaths/min. HRV parameters such as the mean intervals (meanNN), the standard deviation of intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of difference of successive intervals (RMSSD), and the proportion of intervals differing more than 50 ms (pNN50) were calculated from the R peak-to-R peak (R-R) and pulse-to-pulse (P-P) intervals. In the frequency domain the low and high frequency ratio of the power spectral density (LF/HF) was also computed. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed significant correlation for all the parameters (r > 0.95 with p < 0.001) and the Bland-Altmann analysis showed close agreement between the two methods for all the parameters during resting and forced respiration condition. Thus, PRV analysis using sternal PPG can be an alternative to HRV analysis on healthy subjects at.

  4. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  5. Does Amniocentesis Increase the Rates of Fetal Loss and Poor Pregnancy Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Ercan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the risk of fetal loss and poor pregnancy outcomes associated with amniocentesis procedures on patients in our clinic in the last 5 years. Material and Method: This retrospective study was conducted by examining the hospital records and genetic centre records of 387 patients who underwent amniocentesis at the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Clinic of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Medical Faculty between January 2011 and July 2015. A control group was formed of 250 low-risk patients who attended the clinic and did not have amniocentesis applied. Results:Throughout the study period there were 688 patients with an indication for amniocentesis. Of these, amniocentesis was applied to 387 patients and 43.8% refused the amniocentesis. The most common amniocentesis indication was the scanning test for Downs syndrome (57.6% followed by older maternal age (22.5%. Of the patients who underwent amniocentesis, chromosomal abnormality was determined in 24 (6.2%, the most common of which was Downs syndrome (54%. Fetal loss following amniocentesis was seen in 2 patients (0.5%. When the total poor pregnancy outcomes were examined, a poor outcome was determined in 8 of the amniocentesis group and in 5 of the control group and the difference beween the 2 groups was not statistically significant (p=0.263. Discussion: Amniocentesis is an invasive prenatal test in frequent current use. No increase in pregnancy complications was observed associated with the procedure. Before the application of amniocentesis, the patient must be given detailed information about the procedure and the outcomes.

  6. Possible factors affecting pregnancy rate of cows in the Amazon Ecuatorian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yánez D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess how the cow pregnancy depends on the type of service as, race and follicular development in cattle with dual purpose in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The 341 records of the individual services were evaluated from January 2015 to December 2015 that corresponds to cows of different genotypes and cross: Brown Swiss (BS n = 135, Charolais (Ch n = 24, Holstein Friesian (HF n = 104, Jersey (J n = 12, Normando (N n = 21, x Brown Swiss Holstein Friesian (HFxBS n = 35 and Holstein Friesian x Normando (HFxN n = 10. The work was conducted in the Cantons and Santa Clara which is located in the Pastaza Province (Ecuador. The Two insemination techniques were performed: a estrus detected (natural 136 cows and a Insemination Time (TAI. The independent variables are "Race" (BS, CH, HF, J, HFxBS and HFxN, the "Technical Service" (N and IATF and "Follicular Development" (DF. An additive model was adjusted and it was not significant for the interactions between independent variables and the result of the model. It was found that the variable DF is the only that contributes significantly to the model. That is, pregnancy is significantly affected by follicular development (p-value <0.0001, but is not related to the technical service and race. Maximum Credible estimates the coefficients model and calculated odds ratios. For every unit increase in the value of follicular development, the chance of "pregnant" is 14 times higher than "empty". Keeping fixed the categories for race and service. To conclude that there was no difference between races and insemination technique that was used, even if a relationship between follicular development in proestrus and pregnancy in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  7. Bone Cancer Rates in Dinosaurs Compared with Modern Vertebrates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, L C; Rothschild, B M; Martin, L D

    2007-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role of ionizing radiation in the K-T extinction event.

  8. Mid-luteal phase injection of subcutaneous leuprolide acetate improves live delivered pregnancy and implantation rates in younger women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Wilson, C; Cohen, R; Choe, J K; Corley, D

    2015-01-01

    To see if the single injection of one mg of the gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) leuprolide acetate given in the mid-luteal phase can increase live delivered pregnancy and implantation rates. Furthermore the purpose was to determine if improvement was found, did the mechanism involve increased secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). A prospective study was conducted in women aged 35 who were undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). They were advised of data from Tesarik et al. and a previous pilot study conducted in the present IVF center showing improved pregnancy rates with the injection of a GnRHa three days after embryo transfer. They were offered the option of returning for a one-mg injection s.c. of leuprolide acetate or not. Clinical and live delivered pregnancy rates were compared according to those taking or not the leuprolide acetate one-mg injection. Chi-square analysis was used for statistical comparisons. Serum beta-hCG levels were compared between those conceiving with or without the extra injection of leuprolide. There was a non-significant trend for higher live delivered pregnancy rates in those taking leuprolide (47.8%, 64/134) vs. those not taking it (38.6%, 76/197). For those pregnant there was no difference in hCG levels according to taking the GnRHa or not. The 25% increased live delivered pregnancy rate per transfer was insufficiently powered to detect a significant difference. The results do justify continuing the study. Perhaps the difference could be wider using a slightly older age group whose embryos are frequently less hearty.

  9. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with pregnancy outcome. Progesterone concentration was measured on stimulation day 1 and on the day of HCG administration in 475 patients who underwent IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment following ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and recombinant FSH...

  10. A decrease in serum estradiol levels after human chorionic gonadotrophin administration predicts significantly lower clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, L A; Molinaro, T A; Sammel, M D; Dokras, A

    2012-09-01

    Although close observation of serum estradiol (E2) levels remains a mainstay of assessing clinical response to controlled ovarian stimulation, the prognostic value of any change in E2 levels after administration of hCG remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum E2 response after hCG administration and the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in fresh IVF cycles. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women aged 21-45 years undergoing their first IVF cycle from 1999 to 2008 at a single practice. We compared the post-hCG serum E2 level with values on the day of hCG trigger. IVF cycles were stratified by post-hCG E2 response and appropriate parametric and non-parametric statistics were performed. Clinical intrauterine pregnancy and live births were the primary outcomes of interest. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify predictive factors associated with outcomes while adjusting for potential confounders. Among the 1712 IVF cycles, 1065 exhibited a >10% increase (Group A), 525 had a plateau (± 10%, Group B) and 122 showed a >10% decrease (Group C) in post-hCG E2 levels. While the E2 levels on the day of hCG were similar across groups, Group C had more patients with diminished ovarian reserve, required higher gonadotrophin doses and had the lowest implantation rates. After adjusting for age, total gonadotrophin dose, infertility diagnosis, number of oocytes and number of transferred embryos, the associations between post-hCG E2 decline (Group C) and clinical pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.84, P= 0.007] and live birth (aOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.71, P= 0.002) were significant. We also found significant associations between E2 plateau (Group B) and clinical pregnancy (aOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.94, P= 0.013) and live birth (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.97, P= 0.032) when adjusting for the same factors. In our study, >10% decrease in E2 levels

  11. Human rights of children with intellectual disabilities: comparing self-ratings and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huus, K; Granlund, M; Bornman, J; Lygnegård, F

    2015-11-01

    A child rights-based approach to research articulates well with Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and highlights the importance and value of including children's own views about aspects that concern them. The aim of this study is to compare children with intellectual disability's own ratings (as self-raters) to those of their primary caregivers (as proxy raters) regarding human rights of children. The study also aims to establish whether there is an inter-rater agreement between the self-raters and proxy raters concerning Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This study is nested in a larger study examining the human rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa. In total, 162 children with intellectual disability from 11 schools across three provinces and their primary caregivers participated by answering parts of a Children's Rights Questionnaire (CRQ) developed by the researchers based on the United Nation's CRC. We compared the answers for six questions in the questionnaire that were addressed to self-raters (children) and proxy raters (primary caregivers) in the same way. Questions regarding basic needs, such as access to clean water or whether the child had food to eat at home, were answered similarly by self-raters and proxy raters. Larger differences were found when self-raters and proxy raters were asked about whether the child had things or friends to play with at home. Socio-economic variables seemed to affect whether self-raters and proxy raters answered similarly. The results underscore the importance of promoting children's rights to express themselves by considering the opinions of both the children as self-raters and their primary caregivers as proxy raters - not only the latter. The results indicate that it is especially important to include children's own voices when more complex needs are surveyed. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings could be affected by socio-economic circumstances.

  12. The relationship between pregnancy intention and change in perinatal cigarette smoking: an analysis of PRAMS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Margaret S; Cheng, Diana; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between pregnancy intention and change in perinatal cigarette smoking from a large national sample of women in the United States, the 2004-2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). The study sample consisted of 49,510 female smokers. Smoking rates and quantities were captured prior to pregnancy, the last 3 months of pregnancy, and postpartum. Changes in smoking were compared between pregnancies classified as intended, mistimed, and unwanted. Regardless of pregnancy intention status, most behavior change happened before the final 3 months of pregnancy. Overall, most women were able to quit or reduce smoking. However women with unwanted pregnancies had 0.86 times the adjusted odds of quitting/reducing cigarette smoking compared to women with intended or mistimed pregnancies (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95). Findings suggest early smoking cessation interventions lead to greater change in smoking, regardless of pregnancy intention, although change is more difficult for women with unwanted pregnancies.

  13. Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with daughter pregnancy rate for prediction of genetic merit for reproduction in Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated 69 SNPs in genes previously related to fertility and production traits for relationship to daughter pregnancy rate (DPR), cow conception rate (CCR) and heifer conception rate (HCR) in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped according to their predicted transmitting ability for DP...

  14. Pregnancy Outcomes Among Patients With Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowse, Megan E. B.; Richeson, Rachel L.; Pieper, Carl; Merkel, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pregnancy outcomes of patients with vasculitis are unknown, but are of great concern to patients and physicians. Through an online survey, this study assessed pregnancy outcomes among patients with vasculitis. Methods Participants in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium Patient Contact Registry were invited to respond to an anonymous, internet-based survey that included questions about pregnancy outcomes, the timing of pregnancy relative to a diagnosis of vasculitis, and medication use. Results A total of 350 women and 113 men completed the survey. After a diagnosis of vasculitis, 74 pregnancies were reported by women and 18 conceptions were reported by men. The rate of pregnancy loss was higher among women who conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis compared to those who conceived prior to diagnosis (33.8% versus 22.4%; P = 0.04). Among women, the rate of preterm births increased significantly for pregnancies conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis relative to those conceived before diagnosis (23.3% versus 11.4%; P = 0.03). Only 18% of women reported worsening of vasculitis during pregnancy, but those who experienced increased vasculitis activity were more likely to deliver preterm. Exposure to cyclophosphamide or prednisone did not appear to impact pregnancy outcomes; however, the number of pregnancies among women taking these medications was small. Among the pregnancies conceived by men with vasculitis, the timing of diagnosis had no significant effect on the rate of pregnancy loss. Conclusion Women who conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis had a higher rate of pregnancy loss than those who conceived prior to diagnosis. Vasculitis did not worsen during the majority of pregnancies conceived after diagnosis. PMID:23401494

  15. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, H

    2000-10-01

    This article examines trends in teenage pregnancy in Canada, focussing on induced abortions, live births and fetal loss among women aged 15 to 19 in 1997. The data come from the Hospital Morbidity Data Base and the Canadian Vital Statistics Data Base at Statistics Canada, and the annual Therapeutic Abortion Survey, conducted by the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Data on abortions performed on Canadian residents in the United States are from an annual survey of selected states. International data are from the Alan Guttmacher Institute. Pregnancy rates, abortion rates, live birth rates and fetal loss rates are calculated using population counts of women in the age groups 15 to 17, 18 to 19, and 15 to 19. The percentages of pregnancies that ended in the three outcomes are also calculated for these years. The teenage pregnancy rate declined from 1994 to 1997, reflecting lower teenage birth and fetal loss rates. Through this period the abortion rate remained stable, with the result that slightly more than half of all teenage pregnancies ended in abortion by 1997. Younger teens are more likely to have an abortion than to give birth. The majority of pregnancies among older teens end in a live birth, although the number of live births is decreasing.

  16. Aneuploidy screening by array comparative genomic hybridization improves success rates of in vitro fertilization: A multicenter Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Kotdawala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective, multicenter study including 235 PGS cycles following intracytoplasmic sperm injection performed at six different infertility centers from September 2013 to June 2015. Patients were divided as per maternal age in several groups (40 years and as per indication for undergoing PGS. Indications for performing PGS were recurrent miscarriage, repetitive implantation failure, severe male factor, previous trisomic pregnancy, and advanced maternal age (≥35. Day 3 embryo biopsy was performed and analyzed by aCGH followed by day 5 embryo transfer in the same cycle or the following cycle. Outcomes such as pregnancy rates (PRs/transfer, implantation rates, miscarriage rates, percentage of abnormal embryos, and number of embryos with more than one aneuploidy and chaotic patterns were recorded for all the treated subjects based on different age and indication groups. Results: aCGH helped in identifying aneuploid embryos, thus leading to consistent implantation (range: 33.3%-42.9% and PRs per transfer (range: 31.8%-54.9% that were obtained for all the indications in all the age groups, after performing PGS. Conclusion: Aneuploidy is one of the major factors which affect embryo implantation. aCGH can be successfully employed for screening of aneuploid embryos. When euploid embryos are transferred, an increase in PRs can be achieved irrespective of the age or the indication.

  17. A comparative study of aggregate TCP retransmission rates

    CERN Document Server

    Pentikousis, Kostas; Andrade, Asha; 10.2316/Journal.202.2010.4.202-2660

    2011-01-01

    Segment retransmissions are an essential tool in assuring reliable end-to-end communication in the Internet. Their crucial role in TCP design and operation has been studied extensively, in particular with respect to identifying non-conformant, buggy, or underperforming behaviour. However, TCP segment retransmissions are often overlooked when examining and analyzing large traffic traces. In fact, some have come to believe that retransmissions are a rare oddity, characteristically associated with faulty network paths, which, typically, tend to disappear as networking technology advances and link capacities grow. We find that this may be far from the reality experienced by TCP flows. We quantify aggregate TCP segment retransmission rates using publicly available network traces from six passive monitoring points attached to the egress gateways at large sites. In virtually half of the traces examined we observed aggregate TCP retransmission rates exceeding 1%, and of these, about half again had retransmission rate...

  18. Enhanced Ovarian Folliclular Development by Metformin Does Not Correlate with Pregnancy Rate: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Basirat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common, complex endocrinedisorder for women of productive age. A high incidence of ovulation failure in womenwith PCOS is related to insulin resistance. Some studies have assessed the effects ofhyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in relationship with insulin sensitizing agentssuch as Metformin (Met. These medicines have been suggested new scope for ovulationstimulation enhancement with Clomiphene Citrate (CC in PCOs women. The aimof this study is to compare the effectiveness of adding Met to CC in women with PCOS.Materials and Methods: This multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trialstudy was performed on 334 PCOS patients from 2007 to 2009. Patients were randomlydivided into two groups and ovulation induction was performed with either CC alone orCC + Met. The treatment was continued for three cycles, then the mature follicle andpregnancy rates were evaluated.Results: In the CC + Met group, 68% had at least one dominant follicle in the first cyclethat was significant (p<0.001, and 31.7% had one in the second cycle. In the CC group54.5% in the first cycle, 31.7% second cycle, and 6.9% ovulated in the third cycle. Thepregnancy rate was 28.7% in CC + Met group and 24.6% in the CC group, with no significantdifferences between the two groups.

  19. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trips to the bathroom. Increased heart rate. Your heart rate increases during pregnancy to pump more blood. This may make it harder to sleep. Shortness of breath. At first, pregnancy hormones can ...

  20. Combining and Comparing Consumers' Stated Preference Ratings and Choice Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    In this study we develop and test an econometric model for combining choice and preference ratings data collected from the same set of individuals.Choice data are modeled using a multinomial logit framework, while preference data are modeled using an ordered response equation.Individual heterogeneit

  1. Corn nitrogen fertilization rate tools compared over eight Midwest states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publicly-available nitrogen (N) rate recommendation tools are utilized to help maximize yield in corn production. These tools often fail when N is over-applied and results in excess N being lost to the environment, or when N is under-applied and results in decreased yield and economic returns. Perfo...

  2. Understanding the association between teenage pregnancy and inter-generational factors: a comparative and analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    (1) to identify the number of teenage pregnant women who also have mothers who became pregnant when they were in their teenage years and (2) to explore the importance of this intergenerational experience on the teenagers themselves, their significant family, friends and society as a whole. semi-structured interviews with the subjects allowed for both breadth and depth exploration. the total research sample was 95 teenage women, which included 48 pregnant (51%) and 47 non-pregnant (49%) women. Stage 1 reports on the findings relating to the intergenerational phenomena and stage 2 focuses on related historical experiences of a further 8 interviews with subjects who had experienced this intergenerational phenomenon. The subjects in both stages of this study came from two contrasting demographic areas of the UK: North West and South East. data were analysed using an appropriate qualitative software package. The specific categories of experience were constructed using a grounded theory approach. the findings of stage 1 of the study showed that the number of teenage women who reported that they had a mother who's first baby was born to her when she was under 20 years of age was 33 (69%) for the pregnant group and 12 (26%) for the non-pregnant group. This was found to be statistically significant (chi(2)=6.51, df=1, p=teenage pregnancy. A national multi-method research study is now required to explore the breadth of intergenerational teenage pregnancy and the experiences of those families where this social construct is prevalent.

  3. Comparative study of labetalol and nifedipine in management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. S. Hangarga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertensive disorders complicate 5 to 10 percent of all pregnancies, and together they are one member of the deadly triad, of haemorrhage and infection. Methods: The Present study was conducted at Navodaya Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Raichur from January 2014 to December 2015. The efficacy of labetalol verses nifedipine in management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was studied. The study consisted of 100 antenatal patients irrespective of parity and gestational age from 20-40weeks patients, with severe PIH with imminent eclampsia. Heart diseases, Hematological disorders, Liver diseases renal diseases and Bronchial asthma were excluded from the study. Results: In the study, fall in mean arterial pressure of >20mm Hg was noted 6hrs after initiation of treatment in nifedipine group which is statistically significant; no statistical significance was observed in both groups at 12hrs. A fall of mean arterial pressure to normal was noted at 48hrs and 72 hrs in labetalol, which is statistically highly significant. Conclusions: The present study indicates labetalol to be a better anti-hypertensive in terms of control of hypertension, mode of vaginal delivery and fetal outcome.

  4. The effect on pregnancy rates of tubal perfusion pressure reductions achieved by guide-wire tubal catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Spyros; Afnan, Masoud; Girling, Alan J; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Ola, Bolarinde; Olufowobi, Olufemi; McHugo, Josephine M; Hammadieh, Nahed; Sharif, Khaldoun

    2002-08-01

    Selective salpingography enables us to measure the Fallopian tube perfusion pressure which, when high, can be effectively reduced with the use of transcervical guide-wire tubal catheterization. Whether fertility prognosis improves as a result is currently unknown. Our objective was to clarify the issue. Infertile women undergoing selective salpingography were classified into poor, mediocre and good tubal perfusion pressure groups, based on the distribution of tubal perfusion pressures in an unselected infertile population. Of 325 women, 150 (46.1%) were classified in the poor group and underwent guide-wire tubal catheterization. Complete pregnancy and tubal perfusion pressure data were available for 104 (69.4%) subjects. Following tubal catheterization, 29 women (group A) could be classified in the good, 25 (group B) in the mediocre, while 50 women (group C) remained in the poor tubal perfusion pressure group. Survival analysis showed that the pregnancy rate in group A was significantly higher than the rates in groups B and C (P = 0.036 and 0.005 respectively). Reductions of tubal perfusion pressures achieved with transcervical guide-wire tubal catheterization resulted in an improved fertility prognosis for women. Selective salpingography and tubal catheterization might have a wider role in the management of the infertile couple than currently believed.

  5. Ovarian responses and pregnancy rate with previously used intravaginal progesterone releasing devices for fixed-time artificial insemination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilariño, M; Rubianes, E; Menchaca, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine serum progesterone concentrations, ovarian responses, and pregnancy rate in sheep inseminated following a short-term protocol (6 days of treatment) with a previously used controlled internal drug release-G (CIDR-G) device. In experiment 1, 30 ewes were put on a short-term protocol using a CIDR-G of first use (new devices, N = 10), second use (previously used for 6 days, N = 10), or third use (previously used twice for 6 days, N = 10). All ewes were given prostaglandin F(2α) (10 mg dinoprost) and eCG (300 IU) im at device withdrawal. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were greater for ewes treated with new versus reused devices (P synchronization and ovulation, with lower serum progesterone concentrations for reused devices. Three times used CIDR-G yielded a pregnancy rate >70%, which tended to be lower than that obtained with new devices, adding evidence of the detrimental effect of low serum progesterone concentrations on fertility in sheep.

  6. 两种胚胎冻融方法对累积妊娠率的影响%Influence of two embryo freezing methods on cumulative pregnancy rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秘祖霞; 卢伟英; 徐雯

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of two embryo freezing methods on cumulative pregnancy rate. Methods Seventy-eight patients received 92 F-ET cycles of slow freezing (group A), and 114 patients received 179 F-ET cycles in vitification warmed (group B). After warming, the survival rate, cumulative clinical pregnancy rates were compared between the two groups. Results The survival rate (94.3% vs 53.9%, P0.05). Conclusion In contrast to slow freezing, Vitrification provides a higher cumulative pregnancy rate, which serves as an efficient method for the cryopreservation of human cleavage stage embryos.%目的 比较玻璃化法和程序法对人第3天卵裂期胚胎冻融移植周期累积妊娠率的影响.方法 选取程序化冻融周期92例、玻璃化法冻融周期179例,比较分析这两种冻融方法在存活率、累积临床妊娠率等方面的效果.结果 玻璃化法在胚胎复苏存活率(94.3% vs 53.9%,P<0.01)、复苏完整胚胎形态(89.4% vs 36.3%,P<0.01)、累积临床妊娠率(28.2% vs 43%,0.01<P <0.05)等方面均明显优于程序化法,但在在胚胎植入率(13.7% vs 13.5%)、流产率(18.2% vs 22.4%)等方面差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 与程序化法比较,玻璃化法可以提高累积妊娠率,是一种高效胚胎冻融方法.

  7. Comparing pyridoxine and doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A matched, controlled cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Eliza; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2015-07-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common gestational condition. This is the first study to compare the use of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) versus Diclectin (doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl) for NVP symptoms. Participants were pregnant women with NVP who used either pyridoxine or doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl for ≥4 days prior to calling the Motherisk NVP Helpline. Women receiving pyridoxine only (n = 80) were matched to a woman taking doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl only (n = 80), accounting for potential confounders and baseline level of NVP, measured by the Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) score. Change in NVP severity after a week of therapy with either pyridoxine or doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl was quantified using the PUQE-24 scale, which describes NVP symptoms 24 hours prior to their call. Doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use found a significant reduction in PUQE score, compared with pyridoxine (+0.5 versus -0.2, P doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use saw a mean improvement of 2.6 versus 0.4 with pyridoxine (P doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use was associated with fewer women experiencing moderate to severe scores after a week of treatment, compared with the pyridoxine group (7 versus 17, P < .05), despite similar baseline PUQE scores.

  8. Occurrence of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes during isotretinoin therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dormuth, Colin; Winquist, Brandace; Carney, Greg; Bugden, Shawn; Teare, Gary; Lévesque, Linda E.; Bérard, Anick; Paterson, J. Michael; Platt, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Isotretinoin, a teratogen, is widely used to treat cystic acne. Although the risks of pregnancy during isotretinoin therapy are well recognized, there are doubts about the level of adherence with the pregnancy prevention program in Canada. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Canadian pregnancy prevention program in 4 provinces: British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Methods: Using administrative data, we identified 4 historical cohorts of female users of isotretinoin (aged 12–48 yr) for the period 1996 to 2011. We defined pregnancy using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and billing codes. One definition included only cases with documented pregnancy outcomes (high-specificity definition); the other definition also included individuals recorded as receiving prenatal care (high-sensitivity definition). We studied new courses of isotretinoin and detected pregnancies in 2 time windows: during isotretinoin treatment only and up to 42 weeks after treatment. Live births were followed for 1 year to identify congenital malformations. Results: A total of 59 271 female patients received 102 308 courses of isotretinoin. Between 24.3% and 32.9% of participants received prescriptions for oral contraceptives while they were taking isotretinoin, compared with 28.3% to 35.9% in the 12 months before isotretinoin was started. According to the high-specificity definition of pregnancy, there were 186 pregnancies during isotretinoin treatment (3.1/1000 isotretinoin users), compared with 367 (6.2/1000 users) according to the high-sensitivity definition. By 42 weeks after treatment, there were 1473 pregnancies (24.9/1000 users), according to the high-specificity definition. Of these, 1331 (90.4%) terminated spontaneously or were terminated by medical intervention. Among the 118 live births were 11 (9.3%) cases of congenital malformation. Pregnancy rates during isotretinoin treatment remained constant between 1996 and 2011

  9. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of ultrasonography in pregnancy rate prediction in Sahelian goats after progesterone impregnated sponge synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Kouamo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of ultrasonography in pregnancy rate (PR prediction in Sahelian goats after progesterone impregnated sponge synchronization within the framework of caprine artificial insemination (AI program in Fatick (Senegal. Materials and Methods: Of 193 candidate goats in AI program, 167 were selected (day 50 in six villages. Estrus was synchronized by progesterone impregnated sponges installed for 11 days. Two days before the time of sponge removal (day 4, each goat was treated with 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin and 50 μg of dcloprostenol. All goats were inseminated (day 0 with alpine goat semen from France at 45±3 h after sponge removal (day 2. Real-time B-mode ultrasonography was performed at day 50, day 13, day 0, day 40 and day 60 post-AI. Results: Selection rate, estrus response rate, AI rate, PR at days 40 and days 60 were 86.53%; 71.85%; 83.34%; 51% and 68% (p<0.05 respectively. Value of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, accuracy, total conformity, conformity of correct positive, conformity of correct negative and discordance of pregnancy diagnosis by trans-abdominal ultrasonography (TU were 98.03%; 63.26%; 73.52%; 3.12%; 81%; 81%; 50%; 31% and 19%, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that the TU can be performed in goats under traditional condition and emphasized the importance of re-examination of goats with negative or doubtful TU diagnoses performed at day 40 post-AI.

  10. Teenage Pregnancy in the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…

  11. Teenage Pregnancy in the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…

  12. The glomerular filtration rate during pregnancy : Saline infusion enhances the glomerular filtration rate in the pregnant rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Klok, PA; Valkhof, N; Bakker, WW

    1996-01-01

    The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of pregnant rats is generally believed to exceed non-pregnant values. This notion is primarily based upon standard inulin clearances. However, the inulin clearance requires continuous infusion of inulin usually dissolved in saline. Since saline infusion per se in

  13. Effectiveness of a recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone on the ovarian follicles, peripheral progesterone, estradiol-17β, and pregnancy rate of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed at elucidating the effects of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH on the ovarian follicular dynamics, progesterone, estradiol-17β profiles, and pregnancy of dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Three groups (G, n=5 cows of multiparous dairy cows were used. G1 (C control cows were given controlled internal drug release (CIDR and prostaglandin F2α; G2 (L cows were given low dose (525 IU and G3 (H cows were given high dose (1800 IU of r-hFSH on twice daily basis at the last 3 days before CIDR removal. All cows were ultrasonically scanned for follicular growth and dynamics, and blood samples were collected every other day for two consecutive estrus cycles for the determination of estradiol-17β and progesterone. Results: Estrus was observed in all C and L but not in H cows. Dominant follicle was bigger in L compared to C and H cows. Dominant follicle in C (16.00±2.5 mm and L cows (17.40±2.3 mm disappeared at 72 h after CIDR removal. However, in H cows, no ovulation has occurred during 7 days post-CIDR removal. Progesterone was not different (p>0.10 among groups, whereas estradiol-17β revealed significant (p<0.01 reduction in H (15.96±2.5 pg/ml cows compared to C (112.26±26.1 pg/ml and L (97.49±15.9 pg/ml cows. Pregnancy rate was higher in L cows (60% compared with C cows (20%. However, H cows were not artificially inseminated due to non-ovulation. Only a cow of C group has calved one calf, however, 2 of the L cows gave birth of twins and a cow gave single calf. Conclusion: Administration of a low dose (525 IU of r-hFSH resulted in an optimal size of dominant follicle, normal values of progesterone and estradiol-17β, and 40% twinning rate, howeverusing 1800 IU of r-hFSH, have adverse effects on ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal profiles with non-pregnancy of dairy cows raised under hot climate.

  14. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Esfahani Mohammad Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1.

  15. Evaluating the impact of breed, pregnancy, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Preston, W D; Joseph, S R; LaPlace, L; Hillman, P E; Gebremedhin, K G; Lee, C N; Collier, R J

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregnancy, breed, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate (SR) of hair sheep. St. Croix White (STX; = 9) and Dorper × STX (DRPX; = 9) ewes (3.6 yr of age) were evaluated over 4 d at 126 d of gestation (PREG) and over 4 d at 46 d postpartum (OPEN) in the shade and sun and in the morning (AM; 0900 to 1200 h) and afternoon (PM; 1300 to 1600 h) after a 20 min acclimation to each condition on each day. Data loggers recorded vaginal temperature (VT) at 10-min intervals for 96 h. Rectal temperature (RT) was measured using a digital veterinary thermometer, and respiration rate (RR) was measured as breaths per minute (bpm). Sweating rate was calculated from measured air properties passing over a shaved (300 cm) and unshaved area of the ewes' body using a portable calorimeter. Data were analyzed using GLM procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with breed, pregnancy status, sun exposure, and time of day as main effects. Mean temperature, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index, wind speed, and solar radiation on the days of data collection were 28.2°C, 82.8%, 80.3, 4.2 km/h, and 237.5 W/m, respectively. There was no difference ( > 0.10) in RT, RR, and SR between DRPX and STX ewes. The PREG ewes had lower RT ( 0.10) in RT. There was no difference in SR ( > 0.10) between the shaved and unshaved area of the ewe. The DRPX ewes had higher ( 0.10). Hair coat did not have an influence on the SR of the ewes, and PREG ewes appeared to use increased respiration as opposed to sweating to help control RT. The narrower range of body temperature, measured as VT, of PREG compared to OPEN ewes may be a protective mechanism for the developing fetus.

  16. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Nicoline; Ringholm, Lene; Stage, Edna;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy.......To evaluate the insulin requirements in women with type 1 diabetes during twin pregnancy compared with singleton pregnancy....

  17. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, David

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Wear Rate of Different Riva Glass Ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Yaghoubi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: wear is one of the most important factors that cause loss of restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the wear rate in light-cured glass ionomers SDI. Materials and Methods: 20 samples consisted of light-cured Ionomer Glass Riva and Riva HV and Fuji II and composit Z250 to 2mm and length and width 10mm in Copper generator were prepared (n = 5 and were put in a wear device. Samples in wear cycles, in the course of 5000, 10000, 20000, 40000, 80000, 120000 respectively cycles via cobalt chrome cylindrical abrasive was under wear. Digital scale with 0.1 mg precision was used for gravimetric. Data using One Way Anova and Post hoc Tukey test and Spss software was analyzed. Results: The weight loss was as follows: Glass Ionomer light cure Riva ˂Glass Ionomer light cure Riva HV ˂Glass Ionomer light cure Fuji II ˂composite Z250. The other three groups were statistically significant weight loss between the composite Z250 and but the difference in weight loss between the groups and Glass Ionomer light cure Riva, Glass Ionomer light cure Riva HV, Glass Ionomer light cure Fuji II was found after 120,000 cycles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the wear of glass ionomers Capsule Riva is similar Fuji II LC but the wear of glass inomers is much more than composite Z250 which seems ready to take in areas not exposed to occlusal stress.

  19. Treatment of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by photodynamic therapy using hexylaminolevulinate may be costeffective compared to conisation procedures due to decreased pregnancy-related morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, Philipp; Makowski, Lars; Makowski, Efthimia; Schippert, Cordula; Hertel, Hermann; Hillemanns, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Standard treatments of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are conisation procedures. Theses methods have proven effectiveness but are associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy complications. Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) of CIN using hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) may represent an alternative treatment without the risk of cervical insufficiency or scaring. This study aims to evaluate the economical aspect of CIN treatment including associated pregnancy complications by comparing both methods. We developed model treatment pathways for both conisation procedures and PDT using HAL. Thereafter, we calculated total costs for both treatment pathways including necessary re-treatments or alternative treatments. The estimated impact of conisation-related cervical insufficiency, prematurity, perinatal morbidity and life-long disability were determined. The total additional costs per conisation due to perinatal morbidity were calculated. The total cost of treatment for CIN with a conisation procedure alone was 1,473 €, whereas the PDT procedure alone accounted for 1,386 €, based of assumptions of a 50% re-PDT rate, a 70% response rate and costs of 500 € for the PDT intervention itself. We computed 71, 144 and 545 newborns born prematurely due to conisation procedures treatment with PDT given the above-mentioned assumptions were 1,558 €. For Germany, PDT has the potential to be a cost-effective treatment for high-grade CIN compared to conisation procedure. Most important, the increased perinatal morbidity, perinatal mortality and associated costs after conisation procedures are significant and may be reduced by the implementation of PDT in CIN treatment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  1. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy complications Complications of pregnancy are health problems that ... pregnancy. Expand all | Collapse all Health problems before pregnancy Before pregnancy, make sure to talk to your ...

  2. Progesterone and oestrogen in pregnancy and parturition: comparative aspects and hierarchical control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, R B; Galil, A K; Harrison, F A; Jenkin, G; Perry, J S

    1977-01-01

    The different ways in which the progesterone requirements of pregnancy are met in various species are reviewed here. Progesterone production expressed in terms of metabolic body weight lies within about one order of magnitude in several species (but not in the rat), whether the hormone is predominantly ovarian or placental in origin. Parturition is usually preceded by a decrease in the plasma concentration of progesterone and the evidence which suggests that a decrease in secretion involves enzyme induction is summarized. In the sheep a sequence of well-marked hormonal changes can be discerned--an increase in fetal cortisol secretion followed by a fall in placental progesterone and a rise in oestrogen and prostaglandin F2alpha secretion. This sequence has been interpreted in terms of hierarchical control theory which envisages a series of levels placed in a descending order of importance and in which there is a downward transmission of a signal from a higher level that modifies activity at a lower level. A dominant level in the hierarchy in the sheep and pig seems to be the fetal hypothalamus and pituitary, but in the rabbit the maternal hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary play a more dominant role.

  3. Pregnancy outcomes in patients with systemic autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canti, Valentina; Castiglioni, Maria Teresa; Rosa, Susanna; Franchini, Stefano; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Manfredi, Angelo A; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2012-03-01

    The impact of maternal systemic autoimmune diseases on pregnancy outcome is not unequivocally defined. We analysed the pregnancy outcome of 221 pregnancies from 181 autoimmune patients, consecutively followed in a single Italian reference centre from 2001 to 2009. All patients were prospectively followed with monthly visits. Pregnancy outcome was compared with the previous obstetrical history. The patient population comprised five groups: primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS, 39 pregnancies), antiphospholipid syndrome associated with a rheumatic disease (APS/RD, 17 pregnancies), other RD (92 pregnancies), isolated autoantibodies (autoAbs) in the absence of a definite autoimmune disease (aAbs, 38 pregnancies) and reactive arthritis or spondyloarthropathies (35 pregnancies). Of these patients, 50.6% had previous pregnancy complications with an anamnestic live-birth rate of 43.4%. In these patients, complications dropped to 28.2% (44/156). This percentage was very similar to that observed in the 221 pregnancies (29.9%, 66/221) with a live-birth rate of 87.3%. Mean neonatal weight was 3018 ± 611 g; mean gestational age at delivery was 38.17 ± 2.79 weeks. Thus, 10.4% of pregnancies resulted in preterm delivery and 10.9% newborns had low weight at delivery. APS/RD patients had the worse outcome: 17.6% resulted in miscarriage, 14.3% resulted in growth restriction and 50% resulted in preterm delivery. This result was mainly due to patients with APS/systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that had the lowest gestational age at delivery (30.8 ± 3.56 weeks) and the lowest newborn weight (1499 ± 931 g). Results confirm that a strict follow-up and targeted treatments significantly improve pregnancy outcomes in autoimmune patients with PAPS, SLE and isolated autoAbs. The pregnancy outcome in patients with APS/SLE remains unsatisfactory.

  4. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasi, Valeria; Antonazzo, Patrizio; Personeni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  5. Effect of GnRH and D-Chloprostenol application on pregnancy and prolificacy rates on Pelibuey ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Martínez T.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Was to evaluate the effect of GnRH and D-Chloprostenol application on pregnancy and prolificacy rates on Pelibuey ewes. Materials and methods. Forty five ewes were randomly allocated to one of three treatments: T1(n=15, day 0: sponges with 65 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA + 200 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and sponge removal (day 12 + breeding by natural mating (days 12-15; T2 (n=15, day 0: 50 μg gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH + 7.5 mg D-Chloprostenol (day 5 + 50 μg GnRH (day 7 + insemination at fixed time (AIFT 12 to 14 h after last injection of GnRH; T3 (n=15, 100 μg GnRH (day 0 + 7.5 mg D-Chloprostenol (day 5 + 100 μg GnRH (day 7 + AIFT 12 to 14 h after last injection of GnRH. Results. The average concentration of progesterone (P4 in blood was 1.22 ± 0.74 ng/mL, which was used to verify ovarian activity at the beginning of the treatments. 100% of the T1 ewes presented estrus, beginning at 38.4±9.56 h after sponge removal. There were differences (p0.05 among the treatments where the values were 1.2, 1.4 and 1.4 lambs/ewe for T1, T2 and T3, Conclusions. The results of this study show that the use of GnRH and D-Chloprostenol did improve pregnancy rates but did not improve prolificacy in tropical ewes.

  6. Serum hormone profiles, pregnancy rates, and offspring performance of Rambouillet ewes treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin before breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, L E; Benavidez, J M; Hallford, D M

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine effects of bovine ST (bST) on serum hormone concentrations, pregnancy rates, and offspring performance. Before initiation of a fall breeding period, 75 Rambouillet ewes (68.8 ± 1.5 kg) received an intravaginal insert containing 0.3 g of progesterone (P4) to synchronize onset of estrus. After 12 d, inserts were removed (d 0), and ewes (stratified by BW and age) received either 0 (control, n = 37) or 250 (n = 38) mg of recombinant bST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO, subcutaneously). Ewes were joined with fertile rams 24 h after insert removal. Blood samples were collected from 12 ewes in each treatment group daily from d 0 to 20 after insert removal. Serum IGF-I concentrations were 315 and 437 (± 58) ng/mL in control and bST-treated ewes 2 d after receiving bST (P = 0.02) and remained increased (P 0.10) and estradiol (P = 0.65) were similar between treatments. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were similar (P > 0.20) between treatments from d 0 through 8. Controls had greater (P 0.10) in control and bST-treated ewes from d 0 through 3 but was increased (P 0.10) between treatments from d 9 to 20. Serum insulin concentrations were 0.44 and 1.74 (± 0.19) ng/mL in control and bST-treated ewes, respectively, 1 d after receiving bST (P Pregnancy rates and offspring adjusted weaning weights were decreased by bST treatment immediately before breeding.

  7. Effect of leptin on oocyte maturation and subsequent pregnancy rate of cloned embryos reconstructed by somatic cell nuclear transfer in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hengxi Wei; Qiuyan Li; Jun Li; Yan Li; Yunping Dai; Yufang Ma; Kai Xue; Ning Li

    2008-01-01

    Cloning pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has wide applications in basic research,human medicine and agricultural production.To improve cloning efficiency,the effect of two basic maturation media,NCSU-23 and TCMI99,was compared,and TCM199 was selected for the following experiments with leptin.We systematically studied the effects of leptin supplementation on oocytes in vitro maturation (IVM),in vitro development of parthenogenetically activated (Phi) and SCNT embryos and/n vivo develop-ment of SCNT embryos after embryo transfer (ET).The results showed that supplementation of 100 or 200 ng/ml leptin into the mat-uration medium did not greatly affect nuclear maturation of oocytes,or cleavage rates of PA and SCNT (P<0.05).Blastocyst rates of PA and SCNT embryos were significantly improved when 100 or 200 ng/ml leptin was added to maturation medium,and the number of cells in PA blastocysts was also improved (P<0.05).The number of cells in blastocyst of SCNT was improved,when 100 ng/ml leptin was added (P<0.05).Furthermore,supplementation of 100 or 200 ng/ml leptin to the IVM medium may improve pregnancy rate and the delivery rate in pig cloning.

  8. A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and neuro emotional technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Caroline D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility of conducting a full scale study and compared the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and a mind-body therapy called Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain, a common morbidity of pregnancy. Methods Healthy pregnant women with low back pain of insidious onset were eligible to enroll in the study at any point in their pregnancy. Once enrolled, they remained in the study until they had their babies. Women were randomly allocated into one of three treatment groups using opaque envelopes. The treatment schedule paralleled the prenatal care schedule and women received individualized intervention. Our null hypothesis was that spinal manipulation and Neuro Emotional Technique would perform no better than exercise in enhancing function and decreasing pain. Our primary outcome measure was the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and our secondary outcome measure was the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Intention to treat analysis was conducted. For the primary analysis, regression was conducted to compare groups on the outcome measure scores. In a secondary responder analysis, difference in proportions of participants in attaining 30% and 50% improvement were calculated. Feasibility factors for conducting a future larger trial were also evaluated such as recruitment, compliance to study protocols, cost, and adverse events. Results Fifty-seven participants were randomized into the exercise (n = 22, spinal manipulation (n = 15, and Neuro Emotional Technique (n = 20 treatment arms. At least 50% of participants in each treatment group experienced clinically meaningful improvement in symptoms for the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. At least 50% of the exercise and spinal manipulation participants also experienced clinically meaningful improvement for the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. There were no clinically

  9. Analysis of pregnancy and infant health outcomes among women in the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry who received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R

    2015-08-26

    The National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry (NSVIPR) actively follows women inadvertently vaccinated with smallpox vaccine during or shortly before pregnancy to evaluate their reproductive health outcomes. Approximately 65% of NSVIPR participants also inadvertently received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) while pregnant, providing a ready opportunity to evaluate pregnancy and infant health outcomes among these women. AVA-exposed pregnancies were ascertained using NSVIPR and electronic healthcare data. Rates of pregnancy loss and infant health outcomes, including major birth defects, were compared between AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnancies. Analyses included AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnant women who also received smallpox vaccine 28 days prior to or during pregnancy. Rates of adverse outcomes among the AVA-exposed group were similar to or lower than expected when compared with published reference rates and the AVA-unexposed population. The findings provide reassurance of the safety of AVA when inadvertently received by a relatively young and healthy population during pregnancy.

  10. Comparative proteomics analysis of placenta from pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yueshuai; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Zhou, Zuomin

    2013-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) usually occurs in the third trimester and associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. In this study we aim to investigate the potential proteins in placenta, which may participate in the molecular mechanisms of ICP-related fetal complications using iTRAQ-based proteomics approach. The iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to separate differentially expressed placental proteins from 4 pregnant women with ICP and 4 healthy pregnant women. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three apoptosis related proteins ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO that resulted from iTRAQ-based proteomics were further verified in placenta by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Placental apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL assay. Proteomics results showed there were 38 differentially expressed proteins from pregnant women with ICP and healthy pregnant women, 29 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in placenta from pregnant women with ICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed most of the identified proteins was functionally related to specific cell processes, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism. The expression levels of ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO were consistent with the proteomics data. The apoptosis index in placenta from ICP patients was significantly increased. This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of placenta from pregnant women with ICP and may provide us some new insights into the pathophysiology and potential novel treatment targets for ICP.

  11. Comparative proteomics analysis of placenta from pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP usually occurs in the third trimester and associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. In this study we aim to investigate the potential proteins in placenta, which may participate in the molecular mechanisms of ICP-related fetal complications using iTRAQ-based proteomics approach. METHODS: The iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was performed to separate differentially expressed placental proteins from 4 pregnant women with ICP and 4 healthy pregnant women. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three apoptosis related proteins ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO that resulted from iTRAQ-based proteomics were further verified in placenta by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Placental apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL assay. RESULTS: Proteomics results showed there were 38 differentially expressed proteins from pregnant women with ICP and healthy pregnant women, 29 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in placenta from pregnant women with ICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed most of the identified proteins was functionally related to specific cell processes, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism. The expression levels of ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO were consistent with the proteomics data. The apoptosis index in placenta from ICP patients was significantly increased. CONCLUSION: This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of placenta from pregnant women with ICP and may provide us some new insights into the pathophysiology and potential novel treatment targets for ICP.

  12. Improved fertility following conservative surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Lund, Claus Otto; Ottesen, Bent;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fertility after salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Clinical University Center, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen. POPULATION: Two hundred and seventy-six women undergoing salpingectomy or tubotomy for their first ectopic...... pregnancy between January 1992 and January 1999 and who actively attempted to conceive were followed for a minimum of 18 months. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study combined with questionnaire to compare reproductive outcome following salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. Cumulative probabilities...... of pregnancy for each group were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier estimator and compared by Cox regression analysis to control for potential confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intrauterine pregnancy rates and recurrence rates of ectopic pregnancy after surgery for ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS: The cumulative...

  13. Improved fertility following conservative surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Lund, Claus Otto; Ottesen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fertility after salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Clinical University Center, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen. POPULATION: Two hundred and seventy-six women undergoing salpingectomy or tubotomy for their first ectopic...... pregnancy between January 1992 and January 1999 and who actively attempted to conceive were followed for a minimum of 18 months. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study combined with questionnaire to compare reproductive outcome following salpingectomy or tubotomy for ectopic pregnancy. Cumulative probabilities...... of pregnancy for each group were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier estimator and compared by Cox regression analysis to control for potential confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intrauterine pregnancy rates and recurrence rates of ectopic pregnancy after surgery for ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS: The cumulative...

  14. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geenes, Victoria; Williamson, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder characterized by maternal pruritus in the third trimester, raised serum bile acids and increased rates of adverse fetal outcomes...

  15. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) asthenozoospermia (A), teratozoospermia (T) or combination (O+A+T) and azoospermia (A). Although this classification indicates the accuracy of findings its relevance for prognosis in infertile couple and the choice of treatment is questionable. Materials and Methods: The study included 98 couples with male infertility factor (bad spermiogram) and couples with normospermia and normal female factor (unexplained infertility). Testing group is randomized at: group (A) with TMSC> 3,106 / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl 3 x 106 / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. Main results: From a total of 98 pairs of men’s and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p 20 x 106 / ejaculate (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.56-1.82, 5 x 106 / ejaculate are indicated for treatment with IUI. TMSC can be used as the method of choice for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:26980930

  16. Diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feig, Denice S; Corcoy, Rosa; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rising rates of diabetes in pregnancy have led to an escalation in research in this area. As in any area of clinical research, outcome definitions vary from study to study, making it difficult to compare research findings and draw conclusions. Our aim was to compile and create...... a repository of definitions, which could then be used universally. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed of published and ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the area of diabetes in pregnancy between Jan 1, 2000 and June 1, 2012. Other sources included the World Health...... Organization and Academic Society Statements. The advice of experts was sought when appropriate definitions were lacking. RESULTS: Among the published RCTs on diabetes and pregnancy, 171 abstracts were retrieved, 64 full texts were reviewed, and 53 were included. Among the ongoing RCTs published in Clinical...

  17. Effects in cattle of genetic variation within the IGF1R gene on the superovulation performance and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Cai; Yang, Li-Guo; Riaz, Hasan; Tang, Ke-Qiong; Chen, Long; Li, Shu-Jing

    2013-12-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is a membrane glycoprotein mediating most biological actions of IGF1 and IGF2, and has an important effect on ovulation, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy rate. The objectives of this study were to detect IGF1R gene polymorphisms of cattle and analyze the relationship with superovulation performance and pregnancy rates after embryo transfer (ET), as well as the hormone concentrations at the day of ET. One reported SNP of IGF1R G404T and a novel SNP of IGF1R G399A were analyzed in 170 Chinese Holstein donor cows and 118 Luxi recipients cattle. Statistical analysis revealed that the G404T mutation was associated (p=0.019) with increased ovulation rate and females with this mutation had enhanced performance in producing transferable embryos. For the polymorphic locus G399A, recipients with g.399 GG and g.399 GA genotypes had greater pregnancy rates after ET than that of g.399 AA genotype. Furthermore, the same tendency was observed that the genotype groups with greater pregnancy rates had greater progesterone and lesser estrogen concentrations, but these did not reach statistical significance. Results of the present study showed, for the first time, that the polymorphism in IGF1R is associated with superovulation traits, and indicated that the IGFIR gene can be used as a potential marker for donor selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing the pharmacokinetics of doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-release combination in nonpregnant women of reproductive age and women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matok, Ilan; Clark, Shannon; Caritis, Steve; Miodovnik, Menachem; Umans, Jason; Hankins, Gary; Koren, Gideon

    2013-03-01

    Although Diclectin (doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-released combination) is widely used in Canada, its pharmacokinetics (PK) during pregnancy has never been described. The objective of this study was to compare the PK of doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-released combination in pregnant versus nonpregnant women. The apparent clearances (CL) of doxylamine and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; the active metabolite of vitamin B(6) ) during the first-trimester pregnancy in women who participated in a Diclectin randomized trial were compared with those of healthy, adult, nonpregnant women who participated in a voluntary PK trial. Eighteen nonpregnant women were compared with 50 pregnant women who were treated with Diclectin. There was no difference in the apparent CL of doxylamine in women in their first trimester of pregnancy when compared with nonpregnant women on day 4 (median = 196.7 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .065), day 8 (median = 248.4 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .82), and day 15 (median = 200.9 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .55). No difference was found in the apparent CL of PLP on day 15 (median = 342.3 vs 314.7 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .92). There was no pregnancy-induced effect in the apparent CL of either doxylamine or PLP in women during the first trimester of pregnancy despite the existence of morning sickness.

  19. [Ultrasound echographic imaging and measurement of the amniotic cavity and yolk sac in early pregnancy: comparative study of intact and disordered pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, A; Fendel, H

    1988-01-01

    The chorionic cavity, vertex-breech length, yolk sac, and amnion were systematically demonstrated and measured in 50 early pregnancies, i.e., between the end of the sixth and the tenth week of gestation post menstruationem (p.m.). This was done in 23 cases with clinically and sonographically intact pregnancies without symptoms of abortion, in 12 cases with living embryos with symptoms of abortion, and in 15 cases of retained miscarriage. The thin amniotic membrane is sonographically demonstrated as a narrow, sharply defined reflected band in the chorionic cavity. In addition to direct demonstration of the amniotic membrane, the amniotic cavity can be demonstrated by a density difference in the echogenicity of the chorionic and amniotic fluids. While there are delicate, homogenously distributed inner echoes in the chorionic cavity, the amniotic cavity is empty save for the embryo structure. Sonographically, therefore, the amniotic cavity stands out as a spherical structure within the chorionic cavity. In all pregnancies with a living embryo it was possible to demonstrate the yolk sac sonographically as a sharply defined ring structure in the chorionic cavity. In 10 of the 15 cases of retained miscarriage only a rudimentary remnant of the yolk sac could be detected. The development of the amniotic and chorionic cavities and vertex-breech length was constant in the pregnancies with living embryos, the amnion developing synchronously with the vertex-breech length.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Prevalence and risk of Down syndrome in monozygotic and dizygotic multiple pregnancies in Europe: implications for prenatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, B; Morris, J K; McConkey, R

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine risk of Down syndrome (DS) in multiple relative to singleton pregnancies, and compare prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. DESIGN: Population-based prevalence study based on EUROCAT congenital anomaly registries. SETTING: Eight European countries. POPULATION: 14...

  1. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; p<0.001, have an infant with low birthweight (OR:1.1; CI:1.10-1.15; p<0.001 and low Apgar score at 5 minutes (OR:1.4; CI:1.34-1.45; p<0.001 than mothers ≥20 years, with the odds for adverse outcomes greater for those aged 10-14 years. Conclusion: this study provides evidence of fertility rates among adolescents remaining higher in regions of social and economic deprivation. Adolescent mothers and their infants more likely to experience adverse perinatal outcomes. Nurses, public health practitioners, health and social care professionals and educators need to work collaboratively to better target strategies for adolescents at greater risk; to help reduce fertility rates and improve outcomes.

  2. 妊娠率与取卵术中音乐疗法的相关性研究%The relatetion research about pregnancy rate and music therapy during cocyte retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤卿; 康汉珍; 廖小卿; 谢利红

    2008-01-01

    Objective This aticle will disscuss the pregnancy rate of women who underwent In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer(IVF-ET)and cocyte retrieval by vaginal ultrasound,during the operation will apply music therapy.Methods 400 csses who underwent cocyte retrieval by vaginal B-puncture were randomly divided into 290 cases(apply music therapy)and 110 cases(control group),respectively compare clinical pregnancy rate of the two groups of the application of music therapy and do not have during cocyte retrieval.Raesults The clinical pregnancy rate of applied music was 38.3%[1],The rate of control group was 26.2%,the difference was significant(P<0.05).Conclusion If appdjed music tjerapy during cocyte retrieval,,the clinical pregnancy rate will significantly improved during the women underwent In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET)%目的 探讨体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)术妇女,经阴道B超穿刺取卵术中应用音乐疗法,对临床妊娠效果的影响.方法 将400例经阴道B超穿刺取卵术患者随机分为音乐组290例,对照组110例,分别于取卵术中应用和不用音乐疗法比较两组的临床妊娠率.结果 音乐组临床妊娠率为38.3%[1],护理组为26.2%.两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在取卵术中应用音乐疗法,显著提高了体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)术妇女临床妊娠率.

  3. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration or a controlled internal drug-releasing insert after timed artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Kwan; Choi, In Soo; Kang, Hyun Gu; Hur, Tai Young

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration (Experiment 1) and a controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) insert (Experiment 2) after timed artificial insemination (TAI) on the pregnancy rates of dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 569 dairy cows that underwent TAI (day 0) following short-term synchronization with prostaglandin F2α were randomly allocated into two groups: no further treatment (control, n = 307) or injection of 100 µg of gonadorelin on day 5 (GnRH, n = 262). In Experiment 2, 279 dairy cows that underwent TAI (day 0) following Ovsynch were randomly allocated into two groups: no further treatment (control, n = 140) or CIDR insert treatment from days 3.5 to 18 (CIDR, n = 139). The probability of pregnancy following TAI did not differ between the GnRH (34.4%) and control (31.6%, p > 0.05) groups. However, the probability of pregnancy following TAI was higher (odds ratio: 1.74, p < 0.05) in the CIDR group (51.1%) than in the control group (39.3%). Overall, CIDR insert treatment at days 3.5 to 18 increased pregnancy rates relative to non-treated controls, whereas a single GnRH administration on day 5 did not affect the pregnancy outcomes of dairy cows. PMID:27030200

  4. Ground Forces Battle Casualty Rate Patterns: Current Rate Projections Compared to the Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    in terms of rate severity levels. The first kind of disrupted front may be illustrated by the German Kharkov and Donbas defensives in early 1943...kind of disrupted front is an exploitation phase which does not witness serious encirclement. At Donbas , two German divisions were briefly...Sandomierz [2nd 10 days] Kharkov Donbas 10 10 10 All < 9-14 DF-1 DF-1 DF-1 Ardennes ("Bulge") [1st 10 days] 10 CF (Def) Central Europe [November

  5. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007–2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20–24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70–0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10–1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03–1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90–3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04–2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12–2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26–0.71), 0.90 (0.85–0.96), and 0.29 (0.20–0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers. PMID:28133615

  6. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007-2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Iorga, Magdalena; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20-24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70-0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10-1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03-1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90-3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04-2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12-2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26-0.71), 0.90 (0.85-0.96), and 0.29 (0.20-0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers.

  7. Diet density in rearing and reproductive phases influences carcass composition, pregnancy rate and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of diet density in the rearing phase×diet density in the reproductive phase on carcass composition, pregnancy rate, and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does. The experiment followed a 2×2×2 factorial (2 seasons, 2 diet densities in the rearing phase and 2 diet densities in reproductive phase, that is, from mating to weaning of the first litter. The reference diet (RD contained 184 g/kg of crude protein (CP, 165 g/kg of acid detergent fibre (ADF and 10.5 MJ/kg of digestible energy (DE. The low-density diet (LD had 147 g/kg of CP, 24 g/kg of ADF and 8.4 MJ/kg of DE. The treatments were applied from 70 d of age until weaning of the first litter at 35 d of age. Ninety-six females from the Botucatu Genetic Group (24 females/experimental group were mated at 142 d of age. On day 12 of gestation, 23 does were slaughtered to evaluate weights of carcass, organs and dissectible fat, and embryo implantation rate. No effects of diet density in the rearing or in the reproductive phases were detected on feed intake of does during the reproductive phase. Does fed LD during the rearing phase showed lower body weight at mating (3574±47 vs. 3866±43 g, P=0.0001 and during most of the reproductive phase, but they lost less weight in the peripartum. Perirenal fat was lighter in these does (72.8±10.0 vs. 102.1±9.6 g, P=0.048 and they showed a lower pregnancy rate (76.1 vs. 91.7%, P=0.045. The does fed RD in the reproductive phase were heavier during this phase (4055±40 g vs. 3887±41 g, P=0.0044. The does fed LD in rearing phase and RD in the reproductive phase showed larger litters at weaning, due to decreased kit mortality, than those fed RD in both phases (6.16±0.47 vs. 3.93±0.71, P=0.0361. Litters were lighter at weaning when LD was fed in the reproductive phase (3582±201 vs. 4733±187, P<0.0001. Feeding a low-density diet during the rearing phase and a reference diet during the

  8. Prevention and management of malaria during pregnancy: findings from a comparative qualitative study in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Afrah, Nana A; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Chatio, Samuel; Were, Florence; Hodgson, Abraham; Hamel, Mary J; Kalilani, Linda; Tagbor, Harry; Pool, Robert

    2013-11-20

    In endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is a major preventable cause of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Current recommended MiP prevention and control includes intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and appropriate case management. This article explores the social and cultural context to the uptake of these interventions at four sites across Africa. A comparative qualitative study was conducted at four sites in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. Individual and group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, their relatives, opinion leaders, other community members and health providers. Observations, which focused on behaviours linked to MiP prevention and treatment, were also undertaken at health facilities and in local communities. ITNs were generally recognized as important for malaria prevention. However, their availability and use differed across the sites. In Malawi and Kenya, ITNs were sought-after items, but there were complaints about availability. In central Ghana, women saved ITNs until the birth of the child and they were used seasonally in northern Ghana. In Kenya and central Ghana, pregnant women did not associate IPTp with malaria, whereas, in Malawi and northern Ghana, IPTp was linked to malaria, but not always with prevention. Although IPTp adherence was common at all sites, whether delivered with directly observed treatment or not, a few women did not comply with IPTp often citing previous side effects. Although generally viewed as positive, experiences of malaria testing varied across the four sites: treatment was sometimes administered in spite of a negative diagnosis in Ghana (observed) and Malawi (reported). Despite generally following the advice of healthcare staff, particularly in Kenya, personal experience, and the availability and accessibility of medication--including anti-malarials--influenced MiP treatment. Although ITNs were

  9. Preferences of subfertile women regarding elective single embryo transfer : additional in vitro fertilization cycles are acceptable, lower pregnancy rates are not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2007-01-01

    With identical pregnancy rates after elective single embryo transfer (ET) and double ET strategies consisting of three cycles of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) plus transfers of thawed/frozen embryos if available, 46% of the women undergoing IVF/ICSI favor elective single ET. If elec

  10. Social Acceptance; A Possible Mediator in the Association between Socio-Economic Deprivation and Under-18 Pregnancy Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debbie Michelle; Roberts, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the social acceptance of young (under-18) pregnancy by assessing people's acceptance of young pregnancy and abortion in relation to deprivation. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted in two relatively affluent and two relatively deprived local authorities in London (n=570). Contrary to previous findings, participants…

  11. The impact of expectant management, systemic methotrexate and surgery on subsequent pregnancy outcomes in tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdag, E; Guler, I; Abay, S; Oguz, Y; Erdem, M; Erdem, A

    2017-05-01

    The most common treatment modalities of ectopic pregnancy may influence long-term subsequent fertility outcomes in women who previously treated for ectopic pregnancy. Our objective was to compare long-term subsequent fertility outcomes after treatment with expectant management, systemic methotrexate (MTX) and surgery in tubal ectopic pregnancy. We searched our database for all women diagnosed with tubal ectopic pregnancy between January 2007 and January 2011 who were managed expectantly, with systemic MTX and with surgery. Treatment success and spontaneous pregnancy rates were compared in patients who desire to conceive following a tubal pregnancy. One hundred twelve of 151 women desired to conceive following tubal ectopic pregnancy. Twenty-seven of 112 (24.1 %) patients were managed expectantly. Fifty-three (47.3 %) and 32 (28.5 %) patients were managed with systemic MTX or surgery, respectively. All patients in expectant and surgery groups were managed successfully. Two (3.7 %) patients had surgery after failed treatment with systemic MTX. Spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy rates were 62.9 % in expectantly managed women, 58.4 % in women with systemic MTX and 68.7 % in women with surgery (p > 0.05). Treatment of ectopic pregnancy with either expectant management or systemic MTX is equally effective as compared to surgery. Spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy rates were comparable in expectant management, systemic methotrexate and surgery.

  12. Local illness concepts and their relevance for the prevention and control of malaria during pregnancy in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi: findings from a comparative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaca, Arantza; Pell, Christopher; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Chatio, Samuel; Afrah, Nana A; Were, Florence; Hodgson, Abraham; Ouma, Peter; Kalilani, Linda; Tagbor, Harry; Pool, Robert

    2013-07-22

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of morbidity and mortality linked to malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is significant and compounded by its unclear symptoms and links with other health problems during pregnancy. Mindful of the biomedical and social complexity of MiP, this article explores and compares local understandings of MiP and their links with other pregnancy-related health problems. A comparative qualitative study was undertaken at four sites in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. Individual and group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, their relatives, opinion leaders, other community members and health providers. MiP-related behaviours were also observed at health facilities and in local communities. Across the four sites, local malaria concepts overlapped with biomedically defined malaria. In terms of symptoms, at-risk groups, outcomes and aetiology of malaria during pregnancy, this overlap was however both site-specific and partial. Moreover, the local malaria concepts were not monolithic and their descriptions varied amongst respondents. The symptoms of pregnancy and malaria also overlapped but, for respondents, symptom severity was the distinguishing factor. Malaria was generally, though not universally, perceived as serious for pregnant women. Miscarriage was the most widely known outcome, and links with anaemia, low birth weight and congenital malaria were mentioned. Nonetheless, amongst many potential causes of miscarriage, malaria was not recognized as the most important, but rather interacted with other pregnancy-related problems. Given the overlap of common pregnancy problems with the symptoms of malaria, and the limited association of malaria with its main outcomes, a comprehensive antenatal care programme is the most appropriate strategy for the provision of health education, prevention and treatment for MiP. Variations in locally shared understandings of MiP must however be taken into account when designing and promoting Mi

  13. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF INTRATHECAL BUPIVACAINE-FENTANYL AND BUPIVACAINE - CLONIDINE FOR CAESAREAN SECTION IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain free postoperative period and early ambulation are the need of the day for mothers and their neonates for early initiation of breast feeding. It is moral responsibility of Anaesthesiologist to provide a safe and pain free postoperative period with use of various techniques and drug combinations. Spinal anaesthesia has been widely used for caesarean section in normalas well as preeclamptic parturients and has been found to be efficaciousand safe. The present study aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy and side effect profile of intrathecal Bupivacaine with Fentanyl and Bupivacaine with Clonidine in cesarean section of parturients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH. METHODS: 50 full term parturients with pregnancy induced hypertension scheduled for cesarean section were randomized into 2 groups of 25 each. GROUP BF (Bupivacaine with Fentanyl received 7.5mg of 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine and 20µg Fentanyl intrathecally. GROUP BC (Bupivacaine with Clonidine received 7.5mg of 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine and 60µg clonidine intrathecally. RESULTS: Patients in group BC showed long lasting analgesia compared to group BF (p value<0.05. Both the groups had satisfactory analgesia with hemodynamic stability, however the incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement was more in group BC compared to BF. Incidence of pruritus was exceptionally seen in group BF, however more patients were sedated and complained of dry mouth in group BC. Both the groups had comparable APGAR scores with no adverse neonatal effects. CONCLUSION: We conclude use of intrathecal clonidine 60µg and Fentanyl 20µg both provide excellent sensory and motor blockage with lower dose of bupivacaine. Both drugs improved intraoperative analgesia and prolonged the duration of effective analgesia without any adverse effect on neonate neurobehaviour. Fairly good analgesia with less sedation and better haemodynamic stability is observed with 20μg fentanyl

  14. 影响人工授精妊娠率的多因素分析%Analysis on factors related to the pregnancy rate of artificial insemination with husband sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓莉; 王迪; 王霞; 马晓琳; 张美云; 郭丰

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the related factors affect pregnancy rate of intrau-terine insemination(IUI). Methods:146 infertile couples (277 cycles),who received IUI in Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from March 2013 to Sep. 2014,were included in this study. The relationship between female age,duration of infertility,cycles of intrauterine insemi-nation,ovulation induction protocol and triggering methods with pregnancy rate was analyzed. Results:The overall pregnancy rate was 14. 4% per cycle. The pregnancy rate of women older than 30 years old decreased significantly comparing to those younger than 25 years old (11. 2%vs 25. 8%,P30岁组(25.8% vs 11.2%,P<0.05);妊娠组的扳机日促黄体生成素( LH)水平高于非孕组[(29.7±8.44) vs (16.6±1.52),P<0.05]。子宫内膜分型为A型者的妊娠率显著高于非A型者(P<0.05)。 GnRH-a扳机后排卵率优于HCG(P<0.05);4个治疗周期内随着周期数的增加累计妊娠率上升,卵泡期为10~16天妊娠率最高。结论:夫精人工授精治疗中,患者年龄、HCG日LH值、子宫内膜分型与妊娠率相关, GnRH-a 扳机后排卵率优于HCG。

  15. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José

    2017-04-06

    analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; pprematuros (OR:1,1; IC:1,08-1,13; pprematuro (OR:1,1; IC:1,08-1,13; p<0,001), bebé con peso bajo al nacer (OR:1,1; IC:1,10-1,15; p<0,001) y puntuación de Apgar baja a los 5 minutes (OR:1,4; IC:1,34-1,45; p<0,001) fue superior para madres entre 15 y 19 años en comparación con madres ≥20 años, con mayores chances de resultados negativos para aquellas entre 10 y 14 años de edad. este estudio evidencia que las tasas de fertilidad entre las adolescentes siguen superiores en regiones de pobreza social y económica. Madres adolescentes y sus bebés tienen mayor probabilidad de efectos perinatales adversos. Enfermeros, trabajadores de salud pública, profesionales de salud y asistencia social y educadores deben colaborar para mejor dirigir estrategias a adolescentes con riesgo superior; para fines de ayudar a reducir las tasas de fertilidad y mejorar los resultados.

  16. Plasma TNF-alpha levels are higher in early pregnancy in patients with secondary compared with primary recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goegebeur, Yuri; Psiosik, Zofia; Klitkou, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Specific pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in plasma may characterize women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) but the dynamics of the cytokine profiles with progressing pregnancy is largely unknown.......Specific pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in plasma may characterize women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) but the dynamics of the cytokine profiles with progressing pregnancy is largely unknown....

  17. Utilization of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy: Comparative patterns in 38 countries based on data from the EURAP registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battino, D.; Bonizzoni, E.; Craig, J.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), 1999-2005, in 4,798 prospective epilepsy pregnancies from 38 countries participating in EURAP, an international AED and pregnancy registry. Prominent differences in utilization patterns were observed across the various countries. Exposure...

  18. Utilization of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy: Comparative patterns in 38 countries based on data from the EURAP registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battino, D.; Bonizzoni, E.; Craig, J.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), 1999-2005, in 4,798 prospective epilepsy pregnancies from 38 countries participating in EURAP, an international AED and pregnancy registry. Prominent differences in utilization patterns were observed across the various countries. Exposure...

  19. Progesterone (CIDR)-based timed AI protocols using GnRH, porcine LH or estradiol cypionate for dairy heifers: ovarian and endocrine responses and pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, J D; Kastelic, J P; Rajamahendran, R; Aali, M; Dinn, N

    2005-10-15

    The overall objective was to compare the efficacy of GnRH, porcine LH (pLH) and estradiol cypionate (ECP), in a modified Ovsynch/fixed-time AI (FTAI) protocol that included a controlled internal drug [progesterone] release (CIDR) device. In Experiment 1, heifers received a CIDR on Day -10, and PGF (25mg) on Day -3. At CIDR insertion, heifers received 100 microg of GnRH (n=6), 0.5mg of ECP (n=6), 5.0mg of pLH (n=6) or 2 mL of saline (n=7); these treatments were repeated on Day -1, except for ECP, that was repeated on Day -2, concurrent with CIDR-removal. The 5.0 mg pLH was the least effective with a longer interval to ovulation than the other groups combined (102 versus 64 h; PpLH compared to all other groups (4.5 versus 10.3 ng/mL; PpLH (n=6; pLH-low), 25.0 mg pLH (n=6, pLH-high), or 100 microg GnRH (n=5; control). Heifers in the pLH-high group had greater (PpLH treatments did not differ (P>0.10). Area under the curve for LH (ng/32 h) was at least 50% greater (PpLH-treated heifers compared to GnRH-treated heifers (mean, 41.3, 56.3 and 20.3 for pLH-low, pLH-high and GnRH, respectively). Ovulation occurred in 15 of 17 heifers. Progesterone concentrations were higher on Days 9 and 14 in heifers given 25mg of pLH, suggesting enhanced CL function. In Experiment 3, 240 heifers were assigned to CIDR-based Ovsynch/FTAI protocols. The first and second hormonal treatments (with an intervening PGF treatment on Day -3) were GnRH/GnRH (100 microg), ECP/ECP (0.5 mg), pLH/pLH (12.5 mg) or GnRH/ECP, respectively; pregnancy rates were 58.7, 66.1, 45.9 and 48.3%, respectively (ECP/ECP>both pLH/pLH and GnRH/ECP; Ppregnancy rates about 20% points higher than previously reported for dairy heifers bred to Ovsynch/FTAI in the absence of a CIDR.

  20. Improvement of pregnancy rate by intrauterine administration of dexamethasone and recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor at the time of embryo transfer in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sangho; Kim, Se-Woong; Jung, Yeon-Gil

    2016-01-01

    Bovine embryos (day 5) were cultured to day 10 with or without 100 ng/mL PGF2α in medium supplemented with control; 100 nM Dex; 1,000 U/mL recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor (rhLIF); or Dex+rhLIF. Although the rates to development to the blastocyst were not significantly different among groups, the hatching rate after additional culture with Dex +/or rhLIF was significantly higher in all supplemented groups than the control (p Pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the ET group that received supplemented embryo-loading medium than in the non-supplemented control (p pregnancy rate. PMID:27030197

  1. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. METHODS: The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. RESULTS: The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular\\/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular\\/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  2. Disparities in obstetrical outcomes in ART pregnancies compared with natural conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Torie C; Novak, Christopher M; Spong, Catherine Y

    2013-09-01

    Health disparities are observed in all fields of medicine and reproductive health is not immune to this phenomenon. The incidence of women using infertility treatments to conceive is increasing. Women undergoing assisted reproduction appear to be at increased risk of adverse outcomes, and minority women tend to be at even greater risk. This article examines several adverse obstetrical outcomes including preterm birth, congenital malformations, and preeclampsia among women receiving infertility treatments compared with those who conceive spontaneously. It will further examine societal costs associated with these procedures.

  3. Offenders, Judges, and Officers Rate the Relative Severity of Alternative Sanctions Compared to Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nathan T.; May, David C.; Wood, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work suggests that offenders rate several alternatives as more severe than imprisonment. We build on this literature by comparing punishment exchange rates generated by criminal court judges with rates generated by offenders and their supervising officers. Findings reveal that none of the three groups rates prison as the most severe…

  4. Evaluation the effects of conservative surgery of tubal pregnancy under laparoscopy by hydrotubation under hysteroscopy for application on improving re-pregnancy rate%医用生物蛋白胶在腹腔镜下输卵管保守性手术中提高患者再孕率的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢静; 陈秀文

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨医用生物蛋白胶在腹腔镜下输卵保守性手术中提高者再孕率的价值.方法 回顾性分析本院3年间应用医用生物蛋白胶治疗输卵保守性手术150例的治疗效果及优越性,选择腹腔镜下异位始娠开窗取胚术150例(对照组)与在对照组的基础上再用医用生物蛋白胶150例为研究对象(观察组).结果 观察组均获成功,与对照组相比,加用医用生物蛋白胶组术中出血少,损伤少,术后随访患者持续异妊娠再次宫外孕率、不孕率均低于对照组,宫内妊娠率高.结论 医用生物蛋白胶能提高异位妊娠手术的成功率及术后宫内妊娠率.%Objective of Fibrin gel which ape: Evaluation the effectplies on conservative surgery of tubal pregnancy under laparoscopy for improving pregnancy rate. Methods 150 cases of patients who received fibrin gel of tubal pregnancies conservative surgery had great effect on the application during the past 3 years within our hospital. 150 cases of patients (basic group) took laparoscopic fenestration under Laparoscopy, after the operation, the 150 patients (as an observation group) used fibrin glue also. Results The observation group was successful. Comparing the basic group, with postoperative follow-up of two different sustained rates the patients who received fibrin glue group are in a less blood losing, less damage situation, and of pregnancy outside again infertility rates are lower than the basic group. Conclusions Fibrin gel is able to improve the success rate on surgery of ectopic pregnancy and postoperative intra-uterine pregnancy.

  5. Influence of low-stress handling on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination in Nellore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayf Roberto Tirloni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of low-stress handling (LSH on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI for extensively raised Nellore cows. Multiparous cows (n = 126 were randomly allocated into two groups: G1 (n = 66 and G2, the control group (n = 60. Group G1 was subjected to LSH, in which the animals were handled in a calm and quiet manner, without loud noises or physical aggression, using the point of balance, respecting the flight zone and using flags to supplement handling. Group G2 was handled following the typical procedure, with yelling, kicking and the use of electric prods and sticks. On D0, D8 and D10, FTAI was performed in both groups. Reactivity was scored on D0, D8 and D10 at the squeeze chute, based on the tension score, breathing score, and bellowing score. Using the three criteria above, the reactivity scores were defined as follows: R1 (calm; R2 (slightly reactive; R3 (moderately reactive; R4 (reactive; and R5 (highly reactive. Thirty-five days after artificial insemination, pregnancy was determined using ultrasonography. There was no significant correlation between reactivity score and pregnancy rate in each group or between the pregnancy rates in both groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the G1 and G2 groups with regard to reactivity score (1.62±0.05 vs. 2.12±0.07. Low-stress handling influenced reactivity but did not affect pregnancy rate in extensively raised Nellore cows subjected to FTAI.

  6. Comparative study of oral iron and intravenous iron sucrose for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Garg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of iron sucrose with oral iron in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia of pregnancy. Methods: An interventional comparative study was conducted at Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar involving 80 pregnant women with iron deficiency anemia from March 2016 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were gestational age between 24-32 weeks with established iron deficiency anemia, with hemoglobin between 7-10g/dl. Target Hemoglobin was 11 g/dl. In intravenous iron sucrose group iron sucrose dose was calculated from following formula: total iron dose required (mg = 2.4 x body weight in Kg x (target Hb – Patient’s Hb g/dl + 500. In oral iron, group patient received ferrous-sulphate 335 mg daily BD. Hb level were reviewed at 2, 4, 6 weeks. Results: Change in Hemoglobin level from baseline significantly higher in IV iron group than oral iron group. In IV iron, group mean value of baseline Hb was 8.07±0.610 g/dl and in oral iron group was 8.48±0.741 g/dl. At the end of 6-week mean hemoglobin in IV iron sucrose was 10.66±0.743 g/dl and in oral iron group was 10.08±0.860 g/dl. Conclusions: Intravenous iron sucrose elevates more Hb than oral iron, with less adverse effects.

  7. Pregnancy outcome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome comparing the effects of laparoscopic ovarian drilling and clomiphene citrate stimulation in women pre-treated with metformin: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytiska-Binstorfer Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian stimulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS increases the risk for perinatal complications. Ovulation induction by laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD might improve the overall pregnancy outcomes. The aim of our study was to assess the adverse events or effects on pregnancy of LOD and clomiphene citrate (CC stimulation in patients who received metformin. Methods Setting: Academic research institution. We retrospectively analyzed the courses of 40 spontaneous pregnancies after LOD for CC-resistance, 40 pregnancies after CC stimulation, and 40 pregnancies after metformin treatment alone. Patients in the LOD and the CC groups had been pre-treated with Metformin. Primary outcome parameters were: the rate of multiple pregnancies; the rate of early pregnancy losses/miscarriages; the development of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and preeclampsia/HELLP-syndrome; premature delivery; and birth weight. Results The rate of twin pregnancies did not differ between the CC group (12.5%, the LOD group (7.5%, and the metformin only group (2.5%, p = 0.239. Seventeen women suffered an early miscarriage. There were no differences with regard to the rates of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. By analyzing all pregnancy complications together, the overall pregnancy complication rate was highest in the CC group (70.0%, 28/40, followed by the LOD group (45.0%, 18/40, and the metformin only group (47.5%, 19/40; p = 0.047. Conclusions CC, but not LOD, increases the complication rate in pregnant patients who received metformin.

  8. Chorioamnionitis in pregnancy: a comparative study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative parturients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Patricia A; Imade, Godwin E; Silas, Olugbenga A; Ajetunmobi, Olanrewaju I; Echejoh, Godwins; Ekere, Clement; Sendht, Ayuba; Bitrus, James; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Sagay, Atiene S

    2016-03-01

    Chorioamnionitis is an important risk factor for vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS. We compared the prevalence and correlates of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women. HIV-positive and -negative parturients were interviewed, examined and had their placentas examined histologically for chorioamnionitis. Data regarding HIV were also retrieved from their hospital records. A total of 298 parturients (150 HIV positive and 148 HIV negative) were enrolled. The two groups were similar in socio-demographic and obstetric parameters except for age. The prevalence of HCA was 57.1% in HIV-positive women and 61.6% in HIV-negative women (p = 0.43). HCA staging was associated with the number of intrapartum vaginal examinations in HIV-positive subjects and nulliparity in HIV-negative subjects. The number of intrapartum vaginal examinations and coitus in the week prior to delivery significantly affected the grade of HCA in HIV-negative subjects. The prevalence of HCA in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative is high. Most variables did not affect the occurrence of HCA in both groups studied except number of intrapartum examinations, coitus in the preceding one week and nulliparity, which were related to severity of the disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. School-based teenage pregnancy prevention programs: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sylvana E; Assefi, Nassim P

    2005-01-01

    We compared school-based abstinence-only programs with those including contraceptive information (abstinence-plus) to determine which has the greatest impact on teen pregnancy. The United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the industrialized world. Programs aimed at reducing the rate of teen pregnancy include a myriad of approaches including encouraging abstinence, providing education about birth control, promoting community service activities, and teaching skills to cope with peer pressure. We systematically reviewed all published randomized controlled trials of secondary-school-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in the United States that used sexual behavior, contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive use, and pregnancy rates as outcomes.

  10. Undocumented migrant women in Denmark have inadequate access to pregnancy screening and have a higher prevalence Hepatitis B virus infection compared to documented migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Annika; Ehmsen, Boje K; Lenskjold, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant residents of Denmark are tested by their GP for current infections with Hepatitis B virus (HBV), HIV and syphilis through the Danish pregnancy screening programme to identify infections and initiate interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission. Documented migrants (DM...... on HBV, HIV and syphilis testing frequency and results for pregnant women attending three clinics specialising in care for UM between August 2011 and August 2014. We obtained aggregate data on the prevalence of the three infections for documented migrants from the Danish pregnancy screening programme...... prevalence ratios (SPR). RESULTS: The three UM clinics registered 219 pregnancies qualifying for screening. Overall 43, 58 and 60 % of pregnant UM had a test result recorded for HBV, Syphilis and HIV respectively, compared to >99 % in the general Danish population including DM. The prevalence of HBV...

  11. Prediction of Fetal Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Diabetic Pregnancies Compared with Postnatal Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmekkawi, Sherif F.; Mansour, Ghada M.; Elsafty, Mohammed S.E.; Hassanin, Alaa S.; Laban, Mohamed; Elsayed, Heba M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy of prenatal assessment of interventricular septum (IVS) thickness, right myocardial wall thickness (RMWT), and left myocardial wall thickness (LMWT) by two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound for the prediction of perinatal mortality and postnatal diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) among diabetic pregnant women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A total of 120 diabetic pregnant women at 35 weeks or more were enrolled in this study from January 1, 2012, to June 30, 2014, at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. The 2D ultrasound was done once for all the participants at the time of recruitment; IVS thickness, RMWT, and LMWT were measured. The glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of the participants were recorded. Neonatal assessment including postnatal echocardiography was done after 48 hours. Postnatal results were compared with the prenatal predictive results. RESULTS Higher thickness values for IVS, RMW, and LMW were obtained in the uncontrolled diabetic cases (HbA1c > 6.5%) than in the controlled diabetic cases (HbA1c < 6.5%; P < 0.01). Of the included 120 neonates, 10 (8.3%) were stillborn, 99 (82.5%) had a five-minute Apgar score ≥7, and 4 (3.3%) had a five-minute Apgar score ≤3. The four neonates with severe neonatal distress died after admission to neonatal intensive care unit within one week after delivery. Out of 110 live-born neonates, 4 (3.6%) neonates had a low ejection fraction (EF) (<50%) due to HCM; of them 2 (1.8%) died within one week after delivery, while 2 (1.8%) survived. Another two (1.8%) neonates died from severe respiratory distress syndrome. A cutoff value of ≥4.5 mm for prenatal IVS thickness was predictive of neonatal distress due to HCM with a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 68%, and diagnostic accuracy of 72%. A cutoff value of <1.18 for the ratio of IVS thickness to LMWT had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 72%, and diagnostic accuracy of 74% for the prediction of

  12. Pregnancy outcomes in women with severe hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Dania; Levy, Sigal; Nadler, Varda; Kopel, Vered; Shainberg, Bracha; Toledano, Yoel

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism during pregnancy has been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Most studies have focused on subjects with a mild or subclinical disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the relative rate of severe thyroid dysfunction among pregnant women with hypothyroidism, identify related factors and analyse the impact on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective case series design was employed. The study group included 101 pregnant women (103 pregnancies) with an antenatal serum TSH level >20.0 mIU/l identified from the 2009-2010 computerised database of a health maintenance organisation. Data were collected from the medical records. Pregnancy outcomes were compared with those of a control group of 205 euthyroid pregnant women during the same period. The study group accounted for 1.04% of all insured pregnant women with recorded hypothyroidism during the study period. Most cases had an autoimmune aetiology. All women were treated with levothyroxine (L-T₄) during pregnancy. Maximum serum TSH level measured was 20.11-150 mIU/l (median 32.95 mIU/l) and median serum TSH level 0.36-75.17 mIU/l (median 7.44 mIU/l). The mean duration of hypothyroidism during pregnancy was 21.2 ± 13.2 weeks (median 18.5 weeks); in 36 cases (34.9%), all TSH levels during pregnancy were elevated. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included abortions in 7.8% of the cases, premature deliveries in 2.9% and other complications in 14.6%, with no statistically significant differences from the control group. Median serum TSH level during pregnancy was positively correlated with the rate of abortions+premature deliveries and rate of all pregnancy-related complications (Pwomen with severe hypothyroidism. Intense follow-up and L-T₄ treatment may improve pregnancy outcomes even when target TSH levels are not reached.

  13. E1. Risk of chronic hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy - a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, I; Basit, S; Melbye, M;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are known to have an increased risk of hypertension years after their pregnancy. However, how soon after an affected pregnancy the risk of hypertension increases and how/whether this risk evolves over time, is unclear....... METHOD: Using national health register data, we identified all women giving birth in Denmark from 1978 to 2011. Cox regression analysis was used to compare the rates of incident post-pregnancy hypertension requiring treatment with medication after pregnancy in women with and without a history of HDP......, by the number of years since pregnancy. FINDINGS: In the first 3 years after a woman's latest pregnancy, rates of chronic hypertension were 4- to 9-fold higher in women with an HDP in that pregnancy than in women with a normotensive pregnancy. The difference in rates between the two groups declined...

  14. Pregnancy Outcomes in Chinese Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE: A Retrospective Study of 109 Pregnancies.

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    Ming Ku

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem autoimmune disease that primarily affects women during their reproductive years. The interaction between SLE and pregnancy remains debated. The objective of this study was to analyze the fetal and maternal outcomes of Chinese women with SLE. A total of 109 pregnancies in 83 SLE patients from June 2004 to June 2014 at a tertiary university hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients' characteristics, clinical and laboratory data during pregnancy were obtained from electronic medical records. After exclusion of elective abortions, the live birth rate was 61.5%. Significantly, APS (antiphospholipid syndrome, disease activity, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia during pregnancy were more commonly observed in fetal loss pregnancies than in live birth pregnancies. Compared to the 64 women with a history of SLE, 19 women with new-onset lupus during pregnancy had worse pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, the 64 patients with a history of SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group and SLE group (non-renal involvement. We found that the lupus nephritis group had worse maternal outcome than the SLE group. We conclude that new-onset lupus during pregnancy predicts both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, while a history of lupus nephritis predicts adverse maternal outcomes. It is essential to provide SLE women with progestational counseling and regular multispecialty care during pregnancy.

  15. Pregnancy Outcomes in Chinese Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): A Retrospective Study of 109 Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Ming; Guo, Shuiming; Shang, Weifeng; Li, Qing; Zeng, Rui; Han, Min; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that primarily affects women during their reproductive years. The interaction between SLE and pregnancy remains debated. The objective of this study was to analyze the fetal and maternal outcomes of Chinese women with SLE. A total of 109 pregnancies in 83 SLE patients from June 2004 to June 2014 at a tertiary university hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients' characteristics, clinical and laboratory data during pregnancy were obtained from electronic medical records. After exclusion of elective abortions, the live birth rate was 61.5%. Significantly, APS (antiphospholipid syndrome), disease activity, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia during pregnancy were more commonly observed in fetal loss pregnancies than in live birth pregnancies. Compared to the 64 women with a history of SLE, 19 women with new-onset lupus during pregnancy had worse pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, the 64 patients with a history of SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group and SLE group (non-renal involvement). We found that the lupus nephritis group had worse maternal outcome than the SLE group. We conclude that new-onset lupus during pregnancy predicts both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, while a history of lupus nephritis predicts adverse maternal outcomes. It is essential to provide SLE women with progestational counseling and regular multispecialty care during pregnancy.

  16. Pre-pregnancy transabdominal cerclage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2009-01-01

    abortions, none in second trimester abortions or deliveries, and six were on-going pregnancies. In the remaining 37 pregnancies the fetal salvage rate was 100%, and cesarean section was performed after 34 weeks (mean 36+5 weeks) in 36 (97%) pregnancies. One woman had three successful pregnancies following...

  17. ChargeOut! : discounted cash flow compared with traditional machine-rate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Bilek

    2008-01-01

    ChargeOut!, a discounted cash-flow methodology in spreadsheet format for analyzing machine costs, is compared with traditional machine-rate methodologies. Four machine-rate models are compared and a common data set representative of logging skidders’ costs is used to illustrate the differences between ChargeOut! and the machine-rate methods. The study found that the...

  18. Study protocol: Cost effectiveness of two strategies to implement the NVOG guidelines on hypertension in pregnancy: An innovative strategy including a computerised decision support system compared to a common strategy of professional audit and feedback, a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luitjes Susanne HE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertensive disease in pregnancy remains the leading cause of maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Seventeen percent of the clinical pregnancies are complicated by hypertension and 2% by preeclampsia. The Dutch Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (NVOG has developed evidence-based guidelines on the management of hypertension in pregnancy and chronic hypertension. Previous studies showed a low adherence rate to other NVOG guidelines and a large variation in usual care in the different hospitals. An explanation is that the NVOG has no general strategy of practical implementation and evaluation of its guidelines. The development of an effective and cost effective implementation strategy to improve adherence to the guidelines on hypertension in pregnancy is needed. Methods/Design The objective of this study is to assess the cost effectiveness of an innovative implementation strategy of the NVOG guidelines on hypertension including a computerised decision support system (BOS compared to a common strategy of professional audit and feedback. A cluster randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation alongside will be performed. Both pregnant women who develop severe hypertension or pre-eclampsia and professionals involved in the care for these women will participate. The main outcome measures are a combined rate of major maternal complications and process indicators extracted from the guidelines. A total of 472 patients will be included in both groups. For analysis, descriptive as well as regression techniques will be used. A cost effectiveness and cost utility analysis will be performed according to the intention-to-treat principle and from a societal perspective. Cost effectiveness ratios will be calculated using bootstrapping techniques.

  19. Comparative incidence of a first thrombotic event in purely obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome with pregnancy loss: the NOH-APS observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gris, Jean-Christophe; Bouvier, Sylvie; Molinari, Nicolas; Galanaud, Jean-Philippe; Cochery-Nouvellon, Eva; Mercier, Erik; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Balducchi, Jean-Pierre; Marès, Pierre; Quéré, Isabelle; Dauzat, Michel

    2012-03-15

    The incidence of thrombosis in the purely obstetric form of antiphospholipid syndrome is uncertain. We performed a 10-year observational study of 1592 nonthrombotic women who had experienced 3 consecutive spontaneous abortions before the 10th week of gestation or 1 fetal death at or beyond the 10th week of gestation. We compared the frequencies of thrombotic events among women positive for antiphospholipid Abs (n = 517), women carrying the F5 6025 or F2 rs1799963 polymorphism (n = 279), and women with negative thrombophilia screening results (n = 796). The annual rates of deep vein thrombosis (1.46%; range, 1.15%-1.82%), pulmonary embolism (0.43%; range, 0.26%-0.66%), superficial vein thrombosis (0.44%; range, 0.28%-0.68%), and cerebrovascular events (0.32%; range, 0.18%-0.53%) were significantly higher in aPLAbs women than in the other groups despite low-dose aspirin primary prophylaxis. Women carrying 1 of the 2 polymorphisms did not experience more thrombotic events than women who screened negative for thrombophilia. Lupus anticoagulant was a risk factor for unprovoked proximal and distal deep and superficial vein thrombosis and women in the upper quartile of lupus anticoagulant activity had the highest risk. Despite data suggesting that aPLAbs may induce pregnancy loss through nonthrombotic mechanisms, women with purely obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome are at risk for thrombotic complications.

  20. Where is the best site for embryo transfer? A study of relation of embryo-fundal distance with pregnancy rate in ICSI-ET cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreedevi J. Tanksale

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that higher pregnancy rates are obtained if the embryos are selectively placed at a distance between 10mm to 15 mm from the fundal endometrial surface. It is not possible to determine exact location of embryo placed in utero by any method. The findings of our study can be considered as a guiding force by clinicians. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2661-2665

  1. MANAGING EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY : A COMPARATIVE COUNTERFACTUAL ANALYSIS OF SINGAPORE 1994 TO 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wilson; Henry Ng Shang Ren

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is see how well Singapore’s exchange rate regime has coped with exchange rate volatility before and after the Asian financial crisis by comparing the performance of Singapore’s actual regime in minimising the volatility of the nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) and the bilateral rate against the US$ against some counterfactual regimes and the corresponding performance of eight other East Asian countries. In contrast to previous counterfactual exercises, such as...

  2. Impact of ectopic pregnancy for reproductive prognosis in next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Egerup, Pia; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-04-01

    The impact of an ectopic pregnancy in the next generation is unknown. Our aim was to compare reproductive outcomes in daughters of women with and without ectopic pregnancy. Designed as a historical prospective controlled cohort study with data collected in four Danish registries from 1977-2009, women with ectopic pregnancy during 1977-1982 were age-matched to women without ectopic pregnancy. Daughters of these two cohorts were followed until 2009. We compared 5126 daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy with 19 928 daughters of women without ectopic pregnancy. The daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy had a 1.5-fold (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.9) increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, while for deliveries this was 1.0 (1.0-1.1), for miscarriages 1.1 (1.0-1.2), and for induced abortions 1.3 (1.2-1.4). Daughters of mothers with ectopic pregnancy have a 50% higher risk of ectopic pregnancy than daughters of women without an ectopic pregnancy, but a normal delivery rate.

  3. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  4. Diabetes and perinatal mortality in twin pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Cheng Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes in pregnancy has been associated with a paradoxically reduced risk of neonatal death in twin pregnancies. Risk "shift" may be a concern in that the reduction in neonatal deaths may be due to an increase in fetal deaths (stillbirths. This study aimed to clarify the impact of diabetes on the risk of perinatal death (neonatal death plus stillbirth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of twin births using the largest available dataset on twin births (the U.S. matched multiple birth data 1995-2000; 19,676 neonates from diabetic pregnancies, 541,481 from non-diabetic pregnancies. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR of perinatal death accounting for twin cluster-level dependence. RESULTS: Comparing diabetic versus non-diabetic twin pregnancies, overall perinatal mortality rate was counterintuitively lower [2.1% versus 3.3%, aHR 0.70 (95% confidence intervals 0.63-0.78]. Individually, both stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were lower in diabetic pregnancies, but we identified significant differences by gestational age and birth weight. Diabetes was associated with a survival benefit in pregnancies completed before 32 weeks [aHR 0.55 (0.48-0.63] or with birth weight =2500 g [aHR 2.20 (1.55-3.13]. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in pregnancy appears to be "protective" against perinatal death in twin pregnancies ending in very preterm or very low birth weight births. Prospective studies are required to clarify whether these patterns of risk are real, or they are artifacts of unmeasured confounders. Additional data correlating these outcomes with the types of diabetes in pregnancy are also needed to distinguish the effects of pre-gestational vs. gestational diabetes.

  5. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM.

  6. Effect of a CIDR insert and flunixin meglumine, administered at the time of embryo transfer, on pregnancy rate and resynchronization of estrus in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, S H; Beal, W E; Gray, K R

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM), an inhibitor of PGF(2alpha) synthesis, and insertion of an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR), on pregnancy rates in beef cattle embryo transfer (ET) recipients, and to examine the effect of a CIDR after embryo transfer on the synchrony of the return to estrus in non-pregnant recipients. Cows (n=622) and heifers (n=90) at three locations were assigned randomly to one of four groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments with FM administration (500 mg i.m.) 2-12 min prior to ET, and insertion of a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone) immediately following ET as main effects. Fresh or frozen embryos (Stage=4 or 5; Grade=1 or 2) were transferred on Days 6-9 of the estrous cycle and CIDR devices were removed 13 days after ET. Recipients at Location 2 only were observed for signs of return to estrus. Recipients that returned to estrus at Location 2 were either bred by AI or received an embryo 7 days after estrus. Following the initial ET, there was an FMxlocation interaction on pregnancy rate (P0.05; 65% with CIDR, 70% without CIDR), however, the timing of the return to estrus was more synchronous (P0.13). Effects of FM on pregnancy rate were location dependent and CIDR insertion at ET improved synchrony of the return to estrus.

  7. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rate of women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Yilda Arzu; Avci, Dilek; Guzel, Yilmaz; Ozcelik, Semanur Kumral; Gurtekin, Basak

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rates of women who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted with 186 infertile women who presented to the In Vitro Fertilization Unit at the American Hospital in Turkey between April 2015 and April 2016. The infertile women who met the inclusion criteria were assigned to the music therapy group or the standard therapy group through block randomization. The study data were collected using the Personal Information Form, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Early treatment success was determined by serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin levels seven or ten days after the luteal day zero. For the analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent sample t-test were used. After the embryo transfer, the mean state anxiety scores decreased in both groups, and the mean trait anxiety score decreased in the music therapy group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Clinical pregnancy rates did not differ between the music (48.3%) and standard (46.4%) therapy groups. After the two sessions of music therapy, state and trait anxiety levels decreased and pregnancy rates increased, but the difference was not significant. Therefore, larger sample sizes and more sessions are needed to evaluate whether music therapy has an effect on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  9. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…

  10. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…

  11. Pregnancy rates of beef cattle are not affected by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis real-time PCR-positive breeding sires in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; Hughes, P; Anderson, P; Kelly, K; Walker, G

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis (C. fetus venerealis) is the causal agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease that is asymptomatic in bulls but responsible for reproductive wastage in female cattle. In New Zealand, a commercial real-time PCR assay was introduced in 2007 to identify the DNA of this pathogen in preputial scrapings; however, concerns were raised about the specificity of the test following anecdotal reports of a high number of test-positive bulls with no apparent relationship to reproductive performance. The objective of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between real-time PCR assay results from beef breeding bulls and pregnancy rates in beef herds using these bulls. Veterinarians from four veterinary practices selected beef cattle herds with relatively high and low pregnancy rates between December 2008 and February 2009. Preputial scrapings were collected from bulls used for mating in those herds. Samples were tested using the real-time PCR assay under consideration. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess the relationship between pregnancy rates in each mob (15-month-old heifers, 27-month-old heifers and mixed-age cows) and the percentage of real-time PCR-positive bulls in each mob. Sixty-four (28.8%) of 222 bulls tested positive, 130 (58.6%) tested negative, and 28 (12.6%) returned an inconclusive result to the real-time PCR assay. The percentage of bulls testing real-time PCR-positive in these mobs was not associated with pregnancy rates (p=0.757) after controlling for mob, average body condition score of cows, cow to bull ratio, length of the mating period, and farm. Real-time PCR assay results were not associated with pregnancy rates, suggesting that the specificity of the real-time PCR assay was too low to be used to reliably detect C. fetus venerealis. This study adds to a growing body of evidence indicating that C. fetus venerealis strains are either absent from, or present at

  12. Effect of estradiol cypionate and GnRH treatment on plasma estradiol-17β concentrations, synchronization of ovulation and on pregnancy rates in suckled beef cows treated with FTAI-based protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslenghi, G; Vater, A; Rodríguez Aguilar, S; Cabodevila, J; Callejas, S

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different ovulation inducers on E-17β plasma concentrations, synchronized ovulations and pregnancy rates. In Experiment 1, cows received a progesterone intravaginal device (PID) with 1 g of progesterone (P4) plus 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) (day 0). At PID removal (day 8), cows received 0.150 mg of D-cloprostenol and were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n = 10/treatment): Group ECP: 1 mg of estradiol cypionate at PID removal, Group EB: 1 mg of EB 24 hr after PID removal, Group GnRH: 10 μg of GnRH 48 hr after PID removal, Group ECP-GnRH: 1 mg of ECP at PID removal plus 10 μg of GnRH 48 hr later. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed to detect the dominant follicle and ovulation. GnRH-treated cows ovulated later (p decreased later compared to treatments without ECP. In Experiment 2, cows received (i) ECP: n = 126; (ii) EB: n = 126; (iii) GnRH: n = 136; (iv) ECP+GnRH: n = 139; FTAI was performed 48-50 hr after PID removal. Pregnancy rates did not differ among ovulation inducers (p > .05; ECP: 54.0%, 68/126; EB: 49.2%, 62/126; GnRH: 40.4%, 55/136; ECP+GnRH: 43.9%, 61/139). In conclusion, ECP administration (ECP and ECP+GnRH treatments) affected E-17β concentrations, determining its earlier increase and later decrease compared to treatments without ECP (EB and GnRH treatments). ECP+GnRH-treated cows achieved the best distribution of ovulations without affecting pregnancy rates.

  13. Has increased clinical experience with methotrexate reduced the direct costs of medical management of ectopic pregnancy compared to surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westaby Daniel T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a debate about the cost-efficiency of methotrexate for the management of ectopic pregnancy (EP, especially for patients presenting with serum human chorionic gonadotrophin levels of >1500 IU/L. We hypothesised that further experience with methotrexate, and increased use of guideline-based protocols, has reduced the direct costs of management with methotrexate. Methods We conducted a retrospective cost analysis on women treated for EP in a large UK teaching hospital to (1 investigate whether the cost of medical management is less expensive than surgical management for those patients eligible for both treatments and (2 to compare the cost of medical management for women with hCG concentrations 1500–3000 IU/L against those with similar hCG concentrations that elected for surgery. Three distinct treatment groups were identified: (1 those who had initial medical management with methotrexate, (2 those who were eligible for initial medical management but chose surgery (‘elected’ surgery and (3 those who initially ‘required’ surgery and did not meet the eligibility criteria for methotrexate. We calculated the costs from the point of view of the National Health Service (NHS in the UK. We summarised the cost per study group using the mean, standard deviation, median and range and, to account for the skewed nature of the data, we calculated 95% confidence intervals for differential costs using the nonparametric bootstrap method. Results Methotrexate was £1179 (CI 819–1550 per patient cheaper than surgery but there were no significant savings with methotrexate in women with hCG >1500 IU/L due to treatment failures. Conclusions Our data support an ongoing unmet economic need for better medical treatments for EP with hCG >1500 IU/L.

  14. Factors Influencing Pregnancy Outcome Following Slow Cooling Cryoembryo Transfer and Risk of Multiple Conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-ying LIU; Jing-ming YAN; Jin-lan HAN; Bin TENG; Zhu-di LU; Yu ZHENG; Ying CAO; Xiang CAO; Ning-yi WANG; Bin HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors that influence the potential for cryoembryo implantation and multiple pregnancy.Methods In this retrospective study,a total of 937 thawing cycles(859 couples)in which 3286 d 3-embryos were thawed.Rates of implantation,clinical pregnancy and multiple conception following FET were observed.Results There were significant differences in female age(P<0.05)and number of good quality embryos(P<0.05)between cycles that resulted in pregnancy and those did not.There was a trend toward decreasing rates of implantation,clinical pregnancy and multiple pregnancy with increasing female age.Compared with transferring 1 good quality embryo,clinical pregnancy rate of transferring 2 and 3 good quality embryos was increased significantly(P<0.0001),there was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between transferring 2 and 3 good quality embryos.Multiple pregnancy rate was increased significantly in the group of transferring 3 good quality embryos(P<0.05),but there was no significant differences in multiple pregnancy rate between transferring 1 and 2 good quality embryos.Younger women(≤30 years)also had a significantly higher multiple pregnancy rates(28.13%)than the older ones(>35 years)(13.64%).With an increase in age from≤30 years to>40 years,clinical pregnancy rate declined from 45.61% to 25.00%.Conclusion Female age and the number of good quality embryos transferred are important factors influencing the clinical and multiple pregnancy rate,reducing the number of good quality embryos transferred may decrease the rate of multipte pregnancy but do not affect the clinical pregnancy rate.

  15. PIVET rFSH dosing algorithms for individualized controlled ovarian stimulation enables optimized pregnancy productivity rates and avoidance of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovich JL

    2016-08-01

    79.1% of patients and for 30.1% of those receiving the very lowest rFSH dosages (≤75 IU. Only 0.3% patients were diagnosed with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, all deemed avoidable due to definable breaches from the protocols. The live birth productivity rates exceeded 50% for women <35 years and was 33.2% for the group aged 35–39 years. Routine use of both algorithms led to only 11.6% of women generating >15 oocytes, significantly lower than recently published data applying conventional dosages (38.2%; P<0.0001. When comparing both specific algorithms to each other, the outcomes were mainly comparable for pregnancy, live birth, and miscarriage rate. However, there were significant differences in relation to number of oocytes retrieved, but the mean for both the algorithms remained well below 15 oocytes. Consequently, application of both these algorithms in our in vitro fertilization clinic allows the use of both the rFSH products, with very similar results, and they can be considered validated on the basis of effectiveness and safety, clearly avoiding ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Keywords: IVF, OHSS, AFC, AMH, BMI

  16. Chromosomal aberrations in in-vitro matured oocytes influence implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates in a mouse model undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available Implantation failure and early pregnancy loss have been reported to be closely related to the quality of mammalian oocytes; however, the pregnant outcome of embryos from in-vitro matured (IVM oocytes remains unknown. In this study we examined spindle assembly and chromosome segregation during differentiation, and the duration of IVM of mouse oocytes. The resulting implantation and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed to clarify the relationship between the spindle and chromosomes of IVM oocytes and implantation and early pregnancy. Cumulus-enclosed germinal vesicle oocytes were collected and randomly cultured in IVM medium with different IVM durations. One part of IVM oocytes were analyzed the spindle and chromosome morphology by immunofluorescence method, and the other part of them were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The resulting embryos were transferred into pseudo-pregnant female mice, and the post-implantation and full term development was observed. The chromosome aberrations and incorrect spindle assembly seems not affect the early development and blastocyst cell number derived from IVM oocytes, however the development potential of the resulting embryos after implantation were significant decreased with the ratio increasing of chromosome aberrations and incorrect spindle assembly. Accordingly, the full-term development was also decreased. In conclusion, the present study showed the spindle assembly of in vitro-matured oocytes was one of the most important factors that affected the implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates of IVM oocytes, and the improvement by an appropriate duration of maturation in vitro will enhance the post-implantation development potential of the resulting embryos, and decrease implantation failure and early pregnancy loss.

  17. Chromosomal aberrations in in-vitro matured oocytes influence implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates in a mouse model undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhao, Hong-Cui; Li, Rong; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Implantation failure and early pregnancy loss have been reported to be closely related to the quality of mammalian oocytes; however, the pregnant outcome of embryos from in-vitro matured (IVM) oocytes remains unknown. In this study we examined spindle assembly and chromosome segregation during differentiation, and the duration of IVM of mouse oocytes. The resulting implantation and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed to clarify the relationship between the spindle and chromosomes of IVM oocytes and implantation and early pregnancy. Cumulus-enclosed germinal vesicle oocytes were collected and randomly cultured in IVM medium with different IVM durations. One part of IVM oocytes were analyzed the spindle and chromosome morphology by immunofluorescence method, and the other part of them were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The resulting embryos were transferred into pseudo-pregnant female mice, and the post-implantation and full term development was observed. The chromosome aberrations and incorrect spindle assembly seems not affect the early development and blastocyst cell number derived from IVM oocytes, however the development potential of the resulting embryos after implantation were significant decreased with the ratio increasing of chromosome aberrations and incorrect spindle assembly. Accordingly, the full-term development was also decreased. In conclusion, the present study showed the spindle assembly of in vitro-matured oocytes was one of the most important factors that affected the implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates of IVM oocytes, and the improvement by an appropriate duration of maturation in vitro will enhance the post-implantation development potential of the resulting embryos, and decrease implantation failure and early pregnancy loss.

  18. Effect of transfer of one or two in vitro-produced embryos and post-transfer administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone on pregnancy rates of heat-stressed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, M; Block, J; Jousan, F D; de Castro e Paula, L A; Brad, A M; Franco, J M; Grisel, F; Monson, R L; Rutledge, J J; Hansen, P J

    2006-07-15

    Pregnancy rates following transfer of an in vitro-produced (IVP) embryo are often lower than those obtained following transfer of an embryo produced by superovulation. The purpose of the current pair of experiments was to examine two strategies for increasing pregnancy rates in heat stressed, dairy recipients receiving an IVP embryo. One method was to transfer two embryos into the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL, whereas the other method involved injection of GnRH at Day 11 after the anticipated day of ovulation. In Experiment 1, 32 virgin crossbred heifers and 26 lactating crossbred cows were prepared for timed embryo transfer by being subjected to a timed ovulation protocol. Those having a palpable CL were randomly selected to receive one (n = 31 recipients) or two (n = 27 recipients) embryos on Day 7 after anticipated ovulation. At Day 64 of gestation, the pregnancy rate tended to be higher (P = 0.07) for cows than for heifers. Heifers that received one embryo tended to have a higher pregnancy rate than those that received two embryos (41% versus 20%, respectively) while there was no difference in pregnancy rate for cows that received one or two embryos (57% versus 50%, respectively). Pregnancy loss between Day 64 and 127 only occurred for cows that received two embryos (pregnancy rate at Day 127=17%). Between Day 127 and term, one animal (a cow with a single embryo) lost its pregnancy. There was no difference in pregnancy rates at Day 127 or calving rates between cows and heifers, but females that received two embryos had lower Day-127 pregnancy rates and calving rates than females that received one embryo (P cows were synchronized for timed embryo transfer as in Experiment 1. Cows received a single embryo in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the ovary containing the CL and received either 100 microg GnRH or vehicle at Day 11 after anticipated ovulation (i.e. 4 days after embryo transfer). There was no difference in pregnancy rate for cows that received the Gn

  19. The effect of caffeine consumption on the success rate of pregnancy as well various performance parameters of in-vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; El-Doush, Inaam; Grisellhi, Bellido; Coskun, Serdar

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of caffeine consumption on the success rate of pregnancy and various in vitro fertilization (IVF) performance parameters. Serum and follicular fluid samples were collected from 619 women undergoing IVF treatment (2002-2003). Caffeine assessment was based on measuring the levels of caffeine in serum and follicular fluid and on the number of coffee or tea or caffeinated drinks consumed per day. A total of 97.3% of participants reported the consumption of caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea and soft drinks. Their average caffeine consumption was 455.82 mg/day (range: 3.71-3561 mg/day). Coffee was the primary source of caffeine intake. The average caffeine levels in serum (0.913 µg/ml) were significantly higher than in follicular fluid (0.701 µg/ml). After controlling for various potential confounding variables, no association was found between coffee or tea consumption and the success rate of pregnancy. Looking at the effect of caffeine consumption on the IVF performance parameters, we found that the number of eggs decreased as the caffeine serum levels increased (P=0.011). An increase in coffee consumption was positively associated with the number of aborted pregnancy (P=0.007), while the number of good embryo decreased with high tea consumption (P=0.015). Though no association was seen between coffee or tea consumption and pregnancy rate, this study is the first to report that caffeine can reach the follicular fluid and there is a suggestive evidence of its possible harmful role on the consequences of reproductive process. This clearly warrants further investigation.

  20. Adolescent pregnancy and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, P; Kokotailo, P

    1999-03-01

    The question of just what is the relationship of early pregnancy and childbearing and substance use among adolescents remains unanswered. From a public health perspective, both behaviors are unwanted, and populations that are at risk are often at high risk for both. Perhaps prevention of one behavior may be expected to prevent the other. This, however, may be too simplistic a notion, grounded in misconception of the role of early pregnancy and specific cultural context. Furthermore, several studies have documented a decline of drug use during pregnancy and just after delivery among adolescent mothers. Does this trend continue through the parenting years? If so, for whom? What are the individual maternal, child, and family environmental characteristics that predict a decline in use or continued abstinence after early childbearing? Within the context of poverty, lower educational attainment, minority status, and high prevalence of alcohol and drug use, pregnancy may play a positive role. With a change in role, young women may be less likely than nonparenting peers and less likely than prior to their own pregnancy to become deeply involved in the negative behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, and substance use. Perhaps this is a potential opportunity to intervene. To summarize, the health risk behaviors of substance use and adolescent pregnancy and childbearing appear to be linked. Youths who become pregnant before they complete high school represent a particular group of young women who may be at higher risk than the general population for substance use, at least cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Yet, most pregnant teenagers are not substance users. Among those who are, frequency and amounts of use in most samples were low compared with adult samples of pregnant women. Furthermore, there is evidence that teenagers perceive substance use as a risk to their pregnancies and their unborn children. Among users, there is a decrease in use and increase in quit rates

  1. Hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Santema (Job); E. Koppelaar (Elin); H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the incidence and severity of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy and in singleton gestation. Study design: Case-control study in the setting of a University Hospital. Each pregnancy of a consecutive series of 187 twin pregnancies attending th

  2. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Savasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  3. Effects of biostimulation and nutritional supplementation on pubertal age and pregnancy rates of Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M G; Oliveira Filho, B D; Gambarini, M L; Viu, M A O; Lopes, D T; Sousa, A P F

    2009-07-01

    To determine effects of biostimulation (BIO) and dietary supplementation (BIO+S) on pubertal age and pregnancy rates, Nelore heifers (n=392) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups (n=98/group). All animals were in tropical environmental conditions, in the middle-west region of Brazil, grazing in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu; Panicum Maximum, cv. Tanzânia and Brachiaria humidícula. The heifers of the BIO group were kept in the presence of bulls while being maintained on pasture; the animals in the BIO+S group were kept in the presence of bulls while being managed on pasture and were fed a diet with greater energy and protein content to produce 0.49 kg of BW gain/day; the animals in control group (the NBIO) were kept away from bulls and under pasture conditions; and the animals in the NBIO+S group were kept away from bulls, were maintained on pasture, and were fed the same diet as the BIO+S group. Heifers were bred at 22-23 months of age, and pregnancy diagnosis was made 45 days after the end of the breeding season. There were differences (Ppregnancy rates (Pdecreased age at the first breeding season, resulting in a significant reduction in age of first pregnancy in Nelore heifers kept under extensive management systems in a tropical environment.

  4. Lactation Biology Symposium: maternal nutrition during early and mid-to-late pregnancy: Comparative effects on milk production of twin-born ewe progeny during their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, A M; Kenyon, P R; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Peterson, S W; Jenkinson, C M C; Pain, S J; Blair, H T

    2013-02-01

    Studies using sheep models indicate that the fetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal nutrition during gestation; however, results have been inconsistent and do not identify critical feeding periods. This study aimed to clarify previous findings by partitioning the period of maternal nutritional manipulation into 2 stages: early and mid-to-late pregnancy. Sixty-six twin-born, twin-bearing ewes, born to dams that were fed either submaintenance, maintenance, or ad libitum during early pregnancy (d 21 to 50 of pregnancy; SmP21-50, MP21-50, or AdP21-50, respectively) and then either maintenance or ad libitum during mid-to-late pregnancy (d 50 to 140 of pregnancy; MP50-140 or AdP50-140, respectively) were milked once a week, starting from d 7 ± 1 postpartum, for 7 subsequent weeks to enable estimation of daily milk yield and composition. Their lambs were weighed weekly. Ewes born to dams fed MP21-50 tended to have greater accumulated milk (P = 0.10), fat (P = 0.07), and NE (P = 0.06) yields over 50 d compared with ewes born to dams fed SmP21-50 and AdP21-50. In contrast, ewes born to dams fed AdP50-140 tended to have greater accumulated milk (P = 0.10) and lactose (P = 0.09) yields compared with ewes born to dams fed MP50-140. Grandoffspring birth weights were unaffected by granddam nutrition during pregnancy. Ewes born to dams fed AdP21-50 weaned lighter lambs (P = 0.05) than ewes born to dams fed AmP21-50 and tended to wean lighter lambs (P = 0.07) than ewes born to dams fed MP21-50 whereas there were no differences between the weaning weights of lambs (P = 0.43) from ewes born to dams fed AdP50-140 and MP50-140. Maintenance nutrition of dams during early pregnancy appears to be associated with an improved lactation performance of ewe offspring. Higher levels of nutrition during mid-to-late pregnancy also appears to improve the first-lactation performance of ewe offspring. Interestingly, although grandoffspring birth weights were unaffected, weaning weight

  5. Changes in cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy and compared to non-pregnant controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; van den Berg, Paul P.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Belfort, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The mechanism by which pregnancy affects the cerebral circulation is unknown, but it has a central role in the development of neurological complications in preeclampsia, which is believed to be related to impaired autoregulation. We evaluated the cerebral autoregulation in the second half

  6. Improving Survey Response Rates of School Counselors: Comparing the Use of Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of incentives in improving survey response rates of school counselors and compares the findings with those of previously researched populations. A $1 cash incentive increased response rates for a one-wave mailing of a questionnaire, while a raffle opportunity did not. The number and length of optional…

  7. Mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine: Comparing methods for rating susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Barbara J. Bentz; Jesse A. Logan

    2000-01-01

    Two empirical methods for rating susceptibility of mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine were evaluated. The methods were compared to stand data modeled to objectively rate each sampled stand for susceptibly to bark-beetle attack. Data on bark-beetle attacks, from a survey of 45 sites throughout the Colorado Plateau, were modeled using logistic regression to...

  8. Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates : A European City Cross-National Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, Patricia L.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most previous empirical comparative studies of homicide examine homicide rates across nations or subnational units within a single country. This study is the first in which a European cross-national city comparison is made. The article aims to provide insight into the extent that the homicide rates

  9. Cortical porosity exhibits accelerated rate of change in peri- compared with post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, L A; Bhatla, J L; Hanley, D A; Boyd, S K

    2017-01-10

    The rate of change in bone density was not different between peri- and post-menopausal women. Differences in rate of change were observed in bone microarchitecture, specifically cortical porosity (Ct.Po), where peri-menopausal women increased +9% per year compared with the +6% per year for post-menopausal women.

  10. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Magnus T; Jensen, Gorm B

    2014-03-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried out in an age-stratified subsample of 131 subjects in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). Casual RHR was assessed from electrocardiograms recorded during clinical assessment. Hourly daytime HRs were mapped by Holter recording. Holter RHR was defined as the average of the lowest 3 hourly HRs recorded and mean HR calculated from all daytime HRs. Follow-up was recorded from public registers. Outcome measure was hazard rate for the combined endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal heart failure and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Comparison of casual RHR, Holter RHR and mean HR by Multivariate Cox regression was performed. A total of 57 composite endpoints occurred during 17.1 years of follow-up. Regression analysis suggests correlation between Casual RHR and Holter RHR. Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for gender and age demonstrated hazard rates of 1.02 (p = 0.079) for casual RHR, 1.04 (p = 0.036*) for Holter RHR, and 1.03 (p = 0.093) for mean HR for each 10 beat increment in HR. In a comparative analysis on the correlation and significance of differing RHR measurement modalities RHR measured by 24-hour Holter recording was found to be marginally superior as a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The results presented here do not however warrant the abandonment of a tested epidemiological variable.

  11. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  12. Juvenile dermatomyositis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Anthony Emeka; Omih, Edwin; Baguley, Elaine; Lindow, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  13. Teen pregnancy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Katherine A; Loveless, Meredith

    2014-10-01

    To provide clinicians with a review of recent research and clinically applicable tools regarding teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy rates have declined but still remain a significant problem in the USA. Teen pregnancy prevention was identified by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of its top six priorities, which is increasing research and intervention data. Long-acting contraceptive methods are acceptable to teens and have been shown to reduce teen birth rates. Pregnant teens need special attention to counseling on pregnancy options and reducing risk during pregnancy with regular prenatal care. Postpartum teens should be encouraged and supported to breastfeed, monitored for depression, and have access to reliable contraception to avoid repeat undesired pregnancy. This review highlights important issues for all providers caring for female adolescents and those who may encounter teen pregnancy. Foremost prevention of teen pregnancy by comprehensive sexual education and access to contraception is the priority. Educating patients and healthcare providers about safety and efficacy of long-acting reversible contraception is a good step to reducing undesired teen pregnancies. Rates of postpartum depression are greater in adolescents than in adults, and adolescent mothers need to be screened and monitored for depression. Strategies to avoid another undesired pregnancy shortly after delivery should be implemented.

  14. Effect of pregnancy on postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpinski, Kurt; Iodice, Valeria; Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A

    2010-07-01

    To compare the clinical presentation, autonomic dysfunction, and pregnancy outcomes in parous and nulliparous women with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and in women with POTS before and after pregnancy. This study consists of women who had at least 1 pregnancy during which time they met criteria for POTS between May 1993 and July 2009. All patients underwent standard autonomic testing. POTS was defined as a heart rate (HR) increase of greater than 30 beats/min on head-up tilt (HUT) with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively to determine pregnancy outcomes. Clinical characteristics related to POTS did not differ between parous and nulliparous women except for disease duration (parous, 3.7+/-2.6; nulliparous, 2.1+/-2.2; Pchange in HR on HUT: parous, 42.6+/-12.0 beats/min; nulliparous, 41.3+/-10.6 beats/min; P=.39). Of 116 total pregnancies, adverse pregnancy outcomes were reported in 9% and maternal complications in 1%. No complication was related to POTS. There was a trend toward modest improvement in autonomic dysfunction before and after pregnancy (change in HR on HUT: before pregnancy, 38.1+/-22.7 beats/min; after pregnancy, 21.9+/-14.9 beats/min; P=.07). The long-term impact of pregnancy on POTS does not appear to be clinically important. However, there does appear to be a trend toward improvement in the short-term postpartum period. Adverse pregnancy events were similar to those seen in the general public and do not present a barrier to women with POTS who want to have children.

  15. 腹部B超与阴道B超在异位妊娠诊断中的比较分析%A Comparative Analysis of Transabdominal and Transvaginal Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To evaluate the transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. Method: 52 cases of abdominal ectopic pregnancy were used transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography diagnosis. Result; Of transabdominal B-ultrasound-positive diagnosis rate was 73% ; transvaginal B-ultrasound-positive diagnosis rate was 95% , the difference was statistically significant ( P <0. 05 ). Transvaginal B-ultrasound of the adnexal mass, germ, cardiovascular volatility, fake intrauter-ine gestational sac was higher than abdominal B-ultrasound detection rate (P <0. 05). Conclusion; Transvaginal B-ultrasound diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy with a fast, safe, painless, and the diagnostic yield compared with abdominal B-ultrasound is superior.%目的:探讨经腹部B超检查与经阴道B超检查在异位妊娠诊断中的价值.方法:对我院52例异位妊娠患者分别采用腹部B超与阴道B超检查.结果:经腹部B超检查阳性确诊率为73%;经阴道B超检查阳性确诊率为95%,两者差异具有统计学差异(P<0.05).经阴道B超检查对附件包块、胚芽、心血管搏动、宫内假孕囊的检出率明显高于经腹部B超检查的检出率(P<0.05).结论:经阴道B超检查诊断异位妊娠具有快速、安全、无痛等优点,且诊断阳性率较经腹部B超检查更为优越.

  16. Plasma concentrations of four pregnancy proteins in complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T M; Halbert, S P; Spellacy, W N; Berne, B H

    1977-08-01

    Toxemia of pregnancy was associated with an elevation of the pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A concentration, as compared to the level in normal pregnancy in the last month of gestation. The other pregnancy proteins measured were not altered in toxemia. In twin pregnancies, the PAPP-A, PAPP-C, and human placental lactogen levels were all increased, particularly PAPP-A. On the other hand, pregnancy zone protein was not affected by twinning. Pregnancy with diabetes showed normal levels of these proteins.

  17. Clinical outcomes of twin pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization compared with spontaneous twin pregnancies%试管婴儿双胎及自然受孕双胎临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠琴; 樊蕊; 田国华; 李凌; 张志红; 张月萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析试管婴儿双胎与自然受孕双胎产妇和新生儿的临床结局。方法收集2010年1月至2014年4月106例试管婴儿双胎妊娠(试管组)与256例自然受孕双胎妊娠(对照组)的产妇年龄、妊娠周期、分娩方式、妊娠期合并症、新生儿体格发育、新生儿出生缺陷及新生儿围生期疾病等临床资料,并进行统计学比较分析。结果试管组产妇平均年龄(32±4岁)高于对照组(28±4岁,P0.05)。结论本研究显示试管婴儿双胎与自然受孕双胎围生期结局无明显差异;试管婴儿双胎妊娠的产妇在妊娠期需密切关注血压及血糖的波动情况。%Objective To compare the maternal and perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) with outcomes of spontaneous twin pregnancies. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted between January 2010 and April 2014 to investigate the maternal age, gestation length, modes of delivery, pregnancy complications and neonatal physical development, birth defects and perinatal diseases in 106 IVF-assisted twin pregnancies (IVF group) and 256 spontaneous twin pregnancies (control group). Results The mothers in the IVF group were signiifcantly older than those in the control group (32±4 years vs 28±4 years, P0.05). Conclusions Twins conceived by IVF have similar outcomes as spontaneously conceived twins in the perinatal period. However, special attention is needed to monitor the levels of blood pressure and blood glucose for pregnant women with twins conceived by IVF during prenatal checkups.

  18. HYOSCINE BUTYL BROMIDE VERSUS DROTAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN ACTIVE STAGE OF LABOUR-A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RATE OF CERVICAL DILATATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misha Pepsi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was conducted to compare the rate of cervical dilatation with hyoscine butyl bromide and drotaverine hydrochloride in active stage of labour. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Inclusion Criteria: 1. All women with initial cervical dilatation of 3 cms. 2. When there is a slow rate of cervical dilatation of less than 1.5 cms per hour or decent of less than 1 cm per hour for nulliparous and if dilatation was less than 2cms per hour for a multigravida. 3. And all singleton and cephalic pregnancies were included in this study. Exclusion Criteria included complications like Antepartum haemorrhage, Breech, C.P.D. In this study 400 women were allocated into two groups to receive either Hyoscine butyl bromide or Drotaverine hydrochloride. Two hours after admission in the active stage of labour, progress of labour was reassessed. If the progress of labour was satisfactory, then the wait and watch policy was adopted. If there was no progress they were administered one of the two drugs. 200 patients were administered 10mg of hyoscine butyl bromide suppositories rectally, (GROUP-1 AND THE OTHER 200 WITH 40mg of drotaverine hydrochloride intravenously (GROUP-2. The progress of labour was monitored by the partogram. Not more than 3 doses of hyoscine butyl bromide were administered. RESULTS: The rate of cervical dilatation was 2 cms per hour in group 1 (Hyoscine butyl bromide as compared to 1cm per hour in group 2 (Drotaverine hydrochloride. The difference in rate of cervical dilatation in both the groups was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: There was significant improvement in the rate of cervical dilatation with Hyoscine butyl bromide group of patients. There was a significant reduction in the duration of active stage of labour, and there was no significant second and third stage complication when these drugs were used. No untoward side effects were noted when

  19. 妊娠期营养干预对降低巨大儿发生率和剖宫产率的影响%Effect of nutritional intervention during pregnancy on reducing the incidence rate of macrosomia and cesarean section rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕雁; 苏莉; 邓笑容

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of nutritional intervention during pregnancy on reducing the incidence rate of macrosomia and cesarean section rate.Methods A total of 6 150 pregnant women who received maternal health care services in the hospital from January 2013 to October 2016 were randomly selected as observation group.A total of 3 270 pregnant women who did not receive any professional nutritional intervention in the hospital during the same period were selected as control group.Cesarean section rates,the incidence rates of macrosomia,cesarean section rates of macrosomia,and the incidence rates of pregnancy complications in the two groups were compared.Resuits There were statistically significant differences in cesarean section rate,the incidence rate of macrosomia,and cesarean section rate of macrosomia between the two groups (P<0.05).There were statistically significant differences in the incidence rates of premature rupture of membranes,cephalopelvic disproportion,fetal distress,neonatal asphyxia,and postpartum hemorrhage between the two groups (P<0.05).There were statistically significant differences in the incidence rates of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP) and gestational diabetes mellitus between the two groups.Conclusion Nutritional intervention during pregnancy can significantly reduce the incidence rate of macrosomia,cesarean section rate of macrosomia,incidence rates of pregnancy and delivery complications,so it can significantly improve pregnancy outcomes.%目的 探讨妊娠期营养干预对降低巨大儿发生率和剖宫产率的影响.方法 随机选取2013年1月-2016年10月该院接受孕产妇保健服务的6 150例孕妇作为观察组.另选取同期在该院住院待产的未接受任何专业妊娠期营养干预的3 270例孕妇作为对照组.比较两组孕妇总体剖宫产率、巨大儿发生率、巨大儿剖宫产率及妊娠期合并症发生率等.结果 两组总体剖宫产率、巨大儿发生率

  20. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    HRs recorded and mean HR calculated from all daytime HRs. Follow-up was recorded from public registers. Outcome measure was hazard rate for the combined endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal heart failure and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Comparison of casual RHR, Holter RHR...... rates of 1.02 (p = 0.079) for casual RHR, 1.04 (p = 0.036*) for Holter RHR, and 1.03 (p = 0.093) for mean HR for each 10 beat increment in HR. CONCLUSIONS: In a comparative analysis on the correlation and significance of differing RHR measurement modalities RHR measured by 24-hour Holter recording...... was found to be marginally superior as a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The results presented here do not however warrant the abandonment of a tested epidemiological variable....

  1. Pregnancy Intentions and Teenage Pregnancy Among Latinas: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287

  2. Pregnancy intentions and teenage pregnancy among Latinas: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S; Hubbard, Alan E; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. Prospective, time-varying data from 2001-2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low power in a sexual relationship with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  3. Comparative study of antiepileptic drug use during pregnancy over a period of 12 years in Spain. Efficacy of the newer antiepileptic drugs lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Ferri, M; Peña Mayor, P; Perez López-Fraile, I; Escartin Siquier, A; Martin Moro, M; Forcadas Berdusan, M

    2016-07-21

    The prescription pattern of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy is changing but to what extent this is occurring in Spain remains unknown. The efficacy of newer drugs for controlling seizures is a key issue and may have changed over the years as doctors gained familiarity with these drugs during pregnancy. To assess these 2 topics, we report the results from the Spanish EURAP register gathered over a 12-year period. After signing informed consent forms, patients were included in the register and evaluated at onset of pregnancy, at the end of the second and third trimesters, after delivery, and one year after delivery. For the purposes of this study, we analysed AEDs, type of epilepsy, seizure frequency per trimester and throughout pregnancy, percentage of seizure-free pregnancies, and frequency of congenital malformations. We then compared data from 2 periods (June 2001-October 2007) and (January 2008-May 2015) RESULTS: We compared 304 monotherapies from the older period to 127 from the more recent one. There was a clear increase in the use of levetiracetam (LEV) with declining use of carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin, and phenobarbital; a slight decline in use of valproate (VPA), and a slight increase in the use of lamotrigine (LTG) and oxcarbazepine (OXC). Epilepsy types treated with CBZ and VPA remained unchanged, whereas fewer cases of generalised epilepsy were treated with LTG in the new period. This trend was not associated with significant changes in seizure frequency, but rather linked to better control over de novo seizures in the third trimester. LEV was similar to CBZ and VPA with regard to levels of seizure control, and more effective than LTG. Generalised epilepsy accounted for 64% of the cases treated with LEV. The prescription pattern of AEDs during pregnancy has changed in Spain, with diminishing use of CBZ, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. Changes also reflect the type of epilepsy, since there is less use of LTG for generalised epilepsy. LEV

  4. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007–2014 in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetra-Gabriela Socolov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20–24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth <37 weeks (1.21 [1.08–1.35], foetal growth restriction (1.34 [1.21–1.48], episiotomy (1.27 [1.21–1.34], uterine revision (1.15 [1.06–1.25], APGAR <7 at 1 min (2.42 [1.21–1.67], cephalopelvic disproportion (1.26 [1.07–1.48], and postpartum haemorrhage (1.42 [1.25–1.62]; however, caesarean delivery occurs less frequently in teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70–0.80]. The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]: anaemia (1.13 [1.10–1.17], low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03–1.18], pediculosis (2.42 [1.90–3.00], anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04–2.17], and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12–2.68]. The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26–0.71, 0.90 (0.85–0.96, and 0.29 (0.20–0.41, while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers.

  5. Hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Santema, Job; Koppelaar, Elin; Wallenburg, Henk

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the incidence and severity of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders in twin pregnancy and in singleton gestation. Study design: Case-control study in the setting of a University Hospital. Each pregnancy of a consecutive series of 187 twin pregnancies attending the antenatal clinic and booked before a gestational age of 24 weeks was matched for maternal age, parity, and gestational age at delivery with a singleton pregnancy delivered in the same year. Prima...

  6. Improvement of pregnancy rate by intrauterine administration of dexamethasone and recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor at the time of embryo transfer in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sangho; Kim, Se-Woong; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Park, Jong-Im

    2016-12-30

    Bovine embryos (day 5) were cultured to day 10 with or without 100 ng/mL PGF2α in medium supplemented with control; 100 nM Dex; 1,000 U/mL recombinant human leukemia inhibitory factor (rhLIF); or Dex+rhLIF. Although the rates to development to the blastocyst were not significantly different among groups, the hatching rate after additional culture with Dex +/or rhLIF was significantly higher in all supplemented groups than the control (p transfer (ET) was performed with blastocysts (day 7). PGF2α levels of control recipient cows were significantly higher in the circulatory blood samples collected 60 min after ET than in samples collected 60 min before ET (p < 0.005), and were decreased in cows injected with loading medium supplemented with Dex+rhLIF (p < 0.005). Pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the ET group that received supplemented embryo-loading medium than in the non-supplemented control (p < 0.05). The intrauterine administration of Dex and rhLIF at ET prevented increased PGF2α in circulatory blood and resulted in enhanced pregnancy rate.

  7. Nutrition and multifetal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J E; Carlson, M

    2000-03-01

    Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy. Practice guidelines for promoting healthy outcomes based on the best available scientific data are suggested. Guidelines for weight gain for twin and triplet pregnancy, dietary intake, and supplement use are included. Suggested practice guidelines for multifetal pregnancy include a positive rate of weight gain early in pregnancy, the use of prepregnancy weight status to determine total weight gain goals in twin pregnancy, a 50-lb weight gain goal for triplet pregnancy, and higher minimal number of servings of foods from several of the Food Guide Pyramid groups. The need for additional information on the effects of nutritional status on the course and outcome of multifetal pregnancy is critical. Preliminary evidence of the benefits of nutrition services suggests that both the incorporation of dietetics services into care programs and additional research on nutrition and multifetal gestation are warranted.