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Sample records for pregnancy rate pr

  1. Fertility Intentions, Pregnancy, and Use of PrEP and ART for Safer Conception Among East African HIV Serodiscordant Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Thomson, Kerry; Celum, Connie; Haberer, Jessica; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Katabira, Elly; Odoyo, Josephine; Bulya, Nulu; Asiimwe, Stephen; Tindimwebwa, Edna; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-09-11

    African HIV serodiscordant couples often desire pregnancy, despite sexual HIV transmission risk during pregnancy attempts. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce HIV risk and can be leveraged for safer conception but how well these strategies are used for safer conception is not known. We conducted an open-label demonstration project of the integrated delivery of PrEP and ART among 1013 HIV serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda followed quarterly for 2 years. We evaluated fertility intentions, pregnancy incidence, the use of PrEP and ART during peri-conception, and peri-conception HIV incidence. At enrollment, 80% of couples indicated a desire for more children. Pregnancy incidence rates were 18.5 and 18.7 per 100 person years among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women, and higher among women who recently reported fertility intention (adjusted odds ratio 3.43, 95% CI 2.38-4.93) in multivariable GEE models. During the 6 months preceding pregnancy, 82.9% of couples used PrEP or ART and there were no HIV seroconversions. In this cohort with high pregnancy rates, integrated PrEP and ART was readily used by HIV serodiscordant couples, including during peri-conception periods. Widespread scale-up of safer conception counseling and services is warranted to respond to strong desires for pregnancy among HIV-affected men and women.

  2. Pregnancy and contraceptive use among women participating in the FEM-PrEP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca; Nanda, Kavita; Kapiga, Saidi; Malahleha, Mookho; Mandala, Justin; Ogada, Teresa; Van Damme, Lut; Taylor, Douglas

    2015-02-01

    Pregnancy among study participants remains a challenge for trials of new HIV prevention agents despite promotion and provision of contraception. We evaluated contraceptive use, pregnancy incidence, and study drug adherence by contraceptive method among women enrolled in the FEM-PrEP trial of once-daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for HIV prevention. We required women to be using effective non-barrier contraception at enrollment. At each monthly follow-up visit, women were counseled on contraceptive use and tested for pregnancy. TDF-FTC adherence was determined by measuring plasma drug concentrations at 4-week intervals. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess factors associated with incident pregnancy and multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between contraceptive method used at enrollment and TDF-FTC adherence. More than half of women were not using effective contraception before enrollment. Ninety-eight percent of these women adopted either injectable (55%) or oral (43%) contraceptives. The overall pregnancy rate was 9.6 per 100 woman-years. Among injectable users and new users of combined oral contraceptives (COCs), the rates were 1.6 and 35.1, respectively. New users of injectables had significantly greater odds of adhering to TDF-FTC than new COC users [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 4.4 (1.7 to 11.6), P = 0.002], existing COC users [3.1 (1.3 to 7.3), P = 0.01], and existing injectable users [2.4 (1.1 to 5.6), P = 0.04]. Women using COCs during FEM-PrEP, particularly new adopters, were more likely to become pregnant and less likely to adhere to study product than injectable users. HIV prevention trials should consider requiring long-acting methods, including injectables, for study participation.

  3. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison <2 years old was pregnant. Our findings are important to accurately predict the effects of brucellosis on Yellowstone bison population dynamics. We review our results relative to other studies of Yellowstone bison that concluded serological status for brucellosis influences pregnancy rates.

  4. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison pregnancy rates.

  5. Drug safety: Pregnancy rating classifications and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Erin; Chai, Sandy; Kroumpouzos, George

    2016-01-01

    This contribution consolidates data on international pregnancy rating classifications, including the former US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Swedish, and Australian classification systems, as well as the evidence-based medicine system, and discusses discrepancies among them. It reviews the new Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule (PLLR) that replaced the former FDA labeling system with narrative-based labeling requirements. PLLR emphasizes on human data and highlights pregnancy exposure registry information. In this context, the review discusses important data on the safety of most medications used in the management of skin disease in pregnancy. There are also discussions of controversies relevant to the safety of certain dermatologic medications during gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease according to self-rated health, pregnancy course, and pregnancy complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis......, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD....

  7. Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan

    2014-09-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.

  8. Transfer of human frozen-thawed embryos with further cleavage during culture increases pregnancy rates

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    Bharat V Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the pregnancy rate following transfer of frozen-thawed embryos with or without overnight culture after thawing. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective analysis of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET cycles performed between January 2006 and December 2008. Materials and Methods: Out of 518 thaw cycles, 504 resulted in embryo transfers (ETs. Of the total FET cycles, 415 were performed after an overnight culture of embryos (group A; and in 89 cycles, ET was performed within 2 hours of embryo thawing (group B. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. Results: We observed that with FET, women ≤30 years of age had a significantly higher (P=0.003 pregnancy rate (PR=28.9% as compared to women >30 years of age (17.5%. A significantly higher (P<0.001FNx08 pregnancy rate was also observed in women receiving 3 frozen-thawed embryos (29% as compared to those who received less than 3 embryos (10.7%. The difference in PR between group A (PR=24.3% and group B (PR=20.3% was not statistically significant. However, within group A, ET with cleaved embryos showed significantly ( P≤0.01 higher pregnancy rate compared to the uncleaved embryos, depending on the number of cleaved embryos transferred. Conclusion: No significant difference was noticed between FETs made with transfer of embryos with overnight culture and those without culture. However, within the cultured group, transfer of embryos cleaved during overnight culture gave significantly higher PR than transfers without any cleavage.

  9. Pregnancy Rates After Compulsatory One and Conditional Two Embriyo Transfer

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    Seyhan Gümüşlü

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To predict our pregnancy rates after compulsatory one and conditional two embriyo transfer (ET number. Design: Retrospective Analysis Materiyal and Methods: One or two embryo transferred 362 patient were analyzed between March 2010 and September 2011. Results: Our clinical pregnancy rate was 31% and implantation rate was 25%. Our pregnancy rates after one or two ET were 30 and 32 % respectively ( P>0.05. We transferred embryos at second, third day or blastocyst stage. Pregnancy rates were 19, 30 and 48 % respectively (p< 0.001, implantation rates were 14.5, 23.5 and 42.4 % respectively ( P< 0.001. Our freezing rate was 39.5 %. Not to have freezing quality embrios or to have increased the the pregnancy rate from 21% to %45 significantly. When one embriyo transfered 95 % single and 5 % twins observed. When two embryos were transfered 81% single,17% twin and 2 % triplets observed. Conclusion: Pregnancy rates for one or two ET were statistically similar. If embryo quality allows us to culture up to blastocyt stage pregnancy rates were statistically increased. New Turkish ET policy resulted 95 % to 81 % single gestational sacs according to 1 or 2 ET at Gazi University IVF center.

  10. Early Embryonic Heart Rate in Normal Pregnancies In Memory of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the appearance and development of embryonic heart rate a total of n = 317 Nigerian pregnant women were studied in the very early pregnancy from 23 – 56 days from the onset of last menstrual period (LMP). All pregnancies had a subsequent successful outcome. Transvaginal ultrasonography was ...

  11. High rate of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increased in teenage pregnancy despite the presence of dual protection practice and health care awareness programmes related to health and sexuality education in South Africa. The present study explores the underlying causes of high teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases rates, including HIV ...

  12. Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of Glossina palpalis palpalis (robineau-desvoidy) at a relict forest in the Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. ... The results indicate that nutritional and physical stress were the likely constraints to optimum productivity. Keywords: insemination, pregnancy ...

  13. Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: estimates for the United States, 1976-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S J; Mosher, W D; Curtin, S C; Abma, J C; Henshaw, S

    2000-01-01

    This report presents national estimates of pregnancies and pregnancy rates according to women's age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status, race, and Hispanic origin. Data are presented for 1976-96. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) are used to show information on sexual activity, contraceptive practices, and infertility, as well as women's reports of pregnancy intentions. Tables of pregnancy rates and the factors affecting pregnancy rates are presented and interpreted. Birth data are from the birth-registration system for all births registered in the United States and reported by State health departments to NCHS; abortion data are from The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) and the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); and fetal loss data are from pregnancy history information collected in the NSFG. In 1996 an estimated 6.24 million pregnancies resulted in 3.89 million live births, 1.37 million induced abortions, and 0.98 million fetal losses. The pregnancy rate in 1996 was 104.7 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, 9 percent lower than in 1990 (115.6), and the lowest recorded since 1976 (102.7). Since 1990 rates have dropped 8 percent for live births, 16 percent for induced abortions, and 4 percent for fetal losses. The teenage pregnancy rate has declined considerably in the 1990's, falling 15 percent from its 1991 high of 116.5 per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years to 98.7 in 1996. Among the factors accounting for this decline are decreased sexual activity, increases in condom use, and the adoption of the injectable and implant contraceptives.

  14. Teenage pregnancy - a study in São Tomé and Príncipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fábia; Medeiros, Inês de; Faria, Catarina; Cotu, Djamilla; Will, Endza Paula; Neves, Edgar; Pontes, Teresa

    2017-08-22

    Introduction The increasing number of pregnant teenagers in São Tomé and Príncipe (STP) represents a serious public health issue. The aim of this study was to characterize the population of pregnant adolescents followed in a health facility dedicated to maternal health in STP. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant teenagers that attended the Mother and Child Protection Center during the first quarter of 2017. The survey contained questions on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and risk behaviors, family, partners and health support. Results The mean age of the 51 pregnant teenagers included was 16.37 ± 0.8 years. Eight girls reported that they had planned to fall pregnant. Teenagers whose pregnancy was unplanned usually present with a previous family history of adolescent pregnancy. About 59% of girls engaged in sexual activity before 16 years of age with a mean number of sexual partners of 1.84 ± 0.88. In this study, 51% of the girls do not use any contraceptive method, usually because their partner refuses to do so. The preferred contraceptive method are condoms. Information on contraception is given mainly at school. Pregnant girls' first medical consultation was at a mean gestational age of 6 weeks. Abortion was considered by 51% of girls after pregnancy was confirmed. Conclusion Teenage pregnancy imposes health problems for the mother and child and contributes to educational and socioeconomic disadvantages. The collaboration of healthcare providers, teachers and parents is needed to enhance sexual health education. This is the first study in STP on teenage pregnancy; although the sample is small, the authors believe that the results are representative of the general population.

  15. Psychotherapeutic counseling and pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization.

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    Poehl, M; Bichler, K; Wicke, V; Dörner, V; Feichtinger, W

    1999-07-01

    Since the Austrian propagation bill of July 1, 1992, was passed into law, Austrian physicians are committed to offer psychological counseling to women before performing assisted reproductive techniques, unless refused by the patient. The acceptance of psychotherapeutic counseling (PSITCO) and its influence on pregnancy rate were carefully reviewed. The study comprised 1156 consecutive patients (mean age, 33.3 years) and 1736 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. In a consent form for follicle puncture, the patients were interviewed about PSITCO as follows. Several methods of psychological support during IVF-embryo transfer treatment were offered to patients especially psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, and relaxation and physical perception exercises. Forty-two and three-tenths percent of patients rejected PSITCO, 17.8% had already received PSITCO, and 10.4% were willing to undergo PSITCO. The acceptance of PSITCO had no relevance on pregnancy rate. The cumulative calculation of pregnancy rates showed that up to 56.4% of women who had undergone PSITCO conceived. In patients who were planning to undergo PSITCO, the pregnancy rate was 41.9%. Concerning the cumulative pregnancy rate, this study showed that patients who accepted or underwent PSITCO had a higher pregnancy rate than those who did not avail themselves of this possibility. These results should encourage sterility specialists to consider psychological therapy as an essential aspect of IVF. Solely a written declaration of the patient stating his/her awareness of the possibility to undergo PSITCO is, in our opinion, insufficient.

  16. Small protease sensitive oligomers of PrPSc in distinct human prions determine conversion rate of PrP(C.

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    Chae Kim

    Full Text Available The mammalian prions replicate by converting cellular prion protein (PrP(C into pathogenic conformational isoform (PrP(Sc. Variations in prions, which cause different disease phenotypes, are referred to as strains. The mechanism of high-fidelity replication of prion strains in the absence of nucleic acid remains unsolved. We investigated the impact of different conformational characteristics of PrP(Sc on conversion of PrP(C in vitro using PrP(Sc seeds from the most frequent human prion disease worldwide, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD. The conversion potency of a broad spectrum of distinct sCJD prions was governed by the level, conformation, and stability of small oligomers of the protease-sensitive (s PrP(Sc. The smallest most potent prions present in sCJD brains were composed only of∼20 monomers of PrP(Sc. The tight correlation between conversion potency of small oligomers of human sPrP(Sc observed in vitro and duration of the disease suggests that sPrP(Sc conformers are an important determinant of prion strain characteristics that control the progression rate of the disease.

  17. Cardiotocografia computadorizada em gestações complicadas pelo diabete melito pré-gestacional: padrões da freqüência cardíaca em fetos grandes para a idade gestacional Computerized cardiotocography in pregnancies complicated by pregestational diabetes mellitus: heart rate patterns in large for gestational age fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2005-12-01

    analisados pela cardiotocografia tradicional na higidez fetal. Esse fato sugere a existência de padrões indicativos de melhor condição de oxigenação dos fetos menos comprometidos pelos efeitos do diabetes na gravidez.PURPOSE: to verify the fetal heart rate (FHR patterns of large for gestational age (LGA fetuses in pregnancies at term complicated by pregestational diabetes. METHODS: fetal surveillance was performed weekly in 64 fetuses of mothers with pregestational diabetes. Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis of pregestational diabetes mellitus, single pregnancy, alive fetus, absence of fetal anomalies, and computerized cardiotocography performed at the 37th week of gestation. Exclusion criteria included: postnatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies and delivery not performed at the local hospital. The FHR patterns were studied with computerized cardiotocography and the parameters were analyzed according to a fetal weight as LGA (birth weight above percentile 90. The cardiotocography parameters included: basal FHR, episodes of high variation, episodes of low variation, and short-term variation. RESULTS: forty-two patients fulfilled the proposed criteria. Ten (23.8% newborns were LGA. Normal criteria were met in all performed examinations. FHR accelerations (above 15 bpm were present in 7 (70% LGA cases and in 29 (90.6% non-LGA (p=0.135. Accelerations were more frequent in the non-LGA group (1.5±1.3 accelerations/10 min when compared to LGA group (0.8±0.9 accelerations/10min, p=0.04, Mann-Whitney test. The high variation episodes were detected in all cases. The mean FHR variation in these episodes was different in the LGA group (16.2±2.5 bpm when compared to the non-LGA group (19.7±4.2 bpm, p=0.02, Mann-Whitney test. CONCLUSION: the FHR patterns of non-LGA (higher frequency of accelerations and higher FHR variation in the high variation episodes reflect parameters commonly analyzed by traditional cardiotocography of a healthy fetus. This fact appears to confirm the

  18. Pregnancy after kidney transplantation: high rates of maternal complications

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    Cristina Candido

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Women regain fertility a few time after renal transplantation. However, viability of pregnancy and maternal complications are still unclear. Objective: To describe the outcomes of pregnancies in kidney transplanted patients, focusing on maternal complications. Methods: Retrospective study of pregnancies in kidney transplanted patients between 2004 and 2014, followed up 12 months after delivery. Each pregnancy was considered an event. Results: There were 53 pregnancies in 36 patients. Mean age was 28 ± 5years. Pregnancy occurred 4.4 ± 3.0 years post-transplant. Immunosuppression before conception was tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisone in 74% of the cases. There were 15% miscarriages in the 1st trimester and 8% in 2nd trimester. In 41% of the cases, it was necessary to induce labor. From all births, 22% were premature and 17% very premature. There were 5% stillbirths and 5% of neonatal deaths. De novo proteinuria occurred in 60%, urinary tract infection in 23%, preeclampsia in 11%, acute rejection in 6%, and graft loss in 2% of the cases. It was observed a significant increase in creatinine at preconception comparing to 3rd trimester and follow-up (1.17 vs. 1.46 vs. 1.59 mg/dL, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Although the sample is limited, the number of miscarriages was higher than in the general population, with high rates of maternal complications. Sustained increase of creatinine suggests increased risk of graft loss in long-term.

  19. Psychotherapeutic Counseling and Pregnancy Rates in In Vitro Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Poehl, Michaela; Bichler, Katherina; Wicke, Veronika; Dörner, Veronika; Feichtinger, Wilfried

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:Since the Austrian propagation bill of July 1, 1992, was passed into law, Austrian physicians are committed to offer psychological counseling to women before performing assisted reproductive techniques, unless refused by the patient. The acceptance of psychotherapeutic counseling (PSITCO) and its influence on pregnancy rate were carefully reviewed.

  20. Similar Pregnancy Rates Between Different Endometrial Echo Patterns in ART

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    Serdar Ünlü

    2008-08-01

    CONCLUSION: As the morphological assessment of endometrium by sonography has a high inter observer variability and the influence of sonographic patterns of endometrium on pregnancy rates remains unclear, we conclude that evaluating endometrial patterns by sonography alone is not an optimal diagnostic procedure for determining the success of IVF outcome.

  1. Geographic and racial variation in teen pregnancy rates in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layde, Molly M; Remington, Patrick L

    2013-08-01

    Despite recent declines in teen birth rates, teenage pregnancy remains an important public health problem in Wisconsin with significant social, economic, and health-related effects. Compare and contrast teen birth rate trends by race, ethnicity, and county in Wisconsin. Teen (ages 15-19 years) birth rates (per 1000 teenage females) in Wisconsin from 2001-2010 were compared by racelethnicity and county of residence using data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health. Teen birth rates in Wisconsin have declined by 20% over the past decade, from 35.5/1000 teens in 2001 to 28.3/1000 teens in 2010-a relative decline of 20.3%. However, trends vary by race, with declines among blacks (-33%) and whites (-26%) and increases among American Indians (+21%) and Hispanics (+30%). Minority teen birth rates continue to be 3 to 5 times greater than birth rates among whites. Rates varied even more by county, with an over 14-fold difference between Ozaukee County (7.8/1000) and Menominee County (114.2). Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in Wisconsin. Pregnancy prevention programs should be targeted toward the populations and counties with the highest rates.

  2. Divergent biparietal diameter growth rates in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, M C

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-eight twin pregnancies were monitored by serial ultrasonic cephalometry from 30 or 31 weeks' gestation. The rates of growth of the individual twins as determined by biparietal diameters were similar in 11 cases (39%) and divergent in 17 (61%). When the rates of growth were divergent, the lesser rate was always below the mean for singleton pregnancies, and the incidence of small-for-gestational-age babies was 18 of 34 (53%). It was apparent that the greater the difference in biparietal diameters within the 2 weeks preceding delivery, the higher the risk of a small-for-gestation-age baby being delivered. No comment could be made on the growth rate prior to 28 weeks except that at diagnosis there was little or no difference in biparietal diameters.

  3. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy decreases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcome: a controlled clinical trial

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    Adriana Campos Passanezi Sant'Ana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG - "no intervention" (n=17 or IG- "intervention" (n=16. IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP, professional prophylaxis (PROPH and oral hygiene instruction (OHI. NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL, plaque index (PI and sulcular bleeding index (SBI at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (0.05 at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (p<0.0001, except for PI. Signifcant differences in periodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (p<0.001. The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  4. Single blastocyst transfer: The key to reduce multiple pregnancy rates without compromising the live birth rate

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    Uma M Sundhararaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically, to achieve higher pregnancy rates, multiple embryos were transferred after an in-vitro fertilisation (IVF. However, this practice is being reassessed, because it leads to multiple pregnancies that is known to cause adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Aim: To compare the pregnancy outcomes in fresh IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles among women undergoing elective single blastocyst transfer (eSBT vs. those undergoing double blastocyst transfer (DBT. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective data analysis of 582 patients undergoing fresh IVF/ICSI cycles performed from January 2012 to June 2015. Materials and Methods: Patients, who underwent IVF/ICSI and developed more than one blastocyst, were included in the study. Donor cycles were excluded from the study. All the embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage in sequential media followed by transfer of two blastocysts (DBT or eSBT and cryopreservation of the remaining. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using chi square test. Results: Out of 582 patients, in 149 patients one blastocyst was transferred and in 433 patients two blastocysts were transferred. There was no statistical difference in the biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in both the groups. Statistics demonstrated a significant drop in miscarriage rate in eSBT group. There was no incidence of twins in eSBT group, whereas twin birth rate per clinical pregnancy was 29.02% in DBT group. Conclusion: Single blastocyst transfer is an effective method to reduce the risk of multiple births without compromising the pregnancy outcomes. Given the promising potential of vitrification; the remaining blastocyst can be cryopreserved.

  5. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    pregnant smokers. The intervention group (n = 327) received initial individual smoking cessation counseling supplemented by an invitation to join, individually or in a group, a smoking cessation program with nicotine replacement therapy as a voluntary option. Intervention was designed as an integral part...... of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation...... rates during pregnancy were significantly higher in the intervention group (14%) than in the group receiving usual care (5.0%) (p

  6. The period of the follicular phase during which the uterus of mares shows estrus-like echotexture influences the subsequent pregnancy rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateu-Sánchez, S; Newcombe, J R; Garcés-Narro, C; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-01-01

    The interval from both spontaneous and prostaglandin (PGF)-induced luteolysis to ovulation is greatly variable in mares. Several reports have shown a positive association between the length of the interval from PGF treatment to ovulation (ITO) and the subsequent pregnancy rate (PR). However, it is

  7. Highlights of trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: estimates for the United States, 1976-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S J; Mosher, W D; Curtin, S C; Abma, J C; Henshaw, S

    1999-12-15

    This report presents key findings from a comprehensive report on pregnancies and pregnancy rates for U.S. women. The study incorporates birth, abortion, and fetal loss data to compile national estimates of pregnancy rates according to a variety of characteristics including age, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Summary data are presented for 1976-96. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) are used to show information on sexual activity and contraceptive practices, as well as women's reports of pregnancy intentions. Tabular and graphic data on pregnancy rates by demographic characteristics are presented and interpreted. Birth data are from the birth registration system for all births registered in the United States and reported by State health departments to NCHS; abortion data are from The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) and the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); and fetal loss data are from pregnancy history information collected in the NSFG. In 1996 an estimated 6.24 million pregnancies resulted in 3.89 million live births, 1.37 million induced abortions, and 0.98 million fetal losses. The pregnancy rate in 1996 was 104.7 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, 9 percent lower than in 1990 (115.6), and the lowest recorded since 1976 (102.7). Since 1990 rates have dropped 8 percent for live births, 16 percent for induced abortions, and 4 percent for fetal losses. The teenage pregnancy rate has declined considerably in the 1990's, falling 15 percent from its 1991 high of 116.5 per 1,000 women aged 15-19 to 98.7 in 1996. Among the factors accounting for this decline are decreased sexual activity, increases in condom use, and the adoption of the injectable and implant contraceptives.

  8. Freqüência cardíaca fetal e doplervelocimetria das artérias umbilicais entre a 18ª e a 20ª semana de gestação em pacientes com diabete melito pré-gestacional Fetal heart rate and umbilical artery Dopplervelocimetry between the 18th and 20th weeks of gestation in pregnancies complicated by pregestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2006-08-01

    ães diabéticas apresentam, nesse período, maturação neurológica dos sistemas reguladores da FCF semelhante ao grupo controle. Não foram detectadas anormalidades na resistência ao fluxo útero-placentário nesse período, em gestações complicadas pelo diabete melito pré-gestacional.PURPOSE: to analyze the fetal heart rate (FHR and umbilical artery Dopplervelocimetry between 18th and 20th weeks of gestation in pregnant women complicated by pregestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: twenty-eight pregnancies with pregestational diabetes and 27 normal pregnant women were analyzed prospectively, in a cross-sectional and case-control study. The inclusion criteria were the following: singleton pregnancy between 18 and 29 weeks, no other associated maternal diseases and no fetal abnormality. Ultrasonography was performed and FHR was calculated by the interval between the beginnings of two consecutive cardiac cycles, in the three umbilical artery Doppler sonograms, obtained in the umbilical cord near to the placental insertion, using color Doppler. Five consecutive FHR cycles from each sonogram were measured, to analyze mean FHR and its variation. The following Doppler indices were studied: systolic/diastolic ratio, pulsatility index (PI and resistance index (RI. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney Utest were applied to comparative study. p values were considered significant when p<0.05. Results: no significant difference was observed in mean FHR between the studied groups (diabetic group: 149.2 bpm, control group: 147.2 bpm; p = 0.12. FHR variation revealed similar results between the groups (diabetic group: 5.3 bpm; control group: 5.3 bpm; p=0.50. No significant difference was found in the Doppler indices S/D (p=0.79, PI (p=0.25 and RI (p=0.71 between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: the absence of differences in FHR characteristics between the 18th and 20th gestational weeks indicates similar neurological maturation of FHR regulatory systems in this period, between fetuses of

  9. Trends in pregnancy rates for the United States, 1976-97: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S J; Mosher, W D; Curtin, S C; Abma, J C; Henshaw, S

    2001-06-06

    This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1996 and 1997 to update a recently published comprehensive report on pregnancies and pregnancy rates for U.S. women. Tabular and graphic data on pregnancy rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status are presented and described. In 1997 an estimated 6.19 million pregnancies resulted in 3.88 million live births, 1.33 million induced abortions, and 0.98 million fetal losses. The 1997 pregnancy rate of 103.7 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years is the lowest recorded since 1976 (102.7), the first year for which a consistent series of national pregnancy rates is available. The 1997 rate was 10 percent lower than the peak rate in 1990 (115.6). The teenage pregnancy rate dropped steadily through 1997, falling to a record low of 94.3 pregnancies per 1,000 teenagers 15-19 years, 19 percent below the 1990 level (116.3). Rates for younger teenagers declined more than for older teenagers.

  10. Reducing twin pregnancy rates after IVF--elective single embryo transfer (eSET).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Milne, P

    2010-01-01

    Multiple pregnancy is a major complication of IVF and is associated with increased maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity. Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) during IVF, rather than the more standard transfer of two embryos (double embryo transfer or DET), has been shown to significantly reduce the multiple pregnancy rate associated with IVF, while maintaining acceptable pregnancy rates. Couples undergoing IVF in 2008 who met good prognostic criteria had eSET performed. Pregnancy and twinning rates were compared with those for similar couples in 2007 who had DET. Couples unsuccessful with a fresh cycle of treatment had subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycles with DET. The cumulative pregnancy rate was similar for each group. However there were no multiple pregnancies in the eSET group, compared to 4 twins of 5 pregnancies in the DET group. 96% of eligible couples agreed to eSET. ESET is successful in and acceptable to good prognosis Irish couples undergoing IVF.

  11. Further Psychometric Properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated Version (TODS-PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated (TODS-PR), a 15-item parent-rated instrument that assesses a range of common symptoms seen in childhood Tourette's Disorder (TD) patients including tics, obsessions, compulsions, inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, and emotional disturbances.…

  12. Risk perception and sex behaviour in pregnancy and breastfeeding in high HIV prevalence settings: Programmatic implications for PrEP delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Elise; Towriss, Catriona; Gomba, Yolanda; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Gorbach, Pamina; Shoptaw, Steven; Coates, Thomas; Myer, Landon

    2018-01-01

    HIV acquisition during pregnancy and breastfeeding significantly contributes toward paediatric HIV infection; however, little is known about risk behaviours in HIV-uninfected pregnant and postpartum women. We conducted twenty-six in-depth-interviews between July and December 2016 using a semi-structured interview guide among HIV-uninfected pregnant and recently postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition (defined as reporting ≥1 of the following: partner’s serostatus unknown or HIV-infected, recent condomless sex in pregnancy, and/or alcohol use during pregnancy) who attended primary healthcare services. Our study contextualizes factors related to risky sexual behaviours during pregnancy and postpartum periods and assesses knowledge and hypothetical acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in pregnancy. Translated and transcribed data were coded and analysed by three researchers using a thematic analysis approach. In interviews with HIV-uninfected pregnant/postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition, we identified common themes associated with sexual risk behaviours during pregnancy, including: lack of control over decisions in sex and condom use in pregnancy, low perceived risk (e.g. beliefs that their partner has the same HIV-negative serostatus), and socio-cultural beliefs around condom use during pregnancy (e.g. contact with sperm is essential for baby’s development). PrEP knowledge was low among HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women, and potential acceptability was good, though primary concerns were around the potential impact on the infant. While mothers presented a clear desire to protect themselves from HIV acquisition once pregnant, they also reported lack of control, and socio-cultural beliefs, like sex is good for the baby, that increased their risk of seroconversion. Mothers had limited PrEP awareness but reported hypothetical willingness to use PrEP because of concerns over HIV acquisition and onward mother to child transmission

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CERVICAL MUCUS CRYSTALLIZATION, THE SPERM SURVIVAL IN CERVICAL MUCUS, AND PREGNANCY RATES OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena JEŽKOVÁ

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between calving year and season, parity, number of AI, day of lactation, milk production in the 1st 100 lactation days or diseases occurrence (retained placenta, endometritis or cysts, sperm motility (SM during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the cervical mucus survival test, cervical mucus crystallization (CMC and their infl uence on days to fi rst insemination (interval, open days (SP, inseminations number for pregnancy (index, and pregnancy rates (PR in Holstein cows (n=284. Signifi cant differences of interval, SP and index were detected also in relation to number of AI and day of lactation (P < 0.001. Cows without reproduction diseases (healthy had better results of interval, SP (P < 0.01, index and PR. Pregnancy rate of healthy cows was by 11.43% higher, but without statistical signifi cance. The higher results of PR (62.74% were discovered in relation to ferny-like crystallization of cervical mucus (P < 0.001. CMC affected results of cervical mucus survival test, the highest motility of sperms after the 60 and 90 minutes was assumed in the case of club moss – ferny (14.80% and 7.96% and ferny-like crystallization (13.82% and 8.47% with statistical signifi cance (P < 0.05. The choice of these characteristics and defi nition of their relations allows assuming their using for detailed study and determination of the cows´ biological ability to conceive, the one of the main components of effi ciency of cows´ reproduction.

  14. Comparison of pregnancy rates between patients with and without local endometrial scratching before intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senocak, G C; Yapca, O E; Borekci, B

    2017-11-01

    To determine the implantation success of local endometrial injury in patients undergoing intrauterine insemination following ovulation induction with gonadotropins as an infertility treatment. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, ovulation induction was performed with gonadotropins in 80 patients following intrauterine insemination. In 40 patients, local endometrial injury (scratch) was performed in the midluteal phase of the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation with a Novak curette to the posterior side of the endometrial cavity. Fifteen pregnancies (37.5%) and 11 clinical pregnancies (27.5%) occurred in the intervention group, whereas eight pregnancies (20%) and five clinical pregnancies (12.5%) occurred in the control group. Although the pregnancy rates and clinical pregnancy rates were increased in the intervention group, no statistically significant difference was found between the intervention and control groups (pregnancy rates: P=0.084; clinical pregnancy rates: P=0.094). Performing local endometrial injury (scratch) in the cycle preceding ovulation induction in patients with a diagnosis of infertility and indication for intrauterine insemination increased the pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates. This increase was not, however, statistically significant. More randomized, controlled, prospective studies with larger patient numbers are required before the use of iatrogenic induction of local endometrial injury can be recommended in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  16. "I Did Not Want to Give Birth to a Child Who has HIV": Experiences Using PrEP During Pregnancy Among HIV-Uninfected Kenyan Women in HIV-Serodiscordant Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Jillian; Beima-Sofie, Kristin M; Kimemia, Grace; Ngure, Kenneth; Trinidad, Susan Brown; Heffron, Renee A; Baeten, Jared M; Odoyo, Josephine; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kelley, Maureen C; John-Stewart, Grace C

    2017-11-01

    The perceptions, motivations, and beliefs of HIV-uninfected women about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use during pregnancy can influence its uptake and adherence. This study elicited the views of HIV-uninfected women with personal experience taking PrEP during pregnancy. Qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-uninfected women who had personal experience taking PrEP while pregnant. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 21 HIV-uninfected Kenyan women in HIV-serodiscordant couples enrolled in an open-label PrEP demonstration project who became pregnant while using PrEP and continued PrEP through their pregnancy. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed into English. A qualitative descriptive analysis was performed, using a constant comparison approach to identify key themes related to PrEP use in pregnancy. Desire to remain HIV uninfected and have an HIV-free infant were strong motivators influencing continued use of PrEP during pregnancy. Supporting HIV-infected partners and childbearing within an HIV-serodiscordant relationship were also motivators. Women had challenges distinguishing normal pregnancy symptoms from PrEP side effects and were concerned that observed side effects could be signs of danger for the infant related to PrEP exposure. Health care providers were important conduits of knowledge about PrEP, and continuity of PrEP providers throughout pregnancy facilitated adherence. HIV-uninfected women in HIV-serodiscordant couples were motivated to use PrEP during pregnancy to remain HIV uninfected and to have an HIV-free child but had concerns about side effects. Health care providers will be important for PrEP messaging and adherence support in this unique population.

  17. The Role of Infertility Etiology in Success Rate of Intrauterine Insemination Cycles: An Evaluation of Predictive Factors for Pregnancy Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Rashidi, Mandana; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Daghighi, Sara; Pourasghari, Parisa; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of ovarian stimulation with intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in couples with different infertility etiology. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed in data of 1348 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation by clomiphene citrate (CC) and/or gonadotropins in 632 women with five different infertility etiology subgroups at Akbarabbadi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Results: The pregnancy rate (PR)/ cycle was highest (19.9%) among couples with unexplained infertility and lowest (10.6%) in couples with multiple factors infertility. In cases of unexplained infertility, the best PRs were seen after CC plus gonadotropins stimulation (26.3%) and with inseminated motile sperm count>30×106 (21.9%), but the tendency didn’t reach statistical significant. In the ovarian factor group, the best PRs were observed in women aged between 30 and 34 years (20.8%), with 2-3 preovulatory follicles (37.8%) and infertility duration between 1and 3 years (20.8%), while only infertility duration (p=0.03) and number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.01) were statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis determined that number of preovulatory follicles (p=0.02), duration of infertility (p=0.015), age (p=0.019), infertility etiology (p=0.05) and stimulation regimen (p=0.01) were significant independent factors in order to predict overall clinical PR. Conclusion: The etiology of infertility is important to achieve remarkable IUI success. It is worth mentioning that within different etiologies of infertility, the demographic and cycles characteristics of couples did not show the same effect. Favorable variables for treatment success are as follows: age infertility ≤5 years and a cause of infertility except of multiple factors. PMID:24520471

  18. What's behind the Good News: The Decline in Teen Pregnancy Rates during the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Christine

    Noting that rates of teen pregnancies and births have declined over the past decade, this analysis examined how much of the progress is due to fewer teens having sex and how much to lower rates of pregnancy among sexually active teens. The analysis drew on data from the federal government's National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a large,…

  19. Review of Research Shows, Overall, Acupuncture Did Not Increase Pregnancy Rates with IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... did seem to increase pregnancy success rates at IVF clinics with baseline pregnancy rates that were lower than 32 percent. This review, funded in part by NCCAM, was published online in the journal Human Reproduction Update. The review analyzed 16 randomized controlled clinical ...

  20. Pregnancy and Care practices Gestación y prácticas de cuidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARÉVALO SÁNCHEZ ELIZABETH

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposeofthisresearch istovalue thecarepractices that mothers perform on themselves and on the baby to whom she is going to give birth. 150 pregnant women that go to the Centro Operativo Local Engativá medical facility, registered on project 7317: "Preganant Families: healthy and desired babies of the Administrative DepartmentofSocialWellbeing", using a quantitative and descriptive methodology. We applied the "Instrument to value those care practices that are performed on themselves and on the baby to whom they are going to give birth during the prenatal stage", It was carried out by research nurses of the Nursing Faculty at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (1, and the data were analized in a descriptive manner by frequency and percentages. The results were obtained via a six dimension analysis that constitute the instrument where one identifies and characterizes the care practice. We conclude that in the pregnant group there is a regular care practice in the dimensions of : prenatal estimulation (56,67%, exercise and rest (78%, feeding paterns (82,67% and good care practice in terms of hygine and personal care (88%, support systems (82% and none beneficial substances (78,67%.La presente investigación tiene como objetivo valorar las prácticas de cuidado que realizan, consigo mismas y con el hijo por nacer, 150 gestantes que asisten al Centro Operativo Local Engativá, inscritas en el proyecto 7317: "Familias gestantes: bebés sanos y deseados del Departamento Administrativo de Bienestar Social", utilizando una metodología cuantitativa y descriptiva. Se aplicó el "Instrumento para valorar las prácticas de cuidado que realizan consigo mismas y con el hijo por nacer las mujeres en la etapa prenatal", desarrollado por enfermeras investigadoras de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (1, y los datos se analizaron de manera descriptiva por medio de frecuencias y porcentajes. Los resultados se obtuvieron

  1. Gestación y prácticas de cuidado Pregnancy and Care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETH ARÉVALO SÁNCHEZ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo valorar las prácticas de cuidado que realizan, consigo mismas y con el hijo por nacer, 150 gestantes que asisten al Centro Operativo Local Engativá, inscritas en el proyecto 7317: "Familias gestantes: bebés sanos y deseados del Departamento Administrativo de Bienestar Social", utilizando una metodología cuantitativa y descriptiva. Se aplicó el "Instrumento para valorar las prácticas de cuidado que realizan consigo mismas y con el hijo por nacer las mujeres en la etapa prenatal", desarrollado por enfermeras investigadoras de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (1, y los datos se analizaron de manera descriptiva por medio de frecuencias y porcentajes. Los resultados se obtuvieron mediante el análisis de seis dimensiones que forman el instrumento donde se identifican y caracterizan las prácticas de cuidado. Se concluye que en el grupo de gestantes hay una regular práctica de cuidado en las dimensiones de: estimulación prenatal (56,67%, ejercicio y descanso (78%, alimentación (82,67% y buena práctica de cuidado en higiene y cuidados personales (88%, sistemas de apoyo (82% y sustancias no beneficiosas (78,67%.The purposeofthisresearch istovalue thecarepractices that mothers perform on themselves and on the baby to whom she is going to give birth. 150 pregnant women that go to the Centro Operativo Local Engativá medical facility, registered on project 7317: "Preganant Families: healthy and desired babies of the Administrative DepartmentofSocialWellbeing", using a quantitative and descriptive methodology. We applied the "Instrument to value those care practices that are performed on themselves and on the baby to whom they are going to give birth during the prenatal stage", It was carried out by research nurses of the Nursing Faculty at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (1, and the data were analized in a descriptive manner by frequency and percentages. The

  2. Metformin improves pregnancy and live-birth rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Papunen, Laure; Rantala, Anni S; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Tiitinen, Aila; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Perheentupa, Antti; Tinkanen, Helena; Bloigu, Risto; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Tapanainen, Juha S

    2012-05-01

    The role of metformin in the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still controversial. OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES: We investigated whether metformin decreases the early miscarriage rate and improves the pregnancy rates (PR) and live-birth rates (LBR) in PCOS. This was a multicenter, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Three hundred twenty women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility were randomized to metformin (n = 160, Diformin; obese women, 1000 mg two times daily; nonobese subjects, 500 mg + 1000 mg daily) or identical doses of placebo (n = 160). After 3 months' treatment, another appropriate infertility treatment was combined if necessary. If pregnancy occurred, metformin/placebo was continued up to the 12th week. Miscarriage rates were low and similar in the two groups (metformin 15.2% vs. placebo 17.9%, P = 0.8). Intent-to-treat analysis showed that metformin significantly improved PR and LBR (vs. placebo) in the whole study population (PR: 53.6 vs. 40.4%, P = 0.006; LBR: 41.9 vs. 28.8%, P = 0.014) and PR in obese women (49.0 vs. 31.4%, P = 0.04), and there was a similar trend in nonobese (PR: 58.6 vs. 47.6%, P = 0.09; LBR: 46.7 vs. 34.5%, P = 0.09) and in obese women with regard to LBR (35.7 vs. 21.9%, P = 0.07). Cox regression analysis showed that metformin plus standard infertility treatment increased the chance of pregnancy 1.6 times (hazard rate 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.27). Obese women especially seem to benefit from 3 months' pretreatment with metformin and its combination thereafter with routine ovulation induction in anovulatory infertility.

  3. Rate, correlates and outcomes of repeat pregnancy in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridia, M; Tamburrini, E; Masuelli, G; Martinelli, P; Spinillo, A; Liuzzi, G; Vimercati, A; Alberico, S; Maccabruni, A; Pinnetti, C; Frisina, V; Dalzero, S; Ravizza, M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the rate, determinants, and outcomes of repeat pregnancies in women with HIV infection. Data from a national study of pregnant women with HIV infection were used. Main outcomes were preterm delivery, low birth weight, CD4 cell count and HIV plasma viral load. The rate of repeat pregnancy among 3007 women was 16.2%. Women with a repeat pregnancy were on average younger than those with a single pregnancy (median age 30 vs. 33 years, respectively), more recently diagnosed with HIV infection (median time since diagnosis 25 vs. 51 months, respectively), and more frequently of foreign origin [odds ratio (OR) 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.68], diagnosed with HIV infection in the current pregnancy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.35-2.11), and at their first pregnancy (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.66). In women with sequential pregnancies, compared with the first pregnancy, several outcomes showed a significant improvement in the second pregnancy, with a higher rate of antiretroviral treatment at conception (39.0 vs. 65.4%, respectively), better median maternal weight at the start of pregnancy (60 vs. 61 kg, respectively), a higher rate of end-of-pregnancy undetectable HIV RNA (60.7 vs. 71.6%, respectively), a higher median birth weight (2815 vs. 2885 g, respectively), lower rates of preterm delivery (23.0 vs. 17.7%, respectively) and of low birth weight (23.4 vs. 15.4%, respectively), and a higher median CD4 cell count (+47 cells/μL), with almost no clinical progression to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage C (CDC-C) HIV disease (0.3%). The second pregnancy was significantly more likely to end in voluntary termination than the first pregnancy (11.4 vs. 6.1%, respectively). Younger and foreign women were more likely to have a repeat pregnancy; in women with sequential pregnancies, the second pregnancy was characterized by a significant improvement in several outcomes, suggesting that women with HIV infection who desire multiple

  4. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy decreases the rate of adverse pregnancy outcome: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Campos, Marinele R de; Passanezi, Selma Campos; Rezende, Maria Lúcia Rubo de; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; Passanezi, Euloir

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG--"no intervention" (n=17) or IG--"intervention" (n=16). IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP), professional prophylaxis (PROPH) and oral hygiene instruction (OHI). NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and sulcular bleeding index (SBI) at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (Periodontal treatment resulted in stabilization of CAL and PI (p>0.05) at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (pperiodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (ppregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Changes in heart rate variability and QT variability during the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, R E; D'Silva, L A; Emery, S J; Uzun, O; Rassi, D; Lewis, M J

    2015-03-01

    The risk of new-onset arrhythmia during pregnancy is high, presumably relating to changes in both haemodynamic and cardiac autonomic function. The ability to non-invasively assess an individual's risk of developing arrhythmia during pregnancy would therefore be clinically significant. We aimed to quantify electrocardiographic temporal characteristics during the first trimester of pregnancy and to compare these with non-pregnant controls. Ninety-nine pregnant women and sixty-three non-pregnant women underwent non-invasive cardiovascular and haemodynamic assessment during a protocol consisting of various physiological states (postural manoeurvres, light exercise and metronomic breathing). Variables measured included stroke volume, cardiac output, heart rate, heart rate variability, QT and QT variability and QTVI (a measure of the variability of QT relative to that of RR). Heart rate (p pregnancy only during the supine position (p pregnancy in all physiological states (p pregnancy in all states (p pregnancy is associated with substantial changes in heart rate variability, reflecting a reduction in parasympathetic tone and an increase in sympathetic activity. QTVI shifted to a less favourable value, reflecting a greater than normal amount of QT variability. QTVI appears to be a useful method for quantifying changes in QT variability relative to RR (or heart rate) variability, being sensitive not only to physiological state but also to gestational age. We support the use of non-invasive markers of cardiac electrical variability to evaluate the risk of arrhythmic events in pregnancy, and we recommend the use of multiple physiological states during the assessment protocol.

  6. Effect of pregnancy and correlation of weight and heart rate with electrocardiographic parameters in the American Miniature Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Santarosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are studies on electrocardiogram (ECG in several breeds of horses, which highlights the growing importance of cardiology in this species. But few authors have addressed the influence of pregnancy on the cardiac physiology of the mare, and specifically, there are no studies on the Mini-horse breed, as well as no correlation of body weight (BW and heart rate (HR with electrocardiographic parameters in this breed. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of pregnancy on ECG parameters and to examine the relationships between these variables and body weight (BW and heart rate (HR. A total of 203 animals were used, including 143 females (66 pregnant and 60 males. Electrocardiographic examinations were performed by computerized electrocardiogram (TEB, and the parameters were evaluated in six leads in the frontal plane (Lead I, II, III, aVR, aVL and aVF and base-apex (BA. BW was inversely proportional to HR, which in turn showed an inverse relationship with the duration of the P-wave and the PR and QT intervals. The P-wave amplitude (lead II was higher in pregnant animals than in non-pregnant animals. The effect of reproductive status should be monitored by ECG throughout the entire gestational period. The 66 pregnant mares in this study were examined during the first third of their pregnancies, thus, few differences were observed between pregnant and non-pregnant animals.

  7. Accuracy rate of pregnancy detection in dairy cow by measuring the early pregnancy factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mosaferi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy factor (EPF a protein with immunosuppressive properties can be detected in the serum of most domestic animals at early pregnancy. In this study, pregnancy detection in 41 dairy cows following artificial insemination was evaluated by detecting EPF in blood serum using the rosette inhibition test (RIT. The amount of EPF activity 1-3 and 4-7 days after artificial insemination of cows was measured by RIT. Pregnancies were confirmed 45-60 days after insemination by rectal palpation. The results indicated that sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of this technique in detecting pregnancy 1-3 days following insemination was 88.88,  66.66,  72.72,  85.71  and  77.77 percent  respectively and RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were seen in pregnant and non-pregnant animals at this period. The value of the above parameters were 91,  83.83,  83.33,  91  and  87 percent  respectively  4-7  days  after insemination and also RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were achieved in pregnant and non pregnant cows during this period. The results of this study indicated that there are significant differences in RIT titers between pregnant and non-pregnant cows 1-3 and 4-7 days following artificial insemination (P

  8. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  9. Endometrial Scratch Injury Induces Higher Pregnancy Rate for Women With Unexplained Infertility Undergoing IUI With Ovarian Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed M; Al-Inany, Hesham; Salama, Khaled M; Souidan, Ibrahim I; Abo Ragab, Hesham M; Elnassery, Noura

    2016-02-01

    To explore the impact of endometrial scratch injury (ESI) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) success. One hundred and fifty four infertile women received 100 mg of oral clomiphene citrate for 5 days starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Patients were randomized to 2 equal groups: Group C received IUI without ESI and group S had ESI. Successful pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound. 13, 21, and 10 women got pregnant after the first, second, and third IUI trials, respectively, with 28.6% cumulative pregnancy rate (PR). The cumulative PR was significantly higher in group S (39%) compared to group C (18.2%). The PR in group S was significantly higher compared to that in group C at the second and third trials. The PR was significantly higher in group S at the second trial compared to that reported in the same group at the first trial but nonsignificantly higher compared to that reported during the third trial, while in group C, the difference was nonsignificant. Eight pregnant women had first trimester abortion with 18.2% total abortion rate with nonsignificant difference between studied groups. The ESI significantly improves the outcome of IUI in women with unexplained infertility especially when conducted 1 month prior to IUI. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of ultrasonography in pregnancy rate prediction in Sahelian goats after progesterone impregnated sponge synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Kouamo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of ultrasonography in pregnancy rate (PR prediction in Sahelian goats after progesterone impregnated sponge synchronization within the framework of caprine artificial insemination (AI program in Fatick (Senegal. Materials and Methods: Of 193 candidate goats in AI program, 167 were selected (day 50 in six villages. Estrus was synchronized by progesterone impregnated sponges installed for 11 days. Two days before the time of sponge removal (day 4, each goat was treated with 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin and 50 μg of dcloprostenol. All goats were inseminated (day 0 with alpine goat semen from France at 45±3 h after sponge removal (day 2. Real-time B-mode ultrasonography was performed at day 50, day 13, day 0, day 40 and day 60 post-AI. Results: Selection rate, estrus response rate, AI rate, PR at days 40 and days 60 were 86.53%; 71.85%; 83.34%; 51% and 68% (p<0.05 respectively. Value of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, accuracy, total conformity, conformity of correct positive, conformity of correct negative and discordance of pregnancy diagnosis by trans-abdominal ultrasonography (TU were 98.03%; 63.26%; 73.52%; 3.12%; 81%; 81%; 50%; 31% and 19%, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that the TU can be performed in goats under traditional condition and emphasized the importance of re-examination of goats with negative or doubtful TU diagnoses performed at day 40 post-AI.

  11. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and hea...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  12. Pregnancy rates and predictors in women with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

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    Ruth Khalili Friedman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence and predictors of first pregnancy among women with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Prospective cohort study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1996 and 2003. This study comprised 225 women with HIV/AIDS followed up until their first pregnancy or first censored event (hysterectomy, tubal ligation, menopause, 50 years of age, loss to follow-up, death or the end of December 2003. Pregnancy and abortion rates were estimated, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify baseline characteristics associated with pregnancy risk. RESULTS: The women were followed up for 565 person/years with a median follow-up of 3 years per women. The mean age was 32 years (SD: 7, and 54.7% were white. There were 60 pregnancies in 39 women, and 18 were terminated (induced abortions, accounting for a rate of 6.9% and 2.1% women/year, respectively. Repeated pregnancies occurred in 33.3% of the women (13/39. Higher pregnancy risk was seen among younger women (HR=3.42; 95%CI: 1.69;6.95 and those living with their partners (HR=1.89; 95%CI: 1.00;3.57. Lower pregnancy risk was associated with higher education level (HR=0.43; 95%CI: 0.19;0.99 and use of antiretroviral therapy (HR=061; 95%CI: 0.31;1.17. CONCLUSIONS: Lower pregnancy rates were found in our cohort than in the general population. Sociodemographic characteristics should be taken into consideration in the management of reproductive health in HIV-positive childbearing age women. Reproductive and family planning counseling must be incorporated into HIV/AIDS programs for women to help preventing HIV transmission to their partners and offspring.

  13. Effect of Pertubation on Pregnancy Rates before Intrauterine Insemination Treatment in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

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    Funda Yildiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, a total of 180 patients were included in the study. Amongst these, pertubation of the uterine cavity was carried out in 79 patients prior to insemination. One patient in the pertubation group was later excluded because insemination could not be performed due to cycle cancellation. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the study and control groups. When the pregnancy rates of both groups were evaluated, 14(17.8% patients in the study group achieved pregancy. Three (3.8% had a biochemical pregnancy, 1(1.3% miscarried and 10(12.7% had live births. In the control group, a total of 24(23.8% pregnancies were achieved, amongst which one (1% had a biochemical pregnancy, 3(3% miscarried and 20(19.8% resulted in live births. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of total pregnancy and live birth rates (p>0.05. There was a 21% total pregnancy loss rate. There was no significant difference between the control and study groups in terms of pregnancy loss rates (p>0.05. Conclusion: This study on a homogenous group of unexplained infertile patients determined that the addition of pertubation to a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus intrauterine insemination (COH+IUI treatment protocol did not affect pregnancy rates (Registration Number: NCT01999959.

  14. Change of Diurnal Heart Rate Patterns During Pregnancy and Lactation in Dogs (Canis familiaris

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    Häggström J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and lactation involve great demands on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the heart rate and diurnal heart rate pattern change when dogs become pregnant or lactate. Five clinically healthy female beagle dogs were mated, and delivered three to seven healthy puppies. The heart rate was investigated with 24-h ECG (Holter once during anoestrus, at 3, 5, 7 and 9 weeks of pregnancy, and at week 4 postpartum (lactation. However, at 9 weeks, the ECG could not be recorded for the fully 24 h in 4 of 5 dogs, because labour started and the dogs then appeared disturbed by the recordings. The results at this date are not included in the statistical comparison. The heart rate increased progressively during pregnancy and was still elevated at 4 weeks of lactation. During late pregnancy the difference in heart rates between daytime and nighttime became smaller, but the heart rate was significantly higher in daytime in all periods. In conclusion, the increased heart rates during pregnancy and lactation reflect increased demands on the cardiovascular system and may be important to consider in clinical practice.

  15. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Ida Näslund; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. METHODS: A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies...... with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean...... and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. RESULTS: The change from use of second to first...

  16. Effect of endometrial cavity fluid on pregnancy rate of fresh versus frozen In Vitro fertilization cycle

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    Nitika Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to study the difference in etiology and outcome in terms of implantation rate and abortion rate in fresh (self-stimulated versus frozen (oocyte donation cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF and in transient versus persistent fluid. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Reproductive Medicine of tertiary care center from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were collected retrospectively from the departmental files. Twenty-four patients from fresh IVF-stimulated cycles and 24 from frozen oocyte donation cycle with their endometrium prepared by hormone replacement treatment were included in the study. All patients selected in the study had grade-A embryo transfer of day 3–4 with maximum three embryo transferred. Pregnancy was defined by rising serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels performed after 14 days of embryo transfer and further confirmed by ultrasonographic visualization of gestational sac at 6 weeks. All biochemical pregnancies were included in implantation failure. All pregnant patients were followed till the termination of pregnancy and further noted as live birth or abortion. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate was seen more in self-stimulated cycle (62.5% with live birth rate of 50% than hormone replacement treatment cycle, in which clinical pregnancy rate was 45.83% with live birth rate of 33.33%. Clinical pregnancy rate was highest in group with very less fluid in cavity (1–2 mm 63% and with live birth of 52.63%. Clinical pregnancy was seen only in two patients of group B with anterior and posterior (AP diameter of fluid in cavity of 2–3 mm with live birth of only one, whereas in group C, with AP diameter of 3–5 mm, none of the patient conceived. This difference was statistically significant. Clinical pregnancy rate was 65.62% in transient fluid accumulation with live birth rate of 53.25%, which was significantly higher than persistent fluid accumulation

  17. Success and spontaneous pregnancy rates following systemic methotrexate versus laparoscopic surgery for tubal pregnancies: A randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag Moeller, Lars Bo; Moeller, Charlotte; Thomsen, Sten Grove

    2009-01-01

    . A total of 106 women diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy (EP). Methods. Between March 1997 and September 2000, 1,265 women were diagnosed with EP, 395 (31%) were eligible, 109 (9%) were randomized of whom 106 had an EP. The study was originally powered to a sample size of 422 patients. The women were......Objective. To determine which treatment should be offered to women with a non-ruptured tubal pregnancy: a single dose of methotrexate (MTX) or laparoscopic surgery. Design. Prospective, randomized, open multicenter study. Setting. Seven Danish departments of obstetrics and gynecology. Sample...... (n.s.). Conclusions. In women with an EP, who are hemodynamically stable and wishing to preserve their fertility, medical treatment with single dose MTX tends to be equal to treatment with laparoscopic surgery regarding success rate, complications, and subsequent fertility. Although the two treatment...

  18. Prediction of pregnancy success rate through in vitro fertilization based on maternal age

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    Soegiharto Soebijanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate the correlation between the success of pregnancy through in vitro fertilization and maternal age. Methods Assessment of pregnancy was performed in eight in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia: Harapan Kita Pediatric and Obstetric Hospital from 1997 to 2001, and seven in vitro fertilization centers in Indonesia. Follicular induction was performed through the long protocol, short protocol and natural cycle. Insemination was performed through ICSI (intra cytoplasmic sperm injection on petri dish. Spermatozoa were obtained through masturbation, testicular biopsy and epididimical biopsy. A successful pregnancy was indicated chemically, with the presence of fetal heart beat and the birth of a baby (take home baby. Results There was a 34% pregnancy rate for the age group below 30 years, 33.75% for those between 31 and 35 years olds, and 26% for the age group 36 to 40 years old, and 8% for the age group above 40 years. Conclusion The higher the maternal age, the lower pregnancy rate. In other words, the higher the maternal age, the higher the rate of miscarriage. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 244-8Keywords: pregnancy, in vitro fertilization

  19. Weight gain potential affects pregnancy rates in bovine embryo recipients raised under pasture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos Antonio de Carvalho; Palhao, Miller Pereira; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Josiane Rossi; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of differences in body weight gain after embryo transfer on the pregnancy rates of crossbred heifers used as recipients and raised under a grazing system. The study was performed during the dry (April to September) and the rainy (October to March) seasons. The embryos transferred were produced by in vitro fertilization. The body weight of each recipient was measured immediately before the embryo transfer and 23 to 25 days later, when the diagnosis of pregnancy was performed by ultrasonography. The associations among initial body weight (IBW), daily body weight gain (DWG), season, and pregnancy rate were evaluated using a logistic procedure that included the effect of the IBW, season, and linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. Altogether, there was no effect of season and pregnancy rates did not change between the dry and rainy seasons (42.3 vs. 45.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). However, the pregnancy rate was greater in the recipients with daily body weight gains over 250 g/day, regardless of the season. In addition, the pregnancy rate of the recipients was better (P 06703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2)))/(1 + Exp((-1.6703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2))). In conclusion, body weight gain potential is a critical factor for the pregnancy rates of in vitro embryo recipients managed under grazing systems.

  20. Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives to reduce the rate of teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are safe for use in adolescents and do not rely on compliance or adherence for effectiveness. Continuation rates are higher and pregnancy rates are lower for adolescent users of LARCs compared with short-acting methods such as oral contraceptives. Similarly, repeat pregnancy rates are lower when LARCs are used compared with other forms of contraception. Myths and misconceptions about LARCs and other contraceptives remain a barrier to their use. Health care providers are in a unique position to provide confidential care to adolescents, and should provide education to them about the various contraceptive options, especially LARCs. Copyright © 2015 Cleveland Clinic.

  1. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... current.html ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. (2013; Reaffirmed 2015). Committee Opinion No. 579. Definition of term pregnancy. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from ...

  2. Hispanic Teen Pregnancy and Birth Rates: Looking Behind the Numbers. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2005-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…

  3. Pregnancy and Multiple Births rate after Transferring 2 or 3 Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mostajeran

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF is a progressing common reproduction method and if the number of transferred embryo increases, the pregnancy rate and multiple pregnancies will increase which may lead to higher medical costs and human suffering. We compared pregnancy and multiple pregnancies rate after two or three transferred embryo via IVF. Methods: From April 2003 to June 2004, 301 referred infertile women to Isfahan infertility center underwent IVF with transferring two or three good quality embryos. Results: From 298 patients, 2 and 3 embryos were transferred in 155 patients and in 143 patients, respectively. Pregnancy rate was 19.4% versus 24.5% in 2 and 3 embryos transferred patients, respectively. Twin gestations were found in 5(3.2% of 2 embryos transferred patients and in 11(7.7% of 3 embryos transferred patients. Discussion: Transferring two or three embryos with good quality increase the rate of twin gestations in young women, without significant improve in the chance of singleton conception. Key words: In Vitro Fertilization, Multiple gestations, Embryo transfer

  4. Are there ethnic differences in pregnancy rates in African-American versus white women undergoing frozen blastocyst transfers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csokmay, John M; Hill, Micah J; Maguire, Marcy; Payson, Mark D; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer pregnancy rates (PR) are lower in African-American compared with white women. Retrospective review of frozen blastocyst cycles. University-based assisted reproductive technology (ART) program. All patients who underwent a frozen blastocyst transfer between 2003 and 2008. None. Live birth rate. One hundred sixty-nine patients underwent transfer of a frozen-thawed blastocyst. African-American women had a higher incidence of leiomyoma (40% vs. 10%) and tubal and uterine factor infertility. There was no difference in the live birth rate for African-American patients (28.0%) compared with white patients (30.2%). Of the patients who underwent a frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, 58% (n=98) had their fresh, autologous IVF cycle, which produced the cryopreserved blastocyst, at Walter Reed Medical Center. A higher peak serum E2 level was noted in African-American patients (5,355 pg/mL) compared with white patients (4,541 pg/mL). During the fresh cycle, the live birth rates between African-American and white patients were significantly different at 16.7% versus 39.7%, respectively. Live birth rates after frozen blastocyst transfer are not different between African-American and white women despite a fourfold higher incidence of leiomyomas in African-American women. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Sick leave during pregnancy: a longitudinal study of rates and risk factors in a Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dørheim, S K; Bjorvatn, B; Eberhard-Gran, M

    2013-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of, reasons given for, and factors associated with sick leave during pregnancy. Longitudinal, population-based descriptive study. Akershus University Hospital, Norway. All women scheduled to give birth at the hospital (November 2008 to April 2010). Consenting women were handed a questionnaire at the routine ultrasound check at 17 weeks of gestation. Women returning this questionnaire received a second questionnaire at 32 weeks of gestation. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations with somatic, psychiatric and social factors. Rates and duration of sick leave. By 32 weeks of gestation, 63.2% of the 2918 women included were on sick leave, and 75.3% had been on sick leave at some point during their pregnancy. Pelvic girdle pain and fatigue/sleep problems were the main reasons given for sick leave. Being on sick leave in all trimesters was strongly associated with hyperemesis, exercising less than weekly, chronic pain before or during pregnancy, infertility treatment (all P workplace (both P pregnancy, but sick leave might not be caused by pregnancy alone. Previous medical and psychiatric history, work conditions and socio-economic factors need to be addressed to understand sick leave during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  6. Transfer of spontaneously hatching or hatched blastocyst yields better pregnancy rates than expanded blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natachandra M Chimote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blastocyst stage embryo transfer (ET has become routine practice in recent years. However, probably due to limitations of assisted hatching techniques, expanded blastocyst transfer (EBT is still the preferred mode. Inexplicably, not much consideration has been given to spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst transfer (SHBT. Aim: This study aimed to investigate developmental potential of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst against EBT in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of 146 women undergoing their first IVF- ET cycle. SUBJECTS AND Methods: On the basis of blastocyst status, women were classified into SHBT and EBT groups. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were excluded to remove male factor bias. Implantation rate (IR, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate were the main outcome measures. Statistical Analysis: Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. Results: SHBT group showed significantly higher blastocyst formation rate (53.3 ± 17.5 vs. 43.1 ± 14.5%, P = 0.0098, top-quality blastocysts (71.8 vs. 53.7%, P = 0.0436, IR (43.6 vs. 27.9%, P = 0.0408, pregnancy rate (59.4 vs. 45.1%, P = 0.0173, and live birth rate (36.8 vs. 22.8%, P = 0.003 compared to EBT group. Multiple pregnancy rates remained comparable between the two groups. Implantation correlated strongly with top-quality blastocysts (Pearson, r = 0.4441 in SHBT group, while the correlation was nonsignificant in EBT group. Conclusion: Extending culture of expanded blastocysts by a few hours to allow transfer of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts gives higher implantation and pregnancy rates with no added risk of multiple gestations. Spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts have a better potential to implant and develop into a positive pregnancy.

  7. Surrogate obesity negatively impacts pregnancy rates in third-party reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeUgarte, Daniel A; DeUgarte, Catherine M; Sahakian, Vicken

    2010-02-01

    In a retrospective cohort review of third-party reproduction, we observed that surrogate body mass index (BMI) negatively impacts implantation rates in oocyte-donor in vitro fertilization cycles. A BMI > or =35 kg/m(2) cutoff is associated with a statistically significant decrease in pregnancy rates but not miscarriage rates. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Intercourse around Embryo Transfer on Pregnancy Rate in Assisted Reproductive Technology Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Tabibnejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implantation failure is the most important cause of recurrent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI failure. Several reports suggest that intercourse during theperitransfer period might improve pregnancy rates. This study is designed to determine whetherintercourse during the peritransfer period will improve pregnancy and implantation rates in patientsundergoing IVF or ICSI.Materials and Methods: In a randomized control trial study, 390 women with at least five yearsinfertility were evaluated. In the study group, 195 patients had intercourse at least once 12 hours afterembryo transfer. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were compared with 195 patients in thecontrol group who had no intercourse for the entire assisted reproductive technology (ART cycle.Results: Implantation rate in the study group was 6.5% in comparison with 5.5% for the controlgroup. Clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly higher in study patients when compared tothe control group (14.2% and 11.7% respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that intercourse during the peritransfer period can not increasepregnancy outcome.

  9. Blood pressure and heart rate variability analysis of orthostatic challenge in normal human pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Saarelainen, Heli; Valtonen, Pirjo; Lyyra-Laitinen, Tiina; Laitinen, Tomi; Vanninen, Esko; Heinonen, Seppo

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate pregnancy-related changes in autonomic regulatory functions in healthy subjects. We studied cardiovascular autonomic responses to head-up tilt (HUT) in 28 pregnant women during the third trimester of pregnancy and 3 months after parturition. The maternal ECG and non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure were recorded in the horizontal position (left-lateral position) and during HUT in the upright position. Stroke volume was assessed from blood pressure signal by using the arterial pulse contour method. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analysed in frequency domain, and baroreflex sensitivity by the cross-spectral and the sequence methods. In the horizontal position, all frequency components of HRV were lower during pregnancy than 3 months after parturition (P pregnancy had no influence on normalized low frequency and high frequency powers. During pregnancy haemodynamics was well balanced with only minor changes in response to postural change while haemodynamic responses to HUT were more remarkable after parturition. In pregnant women HRV and especially its very low frequency component increased in response to HUT, whereas at 3 months after parturition the direction of these changes was opposite. Parasympathetic deactivation towards term is likely to contribute to increased heart rate and cardiac output at rest, whereas restored sympathetic modulation with modest responses may contribute stable peripheral resistance and sufficient placental blood supply under stimulated conditions. It is important to understand cardiovascular autonomic nervous system and haemodynamic control in normal pregnancy before being able to judge whether they are dysregulated in complicated pregnancies.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of indomethacin and piroxicam administration before embryo transfer on pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbasar, Serkan; Gül, Özer; Şık, Aytek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection ET. Our study included 255 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary infertility caused by a male or tubal-related factor, endometriosis or unexplained factors. The patients were divided randomly into three groups. Two groups were administered oral piroxicam (10 mg capsules) or 100 mg indomethacin (rectal suppository), respectively, 1-2 h before ET. As a control, the third group did not receive any form of treatment before ET. Basal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and level 17β-estradiol on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration, the collected and transferred number of embryos, and the number of grade A embryos obtained were determined in all patients. The implantation, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates of the groups were compared. The clinical pregnancy rate per ET and the implantation rate were 35.2% and 12.15% in the piroxicam group, 31.7% and 10.9% in the indomethacin group, and 32.9% and 12.5% in the control, respectively. The miscarriage rates of groups 1, 2 and 3 were 12%, 11.7% and 11.7%, respectively (P = 0.964). The differences in clinical pregnancy rates among the groups were not statistically significant (P = 0.887). There were also no significant differences in the implantation rates (P = 0.842). These results suggest that NSAID administration before ET has no additional effect on pregnancy outcome in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Does screening for vaginal infection have an impact on pregnancy rates in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Eldivan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assisted reproduction techniques have become widespread worldwide. Considering their costs, physicians endeavor to improve pregnancy rates. Infections are one of the disrupting problems in this arena. We aimed to investigate the effects of screening for vaginal infection on pregnancy rates in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty patients randomized into two groups for this study. Patients were screened for vaginal infections in group 1, and no screening was performed in group 2. The assisted reproduction outcomes were investigated and compared between the two groups. Results: There was no significant difference between ages, or durations and causes of infertility of patients who conceived and of those who did conceive. Forty-five patients in group 1, and 40 patients in group 2 reached the embryo transfer stage. The rates of conception were 23.5% (n=4 in culture-positive patients (n=17, and 42.9% (n=12 in culture-negative patients (n=28 in group 1. There was no significant difference among patients who were not screened, screen-positive, and screen-negative, in terms of pregnancy rates. None of the patients had Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis. Bacterial vaginosis was detected in 13 patients, and both bacterial vaginosis and Chlamydia trachomatis were detected in 4 patients. Three of 4 patients who conceived screen-positive and 8 of 12 patients who conceived screen-negative delivered healthily at term. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between patients who were sampled for culture and patients who were not sampled in terms of pregnancy rates. Also, no difference was found between the patients who were culture-negative and patients who were treated with antimicrobials after a culture positive result. Further larger studies are warranted to clarify this issue. PRECIS: No significant difference was found between patients who were sampled for culture and those who

  12. Influence of a CIDR prior to bull breeding on pregnancy rates and subsequent calving distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, G C; Dahlen, C R; Vonnahme, K A; Hansen, G R; Arseneau, J D; Perry, G A; Walker, R S; Clement, J; Arthington, J D

    2008-11-01

    We determined whether insertion of a CIDR for 7 days prior to the breeding season enhanced pregnancy rates and altered the date of conception in suckled beef cows mated naturally. Suckled beef cows (n=2033) from 15 locations were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (1) cows received a CIDR 7 days prior to the breeding season for 7 days (CIDR; n=999); (2) cows received no treatment (Control; n=1034). On the first day of the breeding season bulls were introduced to herds at a rate of 15-25 cows per yearling bull or 20-30 cows per mature bull. Pregnancy status and the date of conception were determined via transrectal ultrasonography at 56 and 120 days after initiation of the breeding season. Overall pregnancy rates ranged from 59.3 to 98.9% among the 15 locations. The percentage of cows becoming pregnant during the first 30 days of the breeding season was similar between CIDR (68.2%) and Control (66.7%) cows, and overall pregnancy rates were similar between CIDR (88.9%) and Control (88.6%) cows. The average day of conception after initiation of the breeding season was shorter (Pbody condition score and nor parity affected pregnancy rates or days to conception, whereas pregnancy rates and days to conception were affected (Pconception were greater for cows that calved within 40 days (31.6+/-1.2 days) of initiation of the breeding season compared to cows calving between 40 and 50 days (25.3+/-1.2 days) prior to initiation of the breeding season, which were greater than those cows calving between 50-60 days (20.0+/-0.8 days) and 60-70 days (21.3+/-1.0 days) prior to initiation of the breeding season. Cows calving greater than 70 days (17.3+/-1.5 days) from initiation of the breeding season had the shortest interval to conception. We concluded that insertion of a CIDR prior to the breeding season failed to increase overall pregnancy rates, but did influence the average day of conception.

  13. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease according to self-rated health, pregnancy course, and pregnancy complications: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Harpsøe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor self-rated health (SRH has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD. METHODS: Information was collected by questionnaires from The Danish National Birth Cohort (enrolment 1996-2002 at 16(th and 30(th week of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A total of 55,699 women were followed from childbirth until development of IBD (using validated National Hospital Discharge Register diagnoses, emigration, death, or end of follow-up, 31(st of October, 2011. Hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and evaluating pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and socio-occupational status as potential confounders. RESULTS: Risk of IBD increased with decreasing level of self-rated pre-pregnancy health (p = 0.002 and was elevated in women with poor self-rated pregnancy course (HR, 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12. Associations persisted for more than 5 years postpartum. Hyperemesis and preeclampsia were not significantly associated with risk of IBD. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective observational study to suggest that poor self-rated health--in general and in relation to pregnancy--is associated with increased risk of IBD even in the long term though results needs further confirmation. Symptoms of specific pregnancy complications were, on the other hand, not significantly associated with risk of IBD.

  14. Increased pregnancy rate with use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janet E; Wakelin, Melanie; Ellis, Jayne E

    2007-02-01

    To determine the effect on pregnancy rates through use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor (CEFM) in women trying to conceive. Prospective study, in which volunteers were randomly assigned either to use or not to use the CEFM. All participants could also use other aids to conception. Data were self-reported by volunteers using daily diaries, supplied and collected by mail. Home use, under conditions normally experienced by over-the-counter purchasers of the marketed device. Women who were trying to conceive; 653 (CEFM 305, control 348) provided evaluable information. CEFM was used for two cycles. Cumulative pregnancy rates over two cycles of use. The cumulative pregnancy rate for 2 cycles was significantly higher in the CEFM group (22.7%) compared with the control group (14.4%). More women who had been trying to conceive for conceive for >6 months (odds ratio: 2.67). Previous pregnancy and younger age of partners were also significant prognostic factors, but use of other aids to conception was not. After adjustment for other factors, CEFM use remained a significant factor affecting the chance of conceiving within two cycles (odds ratio: 1.89). CEFM users found the device to be easy/very easy to use (90%) and convenient/very convenient (80%). Use of the CEFM increases the likelihood of getting pregnant during the first two cycles of use compared with its nonuse, in women who had been trying to conceive for up to 2 years.

  15. Effect of flunixin meglumine and carprofen on pregnancy rates in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Krueger, X; Heuwieser, W

    2010-11-01

    Embryonic losses contribute considerably to low pregnancy rates. Between d 8 and 17 after breeding, the conceptus secretes interferon-τ as a mechanism for maternal recognition of pregnancy and maintenance of the corpus luteum. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandin F(2α) by suppressing the enzyme cyclooxygenase. Flunixin meglumine (FM) has been demonstrated to delay luteolysis and to support embryonic survival. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of FM and carprofen on conception rates in dairy heifers and cows, respectively. In experiment 1, the effect of FM on pregnancy rates and progesterone concentrations in dairy heifers was tested. A total of 391 heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Heifers in the treatment group (n=197) received 2.2 mg of FM i.m./kg of body weight twice on d 14/15 and 15/16 after insemination, whereas heifers in the control group (n=194) remained untreated. Blood samples from 388 heifers were taken on d 14/15 and 21/22 after artificial insemination and analyzed for progesterone. Pregnancy rates were 58.2 and 54.8% for the control and treatment groups, respectively. Mean progesterone concentrations were not affected by treatment and number of artificial insemination service (first or second artificial insemination service), but were affected by time and time × pregnancy status. In experiment 2, the objective was to verify the effects of carprofen, a longer acting nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and to evaluate its effect on conception rate to first service in dairy cows. A total of 380 cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows in the treatment group (n=194) received 1.4 mg of carprofen s.c./kg of body weight on d 15 after insemination, whereas cows in the control group (n=186) remained untreated. Pregnancy was diagnosed between d 40 and 47 after insemination. Conception rates to first service were 35.5 and 33.0% in the control and treatment groups

  16. Cesarean section in twin pregnancies in two Danish counties with different cesarean section rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, T B; Sperling, Lene; Hedegaard, M

    1994-01-01

    for CS in twin pregnancies was made between two Danish counties, one with a high and one with a low overall CS rate in twin deliveries, taking into account the distribution of parity, mother's age, gestational age at birth, and birth weight. DESIGN: A population based, historic follow-up study based...... presentation. SECONDARY MEASURES: Perinatal and maternal outcome. RESULTS: The difference in CS rates between the two counties could not be explained by different distributions of background characteristics. Different attitudes were found towards CS in cases with previous CS, with twin A in breech presentation......OBJECTIVE: Based on a comparison of the clinical indications for cesarean section (CS) in two Danish counties and a review of the literature regarding this issue the aim of this study was to discuss possible explanations for variations in CS rates in twin pregnancies. The comparison of indications...

  17. Embryo transfer simulation improves pregnancy rates and decreases time to proficiency in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellow embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; Csokmay, John M; Pilgrim, Justin; DeCherney, Alan H; Deering, Shad

    2017-05-01

    To design and evaluate an ET simulator to train Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (REI) fellows' techniques of ET. Simulation model development and retrospective cohort analysis. Not applicable. Patients undergoing IVF. Simulation model evaluation and implementation of ET simulation training. Pregnancy rates. The REI fellow and faculty evaluation responses (n = 19/21 [90%]) of the model demonstrated realistic characteristics, with evaluators concluding the model was suitable for training in almost all evaluated areas. A total of 12 REI fellows who performed ET were analyzed: 6 before ET trainer and 6 after ET trainer. Pregnancy rates were 31% in the initial 10 ETs per fellow before simulator vs. 46% after simulator. One of six pre-ET trainer fellows (17%) had pregnancy rates ≥40% in their first 10 ETs; whereas four of six post-ET trainer fellows had pregnancy rates ≥40% in their first 10 ETs. The average number of ETs to obtain >40% pregnancy efficiency was 27 ETs before trainer vs. 15 ETs after trainer. Pregnancy rates were similar in the two groups after 20 ETs, and collective terminal pregnancy rates were >50% after 40 ETs. Embryo transfer simulation improved REI fellow pregnancy rates in their first 10 transfers and led to a more rapid ET proficiency. These data suggest potential value in adopting ET simulation, even in programs with a robust history of live ET in fellowship training. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Failure Rate of Single Dose Methotrexate in Managment of Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Sendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the treatment modalities for ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. The purpose of this study is to identify the failure rate of methotrexate in treating patients with ectopic pregnancy as well as the risk factors leading to treatment failure. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 225 patients who received methotrexate as a primary management option for ectopic pregnancy. Failure of single dose of methotrexate was defined as drop of BHCG level less than or equal to 14% in the seventh day after administration of methotrexate. Results. 225 patients had methotrexate. Most of the patients (151 (67% received methotrexate based on the following formula: f 50 mg X body surface area. Single dose of methotrexate was successful in 72% (162/225 of the patients. 28% (63/225 were labeled as failure of single dose of methotrexate because of suboptimal drop in BhCG. 63% (40/63 of failure received a second dose of methotrexate, and 37% (23/63 underwent surgical treatment. Among patient who received initial dose of methotrexate, 71% had moderate or severe pain, and 58% had ectopic mass size of more than 4 cm on ultrasound. Conclusion. Liberal use of medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy results in 71% success rate.

  19. Failure rate of single dose methotrexate in managment of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendy, Feras; AlShehri, Eman; AlAjmi, Amani; Bamanie, Elham; Appani, Surekha; Shams, Taghreed

    2015-01-01

    Background. One of the treatment modalities for ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. The purpose of this study is to identify the failure rate of methotrexate in treating patients with ectopic pregnancy as well as the risk factors leading to treatment failure. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 225 patients who received methotrexate as a primary management option for ectopic pregnancy. Failure of single dose of methotrexate was defined as drop of BHCG level less than or equal to 14% in the seventh day after administration of methotrexate. Results. 225 patients had methotrexate. Most of the patients (151 (67%)) received methotrexate based on the following formula: f 50 mg X body surface area. Single dose of methotrexate was successful in 72% (162/225) of the patients. 28% (63/225) were labeled as failure of single dose of methotrexate because of suboptimal drop in BhCG. 63% (40/63) of failure received a second dose of methotrexate, and 37% (23/63) underwent surgical treatment. Among patient who received initial dose of methotrexate, 71% had moderate or severe pain, and 58% had ectopic mass size of more than 4 cm on ultrasound. Conclusion. Liberal use of medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy results in 71% success rate.

  20. Pelvic endometriosis with peritoneal fluid reduces pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Chen, Chi-Hung; Chen, Pi-Hua

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of peritoneal fluid in women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and its correlation with the stage of pelvic endometriosis and its influence on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective case-control design was used to recruit 272 infertile women with pelvic endometriosis. The treatment protocol consisted of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with downregulation and gonadotropin for IUI treatment following ultrasound and laparoscopic intervention. The amount and color of the peritoneal fluid were determined during laparoscopy. The mean amount of peritoneal fluid with pelvic endometriosis that was detected using transvaginal ultrasound was ~ 15.1 mL. Women whose cycles contained more peritoneal fluid had significantly lower pregnancy rates (17.2% and 31.3%, respectively). The total clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly different between the two groups with reddish and yellowish peritoneal fluid who had pelvic endometriosis. Pelvic endometriosis and peritoneal fluid, detected through vaginal ultrasound, have negative effects on the pregnancy outcome of IUI treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Association between ambient air pollution and pregnancy rate in women who underwent IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, S A; Jun, Y B; Lee, W S; Yoon, T K; Kim, S Y

    2018-04-05

    Are the concentrations of five criteria air pollutants associated with probabilities of biochemical pregnancy loss and intrauterine pregnancy in women? Increased concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and after embryo transfer were associated with a decreased probability of intrauterine pregnancy. Exposure to high ambient air pollution was suggested to be associated with low fertility and high early pregnancy loss in women. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we analysed 6621 cycles of 4581 patients who underwent one or more fresh IVF cycles at a fertility centre from January 2006 to December 2014, and lived in Seoul at the time of IVF treatment. To estimate patients' individual exposure to air pollution, we computed averages of hourly concentrations of five air pollutants including PM10, NO2, CO, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) measured at 40 regulatory monitoring sites in Seoul for each of the four exposure periods: period 1 (start of COS to oocyte retrieval), period 2 (oocyte retrieval to embryo transfer), period 3 (embryo transfer to hCG test), and period 4 (start of COS to hCG test). Hazard ratios (HRs) from the time-varying Cox-proportional hazards model were used to estimate probabilities of biochemical pregnancy loss and intrauterine pregnancy for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each air pollutant concentration during each period, after adjusting for individual characteristics. We tested the robustness of the result using generalised linear mixed model, accounting for within-woman correlation. Mean age of the women was 35 years. Average BMI was 20.9 kg/m2 and the study population underwent 1.4 IVF cycles on average. Cumulative pregnancy rate in multiple IVF cycles was 51.3% per person. Survival analysis showed that air pollution during periods 1 and 3 was generally associated with IVF outcomes. Increased NO2 (adjusted HR = 0.93, 95% CI

  2. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. METHODS Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical para...

  3. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy and presence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance.In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data.The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates.

  4. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy and presence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Gustafson, Kathleen M; Cysarz, Dirk; Geue, Daniel; May, Linda E; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization. In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance. In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data. The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates.

  5. Aerobic Exercise during Pregnancy and Presence of Fetal-Maternal Heart Rate Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Gustafson, Kathleen M.; Cysarz, Dirk; Geue, Daniel; May, Linda E.; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization. Methods In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance. Results In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data. Conclusion The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates. PMID:25162592

  6. Intra-uterine insemination: pregnancy rate in relation to number, size of pre-ovulatory follicles and day of insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppaswamy, J; Smedley, Mamin; Carter, Lindsay

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the pregnancy rate in intra-uterine insemination (IUI) in relation to pre-ovulatory follicular number, size and day of insemination. A retrospective analysis of 216 completed IUI cycles was used in an attempt to identify significant variables predictive of treatment success. Couples with unexplained infertility and male factor infertility underwent IUI with or without ovarian stimulation. The mean number of IUI cycles per patient was 4.1, the overall pregnancy rate was 27.3% per patient, and the pregnancy rate per cycle was 6.9%. The pregnancy rate was 4.4% when one follicle was produced, whereas with more than two follicles, the rate increased to 21.2%. Hormonal stimulation using clomiphene citrate and/or human menopausal gonadotrophin/follicle stimulating hormone yielded a significant higher pregnancy rate compared to IUI in natural cycles (10.3% versus 3.3%). Although not statistically significant, the pregnancy rate decreased with advancing age of woman. The results suggest that IUI is a useful method of assisted conception in unexplained infertility and higher pregnancy rates can be achieved with good patient selection and ovarian stimulation.

  7. The impact of semen processing on sperm parameters and pregnancy rates after intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter-Ligeti, Jacob; Agbo, Chioma; Dahan, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of semen processing on computer analyzed semen parameters and pregnancy rates after intrauterine insemination (IUI). Over a two-year period, a total of 981 couples undergoing 2231 IUI cycles were evaluated and the freshly collected non-donor semen was analyzed before and after density gradient centrifugation (DGC). DGC led to significant increases in sperm concentration by 66±74 ×106/mL (P=0.0001), percentage of motile sperm by 24±22% (P=0.0001), concentration motile by 27±58 ×106/mL (P=0.0001), and forward sperm progression by 18±14 µ/s (P=0.0001). In 95% of cases, there was a decrease in the total motile sperm count (TMSC), with an average decrease of 50±124% compared to pre-processed samples (P=0.0001). Importantly, the decrease in TMSC did not negatively affect pregnancy rates (P=0.45). This study proves that DGC leads to significant increases in most sperm parameters, with the exception of TMSC. Remarkably, the decrease in TMSC did not affect the pregnancy rate. This should reassure clinicians when the TMSC is negatively affected by processing.

  8. Linking Changes in Contraceptive Use to Declines in Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Manlove

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a unique microsimulation tool, Teen FamilyScape, the present study explores how changes in the mix of contraceptive methods used by teens contributed to the decline in the U.S. teen pregnancy rate between 2002 and 2010. Results indicate that changes in contraceptive use contributed to approximately half of the decline in the teen pregnancy rate during this time period (48% and that a little more than half of this “contraceptive effect” was due to an increase in teen condom use (58%. The remaining share of the contraceptive effect can be attributed to an increase in the use of more effective hormonal (pill, patch, ring and long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC/injectable methods (Intrauterine Devices (IUD, implant and injectable. Results from an additional counterfactual analysis suggest that the contraceptive effect was driven by the fact that the percentage of teens using no birth control fell during the study time period, rather than by the fact that some teens switched from less effective methods (condoms to more effective hormonal and LARC/injectable methods. However, very high typical use failure rates for teen condom users suggest the need for a two-pronged approach for continuing reductions in teen pregnancy for sexually active teens: first, targeting the youth most at risk of not using contraception and helping them choose contraception, and second, increasing the effectiveness of method use among existing contraceptors.

  9. Association between long-acting reversible contraceptive use, teenage pregnancy, and abortion rates in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne Connolly,1 Guilhem Pietri,2 Jingbo Yu,3 Samantha Humphreys4 1The Ridge Medical Practice, Cousen Road, Bradford, UK; 2HERON – A PAREXEL® Company, London, UK; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 4Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited, Hertfordshire, UK Background: Since the late 1990s, the British government has launched major strategies to address high teenage pregnancy and abortion rates in England. These have focused in part on improving access to contraception through national campaigns. This study assessed teenage pregnancy and abortion rate trends since 1998 and possible associations with usage of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs. Methods: Teenage conception rates and age-specific abortion rates were obtained from the Office for National Statistics and the Department of Health. LARC usage data was obtained for Depo-Provera, Implanon/Nexplanon, intrauterine devices, Mirena, and Noristerat from the IMS British Pharmaceutical Index, IMS Hospital Pharmacy Audit, IMS Disease Analyzer, and KT-31 reports. Through linear regression methods, changes in conception and abortion-related outcomes during 1998–2011 and the associations with LARC usage were assessed. Results: Conception rates for girls younger than 18 years of age decreased significantly between 1998–2011, from 46.6 to 30.7 per 1,000 girls. A statistically significant association was observed between this decrease and increased LARC usage (P=0.0024 in this population. Abortion rates among females aged <18 years or aged 18–19 years decreased between 1998–2011, and their associations with increased LARC usage were statistically significant (P=0.0029 and P=0.0479, respectively. The pattern in older women was complex; abortion rates in women aged 20–24 years or 25–34 years increased slightly from 1998 to 2011, with stabilization during 2007–2011. Conclusion: Increased LARC usage in England was significantly associated with decreased teenage pregnancy rates

  10. Effect of ovulatory follicle size and estradiol supplementation during the preovulatory period on pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality; however, ovulatory follicle size had no apparent effect on the establishment or maintenance of pregnancy when ovulation occurred spontaneously. Further...

  11. Teen clinics: missing the mark? Comparing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections rates among enrolled and non-enrolled adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Metge, Colleen; Taylor, Carole; Chartier, Mariette; Charette, Catherine; Lix, Lisa; Santos, Rob; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Nickel, Nathan C; Burland, Elaine; Chateau, Dan; Katz, Alan; Brownell, Marni; Martens, Patricia J

    2016-06-21

    In Manitoba, Canada, school-based clinics providing sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents have been implemented to address high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancies. The objectives of this population-based study were to compare pregnancy and STI rates between adolescents enrolled in schools with school-based clinics, those in schools without clinics, and those not enrolled in school. Data were from the PATHS Data Resource held in the Population Health Research Data Repository housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Adolescents aged 14 to 19 between 2003 and 2009 were included in the study. Annualized rates of pregnancies and positive STI tests were estimated and Poisson regression models were used to test for differences in rates amongst the three groups. As a proportion, pregnancies among non-enrolled female adolescents accounted for 55 % of all pregnancies in this age group during the study period. Pregnancy rates were 2-3 times as high among non-enrolled female adolescents. Compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without school-based clinics, age-adjusted STI rates were 3.5 times (p pregnancies and STIs were observed among non-enrolled adolescents. Although provision of reproductive and health services to in-school adolescents should remain a priority, program planning and design should consider optimal strategies to engage out of school youth.

  12. Study of Continuance Rate and Related Causes of Discontinuance of Pregnancy Prevention Methods among Women in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Fallahzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From maturity to menopause, women are worried about pregnancy. Abstinence from sex or use of pregnancy prevention methods are choices for them. As abstinence is impossible, the only remaining choice is use of pregnancy prevention methods. Effective control of pregnancy is really essential for the health of mother and infant and also control of unplanned increase in population. Regarding the importance of continuance rate of pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom &DMPA & the reasons for their disruption, this study was carried out with the aim of determining the continuance rate and reasons for discontinuance of pregnancy prevention methods in Yazd women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Six urban health care centers of Yazd were selected as study clusters and information of 15-49 year old women using the pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom& injection was collected via a questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed by Coplan- Mayer statistic method and variance analysis test. Results: Pregnancy prevention methods were most prevalent in the 25-34 years old age group (57%. Mean duration of pregnancy prevention method usage was 27.98 months using Caplan-mayer method with a median of 24 months. 86.3% for 6 months, 72.8% for 12 months, 62.5% for 18 months, 47.9% for 24 months, 39.9% for 30 months and 37% for 37 months had used four certain methods of pregnancy prevention (OCP, IUD, Condom and Injection. The reasons of discontinuance were disease (15.6% for OCPS, bleeding (27% for IUD, unwanted pregnancy (21% for Condoms and also disease (75% for Injection method. Discussion: According to the results, not only education programs regarding family planning before starting each pregnancy prevention method to women is recommended, but a complete incentive consultation about these methods is essential. This educational & consultation programs should be implemented initially for women using OCP method.

  13. Rate of teenage pregnancy in Jordan and its impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef S; Batieha, Anwar; Al Fursan, Rana Kareem; Al-Hader, Rami; Hijazi, Sa'ad S

    2017-07-26

    Objective Research regarding the adverse outcomes of adolescent childbearing has suffered from many limitations such as a small sample size and non-representative samples. This study was conducted to determine the rate of teenage pregnancy among Jordanian adolescents and its associated adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods The study is a part of a comprehensive national study of perinatal mortality that was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in Jordan. All women who gave birth after 20 weeks of gestation in 18 maternity hospitals in Jordan between 2011 and 2012 were invited to participate in the study. Consenting women were interviewed by the trained midwives in these hospitals using a structured questionnaire prepared for the purpose of this study. Additional information was also collected based on the physical examination by the midwife and the obstetrician at admission and at discharge. Data on the newborn were also collected by the pediatric nurses and the neonatologists in these hospitals. Results The overall rate of teenage pregnancy [95% confidence interval (CI) was 6.2% (5.9%, 6.5%)]. Of the studied maternal and neonatal outcomes, women aged Teenage pregnancy was associated with increased risk of premature delivery, apart from the effects of socioeconomic factors.

  14. Ovarian Drilling Efficacy, Estradiol Levels and Pregnancy Rate in Females With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moramezi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common cause of oligoovulation and anovulation in general population and in females with infertility. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of ovarian laparoscopic drilling procedure (LOD in females with PCOS, resistant to treatment with estradiol (E2 level less than 40 pg/mL versus more than 40 pg/mL. Materials and Methods Females with PCOS, resistant to drug for ovary stimulation, were grouped based on the Estradiol levels of ≤ 40 pg/mL (n = 13 and > 40 pg/mL (n = 15. To survey the ovulation, continuing spontaneous ovulation and cumulative pregnancy rate, ovarian laparoscopic drilling was carried out after the analysis of serum E2. Results There was significant difference in the average starting time of ovulation and continuing spontaneous ovulation of cases with PCOS with E2 levels > 40 pg/mL, compared with ones with E2 ≤ 40 pg/mL (P = 0.029, P = 0.05, respectively. Significant differences were also found in pregnancy rates of cases with PCOS with E2 levels > 40 pg/mL compared with ones with E2 ≤ 40 pg/mL (P = 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed that LOD in females with PCOS with a serum E2 > 40 pg/mL was sufficient and safe to trigger development of ovarian follicles followed by clinical pregnancy.

  15. Effect of embryo age and recipient asynchrony on pregnancy rates in a commercial equine embryo transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, J C F; Haag, K T; Santos, G O; Oliveira, J P; Gastal, M O; Gastal, E L

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, 809 uterine flushes and 454 embryo transfers performed in mares over a 4-yr interval were examined to evaluate the effects of: (1) the day of embryo collection on recovery rates; (2) the degree of synchrony between donor and recipient mares on pregnancy rates; (3) the recipient day post ovulation on pregnancy rates; and (4) the age of the embryo at recovery on pregnancy rates at 60 days. Uterine flushes were performed on Days 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 (Day 0 = ovulation) and embryos were transferred to recipients with degrees of synchrony varying between +1 to -6 (recipient ovulated 1 day before through 6 days after the donor). Recipient mares ranged from 2 to 8 days post ovulation. Embryo recovery rates were similar for flushes performed on Day 7 (61%), Day 8 (66%), Day 9 (59%), and Day 10 (56%), but the embryo recovery rate was lower (P recipient mares on Day 2 (33%) compared with mares on Day 3 (66%), Day 4 (66%), Day 5 (62%), Day 6 (55%), Day 7 (58%), and Day 8 (56%). Pregnancy rate was higher (P recipient mares does not need to be as restricted as previously reported in horses. Acceptable pregnancy rates (e.g., 70%, 99/142) were obtained even when recipient mares ovulated 4 to 5 days after the donors; (3) similar pregnancy rates were obtained when recipient mares received embryos within a large range of days post ovulation (Days 3 to 8); and (4) Day 7 embryos produced higher pregnancy rates when compared with Days 8 and 9 embryos. In clinical terms, the application of these new findings will be beneficial to large equine embryo transfer operations in producing more pregnancies per season. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of BMI and body weight on pregnancy rates with LNG as emergency contraception: analysis of four WHO HRP studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festin, Mario Philip R; Peregoudov, Alexandre; Seuc, Armando; Kiarie, James; Temmerman, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the effect of increased body weight and body mass index (BMI) on pregnancy rates with levonorgestrel (LNG) 1.5mg used as emergency contraception (EC). The study reviewed data from 6873 women in four WHO-HRP randomized trials on EC conducted between 1993 and 2010. Participants took either 1.5mg of LNG as a single dose or in two doses 12h apart, up to 120h of unprotected intercourse. Contraceptive efficacy (pregnancy rates) at different weight and BMI categories was evaluated. Overall pregnancy rate was low at 1.2%. Pregnancy rates were also low in women weighing over 80kg (0.7%) and who were obese (BMI over 30kg/m 2 ) (2.0%). The pooled analyses for pregnancy demonstrated that BMI over 30kg/m 2 decreased efficacy significantly (odds ratio 8.27, 95% confidence interval = 2.70-25.37) when compared to women in lower BMI categories, mainly influenced by pregnancies in obese women from one study site. Sensitivity analyses excluding that site showed that obesity was no longer a risk factor; however, the other studies included too few obese women in the sample to exclude a substantial decrease in efficacy. Pregnancy rates with use of LNG 1.5mg for EC were low at less than 3% across different weight and BMI categories. Pooled analyses showed an increase in pregnancy rates among obese women (BMI more than 30kg/m 2 ) compared to women with normal BMI levels, influenced by pregnancies all coming from one study site. Access to LNG as EC should still be promoted to women who need them, and not be restricted in any weight or BMI category, with additional attention for counselling and advice for obese women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Consistent high clinical pregnancy rates and low ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rates in high-risk patients after GnRH agonist triggering and modified luteal support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Blockeel, Christophe; Tremellen, Kelton P

    2013-01-01

    Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?......Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?...

  18. Study of foetal heart rate patterns in pregnancy with intra-uterine growth restriction during antepartum period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardiazar, Z.; Abassalizade, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate foetal heart rate pattern during antepartum period in pregnancies suffering from intra-uterine growth restriction. Methods: The case control study was conducted at the Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran from April 2008 to April 2011. It comprised 100 pregnancies with intra-uterine growth restriction and 92 normal pregnancies. The foetal heart rate pattern including basal heart rate, beat-to-beat variation, non-stress test (NST) result and acceleration and deceleration patterns of the heart rate were determined in both groups during the antepartum period. Findings were compared between the two groups and their relation with pregnancy-foetal outcomes was specified in the case group. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the foetus mean basal heart rate in the two groups (p <0.960). Frequency of cases with non-reactive non-stress test in the Cases was significantly higher than Controls (p <0.005). The difference in heart rate acceleration was also not statistically significant (p <0.618). Frequency of cases with low birth weight and caesarian was non-significantly but borderline higher among the Cases (p <0.081 and 0.060, respectively). Conclusion: Abnormal foetal heart rate pattern is more common in pregnancies marked by intra-uterine growth restriction and is directly associated with worse pregnancy/foetal outcomes. (author)

  19. Outcome of Membrane Sweeping in Reducing Induction Rates in Post-Date Pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, U.; Mustafa, N.; Akhtar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of membrane sweeping in reducing need for induction of labour in post-date pregnancies and to enlist types and frequencies of complications experienced with membrane sweeping. Study Design: Randomized Control trial. Setting and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Combined Military Hospital, Lahore from February 2007 to April 2008. Patients and Methods: One hundred primi or second gravidas with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies having cephalic presentation at 40+1-5 weeks of gestation were enrolled after informed consent, and divided randomly into two groups of fifty each. Biophysical profile of 8/8 for each case was ensured. Group A underwent membrane sweeping while group B did not. All patients not having spontaneous labour were induced at 40+5 weeks. Data regarding number of patients having spontaneous labour or induction of labour was recorded. Mode of delivery either vaginal or cesarean birth was also recorded. In group A occurence of complications i.e vaginal bleeding or leaking, discomfort, irregular pains, fever and neonatal sepsis was recorded. Results: The difference in rate of spontaneous labor, induction rate and mode of delivery was insignificant between both the groups (p>0.05). In group A, 44% felt discomfort, 4% had bleeding per vaginum, 2% had leaking per vaginum and 28% had more than one complication. There were no cases of maternal or neonatal sepsis. Twenty percent did not have any side effects. Conclusion: Sweeping of membranes is not effective in reducing induction rates in post dates pregnancies. It does not improve the spontaneous labour rate and there is no effect on the mode of delivery. Therefore, any potential benefits of this intervention must be balanced against risk of maternal discomfort and other adverse effects. (author)

  20. Prevalence, rates and correlates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first 9 months postpartum. Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization's IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at 4 months postpartum and 9 months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. More than 20 % of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first 9 months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first 4 months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences.

  1. Prevalence and rates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L.; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first nine months postpartum. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization’s IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at four months postpartum and nine months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. Results More than 20% of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first nine months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first four months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. Conclusions The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences. PMID:24889116

  2. New von Hippel-Lindau manifestations develop at the same or decreased rates in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Bisgaard, Søs Marie Luise

    2015-01-01

    diagnosed throughout their lifetimes. We analyzed age-dependent manifestation rates using Poisson regression. We compared the women's rates in intervals where they had been pregnant with their age-matched nonpregnant intervals. We investigated possible long-term effects using pregnancy intervals...... is not due to concurrence of a naturally milder tumor development in women's fertile ages, as the rate of new tumor development increases for both men and women from 20 years of age, even more in men than in women....... of increasing lengths of 1, 3, and 5 years after conception. Furthermore, we compared age-related manifestation rates for women and men. RESULTS: From birth to the participants' current age, 581 manifestations were diagnosed; mean age was 37.5 years (range 2-64 years). Seventeen women had completed 30...

  3. Pregnancy and recurrence rates in infertile patients operated for ovarian endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luţuc, Monica Holicov; Nemescu, D; Onofriescu, Alina; Târnovanu, Mihaela; Moscalu, Mihaela; Onofriescu, M

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with the preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis, postoperative ultrasound reassessment, laparoscopic surgical resolution of ovarian endometriosis, estimation of recurrence risk 12 months after surgery by ultrasound, reappearance of clinical symptoms (such as pain) or second-look laparoscopy, and pregnancy rate 2 years after surgery. 140 patients with en- dometriosis and infertility admitted to the Iasi "Cuza-Vodă" Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology between the years 2009-2011 were included in the study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1-59 cases that refused in vitro fertilization procedures, did not afford in vitro fertilization (IVF) or had minimal endometriosis and young ages and thus a possibility of delaying treatment, and group 2--62 cases which underwent IVF procedures immediately after surgery. No significant differences in the chance of becoming pregnant were found between the two groups (χ2 = 2.06, p = 0.0891, 95% CI); in group 1, 11.86% pregnancies were obtained while in group 2 the pregnancy rate was 11.29%. Based on the nonparametric method of analysis of contingency tables we could estimate the odds of becoming pregnant in the study groups, obtaining an odds ratio (OR = 1.16, CI: 1.04-2.23, 95% CI). This result indicated that in group 1 the odds of becoming pregnant was not significantly higher, and the estimation was made for a confidence interval of 95%. The study had in view the assessment of pregnancies obtained in the study groups and the time interval (number of weeks) from the time of intervention until the occurrence of pregnancy. The Kaplan-Meier analysis enabled the assessment of the mean value and the median value of the number of weeks until becoming pregnant, and these values did not show significant differences (χ2 = 1.55, p = 0.212, 95% CI). For endometriosis associated with infertility, hormonal suppression does not improve fertility, and therefore surgery followed by

  4. Comparison of pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing clomiphene citrate and IUI treatment with different leading follicular sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckin, Berna; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Bostancı, Esra Isci; Inal, Hasan Ali; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing clomiphene citrate (CC) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment with different leading follicular sizes. A total of 358 infertile women with PCOS who underwent 563 clomiphene citrate and IUI treatment cycles were included in this prospective study. Treatment cycles were divided into three groups according to leading follicular size on the day of hCG administration: Group I: follicular size 17-18 mm (n = 177), Group II: 19-22 mm (n = 321), and Group III : >22 mm (n = 65). Pregnancy rates were evaluated. Treatment outcomes of the groups were further analyzed related to endometrial thickness measurement on the day of hCG. For this purpose, cycles were placed into three subgroups as follows: endometrial thickness 9 mm. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate per cycle between the groups (8.5, 10, and 9.2 % for Group I, II, and III, respectively, p = 0.86). In further analyses related to endometrial thickness, no significant difference was also found in pregnancy rate among the groups. This results suggest that pregnancy rate is not related to leading follicle size on the day of hCG administration in PCOS patients treated with CC and IUI. In addition, pregnancy rate in women with different follicular sizes is not influenced by the endometrial thickness.

  5. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  6. Initial study of wild horse and burro demography: determination of pregnancy and lactation rates in various herds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, M.L.; Ellis, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Blood serum concentrations of reproductive hormones were used to estimate pregnancy rates in 558 wild and free-roaming horses (Equus caballus) from Nevada, Oregon, and Wyoming; and 165 burros from California. Levels of progesterone, pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin (PMSG), and estradiol 17B were determined by radioimmunoassay procedures. Based on comparison with the results of pregnancy diagnosis from rectal palpations (n =124), the following endocrine concentrations were established as criteria sufficient to indicate pregnancy: progesterone, 0.05 ng/ml; and/or PMSG, 3.0 mg/ml; and/or estradiol, 300 pg/ml. Estimated accuracy of pregnancy diagnoses from endocrine criteria was 80 to 85 percent. The mean incidence of pregnancy among mares sampled from Nevada, Oregon, and Wyoming was 58.4 percent, 69.2 percent, and 85.3 percent respectively

  7. Investigation of anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations in relation to natural conception rate and time to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsholm, Anne-Sofie; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Bentzen, Janne Gasseholm; Hilsted, Linda Maria; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Hvidman, Helene Westring

    2018-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations can predict pregnancy rates and time to pregnancy (TTP) in women attempting to conceive naturally/having an unplanned conception, and whether there is a lower AMH threshold compatible with natural conception. This prospective cohort study included 260 women aged 25-42 years in two subcohorts: (A) healthcare workers at Rigshospitalet (2008-2010), and (B) women consulting the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic (2011-2014), Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Pregnancy rates and TTP at 2-year follow-up were stratified into AMH groups: low: 33 pmol/l. Pregnancy rates increased with increasing AMH: 60.1% (low) versus 70.0% (intermediate) versus 78.3% (high) (P = 0.03). The highest pregnancy rate (84.1%) was seen in regular cycling women with high AMH. TTP was reduced in women with high AMH compared with intermediate or low AMH (stepwise trend test P = 0.01). Natural conceptions were observed with AMH concentrations down to 1.2 pmol/l. In conclusion, high AMH, especially in ovulatory women, was associated with higher pregnancy rates. Nonetheless, TTP reflected a large variation in fecundity within similar AMH concentrations and natural conceptions occurred with AMH down to 1.2 pmol/l. Copyright © 2018 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, E; Korevaar, J C; Bossuyt, P M M; van der Veen, F

    2008-08-01

    An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical parameters of 111 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with 114 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus placebo. The data for age, BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and plasma testosterone were available in all women, 2 h glucose in 80% of women and homeostatic model assessment for assessing insulin sensitivity (HOMA) in 50% of women. Of the women who were allocated to the metformin group, 44 women (40%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. In the placebo group, 52 women (46%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. There was a significantly different chance of an ongoing pregnancy for metformin versus placebo between subgroups based on age and WHR (P = 0.014). There was a positive effect of metformin versus placebo on pregnancy rate in older women (>or=28 years) with a high WHR, a negative effect of metformin versus placebo in young women (Metformin may be an effective addition to clomifene citrate in infertile women with PCOS, especially in older and viscerally obese patients.

  9. Failure rate of no-scalpel vasectomy in prevention of pregnancy in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shakeri

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bilateral vasectomy is the most effective method of male contraception but there are still some reports on its failure. This study was undertaken to determine the failure rate of the no-scalpel vasectomy in Shiraz Vasectomy Center, Southern Iran. METHODS: From 2001 to 2003, 3900 no-scalpel vasectomies were done in Nader Kazemi Health Center. The records were studied for any failure in the method. Presence of any live sperm 6 months after surgery or any report of pregnancy post-vasectomy were considered as vasectomy failure. RESULTS:Among 3900 cases, 2928 patients had a complete follow up file while failure in the method was visible among 109 (3.72% cases. CONCLUSION: The low failure rate of no-scalpel method indicated its high efficacy to control the fertility in males but there is still need of performance by expert surgeons in well organized centers. KEYWORDS: Iran, no-scalpel vasectomy, failure rate.

  10. Birth rates and pregnancy complications in adolescent pregnant women giving birth in the hospitals of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchon, Rukmanee; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; McNeil, Edward; Suchonwanich, Yolsilp

    2014-08-01

    To determine the rates of births in adolescent pregnant women in diferent regions of Thailand and assess the rates of complications occurring at pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum in women admitted in the hospitals ofThailand. The secondary analysis of data from pregnant women aged 10 to 49 years, who were admitted to hospitals and recorded in the National Health Security Office database between October 2010 and September 2011 was carried out. Adolescent birth rate by the regions and rate of complications ofpregnancy, delivery, and postpartum by age groups were analyzed. Highest birth rate was found among women aged 19 years (58.3 per 1, 000 population). The distribution of adolescent births varied across regions of Thailand, which was high in central region. Rate of preterm delivery was highest (10%) in adolescent aged 10 to 14 years. Rate of diabetes mellitus (6%), preeclampsia (4%), and postpartum hemorrhage (3%) among women aged 35 to 49 years were substantially higher than those among women aged 34 years or less. Adolescent birth rate varied across regions of Thailand. Complications occurred differently by ages of women. Holistic policy and planning strategies for proper prevention and management among pregnant women in different age groups are needed

  11. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J. C.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to

  12. Calm Merino ewes have a higher ovulation rate and more multiple pregnancies than nervous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, E; Hart, K W; Viñoles, C; Paganoni, B; Blache, D

    2017-07-01

    In 1990, two selection lines of Merino sheep were established for low and high behavioural reactivity (calm and nervous temperament) at the University of Western Australia. Breeding records consistently showed that calm ewes weaned 10% to 19% more lambs than the nervous ewes. We hypothesise that calm ewes could have a higher ovulation rate than nervous ewes and/or calm ewes could have a lower rate of embryo mortality than nervous ewes. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the ovulation rate and the rate of embryo mortality between the calm and nervous lines before and after synchronisation and artificial insemination. Merino ewes from the temperament selection lines (calm, n=100; nervous, n=100) were synchronised (early breeding season) for artificial insemination (day 0) (intravaginal sponges containing fluogestone acetate and eCG immediately after sponge withdrawal). On day-17 and 11 ovarian cyclicity and corpora lutea, and on days 30 and 74 pregnancies and embryos/foetuses were determined by ultrasound. Progesterone, insulin and leptin concentrations were determined in blood plasma samples from days 5, 12 and 17. Ovarian cyclicity before and after oestrus synchronisation did not differ between the lines, but ovulation rate did (day-17: calm 1.63; nervous 1.26; Pewes was higher than on day-17. Loss of embryos by day 30 was high (calm: 71/150; nervous: 68/130); but nervous ewes had a lower proportion (15/47) of multiple pregnancies compared with calm ewes (30/46; Pewes had higher insulin (32.0 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; P=0.013) and lower leptin (1.18 μg/l±0.04 SEM; P=0.002) concentrations than calm ewes (insulin: 27.8 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; leptin: 1.35 μg/l±0.04 SEM). The differences in reproductive outcomes between the calm and nervous ewes were mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in calm ewes. We suggest that reproduction in nervous ewes is compromised by factors leading up to ovulation and conception, or the uterine environment during early pregnancy, that reflect

  13. Factors influencing the adolescent pregnancy rate in the Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province – South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Mushwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative, descriptive and explorative survey was conducted to determine factors that influence adolescent pregnancy rate among teenage girls (n = 147 attending four high schools in the Greater Giyani Municipality in South Africa. Data was collected using a validated questionnaire which had a reliability of 0.65. Response frequency distributions, two-way frequency tables, Chi-square tests and Cochran–Armitage Trend Tests were used to determine the effect with the demographic characteristics of participants. Participants reported that health services were not conveniently available for them. Their relationship with nurses was poor (p < 0.05 as reported by 73% of participants with regard to maintenance of confidentiality. Participants reported key psychosocial variables such as inadequate sexual knowledge (61%, changing attitudes towards sex (58.9% and peer pressure (56.3% as contributory to high pregnancy rate. Recommendations were made to improve school health services, reproductive education in school curricula focussing on reproductive health, sexuality and guidance for future research.

  14. A novel embryo culture media supplement that improves pregnancy rates in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, A R; Bianco-Miotto, T; Pringle, K G; Peura, A; Bent, S; Zhang, J; Nottle, M B; Thompson, J G; Roberts, C T

    2017-03-01

    The preimplantation embryo in vivo is exposed to numerous growth factors in the female reproductive tract, which are not recapitulated in embryo culture media in vitro The IGF2 and plasminogen activator systems facilitate blastocyst development. We hypothesized that the addition of IGF2 in combination with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen could improve rates of blastocyst hatching and implantation in mice. B6BcF1 and CBAB6F2 mouse embryos were divided into one of four supplemented culture media treatment groups: (1) control (media only); (2) 12.5 nM IGF2; (3) 10 µg/mL uPA and 5 µg/mL plasminogen; or (4) a combination of IGF2, uPA and plasminogen treatments. Embryo development to blastocyst stage and hatching were assessed before transfer to pseudopregnant recipient females and implantation, pregnancy rates and postnatal growth were assessed. After 90.5 h of culture, IGF2 + U + P treatment increased the percentage of B6BcF1 embryos that were hatching/hatched and percentage developing to blastocyst stage compared with controls (P culture, IGF2, uPA and plasminogen supplementation of culture media can improve pregnancy success, but the effect of treatment is dependent on the mouse strain. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  15. The effect of air bubble position after blastocyst transfer on pregnancy rates in IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Brooke E; Lathi, Ruth B; Henne, Melinda B; Fisher, Stephanie L; Milki, Amin A

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between air bubble position after blastocyst transfer (BT) and pregnancy rates (PRs). Retrospective cohort study. University-based infertility center. Three hundred fifteen consecutive nondonor BTs by a single provider. Catheters were loaded with 25 μL of culture media, 20 μL of air, 25 μL of media containing the blastocysts, 20 μL of air, and a small amount of additional media. The distance from the air bubble to the fundus, as seen on abdominal ultrasound examination, was measured at the time of transfer. Air bubble location was categorized as 20 mm from the fundus. Clinical pregnancy rate. After controlling for age, parity, FSH and frozen transfers, and accounting for repeated cycles per patient, the PRs for both the >20-mm (38.3%) and the 10-20-mm (42.0%) from the fundus group were significantly reduced compared with the group in which the bubble was Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Roza, Daiane Leite da; Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Dal-Fabbro, Amaury Lelis

    2011-05-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a common public health problem worldwide. The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the spatial association between teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil. We used a Bayesian model with a spatial distribution following a conditional autoregressive (CAR) form based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We used data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Early pregnancy was more frequent in municipalities with lower per capital gross domestic product (GDP), higher poverty rate, smaller population, lower human development index (HDI), and a higher percentage of individuals with State social vulnerability index of 5 or 6 (more vulnerable). The study demonstrates a significant association between teenage pregnancy and socioeconomic indicators.

  17. Association of State-Mandated Abstinence-only Sexuality Education with Rates of Adolescent HIV Infection and Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, L M; Booth, M M; Patterson, G; Althoff, M; Bush, C K; Dery, M A

    2017-01-01

    Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);. We calculated the relative proportion of Black students in public schools and the proportion of families below the federal poverty line then ranked them by state. We compared the states' ranks to the incidence of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy in those states to identify associations between variables. The majority of states (~44 percent ); have legally mandated AOSE policies (Level 3); and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates were highest in these Level 3 states. There were significant, positive correlations between HIV incidence rates of 13-19 year olds, HIV rates of 20-24 year olds, teen pregnancy rates, and AOSE level, with the proportion of the population that lives below the federal poverty level, and whether they attended schools that had a greater than 50 percent of an African American population. These data show a clear association between state sexuality education policies and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates not previously demonstrated. Our data further show that states that have higher proportions of at-risk populations, with higher adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates, are more likely to also have restrictive AOSE policies. These populations may be more likely to attend public schools where AOSE is taught, increasing their risk for HIV and teen pregnancy. The World Health Organization considers fact-based Comprehensive Sexuality Education a human right, and the authors believe it is past time to end harmful, discriminatory sexuality

  18. The Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR): Initial Scale Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A; Murphy, Yolanda E; Brennan, Elle; D'Auria, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study. All parents (Study 1 and 2 samples) completed the Parenting Anxious Kids Ratings Scale-Parent Report (PAKRS-PR), a measurement tool designed to assess anxiogenic parenting. Factor analysis conducted as part of Study 1 revealed a 32-item scale consisting of five factors: conflict, overinvolvement, accommodation/beliefs, modeling, and emotional warmth/support. Four of these factors were significantly correlated with parent-report of anxiety severity. Within Study 2, the parents of children diagnosed with an anxiety or related disorder reported significantly higher levels of anxiogenic parenting practices as compared to the parents of healthy controls. The PAKRS-PR and respective subscales demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity in both the internet (Study 1) and community (Study 2) samples. The PAKRS-PR may be a beneficial multidimensional parenting scale for use among anxious youths.

  19. Cesarean section in twin pregnancies in two Danish counties with different cesarean section rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, T B; Sperling, Lene; Hedegaard, M

    1994-01-01

    for CS in twin pregnancies was made between two Danish counties, one with a high and one with a low overall CS rate in twin deliveries, taking into account the distribution of parity, mother's age, gestational age at birth, and birth weight. DESIGN: A population based, historic follow-up study based...... presentation. SECONDARY MEASURES: Perinatal and maternal outcome. RESULTS: The difference in CS rates between the two counties could not be explained by different distributions of background characteristics. Different attitudes were found towards CS in cases with previous CS, with twin A in breech presentation...... was seen. CONCLUSION: In order to understand and discuss regional variations in the use of CSs in twin deliveries the subjects must be addressed in different ways: the unequivocal indications related to fetal presentations and previous CS can be subjected to randomised controlled trials or large scaled...

  20. Movimentos respiratórios fetais em gestações com diabetes mellitus pré-gestacional Fetal breathing movements in pregnancies complicated by pregestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o padrão dos movimentos respiratórios fetais (MRF em gestantes diabéticas no terceiro trimestre de gestação. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 16 gestantes com diabetes mellitus pré-gestacional e 16 gestantes normais (grupo controle, com os seguintes critérios de inclusão: gestação única entre a 36ª e a 40ª semana, ausência de outras doenças maternas e ausência de anomalias fetais. No perfil biofísico fetal (PBF, foram avaliados os parâmetros: freqüência cardíaca fetal, MRF, movimentos corpóreos fetais, tônus fetal e índice de líquido amniótico. Os MRF foram avaliados por 30 minutos, período em que o exame foi integralmente gravado em fita de vídeo VHS para posterior análise do número de episódios de MRF, do tempo de duração dos episódios e do índice de movimentos respiratórios fetais (IMR. O IMR foi calculado pela fórmula: (intervalo de tempo com MRF/tempo de observação x 100. No início e no final do PBF foi dosada a glicemia capilar materna. Os resultados foram analisados pelo teste de Mann-Whitney U e teste exato de Fisher, adotando-se nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: as glicemias demonstraram média significativamente superior nas diabéticas (113,3±35,3 g/dL em relação às gestantes normais (78,2±14,8 g/dL, pPURPOSE: to analyze the pattern of fetal breathing movements (FBM in diabetic pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: sixteen pregestational diabetic and 16 nondiabetic (control group pregnant subjects were included fulfilling the following criteria: singleton, between 36-40 weeks of gestation, absence of other maternal diseases and absence of fetal anomalies. The fetal biophysical profile (FBP was performed to evaluate the following parameters: fetal heart rate, FBM, fetal body movements, fetal tone and amniotic fluid index. The FBM was evaluated for 30 minutes, period when the examination was integrally recorded in VHS video for posterior analysis

  1. Endometrial Injury May Increase the Pregnancy Rate in Patients Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination: An Interventional Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaa Eldin, Ahmed M; Abdelmaabud, Karim H; Laban, Mohamed; Hassanin, Alaa S; Tharwat, Ahmed A; Aly, Tarek R; Elbohoty, Ahmed E; Elsayed, Helmy M; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Ibrahim, Mohammed E; Sabaa, Haitham M; Abdelrazik, Azza A; Abdelhady, Ibrahim

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of endometrial injury using Pipelle catheter in the follicular phase (cycle day 5, 6, or 7) of the stimulation cycle on pregnancy rates in patients undergoing intrauterine insemination. This prospective randomized controlled study was carried out in the Assisted Reproductive Technology Unit of Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from July 1, 2013 to August 31, 2015. Three hundred sixty women, 20 to 35 years of age, with patent fallopian tubes, mild male factor infertility, or unexplained infertility were recruited. Participants were allocated randomly into 2 groups: experimental arm and control arm. Women in the experimental arm underwent endometrial biopsy using a Pipelle catheter on day 5, 6, or 7 of the stimulation cycle combined with intrauterine insemination. Women in the control group underwent intrauterine insemination with no endometrial biopsy done. The primary outcomes were the clinical and chemical pregnancy rates. Data of 344 participants were statistically analyzed. The chemical pregnancy rate was 23.66% in the experimental arm and 10.85% in the control arm (P = .002). The clinical pregnancy rate was 18.93% in the experimental arm and 7.42% in the control arm (P = .003). Endometrial injury using a Pipelle catheter in the stimulation cycle may improve pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Increased planned delivery contributes to declining rates of pregnancy hypertension in Australia: a population-based record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christine L; Algert, Charles S; Morris, Jonathan M; Ford, Jane B

    2015-10-05

    Since the 1990s, pregnancy hypertension rates have declined in some countries, but not all. Increasing rates of early planned delivery (before the due date) have been hypothesised as the reason for the decline. The aim of this study was to explore whether early planned delivery can partly explain the declining pregnancy hypertension rates in Australia. Population-based record linkage study utilising linked birth and hospital records. A cohort of 1,076,122 deliveries in New South Wales, Australia, 2001-2012. Pregnancy hypertension (including gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) was the main outcome; pre-eclampsia was a secondary outcome. From 2001 to 2012, pregnancy hypertension rates declined by 22%, from 9.9% to 7.7%, and pre-eclampsia by 27%, from 3.3% to 2.4% (trend prate was predicted to increase to 10.5%. Examination of annual gestational age distributions showed that pregnancy hypertension rates actually declined from 38 weeks gestation and were steepest from 41 weeks; at least 36% of the decrease could be attributed to planned deliveries. The risk factors for pregnancy hypertension were also risk factors for planned delivery. It appears that an unanticipated consequence of increasing early planned deliveries is a decline in the incidence of pregnancy hypertension. Women with risk factors for hypertension were relatively more likely to be selected for early delivery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Factors influencing dropout rate of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doku, David Teye; Zankawah, Mumuni Mukaila; Adu-Gyamfi, Addae Boateng

    2016-10-10

    The burden of malaria in terms of morbidity and mortality is huge is Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among pregnant women. Among the measures to curb down this burden include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and effective case management. These strategies were adopted by Ghana and implemented since 2003; however, there is still high dropout rate in IPT coverage. This study sought to investigate factors contributing to high dropout rate between IPT1 and IPT3 in the Tamale Metropolis, one of the health facilities with the highest IPT dropout rates in Ghana. Survey, in-depth interviews and short ethnographic techniques were conducted among pregnant women, antenatal care (ANC) health workers and heads of health facilities to investigate factors which account for dropout rate of intermittent treatment of malaria. Shortage of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP), inadequate supply of portable water for administration of SP, unavailability of IPT during outreach services, lack of knowledge by ANC staff about the dropout rate in their area of jurisdiction and poor attitude of some health workers were identified as barriers to achieving high IPT3 coverage. Late ANC visit, provider and logistical barriers account for the women's missed opportunities to prevent malaria in pregnancy through IPT. Addressing the above barriers will contribute to saving lives and ensuring progress towards the goal of combating malaria as well as reducing maternal, neonatal and child mortalities.

  4. Effects of transfer of embryos independently cultured in essential and sequential culture media on pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Bossi, Renata; Guimarães, Fernando; Valle, Marcello; Sampaio, Marcos

    2012-10-01

    Several culture media are available to be used in ART. However it is uncertain whether embryos would preferably benefit from one type of medium or the association of different media. We performed this study to evaluate the impact of simultaneous transfer of embryos independently cultured in two distinct culture media, on pregnancy outcome. A total of 722 couples who underwent infertility treatment were sequentially allocated into three groups: those who had half of the embryos individually cultured in MEM and the other half cultured in sequential media (MEM + Seq Group) (n = 243); those who had all embryos cultured only in sequential medium (Seq Group) (n = 239); and those who had all embryos cultured only in MEM (MEM Group) (n = 240). The pregnancy rate was higher in the MEM + Seq group (51.8 %) than the Seq group (36.7 %) (p < 0.001). However the pregnancy rate observed in the MEM group was similar to the others (44.2 %). When a logistic regression test was applied it demonstrated that the number of transferred embryos did not interfere in the pregnancy rates. Our results suggests that offering different culture conditions for sibling embryos with subsequent transfer of embryos that were kept in distinct culture media, might increase pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles.

  5. Abstinence-only education and teen pregnancy rates: why we need comprehensive sex education in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin F Stanger-Hall

    Full Text Available The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005 from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48, we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.

  6. Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Hall, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48), we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future. PMID:22022362

  7. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late......-follicular-phase LH concentration also showed a significant positive association with progesterone concentration (P = 0.018). Administration of rLH during ovarian stimulation did not affect progesterone concentration. The present study does not support an association between progesterone concentration on the day...

  8. Impact of The Endometrioma on Ovarian Response and Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on ovarian stimulation outcomes in in vitro fertilization cycles (IVF. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed 103 patients who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedures over a 24-months period. The study group consisted of 47 infertile women with either unilateral or bilateral ovarian endometrial cysts of less than 3 cm. The control group consisting of 57 patients with mild male factor infertility was candidate for ICSI treatment during the same time period as the study groups. Both groups were compared for number of oocytes retrieved, grades of oocytes, as well as embryo quantity and quality. Results: Our results showed similar follicle numbers, good embryo grades (A or B and pregnancy rates in the compared groups. However, patients with endometrioma had higher gonadotropin consumption than the control group. The mean number of retrieved oocytes in patients with endometrioma was significantly lower than control group (6.6 ± 3.74 vs. 10.4 ± 5.25 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with endometrioma had significantly lower numbers of metaphase II (MII oocytes (5 ± 3.21 than controls (8.2 ± 5.4 (p<0.001. In patients with unilateral endometrioma, there were no significant differences in main outcome measures between normal and involved ovaries in the patients with endometrioma. Conclusion: Patients with ovarian endometrioma had poor outcome. They showed poor ovarian response with lower total numbers of retrieved oocytes and lower MII oocytes during the stimulation phase; however, it does not affect the total number of embryos transferred per patient, quality of embryos, and pregnancy rate per patient.

  9. Rates of fetal polydrug exposures in methadone-maintained pregnancies from a high-risk population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn Delano

    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is the standard of care during pregnancy for opioid-dependency, showing efficacy in improving prenatal care and reducing risk of relapse. By design, however, MMT is only intended to prevent withdrawal thus facilitating cognitive behavioural interventions. In order to maximize the benefits of MMT, it is essential that methadone is both properly prescribed and that additional addiction treatment is concurrently administered. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of MMT engagement in high-risk pregnant women in reducing polydrug use by objective laboratory examination of neonatal meconium.Over a 29-month period, the Motherisk Laboratory at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto analyzed meconium samples as per request by social services and hospitals for drugs of abuse.Of the 904 meconium samples received, 273 were tested for methadone with 164 positive and 109 negative for methadone. Almost half of the methadone positive samples (46.34% were also positive for at least one other opioid compound, which did not differ statistically from the methadone-negative control samples (46.79%; Chi square test, p=0.94. No differences were found between the methadone positive and negative groups in rates of concurrent amphetamines, cocaine, cannabis, and alcohol use indicating a similar risk of polydrug use between pregnant women taking or not taking methadone in this population.The high rates of additional opioid and other drug use in the MMT group, suggest that MMT is failing this population of patients. It is possible that methadone doses during pregnancy are not appropriately adjusted for changes in pharmacokinetic parameters (e.g. blood volume, renal function during the second and third trimesters. This may result in sub-therapeutic dosing creating withdrawal symptoms leading to additional substance use. Alternatively, these results may be demonstrating a substantial lack in delivery of addiction support

  10. High rate of unplanned pregnancy in the context of integrated family planning and HIV care services in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Moyaki, Mayowa Gabriel; Goon, Daniel Ter; Avramovic, Gordana; Lambert, John

    2018-02-27

    Integration of family planning services into HIV care was implemented in South Africa as a core strategy aimed at reducing unintended pregnancies among childbearing women living with HIV. However, it is unclear whether this strategy has made any significant impact at the population level. This paper describes the prevalence and correlates of self-reported unplanned pregnancy among HIV-infected parturient women attending three large maternity centres in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. We also compare unplanned pregnancy rates between HIV-infected parturient women already in care (who have benefitted from services' integration) and newly diagnosed parturient women (who have not benefitted from services' integration). Drawing from the baseline data of the East London Prospective Cohort Study (ELPCS), data of 594 parturient women living with HIV in the Eastern Cape were included. Chi-square statistics and binary logistics regression were employed to determine the correlates of unplanned pregnancy among the cohort. The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy was 71% (n = 422) with a higher rate among parturient women newly diagnosed during the index pregnancy (87%). Unplanned pregnancy was significantly associated with younger age, single status, HIV diagnosis at booking, high parity and previous abortion. Women who reported unplanned pregnancy were more likely to book late and have lower CD4 counts. After adjusting for confounding variables, having one child and five to seven children (AOR = 2.2; CI = 1.3-3.1), age less than 21 years (AOR = 3.3; CI = 1.1-9.8), late booking after 27 weeks (AOR = 2.7; CI = 1.5-5.0), not married (AOR = 4.3; CI = 2.7-6.8) and HIV diagnosis at booking (AOR = 3.0; CI = 1.6-5.8) were the significant correlates of unplanned pregnancy in the cohort. Unplanned pregnancy remains high overall among parturient women living with HIV in the region, however, with significant reduction among those who were

  11. Spontaneous first trimester miscarriage rates per woman among parous women with 1 or more pregnancies of 24 weeks or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohain, Judy Slome; Buxbaum, Rina E; Mankuta, David

    2017-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to quantify spontaneous first trimester miscarriage rates per woman among parous women. A vast amount of data has accumulated regarding miscarriage rates per recognized pregnancy as well as about recurrent miscarriage. This is the second study of miscarriage rates per woman in a parous population and the first study of recurrent and non-recurrent, spontaneous first trimester miscarriage rates per woman in a large parous population. Extraction of the following variables from all delivery room admissions from both Hadassah Medical Centers in Jerusalem Israel, 2004-2014: # of first trimester spontaneous miscarriages, # live births; # living children; age on admission, pre-pregnancy height and weight, any smoking this pregnancy, any alcohol or drug abuse this pregnancy, blood type, history of ectopic pregnancy, history of cesarean surgery (CS) and use of any fertility treatment(s). Among 53,479 different women admitted to labor and delivery ward, 43% of women reported having had 1 or more first trimester spontaneous miscarriages; 27% reported having had one, 10% two, 4% three, 1.3% four, 0.6% five and 0.05% reported having 6-16 spontaneous first trimester miscarriages. 18.5% had one or more first trimester miscarriages before their first live birth. Eighty-one percent of women with 11 or more living children experienced one or more first trimester miscarriages. First trimester miscarriage rates rose with increasing age, increasing parity, after previous ectopic pregnancy, after previous cesarean surgery, with any smoking during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy BMI ≥30. Miscarriages are common among parous women; 43% of parous women report having experienced one or more first trimester spontaneous miscarriages, rising to 81% among women with 11 or more living children. One in every 17 parous women have three or more miscarriages. Depending on her health, nutrition and lifestyle choices, even a 39 year old parous woman with a history of 3 or

  12. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  13. Increasing The Number of Embryos Transferred from Two to Three, Does not Increase Pregnancy Rates in Good Prognosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare the pregnancy outcomes after two embryos versus three embryos transfers (ETs in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on three hundred eighty seven women with primary infertility and with at least one fresh embryo in good quality in order to transfer at each IVF/ICSI cycle, from September 2006 to June 2010. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the number of ET as follows: ET2 and ET3 groups, indicating two and three embryos were respectively transferred. Pregnancy outcomes were compared between ET2 and ET3 groups. Chi square and student t tests were used for data analysis. Results: Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar between two groups. The rates of multiple pregnancies were 27 and 45.2% in ET2 and ET3 groups, respectively. The rate of multiple pregnancies in young women was significantly increased when triple instead of double embryos were transferred. Logistic regression analysis indicated two significant prognostic variables for live birth that included number and quality of transferred embryos; it means that the chance of live birth following ICSI treatment increased 3.2-fold when the embryo with top quality (grade A was transferred, but the number of ET had an inverse relationship with live birth rate; it means that probability of live birth in women with transfer of two embryos was three times greater than those who had three ET. Conclusion: Due to the difficulty of implementation of the elective single-ET technique in some infertility centers in the world, we suggest transfer of double instead of triple embryos when at least one good quality embryo is available for transfer in women aged 39 years or younger. However, to reduce the rate of multiple pregnancies, it is recommended to consider the elective single ET strategy.

  14. Aumento no material fibrinoide perivilositário nas placentas de gestações com pré-eclâmpsia Increase in perivillous fibrinoid material in placentas from pregnancies with preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Agra de Souza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A pré-eclâmpsia responde por alta morbimortalidade no Brasil e no mundo. A sua etiologia ainda não foi totalmente esclarecida. Entre as alterações placentárias na pré-eclâmpsia citam-se: infartos, aumento de nós sinciciais, hipotrofia vilositária, espessamento da membrana basal trofoblástica e deposição de material fibrinoide. OBJETIVO: Analisar quantitativamente imagens do material fibrinoide perivilositário presente em placentas de gestações com e sem pré-eclâmpsia. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo de caso-controle no Serviço de Anatomia Patológica do Hospital Universitário Professor Alberto Antunes (HUPAA. Realizou-se análise histomorfométrica de 840 imagens provenientes de 14 placentas de gestações com pré-eclâmpsia (casos e 14 placentas de gestações sem pré-eclâmpsia (controles. RESULTADOS: A média da área do material fibrinoide no grupo pré-eclâmpsia foi de 168,46 pixels, e no grupo sem pré-eclâmpsia, de 89,63 pixels. Foi observada uma quantidade menor da área total dos núcleos na pré-eclâmpsia, 89,51 pixels, do que no grupo controle, 113,34 pixels. CONCLUSÃO: Nas placentas de gestações com pré-eclâmpsia a área ocupada pelo material fibrinoide está aumentada em 1,8 vez em comparação com as placentas de gestações normais. As áreas dos núcleos e citoplasmas foram maiores no grupo controle. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quanto à área do estroma. Observou-se também redução do espaço ocupado pelas vilosidades na pré-eclâmpsia, sendo este fato compatível com hipotrofia vilositária.INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia is responsible for high maternal mortality in Brazil and worldwide. Its etiology has not been fully elucidated. Placental changes in preeclampsia include: infarcts, increase in syncytial knots, villous hypotrophy, thickening of trophoblastic basement membrane and fibrin deposition. OBJECTIVE: To analyze quantitatively images of

  15. Determination of salivary flow rate, pH, and dental caries during pregnancy: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta A Karnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Saliva is an important diagnostic biofluid and the salivary composition is affected by various systemic conditions including pregnancy. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the salivary flow rate and pH in pregnant and non-pregnant Indian women and, consequently, to compare and correlate the salivary flow rate, pH, and prevalence of dental caries in both groups. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in our institute on a sample of 30 pregnant and 30 non-pregnant women. Materials and Methods: The clinical findings for Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT index were recorded. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine the salivary flow rate and pH. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using Student′s t-test. Results: Salivary flow rate was lower in pregnant women (0.63 ml/min as compared to that in non-pregnant women (0.81 ml/min (P < 0.05 and the pH was also lesser in pregnant women (6.56 than in non-pregnant women (6.86 (P < 0.05. DMFT index showed a strong negative correlation with pH in pregnant women and non-pregnant women (P < 0.05. Conclusion: A difference was observed between the salivary parameters of pregnant and non-pregnant women in this sample. However, all the values were within the normal range. A significant inverse relation was found between salivary pH and dental caries for both the groups.

  16. Effect of consecutive re-synchronization protocols on pregnancy rate in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers out of the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neglia, Gianluca; Capuano, Massimo; Balestrieri, Anna; Cimmino, Roberta; Iannaccone, Francesco; Palumbo, Francesco; Presicce, Giorgio A; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    The combined effect of six consecutive timed artificial inseminations (TAIs) on pregnancy rates, following two different synchronization protocols on buffalo heifers, over a period of seven months typically characterized by low breeding performances, were investigated in this study. A total of 2189 TAIs were performed on 1463 buffalo heifers within a large buffalo farm in the south of Italy. Individual animals were allowed to undergo synchronization protocol (either a slightly modified Ovsynch or Progesterone treatment) and TAI until establishment of pregnancy or else for not more than six consecutive times. Semen of seven proven bulls was used throughout the study, which was carried out from March to September of the same year. Therefore, other than the effect given by consecutive TAIs over time, a monthly and a seasonal effect could also be tested, once the entire period was split into a Low Breeding Season (LBS) from March to June, and a Transition to Breeding Season (TBS) from July to September. From the data recorded in this study and the statistical analysis performed, it can be stated that the two protocols for the synchronization of ovulation were similar in efficiency in determining pregnancies with an overall fertility rate of 89.4% when the comparison was run both on a monthly basis or when months were grouped into two different seasons. In addition, an average of 1.83 AI/pregnancy was reported, slightly higher for the Ovsynch when compared to the Progesterone protocol: 1.91 vs 1.70, respectively. Finally, when considering the number of progressive synchronization treatments implemented over time as covariate, neither Ovsynch nor Progesterone treatment significantly affected pregnancy rates following the first of the six synchronization sessions. However, repeating the synchronization procedure, the progesterone based protocol resulted in significantly higher probability of success in terms of established pregnancies during the second and third re

  17. Short and long term mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcome: population register based study for Denmark 1980-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, David C; Coleman, Priscilla K

    2012-09-01

    There is a growing interest in examining death rates associated with different pregnancy outcomes for time periods beyond one year. Previous population studies, however, have failed to control for complete reproductive histories. In this study we seek to eliminate the potential confounding effect of unknown prior pregnancy history by examining mortality rates associated specifically with first pregnancy outcome alone. We also examine differences in mortality rates associated with early abortion and late abortions (after 12 weeks). Medical records for the entire population of women born in Denmark between 1962 and 1991 and were alive in 1980, were linked to death certificates. Mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcomes (delivery, miscarriage, abortion, and late abortion) were calculated. Odds ratios examining death rates based on reproductive outcomes, adjusted for age at first pregnancy and year of women's births, were also calculated. A total of 463,473 women had their first pregnancy between 1980 and 2004, of whom 2,238 died. In nearly all time periods examined, mortality rates associated with miscarriage or abortion of a first pregnancy were higher than those associated with birth. Compared to women who delivered, the age and birth year adjusted cumulative risk of death for women who had a first trimester abortion was significantly higher in all periods examined, from 180 days (OR=1.84; 1.11 <95% CI <3.71) through 10 years (1.39; 1.22 <95% CI <1.61), as was the risk for women who had abortions after 12 weeks from one year (OR=4.31; 2.18 <95% CI <8.54) through 10 years (OR=2.41; 1.56 <95% CI <2.41). For women who miscarried, the risk was significantly higher for cumulative deaths through 4 years (OR=1.75; 1.34 <95% CI <2.27) and at 10 years (OR=1.48; 1.18 <95% CI <1.85). Compared to women who delivered, women who had an early or late abortion had significantly higher mortality rates within 1 through 10 years. A lesser effect may also be present

  18. Genomic study and Medical Subject Headings enrichment analysis of early pregnancy rate and antral follicle numbers in Nelore heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Junior, G. A.; Perez, B. C.; Cole, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    be considered in a functional enrichment analysis to identify biological mechanisms involved in fertility. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were detected using the MESHR package, allowing the extraction of broad meanings from the gene lists provided by the GWAS. The estimated heritability for HP was 0.28 +/- 0...... gains. In this study, we performed a genomewide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants associated with reproductive traits in Nelore beef cattle. Heifer pregnancy (HP) was recorded for 1,267 genotyped animals distributed in 12 contemporary groups (CG) with an average pregnancy rate of 0...

  19. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Näslund Thagaard

    Full Text Available To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates.A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL, biparietal diameter (1st trimester, BPD (2nd trimester, and head circumference and compared mean and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods.The change from use of second to first trimester measurements for dating was associated with a significant increase in the rate of post-term deliveries from 2.1-2.9% and a significant decrease in the rate of pre-term deliveries from 5.4-4.6% caused by systematic discrepancies. Thereby 25.1% would pass 41 weeks when GA is defined by CRL and 17.3% when BPD (2nd trimester is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1-1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used.Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration of pregnancy. This should be corrected in clinical practice to avoid an overestimation of post-term birth and unnecessary inductions when first trimester formulas are used.

  20. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näslund Thagaard, Ida; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Olesen Larsen, Severin; Holm, Jens-Christian; Christiansen, Michael; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. The change from use of second to first trimester measurements for dating was associated with a significant increase in the rate of post-term deliveries from 2.1-2.9% and a significant decrease in the rate of pre-term deliveries from 5.4-4.6% caused by systematic discrepancies. Thereby 25.1% would pass 41 weeks when GA is defined by CRL and 17.3% when BPD (2nd trimester) is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1-1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used. Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration of pregnancy. This should be corrected in clinical practice to avoid an overestimation of post-term birth and unnecessary inductions when first trimester formulas are used.

  1. Emergency contraception with a copper IUD or oral levonorgestrel: an observational study of 1-year pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turok, David K; Jacobson, Janet C; Dermish, Amna I; Simonsen, Sara E; Gurtcheff, Shawn; McFadden, Molly; Murphy, Patricia A

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the 1-year pregnancy rates for emergency contraception (EC) users who selected the copper T380 intrauterine device (IUD) or oral levonorgestrel (LNG) for EC. This prospective study followed women for 1 year after choosing either the copper T380 IUD or oral LNG for EC. The study was powered to detect a 6% difference in pregnancy rates within the year after presenting for EC. Of the 542 women who presented for EC, agreed to participate in the trial and met the inclusion criteria, 215 (40%) chose the copper IUD and 327 (60%) chose oral LNG. In the IUD group, 127 (59%) were nulligravid. IUD insertion failed in 42 women (19%). The 1-year follow-up rate was 443/542 (82%); 64% of IUD users contacted at 1 year still had their IUDs in place. The 1-year cumulative pregnancy rate in women choosing the IUD was 6.5% vs. 12.2% in those choosing oral LNG [hazard ratio (HR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29-0.97, p=.041]. By type of EC method actually received, corresponding values were 5.2% for copper IUD users vs. 12.3% for oral LNG users (HR 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.85, p=.017). A multivariable logistic regression model controlling for demographic variables demonstrates that women who chose the IUD for EC had fewer pregnancies in the following year than those who chose oral LNG (HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.26-0.96, p=.037). One year after presenting for EC, women choosing the copper IUD for EC were half as likely to have a pregnancy compared to those choosing oral LNG. Compared to EC users who choose oral levonorgestrel, those who select the copper IUD have lower rates of pregnancy in the next year. Greater use of the copper IUD for EC may lower rates of unintended pregnancy in high-risk women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring fetal heart rate during pregnancy: contributions from advanced signal processing and wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Maria G; Fanelli, Andrea; Magenes, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring.

  3. Do pregnancy characteristics contribute to rising childhood cancer incidence rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca D; Osypuk, Theresa L; Poynter, Jenny N; Vock, David M; Spector, Logan G

    2018-03-01

    Since 1975, childhood cancer incidence rates have gradually increased in the United States; however, few studies have conducted analyses across time to unpack this temporal rise. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing cancer incidence rates are due to secular trends in pregnancy characteristics that are established risk factors for childhood cancer incidence including older maternal age, higher birthweight, and lower birth order. We also considered temporal trends in sociodemographic characteristics including race/ethnicity and poverty. We conducted a time series county-level ecologic analysis using linked population-based data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries (1975-2013), birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics (1970-2013), and sociodemographic data from the US Census (1970-2010). We estimated unadjusted and adjusted average annual percent changes (AAPCs) in incidence of combined (all diagnoses) and individual types of cancer among children, ages 0-4 years, from Poisson mixed models. There was a statistically significant unadjusted temporal rise in incidence of combined childhood cancers (AAPC = 0.71%; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0.78%; 0.49-1.07), acute myeloid leukemia (1.86%; 1.13-2.59), central nervous system tumors (1.31%; 0.94-1.67), and hepatoblastoma (2.70%; 1.68-3.72). Adjustment for county-level maternal age reduced estimated AAPCs between 8% (hepatoblastoma) and 55% (combined). However, adjustment for other county characteristics did not attenuate AAPCs, and AAPCs remained significantly above 0% in models fully adjusted for county-level characteristics. Although rising maternal age may account for some of the increase in childhood cancer incidence over time, other factors, not considered in this analysis, may also contribute to temporal trends. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phenotypic correlations between ovum pick-up in vitro production traits and pregnancy rates in Zebu cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, W H O; Quirino, C R; Serapião, R V; Oliveira, C S; Pacheco, A

    2015-07-03

    The growth of the Gyr breed in Brazil in terms of genetic gain for milk, along with conditions for market, has led to the use of ovum pick-up in vitro production (OPU-IVP) as a leader in biotechnology for the multiplication of genetic material. The aim of this study was to investigate phenotypic correlations between OPU-IVP-linked characteristics and pregnancy rates registered in an embryo transfer program using Gyr cows as oocyte donors. Data collected from 211 OPU sessions and 298 embryo transfers during the years 2012 and 2013 were analyzed and statistical analysis was performed. Estimates of simple Pearson correlations were calculated for NVcoc and PVcoc (number and proportion of viable cumulus-oocyte complexes, respectively); NcleavD4 and PcleavD4 (number and proportion of cleaved embryos on day 4 of culture, respectively); NTembD7 and PTembD7 (number and proportion of transferable embryos on day 7 of culture, respectively); NPrD30 and PPrD30 (number and proportion of pregnancies 30 days after transfer, respectively); and NPrD60 and PPrD60 (number and proportion of pregnancies 60 days after transfer, respectively). Moderate to moderately high correlations were found for all numerical characteristics, suggesting these as the most suitable parameters for selection of oocyte donors in Gyr programs. NVcoc is proposed as a selection trait due to positive correlations with percentage traits and pregnancy rates 30 and 60 days after transfer.

  5. Protease-sensitive conformers in broad spectrum of distinct PrPSc structures in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are indicator of progression rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, range, and structure of prions causing the most common human prion disease, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD, are largely unknown. To investigate the molecular mechanism responsible for the broad phenotypic variability of sCJD, we analyzed the conformational characteristics of protease-sensitive and protease-resistant fractions of the pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc using novel conformational methods derived from a conformation-dependent immunoassay (CDI. In 46 brains of patients homozygous for polymorphisms in the PRNP gene and exhibiting either Type 1 or Type 2 western blot pattern of the PrP(Sc, we identified an extensive array of PrP(Sc structures that differ in protease sensitivity, display of critical domains, and conformational stability. Surprisingly, in sCJD cases homozygous for methionine or valine at codon 129 of the PRNP gene, the concentration and stability of protease-sensitive conformers of PrP(Sc correlated with progression rate of the disease. These data indicate that sCJD brains exhibit a wide spectrum of PrP(Sc structural states, and accordingly argue for a broad spectrum of prion strains coding for different phenotypes. The link between disease duration, levels, and stability of protease-sensitive conformers of PrP(Sc suggests that these conformers play an important role in the pathogenesis of sCJD.

  6. Metabolizable protein supply while grazing dormant winter forage during heifer development alters pregnancy and subsequent in-herd retention rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Hawkins, D E; Kane, K K; Cox, S H; Torell, L A; Scholljegerdes, E J; Petersen, M K

    2013-03-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of postweaning management of British crossbred heifers on growth and reproduction. In Exp. 1, 239 spring-born, crossbred heifers were stratified by weaning BW (234 ± 1 kg) and allotted randomly to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments were fed at a rate equivalent to 1.14 kg/d while grazing dormant forage (6.5% CP and 80% NDF, DM basis) and were 1) 36% CP containing 36% RUP (36RUP) or 2) 36% CP containing 50% RUP (50RUP). Supplementation was initiated in February (1995 and 1996) or November (1997 and 1998) and terminated at the onset of breeding season (mid May). Heifers were weighed monthly up to breeding and again at time of palpation. After timed AI, heifers were exposed to breeding bulls for 42 ± 8 d. In Exp. 2, 191 spring-born, crossbred heifers were stratified by weaning BW to treatments. Heifer development treatments were 1) pasture developed and fed 0.9 kg/day of a 36% CP supplement containing 36% RUP (36RUP), 2) pasture developed and fed 0.9 kg/day of a 36% CP supplement containing 50% RUP (50RUP), and 3) corn silage-based growing diet in a drylot (DRYLOT). Heifers receiving 36RUP and 50RUP treatments were developed on dormant forage. Treatments started in February and ended at the onset of a 45-d breeding season in May. Heifer BW and hip height were taken monthly from initiation of supplementation until breeding and at pregnancy diagnosis. In Exp. 1, BW was not different (P ≥ 0.27) for among treatments at all measurement times. However, 50RUP heifers had greater (P = 0.02; 80 and 67%) pregnancy rates than 36RUP heifers. In Exp. 2, DRYLOT heifers had greater (P RUP or 50RUP developed heifers. However, BW at pregnancy diagnosis was not different (P = 0.24) for between treatments. Pregnancy rates tended to be greater (P = 0.10) for 50RUP heifers than 36RUP and DRYLOT. Net return per heifer was US$99.71 and $87.18 greater for 50RUP and 36RUP heifers, respectively, compared with DRYLOT heifers due to differences

  7. Effect of the time in administration of clomiphene on follicular growth, endometrium and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Zeinalzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clomiphene citrate is very successful in inducing ovulation; there is usually a discrepancy between ovulation and pregnancy rate. If treatment is started early in the cycle this negative effect is reduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the time of administration of clomiphene citrate on follicular growth, endometrial thickness and ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was performed on 115 PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome women in Fateme Zahra Fertility and Infertility Research Health Center in April 2012. Patients randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the early group (No. 55 received 100 milligrams of clomiphene citrate tablet daily starting the next day after finishing medroxyprogesterone acetate tablet for 5 day, whereas the patient in the late group (No. 60 received 100 milligrams of clomiphene citrate tablet daily for 5 day starting on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. Then on follicular growth, endometrial thickness and ovulation and pregnancy rates by SPSS software, version 16 (Armonk, NY, USA were compared in two groups. Results: 36.4% of patients of early administration of clomiphene and 60% of patients in the later administration of Clomiphene were able to build dominant follicle. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.011. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on age, body mass index, duration of infertility. Findings showed that in the early group 14 (63.6% and in the late groups 8 (36.4% women who made dominant follicle, were pregnant. There was significant difference between these two groups (P<0.001. But, in the number of follicles, endometrial thickness and pregnancy rate, there were no significant difference. In the early administration of clomiphene, the pregnancy rate was 25.5%. However in the later administration of clomiphene it was 13.3% (P=0

  8. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of endometrial injury on implantation and clinical pregnancy rates during the first ICSI cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed M; Rashwan, Hamsa; AbdelAziz, Suzy; Ramadan, Wafaa; Mostafa, Walaa A I; Metwally, Ahmed A; Katta, Maha

    2018-02-01

    To assess whether endometrial injury in the cycle preceding controlled ovarian hyperstimulation during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) improves the implantation and pregnancy rates. Between January 1, 2016, and March 31, 2017, a randomized controlled trial was conducted at a center in Egypt among 300 women who met inclusion criteria (first ICSI cycle, aged endometrial scratch in the cycle preceding controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (n=150) or to a control group (n=150). Only data analysts were masked to group assignment. The primary outcomes were the implantation and clinical pregnancy rates at 14 days and 4 weeks after embryo transfer, respectively. Analyses were by intention to treat. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the endometrial scratch group (41.3% [90/218]) than in the control group (30.0% [63/210]; Pendometrial scratch group (44.2% [61/138]) than in the control group (30.4% [41/135]; PEndometrial injury in the cycle preceding the stimulation cycle improved implantation and pregnancy rates during ICSI. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02660125. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  9. The association between homocysteine in the follicular fluid with embryo quality and pregnancy rate in assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Pelin; Ersoylu, Bilge; Cepni, Ismail; Guralp, Onur; Atakul, Nil; Irez, Tulay; Idil, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the association between follicular fluid homocysteine levels and embryo quality and pregnancy rates in patients undergoing assisted reproduction. Fifty infertile women who were admitted to our clinic were enrolled in the study. Ovulation induction was performed by using GnRH agonist and gonadotropins. For each patient, homocysteine level in the follicular fluid was measured by using nephelometric method after the oocyte pick-up. The association between the homocysteine concentration in the follicular fluid and the oocyte-embryo quality, pregnancy rates and hormone levels were investigated. Mean ± SD Hcy was 9.6 ± 2.02 μmol/L and 14.9 ± 2.93 μmol/L in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively (p Homocystein did not have any correlation with M2, late M2, and total number of oocytes, number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos, and embryo quality grade. Area under curve (AUC) of hcy for prediction of pregnancy failure was 0.922 (p = 0.0001, 95% Confidence interval 0.85-0.99). A threshold of 11.9 μmol/L of hcy had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 91.6% for prediction of pregnancy failure. The subgroup analysis in male factor infertility group (n = 28), showed that mean homocystein was 9.9 ± 2.44 μmol/L and 14.1 ± 2.72 μmol/L in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively (p = 0.002). Low follicular fluid homocysteine level is associated with a better chance of clinical pregnancy.

  10. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention or standard care (control. Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12 and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48 occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake (p = 0.03, specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA (p = 0.045 with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06. There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  11. Lapse in embryo transfer training does not negatively affect clinical pregnancy rates for reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresowik, Jessica; Sparks, Amy; Duran, Eyup H; Shah, Divya K

    2015-03-01

    To compare rates of clinical pregnancy (CPR) and live birth (LBR) following embryo transfer (ET) performed by reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows before and after a prolonged lapse in clinical training due to an 18-month research rotation. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. All women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with ET performed by REI fellows from August 2003 to July 2012. Eighteen-month lapse in clinical training of REI fellows. CPR and LBR before and after the lapse in clinical training were calculated and compared per fellow and as a composite group. Alternating logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth following transfers performed before and after the lapse in training. Unadjusted odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth were similar between the two time periods both for individual fellows and for the composite group. Alternate logistic regression analysis revealed no significant difference in CPR (odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.07) or LBR (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18) after the lapse in training compared with before. A research rotation is common in REI fellowship training programs. This prolonged departure from clinical training does not appear to negatively affect pregnancy outcome following fellow ET. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Tsagareli, Victoria; Noakes, Manny; Norman, Robert

    2016-01-04

    Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention) or standard care (control). Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12) and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48) occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (p = 0.03), specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.045) with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06). There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  13. Background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes for assessing the safety of maternal vaccine trials in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A V Orenstein

    Full Text Available Maternal immunization has gained traction as a strategy to diminish maternal and young infant mortality attributable to infectious diseases. Background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes are crucial to interpret results of clinical trials in Sub-Saharan Africa.We developed a mathematical model that calculates a clinical trial's expected number of neonatal and maternal deaths at an interim safety assessment based on the person-time observed during different risk windows. This model was compared to crude multiplication of the maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate by the number of live births. Systematic reviews of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM, low birth weight (LBW, prematurity, and major congenital malformations (MCM in Sub-Saharan African countries were also performed.Accounting for the person-time observed during different risk periods yields lower, more conservative estimates of expected maternal and neonatal deaths, particularly at an interim safety evaluation soon after a large number of deliveries. Median incidence of SAMM in 16 reports was 40.7 (IQR: 10.6-73.3 per 1,000 total births, and the most common causes were hemorrhage (34%, dystocia (22%, and severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (22%. Proportions of liveborn infants who were LBW (median 13.3%, IQR: 9.9-16.4 or premature (median 15.4%, IQR: 10.6-19.1 were similar across geographic region, study design, and institutional setting. The median incidence of MCM per 1,000 live births was 14.4 (IQR: 5.5-17.6, with the musculoskeletal system comprising 30%.Some clinical trials assessing whether maternal immunization can improve pregnancy and young infant outcomes in the developing world have made ethics-based decisions not to use a pure placebo control. Consequently, reliable background rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes are necessary to distinguish between vaccine benefits and safety concerns. Local studies that quantify population-based background rates of

  14. Effect of breeding method and season on pregnancy rate and embryonic and fetal losses in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Arslan; Arshad, Usman; Yousuf, Muhammad Rizwan; Ahmad, Nasim

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breeding method and season on pregnancy rate and cumulative embryonic and fetal losses in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Estrus detection was performed twice a day by teaser buffalo bull for 1 hour each. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to address the breeding method and season. Buffaloes (n = 130) exhibiting estrus were randomly assigned to be bred either in peak breeding season (PBS; n = 80) or low breeding season (LBS; n = 50). Within each season, buffaloes were divided to receive either natural service (NS; n = 65) or artificial insemination (AI; n = 65). NS buffaloes, in estrus, were allowed to remain with the bull until mating. AI was achieved, using frozen thawed semen of bull of known fertility. PBS comprised of September to December and LBS were from May to July. Serial ultrasonography was performed on days 30, 45, 60, and 90 after breeding (day 0) to monitor pregnancy rate and embryonic and fetal losses. The pregnancy rate on day 30 after breeding was higher in NS as compared to AI group (63 vs. 43%; P  0.05) in LBS. The cumulative embryonic and fetal losses between days 31 and 90 were significantly lower in PBS than LBS (33 vs. 60%; P losses were higher in LBS in Nili-Ravi buffalo.

  15. TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) Level 2 Rainfall Rate and Profile Product (TRMM Product 2A25) V6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR), the first of its kind in space, is an electronically scanning radar, operating at 13.8 GHz that measures the 3-D rainfall...

  16. Stillbirth rates in singleton pregnancies in a stable population at Karl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    address this major problem. The American ... weighs ≥1 000 g. Since knowledge about the local trend in stillbirth .... cigarette smoking during pregnancy, as well as smoking by the ..... Vergani P, Cozzolino S, Pozzi E, et al. Identifying the ...

  17. Ectopic Pregnancy: Reasons for the High Tubal Rupture Rates in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ... The case notes were reviewed to obtain information on the socio demographic characteristics of the patients, clinical history and operative findings. Results: Of the ... Besides, majority of our women present late making them more vulnerable to ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  18. Duration of blastulation may be associated with ongoing pregnancy rate in single euploid blastocyst transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumusoglu, Sezcan; Ozbek, Irem Y; Sokmensuer, Lale K; Polat, Mehtap; Bozdag, Gurkan; Papanikolaou, Evangelos; Yarali, Hakan

    2017-12-01

    Not all euploid embryos implant, necessitating additional tools to select viable blastocysts in preimplantation genetic screening cycles. In this retrospective cohort study, 129 consecutive patients who underwent 129 single euploid blastocyst transfers in cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles were included. All embryos were individually cultured in a time-lapse incubator from intracytoplasmic sperm injection up to trophoectoderm biopsy. Twenty-three time-lapse morphokinetic variables were tested among patients with (n = 68) or without (n = 61) ongoing pregnancy. All 23 time-lapse morphokinetic variables, apart from duration of blastulation (tB-tSB), were comparable between patients with or without ongoing pregnancy. Duration of blastulation was significantly shorter in patients with ongoing pregnancy (8.1 ± 3.2 versus 9.5 ± 3.4 h; P = 0.014); shorter duration of blastulation remained an independent predictor for ongoing pregnancy, when tested by logistic regression analysis (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.93). One important limitation of this study, and a reason for caution, is the use of multiple comparisons, which can lead to differences at the 0.05 level simply by chance or random variation. Nonetheless, the study suggests that when more than one euploid blastocyst is available, priority might be given to those with a shorter duration of blastulation. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Undergoing varicocele repair before assisted reproduction improves pregnancy rate and live birth rate in azoospermic and oligospermic men with a varicocele: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, E Will; Wiener, Laura Elizabeth; Rajanahally, Saneal; Crowell, Karen; Coward, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate how varicocele repair (VR) impacts pregnancy (PRs) and live birth rates in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproduction wherein the male partner has oligospermia or azoospermia and a history of varicocele. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. Azoospermic and oligospermic males with varicoceles and in couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) with IUI, IVF, or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) with IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Measurement of PRs, live birth, and sperm extraction rates. Odds ratios for the impact of VR on PRs, live birth, and sperm extraction rates for couples undergoing ART. Seven articles involving a total of 1,241 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that VR improved live birth rates for the oligospermic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.699) and combined oligospermic/azoospermic groups (OR = 1.761). Pregnancy rates were higher in the azoospermic group (OR = 2.336) and combined oligospermic/azoospermic groups (OR = 1.760). Live birth rates were higher for patients undergoing IUI after VR (OR = 8.360). Sperm retrieval rates were higher in persistently azoospermic men after VR (OR = 2.509). Oligospermic and azoospermic patients with clinical varicocele who undergo VR experience improved live birth rates and PRs with IVF or IVF/ICSI. For persistently azoospermic men after VR requiring TESE for IVF/ICSI, VR improves sperm retrieval rates. Therefore, VR should be considered to have substantial benefits for couples with a clinical varicocele even if oligospermia or azoospermia persists after repair and ART is required. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pelvic endometriosis with peritoneal fluid reduces pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hong-Ming; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Chen, Chi-Hung; Chen, Pi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of peritoneal fluid in women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) and its correlation with the stage of pelvic endometriosis and its influence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case–control design was used to recruit 272 infertile women with pelvic endometriosis. The treatment protocol consisted of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with downregulation and gonadotropin for IUI treatment following ultrasoun...

  1. The effect of metformin use on pregnancy rates among polycystic ovary syndrome patients undergoing in vitro fertilization: A retrospective-cohort study

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    Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Metformin co-treatment during IVF may negatively affect pregnancy rates. Further well-designed, randomized, double-blind placebo-control clinical trials are needed to confirm the findings of this study.

  2. Therapeutic value of selective salpingography for infertile women with patent fallopian tubes: the impact on pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, S; Miyagi, H; Kanazawa, K

    2000-01-01

    To determine the therapeutic value of selective salpingography (SSG) for infertile women with patent fallopian tubes. Retrospective, case-control analysis. University Hospital, infertility clinic. Infertile cases with patent tubes documented by hysterosalpingography (HSG) or by HSG followed by laparoscopic examination (n = 80). Hysteroscopic SSG. Patency rate of tubes by SSG. Pregnancy rate following SSG. Eighty cases were divided into the study group (SSG performed, 37 cases) and the case-control group (SSG not performed, 43 cases). Successful SSG of at least one tube was obtained in all of 37 cases (100%) in whom SSG was attempted. A patency rate of 95.9% was documented in the 73 cannulated tubes of these cases. The total subsequent pregnancy rate (48.6%) within 12 months of follow-up after SSG was significantly higher than that (11.6%) obtained in the control group (p women, either as a sole therapeutic approach or in association with other methods of assisted reproductive technology, even if their fallopian tubes are shown to be patent by HSG. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Comparison of the Effects of Letrozole and Clomiphene Citrate on Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Sedigheh Dehbashi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: For more than four decades clomiphene citratehas been the first line of the treatment for ovulatory disorders.The aim of this study was to compare the effects of letrozoleand clomiphene citrate on ovulation and pregnancy rate in patientswith polycystic ovary syndrome.Methods: In this prospective double-blind study, 100 patientswith polycystic ovary syndrome were randomized into twoequal groups. The first group received letrozole, 5mg daily(per oral and the second group received clomiphene, 100mgdaily during the 3rd-7th days of the menstrual cycles. Intramuscularhuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (10,000 IUwas administered to trigger ovulation when at least one maturefollicle (≥ 18mm was developed.Results: Ovulation occurred in 30 patients (60% of the letrozolegroup and in 16 patients (32% of the clomiphene group,which showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.009.The mean number of follicles with diameter >14 mm on theday of administration of hCG was 1.06±0.95 in the letrozolegroup and 1.14±1.17 in the clomiphene group, which showednon-significant difference (P=0.962.No difference was found in the endometrial thicknessbetween the two groups. A non-significant increase inpregnancy rate was observed in the letrozole group (26% v14% P=0.21.Conclusion: Ovulation rate was higher in letrozole group andadministration of letrozole was associated with a nonsignificantincrease in pregnancy rate.

  4. Similarities and Improvements of GPM Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR upon TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR in Global Precipitation Rate Estimation, Type Classification and Vertical Profiling

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    Jinyu Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne precipitation radars are powerful tools used to acquire adequate and high-quality precipitation estimates with high spatial resolution for a variety of applications in hydrological research. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM mission, which deployed the first spaceborne Ka- and Ku-dual frequency radar (DPR, was launched in February 2014 as the upgraded successor of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. This study matches the swath data of TRMM PR and GPM DPR Level 2 products during their overlapping periods at the global scale to investigate their similarities and DPR’s improvements concerning precipitation amount estimation and type classification of GPM DPR over TRMM PR. Results show that PR and DPR agree very well with each other in the global distribution of precipitation, while DPR improves the detectability of precipitation events significantly, particularly for light precipitation. The occurrences of total precipitation and the light precipitation (rain rates < 1 mm/h detected by GPM DPR are ~1.7 and ~2.53 times more than that of PR. With regard to type classification, the dual-frequency (Ka/Ku and single frequency (Ku methods performed similarly. In both inner (the central 25 beams and outer swaths (1–12 beams and 38–49 beams of DPR, the results are consistent. GPM DPR improves precipitation type classification remarkably, reducing the misclassification of clouds and noise signals as precipitation type “other” from 10.14% of TRMM PR to 0.5%. Generally, GPM DPR exhibits the same type division for around 82.89% (71.02% of stratiform (convective precipitation events recognized by TRMM PR. With regard to the freezing level height and bright band (BB height, both radars correspond with each other very well, contributing to the consistency in stratiform precipitation classification. Both heights show clear latitudinal dependence. Results in this study shall contribute to future development of spaceborne

  5. Comparison of pregnancy rates in pre-treatment male infertility and low total motile sperm count at insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cheng Wei; Agbo, Chioma; Dahan, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    In intrauterine insemination (IUI), total motile sperm count (TMSC) is an important predictor of pregnancy. However, the clinical significance of a poor TMSC on the day of IUI in a patient with prior normal semen analysis (SA) is unclear. We performed this study to determine if these patients perform as poorly as those who had male factor infertility diagnosed prior to commencing treatment. 147 males with two abnormal SA based on the 2010 World Health Organization criteria underwent 356 IUI with controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation (COH). Their pregnancy rates were compared to 120 males who had abnormal TMSC at the time of 265 IUI with COH, in a retrospective university-based study. The two groups were comparable in female age (p = 0.11), duration of infertility (p = 0.17), previous pregnancies (p = 0.13), female basal serum FSH level (p = 0.54) and number of mature follicles on the day of ovulation trigger (p = 0.27). Despite better semen parameters on the day of IUI in the pre-treatment male factor infertility group (TMSC mean ± SD: 61 ± 30 million vs. 3.5 ± 2 million, p male factor infertility. More studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  6. Cesarean Section and Rate of Subsequent Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Ectopic Pregnancy: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Sinéad M.; Agerbo, Esben; Kenny, Louise C.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Greene, Richard A.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Khashan, Ali S.

    2014-01-01

    Background With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996), with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy) or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28) was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI) of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH) of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31) and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35), although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15) and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21), yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85). Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment, causes of

  7. Possible factors affecting pregnancy rate of cows in the Amazon Ecuatorian

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    Yánez D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess how the cow pregnancy depends on the type of service as, race and follicular development in cattle with dual purpose in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The 341 records of the individual services were evaluated from January 2015 to December 2015 that corresponds to cows of different genotypes and cross: Brown Swiss (BS n = 135, Charolais (Ch n = 24, Holstein Friesian (HF n = 104, Jersey (J n = 12, Normando (N n = 21, x Brown Swiss Holstein Friesian (HFxBS n = 35 and Holstein Friesian x Normando (HFxN n = 10. The work was conducted in the Cantons and Santa Clara which is located in the Pastaza Province (Ecuador. The Two insemination techniques were performed: a estrus detected (natural 136 cows and a Insemination Time (TAI. The independent variables are "Race" (BS, CH, HF, J, HFxBS and HFxN, the "Technical Service" (N and IATF and "Follicular Development" (DF. An additive model was adjusted and it was not significant for the interactions between independent variables and the result of the model. It was found that the variable DF is the only that contributes significantly to the model. That is, pregnancy is significantly affected by follicular development (p-value <0.0001, but is not related to the technical service and race. Maximum Credible estimates the coefficients model and calculated odds ratios. For every unit increase in the value of follicular development, the chance of "pregnant" is 14 times higher than "empty". Keeping fixed the categories for race and service. To conclude that there was no difference between races and insemination technique that was used, even if a relationship between follicular development in proestrus and pregnancy in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

  8. Comparison of pregnancy rate between fresh embryo transfers and frozen-thawed embryo transfers following ICSI treatment

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    Zahra Basirat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART is increasing in the world. The rate, efficacy and safety of ART are very different among countries. There is an increase in the use of intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, single fresh embryo transfer (ET and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare pregnancy rate in fresh ET and FET. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study 1014 ICSI-ET cycles (426 fresh ET and 588 FET from 753 women undergoing ICSI treatment referred to Fatemezahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center in Babol, Iran from 2008 to 2013 were reviewed. Results: There were no significant differences between biochemical pregnancy rate (23% versus 18.8%, OR 1.301; 95% CI .95-1.774, gestational sac (95.6% versus 100% in FET, OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.54-0.67, and fetal heart activity (87.2% versus 93.6% OR .46; 95% CI .16-1.32 in fresh ET and FET cycles, respectively. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant for all measures. Conclusion: Although, the result showed no significantly difference between the fresh ET and the FET cycles, however the embryos are able to be stored for subsequent ART. Therefore, we recommend FET cycles as an option alongside the fresh ET.

  9. Endometrial thickness significantly affects clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Wang, Keyan; Dai, Wei; Sun, Yingpu

    2016-07-01

    In order to explore the relationship between endometrial thickness on the day of embryo transfer and pregnancy outcomes in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles, we retrospectively analyzed data from 2997 patients undergoing their first FET cycles from January 2010 to December 2012. All patients were divided into three groups (Group A, ≤8 mm; Group B, 9-13 mm; Group C, ≥14 mm) according to the endometrial thickness on embryo transfer day. Compared with patients in the other two groups, patients with thin endometrial thickness in Group A had significantly lower clinical pregnancy rate (33.4%, 41.3% and 45.4%, p birth rate (23.8%, 32.2% and 34.0%, p confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.77, p birth rate (aOR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.16-1.95, p < 0.01) were significant. We conclude that for patients undergoing FET, endometrial thickness on the embryo transfer day significantly affects IVF outcomes in cleavage embryo transfer cycles independent of other factors.

  10. Comunidades Embera y Wounaan del departamento de Chocó: prácticas de cuidado durante el proceso de gestación / The Wounaan and Embera communities from the Chocó department: care practices during pregnancy

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    María del Pilar Oviedo C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las prácticas durante el proceso de gestación en las comunidades Embera y Wounaan del departamento de Chocó. Metodología: se realizó un estudio cualitativo de tipo exploratorio, por medio de entrevistas en profundidad a mujeres indígenas gestantes, mujeres indígenas líderes en salud y hombres líderes y promotores de los pueblos Embera y Wounaan del departamento de Chocó, para un total de 19 entrevistas, y se utilizó el diseño metodológico de Taylor y Bogdan para el análisis de las mismas. Resultados: las comunidades realizan unas prácticas durante la gestación enfocadas básicamente en los cuidados buscados por la pareja para la gestante, cuidados ofrecidos por la familia a la gestante, alimentación durante la gestación y actividades realizadas por la gestante. Conclusiones: las comunidades Embera y Wounaan realizan diversas prácticas de cuidado alrededor de la gestación que propenden por la protección de la vida de la gestante y del bebé, es así como la pareja, la familia y la comunidad en algunos momentos acompañan a la mujer Objective: to describe the care practices during pregnancy of the Embera and Wounaan communities from the Chocó department. Methodology: an exploratory qualitative study was carried out;data was collected through in-depth interviews with pregnant indigenous women, indigenous women who are health leaders in their communities and with men who are leaders and promoters among the Wounaan and Embera communities in the Chocó department.A total of 19 interviews were conducted and the Taylor & Bogdan methodological design was used to analyze them. Results: the practices performed by these communities during pregnancy mainly involve the mother being taken care of by her partner and their family; they also involve a particulardiet during gestation as well assome activities of the mother. Conclusions: the Wounaan and Embera communities perform various care practices regarding pregnancy

  11. First service pregnancy rates following post-AI use of HCG in Ovsynch and Heatsynch programmes in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabankareh, H Karami; Zandi, M; Ganjali, M

    2010-08-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n = 667) at random stages of the oestrous cycle were assigned to either ovsynch (O, n = 228), heatsynch (H, n = 252) or control (C, n = 187) groups. Cows in O and H groups received 100 microg of GnRH agonist, i.m. (day 0) starting at 44 +/- 3 days in milk (DIM), and 500 microg of cloprostenol, i.m. (day 7). In O group, cows received 100 microg of GnRH (day 9) and were artificially inseminated without oestrus detection 16-20 h later. In H group, cows received 1 mg oestradiol benzoate (EB) i.m., 24 h after the cloprostenol injection and were artificially inseminated without oestrus detection 48-52 h after the EB injection. Cows in C group were inseminated at natural oestrus. On the day of artificial insemination (AI), cows in all groups were assigned to subgroups as follows: human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (O-hCG) (n = 112), O-saline (n = 116), H-hCG (n = 123), H-saline (n = 129), C-hCG (n = 94) and C-saline (n = 93) subgroups. Cows in hCG and saline subgroups received 3000 IU hCG i.m. and or 10 ml saline at day 5 post-AI (day 15), respectively. Pregnancy status was assessed by palpation per rectum at days 40 to 45 after AI. The logistic regression model using just main effects of season (summer and winter), parity (primiparous and pluriparous), method(1) (O, H and C) and method(2) (hCG and saline) showed that all factors, except method(1), were significant. Significant effects of season (p days after AI significantly improved pregnancy rates in those cows that were treated with the H protocol compared with saline treatments (41.5% vs 24.8%; p < 0.01). O and H were more effective in primiparous than in pluriparous cows (46.1% vs 29.9%; p < 0.1 and 43.6% vs 24.6%; p < 0.01). First service pregnancy rates were higher in primiparous hCG-treated than in pluriparous hCG-treated cows (57.9% vs 32.3%; p < 0.01). The pregnancy rate was higher for the hCG-treated cows compared with saline-treated cows during warm period (37.9% vs 23.6%; p < 0.001).

  12. Oocytes with a dark zona pellucida demonstrate lower fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates in IVF/ICSI cycles.

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    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group, whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A. In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B. No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.

  13. Effects of Metformin on Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Women with Clomiphene Resistant Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the effect of metformin on ovulation and pregnancy rate in clomiphene citrateresistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS.Material & Methods: In this clinical trial each patient, regarding her previous resistance to Clomiphene,served as her own control. A total of 35 clomiphene citrate resistant PCOS patients, referring to Royan institutewere studied. Clomiphene citrate resistance was defined as having failure of ovulation during at least threecycles using clomiphene citrate doses up to 200 mg/day on cycle days 3-7 after a withdrawal bleeding withprogesterone. Metformin was used alone or in combination with clomiphene citrate. First, the patients receivedmetformin up to 1500 mg/day for 8 weeks. During the next 2-3 cycle if the patients did not become pregnant,clomiphene was added with increments of 100 mg (up to 150 mg/day. Follicular development and ovulationwere monitored by ultrasound scans and mid-luteal progesterone level. Menstrual pattern, ovulation, andpregnancy rate were evaluated during the two stages of treatment.Results: After 8 weeks of meformin monotherapy, ovulation occurred in 23 cases (65.7% and 7 patients (20%became pregnant. Among other patients (28/35 who were treated with Clomiphene Cirate and metformin for64 cycles, 19 patients (67.8% had proper ovulation and five of them (17.8% became pregnant. Totally,metformin induced ovulation in 31 of 35 patients (88.6% and twelve (34.3% of them achieved pregnancy.Conclusion: Metformin alone or in combination with clomiphene is a very effective treatment in inducingovulation and pregnancy in clomiphene resistant women with PCOS.

  14. Ovarian responses and pregnancy rate with previously used intravaginal progesterone releasing devices for fixed-time artificial insemination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilariño, M; Rubianes, E; Menchaca, A

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine serum progesterone concentrations, ovarian responses, and pregnancy rate in sheep inseminated following a short-term protocol (6 days of treatment) with a previously used controlled internal drug release-G (CIDR-G) device. In experiment 1, 30 ewes were put on a short-term protocol using a CIDR-G of first use (new devices, N = 10), second use (previously used for 6 days, N = 10), or third use (previously used twice for 6 days, N = 10). All ewes were given prostaglandin F(2α) (10 mg dinoprost) and eCG (300 IU) im at device withdrawal. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were greater for ewes treated with new versus reused devices (P synchronization and ovulation, with lower serum progesterone concentrations for reused devices. Three times used CIDR-G yielded a pregnancy rate >70%, which tended to be lower than that obtained with new devices, adding evidence of the detrimental effect of low serum progesterone concentrations on fertility in sheep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Menstruation, Pregnancy and Menopause on Salivary Flow Rate, pH and Gustatory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Vishwaprakash; Dave, Aparna; Arora, Manpreet; Hans, Vibha; Madan, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are five situations in a women’s life during which hormone fluctuations make them more susceptible to oral health problems – during puberty, at certain points in the monthly menstrual cycle, when using birth control pills, during pregnancy, and at menopause. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of menstruation, pregnancy and menopause on salivary flow rate, pH and gustatory function. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 120 patients including 30 controls (with normal menstrual cycle of 28 to 30 d) and 90 cases (30 patients within three days of menstruation, 30 pregnant and 30 postmenopausal). Paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were obtained by expectoration to calculate salivary flow rate, pH was measured electrometically and patients were prospectively evaluated for gustatory function. Then, whole mouth taste test was performed in which the quality identification and intensity ratings of taste solutions were measured. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the groups with respect to salivary flow rate but pH values were significantly lower in post menopausal women (pwomen than intensity of taste perception for other tastes (pwomen reported change in their dietary habits as all of them expressed liking for sweeter food. Conclusion: Reduced salivary flow rate and pH in postmen­opausal women may make them more prone to the occurrence of oral health problems. Also, pregnant and postmenopausal women appeared to have a reduced perception of sucrose, which can alter eating habits, such as intake of more sweet foods whereas no significant difference is observed in taste perception of NaCl, citric acid and quinine hydrochloride between the subjects. PMID:25478455

  16. Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Menstruation, Pregnancy and Menopause on Salivary Flow Rate, pH and Gustatory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Pulin; Shetty, Vishwaprakash; Dave, Aparna; Arora, Manpreet; Hans, Vibha; Madan, Ajay

    2014-10-01

    There are five situations in a women's life during which hormone fluctuations make them more susceptible to oral health problems - during puberty, at certain points in the monthly menstrual cycle, when using birth control pills, during pregnancy, and at menopause. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of menstruation, pregnancy and menopause on salivary flow rate, pH and gustatory function. The study was carried out on 120 patients including 30 controls (with normal menstrual cycle of 28 to 30 d) and 90 cases (30 patients within three days of menstruation, 30 pregnant and 30 postmenopausal). Paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were obtained by expectoration to calculate salivary flow rate, pH was measured electrometically and patients were prospectively evaluated for gustatory function. Then, whole mouth taste test was performed in which the quality identification and intensity ratings of taste solutions were measured. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups with respect to salivary flow rate but pH values were significantly lower in post menopausal women (pwomen than intensity of taste perception for other tastes (pwomen reported change in their dietary habits as all of them expressed liking for sweeter food. Reduced salivary flow rate and pH in postmen-opausal women may make them more prone to the occurrence of oral health problems. Also, pregnant and postmenopausal women appeared to have a reduced perception of sucrose, which can alter eating habits, such as intake of more sweet foods whereas no significant difference is observed in taste perception of NaCl, citric acid and quinine hydrochloride between the subjects.

  17. Lower serotonin level and higher rate of fibromyalgia syndrome with advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Melahat; Namlı Kalem, Muberra; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Yüce, Tuncay; Sahin Aker, Seda; Koç, Acar; Genc, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between changes in serotonin levels during pregnancy and fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) and the relationships between FS and the physical/psychological state, biochemical and hormonal parameters, which may be related to the musculoskeletal system. This study is a prospective case-control study conducted with 277 pregnant women at the obstetric unit of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, in the period between January and June 2015. FS was determined based on the presence or absence of the 2010 ACR diagnostic criteria and all the volunteers were asked to answer the questionnaires as Fibromyalgia Impact Criteria (FIQ), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SS), Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Biochemical and hormonal markers (glucose, TSH, T4, Ca (calcium), P (phosphate), PTH (parathyroid hormone) and serotonin levels) relating to muscle and bone metabolism were measured. In the presence of fibromyalgia, the physical and psychological parameters are negatively affected (p serotonin levels may contribute to the development of fibromyalgia but this was not statistically significant. The Beck Depression Inventory scale statistically showed that increasing scores also increase the risk of fibromyalgia (p serotonin levels in women with FS are lower than the control group and that serotonin levels reduce as pregnancy progresses. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with FS are higher than the control group. The presence of depression increases the likelihood of developing FS at a statistically significant level. Serotonin impairment also increases the chance of developing FS, but this correlation has not been shown to be statistically significant.

  18. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-02-01

    Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) 3,10(6) / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl 3 x 10(6) / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. From a total of 98 pairs of men's and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p 20 x 10(6) / ejaculate (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.56-1.82, 5 x 10(6) / ejaculate are indicated for treatment with IUI. TMSC can be used as the method of choice for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  19. Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Gaurav; Majumdar, Abha; Lall, Meena; Verma, Ishwar C.; Upadhyaya, Kailash C.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases. AIM: To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective, case–control study was undertaken in an institution-based tertiary care IVF center to compare the clinical outcomes of twenty patients, who underwent 21 PGS cycles with poor prognosis, with 128 non-PGS patients in the control group, with the same inclusion criterion as for the PGS group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single cells were obtained by laser-assisted embryo biopsy from day 3 embryos and subsequently analyzed by array CGH for all 24 chromosomes. Once the array CGH results were available on the morning of day 5, only chromosomally normal embryos that had progressed to blastocyst stage were transferred. RESULTS: The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate (PR) per transfer were found to be significantly higher in the PGS group than in the control group (63.2% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.001 and 73.3% vs. 36.7%, P = 0.006, respectively), while the multiple PRs sharply declined from 31.9% to 9.1% in the PGS group. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we have shown that PGS by array CGH can improve the clinical outcome in patients undergoing IVF with poor prognosis. PMID:27382234

  20. Elevated serum estradiol levels in artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer cycles negatively impact ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Rani; Jindal, Sangita; Feil, Heather; Buyuk, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels during artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles and ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates (OP/LB). A historical cohort study was conducted in an academic setting in order to correlate peak and average estradiol levels with ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates for all autologous artificial frozen embryo transfer cycles performed from 1/2011 to 12/2014. Average and peak E 2 levels from 110 autologous artificial FET cycles from 95 patients were analyzed. Average E 2 levels were significantly lower in cycles resulting in OP/LB compared to those that did not (234.1 ± 16.6 pg/ml vs. 315 ± 24.8 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.04). Although peak E 2 levels were not significantly different between cycles resulting in OP/LB compared with those that did not (366.9 ± 27.7 pg/ml vs. 459.1 ± 32.3 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.19), correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant (p = 0.02) downward trend in OP/LB rates with increasing peak E 2 levels. This study suggests that elevated E 2 levels in artificial autologous FET cycles are associated with lower OP/LB rates. Estradiol levels should be monitored during artificial FET cycles.

  1. High gonadotropin dosage does not affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in IVF PGS cycles with single embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Oleksii O; Hinckley, Mary D; Rosenbluth, Evan M; Ivani, Kristen A; Weckstein, Louis N

    2017-11-01

    Does high gonadotropin dosage affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer? High gonadotropin dosage does NOT affect euploidy and pregnancy rates in PGS cycles with single embryo transfer. PGS has been proven to be the most effective and reliable method for embryo selection in IVF cycles. Euploidy and blastulation rates decrease significantly with advancing maternal age. In order to recruit an adequate number of follicles, the average dosage of gonadotropins administered during controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles often increases significantly with advancing maternal age. A retrospective study of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) PGS outcome data from blastocysts biopsied on day 5 or day 6 was conducted to identify differences in euploidy and clinical pregnancy rates. Seven hundred and ninety four cycles of IVF treatment with PGS between January 2013 and January 2017 followed by 651 frozen embryo transfers were included in the study (506 patients, maternal age (y.o.) - 37.2 ± 4.31). A total of 4034 embryos were analyzed (5.1 ± 3.76 per case) for euploidy status. All embryos were vitrified after biopsy, and selected embryos were subsequently thawed for a hormone replacement frozen embryo transfer cycle. All cycles were analyzed by total gonadotropin dosage (5000 IU), by number of eggs retrieved (1-5, 5-10, 10-15 and >15 eggs) and patient's age (cycles) euploidy rates ranged from 62.3% (cycle) to 67.5% (>5000 IU were used in the IVF cycle) (OR = 0.862, 95% CI 0.687-1.082, P = 0.2) and from 69.5% (1-5 eggs retrieved) to 60.0% (>15 eggs retrieved) (OR = 0.658, 95% CI 0.405-1.071, P = 0.09). Similar data were obtained in the oldest group of patients (≥41 y.o. - 189 IVF cycles): euploidy rates ranged from 30.7 to 26.4% (OR = 0.811, 95% CI 0.452-1.454, P = 0.481) when analyzed by total dosage of gonadotropins used in the IVF cycle and from 40.0 to 30.7% (OR = 0.531, 95% CI 0.204-1.384, P = 0.19), when assessed by the total

  2. Do high progesterone concentrations decrease pregnancy rates in embryo recipients synchronized with PGF2alpha and eCG?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marcelo F Gouveia; Melo, Danilas S; Carvalho, Luciano M; Fuck, Egon J; Trinca, Luzia A; Barros, Ciro Moraes

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment on the number of induced accessory corpora lutea (CL), plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rate in cross-bred heifers after transfer of frozen-thawed (1.5M ethylene glycol) embryos. All recipients received 500 microg PGF2alpha (dl-cloprostenol, i.m.) at random stages of the estrous cycle (Day 0) and were observed for estrus for 7 days. On Day 14, heifers detected in estrus between 2 and 7 days after PGF2alpha treatment were randomly allocated to four groups ( n=83 per group) and given 0 (control), 200, 400, or 600 IU of eCG. Two days later (Day 16), these recipients were given PGF2alpha and observed for estrus. Six to eight days after detection of estrus, plasma samples were collected to determine progesterone concentration and ultrasonography was performed to observe ovarian structures. Heifers with multiple CL or a single CL >15 mm in diameter received an embryo by direct transfer. Embryos of excellent and good quality were thawed and transferred to the recipients by the same veterinarian. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and confirmed by transrectal palpation 21 and 83 days after embryo transfer (ET), respectively. Plasma progesterone concentrations on the day of transfer (Day 7 of the estrous cycle) were 3.9+/-0.7, 4.2+/-0.4,6.0+/-0.4 and 7.8+/-0.6 ng/ml for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (Control versus treated groups P=0.009; 200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0001; and 400 versus 600 P=0.012 ). Conception rates 83 days after ET were 41.9, 50.0, 25.0, and 20.9% for groups Control, 200, 400, and 600, respectively (200 versus 400 and 600 groups P=0.0036 ). In conclusion, an increase in progesterone concentration, induced by eCG treatment, did not improve pregnancy rates in ET recipients. Conversely, there was a decline in conception rates in the animals with the highest plasma progesterone concentrations.

  3. Relationship between Receipt of a Social Protection Grant for a Child and Second Pregnancy Rates among South African Women: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Social protection programs issuing cash grants to caregivers of young children may influence fertility. Grant-related income could foster economic independence and/or increase access to job prospects, education, and health services, resulting in lower pregnancy rates. In the other direction, these programs may motivate family expansion in order to receive larger grants. Here, we estimate the net effect of these countervailing mechanisms among rural South African women.We constructed a retrospective cohort of 4845 women who first became eligible for the Child Support Grant with the birth of their first child between 1998 and 2008, with data originally collected by the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. We fit Cox regression models to estimate the hazard of second pregnancy in women who reported grant receipt after birth of first child, relative to non-recipients. As a secondary analysis to explore the potential for grant loss to incentivize second pregnancy, we exploited a natural experiment created by a 2003 expansion of the program's age eligibility criterion from age seven to nine. We compared second pregnancy rates between (i women with children age seven or eight in 2002 (recently aged out of grant eligibility to (ii women with children age seven or eight in 2003 (remained grant-eligible.The adjusted hazard ratio for the association between grant exposure and second pregnancy was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.75. Women with first children who aged out of grant eligibility in 2002 had similar second pregnancy rates to women with first children who remained grant-eligible in 2003 [IRR (95% CI: 0.9 (0.5, 1.4].Across both primary and secondary analyses, we found no evidence that the Child Support Grant incentivizes pregnancy. In harmony with South African population policy, receipt of the Child Support Grant may result in longer spacing between pregnancies.

  4. Pregnancy rate of gonadotrophin therapy and laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery in polycystic ovary syndrome resistant to clomiphene citrate: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnegad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common cause of ovulation insufficiency and then infertility. Therapeutic options to induce ovulation in anovulatory PCOS patients are clomiphene citrate, metformin, tamoxifen, dopamine agonists (bromocriptin, Gonadotrophin and laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery (LOE. Gonadotrophin and LOE are important options in anovulatory clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS. Literature data regarding compare of the efficacy of these two treatments are few. Therefore we aimed to study the pregnancy rates of these treatments in infertile clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS."n"nMethods: A randomized clinical trial study was carried out in infertile clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS, referred to infertility clinic of Mirza Koochackhan Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Science in Tehran, Iran, between 2003 and 2008."n"nResults: A total of 100 patients women were randomly allocated in two groups. There were no differences in age and pimary and secondary infertility duration. In LOE treatment group, eight cases (16% were pregnant and all delivered at term. in gonadotrophin treatment 14 cases (28% were pregnant, 10 cases (20% delivered at term

  5. Use of ICSI in IVF cycles in women with tubal ligation does not improve pregnancy or live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstad, F W; Nangia, Ajay K; Luke, B; Stern, J E; Mak, W

    2016-12-01

    Does ICSI improve outcomes in ART cycles without male factor, specifically in couples with a history of tubal ligation as their infertility diagnosis? The use of ICSI showed no significant improvement in fertilization rate and resulted in lower pregnancy and live birth (LB) rates for women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation and no male factor. Prior studies have suggested that ICSI use does not improve fertilization, pregnancy or LB rates in couples with non-male factor infertility. However, it is unknown whether couples with tubal ligation only diagnosis and therefore iatrogenic infertility could benefit from the use of ICSI during their ART cycles. Longitudinal cohort of nationally reported cycles in the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS) of ART cycles performed in the USA between 2004 and 2012. There was a total of 8102 first autologous fresh ART cycles from women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation only and no reported male factor in the SART database. Of these, 957 were canceled cycles and were excluded from the final analysis. The remaining cycles were categorized by the use of conventional IVF (IVF, n = 3956 cycles) or ICSI (n = 3189 cycles). The odds of fertilization, clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG) and LB were calculated by logistic regression modeling, and the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by adjusting for the confounders of year of treatment, maternal age, race and ethnicity, gravidity, number of oocytes retrieved, day of embryo transfer and number of embryos transferred. The main outcome measures of the study were odds of fertilization (2PN/total oocytes), clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG/cycle) and live birth (LB/cycle). The fertilization rate was higher in the ICSI versus IVF group (57.5% vs 49.1%); however, after adjustment this trend was no longer significant (AOR 1.14, 0.97-1.35). Interestingly, both odds of CIG (AOR 0.78, 0

  6. HIV na gestação: pré-natal, parto e puerpério = HIV in pregnancy: prenatal, labor and puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima, Suzane da Silva de

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente estudo tem como propósitos identificar os fatores que influenciam a adesão da gestante ao acompanhamento pré-natal e destacar os principais cuidados com a gestante soropositiva durante o pré-natal, parto e puerpério. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, com análise baseada em níveis de evidências. Os dados foram obtidos através da busca em bases de dados virtuais em saúde. Resultados: Treze estudos compuseram a amostra, sendo que o maior índice foi de evidências moderadas, seis (46,1% estudos. Os principais cuidados à gestante soropositiva durante o pré-natal, parto e puerpério foram: uso da terapia antirretroviral, evidenciado em sete (53,8% estudos, seguido do teste Anti-HIV e da preocupação em orientar as puérperas a não amamentar destacados em seis (46,1% estudos. Conclusão: Torna-se necessária a implantação de uma assistência de qualidade às gestantes soropositivas, evidenciando a necessidade de estratégias de educação permanente para sensibilizar, mobilizar e capacitar profissionais envolvidos no cuidado, visando, assim, à prevenção da transmissão vertical do HIV para o recém-nascido e à melhora na qualidade de vida da gestante

  7. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women

    OpenAIRE

    Savasi, V.; Antonazzo, P.; Personeni, C.

    2016-01-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  8. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 ye...

  9. The Effects of the Incubation of Hyaluronidase Applicated Oocytes Before ICSI on Fertilization, Embryo Development and Pregnancy Rates

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    Zeynep Coskun

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is one of the most important techniques used for the treatment of male infertility. Before ICSI oocytes have to be denuded from cumulus and corona cells using a combination of enzymatic and mechanical methods. In this study 40 IU/ml hyaluronidase has been used to denude the oocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the incubation of hyaluronidase applicated oocytes before ICSI on fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy rates.\tMATERIALS-METHODS: Patients were randomly selected according to the days of the week. In 114 patient ( Group I oocytes were incubated in 37 C, %5 CO2 and %5 O2 for 30-60 minutes before ICSI. In 136 patient ( Group II ICSI is performed immediately after denudation. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference on fertilization rates and number of grade I embryo that were transferred between\ttwo groups. Although implantation rates were higher in group II that no incubation had been performed, there was no statistical difference between two groups.\tDISCUSSION: ICSI can be performed immediately after denudation with hyaluronidase.

  10. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study

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    Maria de Lourdes de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; p<0.001, have an infant with low birthweight (OR:1.1; CI:1.10-1.15; p<0.001 and low Apgar score at 5 minutes (OR:1.4; CI:1.34-1.45; p<0.001 than mothers ≥20 years, with the odds for adverse outcomes greater for those aged 10-14 years. Conclusion: this study provides evidence of fertility rates among adolescents remaining higher in regions of social and economic deprivation. Adolescent mothers and their infants more likely to experience adverse perinatal outcomes. Nurses, public health practitioners, health and social care professionals and educators need to work collaboratively to better target strategies for adolescents at greater risk; to help reduce fertility rates and improve outcomes.

  11. Pregnancy and the kidneys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal disease in pregnancy may cause a feeling of trepidation, even in the ... the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and gives rise to frequency and nocturia ... because the increased body weight in pregnancy does not typically reflect increased ...

  12. Orlistat in polycystic ovarian syndrome reduces weight with improvement in lipid profile and pregnancy rates

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    Pratap Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of exercise, metformin, and orlistat on anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, endocrine parameters, and ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women were compared. AIM: The aim was to study the efficacy of orlistat compared with metformin and exercise in PCOS. DESIGN: Randomized control trial. Methods: A total of 90 eligible PCOS women were randomly assigned to receive either of the two drugs (orlistat or metformin in combination with lifestyle interventions or as controls where they received lifestyle interventions alone. Anthropometric parameters were assessed at baseline and 4 weekly intervals for 3 months. Androgen levels, insulin resistance, ovulation and conception rates and lipid profile were also assessed at the end of study. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 17.0. Results: The levels of fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance were comparable in three treatment groups. Mean total testosterone, serum hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in all arms were comparable and statistically nonsignificant. However, orlistat and metformin were more effective in reducing weight, body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio. However, side-effects were less with orlistat. Ovulation rate was 33.3%, 23.35% with orlistat and metformin group respectively, but were not statistically significant. In orlistat group, significant improvement was observed in lipid profile at the end of 3 months. Conception rates were 40% and 16.7% and 3.3% in orlistat, metformin group and control group respectively (P - 0.003. Weight loss was found to be the best predictor of ovulation with sensitivity with good sensitivity. Conclusion: Orlistat is as effective as metformin in reducing weight and achieves similar ovulation rates in obese PCOS patients. However, orlistat has minimal side

  13. Low-dose metformin improves pregnancy rate in in vitro fertilization repeaters without polycystic ovary syndrome: prediction of effectiveness by multiple parameters related to insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Masao; Kondou, Kenichi; Teruya, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with aging and stress, both common among patients repeatedly failing to conceive with in vitro fertilization (IVF repeaters). In the present study we examined whether low-dose metformin could improve the outcome in IVF repeaters without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Study I was a preliminary clinical trial aiming at defining indications for therapy; study II was a prospective randomized study. The studies involved a university hospital and a private infertility clinic. We studied 232 women without PCOS who had failed at least twice to conceive by previous IVF. Metformin (500 mg/ day) was administered for 8 to 12 weeks before and during ovarian stimulation (metformin IVF). In study I, IVF outcomes with metformin (n = 33) were compared to outcomes without metformin of previous IVF in the same subjects. A discriminant score (DS) was determined from nine parameters assessed before metformin administration to predict achievement of ongoing pregnancy by metformin IVF. In study II (n = 199), ongoing pregnancy rates were compared prospectively between groups with/without metformin and with DS above/below 0.6647. Study I. Ongoing pregnancy rate improved significantly with metformin compared with previous IVF, and pregnancy correlated significantly with a DS at an optimal threshold of 0.6647 (sensitivity, 0.90; specificity, 0.91). Study II. Ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly higher in women with a DS above 0.6647 who received metformin (56% and 33%) compared with those having a DS below 0.6647 with metformin (14% and 11%) and those having a DS above/below 0.6647 without metformin (20% and 7.1%/15% and 11%, respectively). Low-dose metformin improved pregnancy rate in IVF repeaters without PCOS, probably by decreasing insulin resistance. Indication can be determined from insulin-resistance-related multiple parameters assessed before metformin administration.

  14. Percepções e práticas de adolescentes grávidas e de familiares em relação à gestação Pregnancy related perception and behavior of adolescents and their families

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    Celian Tereza Batista Lima

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer as percepções e práticas de adolescentes grávidas e de seus familiares em relação à gestação atual. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo com 19 gestantes, de 10-19 anos que realizaram pré-natal nas unidades de saúde da família da ilha do Chié, em Recife, de agosto a setembro de 2002, e 14 responsáveis pelas adolescentes. Utilizaram-se dois instrumentos para coleta de dados e as questões abertas foram submetidas à análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: as adolescentes têm a mãe como responsável pelo cuidado (71,5%, iniciaram-se sexualmente com o namorado (73,7%, com idade entre 10-14 anos (52,7%, usando método contraceptivo (68,4% e têm antecedentes reprodutivos (42,1%. Metade desejava a gravidez atual, 78,5% recebem apoio afetivo e financeiro do pai da criança e 57,2% da mãe. Antes de engravidar 10,5% não estudavam, nem trabalhavam, e atualmente 57,9% estão nessa condição. Suas responsáveis são mulheres, 21,4% analfabetas e 64,3% provem o sustento. Diante da gravidez das filhas sentiram alegria/satisfação (35,7% e desgosto (28,5%, e 92,9% aceitaram o fato. CONCLUSÕES: a gravidez na adolescência nem sempre é percebida como um problema, o que reforça a importância da construção de estratégias de prevenção que considerem a realidade local.OBJECTIVES: to investigate information on perception and behavior of pregnant adolescents and their families related to current pregnancy. METHODS: descriptive study involving 19 pregnant adolescents from 10 to 19 years old under prenatal care in the family health units located in the Chié Island in Recife, from August to September 2002, and 14 family members and caretakers of these adolescents. Two collection tools were used and open questions were submitted to content analysis. RESULTS: adolescents are under the care of their mothers (71.5%, experienced their first sexual intercourse with their boyfriends (85.7% when they were between 10-14 years old (52.7% using

  15. Diet density in rearing and reproductive phases influences carcass composition, pregnancy rate and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does

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    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of diet density in the rearing phase×diet density in the reproductive phase on carcass composition, pregnancy rate, and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does. The experiment followed a 2×2×2 factorial (2 seasons, 2 diet densities in the rearing phase and 2 diet densities in reproductive phase, that is, from mating to weaning of the first litter. The reference diet (RD contained 184 g/kg of crude protein (CP, 165 g/kg of acid detergent fibre (ADF and 10.5 MJ/kg of digestible energy (DE. The low-density diet (LD had 147 g/kg of CP, 24 g/kg of ADF and 8.4 MJ/kg of DE. The treatments were applied from 70 d of age until weaning of the first litter at 35 d of age. Ninety-six females from the Botucatu Genetic Group (24 females/experimental group were mated at 142 d of age. On day 12 of gestation, 23 does were slaughtered to evaluate weights of carcass, organs and dissectible fat, and embryo implantation rate. No effects of diet density in the rearing or in the reproductive phases were detected on feed intake of does during the reproductive phase. Does fed LD during the rearing phase showed lower body weight at mating (3574±47 vs. 3866±43 g, P=0.0001 and during most of the reproductive phase, but they lost less weight in the peripartum. Perirenal fat was lighter in these does (72.8±10.0 vs. 102.1±9.6 g, P=0.048 and they showed a lower pregnancy rate (76.1 vs. 91.7%, P=0.045. The does fed RD in the reproductive phase were heavier during this phase (4055±40 g vs. 3887±41 g, P=0.0044. The does fed LD in rearing phase and RD in the reproductive phase showed larger litters at weaning, due to decreased kit mortality, than those fed RD in both phases (6.16±0.47 vs. 3.93±0.71, P=0.0361. Litters were lighter at weaning when LD was fed in the reproductive phase (3582±201 vs. 4733±187, P<0.0001. Feeding a low-density diet during the rearing phase and a reference diet during the

  16. Pregnancy and conception rate after two intravaginal inseminations with dog semen frozen either with 5% glycerol or 5% ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Ada; Milani, C; Romagnoli, S; Zucchini, P; Mollo, A

    2010-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to compare the effects of 5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 5% glycerol (G) on fertility of frozen-thawed dog semen following intravaginal insemination. The sperm-rich fraction of the ejaculate of three male dogs was collected, pooled and divided into two aliquots, and then frozen with a Tris-glucose-egg yolk-citric acid extender containing either 5% G or 5% EG. A total of 10 bitches were inseminated twice, five with G-frozen-thawed semen and five with EG-frozen-thawed semen; intravaginal inseminations were performed the 4th and the 5th day after the estimated LH peak; four straws, thawed in a 37 degrees C water bath for 1 min and diluted in a Tris buffer, were used for insemination (200 x 10(6) spermatozoa); the insemination dose was introduced in the cranial vagina of the bitch using a sterile plastic catheter. Ovariohysterectomy was performed in all bitches between days 29 and 31 after the calculated LH surge, and pregnancy status, and the number of conceptuses and corpora lutea were recorded. All bitches were pregnant. Neither the number of conceptuses, nor the ratio of conceptuses to corpora lutea (conception rate) was significantly different between groups. In this first screening, with a limited number of bitches, EG-frozen semen did not show a higher fertility than G-frozen semen when used for two intravaginal inseminations. Irrespective of the semen used, conception rate was 0.50.

  17. The duration of gonadotropin stimulation does not alter the clinical pregnancy rate in IVF or ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandare, N; Emerson, G; Kirkham, C; Harrity, C; Walsh, D; Mocanu, E

    2017-08-01

    Ovarian stimulation is an essential part of assisted reproduction treatments. Research on whether the duration of stimulation alters the success in assisted reproduction has not been conclusive. The purpose of the study was to establish whether the duration of ovarian stimulation alters the success in assisted reproduction treatments. All fresh (non-donor) stimulation cycles performed in an academic tertiary referral ART centre over a period of 18 years, between 1st January 1997 and 31st December 2014, were identified. Data were prospectively and electronically collected. IVF and ICSI cycles were analysed independently. Each category was then subdivided into assisted reproduction cycles where the antagonist, long (down regulation) and flare protocol were used. Clinical pregnancy was the main outcome measured. A total of 10,478 stimulation cycles (6011 fresh IVF and 4467 fresh ICSI) reaching egg collection were included. We showed no significant difference in CP rates in IVF cycles for the long (p = 0.082), antagonist (p = 0.217) or flare (p = 0.741) protocol cycles or in ICSI cycles with the long (p = 0.223), antagonist (p = 0.766) or the flare (p = 0.690) protocol with regards the duration of stimulation. The duration of stimulation does not alter the CP rate in ICSI or IVF cycles using the long, antagonist or flare stimulation protocol.

  18. Enhanced Ovarian Folliclular Development by Metformin Does Not Correlate with Pregnancy Rate: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Basirat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common, complex endocrinedisorder for women of productive age. A high incidence of ovulation failure in womenwith PCOS is related to insulin resistance. Some studies have assessed the effects ofhyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in relationship with insulin sensitizing agentssuch as Metformin (Met. These medicines have been suggested new scope for ovulationstimulation enhancement with Clomiphene Citrate (CC in PCOs women. The aimof this study is to compare the effectiveness of adding Met to CC in women with PCOS.Materials and Methods: This multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trialstudy was performed on 334 PCOS patients from 2007 to 2009. Patients were randomlydivided into two groups and ovulation induction was performed with either CC alone orCC + Met. The treatment was continued for three cycles, then the mature follicle andpregnancy rates were evaluated.Results: In the CC + Met group, 68% had at least one dominant follicle in the first cyclethat was significant (p<0.001, and 31.7% had one in the second cycle. In the CC group54.5% in the first cycle, 31.7% second cycle, and 6.9% ovulated in the third cycle. Thepregnancy rate was 28.7% in CC + Met group and 24.6% in the CC group, with no significantdifferences between the two groups.

  19. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José

    2017-04-06

    analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 years. Adolescents had fewer prenatal care appointments than mothers ≥20 years, and a higher proportion had no partner. Mothers aged 15-19 years were more likely to experience preterm birth (OR:1.1; CI:1.08-1.13; ppobreza social y económica. Madres adolescentes y sus bebés tienen mayor probabilidad de efectos perinatales adversos. Enfermeros, trabajadores de salud pública, profesionales de salud y asistencia social y educadores deben colaborar para mejor dirigir estrategias a adolescentes con riesgo superior; para fines de ayudar a reducir las tasas de fertilidad y mejorar los resultados.

  20. South Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome exhibit greater sensitivity to gonadotropin stimulation with reduced fertilization and ongoing pregnancy rates than their Caucasian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palep-Singh, M; Picton, H M; Vrotsou, K; Maruthini, D; Balen, A H

    2007-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous syndrome. In vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is required for PCOS cases that are refractory to standard ovulation induction or have co-existing infertility factors in women with PCOS and Tubal factor subfertility. Assess ethnic variations in response to IVF/ICSI treatment. Observational Comparative study in a University hospital fertility clinic in women with PCOS and Tubal factor subfertility. Women with PCOS (Asians: AP=104; Caucasians: CP=220) and those with tubal factor infertility seeking fertility treatment were assessed (Asians: AC=84; Caucasians: CC=200). Six hundred and eight fresh IVF or ICSI cycles using long protocol of GnRHa suppression and resulting in a fresh embryo transfer were compared. The primary endpoint was to assess the dose of gonadotropins used in the cycles. The secondary outcomes were: total number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization and ongoing clinical pregnancy rates. We found that the South Asian women presented at a younger age for the management of sub-fertility. An extended stimulation phase and Caucasian ethnicity showed an inverse correlation with the number of oocytes retrieved in the PCOS subgroup. Caucasian ethnicity was associated with a higher fertilization rate however increase in body mass index (BMI) and the laboratory technique of IVF appeared to have a negative impact on fertilization rates in the PCOS subgroup. Commencing down regulation on day 1 of the cycles was negatively associated with fertilization rates in the tubal group. In terms of clinical pregnancy rates, the Caucasian PCOS had a 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.25-5) higher chance of an ongoing clinical pregnancy as compared with their Asian counterpart. Also, a unit increase in the basal FSH concentration reduced the odds of pregnancy by 18.6% (95% CI: 1.8-32.6%) in the PCOS group. The Asian PCOS have a greater sensitivity to gonadotropin stimulation with lower fertilization and

  1. Preferences of subfertile women regarding elective single embryo transfer: additional in vitro fertilization cycles are acceptable, lower pregnancy rates are not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2007-01-01

    With identical pregnancy rates after elective single embryo transfer (ET) and double ET strategies consisting of three cycles of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) plus transfers of thawed/frozen embryos if available, 46% of the women undergoing IVF/ICSI favor elective single ET. If

  2. Preferences of subfertile women regarding elective single embryo transfer : additional in vitro fertilization cycles are acceptable, lower pregnancy rates are not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.

    2007-01-01

    With identical pregnancy rates after elective single embryo transfer (ET) and double ET strategies consisting of three cycles of IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) plus transfers of thawed/frozen embryos if available, 46% of the women undergoing IVF/ICSI favor elective single ET. If

  3. Nitric oxide donors improve the ovulation and pregnancy rates in anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate: A RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mahran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC is the first line agent used for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. However, there is marked discrepancy between the ovulation and pregnancy rates achieved, which may be attributed to the undesirable effect of CC on cervical mucus and endometrium. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Isosorbid monoitrate (ISMN as nitric oxide (NO donors on the ovulation and pregnancy rates in an ovulatory women with PCOS treated with CC. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients with PCOS were randomly allocated into three groups. Patients in group A were treated with 100 mg CC for five days starting from the fifth day of the cycle. Patients in group B and C received 10 mg and 20 mg of ISMN respectively in addition to CC, applied vaginally till the diagnosis of ovulation. Results: There was a significant increase in the ovulation and pregnancy rates in the patients treated with CC+ISMN as compared with patients treated with CC alone (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Concomitant use of NO with CC seems to improve the ovulation and pregnancy rates in the patients with PCOS with no significant increase in side effects as compared with CC alone.

  4. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  5. A retrospective cohort analysis comparing pregnancy rates among HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATEL, Rena C.; ONONO, Maricianah; GANDHI, Monica; BLAT, Cinthia; HAGEY, Jill; SHADE, Starley B.; VITTINGHOFF, Eric; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; NEWMANN, Sara J.; COHEN, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Given recent concerns of efavirenz reducing the efficacy of contraceptive implants, we sought to determine if pregnancy rates differ among HIV-positive women using various contraceptive methods and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-positive women aged 15–45 years enrolled in HIV care facilities in western Kenya from January 2011 to December 2013. Pregnancy was diagnosed clinically and the primary exposure was a combination of contraceptive method and ART regimen. We used Poisson models, adjusting for repeated measures, as well as demographic, behavioral and clinical factors, to compare pregnancy rates among women on different contraceptive/ART combinations. Findings 24,560 women contributed 37,635 years of follow-up with 3,337 incident pregnancies. Among women using implants, adjusted pregnancy incidence for nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART users were 1·1 (95% CI 0·72–1·5) and 3·3 (95% CI 1·8–4·8) per 100 women-years (w-y), respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 3·0, 95% CI 1·3–4·6). Among women using depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), adjusted pregnancy incidence for nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART users were 4·5 (95% CI 3·7–5·2) and 5·4 (95% CI 4·0–6·8) per 100 w-y, respectively (aIRR 1·2, 95% CI 0·91–1·5). Women using other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods, experienced 3·1–4·1 higher rates of pregnancy than women using implants, with 1·6–2·8 higher rates specifically among women using efavirenz-based ART. Interpretation While HIV-positive women using implants on efavirenz-based ART faced three times higher risk of contraceptive failure than those on nevirapine-based ART, these women still experienced lower contraceptive failure rates than women on all other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods

  6. Pregnancy rates in HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rena C; Onono, Maricianah; Gandhi, Monica; Blat, Cinthia; Hagey, Jill; Shade, Starley B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Newmann, Sara J; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-11-01

    Concerns have been raised about efavirenz reducing the effectiveness of contraceptive implants. We aimed to establish whether pregnancy rates differ between HIV-positive women who use various contraceptive methods and either efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. We did this retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive women aged 15-45 years enrolled in 19 HIV care facilities supported by Family AIDS Care and Education Services in western Kenya between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013. Our primary outcome was incident pregnancy diagnosed clinically. The primary exposure was a combination of contraceptive method and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based ART regimen. We used Poisson models, adjusting for repeated measures, and demographic, behavioural, and clinical factors, to compare pregnancy rates among women receiving different contraceptive and ART combinations. 24,560 women contributed 37,635 years of follow-up with 3337 incident pregnancies. In women using implants, adjusted pregnancy incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.72-1.5) for nevirapine-based ART users and 3.3 per 100 person-years (1.8-4.8) for efavirenz-based ART users (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-4.6). In women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, adjusted pregnancy incidence was 4.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 3.7-5.2) for nevirapine-based ART users and 5.4 per 100 person-years (4.0-6.8) for efavirenz-based ART users (adjusted IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.91-1.5). Women using other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods, had 3.1-4.1 higher rates of pregnancy than did those using implants, with 1.6-2.8 higher rates in women using efavirenz-based ART. Although HIV-positive women using implants and efavirenz-based ART had a three-times higher risk of contraceptive failure than did those using nevirapine-based ART, these women still had lower contraceptive failure rates than did those receiving all other

  7. Embarazo, parto y puerperio: creencias y prácticas de parteras en San Luis Potosí, México Gravidez, parto e puerpério: crenças e práticas de parteiras em San Luis Potosi, México Pregnancy, delivery and puerperium: beliefs and practices of midwives in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Pelcastre

    2005-12-01

    ães parturientes e de seus familiares. Neste estudo registraram-se vários mitos e terapias tradicionais. CONCLUSÃO: Os recursos da terapia tradicional e da atenção primaria da saúde das parteiras náhuatl e tenek são úteis e benéficas para os cuidados do pré-natal.OBJECTIVE: To document the beliefs and practices of traditional midwifes in regard to pregnancy, delivery and puerperium. METHOD: Taking advantage of a training course for 160 local traditional midwives from the Media and Huasteca regions of San Luis Potosí State, Mexico. Two of the teacher-nurses interviewed 25 of them, supported by a member of Náhuatl and Tenek communities. The participant's identity was kept anonymous and permit for publications of results was obtained by informed consent. RESULTS: Traditional midwifes practices are common in social groups lacking health services. Their role is not limited to delivery and includes nursing, prenatal and puerperium care, as well as emotional and affective support to delivering mothers and their families. In this study several myths and traditional therapies were registered. CONCLUSION: The traditional therapy and primary health care resources of the Náhuatl and Tenek midwifes are useful and harmless for the perinatal care.

  8. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Natural Conception: A Comparison of Live Birth Rates in Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Associated with Translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Ikuma

    Full Text Available Established causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL include antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocations, and abnormal embryonic karyotypes. The number of centers performing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for patients with translocations has steadily increased worldwide. The live birth rate with PGD was reported to be 27-54%. The live birth rate with natural conception was reported to be 37-63% on the first trial and 65-83% cumulatively. To date, however, there has been no cohort study comparing age and the number of previous miscarriages in matched patients undergoing or not undergoing PGD. Thus, we compared the live birth rate of patients with RPL associated with a translocation undergoing PGD with that of patients who chose natural conception.After genetic counseling, 52 patients who desired natural conception and 37 patients who chose PGD were matched for age and number of previous miscarriages and these comprised the subjects of our study. PGD was performed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The live birth rates on the first PGD trial and the first natural pregnancy after ascertainment of the carrier status were 37.8% and 53.8%, respectively (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.22-1.23. Cumulative live birth rates were 67.6% and 65.4%, respectively, in the groups undergoing and not undergoing PGD. The time required to become pregnancy was similar in both groups. PGD was found to reduce the miscarriage rate significantly. The prevalence of twin pregnancies was significantly higher in the PGD group. The cost of PGD was $7,956 U.S. per patient.While PGD significantly prevented further miscarriages, there was no difference in the live birth rate. Couples should be fully informed of the similarity in the live birth rate, the similarity in time to become pregnancy, the advantages of PGD, such as the reduction in the miscarriage rate, as well as

  9. The influence of physical activity during pregnancy on maternal, fetal or infant heart rate variability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Pavel; Watson, Estelle D; Sattler, Matteo C; Ruf, Wolfgang; Titze, Sylvia; van Poppel, Mireille

    2016-10-26

    Physical activity (PA) during pregnancy has been shown to be associated with several positive effects for mother, fetus, and offspring. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive and surrogate marker to determine fetal overall health and the development of fetal autonomic nervous system. In addition, it has been shown to be significantly influenced by maternal behavior. However, the influence of maternal PA on HRV has not yet been systematically reviewed. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the influence of regular maternal PA on maternal, fetal or infant HRV. A systematic literature search following a priori formulated criteria of studies that examined the influence of regular maternal PA (assessed for a minimum period of 6 weeks) on maternal, fetal or infant HRV was performed in the databases Pubmed and SPORTDiscus. Quality of each study was assessed using the standardized Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies (QATQS). Nine articles were included into the present systematic review: two intervention studies, one prospective longitudinal study, and six post-hoc analysis of subsets of the longitudinal study. Of these articles four referred to maternal HRV, five to fetal HRV, and one to infant HRV. The overall global rating for the standardized quality assessment of the articles was moderate to weak. The articles regarding the influence of maternal PA on maternal HRV indicated contrary results. Five of five articles regarding the influence of maternal PA on fetal HRV showed increases of fetal HRV on most parameters depending on maternal PA. The article referring to infant HRV (measured one month postnatal) showed an increased HRV. Based on the current evidence available, our overall conclusion is that the hypothesis that maternal PA influences maternal HRV cannot be supported, but there is a trend that maternal PA might increase fetal and infant HRV (clinical conclusion). Therefore, we recommend that further, high quality studies

  10. Flurbiprofen Axetil Provides Effective Analgesia Without Changing the Pregnancy Rate in Ultrasound-Guided Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Feng, Yi; Jiang, Yan; Lu, Qun

    2017-10-01

    In this prospective double-blind randomized study, we evaluated the analgesic effect and potential effect on pregnancy rate of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen axetil in patients undergoing ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. A total of 200 patients scheduled to undergo ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval were randomly allocated to receive 1.5 mg/kg of flurbiprofen axetil (FA group) or placebo (control group) 30 minutes before the procedure. Postoperative pain scores, embryo implantation rate, and pregnancy rate were recorded. Neuroendocrine biomarkers and prostaglandin E2 levels in follicular fluid were tested after oocyte retrieval. Patients in the FA group awakened earlier after surgery than patients in the control group (3.3 ± 2.6 vs 5.3 ± 3.4 minutes, P Flurbiprofen axetil given before ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval for patients under propofol-remifentanil general anesthesia relieves pain without any detrimental effect on clinical pregnancy rate.

  11. [CHALLENGING THE OPTIMAL NUMBER OF RETRIEVED OOCYTES AND ITS IMPACT ON PREGNANCY AND LIVE BIRTH RATES IN IVF/ICSI CYCLES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Idit; Lahav-Baratz, Shirly; Koifman, Mara; Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2015-06-01

    Large numbers of retrieved oocytes are associated with higher chances of having cryopreservation of embryos. However, the process entailed exposes women to increased risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Furthermore, mild ovary stimulation protocols are more patient-friendly and with less adverse effects. Only limited reports exist on the significance of the number of retrieved oocytes achieved in a single stimulation cycle. To investigate the optimal number of retrieved oocytes to achieve pregnancy and live birth. This retrospective analysis included 1590 IVF cycles. Oocytes maturation, fertilization, cleavage, as well as pregnancy and live birth rates were analyzed according to the number of retrieved oocytes. Oocyte maturation, fertilization and cleavage rates were lower in cycles with more than 10 retrieved oocytes compared with other groups. Live birth rates were highest when the number of retrieved oocytes was 11-15. Retrieval of more than 15 oocytes was not associated with a significant increase in chances of conception and birth. The better oocyte quality with 10 or less oocytes retrieved could be the result of a possible interference with the natural selection, or the minimized exposure of growing follicles to the potentially negative effects of ovarian stimulation. Although the average number of available embryos was higher when more than 10 oocytes were retrieved, achievement of more than 15 oocytes did not improve IVF outcome in terms of pregnancy and delivery rates. Analysis of 1590 IVF cycles including the frozen-thawed transfers shows that the best outcomes were achieved with an optimal number of 11-15 oocytes.

  12. The effects of acupuncture on rates of clinical pregnancy among women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric; van der Windt, Daniëlle; Cheng, Ke; Stafford, Kristen; Liu, Jianping; Tierney, Jayne; Lao, Lixing; Berman, Brian M.; Langenberg, Patricia; Bouter, Lex M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent systematic reviews of adjuvant acupuncture for IVF have pooled heterogeneous trials, without examining variables that might explain the heterogeneity. The aims of our meta-analysis were to quantify the overall pooled effects of adjuvant acupuncture on IVF clinical pregnancy success rates, and evaluate whether study design-, treatment- and population-related factors influence effect estimates. METHODS We included randomized controlled trials that compared needle acupuncture administered within 1 day of embryo transfer, versus sham acupuncture or no adjuvant treatment. Our primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rates. We obtained from all investigators additional methodological details and outcome data not included in their original publications. We analysed sham-controlled and no adjuvant treatment-controlled trials separately, but since there were no large or significant differences between these two subsets, we pooled all trials for subgroup analyses. We prespecified 11 subgroup variables (5 clinical and 6 methodological) to investigate sources of heterogeneity, using single covariate meta-regressions. RESULTS Sixteen trials (4021 participants) were included in the meta-analyses. There was no statistically significant difference between acupuncture and controls when combining all trials [risk ratio (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–1.31; I2 = 68%; 16 trials; 4021 participants], or when restricting to sham-controlled (RR 1.02, 0.83–1.26; I2 = 66%; 7 trials; 2044 participants) or no adjuvant treatment-controlled trials (RR 1.22, 0.97–1.52; I2 = 67%; 9 trials; 1977 participants). The type of control used did not significantly explain the statistical heterogeneity (interaction P = 0.27). Baseline pregnancy rate, measured as the observed rate of clinical pregnancy in the control group of each trial, was a statistically significant effect modifier (interaction P acupuncture across all trials (adjusted R2 = 93%; I2 residual = 9

  13. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks of pregnancy Ovarian cysts Anemia Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) Causes A molar pregnancy is caused by an ... have this complication than a partial molar pregnancy. Prevention If you've had a molar pregnancy, talk ...

  14. Use of complementary and alternative medicines associated with a 30% lower ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate during 12 months of fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boivin, J; Schmidt, L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND There seems to be little discussion between patient and physician about the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), perhaps because they are not perceived to have adverse effects on fertility. We therefore compared ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate in spontaneous users......, years infertile). CONCLUSIONS Concurrent use of CAM during treatment with ART was associated with a 30% lower pregnancy rate that could not be explained by poor prognosis or life style factors. The mechanisms that could account for this association were discussed. Concurrent CAM use should be monitored...... women about to have ART for the first time completed self-report assessments prior to treatment (Time 1, T1) and at 12-month follow-up (Time 2, T2). Data from treatment records were also available for n = 590. RESULTS About 30.6% (n = 223) of women used CAMs during the observation period. At T2...

  15. Evolução da gravidez em adolescentes matriculadas no Serviço Pré-natal do Centro de Saúde Geraldo de Paula Souza, São Paulo (Brasil Evolution of pregnancy in adolescent mothers at the pre-natal clinic of the Health Centre Geraldo de Paula Souza, S. Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Augusto Franco de Siqueira

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 136 casos de gestações em mulheres abaixo de 20 anos de idade, matriculadas em um serviço de pré-natal. Foi constatada incidência significativamente mais elevada de prematuridade e de baixo peso ao nascer, quando os resultados foram comparados aos de um grupo de gestantes matriculadas no mesmo serviço, Verificou-se ainda que o "status" sócio-econômico das gestantes adolescentes foi significativamente mais baixo. A incidência de cesáreas foi, também, significativamente menor, porém houve uma incidência maior de fórceps. O peso médio do recém-nascido foi significativamente menor na população estudada e, apesar de haver uma grande maioria de primigestas entre as adolescentes, a paridade não teve influência no peso do recém-nascido.A hundred and thirty six cases of pregnancy in women below the age of twenty, patients of a pre-natal clinic, were studied. There was found to be a significantly higher rate of premature births and of low-birth-weight, in comparison with a group of normal pregnant women, treated at the same clinic. It was also found that the socio-economic status of the pregnant teen-agers was considerably lower. The rate of cesarian sections was also considerably lower, but the rate of forceps was higher. The average weight of the newborn children was considerably lower in the population sample studied and despite there being a great majority of primipara among the adolescents, the factor parity had no influence on the weight of the newborn.

  16. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  17. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rate of women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, Yilda Arzu; Avci, Dilek; Guzel, Yilmaz; Ozcelik, Semanur Kumral; Gurtekin, Basak

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and pregnancy rates of women who underwent in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted with 186 infertile women who presented to the In Vitro Fertilization Unit at the American Hospital in Turkey between April 2015 and April 2016. The infertile women who met the inclusion criteria were assigned to the music therapy group or the standard therapy group through block randomization. The study data were collected using the Personal Information Form, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Early treatment success was determined by serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin levels seven or ten days after the luteal day zero. For the analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, independent sample t-test were used. After the embryo transfer, the mean state anxiety scores decreased in both groups, and the mean trait anxiety score decreased in the music therapy group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Clinical pregnancy rates did not differ between the music (48.3%) and standard (46.4%) therapy groups. After the two sessions of music therapy, state and trait anxiety levels decreased and pregnancy rates increased, but the difference was not significant. Therefore, larger sample sizes and more sessions are needed to evaluate whether music therapy has an effect on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dark shadow of the long white cloud: Neighborhood safety is associated with self-rated health and cortisol during pregnancy in Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaneta M. Thayer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand is a culturally and ethnically diverse city. Despite popular global conceptions regarding its utopian nature, the lived experience for many individuals in Auckland attests to the substantial social, economic, and health inequalities that exist there. In particular, rapidly rising home prices constrain housing decisions and force individuals to live in less desirable neighborhoods, with potential impacts on individual health. One of the pathways through which adverse neighborhood conditions could impact health is through alterations in the functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA-axis, which regulates the physiological stress response. This paper evaluates the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety, self-rated health, and cortisol, an end product of HPA-axis activation, among women in late pregnancy. Pregnant women living in neighborhoods where they were concerned about safety of their property had poorer self-rated health and elevated morning cortisol, even after adjusting for maternal age, material deprivation, and ethnicity. However, fear of personal safety was unrelated to self-rated health and cortisol. These results suggest that maternal health in pregnancy is sensitive to perceptions regarding neighborhood safety. Such findings are important since higher cortisol levels in pregnancy could not only influence maternal health, but also the health and development of women's children.

  19. Dark shadow of the long white cloud: Neighborhood safety is associated with self-rated health and cortisol during pregnancy in Auckland, Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M

    2017-12-01

    Auckland, Aotearoa /New Zealand is a culturally and ethnically diverse city. Despite popular global conceptions regarding its utopian nature, the lived experience for many individuals in Auckland attests to the substantial social, economic, and health inequalities that exist there. In particular, rapidly rising home prices constrain housing decisions and force individuals to live in less desirable neighborhoods, with potential impacts on individual health. One of the pathways through which adverse neighborhood conditions could impact health is through alterations in the functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis, which regulates the physiological stress response. This paper evaluates the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety, self-rated health, and cortisol, an end product of HPA-axis activation, among women in late pregnancy. Pregnant women living in neighborhoods where they were concerned about safety of their property had poorer self-rated health and elevated morning cortisol, even after adjusting for maternal age, material deprivation, and ethnicity. However, fear of personal safety was unrelated to self-rated health and cortisol. These results suggest that maternal health in pregnancy is sensitive to perceptions regarding neighborhood safety. Such findings are important since higher cortisol levels in pregnancy could not only influence maternal health, but also the health and development of women's children.

  20. Does flushing the endometrial cavity with follicular fluid after oocyte retrieval affect pregnancy rates in subfertile women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, N M; Badway, H S; Abdelmoty, H I; Mowafy, A; Youssef, M A F M

    2014-05-01

    Follicular fluid of mature oocytes is rich in growth factors and cytokines that may exert paracrine and autocrine effects on implantation. The aim of this study was to investigate if flushing the endometrial cavity with follicular fluid after oocyte retrieval improved pregnancy rates in subfertile women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). One hundred subfertile women undergoing ICSI between April 2012 and September 2012 at the centre for reproductive medicine, Cairo University, Egypt were enrolled in this open label, parallel randomized controlled study. Patients were randomized into two groups at the start of treatment using a computer-generated programme and sealed opaque envelopes: the follicular fluid group (n=50) and the control group (n=50). Inclusion criteria were: age 20-38 years; basal follicle-stimulating hormone 1000pg/ml and failure in previous in-vitro fertilization/ICSI cycles; and severe male factor infertility. Clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were higher in the follicular fluid group compared with the control group [354% (17/48) vs 319% (15/47); p=0718] and (18.6% vs 11.3%; p=0.153), respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Flushing the endometrial cavity with follicular fluid after oocyte retrieval neither improved nor adversely affected clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in subfertile women undergoing ICSI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High rates of parasite recrudescence following intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moussiliou, Azizath; Sissinto-Savi De Tove, Yolande; Doritchamou, Justin

    2013-01-01

    the second dose. Women with persistent parasitaemia had an increased prevalence of anaemia (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The data presented here, highlight the inability of SP to ensure optimal antiplasmodial protection in late pregnancy, and invite urgent consideration of an alternative drug or strategy.......BACKGROUND: Despite widespread parasite resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) its use for intermittent preventative treatment during pregnancy remains the policy in Benin and throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In a prospective study, 982 pregnant women were recruited in Benin...

  2. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    Full Text Available The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68% but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1% of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80% were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100 were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  3. Relationship of Total Motile Sperm Count and Percentage Motile Sperm to Successful Pregnancy Rates Following Intrauterine Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualotto, Eleonora B.; Daitch, James A.; Hendin, Benjamin N.; Falcone, Tommaso; Thomas, Anthony J.; Nelson, David R.; Agarwal, Ashok

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:This study sought (i) to investigate the relationship between postwash total motile sperm count and postwash percentage motile sperm in predicting successful intrauterine insemination and (ii) to determine the minimal postwash total motile sperm count required to achieve pregnancy with intrauterine insemination.

  4. Evaluation of pregnancy rates of Bos indicus cows subjected to different synchronization ovulation protocols using injectable progesterone or an intravaginal device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pregnancy rate in Nelore cows (Bos indicus that were subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI using different protocols consisting of injectable progesterone (P4 or an intravaginal device (impregnated with P4. Multiparous cows 72-84 months in age, 30-45 days postpartum, were selected on the basis of the absence of a corpus luteum (CL and follicles < 8 mm after transrectal palpation and ultrasound examinations. On a random day of the estrus cycle (D0, the selected animals (n = 135 were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 45 each. Group I (injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours received 250 mg of injectable P4 and 2 mg EB on D0; on D7, they received 500 µg of cloprostenol; on D8, 300 IU of eCG and 1 mg of EB were administered; and finally, FTAI was performed 36 hours after the application of EB. Group II (injectable P4/FTAI 48 hours received the same protocol as Group I, except that the FTAI was performed 48 hours after ovulation induction. The animals of Group III (Control/CIDR received a conventional protocol for FTAI using an intravaginal device (D0: P4 and 2 mg EB; D8: device removal, 500 µg cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, 1 mg EB; and FTAI performed 48 hours after removal of the device. The results showed that cows synchronized with the conventional protocol for FTAI (Control/CIDR had a higher pregnancy rate (60 %, 27/45 than those synchronized with an injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (33.33 %; 15/45, P = 0.010. However, the group receiving injectable P4 group/FTAI 48 hours had a similar pregnancy rate (48.9 %; 22/45; P = 0.290 when compared to both the group receiving the conventional protocol and that receiving injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (P = 0.134. Although the injectable P4 may affect pregnancy rate with the FTAI performed in 36 hours, we found similar pregnancy rates from cows inseminated 48 hours after induction ovulation, considering injectable or intravaginal P4. Therefore, we suggest that

  5. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Savasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  6. Linear and nonlinear features of fetal heart rate on the assessment of fetal development in the course of pregnancy and the impact of fetal gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridou, K; Chouvarda, I; Hadjileontiadis, L; Maglaveras, N

    2018-01-30

    This work aims to investigate the impact of gestational age and fetal gender on fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings. Different linear and nonlinear parameters indicating correlation or complexity were used to study the influence of fetal age and gender on FHR tracings. The signals were recorded from 99 normal pregnant women in a singleton pregnancy at gestational ages from 28 to 40 weeks, before the onset of labor. There were 56 female fetuses and 43 male. Analysis of FHR shows that the means as well as measures of irregularity of FHR, such as approximate entropy and algorithmic complexity, decrease as gestation progresses. There were also indications that mutual information and multiscale entropy were lower in male fetuses in early pregnancy. Fetal age and gender seem to influence FHR tracings. Taking this into consideration would improve the interpretation of FHR monitoring.

  7. Improving usability and pregnancy rates of a fertility monitor by an additional mobile application: results of a retrospective efficacy study of Daysy and DaysyView app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Martin C; Lermann, Johannes; van de Roemer, Niels; Renner, Simone K; Burghaus, Stefanie; Hackl, Janina; Dittrich, Ralf; Kehl, Sven; Oppelt, Patricia G; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Hack, Caroline C; Pöhls, Uwe G; Renner, Stefan P; Thiel, Falk C

    2018-03-02

    Daysy is a fertility monitor that uses the fertility awareness method by tracking and analyzing the individual menstrual cycle. In addition, Daysy can be connected to the application DaysyView to transfer stored personal data from Daysy to a smartphone or tablet (IOS, Android). This combination is interesting because as it is shown in various studies, the use of apps is increasing patients´ focus on their disease or their health behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate if by the additional use of an App and thereby improved usability of the medical device, it is possible to enhance the typical-use related as well as the method-related pregnancy rates. In the resultant group of 125 women (2076 cycles in total), 2 women indicated that they had been unintentionally pregnant during the use of the device, giving a typical-use related Pearl-Index of 1.3. Counting only the pregnancies which occurred as a result of unprotected intercourse during the infertile (green) phase, we found 1 pregnancy, giving a method-related Pearl-Index of 0.6. Calculating the pregnancy rate resulting from continuous use and unprotected intercourse exclusively on green days, gives a perfect-use Pearl-Index of 0.8. It seems that combining a specific biosensor-embedded device (Daysy), which gives the method a very high repeatable accuracy, and a mobile application (DaysyView) which leads to higher user engagement, results in higher overall usability of the method.

  8. Rate of gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index and preterm birth subtypes: a retrospective cohort study from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, A M; Mejía, C R; García, P J

    2012-07-01

    To examine the shape (functional form) of the association between the rate of gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and preterm birth and its subtypes.   Retrospective cohort study.   National reference obstetric centre in Lima, Peru.   Pregnant women who delivered singleton babies during the period 2006-2009, resident in Lima, and beginning prenatal care at ≤ 12 weeks of gestation (n=8964).   Data were collected from the centre database. The main analyses consisted of logistic regression with fractional polynomial modelling.   Preterm birth and its subtypes.   Preterm birth occurred in 12.2% of women, being mostly idiopathic (85.7%). The rate of gestational weight gain was independently associated with preterm birth, and the shape of this association varied by pre-pregnancy BMI. In women who were underweight, the association was linear (per 0.1 kg/week increase) and protective (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82-1.00). In women of normal weight or who were overweight, the association was U-shaped: the odds of delivering preterm increased exponentially with rates 0.66 kg/week, and 0.50 kg/week, respectively. In women who were obese, the association was linear, but non-significant (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.95-1.06). The association described for preterm birth closely resembled that of idiopathic preterm birth, although the latter was stronger. The rate of gestational weight gain was not associated with indicated preterm birth or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes.   In Peruvian pregnant women starting prenatal care at ≤ 12 weeks of gestation, the rate of gestational weight gain is independently associated with preterm birth, mainly because of its association with idiopathic preterm birth, and the shape of both associations varies by pre-pregnancy BMI. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  9. Teen pregnancy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Katherine A; Loveless, Meredith

    2014-10-01

    To provide clinicians with a review of recent research and clinically applicable tools regarding teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy rates have declined but still remain a significant problem in the USA. Teen pregnancy prevention was identified by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of its top six priorities, which is increasing research and intervention data. Long-acting contraceptive methods are acceptable to teens and have been shown to reduce teen birth rates. Pregnant teens need special attention to counseling on pregnancy options and reducing risk during pregnancy with regular prenatal care. Postpartum teens should be encouraged and supported to breastfeed, monitored for depression, and have access to reliable contraception to avoid repeat undesired pregnancy. This review highlights important issues for all providers caring for female adolescents and those who may encounter teen pregnancy. Foremost prevention of teen pregnancy by comprehensive sexual education and access to contraception is the priority. Educating patients and healthcare providers about safety and efficacy of long-acting reversible contraception is a good step to reducing undesired teen pregnancies. Rates of postpartum depression are greater in adolescents than in adults, and adolescent mothers need to be screened and monitored for depression. Strategies to avoid another undesired pregnancy shortly after delivery should be implemented.

  10. Effect of season, late embryonic mortality and progesterone production on pregnancy rates in pluriparous buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) after artificial insemination with sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanile, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Domenico; Neglia, Gianluca; Bella, Antonino; Prandi, Alberto; Senatore, Elena M; Gasparrini, Bianca; Presicce, Giorgio A

    2013-03-01

    The use of sexed semen technology in buffaloes is nowadays becoming more and more accepted by farmers, to overcome the burden of unwanted male calves with related costs and to more efficiently improve production and genetic gain. The aim of this study was to verify the coupling of some variables on the efficiency of pregnancy outcome after deposition of sexed semen through AI. Pluriparous buffaloes from two different farms (N = 152) were screened, selected, and subjected to Ovsynch protocol for AI using nonsexed and sexed semen from four tested bulls. AI was performed in two distinct periods of the year: September to October and January to February. Neither farms nor bulls had a significant effect on pregnancy rates pooled from the two periods. The process for sexing sperm cells did not affect pregnancy rates at 28 days after AI, for nonsexed and sexed semen, respectively 44/73 (60.2%) and 50/79 (63.2%), P = 0.70, and at 45 days after AI, for nonsexed and sexed semen, respectively 33/73 (45.2%) and 33/79 (49.3%), P = 0.60. Pregnancy rate at 28 days after AI during the transitional period of January to February was higher when compared with September to October, respectively 47/67 (70.1%) versus 47/85 (55.2%), P = 0.06. When the same pregnant animals were checked at Day 45 after AI, the difference disappeared between the two periods, because of a higher embryonic mortality, respectively 32/67 (47.7%) versus 40/85 (47.0%), P = 0.93. Hematic progesterone concentration at Day 10 after AI did not distinguish animals pregnant at Day 28 that would or would not maintain pregnancy until Day 45 (P = 0.21). On the contrary, when blood samples were taken at Day 20 after AI, the difference in progesterone concentration between pregnant animals that would maintain their pregnancy until Day 45 was significant for both pooled (P = 0.00) and nonsexed (P = 0.00) and sexed semen (P = 0.09). A similar trend was reported when blood samples were taken at Day 25, being highly significant

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CERVICAL MUCUS CRYSTALLIZATION, THE SPERM SURVIVAL IN CERVICAL MUCUS, AND PREGNANCY RATES OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Alena JEŽKOVÁ; Luděk STÁDNÍK; Mojmír VACEK; František LOUDA

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between calving year and season, parity, number of AI, day of lactation, milk production in the 1st 100 lactation days or diseases occurrence (retained placenta, endometritis or cysts), sperm motility (SM) during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the cervical mucus survival test, cervical mucus crystallization (CMC) and their infl uence on days to fi rst insemination (interval), open days (SP), inseminations number for pregnancy (index), an...

  12. Young Women's Ratings of Three Placebo Multipurpose Prevention Technologies for HIV and Pregnancy Prevention in a Randomized, Cross-Over Study in Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Alexandra M; Roberts, Sarah T; Agot, Kawango; Weinrib, Rachel; Ahmed, Khatija; Manenzhe, Kgahlisho; Owino, Fredrick; van der Straten, Ariane

    2018-03-20

    End-user input is critical to inform development of multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products that prevent HIV and pregnancy. The TRIO Study, conducted in Kenya and South Africa, enrolled 277 HIV-negative women aged 18-30 in a randomized cross-over study to use each placebo MPT (daily oral tablets, monthly injections, and monthly vaginal ring) for one month. At the end of each month, participants rated how much they liked using the product on a 5-point Likert scale (5 = liked very much). We compared mean ratings using paired t-tests and examined sociodemographic-, attribute-, and behavior-related characteristics associated with ratings using multivariable linear regression and data from in-depth interviews. After use, mean ratings were significantly higher for injections [4.3 (SD = 1.0)] compared with tablets [3.0 (SD = 1.3)] and rings [3.3 (SD = 1.4)] (p < 0.001); mean ratings for rings were significantly higher than for tablets (p = 0.013). Mean ratings of a hypothetical active MPT increased for all products after the one-month period of use, with the greatest increase for rings, the least familiar product. In multivariable analysis, acceptability of key product attributes (e.g., product look) were associated with a significant increase of ≥ 1 point in the mean rating across all three products (p ≤ 0.001). Perceived ability to use the product without partner knowledge was associated with a higher mean rating for rings (b = 0.50; p = 0.006). The acceptability of product attributes contributed significantly to the rating of all products, highlighting the value of choice in pregnancy and HIV prevention to accommodate diverse users.

  13. Pregnancy Intentions and Teenage Pregnancy Among Latinas: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287

  14. Pregnancy intentions and teenage pregnancy among Latinas: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S; Hubbard, Alan E; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. Prospective, time-varying data from 2001-2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low power in a sexual relationship with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  15. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  16. Patient and cycle characteristics predicting high pregnancy rates with single-embryo transfer: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology outcomes between 2004 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Jennifer; Stanhiser, Jamie; Coddington, Charles; Jones, Tiffany; Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B

    2017-11-01

    To analyze factors associated with high live birth rate and low multiple birth rate in fresh and frozen-thawed assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Retrospective cohort analysis. Not applicable. The study population included 181,523 women undergoing in vitro fertilization with autologous fresh first cycles, 27,033 with fresh first oocyte donor cycles, 37,658 with fresh second cycles, and 35,446 with frozen-thawed second cycles. None. Live birth rate and multiple birth rate after single-embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET) were measured, in addition to cycle characteristics. In patients with favorable prognostic factors, including younger maternal age, transfer of a blastocyst, and additional embryos cryopreserved, the gain in the live birth rate from SET to DET was approximately 10%-15%; however, the multiple birth rate increased from approximately 2% to greater than 49% in both autologous and donor fresh and frozen-thawed transfer cycles. This study reports a 10%-15% reduction in live birth rate and a 47% decrement in multiple birth rate with SET compared with DET in the setting of favorable patient prognostic factors. Our findings present an opportunity to increase the rate of SET across the United States and thereby reduce the multiple birth rate and its associated poor perinatal outcomes with assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and timing of insemination relative to estrus on pregnancy rates of dairy cattle at first service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, M O; Stevenson, J S; Scoby, R K; Folman, Y

    1990-06-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on pregnancy rates of dairy cattle at first services, when both the timing of hormone injection and insemination were altered relative to the onset of estrus. Cows (n = 325) were assigned randomly to six groups making up a 2 X 2 X 2 incomplete factorial experiment; dose of GnRH (100 micrograms versus saline), timing [1 h (early) or 12 to 16 h (late) after first detected estrus] of AI, and timing of hormone injection (early versus late) were the three main effects. Cows were observed for estrus 4 times daily. Treatments and resulting pregnancy rates were: 1) hormone injection early plus AI early (35%), 2) hormone injection late plus AI early (34%), 3) saline injection early plus AI early (30%), 4) hormone injection late plus AI late (30%), 5) hormone injection early plus AI late (46%), and 6) saline injection late plus AI late (43%). Pregnancy rate in the first four groups (32%) was less than that in the latter two groups (44%). Concentrations of LH in serum were greater for cows given hormone or saline injections in early estrus than for cows injected with either hormone of saline during late estrus. Concentrations of LH in serum 2 h after GnRH were elevated above those of controls, whether GnRH was injected during early or late estrus. Neither concentrations of LH during estrus nor concentrations of progesterone 8 to 14 d after estrus explained the possible antifertility effect of GnRH given during late estrus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Teenage pregnancy rates and associations with other health risk behaviours: a three-wave cross-sectional study among South African school-going adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Kim; Crutzen, Rik; van den Borne, Bart; Sewpaul, Ronel; Reddy, Priscilla

    2016-05-04

    Teenage pregnancy still remains high in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), as well as in high-income countries (HIC). It is a major contributor to maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, it has social consequences, such as perpetuating the cycle of poverty including early school dropout by the pregnant adolescent, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Few studies in SSA have investigated the trends in teenage pregnancy and the associated factors, while this is critical in fully understanding teenage pregnancy and for promotion of reproductive health among adolescents at large in SSA. To examine the trends in teenage pregnancy and to identify associations with other health risk behaviours in South Africa (SA), a total of 31 816 South African school-going adolescents between 11 to 19 years of age were interviewed in three cross-sectional surveys. Data from the first (2002, n = 10 549), second (2008, n = 10 270) and the third (2011, n = 10 997) nationally representative South African youth risk behaviour surveys (YRBS) were used for this study. The overall prevalence of having ever been pregnant among the combined 3-survey sample was self-reported to be 11.0 % and stable across the three surveys. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in SA has decreased from 41.9 % in 2002 to 36.9 % in 2011. However, pregnancy among girls who ever had sex increased from 17.3 % (95 % CI: 0.16-0.19) in 2002, to 23.6 % (95 % CI: 0.21-0.26) in 2008 and decreased to 21.3 % (95 % CI: 0.19-0.23) in 2011. The odds for ever been pregnant were higher for girls who had 2 or more sexual partners (OR: 1.250, 95 % CI: 1.039-1.503), girls who ever used alcohol before sex (OR: 1.373, 95 % CI: 1.004-1.878), practised binge-drinking during the last month (OR: 0.624, 95 % CI: 0.503-0.774), and girls who used mandrax (OR: 1.968, 95 % CI: 1,243-3.117). The odds for never been pregnant were lower for those who used condoms (OR: 0.462, 95 % CI: 0

  19. Ninety-five orthotopic transplantations in 74 women of ovarian tissue after cytotoxic treatment in a fertility preservation network: tissue activity, pregnancy and delivery rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Ven, H; Liebenthron, J; Beckmann, M; Toth, B; Korell, M; Krüssel, J; Frambach, T; Kupka, M; Hohl, M K; Winkler-Crepaz, K; Seitz, S; Dogan, A; Griesinger, G; Häberlin, F; Henes, M; Schwab, R; Sütterlin, M; von Wolff, M; Dittrich, R

    2016-09-01

    What is the success rate in terms of ovarian activity (menstrual cycles) as well as pregnancy and delivery rates 1 year after orthotopic ovarian transplantations conducted in a three-country network? In 49 women with a follow-up >1 year after transplantation, the ovaries were active in 67% of cases and the pregnancy and delivery rates were 33 and 25%, respectively. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue in advance of cytotoxic therapies and later transplantation of the tissue is being performed increasingly often, and the total success rates in terms of pregnancy and delivery have been described in case series. However, published case series have not allowed either a more detailed analysis of patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) or calculation of success rates based on the parameter 'tissue activity'. Retrospective analysis of 95 orthotopic transplantations in 74 patients who had been treated for cancer, performed in the FertiPROTEKT network from 2008 to June 2015. Of those 95 transplantations, a first subgroup (Subgroup 1) was defined for further analysis, including 49 women with a follow-up period >1 year after transplantation. Of those 49 women, a second subgroup (Subgroup 5) was further analysed, including 40 women who were transplanted for the first time and who were diagnosed with POI before transplantation. Transplantation was performed in 16 centres and data were transferred to the FertiPROTEKT registry. The transplantations were carried out after oncological treatment had been completed and after a remission period of at least 2 years. Tissue was transplanted orthotopically, either into or onto the residual ovaries or into a pelvic peritoneal pocket. The success rates were defined as tissue activity (menstrual cycles) after 1 year (primary outcome) and as pregnancies and deliveries achieved. The average age of all transplanted 74 women was 31 ± 5.9 years at the time of cryopreservation and 35 ± 5.2 at the time of transplantation. Twenty

  20. [Short-term and long-term fetal heart rate variability after amnioinfusion treatment of oligohydramnios complicated pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalski, T; Sikora, J; Bakon, I; Magnucki, J; Grzesiak-Kubica, E; Szkodny, E

    2001-12-01

    Results of computerised analysis of cardiotocograms obtained in the group of 21 pregnancies complicated by idiopathic oligohydramnios are presented in the study. Amnioinfusion procedures were administered serially in local anesthesia with ultrasound and colour Doppler control on the base of oligohydramnios criteria by Phelan. The analysis was based on KOMPOR software created by ITAM Zabrze based on PC computer connected to Hewlett-Packard Series 50A cardiotocograph. Significant short-term variability increase just after amnioinfusion procedure from 5.55 ms to 8.24 ms and after 24 hours up to 7.25 ms was found, while significant long-term variability values changes were not observed.

  1. Influence of temperament score and handling facility on stress, reproductive hormone concentrations, and fixed time AI pregnancy rates in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Schroeder, S; Assay, M; Kasimanickam, V; Moore, D A; Gay, J M; Whittier, W D

    2014-10-01

    The objectives were (i) to evaluate the effect of temperament, determined by modified 2-point chute exit and gait score, on artificial insemination (AI) pregnancy rates in beef heifers following fixed time AI and (ii) to determine the effect of temperament on cortisol, substance-P, prolactin and progesterone at initiation of synchronization and at the time of AI. Angus beef heifers (n = 967) at eight locations were included in this study. At the initiation of synchronization (Day 0 = initiation of synchronization), all heifers received a body condition score (BCS), and temperament score (0 = calm; slow exit and walk or 1 = excitable; fast exit or jump or trot or run). Blood samples were collected from a sub-population of heifers (n = 86) at both synchronization initiation and the time of AI to determine the differences in serum progesterone, cortisol, prolactin and substance-P concentrations between temperament groups. Heifers were synchronized with 5-day CO-Synch+ controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol and were inseminated at 56 h after CIDR removal. Heifers were examined for pregnancy by ultrasound 70 days after AI to determine AI pregnancy. Controlling for synchronization treatment (p = 0.03), facility design (p = 0.05), and cattle handling facility design by temperament score interaction (p = 0.02), the AI pregnancy differed between heifers with excitable and calm temperament (51.9% vs 60.3%; p = 0.01). The alley-way with acute bends and turns, and long straight alley-way had lower AI pregnancy rate than did the semicircular alley-way (53.5%, 56.3% and 67.0% respectively; p = 0.05). The serum hormone concentrations differed significantly between different types of cattle handling facility (p < 0.05). The cattle handling facility design by temperament group interactions significantly influenced progesterone (p = 0.01), cortisol (p = 0.01), prolactin (p = 0.02) and substance-P (p = 0.04) both at the initiation of

  2. EFFECT OF POST-MATING GNRH TREATMET ON SERUM PROGESTERONE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS, DURATION OF ESTROUS CYCLE AND PREGNANCY RATES IN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. YILDIZ, E. KAYGUSUZOĞLU, M. KAYA1 AND M. ÇENESIZ1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy rate, estrous cycle lenght, serum progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH concentrations were determined in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; 10.5 μg synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist, receptal administered cows on day 12 post-mating (n=9 compared to control cows (n=8. Their oestrous cycles were synchronised by intramuscular administration of prostaglandin F2 alpha (its analog, cloprostenol twice at 11 days interval. Estrous exhibited cows were mated naturally. Blood samples were collected every two days from all animals. Serum progesterone and LH concentrations were measured by ELISA method. GnRH administration significantly increased serum LH concentration which reached peak levels 2-3 h after treatment. However, serum progesterone concentration was not affected. There were no differences in mean progesterone concentrations on days 12 to 24 post-mating between GnRH administrated and control pregnant cows. However, in non pregnant animals, progesterone concentrations on days 16 in the treated group were lower than control group (P<0.01. Pregnancy diagnosis in animals made by B-mode ultrasonography between the 30th and 35th day showed that 77.7% of treated cows were pregnant compared to 50% in control group. Duration of the estrous cycle in the non-pregnant animals was not affected by the treatment (control, 21.3 ± 0.8 days; treated, 22.5 ± 0.5 days. In conclusion, this study supports the use of GnRH on day 12 post-mating as a method for enhancing pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cattle.

  3. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  4. A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Local Endometrial Injury on the Clinical Pregnancy Rate of Frozen Embryo Transfer Cycles in Patients With Repeated Implantation Failure

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    Ensieh Shahrokh-Tehraninejad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Repeated implantation failure (RIF is a condition in which the embryos implantation decreases in the endometrium. So, our aim was to evaluate the effect of local endometrial injury on embryo transfer results.Materials and methods: In this simple randomized clinical trial (RCT, a total of 120 patients were selected. The participants were less than 40 years old, and they are in their minimum two cycles of vitro fertilization (IVF. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of LEI (Local endometrial injury and a control group (n = 60 in each group. The first group had four small endometrial injuries from anterior, posterior, and lateral uterus walls which were obtained from people who were in 21th day of their previous IVF cycle. The second group was the patients who have not received any intervention.Results: The experimental and control patients were matched in the following factors. Regarding the clinical pregnancy rate, there was no significant difference noted between the experimental and the control group.Conclusion: Local endometrial injury in a preceding cycle does not increase the clinical pregnancy rate in the subsequent FET cycle of patients with repeated implantation failure.

  5. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

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    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  6. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Abstract Background: Both short and long inter-pregnancy intervals have been associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More so, short inter- pregnancy interval among HIV- positive women implies higher birth rate and subsequently a higher number of neonates exposed to HIV and potentially at.

  7. Revisiting progesterone receptor (PR) actions in breast cancer: Insights into PR repressive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Cecilia J; Cenciarini, Mauro E; Elizalde, Patricia V

    2018-05-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) is a master regulator in female reproductive tissues that controls developmental processes and proliferation and differentiation during the reproductive cycle and pregnancy. PR also plays a role in progression of endocrine-dependent breast cancer. As a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors, the main action of PR is to regulate networks of target gene expression in response to binding its cognate steroid hormone, progesterone. Liganded-PR transcriptional activation has been thoroughly studied and associated mechanisms have been described while progesterone-mediated repression has remained less explored. The present work summarizes recent advances in the understanding of how PR-mediated repression is accomplished in breast cancer cells and highlights the significance of fully understanding the determinants of context-dependent PR action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Taxa de prenhez de vacas Nelore x Hereford em ambiente subtropical sob restrição alimentar Pregnancy rate of crossbred Nellore-Hereford cows in subtropical conditions under feeding restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Andrade Grecellé

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um experimento para identificar os efeitos que influenciam a taxa de prenhez de 117 vacas de corte Nelore x Hereford aos 2 e 20 anos de idade e com diferentes frações gênicas de Nelore (25,0; 37,5; 50,0 e 100,0%, paridas no período de 11/08/03 a 23/12/03 e acasaladas, por monta natural, entre 10/12/03 e 12/03/04. Foram avaliados os efeitos dos fatores data juliana de parto (DJ, peso ao nascer (PN, sexo do bezerro (S do parto anterior, ordem de parto (OP, altura de garupa (H, peso ao início do acasalamento (PI, escore de condição corporal ao início do acasalamento (ECCI, ganho diário médio de peso durante o acasalamento (GDA, fração gênica de Nelore (FGN e peso ao desmame ajustado (PAJ205 do parto anterior sobre a probabilidade de prenhez e de concepção. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão logística, por meio do procedimento LOGISTIC do pacote computacional SAS, para identificar os efeitos de cada variável. A média da taxa de prenhez foi de 43,2%. A probabilidade de prenhez e as chances de concepção foram explicadas pelas variações de DJ, PI, ECCI e GDA. A mudança na chance de prenhez para cada acréscimo na variável regressora foi estimada com base na estatística da razão entre chances (odds ratio, determinada por OR = exp(b k, considerando que chance é a razão entre a probabilidade de o evento ocorrer e a de não ocorrer. Não foram observados efeitos significativos de PN, S, OP, H, FGN e PAJ205. Portanto, para aumentar as taxas de prenhez de vacas de corte, são necessárias melhorias no escore de condição corporal (ECC no início do acasalamento e no ganho de peso (GP durante a estação de monta, ambos decorrentes de adequada nutrição pré e pós-parto.This experiment was conducted to evaluate factors affecting pregnancy rate of 117 crossbred Nelore x Hereford beef cows with age varying from 2 to 20 years, different gene proportion from Nellore breed (25.0, 37.5, 50.0, and 100

  9. Suspected ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Beata E; Barnhart, Kurt T

    2006-02-01

    Women who present with pain and bleeding in the first trimester are at risk for ectopic pregnancy, a life-threatening condition. Conditions that predispose a woman to ectopic pregnancy are damaged fallopian tubes from prior tubal surgery or previous pelvic infection, smoking, and conception using assisted reproduction. Many women without risk factors can develop an ectopic pregnancy. A diagnostic algorithm that includes the use of transvaginal ultrasonography, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations, and, sometimes, uterine curettage can definitively diagnose women at risk in a timely manner. The absence of an intrauterine pregnancy above an established cut point of hCG is consistent with an abnormal pregnancy but does not distinguish a miscarriage from an ectopic pregnancy. When the initial hCG value is low, serial hCG values can be used to determine whether a gestation is potentially viable or spontaneously resolving. The minimal rise in hCG for a viable pregnancy is 53% in 2 days. The minimal decline of a spontaneous abortion is 21-35% in 2 days, depending on the initial level. A rise or fall in serial hCG values that is slower than this is suggestive of an ectopic pregnancy. Women diagnosed with an unruptured ectopic pregnancy are potential candidates for medical management with methotrexate. Intramuscular injection with methotrexate can be used to safely treat an ectopic pregnancy with success rates, tubal patency rates, and future fertility that are similar to those obtained with conservative surgery. Success rates using methotrexate are inversely rated to baseline hCG values and are higher using "multidose" compared with "single-dose" regimens. Surgical treatment may be conservative or definitive and should be attempted in most cases via laparoscopy.

  10. Associação entre sorologia para Neospora caninum e taxa de prenhez em vacas receptoras de embriões Association between seropositivity for Neospora caninum and pregnancy rate in bovine receipts submitted to embryo transfer technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Paz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The association between seropositivity for Neospora caninum and pregnancy rate in cows belonging to a surrogate herd submitted to embryo transfer technology was determined. The serological status was evaluated in 275 heifers, aging from 14 to 20-month-old. For N. caninum serology analysis of a monoclonal competitive ELISA test Kit was used, and 81 animals (29.5% showed seropositive. Thus, two groups were randomly formed selecting 33 seropositive heifers and other 33 seronegative animals out of the remaining 194 animals. Seronegative animals were followed up by serological analysis until the end of the trial in order to identify persistently infected individuals. The pregnancy rate was 72.7% in the group of N. caninum-positive sera, and, 81.8% in the seronegative group.No significant difference was observed between groups according to Chi-square test. No association between N. caninum seropositivity and pregnancy rates in surrogate heifers was found.

  11. Effectiveness of a recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone on the ovarian follicles, peripheral progesterone, estradiol-17β, and pregnancy rate of dairy cows

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    Mohamed Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed at elucidating the effects of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH on the ovarian follicular dynamics, progesterone, estradiol-17β profiles, and pregnancy of dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Three groups (G, n=5 cows of multiparous dairy cows were used. G1 (C control cows were given controlled internal drug release (CIDR and prostaglandin F2α; G2 (L cows were given low dose (525 IU and G3 (H cows were given high dose (1800 IU of r-hFSH on twice daily basis at the last 3 days before CIDR removal. All cows were ultrasonically scanned for follicular growth and dynamics, and blood samples were collected every other day for two consecutive estrus cycles for the determination of estradiol-17β and progesterone. Results: Estrus was observed in all C and L but not in H cows. Dominant follicle was bigger in L compared to C and H cows. Dominant follicle in C (16.00±2.5 mm and L cows (17.40±2.3 mm disappeared at 72 h after CIDR removal. However, in H cows, no ovulation has occurred during 7 days post-CIDR removal. Progesterone was not different (p>0.10 among groups, whereas estradiol-17β revealed significant (p<0.01 reduction in H (15.96±2.5 pg/ml cows compared to C (112.26±26.1 pg/ml and L (97.49±15.9 pg/ml cows. Pregnancy rate was higher in L cows (60% compared with C cows (20%. However, H cows were not artificially inseminated due to non-ovulation. Only a cow of C group has calved one calf, however, 2 of the L cows gave birth of twins and a cow gave single calf. Conclusion: Administration of a low dose (525 IU of r-hFSH resulted in an optimal size of dominant follicle, normal values of progesterone and estradiol-17β, and 40% twinning rate, howeverusing 1800 IU of r-hFSH, have adverse effects on ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal profiles with non-pregnancy of dairy cows raised under hot climate.

  12. Optimal timing of periodontal disease treatment for prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes: before or during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Goldenberg, Robert L; Offenbacher, Steven; Qian, Xu

    2011-08-01

    Several large randomized controlled clinical trials failed to find that standard periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduces the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (eg, preterm birth and low birthweight). However, treating periodontal disease during pregnancy may be too late to reduce the inflammation that is related to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, periodontal treatment during pregnancy can cause bacteremia, which itself may initiate the pathway leading to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Finally, the periodontal treatments provided during pregnancy are not always effective in preventing the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy. Pregnancy may not be an appropriate period for periodontal intervention(s). We hypothesize that periodontal treatment before pregnancy may reduce the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to test if treating periodontal disease in the prepregnancy period reduces the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early breeding of buffalo heifers: Mineral supplementation and its effects on development and pregnancy rates in the province of Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mollica

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial mineral supplement formulae were used to evaluate their effects on body weight, average daily gain and reproduction at first breeding in seventy buffalo heifers, between 14 and 16 months old. Pasture from this area of the province of Corrientes, Argentina, is known to be phosphorus and sodium deficient. The experiment began on 26th December 2005 and ended on 9th August 2006. On 15 th May 2006 two bulls were introduced in each group for 59 days. Treatments were: (a usual mineral supplement (US - Ca=12% and P=6%; (b a mineral quelated supplement (QS, Tortuga™ - Ca=5,7%, P=4,1%, Na, K, Co, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn, N. Minerals were supplied every week ad libitum. Animals were kept in separate paddocks and were rotated every month to minimize the paddock effect. Body weight, jugular blood and stool samples were taken every month. Blood serum was assayed for mineral and progesterone (P4 concentration. Crude protein and dry matter digestibility were estimated on faecal samples by NIRS scanning. The weight at weaning, the initial and the final live weight for the breeding period were: 224.6 and 230.7, 322.2 and 321.7 and 342.8 and 326.6 kg. in QS and US groups, respectively. Live weight was increased by QS supplement (Table 1. Pregnancy rates, determined by transrectal ultrasound, were 60.0% and 17.3 % (P<0.05 for QS and US groups, respectively. It is concluded that QS supplement increased the body development and the early pregnancy rates in buffalo heifers. Further investigation is needed to confirm these findings.

  14. Elevated basal progesterone levels are associated with increased preovulatory progesterone rise but not with higher pregnancy rates in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain the association between basal progesterone (P) levels and the occurrence of preovulatory progesterone rise (PPR) and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists. Serum P levels of 464 patients were measured on day 2 and day of hCG of cycles. Cycles with basal P levels>1.6ng/mL were cancelled. All embryos were cryopreserved in cycles with P levels≥2ng/mL on the day of hCG. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of PPR (P>1.5ng/mL) and CPR with regard to basal P. Basal P levels were significantly higher in cycles with PPR than in those without PPR (0.63±0.31 vs. 0.48±0.28ng/mL). Area under the curve for basal P according to ROC analysis to discriminate between elevated and normal P levels on the day of hCG was 0.65 (0.58-0.71 95% CI, pcycles with and without PPR was 0.65ng/mL. Cycles with basal P levels above 0.65ng/mL had a significantly higher incidence of PPR (30.9% vs. 13.5%) but similar clinical and cumulative pregnancy rates (38.8% vs. 31.1% and 41.7% vs. 32.6%, respectively) in comparison to cycles with basal P levels below 0.65ng/mL. In multivariate regression analysis, basal P levels, LH level on the first day of antagonist administration, and estradiol levels on the day of hCG trigger were the variables that predicted PPR. Basal P levels were associated with increased incidence of PPR but not with CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Progesterone concentration, pregnancy and calving rate in Simmental dairy cows after oestrus synchronisation and hCG treatment during the early luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuluburić, Adam; Milanović, Svetlana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Jovanović, Ivan B; Barna, Tomislav; Stojić, Milica; Fratrić, Natalija; Szenci, Ottó; Gvozdić, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40-80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn's Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28-35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

  16. Teenage Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes: Experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Teenage pregnancy is known as a risk factor for preterm birth, low birth weight and perinatal deaths, thus considered public health problem. In South Africa, most teenage pregnancy is found within the context of unstable relationship and unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. A high rate of teenage pregnancy is ...

  17. Teenage pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or family member, your partner, or your labor coach with you. Stay Healthy During Your Pregnancy You ... Pregnancy Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  18. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  19. Perinatal mortality in twin pregnancy: an analysis of birth weight-specific mortality rates and adjusted mortality rates for birth weight distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, E; González de Agüero, R; de Agustin, J L; Pérez-Hiraldo, M P; Bescos, J L

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the fetal mortality rate (FMR), early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) and perinatal mortality rate (PMR) of twin and single births. It is based on a survey which was carried out in 22 Hospital Centers in Spain in 1980, and covered 1,956 twins born and 110,734 singletons born. The FMR in twins was 36.3/1000 and 8.8/1000 for singletons. The ENMR in twins was 36.1/1000 and 5.7/1000 for singletons. The PMR in twins was 71.1/1000 and 14.4/1000 for singletons. When birthweight-specific PMR in twin and singletons births are compared, there were no differences between the rates for groups 500-999 g and 1000-1499 g. For birthweight groups of 1500-1999 g (124.4 vs 283.8/1000) and 2000-2999 g (29.6 vs 73.2/1000) the rates for twins were about twice lower than those for single births. The PMR for 2500 g and over birthweight was about twice higher in twins than in singletons (12.5 vs 5.5/1000). After we adjusted for birthweight there was a difference in the FMR (12.6 vs 9.8/1000) and the PMR (19.1 vs 16.0/1000, and no difference in the ENMR between twins and singletons (5.9 vs 6.4/1000), indicating that most of the differences among crude rates are due to differences in distribution of birthweight.

  20. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by blood loss) lower back pain What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ... protect against sexually transmitted infections (STDs) that can cause PID. If ... about the pregnancy being ectopic, talk to your doctor — it's important ...

  1. Pregnancy & Motherhood >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking when pregnant; Pregnancy and smoking; Smoking during pregnancy; Pregnant women smoking; Smoking when pregnant effects; Pregnancy and smoking effects; Pregnant quit smoking; Pregnant stop smoking; How to quit smoking when pregnant; Smoking and fertility; Smoking and infertility; Mom smoking; Smoking around children; Second hand smoke and children

  2. PIVET rFSH dosing algorithms for individualized controlled ovarian stimulation enables optimized pregnancy productivity rates and avoidance of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, John L; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Conceicao, Jason L; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Keane, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    The first PIVET algorithm for individualized recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) dosing in in vitro fertilization, reported in 2012, was based on age and antral follicle count grading with adjustments for anti-Müllerian hormone level, body mass index, day-2 FSH, and smoking history. In 2007, it was enabled by the introduction of a metered rFSH pen allowing small dosage increments of ~8.3 IU per click. In 2011, a second rFSH pen was introduced allowing more precise dosages of 12.5 IU per click, and both pens with their individual algorithms have been applied continuously at our clinic. The objective of this observational study was to validate the PIVET algorithms pertaining to the two rFSH pens with the aim of collecting ≤15 oocytes and minimizing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The data set included 2,822 in vitro fertilization stimulations over a 6-year period until April 2014 applying either of the two individualized dosing algorithms and corresponding pens. The main outcome measures were mean oocytes retrieved and resultant embryos designated for transfer or cryopreservation permitted calculation of oocyte and embryo utilization rates. Ensuing pregnancies were tracked until live births, and live birth productivity rates embracing fresh and frozen transfers were calculated. Overall, the results showed that mean oocyte numbers were 10.0 for all women algorithms in our clinic meant that the starting dose was not altered for 79.1% of patients and for 30.1% of those receiving the very lowest rFSH dosages (≤75 IU). Only 0.3% patients were diagnosed with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, all deemed avoidable due to definable breaches from the protocols. The live birth productivity rates exceeded 50% for women algorithms led to only 11.6% of women generating >15 oocytes, significantly lower than recently published data applying conventional dosages (38.2%; Palgorithms to each other, the outcomes were mainly comparable for

  3. Pre-breeding ovaro-uterine ultrasonography and its relationship with first service pregnancy rate in seasonal-calving dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, J F; Buckley, F; Ryan, D; Dillon, P

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize an ultrasound reproductive tract scoring (URTS) system to assess suitability for breeding in dairy cows, to describe the prevalence of these scores in commercial dairy herds and to examine their relationship with subsequent fertility. Ultrasound examinations (7797) were performed on 5751 Holstein-Friesian cows prior to breeding in 62 seasonally calving herds over 2 years. Data recorded from images of both ovaries and the uterus were combined into a six point scoring system and the prevalence of cows with cystic ovarian follicles and uterine abscesses and adhesions was recorded separately. The prevalence of ovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (score 1), or had mild (2) or moderate endometritis (3) was 62.5%, 21.7% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of anovulatory cows with moderate endometritis (4), ovulatory cows with pyometra (5) and anovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (6) was 3.3%, 2.2% and 8.1%, respectively. The interval between calving and examination differed between cows with each of the scores 1, 2, 5 and 6 (61, 46, 53 and 50 days, respectively, p scores 3 and 4 (37 and 35 days, respectively). Ovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (score 1) had a higher likelihood of pregnancy to first service than ovulatory or anovulatory cows which had not completed uterine involution (p reproductive tract was 3.9% and 1.2%, respectively. In conclusion, 29% and 11% of cows in seasonally calving and breeding dairy herds had not completed uterine involution or were anovulatory prior to the mating start date, respectively. Both conditions, detected using a URTS system, significantly reduced first service pregnancy rate in these pasture-based dairy herds.

  4. Parental External Locus of Control in Pregnancy Is Associated with Subsequent Teacher Ratings of Negative Behavior in Primary School: Findings from a British Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Stephen; Gregory, Steven; Ellis, Genette L.; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Golding, Jean

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether parents’ locus of control (LOC) obtained before the birth of their child predicts the child’s behavior at school in School Years 3 (ages 7–8) and 6 (ages 10–11). A modified version of the adult Nowicki–Strickland internal–external locus of control scale was completed by mothers and fathers in their own home during pregnancy. Externality was defined as a score greater than the median and internality as equal to, or less than, the median. Outcomes were the five individual subscales and the total difficulties of Goodman’s strengths and difficulties’ questionnaire completed by the children’s class teachers at the end of School Years 3 and 6. As predicted, it was found that the greater the presence of externality in the parents, the greater the increased risk of the child’s adverse behavior as rated by teachers. The risk was generally greatest if both parents were external and lowest if both were internal. There was a consistent relationship at both Year 3 and Year 6 between maternal externality in pregnancy and children’s emotional difficulties. However, for other behaviors, the pattern of associations varied depending on whether the mother or father was external, the type of adverse behavior, and the School Year in which children were assessed. Prenatal parental externality appears to be significantly associated with a variety of children’s negative behaviors. Of note was the finding that fathers’ as well as mothers’ LOC was important in determining children’s outcomes. Implications of the complexity of the results for the role parents may play in children’s personality and adjustment are discussed. PMID:29479332

  5. Parental External Locus of Control in Pregnancy Is Associated with Subsequent Teacher Ratings of Negative Behavior in Primary School: Findings from a British Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Nowicki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine whether parents’ locus of control (LOC obtained before the birth of their child predicts the child’s behavior at school in School Years 3 (ages 7–8 and 6 (ages 10–11. A modified version of the adult Nowicki–Strickland internal–external locus of control scale was completed by mothers and fathers in their own home during pregnancy. Externality was defined as a score greater than the median and internality as equal to, or less than, the median. Outcomes were the five individual subscales and the total difficulties of Goodman’s strengths and difficulties’ questionnaire completed by the children’s class teachers at the end of School Years 3 and 6. As predicted, it was found that the greater the presence of externality in the parents, the greater the increased risk of the child’s adverse behavior as rated by teachers. The risk was generally greatest if both parents were external and lowest if both were internal. There was a consistent relationship at both Year 3 and Year 6 between maternal externality in pregnancy and children’s emotional difficulties. However, for other behaviors, the pattern of associations varied depending on whether the mother or father was external, the type of adverse behavior, and the School Year in which children were assessed. Prenatal parental externality appears to be significantly associated with a variety of children’s negative behaviors. Of note was the finding that fathers’ as well as mothers’ LOC was important in determining children’s outcomes. Implications of the complexity of the results for the role parents may play in children’s personality and adjustment are discussed.

  6. Stillbirth in diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Damm, Peter; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2011-01-01

    , but more than 50% of stillbirths are unexplained. Majority of stillbirths are characterised by suboptimal glycaemic control during pregnancy. Foetal hypoxia and cardiac dysfunction secondary to poor glycaemic control are probably the most important pathogenic factors in stillbirths among pregnant diabetic...... women. There is thus a need for new strategies for improving glycaemic control to near-normal levels throughout pregnancy and for preventing and treating hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Antenatal surveillance tests including ultrasound examinations of the foetal growth rate, kick counting and non...

  7. Understanding Conceptualizations of Pregnancy and Planning for Pregnancy Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinago, Chiwoneso B; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Frongillo, Edward A; Blake, Christine E; Engelsmann, Barbara; Simmons, David

    2018-07-01

    Zimbabwe has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality, yet little is understood about adolescent girls' and young women's perspectives on pregnancy or planning for pregnancy. The research study took an emic approach to understand and describe how adolescent girls and young women (14-24 years) in Harare, Zimbabwe, conceptualize pregnancy and planning for pregnancy and how these conceptualizations inform pregnancy decisions. Semi-structured, in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with adolescent girls and young women ( N = 48) and data were analyzed thematically using NVivo 10. Pregnancy was conceptualized across nine themes: carrying a child and oneself, growing a family, motherhood, the best time for pregnancy, pregnancy decision makers, who is responsible for the pregnancy, pregnancy burden, pregnancy dangers, and increase in social status with pregnancy. Planning for pregnancy was conceptualized during the prepregnancy, pregnancy, and postpregnancy phases. Findings emphasize considering sociocultural views concerning pregnancy and including social networks in maternal health efforts.

  8. Evaluating the impact of breed, pregnancy, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Preston, W D; Joseph, S R; LaPlace, L; Hillman, P E; Gebremedhin, K G; Lee, C N; Collier, R J

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregnancy, breed, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate (SR) of hair sheep. St. Croix White (STX; = 9) and Dorper × STX (DRPX; = 9) ewes (3.6 yr of age) were evaluated over 4 d at 126 d of gestation (PREG) and over 4 d at 46 d postpartum (OPEN) in the shade and sun and in the morning (AM; 0900 to 1200 h) and afternoon (PM; 1300 to 1600 h) after a 20 min acclimation to each condition on each day. Data loggers recorded vaginal temperature (VT) at 10-min intervals for 96 h. Rectal temperature (RT) was measured using a digital veterinary thermometer, and respiration rate (RR) was measured as breaths per minute (bpm). Sweating rate was calculated from measured air properties passing over a shaved (300 cm) and unshaved area of the ewes' body using a portable calorimeter. Data were analyzed using GLM procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with breed, pregnancy status, sun exposure, and time of day as main effects. Mean temperature, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index, wind speed, and solar radiation on the days of data collection were 28.2°C, 82.8%, 80.3, 4.2 km/h, and 237.5 W/m, respectively. There was no difference ( > 0.10) in RT, RR, and SR between DRPX and STX ewes. The PREG ewes had lower RT ( ewes (38.5 ± 0.2 vs. 39.1 ± 0.2°C, 70.2 ± 3.1 vs. 88.3 ± 3.1 g⋅m⋅h, and 79.5 ± 2.2 vs. 72.1 ± 2.2 bpm, respectively). During the PM, RR, RT ( 0.10) in RT. There was no difference in SR ( > 0.10) between the shaved and unshaved area of the ewe. The DRPX ewes had higher ( ewes. The PREG ewes had higher ( ewes during the night time and lower VT than the OPEN ewes during the day time ( ewes had a greater ( ewes did (2.5 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4°C, respectively), but there was no breed difference ( > 0.10). Hair coat did not have an influence on the SR of the ewes, and PREG ewes appeared to use increased respiration as opposed to sweating to help control RT. The narrower range of body

  9. Tumor therapy and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joss, R.; Brunner, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    Many successfully treated tumour patients are children and juveniles. This raises questions as to the effects of tumour therapy on reproductiveness and offspring. The possible extent of damage to the male and female gonads caused by surgical, chemical, and radiological tumour therapy is investigated. Also, the problem of tumour therapy or women developing neoplasms during pregnancy. Pregnancies after successful tumour therapy are quite frequent today. Experience so far suggests that the rate of congenital deformities is not significantly increased. (orig.) [de

  10. What Is the Economic Cost of Unplanned Pregnancy Following Hysteroscopic Sterilization in the US? A New National Estimate Based on Essure® Procedure Prevalence, Failure Rates and Workforce Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E Scott; Fernandez, Luca P; Jones, Christopher A

    Although hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) (Essure ®) has been available in the US since 2002, there is disagreement regarding its efficacy, and there has been no study of the economic impact of HS failure. Our investigation examined the economic consequences of contraceptive failure with Essure in the US. Contraceptive failure rates (CFR) of 5.7%, 7.7% and 9.6% were applied to the US cohort of HS patients (n = 600,000). Direct economic impact of productivity losses resulting from unplanned conceptions after HS was calculated by factoring Essure failure rate, the exposed population, US female labour force participation, unemployment rate, time away from work owing to vaginal delivery or pregnancy termination and weekly wages. For the 9.6% CFR scenario, US workforce productivity loss from unplanned pregnancy and delivery was estimated at 771,065 days (2,112 years). Productivity loss secondary to conception and subsequent termination of pregnancy after Essure was approximately 23,725 days (65 years). Assuming CFR at 5.7%, livebirth delivery with total time missed from work at 65 days, this was associated with an aggregate economic impact of $49.2M in lost annual wages. Direct economic impact of unplanned pregnancy after Essure irrespective of outcome (terminations and deliveries) was estimated to result in US productivity losses valued at ~$130M. Although not all unplanned pregnancy costs are attributable to failed HS, estimates derived from earlier surveys have not considered this contraceptive method, and the economic consequences of unplanned pregnancy after Essure are not trivial. Quantifying the economic consequences of HS failure would be improved with specific ICD-10 coding for Essure-associated symptoms.

  11. Effect of pour-on alphacypermethrin on feed intake, body condition score, milk yield, pregnancy rates, and calving-to-conception interval in buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, G; Veneziano, V; Cimmino, R; Esposito, L; Auletta, L; Varricchio, E; Balestrieri, A; Claps, S; Campanile, G; Neglia, G

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of alphacypermethrin (ACYP) on pediculosis due to Haematopinus tuberculatus and to evaluate the influence of the treatment on productive and reproductive performance in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared in an intensive system. The trial was performed on 56 pluriparous buffaloes at 86.8 ± 8.1 d in milk. The animals underwent individual louse count and were divided into 2 homogenous groups according to louse count, age, number of lactations, days in milk, live BW, BCS, pregnancy status, and milk yield. Group A (n = 28) was treated by a pour-on formulation of ACYP, and Group S (n = 28) was treated by pour-on saline solution. Individual louse counts were performed weekly on 10 buffaloes in each group. Feed intake was recorded daily and the total mixed ration, individual ingredients, and orts were analyzed to calculate DM ingestion. Individual milk yield was recorded daily and milk samples were analyzed at the beginning of the trial, after 4 wk, and at the end of the trial to assess milk composition. Individual BCS was also evaluated simultaneously. Finally, the animals underwent synchronization of ovulation starting 4 wk after treatment and the pregnancy rate and the calving-conception interval were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA for repeated measures. The infestation was constant in Group S, whereas no lice were present in Group A throughout the study. Daily DMI was similar in the 2 groups (16.7 ± 0.4 vs. 16.3 ± 0.3 kg/d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), although buffaloes in Group A showed higher (P rate (90.5 vs. 80.9% in Group A vs. Group S, respectively), a lower (P conception interval was recorded in Group A compared to Group S (118 ± 16 vs. 177 ± 16 d in Group A vs. Group S, respectively). In addition to the pour-on treatment against pediculosis, productive and reproductive performance were also improved. This represents a significant improvement in dairy buffalo herd

  12. Associação entre o estado nutricional pré-gestacional e a predição do risco de intercorrências gestacionais Association between pre-gestational nutritional status and prediction of the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Carvalho Padilha

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a associação entre o estado nutricional pré-gestacional materno e os desfechos maternos - síndromes hipertensivas da gravidez, diabetes gestacional, deficiência de vitamina A e anemia - e do concepto - baixo peso ao nascer. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, com 433 puérperas adultas (>20 anos, atendidas na Maternidade Escola da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ e seus respectivos recém-nascidos. As informações foram coletadas em consulta a prontuários e entrevistas. O estado nutricional pré-gestacional materno foi definido por meio do índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional, segundo os pontos de corte para mulheres adultas da World Health Organization (WHO, em 1995. Estimou-se a associação entre os desfechos gestacionais e o estado nutricional pré-gestacional, por meio da odds ratio (OR e intervalo de confiança (IC de 95%. RESULTADOS: a freqüência de desvio ponderal pré-gestacional (baixo peso, sobrepeso e obesidade foi de 31,6%. Considerando-se o estado nutricional pré-gestacional, aquelas com sobrepeso e obesidade apresentaram menor ganho ponderal do que as eutróficas e as com baixo peso (pPURPOSE: to analyze the association between maternal pre-gestational nutritional status and maternal outcomes - hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes, vitamin A deficiency, and anemia - and the newborn outcome - low birth weight. METHODS: cross-sectional study, with 433 adult puerperal women (> 20 years old and their newborns, attending the Maternidade Escola of Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ. Data was collected through interviews and access to their medical records. Maternal pre-gestational nutritional status was established through pre-gestational body mass index according to the cut-offs for adult women defined by the World Health Organization (WHO, in 1995. The association between gestational outcomes and pre-gestational nutritional status was estimated through odds ratio

  13. Immunology of neuromyelitis optica during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bove, Riley; Davoudi, V; Keyhanian, K; Bove, RM; Chitnis, T

    2016-01-01

    Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase act

  14. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliha, George; Morgan, Jordan; Vrahas, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy (TOP) is a rare yet perhaps under-reported condition that has affected otherwise healthy pregnancies throughout the world. The condition presents suddenly in the third trimester of a usually uneventful pregnancy and progressively immobilizes the mother. Radiographic studies detect drastic loss of bone mass, elevated rates of turnover in the bone, and oedema in the affected portion. Weakness of the bone can lead to fractures during delivery and other complications for the mother. Then, within weeks of labour, symptoms and radiological findings resolve. Aetiology is currently unknown, although neural, vascular, haematological, endocrine, nutrient-deficiency, and other etiologies have been proposed. Several treatments have also been explored, including simple bed rest, steroids, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, induced termination of pregnancy, and surgical intervention. The orthopedist plays an essential role in monitoring the condition (and potential complications) as well as ensuring satisfactory outcomes for both the mother and newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PIVET rFSH dosing algorithms for individualized controlled ovarian stimulation enables optimized pregnancy productivity rates and avoidance of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovich JL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available John L Yovich,1,2,* Birgit Alsbjerg,3,4,* Jason L Conceicao,1 Peter M Hinchliffe,1 Kevin N Keane1,2,* 1PIVET Medical Centre, Perth, 2School of Biomedical Science, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute Bioscience, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Skive, 4Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The first PIVET algorithm for individualized recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH dosing in in vitro fertilization, reported in 2012, was based on age and antral follicle count grading with adjustments for anti-Müllerian hormone level, body mass index, day-2 FSH, and smoking history. In 2007, it was enabled by the introduction of a metered rFSH pen allowing small dosage increments of ~8.3 IU per click. In 2011, a second rFSH pen was introduced allowing more precise dosages of 12.5 IU per click, and both pens with their individual algorithms have been applied continuously at our clinic. The objective of this observational study was to validate the PIVET algorithms pertaining to the two rFSH pens with the aim of collecting ≤15 oocytes and minimizing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The data set included 2,822 in vitro fertilization stimulations over a 6-year period until April 2014 applying either of the two individualized dosing algorithms and corresponding pens. The main outcome measures were mean oocytes retrieved and resultant embryos designated for transfer or cryopreservation permitted calculation of oocyte and embryo utilization rates. Ensuing pregnancies were tracked until live births, and live birth productivity rates embracing fresh and frozen transfers were calculated. Overall, the results showed that mean oocyte numbers were 10.0 for all women <40 years with 24% requiring rFSH dosages <150 IU. Applying both specific algorithms in our clinic meant that the starting dose was not altered for

  16. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007-2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Iorga, Magdalena; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim . To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods . An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20-24 years of age in a university hospital. Results . Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70-0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10-1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03-1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90-3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04-2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12-2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26-0.71), 0.90 (0.85-0.96), and 0.29 (0.20-0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion . Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers.

  17. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007–2014) in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolov, Demetra-Gabriela; Carauleanu, Alexandru; Ilea, Ciprian; Blidaru, Iolanda; Boiculese, Lucian; Socolov, Razvan-Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20–24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70–0.80]). The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]): anaemia (1.13 [1.10–1.17]), low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03–1.18]), pediculosis (2.42 [1.90–3.00]), anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04–2.17]), and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12–2.68]). The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26–0.71), 0.90 (0.85–0.96), and 0.29 (0.20–0.41), while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers. PMID:28133615

  18. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  19. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  20. Progesterone receptors (PR) mediate STAT actions: PR and prolactin receptor signaling crosstalk in breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehy, Katherine A; Truong, Thu H; Mauro, Laura J; Lange, Carol A

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen is the major mitogenic stimulus of mammary gland development during puberty wherein ER signaling acts to induce abundant PR expression. PR signaling, in contrast, is the primary driver of mammary epithelial cell proliferation in adulthood. The high circulating levels of progesterone during pregnancy signal through PR, inducing expression of the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Cooperation between PR and prolactin (PRL) signaling, via regulation of downstream components in the PRL signaling pathway including JAKs and STATs, facilitates the alveolar morphogenesis observed during pregnancy. Indeed, these pathways are fully integrated via activation of shared signaling pathways (i.e. JAKs, MAPKs) as well as by the convergence of PRs and STATs at target genes relevant to both mammary gland biology and breast cancer progression (i.e. proliferation, stem cell outgrowth, tissue cell type heterogeneity). Thus, rather than a single mediator such as ER, transcription factor cascades (ER>PR>STATs) are responsible for rapid proliferative and developmental programming in the normal mammary gland. It is not surprising that these same mediators typify uncontrolled proliferation in a majority of breast cancers, where ER and PR are most often co-expressed and may cooperate to drive malignant tumor progression. This review will primarily focus on the integration of PR and PRL signaling in breast cancer models and the importance of this cross-talk in cancer progression in the context of mammographic density. Components of these PR/PRL signaling pathways could offer alternative drug targets and logical complements to anti-ER or anti-estrogen-based endocrine therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lobular breast cancers lack the inverse relationship between ER/PR status and cell growth rate characteristic of ductal cancers in two independent patient cohorts: implications for tumor biology and adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hilda; Lau, Silvia; Cheung, Polly; Wong, Ting Ting; Parker, Andrew; Yau, Thomas; Epstein, Richard J

    2014-11-10

    Although invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast differs from invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in numerous respects - including its genetics, clinical phenotype, metastatic pattern, and chemosensitivity - most experts continue to manage ILC and IDC identically in the adjuvant setting. Here we address this discrepancy by comparing early-stage ILC and IDC in two breast cancer patient cohorts of differing nationality and ethnicity. The clinicopathologic features of 2029 consecutive breast cancer patients diagnosed in Hong Kong (HK) and Australia (AUS) were compared. Interrelationships between tumor histology and other clinicopathologic variables, including ER/PR and Ki67, were analysed. Two hundred thirty-nine patients were identified with ILC (11.8%) and 1790 patients with IDC. AUS patients were older (p patients. As expected, ILC tumors were lower in grade and proliferative rate, and more often ER-positive and HER2-negative, than IDC (p 0.7). Moreover, whereas IDC tumors exhibited a strongly negative relationship between ER/PR and Ki67 status (p 0.6). These data imply that the primary adhesion defect in ILC underlies a secondary stromal-epithelial disconnect between hormonal signaling and tumor growth, suggesting in turn that this peritumoral feedback defect could reduce both the antimetastatic (adjuvant) and tumorilytic (palliative) efficacy of cytotoxic therapies for such tumors. Hence, we caution against assuming similar adjuvant chemotherapeutic survival benefits for ILC and IDC tumors with similar ER and Ki67, whether based on immunohistochemical or gene expression assays.

  2. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Both short and long inter-pregnancy intervals have been associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More so, short interpregnancy interval among HIVpositive women implies higher birth rate and subsequently a higher number of neonates exposed to HIV and potentially at r i s k o f mo t h e r ...

  3. Thrombophilia and Pregnancy Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise E. Simcox

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of strong evidence associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and thrombophilia in pregnancy. These problems include both early (recurrent miscarriage and late placental vascular-mediated problems (fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption and intra-uterine growth restriction. Due to poor quality case-control and cohort study designs, there is often an increase in the relative risk of these complications associated with thrombophilia, particularly recurrent early pregnancy loss, late fetal loss and pre-eclampsia, but the absolute risk remains very small. It appears that low-molecular weight heparin has other benefits on the placental vascular system besides its anticoagulant properties. Its use is in the context of antiphospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss and also in women with implantation failure to improve live birth rates. There is currently no role for low-molecular weight heparin to prevent late placental-mediated complications in patients with inherited thrombophilia and this may be due to small patient numbers in the studies involved in summarising the evidence. There is potential for low-molecular weight heparin to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with prior severe vascular complications of pregnancy such as early-onset intra-uterine growth restriction and pre-eclampsia but further high quality randomised controlled trials are required to answer this question.

  4. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rortveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2007-04-01

    To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence, in addition to type, frequency, and amount of incontinence. Potential risk factors were investigated by logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of incontinence increased from 26% before pregnancy to 58% in week 30. The corresponding figures for nulliparous women were 15% and 48%, and for parous women 35% and 67%. The cumulative incidence was 46%. Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type of incontinence in week 30 of pregnancy, experienced by 31% of nulliparous and 42% of parous women. The majority of pregnant women had leakage less than once per week and droplets only, both before and during pregnancy. Parity was a strong and significant risk factor for incontinence in adjusted analyses both before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-2.7 for primiparous and OR 3.3, 95% CI 3.1-3.5 for multiparous women) and during pregnancy (ORs 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.1 and 2.1, 95% CI 2.0-2.2, respectively). Age and body mass index were weaker, but still statistically significant, risk factors. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increases substantially during pregnancy. Incontinence both before and during pregnancy seems to be associated with parity, age, and body mass index. II.

  5. The effects of serum concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 in early follicular phase on follicular growth parameters and pregnancy rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Raoofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many studies have showed the role of androgens on the follicular maturation. The present study investigated the effect of serum concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 in the early follicular phase on the results of the ovulation induction (I/O and intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles. Materials and methods: This prospective observational cross-sectional study was carried out in the infertility department of a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. The case’s selection was based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and was nonrandomized. 59 patients under the age of 45 who were candidate for induction ovulation (I/O or intrauterine insemination were included. The inclusion criteria consist of infertility for at least one year and at least one open tube in HSG. Patients were excluded if they had polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis. The serum concentration of androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione, LH and IGF1 was measured on the third day of menstruation. Clomiphene and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG were drugs of induction ovulation. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG was injected when there was at least one follicle with the size of (18 mm. IUI was done 36 h later for eligible patients and the relation of concentration of androgens, LH and IGF1 with follicular growth parameters and pregnancy rate was analyzed. Results: There was not any statistical significant link between the number and size of follicles with levels of free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, IGF1 and LH. There was not any statistical significant link between the number of follicles in the ovaries and levels of testosterone (P = 0.090 and r = 0.223, dehydroepiandrosterone (P = 0.642 and r = 0.062 and androstenedione (P = 0.526 and r = 0.084, IGF1 (P = 0.470 and r = 0.096 and LH (P = 0.446 and r = 0.102. There was not any statistical significant link between the mean follicular

  6. [Sports and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Karl Oliver; Kuhn, Ulrich

    2004-06-01

    MATERNAL ASPECTS: Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in pregnant women generally don't differ from those in nonpregnant women. Impairment of the cabability of the uteroplacental unit to maintain a sufficient oxygen and substrate supply to the fetus should be avoided by performing exercise in a submaximal range. Increase in body weight, a shift of the center of gravidity, and the ligamentous laxity in pregnancy lead to a certain joint instability and consecutively to an increased risk of injury. Therefore contact sports and sports with a high potential of injury are not suitable in pregnancy. Furthermore the beneficial effects of exercise on glucose metabolism especially in pregnant women with an impaired glusose tolerance, psychological well-being, delivery, and lactation are discussed. Exercise results in an elevation of the fetal heart rate. So far no pathological heart rate alterations could be observed. There are controversial findings concerning the influence of exercise on birth weight. Actually no retardation below the 10th percentile could be demonstrated. To prevent pregnancy complications like preterm labour or placental abruption exercises with a risk of blunt abdominal trauma are not recommended in the 2nd and 3rd trimester. Additionally the effects of exercise on embryogenesis and the possible implications of hyperthermia are presented. In general, pregnant women should practise exercise in a moderate, i. e. submaximal aerobic range. Preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases and pregnancy pathologies have to be considered as contraindications. Thus gestational age adapted exercise represents a safe and effective support for mother and fetus. Recommendations concerning exercise in pregnancy underwent significant changes during the past three decades. Today there is a lot of evidence for the beneficial effects of moderate exercise in pregnancy even in formerly inactive women. This review first presents aspects of maternal and fetal physiology with

  7. High rates of Unintended Pregnancies among Young Women Sex Workers in Conflict-affected Northern Uganda: The Social Contexts of Brothels/Lodges and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Putu; Muzaaya, Godfrey; Muldoon, Katherine; Dobrer, Sabina; Akello, Monika; Birungi, Josephine; Shannon, Kate

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlates of unintended pregnancies among young women sex workers in conflict-affected northern Uganda. Data were drawn from the Gulu Sexual Health Study, a cross-sectional study of young women engaged in sex work. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the correlates of ever having an unintended pregnancy. Among 400 sex workers (median age=20 years; IQR 19-25), 175 (43.8%) reported at least one unintended pregnancy. In multivariable analysis, primarily servicing clients in lodges/brothels [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR= 2.24; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-4.84)], hormonal contraceptive usage [AOR=1.68; 95%CI 1.11-2.59] and drug/alcohol use while working [AOR= 1.64; 95%CI 1.04-2.60] were positively correlated with previous unintended pregnancy. Given that unintended pregnancy is an indicator of unmet reproductive health need, these findings highlight a need for improved access to integrated reproductive health and HIV services, catered to sex workers' needs. Sex work-led strategies (e.g., peer outreach) should be considered, alongside structural strategies and education targeting brothel/lodge owners and managers.

  8. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... data. Highlights of some of our research follow Obesity In the United States, obesity during pregnancy is ... trial among adults with glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Results identified intervention strategies that reduced the ...

  9. Pregnancy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have few or mild symptoms during pregnancy. Many women work their full term and travel while they are pregnant. Others may have to cut back on their hours or stop working. Some women require bed rest ...

  10. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the baby, making plans for relatives or an adoptive family to raise the baby, or terminating the pregnancy. ... The decision to place a baby with an adoptive family is legal and binding. However, most states do ...

  11. Freqüência Cardíaca Fetal durante o Primeiro Trimestre da Gestação Fetal Heart Rate in the First Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Pettersen

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: estabelecer curva de normalidade da freqüência cardíaca fetal (FCF entre a 10ª e a 14ª semana de gestação. Métodos: a FCF foi avaliada em 1078 fetos entre 10 e 14 semanas de gestação. Para uma melhor correlação da FCF com a idade gestacional, os fetos foram divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com a idade gestacional: Grupo I (10 semanas, Grupo II (11 semanas, Grupo III (12 semanas e Grupo IV (13 semanas. Por meio de corte sagital, o coração fetal foi visualizado e o registro da FCF foi realizado usando Modo-B e Modo-M em tempo real. Calculou-se a FCF média eletronicamente por meio da colocação dos cálipers que registravam 3 ciclos consecutivos. Resultados: a FCF variou entre 136 e 178 bpm entre os 1078 fetos estudados. Construiu-se uma curva de normalidade estabelecendo-se a mediana e os percentis 5 e 95 da FCF para cada grupo. No Grupo I a FCF variou de 158 a 184 bpm; no Grupo II, de 155 a 175 bpm; no Grupo III, de 152 a 172 bpm; no Grupo IV, de 149 a 168 bpm. Houve diminuição progressiva e significativa da FCF com o avanço da idade gestacional durante o período estudado. Conclusões: a avaliação da FCF no primeiro trimestre de gestação é um procedimento simples e que deve ser analisado não só na sua forma qualitativa (batimentos cardíacos fetais rítmicos mas também na sua forma quantitativa, já que trabalhos publicados mostram a sua relação com o prognóstico fetal.Purpose: to determine normal ranges for fetal heart rate (FHR between the 10th and 14th week of pregnancy. Methods: a total of 1078 fetuses within a crown-rump length (CRL from the 10th to the 14th week of pregnancy were evaluated. The fetuses were divided into 4 groups: Group I (10 weeks, Group II (11 weeks, Group III (12 weeks, Group IV (13 weeks. The fetal heart was seen using B-mode/M-mode at a sagital plane and FHR was recorded. FHR was electronically calculated using calipers within 3 consecutive cycles without fetal moveiments

  12. Cysteamine supplementation during in vitro maturation of slaughterhouse- and opu-derived bovine oocytes improves embryonic development without affecting cryotolerance, pregnancy rate, and calf characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merton, J S; Knijn, H M; Flapper, H; Dotinga, F; Roelen, B A J; Vos, P L A M; Mullaart, E

    2013-09-01

    .2%-19.3% vs. 26.4%). The presence of cysteamine during IVM of OPU-derived COCs also significantly increased the embryo production rate (34.4% vs. 23.4%). The higher number of embryos was again totally due to an increased number of blastocysts, whereas cryotolerance was not affected. The relative increase in embryo production rate was higher with OPU-derived oocytes compared with slaughterhouse-derived COCs (47% vs. 24%). This improvement resulted in a mean of 1.73 transferable embryos per OPU session compared with 1.06 in the absence of cysteamine. The presence of cysteamine did not affect pregnancy rate, gestation length, birth weight, perinatal mortality, and sex of calves born from either fresh or frozen-thawed embryos. This study reported that cysteamine supplementation during IVM greatly improved the efficiency and affectivity of an OPU-IVP program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cogitação e prática do aborto entre jovens em contexto de interdição legal: o avesso da gravidez na adolescência Considering and submitting to abortion among young people in the context of legal prohibition: the hidden side of teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ouvinha Peres

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva desvelar a presença da idéia do aborto como elemento do âmbito das reflexões dos jovens sobre uma gravidez na adolescência. Analisam-se dados de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 123 jovens de 18 a 24 anos de ambos os sexos, moradores de Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro e Salvador, Brasil, pertencentes a distintos estratos sociais. A partir de informações sobre as circunstâncias amorosas, sexuais e reprodutivas dos entrevistados, foi construída uma tipologia das experiências de aborto, em um gradiente que vai desde a cogitação, a tentativa de concretizá-lo, sua realização e até a exclusão da possibilidade de interrupção da gestação. Os dados apontam que 73% dos jovens considerou a possibilidade do aborto, demonstrando uma expressiva presença da idéia desse recurso face à gravidez não prevista, mesmo em contexto de ilegalidade. Entre os 86 jovens com experiência de gestação, 27 declararam a prática do aborto, sendo vinte rapazes e sete moças. Os resultados indicam diferenças relativas ao gênero e contribuem para a compreensão da gravidez na adolescência ao examinar o aborto induzido, dimensão encoberta no debate público e científico sobre o tema.This article aims to unveil the notion of abortion as an element in young people's thoughts on teenage pregnancy. The study analyzes data from semi-structured interviews with 123 young men and women 18-24 years of age in Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, and Salvador, Brazil, belonging to different social strata. Based on information concerning their affective, sexual, and reproductive circumstances, an abortion typology was established with a gradient ranging from considering the act to the attempt to materialize it, actually submitting to abortion, and even ruling out the possibility of interrupting the pregnancy. According to the data, 73% of interviewees had considered the possibility of an abortion, demonstrating an important presence of this notion

  14. Pregnancy during Adolescence and Associated Risks: An 8-Year Hospital-Based Cohort Study (2007–2014 in Romania, the Country with the Highest Rate of Teenage Pregnancy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetra-Gabriela Socolov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine pregnancy and delivery outcomes among teenagers. Materials and Methods. An 8-year retrospective comparative hospital-based cohort study is analysing singleton pregnancy comorbidities and delivery parameters of a teenage group under the age of 20 compared with a young adult group 20–24 years of age in a university hospital. Results. Teenage is a risk factor for preterm birth <37 weeks (1.21 [1.08–1.35], foetal growth restriction (1.34 [1.21–1.48], episiotomy (1.27 [1.21–1.34], uterine revision (1.15 [1.06–1.25], APGAR <7 at 1 min (2.42 [1.21–1.67], cephalopelvic disproportion (1.26 [1.07–1.48], and postpartum haemorrhage (1.42 [1.25–1.62]; however, caesarean delivery occurs less frequently in teenagers than in adults (0.75 [0.70–0.80]. The following comorbidities are risk factors for teenage pregnancy (risk ratio [CI 95%]: anaemia (1.13 [1.10–1.17], low urinary tract infection (1.10 [1.03–1.18], pediculosis (2.42 [1.90–3.00], anogenital condyloma (1.50 [1.04–2.17], and trichomoniasis (1.74 [1.12–2.68]. The risks for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, premature rupture of membranes, and placenta praevia were lower compared with those in the young adult group, respectively, 0.43 (0.26–0.71, 0.90 (0.85–0.96, and 0.29 (0.20–0.41, while the risk for gestational diabetes and preeclampsia were the same in both groups. Conclusion. Considering the high risks for teenage pregnancy, this information should be provided to pregnant adolescent women and their caregivers.

  15. Loratadine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loratadine more frequently during pregnancy. Can taking loratadine cause other pregnancy problems? Loratadine is not expected to cause other pregnancy problems. A study of 161 women taking loratadine ...

  16. High rates of same-sex attraction/gender nonconformity in the offspring of mothers with thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy: proposal of prenatal thyroid model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sabuncuoglu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65% males and 270 (35% females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8% were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2% had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test. The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test. There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring.

  17. Early pregnancy azathioprine use and pregnancy outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Azathioprine (AZA) is used during pregnancy by women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), other autoimmune disorders, malignancy, and organ transplantation. Previous studies have demonstrated potential risks. METHODS: The Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to identify 476 women who reported the use of AZA in early pregnancy. The effect of AZA exposure on pregnancy outcomes was studied after adjustment for maternal characteristics that could act as confounders. RESULTS: The most common indication for AZA use was IBD. The rate of congenital malformations was 6.2% in the AZA group and 4.7% among all infants born (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.98-2.04). An association between early pregnancy AZA exposure and ventricular\\/atrial septal defects was found (adjusted OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.45-6.04). Exposed infants were also more likely to be preterm, to weigh <2500 gm, and to be small for gestational age compared to all infants born. This effect remained for preterm birth and low birth weight when infants of women with IBD but without AZA exposure were used as a comparison group. A trend toward an increased risk of congenital malformations was found among infants of women with IBD using AZA compared to women with IBD not using AZA (adjusted OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 0.93-2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Infants exposed to AZA in early pregnancy may be at a moderately increased risk of congenital malformations, specifically ventricular\\/atrial septal defects. There is also an increased risk of growth restriction and preterm delivery. These associations may be confounded by the severity of maternal illness.

  18. Diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feig, Denice S; Corcoy, Rosa; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rising rates of diabetes in pregnancy have led to an escalation in research in this area. As in any area of clinical research, outcome definitions vary from study to study, making it difficult to compare research findings and draw conclusions. Our aim was to compile and create...... a repository of definitions, which could then be used universally. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed of published and ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the area of diabetes in pregnancy between Jan 1, 2000 and June 1, 2012. Other sources included the World Health...... Organization and Academic Society Statements. The advice of experts was sought when appropriate definitions were lacking. RESULTS: Among the published RCTs on diabetes and pregnancy, 171 abstracts were retrieved, 64 full texts were reviewed, and 53 were included. Among the ongoing RCTs published in Clinical...

  19. Efeito da duração do tratamento com progestágeno e da maturidade sexual na taxa de prenhez em novilhas de corte: avaliação econômica e biológica Effect of the duration of progestagen exposure and sexual maturity on the pregnancy rate of beef heifers: economic and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2009-07-01

    - month old Bradford heifers were classified, according treatment and sexual maturity, in 4 groups: PPLPG (prepubertal long exposure to P4, n=21, PPSPG (prepubertal short exposure to P4, n=19, PLPG (pubertal long exposure to P4, n=34 and PSPG (pubertal short exposure to P4, n=40. On day -8, the heifers from PPLPG (prepubertal long exposure to progestagen and PLPG (pubertal long exposure to progestagen received an intravaginal sponge impregnated with medroxiprogesterone acetate (MAP. On day 0 the sponge was removed and a new sponge was inserted, together with an injection of 2.5 mg estradiol benzoate (EB. On day 8 the sponge was removed and the heifers received an injection of 0.5 mg EB and 250 ìg sodium cloprostenol. The TAI was performed 54 hours after sponge withdrawal. The heifers from PPSPG and PSPG received the same synchronization treatment, except for the additional MAP from day -8 to day 0. The pregnancy rate was higher in pubertal (60.3% than in pre-pubertal (35.0% heifers. However, there was no effect of the duration of treatment in the pregnancy rate between pubertal and prepubertal heifers. The second part of this study aimed to evaluate the economical return of the protocols and compare them with the traditional breeding system at 26 months of age. A better economic response with the use of protocols associating P4 in heifers at 16 months was observed compared to the traditional system at 26 months of age. The prolonged exposure to P4 did not improved pregnancy rate in heifers submitted to TAI.

  20. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  1. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  2. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, July 2017 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  3. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  4. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ...

  5. Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy has sub items, Reproductive Health & Teen Pregnancy Contraceptive Use STDs Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Trends Negative Impacts Strategies & Approaches for Prevention Engaging Adolescent Males in Prevention Tips for Parents of Teens ...

  6. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum ... Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum ...

  7. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  8. Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Rheumatic Disease Pregnancy & Rheumatic Disease Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Diseases with the potential to affect ... control. What are the effects of pregnancy on rheumatic disease? The effects of pregnancy on rheumatic diseases vary ...

  9. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  10. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

  11. Caffeine in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Nutrition, weight & fitness > Caffeine in pregnancy Caffeine in pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  12. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  13. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  14. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  15. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. Radiation and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  17. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  18. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  19. Pregnancy week by week

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  20. Cystic Fibrosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  1. Pregnancy After Age 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  2. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  3. Your Checkup Before Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  4. Syphilis in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. Pregnancy Complications: HELLP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  6. Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  7. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  8. Getting Ready for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  9. Listeria and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Listeria and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Listeria and Pregnancy ... Pregnancy PFS013, January 2017 PDF Format Listeria and Pregnancy Fact Sheets Food Poisoning in Pregnant Women The ...

  10. Pulmão e gravidez Pregnancy and lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês A C Gonçalves Marcos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A patologia respiratória é relativamente frequente durante a gravidez. Um terço das grávidas sofrem exacerbação da asma. O tromboembolismo pulmonar é cerca de 5 vezes mais frequente na gravidez. As pneumonias bacterianas, virais e fúngicas são mal toleradas pela grávida, provocando significativa morbilidade materno-fetal, insuficiência respiratória, baixo peso ao nascer ou prematuridade. A tuberculose, se não for tratada, pode aumentar em 4 vezes a mortalidade materna e em 9 vezes o parto pré-termo. A gravidez está contra-indicada em mulheres com fibrose quística e função pulmonar grave. Apesar dos progressos terapêuticos, a hipertensão pulmonar continua a estar associada a valores superiores a 30% de morbilidade e mortalidade materno-fetal. Aproximadamente 1 em 1000-1500 gravidezes é complicada por neoplasia maligna materna. O cancro do pulmão nas grávidas coloca desafios terapêuticos importantes devido às elevadas taxas de mortalidade.Respiratory pathology can be relatively frequent during pregnancy. One third of pregnant woman may experience worsening of their asthma condition. Pulmonary tromboembolism is 5 times more frequent in pregnancy. Bacterial, viral and fungal pneumonias are baddly tolerated during pregnancy, provoking mother-foetal morbidity, respiratory insufficiency, low born-weight or prematurity. Non-treated tuberculosis may increase maternal mortality and preterm birth by 4 and 9 times respectively. Pregnancy is counter-indicated in women with cystic fibrosis and severe pulmonary function. Despite therapeutic progresses already made, pulmonary hypertension is associated to over 30% of mother-foetal morbidity and mortality. Approximately 1 in 1,000-1,500 pregnancies is affected by mother cancer. High rates of lung cancer morbility in women bring new and important challenges to therapy.

  11. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Teen pregnancy prevention: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Claudia; Cox, Joanne E

    2012-08-01

    Teen pregnancy has been subject of public concern for many years. In the United States, despite nearly 2 decades of declining teen pregnancy and birth rates, the problem persists, with significant disparities present across racial groups and in state-specific rates. This review examines recent trends, pregnancy prevention initiatives and family planning policies that address the special needs of vulnerable youth. Unintended teen pregnancies impose potentially serious social and health burdens on teen parents and their children, as well as costs to society. Trends in teen pregnancy and birth rates show continued decline, but state and racial disparities have widened. Demographic factors and policy changes have contributed to these disparities. Research supports comprehensive pregnancy prevention initiatives that are multifaceted and promote consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for youth at risk of becoming pregnant. There is strong consensus that effective teen pregnancy prevention strategies should be multifaceted, focusing on delay of sexual activity especially in younger teens while promoting consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for those youth who are or plan to be sexually active. There is a need for further research to identify effective interventions for vulnerable populations.

  13. Perfil de adolescentes com repetição da gravidez atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal Perfil de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal Profile of adolescents with repeated pregnancies attended at a prenatal clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Persona

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho identificou o perfil biopsicossocial das adolescentes com repetição da gravidez, atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal. Os dados obtidos através do prontuário médico e entrevista foram analisados quantitativamente. Através dos resultados encontrados e de acordo com a literatura, foram selecionados, do perfil das adolescentes, fatores mais fortemente associados à ocorrência da repetição da gravidez. São eles: menarca precoce, primeira relação sexual após curto intervalo da menarca, repetência escolar, abandono escolar, ausência de ocupação remunerada, baixa renda familiar, envolvimento com parceiros mais velhos, residir com o parceiro, união consensual com o parceiro, um parceiro fixo, baixo uso de condon, história familiar de gravidez na adolescência, ausência do pai por morte ou abandono, reação positiva da família à gravidez anterior, aborto anterior, parto anterior bem conceituado pela adolescente, e ausência à revisão pós-parto anterior.Este trabajo identificó el perfil biopsicosocial de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo, atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal. Los datos obtenidos por medio del prontuario médico y entrevista, fueron analizados cuantitativamente. Por medio de los resultados y de acuerdo con la literatura, fueron seleccionados, entre los perfiles de las adolescentes, factores más fuertemente asociados a la ocurrencia de la repetición del embarazo. Ellos son: menarca precoz; primera relación sexual tras corto intervalo de la menarca; repetición escolar; abandono escolar; ausencia de ocupación remunerada; baja renta familiar; envolvimiento con parejas más viejas; residir con la pareja; unión consensual con la pareja; pareja fija; bajo uso de condón; historia familiar de embarazo en la adolescencia; ausencia del padre por muerte o abandono; reacción positiva de la familia al embarazo anterior; aborto anterior; parto anterior bien conceptuado por la adolescente

  14. Pregnancy outcome of home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaberi Banerjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconsummated marriage are mainly due to vaginismus or erectile dysfunction. They contribute to about 5% of couples in an infertility clinic. Their incidence is increasing in the metropolitan cities because of stressful lifestyles. Many of couples are advised intrauterine insemination as fertility treatment. However, home insemination is a simple, inexpensive and effective way of achieving pregnancy in such couples. We present the first study to document pregnancy rates of artificial home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage. Aim: To assess the pregnancy rates (PR with intravaginal insemination (IVI by couples with nonconsummation of marriage. Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic, New Delhi. Design: Retrospective analysis. Material and Methods: 55 couples of unconsummated marriage were evaluated in a period of two years. Group 1 contains 29 patients aged between 20 to 33 years; group 2 includes 14 patients aged between 33 to 36 years and group 3 includes 12 patients aged more than 36 years. Result(s: Unconsummated marriage was caused by vaginismus in 67% of the cases, erectile dysfunction in 22% and premature ejaculation in 11%. Clinical pregnancy rate was 69% in group 1; 43% in group 2 and 25% in group 3 after 6 cycles of AI. Conclusion(s: Intravaginal insemination is a simple, short, economical, effective and painless procedure for conception in nonconsummation of marriage.

  15. Pregnancy Outcome of Home Intravaginal Insemination in Couples with Unconsummated Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kaberi; Singla, Bhavana

    2017-01-01

    Unconsummated marriage are mainly due to vaginismus or erectile dysfunction. They contribute to about 5% of couples in an infertility clinic. Their incidence is increasing in the metropolitan cities because of stressful lifestyles. Many of couples are advised intrauterine insemination as fertility treatment. However, home insemination is a simple, inexpensive and effective way of achieving pregnancy in such couples. We present the first study to document pregnancy rates of artificial home intravaginal insemination in couples with unconsummated marriage. Aim: To assess the pregnancy rates (PR) with intravaginal insemination (IVI) by couples with nonconsummation of marriage. Setting: Infertility outpatient clinic, New Delhi. Design: Retrospective analysis. Material and Methods: 55 couples of unconsummated marriage were evaluated in a period of two years. Group 1 contains 29 patients aged between 20 to 33 years; group 2 includes 14 patients aged between 33 to 36 years and group 3 includes 12 patients aged more than 36 years. Result(s): Unconsummated marriage was caused by vaginismus in 67% of the cases, erectile dysfunction in 22% and premature ejaculation in 11%. Clinical pregnancy rate was 69% in group 1; 43% in group 2 and 25% in group 3 after 6 cycles of AI. Conclusion(s): Intravaginal insemination is a simple, short, economical, effective and painless procedure for conception in nonconsummation of marriage. PMID:29430157

  16. Pregnancy In Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazian

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Correction of the uremic state by a functioning allograft often restores fertility in women of reproductive age. The rate of fertility significantly differs between industrial countries, developing and middle east countries.On the other hand the results of pregnancy in Kidney Transplantation (KTP patients are significantly better than hemodialysis patients,and pregnancy most often has no side effects on the function of the transplanted kidney.Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the rate of fertility and results of pregnancy among KTP women, and the assessment of the function of transplanted kidneys during pregnancy among those who have received kidneys in Golestan Hospital from 1996 to 2003. Methods: All the transplanted women in child bearing age who were interested in accepting pregnancy were involved in this study. After pregnancy, all the patients were visited twice a month until the 32nd week of pregnancy and their histories were taken and regular clinical examination and necessary paraclinical assessments were carried out. After the 32nd week, they were visited weekly and other necessary assessments were done in addition to previous measures. Taking immunosuppressive drugs was continued with a minor dose reduction and consumption of harmful drugs like some antihypertensives was prohibited. Results: 16 out of 48 women who were at child bearing age and were interested in pregnancy got pregnant and totally 22 cases of pregnancy occurred. Four cases resulted in spontaneous or therapeutic abortion and 3 out of 18 remaining cases had intrauterine fetal death and the others had successful pregnancy. The most common complication was LBW and following that premature labor. Maternal complications were no more than the general population and the function of the transplanted kidney had no decline in most of the cases. Conclusion:Based on what was mentioned,it is concluded that successful KTP can increase the chance of

  17. Marked improvement in the success rate of medical management of early pregnancy failure following the implementation of a novel institutional protocol and treatment guidelines: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleselli, V; Nell, T; Bartosik, T; Brunner, C; Ciresa-Koenig, A; Wildt, L; Marth, C; Seeber, B

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the success rate, time to passage of tissue and subjective patient experience of a newly implemented protocol for medical management of early pregnancy failure (EPF) over a 2-year period. A retrospective chart review of all patients with early pregnancy failure primarily opting for medical management was performed. 200 mg mifepristone were administered orally, followed by a single vaginal dose of 800 mcg misoprostol after 36-48 h. We followed-up with our patients using a written questionnaire. 167 women were included in the present study. We observed an overall success rate of 92 %, defined as no need for surgical management after medication administration. We could not identify predictive values for success in a multivariate regression analysis. Most patients (84 %) passed tissue within 6 h after misoprostol administration. The protocol was well tolerated with a low incidence of side effects. Pain was managed well with sufficient analgesics. Responders to the questionnaire felt adequately informed prior to treatment and rated their overall experience as positive. The adaption of the institutional medical protocol resulted in a marked improvement of success rate when compared to the previously used protocol (92 vs. 61 %). We credit this increase to the adjusted medication schema as well as to targeted physician education on the expected course and interpretation of outcome measures. Our results underscore that the medical management of EPF is a safe and effective alternative to surgical evacuation in the clinical setting.

  18. The frequency of clinical pregnancy and implantation rate after cultivation of embryos in a medium with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with preceding failed attempts of ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevkin, S; Lokshin, V; Shishimorova, M; Polumiskov, V

    2014-10-01

    The application in IVF practice of modern techniques can improve positive outcome of each cycle in the assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs and the effectiveness of treatment as a whole. There are embryos in the female reproductive tract in physiological medium which contain various cytokines and growth factors. It plays an important role in the regulation of normal embryonic development, improve implantation and subsequently optimizing the development of the fetus and the placenta. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF is one of the cytokines playing an important role in reproductive function. Addition of recombinant GM-CSF to the culture medium can makes closer human embryos culture to in vivo conditions and improve the efficacy ART cycles. The analysis of culture embryos in EmbryoGen medium has shown that fertilization rate embryo culture and transfer to patients with previous unsuccessful attempts increases clinical pregnancy rate compared to the control group 39.1 versus 27.8%, respectively. It is noted that the implantation rate (on 7 weeks' gestation) and progressive clinical pregnancy rate (on 12 weeks' gestation) were significantly higher in group embryos culture in EmbryoGen medium compared to standard combination of medium (ISM1+VA), and were 20.4 and 17.4% versus 11.6 and 9.1%, respectively.

  19. PREGNANCY DERMATOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Priscilla Katta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological status of a woman. Every organ is adapting in order to accept another human body. The main changes occur in the endocrine, immune, metabolic and vascular systems. The skin is no exception. Many skin changes during pregnancy are considered to be normal or physiological including striae gravidarum or melasma. These physiological skin changes are usually well tolerated by the pregnant woman. There is no balance between these systems, however, and abnormalities can appear. Immunologic status of the woman plays an important role in the manifestations exhibited in the skin. Alterations of the skin during pregnancy can be classified as physiologic skin changes, changes in pre-existing skin diseases and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 pregnant women with skin manifestations attending Dermatology and Obstetric departments attached to Government General Hospital, Kurnool, were studied. 1. A detailed proforma was taken, which included: a. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. b. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. c. Complete general physical and systemic examination. d. Associated skin/medical disorders. 2. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBsAg, VDRL, HIV 1 and 2 were done routinely. 3. KOH mount, saline mount and skin biopsy performed wherever required. Inclusion criteria- All pregnant women having skin lesions were included in the study irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and gravidity. Exclusion criteria- Pregnant women having any underlying medical diseases. All pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted into wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at KIMS Hospital are studied. 1. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. 2. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. 3. Complete general physical and systemic examination. 4. Associated skin/medical disorders. 5. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBs

  20. Anomalous enhancement of nuclear spin relaxation rates of 109Ag and 115In at low temperatures in cubic Γ3 ground-state system PrAg2In. First observation of octupole fluctuations of f-electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanida, Hiroshi; Takagi, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroyuki S.; Satoh, Isamu; Komatsubara, Takemi

    2006-01-01

    Microscopic properties have been investigated on a cubic nonmagnetic non-Kramers Γ 3 doublet ground-state (GS) system PrAg 2 In by complementarily utilizing 115 In (I=9/2) and 109 Ag (I=1/2) NMR with particular emphasis on the low-frequency (low-ω) dipole and multipole (octupole and/or quadrupole) fluctuations of f-electrons as probed by the nuclear spin relaxation rates 1/ 115 T 1 and 1/ 109 T 1 . We show that 1/ 115 T 1 and 1/ 109 T 1 are anomalously enhanced respectively below≅50 K and ≅100K over those expected for the low-ω dipole fluctuations of the excited magnetic Γ 4 and Γ 5 states in a simple crystalline-electric-field model for a Γ 3 GS system. By comparing 1/( 115 T 1 T) and 1/( 109 T 1 T) and also by considering an invariant form of the hyperfine and/or quadrupole couplings of Γ 3 octupole and/or quadrupole moments with Ag/In nuclear dipole and/or quadrupole moments, we show that Γ 3 octupole fluctuations dominate 1/ 109 T 1 and quadrupole ones can possibly contribute to 1/ 115 T 1 at low T. (author)

  1. Pregnancy Outcomes Among Patients With Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowse, Megan E. B.; Richeson, Rachel L.; Pieper, Carl; Merkel, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pregnancy outcomes of patients with vasculitis are unknown, but are of great concern to patients and physicians. Through an online survey, this study assessed pregnancy outcomes among patients with vasculitis. Methods Participants in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium Patient Contact Registry were invited to respond to an anonymous, internet-based survey that included questions about pregnancy outcomes, the timing of pregnancy relative to a diagnosis of vasculitis, and medication use. Results A total of 350 women and 113 men completed the survey. After a diagnosis of vasculitis, 74 pregnancies were reported by women and 18 conceptions were reported by men. The rate of pregnancy loss was higher among women who conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis compared to those who conceived prior to diagnosis (33.8% versus 22.4%; P = 0.04). Among women, the rate of preterm births increased significantly for pregnancies conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis relative to those conceived before diagnosis (23.3% versus 11.4%; P = 0.03). Only 18% of women reported worsening of vasculitis during pregnancy, but those who experienced increased vasculitis activity were more likely to deliver preterm. Exposure to cyclophosphamide or prednisone did not appear to impact pregnancy outcomes; however, the number of pregnancies among women taking these medications was small. Among the pregnancies conceived by men with vasculitis, the timing of diagnosis had no significant effect on the rate of pregnancy loss. Conclusion Women who conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis had a higher rate of pregnancy loss than those who conceived prior to diagnosis. Vasculitis did not worsen during the majority of pregnancies conceived after diagnosis. PMID:23401494

  2. Heart rate response and rating of perceived exertion in novice subjects during Indoor Cycling Session Respuesta de la frecuencia cardiaca y percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo en principiantes, durante la práctica de ciclismo Indoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Cycling has become a popular cardio-vascular activity for group exercise classes in the fitness centers. The purposes of this study were to measure the heart rate response and rating of perceived exertion in novice subjects performing a 45-min indoor cycling session. Fifty-nine subjects volunteered ranged from 13 to 48 years (mean ± SD, age: 32.1 ± 10.2 years old were recruited from the clients of a private fitness club. They participated in a 45-min Spinning cycle indoor session. Heart rate was measured during the session and the overall rating of perceived exertion (overall-RPE was measured to finish the session. The indoor cycling session was comprised of a warm-up (10 min, followed by a 25 min trial (cardiovascular phase of flat, run, seated climb and standing climb activities, followed by a cool down (10 min. The mean values of percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR and overall-RPE in the session were 62.1% ± 10.5% and 14.2 ± 1.8 point, respectively. The most time of the session was associated to moderate and hard intensities. The intensity during indoor cycling class in novice adults ranged from moderate to hard values. These data suggest that indoor cycling must be considered a high-intensity exercise mode of exercise for novice subjects.

    Key Words: indoor cycling; RPE; cardiovascular exercise; fitness.

    El Ciclismo Indoor es una actividad para practicar ejercicio físico de manera colectiva muy popular en los centros de fitness. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta de la frecuencia cardiaca, las intensidades alcanzadas y la percepción de esfuerzo percibida en sujetos principiantes durante una sesión de ciclismo indoor. Cincuenta y nueve sujetos voluntarios, de un centro deportivo privado, con edades de 13 a 48 años (media ± desviación típica: 32,1 ± 10,2 años participaron en este estudio. La frecuencia cardiaca fue registrada durante toda la sesi

  3. Sleep disorders in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Eliane Aversa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The precise function of sleep in animals and human beings is still unknown, and any sort of physical, social or psychological variation may change the normal sleep-wake cycle. PURPOSE: This research aims is to determine the sleep disorders (SD for each of the three trimesters of the pregnancy comparing them to the pre-pregnancy state (PG. METHOD: SD were investigated in three hundred pregnant women 11- to 40-years-old through with a brief clinical interview based on directed questions. One hundred pregnant women were considered for each trimester. RESULTS: The rate of pregnant women with insomnia increased by 23% in the 2nd trimester (p< 0.005; the rate for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS by 15% in the 1st trimester (p<0.003, 55% in the 2nd trimester (p<0.001 and by 14% in the 3rd trimester (p<0.002; the rate for mild sleepiness increased by 33% in the 2nd trimester (p<0.002 and by 48% in the 3rd trimester (p<0.001; the rate for specific awakenings increased by 63% in the 1st trimester, by 80% in the 2nd trimester and by 84% in the 3rd trimester (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: SD were more frequent during pregnancy comparatively to PG state, mostly at the expenses of EDS and specific awakenings.

  4. Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nathalie; O'Driscoll, Teresa; Becker, Gisela; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-08-01

    To describe the needs and evidence-based practice specific to care of the pregnant adolescent in Canada, including special populations. Healthy pregnancies for adolescent women in Canada, with culturally sensitive and age-appropriate care to ensure the best possible outcomes for these young women and their infants and young families, and to reduce repeat pregnancy rates. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library on May 23, 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Pregnancy in Adolescence) and key words (e.g., pregnancy, teen, youth). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Results were limited to English or French language materials published in or after 1990. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to July 6, 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, national and international medical specialty societies, and clinical practice guideline collections. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). BENEFITS/HARMS/COSTS: These guidelines are designed to help practitioners caring for adolescent women during pregnancy in Canada and allow them to take the best care of these young women in a manner appropriate for their age, cultural backgrounds, and risk profiles. 1. Health care providers should adapt their prenatal care for adolescents and offer multidisciplinary care that is easily accessible to the adolescent early in the pregnancy, recognizing that adolescents often present to care later than their adult counterparts. A model that provides an opportunity to address all of these needs at one site may be the preferred model of care for pregnant adolescents. (II-1A) 2. Health

  5. An Update on Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R; Bramlett, Traci

    2016-02-01

    After years of high teen birth rates, there is currently a decline in U.S. pregnancy and birth rates among teens. Nevertheless, these rates continue to be higher than those of most global counterparts, and psychosocial and physical adversities still occur for pregnant teens and their children. The declining birth rates may be due to teens making better choices about contraceptive use and sexual behaviors. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are in key positions to enhance pregnancy prevention for teens. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 25-28.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Pregnancy outcome in patients with pityriasis rosea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Broccolo, Francesco; Zaccaria, Elisa; Malnati, Mauro; Cocuzza, Clementina; Lusso, Paolo; Rebora, Alfredo

    2008-05-01

    The effect of pityriasis rosea (PR) on the outcome of pregnancy has not been previously reported. We sought to investigate the possible impact of PR in pregnant women. In all, 38 women who developed PR during pregnancy were observed. In one of them, who developed PR at 10 weeks' gestation and aborted 2 weeks later, plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, maternal skin, and placental and embryonic tissues were studied by quantitative calibrated real-time polymerase chain reaction for human herpesviruses (HHV)-6 and -7. Controls included plasma from 36 healthy blood donors, plasma and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 12 patients with other dermatitides, and from placental and embryonic tissues from one woman who presented with a 19-week intrauterine fetal death. Of the 38 women, 9 had a premature delivery and 5 miscarried. In particular, 62% of the women who developed PR within 15 weeks' gestation aborted. Neonatal hypotonia, weak motility, and hyporeactivity were noted in 6 cases. In the patient studied in detail, HHV-6 DNA was detected in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, skin, and placenta and embryonic tissues, whereas HHV-7 DNA was absent. HHV-6 p41 antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in skin lesions, placenta, and embryonic tissues. No herpesvirus DNA was detected in plasma and tissues from control subjects. This is a case series study with a small number of patients. PR may be associated with an active HHV-6 infection. In pregnancy, PR may foreshadow premature delivery with neonatal hypotonia and even fetal demise especially if it develops within 15 weeks' gestation.

  7. Neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of neighborhood racial composition or neighborhood poverty in association with pregnancy-related weight are limited. Prior studies of neighborhood racial density and poverty has been in association with adverse birth outcomes and suggest that neighborhoods with high rates of poverty and racial composition of black residents are typically segregated and systematically isolated from opportunities and resources. These neighborhood factors may help explain the racial disparities in pre-pregnancy weight and inadequate weight gain. This study examined whether neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty was associated with weight before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy and if this association differed by race. Methods: We used vital birth records of singleton births of 73,061 non-Hispanic black and white women in Allegheny County, PA (2003–2010. Maternal race and ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body-mass-index (BMI, gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth record data, and measures of neighborhood racial composition (percentage of black residents in the neighborhood and poverty (percentage of households in the neighborhood below the federal poverty were derived using US Census data. Multilevel log binomial regression models were performed to estimate neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight (i.e., overweight/obese and gestational weight gain (i.e., inadequate and excessive. Results: Black women as compared to white women were more likely to be overweight/obese before pregnancy and to have inadequate gestational weight gain (53.6% vs. 38.8%; 22.5% vs. 14.75 respectively. Black women living in predominately black neighborhoods were slightly more likely to be obese prior to pregnancy compared to black women living in predominately white neighborhoods (PR 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16. Black and white women living in high

  8. Pregnancy In Renal Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    H. Shahbazian; N. Shahbazian

    2006-01-01

    Background:Correction of the uremic state by a functioning allograft often restores fertility in women of reproductive age. The rate of fertility significantly differs between industrial countries, developing and middle east countries.On the other hand the results of pregnancy in Kidney Transplantation (KTP) patients are significantly better than hemodialysis patients,and pregnancy most often has no side effects on the function of the transplanted kidney.Objectives: The purpose of this study ...

  9. Infective Endocarditis during Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Infective Endocarditis (IE) during pregnancy is a rare but grave condition. The diagnosis and management can be challenging, especially when the pregnant patient warrants a cardiac operation under cardiopulmonary bypass. The present article describes IE during pregnancy based on a series of published case reports in the literature. IE during pregnancy often causes embolic events and mycotic aneurysms. Two-thirds of IE in the pregnant patients requires timely or urgent cardiac surgery to alleviate patients deterioration. At least a 3-week antibiotic therapy is mandatory before cardiac surgery aiming at improving the patients. Conditions. During cardiac surgery, fetal heart rates may temporarily be slowed down but may gradually recover to normal after the operation. The fetal and maternal mortalities were 16.7% and 3.3%, respectively. The fetal deaths were apparently associated with a cardiac surgery during early pregnancy. Cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia and rewarming can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus by triggering placental deficits, fetal hypoxia and uterine contraction. Avoidance of cardiac operations before 24th gestation week and preferably deferred until after 28th gestation week have been a plausible argument as per the possible fetal deaths related to immaturity. (author)

  10. [Teenage pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-05-01

    In Mexico, 20% of the annual births are presented in women younger than 20 years old. Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development. It has been pointed out that the youths with low education, with minor academic and laboral expectations, with low self-esteem and assertiveness, tend to begin early their active sexual life, to use less frequently contraceptives, and in the case of younger women, to be pregnant, with the risk of abortion because they cannot to make the best decision. It is important to take into account the social context and the special characteristics of the family to understand situation of adolescent at risk of pregnancy.

  11. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rørtveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskår, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy, and associated risk factors.Method: The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence in addition to type, frequency and amount of incontinence. Po...

  12. Poorer detection rates of severe fetal growth restriction in women of likely refugee background: A case for re-focusing pregnancy care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; East, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Severe fetal growth restriction (FGR) (Women of refugee background have been found to have poorer perinatal outcomes compared to others and these outcomes can in part be explained by previous history. However, less access to and engagement with pregnancy care may also be contributing factors. This study examined the impact of likely refugee background on severe FGR in a singleton pregnancy undelivered by 40 weeks. A retrospective study was undertaken utilising data on women who gave birth to a severely growth-restricted infant at Monash Health during January 2013-July 2015. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were undertaken to examine the association between the mother being of likely refugee background and severe FGR in singletons delivered after 40 weeks. There was an association between the mother being of likely refugee background and giving birth to a severely growth-restricted baby after 40 weeks with these mothers at two and half times the odds compared to mothers of non-refugee background (adjusted odds ratio 2.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.44-4.42). While detecting FGR is clinically challenging, our findings suggest that maternity services need to be supported to offer care tailored to the specific needs of vulnerable and disadvantaged populations. Providing quality, culturally responsive and accessible care is fundamental to addressing refugee maternal and perinatal health inequalities. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Effects of long-term, near-term, and real-time energy balance, and blood progesterone concentrations, on the pregnancy rate of contemporary dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, N A; Conley, A J; Robinson, P H

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to contribute to understanding the interface between reproductive and nutritional energetic physiology in contemporary dairy cattle. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 32) between 70 and 180 days in milk were used in a study starting 10 d prior to the artificial insemination (AI) date and were estrous synchronized using a hormonal regimen. Fourteen cows were determined pregnant on day 39 post-AI. Coccygeal blood samples of all cows were collected on d -10 and -3 prior to AI to determine estrous cyclicity, as well as at AI and at 6, 13 and 20 d post-AI. Milk progesterone was measured 20 d post-AI, and body condition was scored (BCS; 1-5 scale) on days -10, 0, 13 and 27 relative to AI. Blood non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, measured on the same days as BCS, and changes of BCS from d -10 to AI were not predictive of pregnancy outcome. The BCS of cows on the day of AI was greater (P = 0.02) for pregnant cows with an approximate minimum BCS for a high probability of conception being 2.50. Serum progesterone concentrations of pregnant cows were greater (P commercial high-producing multiparous dairy cattle may be partly due to breeding cows that have insufficient BCS to support pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet with low glycemic index and low glycemic load on body adiposity, metabolic variables, ghrelin, leptin, and pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Geórgia F; Passos, Eduardo P; Moulin, Cileide C

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is related to hormonal disorders that affect the reproductive system. Low-glycemic index (LGI) diets seem to exert a positive effect on weight loss and on metabolic changes that result from obesity. We investigated the effects of a hypocaloric diet with an LGI and low glycemic load on anthropometric and metabolic variables, ghrelin and leptin concentrations, and the pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). The study was a randomized block-design controlled trial in which we analyzed 26 overweight or obese infertile women. Patients were assigned to a hypocaloric LGI-diet group or a control group and followed the protocol for 12 wk. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, serum lipids, reproductive hormones, leptin, acylated ghrelin, number of oocytes retrieved in the IVF cycle, and pregnancy rate were determined. There were greater reductions in body mass, BMI, percentage of body fat, waist:hip ratio, and leptin in the LGI-diet group than in the control group (P diet group had 85.4% more oocytes retrieved than did the control group (7.75 ± 1.44 and 4.18 ± 0.87, respectively; P = 0.039) in the IVF cycle. Three patients (21.4%) in the LGI group experienced a spontaneous pregnancy during the follow-up, which generated 3 live births. The hypocaloric LGI diet promoted a decrease in BMI, percentage of body fat, and leptin concentrations, which improved oocyte development and pregnancy rate. These results support the clinical recommendation to advise overweight and obese women to lose weight through a balanced diet before being submitted for treatment with assisted reproduction technologies. A hypocaloric diet combined with LGI foods seems to be beneficial for these patients, but additional studies are required before this treatment is recommended. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02416960

  15. Anticoagulants for the treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss in women without antiphospholipid syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nisio, M.; Peters, L. W.; Middeldorp, S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since hypercoagulability might result in recurrent pregnancy loss, anticoagulant agents could potentially increase the live-birth rate in subsequent pregnancies in women with either inherited thrombophilia or unexplained pregnancy loss. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of

  16. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Urmia, Iran in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh-Eslamlou, Hamidreza; Oshnouei, Sima; Haghighi, Negar

    2014-05-01

    In spite of enough prevalence data on Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during pregnancy from many countries, there are still some regions such as the Middle East with relatively limited data. The purpose of research was to investigate the magnitude of IPV during pregnancy in an Iranian community. Thirty hundred fifty women during their postpartum period were invited to participate in a cross-sectional population-based study, but 10.6% of them refused participation. The data was compiled using the Abuse Assessment Screen questionnaire. Of the 313 women, 55.9% reported violence during pregnancy. All types of violence were detected in victims during pregnancy, including psychological violence (43.5%), physical violence (10.2%), and sexual violence (17.2%). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy was significantly associated with lower education of the husbands (PR 1.64; 95% CI 1.15-2.36), un-employment of the husbands (PR 1.36; 95% CI 1.12-1.64), marriage duration of 5-9 years (PR 0.95; 95% CI 0.74-1.20) and gravidity of two (PR 0.80; 95% CI 0.59-1.08). The reported prevalence of IPV before and during pregnancy in this sample is substantially higher than estimates of exposure to violence in other parts of the globe, even the East Mediterranean region which has the highest prevalence estimation in the globe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Recombinant PrPSc shares structural features with brain-derived PrPSc: Insights from limited proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, Alejandro M; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Younas, Neelam; Wang, Fei; R Elezgarai, Saioa; Bravo, Susana; Vázquez-Fernández, Ester; Rosa, Isaac; Eraña, Hasier; Gil, David; Veiga, Sonia; Vidal, Enric; Erickson-Beltran, Melissa L; Guitián, Esteban; Silva, Christopher J; Nonno, Romolo; Ma, Jiyan; Castilla, Joaquín; R Requena, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Very solid evidence suggests that the core of full length PrPSc is a 4-rung β-solenoid, and that individual PrPSc subunits stack to form amyloid fibers. We recently used limited proteolysis to map the β-strands and connecting loops that make up the PrPSc solenoid. Using high resolution SDS-PAGE followed by epitope analysis, and mass spectrometry, we identified positions ~116/118, 133-134, 141, 152-153, 162, 169 and 179 (murine numbering) as Proteinase K (PK) cleavage sites in PrPSc. Such sites likely define loops and/or borders of β-strands, helping us to predict the threading of the β-solenoid. We have now extended this approach to recombinant PrPSc (recPrPSc). The term recPrPSc refers to bona fide recombinant prions prepared by PMCA, exhibiting infectivity with attack rates of ~100%. Limited proteolysis of mouse and bank vole recPrPSc species yielded N-terminally truncated PK-resistant fragments similar to those seen in brain-derived PrPSc, albeit with varying relative yields. Along with these fragments, doubly N- and C-terminally truncated fragments, in particular ~89/97-152, were detected in some recPrPSc preparations; similar fragments are characteristic of atypical strains of brain-derived PrPSc. Our results suggest a shared architecture of recPrPSc and brain PrPSc prions. The observed differences, in particular the distinct yields of specific PK-resistant fragments, are likely due to differences in threading which result in the specific biochemical characteristics of recPrPSc. Furthermore, recombinant PrPSc offers exciting opportunities for structural studies unachievable with brain-derived PrPSc.

  18. Advances in interspecific pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interspecific pregnancy in which the conceptus and female carrying the pregnancy are of different species is a key step to interspecific cloning. Cloning endangered animals by interspecific pregnancy is such a highlight catching people's eyes nowadays. In this article, the history of interspecific pregnancy, the methods for establishment of interspecific pregnancy, the corresponding theories, barriers and applied prospects are reviewed.``

  19. PR-PR: cross-platform laboratory automation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linshiz, Gregory; Stawski, Nina; Goyal, Garima; Bi, Changhao; Poust, Sean; Sharma, Monica; Mutalik, Vivek; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J

    2014-08-15

    To enable protocol standardization, sharing, and efficient implementation across laboratory automation platforms, we have further developed the PR-PR open-source high-level biology-friendly robot programming language as a cross-platform laboratory automation system. Beyond liquid-handling robotics, PR-PR now supports microfluidic and microscopy platforms, as well as protocol translation into human languages, such as English. While the same set of basic PR-PR commands and features are available for each supported platform, the underlying optimization and translation modules vary from platform to platform. Here, we describe these further developments to PR-PR, and demonstrate the experimental implementation and validation of PR-PR protocols for combinatorial modified Golden Gate DNA assembly across liquid-handling robotic, microfluidic, and manual platforms. To further test PR-PR cross-platform performance, we then implement and assess PR-PR protocols for Kunkel DNA mutagenesis and hierarchical Gibson DNA assembly for microfluidic and manual platforms.

  20. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Perspectives on financial incentives to health service providers for increasing breast feeding and smoking quit rates during pregnancy: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; MacLennan, Graeme; Dykes, Fiona; Stewart, Fiona; Bauld, Linda; Campbell, Marion K

    2015-11-13

    To explore the acceptability, mechanisms and consequences of provider incentives for smoking cessation and breast feeding as part of the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study. Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews. Scotland and North West England. Early years professionals: 497 survey respondents included 156 doctors; 197 health visitors/maternity staff; 144 other health staff. Qualitative interviews or focus groups were conducted with 68 pregnant/postnatal women/family members; 32 service providers; 22 experts/decision-makers; 63 conference attendees. Early years professionals were surveyed via email about the acceptability of payments to local health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding targets. Agreement was measured on a 5-point scale using multivariable ordered logit models. A framework approach was used to analyse free-text survey responses and qualitative data. Health professional net agreement for provider incentives for smoking cessation targets was 52.9% (263/497); net disagreement was 28.6% (142/497). Health visitors/maternity staff were more likely than doctors to agree: OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.51 to 3.64; pgaming, box-ticking bureaucracies and health inequalities were counterbalances to potential benefits. Provider incentives are favoured by non-medical staff. Solutions which increase trust and collaboration towards shared goals, without negatively impacting on relationships or increasing bureaucracy are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Managing Epilepsy in Pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Dwyer, V

    2017-02-01

    Epilepsy is one of the commonest medical conditions affecting women of childbearing age1. In the most recent triennial report into maternal deaths in Ireland and the UK, two thirds of women who died had a medical condition. In this report, 14 maternal deaths during pregnancy and up to 42 days postpartum were attributable to epilepsy or seizures; a rate of 0.4 per 100,000 maternities. In 12 of these women’ the cause was sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. Thus, epilepsy remains a high-risk condition in pregnancy. The gold standard of care is a multidisciplinary approach involving obstetricians, a neurologist and an epilepsy nurse specialist2. Like other units in Ireland this multidisciplinary service is currently provided in the National Maternity Hospital’s maternal medicine clinic, in conjunction with neurology services in Beaumont Hospital.

  3. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  4. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 days a week. When can I start exercising after pregnancy? If you had a healthy pregnancy ... some guidelines I can follow when I begin exercising after pregnancy? Aim to stay active for 20– ...

  5. Trazodone (Desyrel) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth defects. Can taking trazodone during my pregnancy cause pregnancy complications? One small study found no greater chance ... I need to take trazodone throughout my entire pregnancy. Will it cause withdrawal symptoms in my baby? Antidepressant use late ...

  6. Echinacea Preparations and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or liver problems. Can taking echinacea during my pregnancy cause birth defects? There have been two studies looking ... avoided in pregnancy. Can taking echinacea during my pregnancy cause other kinds of problems? There are no studies ...

  7. Planning for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Before Pregnancy Home Overview Planning for Pregnancy Women Men Image Library Women Who Want to Become Pregnant Women Who Do Not Want to Become Pregnant Hugging Nutrition Physical Activity Visiting the Doctor Planning for Pregnancy Language: English ( ...

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  9. Planning a pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Planning a pregnancy Lupus Foundation of America September 27, 2017 Resource ... History or presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Planning Your Pregnancy Although many lupus pregnancies will have no complications, ...

  10. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  12. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  14. Early Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go on to have successful pregnancies. Repeated pregnancy losses are rare. Testing and evaluation can be done ... find a cause if you have several pregnancy losses. Even if no cause is found, most couples ...

  15. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Associated Conditions Asthma & Pregnancy Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  16. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D linked to miscarriage among women with prior pregnancy loss Release: Anti-HIV drug combination does not increase preterm birth risk, study suggests Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance of pregnancy loss All related ...

  17. Medicine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Medicine and Pregnancy Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... reporting problems to FDA . Sign Up for a Pregnancy Registry Pregnancy Exposure Registries are research studies that ...

  18. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Medical Care During Pregnancy What's ... and their babies. What Is Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy? Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

  19. Neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Dara D; Thorpe, Roland J; Amutah, Ndidi; Davis, Esa M; Walker, Renee E; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Bodnar, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Studies of neighborhood racial composition or neighborhood poverty in association with pregnancy-related weight are limited. Prior studies of neighborhood racial density and poverty has been in association with adverse birth outcomes and suggest that neighborhoods with high rates of poverty and racial composition of black residents are typically segregated and systematically isolated from opportunities and resources. These neighborhood factors may help explain the racial disparities in pre-pregnancy weight and inadequate weight gain. This study examined whether neighborhood racial composition and neighborhood poverty was associated with weight before pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy and if this association differed by race. We used vital birth records of singleton births of 73,061 non-Hispanic black and white women in Allegheny County, PA (2003-2010). Maternal race and ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body-mass-index (BMI), gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth record data, and measures of neighborhood racial composition (percentage of black residents in the neighborhood) and poverty (percentage of households in the neighborhood below the federal poverty) were derived using US Census data. Multilevel log binomial regression models were performed to estimate neighborhood racial composition and poverty in association with pre-pregnancy weight (i.e., overweight/obese) and gestational weight gain (i.e., inadequate and excessive). Black women as compared to white women were more likely to be overweight/obese before pregnancy and to have inadequate gestational weight gain (53.6% vs. 38.8%; 22.5% vs. 14.75 respectively). Black women living in predominately black neighborhoods were slightly more likely to be obese prior to pregnancy compared to black women living in predominately white neighborhoods (PR 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.16). Black and white women living in high poverty areas compared with women living in

  20. Narcolepsy and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Eszter; Kemlink, David; Högl, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    In a retrospective cohort study undertaken in 12 European countries, 249 female narcoleptic patients with cataplexy (n = 216) and without cataplexy (n = 33) completed a self-administrated questionnaire regarding pregnancy and childbirth. The cohort was divided further into patients whose symptoms...... of narcolepsy started before or during pregnancy (308 pregnancies) and those in whom the first symptoms of narcolepsy appeared after delivery (106 pregnancies). Patients with narcolepsy during pregnancy were older during their first pregnancy (P ...

  1. Effect of Chinese Herbs Bu-shen on PRLR, PR, ER mRNA of Decidue in Bromocriptine-induced Hypoprolactin Rat Abortion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun-ming LI; Sui-qi GUI; Li-hui JIANG; Li-min LU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Chinese herbs on PRLR, PR, ER mRNA of decidue in Bromocriptine-induced hypoprolactin abortion rat model from gene transcription level, and observe the changes of blood PRL, P, E2.Methods RT-PCR method was taken to analyses the differences of PRLR, PR, ER mRNA in decidue between model group (A group) and model + herbs group (A + H group); RIA was taken to measure the serum levels of PRL, P, E2.Results PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue of Group A was significantly lower than the A+H group (P0.05); the abortion rate of Group A was 67%, Group A+H was 17%, the difference was significant; as for the PRL and P level of day 7~10, the A group was significantly lower than the A+H group (P<0.05).Conclusion Bromocriptine could induce abortion by declining the blood PRL, P level and downregulating PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue. Chinese herbs might maintain pregnancy by promoting PRL, P secretion and upregulating PRLR, PR mRNA expression in decidue.

  2. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  3. Vasculitis and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Leah; Clowse, Megan E B

    2017-05-01

    Vasculitis is more often a disease of women beyond their reproductive years, leaving the challenges of pregnancy management difficult to study. Pregnancy complications, including pregnancy loss and preterm birth, are higher among women with all forms of vasculitis. It seems that controlling the disease before pregnancy may improve the chances of pregnancy success. Many medications used for vasculitis are considered low risk in pregnancy, including prednisone, colchicine, azathioprine, and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil should be avoided in pregnancy. Controlling disease with low-risk medications may allow women with vasculitis to have the pregnancies they desire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. Pregnancy outcomes in patients with acute kidney injury during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youxia; Ma, Xinxin; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Xiangchun; Yan, Tiekun

    2017-07-18

    Presently, the matter of pregnancy outcomes of patients with pregnancy related AKI (PR-AKI) were disputed. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of PR-AKI on pregnancy outcomes. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, VIP, CNKI and Wanfang Databases for cohort or case-control studies in women with PR-AKI and those without AKI as a control group to assess the influence of PR-AKI on pregnancy outcomes and kidney outcome. Reduction of odd ratio (OR) was calculated by a random-effects model. One thousand one hundred fifty two articles were systematically reviewed, of those 11 studies were included, providing data of 845 pregnancies in 834 women with PR-AKI and 5387 pregnancies in 5334 women without AKI. In terms of maternal outcomes, women with PR-AKI had a greater likelihood of cesarean delivery (OR, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 1.61), hemorrhage (1.26; 1.02 to 1.56), HELLP syndrome (1.86; 1.41 to 2.46), placental abruption (3.13; 1.96 to 5.02), DIC (3.41; 2.00 to 5.84), maternal death (4.50; 2.73 to 7.43), but had a lower risk of eclampsia (0.53; 0.34 to 0.83). Women with PR-AKI also had a longer stay in ICU (weighted mean difference, 2.13 day [95% CI 1.43 to 2.83 day]) compared with those without PR-AKI. As for fetal outcomes, higher incidence of stillbirth/perinatal death (3.39, 2.76 to 4.18), lower mean gestational age at delivery (-0.70 week [95% CI -1.21 to -0.19 week]) and lower birth weight (-740 g [95% CI -1180 to 310 g]) were observed in women with PR-AKI. The occurrence of kidney outcome, defined as ESRD requiring dialysis, in women with PR-AKI was 2.4% (95% CI 1.3% to 4.2%). PR-AKI remains a grave complication and has been associated with increased maternal and fetal mortality.

  6. Adverse pregnancy outcomes following syphilis treatment in pregnancy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Harriet E; Isitt, Catherine E; Broomhall, Harriet M; Perry, Alison E; Wilson, Janet D

    2016-10-01

    Syphilis infection in pregnancy is known to cause a number of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes, including second-trimester miscarriage, stillbirth, very pre-term delivery and neonatal death, in addition to congenital syphilis. A retrospective review of women with positive syphilis serology and a pregnancy outcome between 2005 and 2012 in Leeds, UK, was performed. In all, 57 cases of positive syphilis serology in pregnancy were identified: 24 with untreated syphilis treated in the current pregnancy (Group 1); seven with reported but unconfirmed prior treatment who were retreated (Group 2); and 26 adequately treated prior to pregnancy (Group 3). The rate of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes in Group 1 at 21% was significantly higher than the 0% outcome of Group 3 (p = 0.02). The severe adverse pregnancy outcomes were two second-trimester miscarriages, two pre-term births at 25 and 28 weeks and one stillbirth at 32 weeks. There were no cases of term congenital syphilis or term neonatal death, but we observed high rates of other adverse pregnancy outcomes despite treatment during pregnancy. Rapid referral for treatment is needed before 18 weeks in order to minimise adverse pregnancy outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2011-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United King...

  8. Neutron Scattering from fcc Pr and Pr3Tl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bucher, E.

    1972-01-01

    Elastic-neutron-scattering measurements on the singlet-ground-state ferromagnets fcc Pr and Pr3 Tl are reported. Both exhibit magnetic phase transitions, possibly to a simple ferromagnetic state at 20 and 11.6 °K, respectively. The transitions appear to be of second order although that in fcc Pr...

  9. PR, Lobbyism and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Willig, Ida; Pedersen, Leif Hemming

    2017-01-01

    The growth of PR in Scandinavia is linked both to the mediatization of politics and to the decline of corporatism. Studies in Sweden and Norway suggest that one consequence of these changes is the increasing number of politicians who find new careers as lobbyists in the private sector. In this st......The growth of PR in Scandinavia is linked both to the mediatization of politics and to the decline of corporatism. Studies in Sweden and Norway suggest that one consequence of these changes is the increasing number of politicians who find new careers as lobbyists in the private sector....... Still, 89 percent of all the registered job positions fall outside of lobbyism. 11 percent of the job positions fall within the wider field associated with the emerging field of policy professionals (including lobbyism), while lobbyism on its own accounts for 2 percent of the job positions....

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiner, Eyal; Mazor-Drey, Efrat; Levy, Amalia

    2009-05-01

    The present study was aimed to test the association between asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy, among patients in whom antibiotic treatment was recommended, and perinatal outcome. Our study was also designed to characterize common bacteria and risk factors associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton pregnancies of women with and asymptomatic bacteriuria was conducted. Patients with urinary tract infection were excluded from the analysis. Multiple logistic regression model was used to control for confounders. Out of 199,093 deliveries, 2.5% (n = 4890) were in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. E. coli was the most common pathogen associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria, representing 78.6% of the cultures with specified growth. Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria were more likely to deliver preterm (PTD, 13.3%vs. 7.6%, odd ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval CI 1.7-2.0; P Asymptomatic bacteriuria was independently associated with PTD (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.7; P treatments, hypertensive disorders, recurrent abortions, diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth restriction, polyhydramnion and oligohydramnion, premature rupture of membranes and labour induction, in a multivariable analysis with backwards elimination. Perinatal mortality rates (1.5%vs. 1.4%; P = 0.707) as well as low 5 min Apgar scores (0.8%vs. 0.6%; P = 0.065) were comparable between the groups. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is an independent risk factor for preterm delivery.

  11. The Prevalence Of Sexually Transmitted Infections On Teen Pregnancies And Their Association To Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Gonzalez, Zaskia M; Leavitt, Karla; Martin, Jose; Benabe, Erika; Romaguera, Josefina; Negrón, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Based on our population data, the teen pregnancy rate and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported during pregnancy are worrisome. STIs appear to pose a threat to pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth (PTB), neonatal low birth weight (NLBW) and premature rupture of membranes (PROM). The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of STIs in pregnant teens and the association of this variable to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of STIs among pregnant teens during a 4-year period at our institution. Birth outcomes such as gestational age at delivery, PROM and NLBW were analyzed and compared with adults. In the four years of our study, teen pregnancy rate fluctuated from 21.7% in 2010 to 16.8% in 2013. The rate of STIs for adult and teen pregnancies was similar, 21% and 23%, respectively. Chlamydia was the most common STI (67.3%) for both groups. PTB was more prevalent among adults affected with STIs than teens, 13.8% and 11.5%, respectively. NLBW was similar among teens and adults with STIs. PROM complicated 9.1% of teen pregnancies with STIs, compared to 6.7% in adults. There was no significant correlation between the STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes on teen pregnancies for our population, except for PROM. This age group is associated with a high-risk sexual behavior and poor adherence to treatment. They would benefit from efforts to prevent unintended pregnancies and infectious diseases.

  12. Teenage Pregnancy in the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Myles, Rosa; Myles, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares rural and small-city teenage and adult pregnancies, with respect to complication rates and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: Chart review of Medicaid patients (513 teenage [under 20 years] and 174 adult controls [ages 25-34]) delivered (excluding multiple gestation) in Amarillo, Texas, from January 1999 to April 2001.…

  13. Adolescent Pregnancy in America: Causes and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, Desirae M.; Jones, Karen H.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has occurred throughout America's history. Only in recent years has it been deemed an urgent crisis, as more young adolescent mothers give birth outside of marriage. At-risk circumstances associated with adolescent pregnancy include medical and health complications, less schooling and higher dropout rates, lower career…

  14. The Active Management of Risk in Multiparous Pregnancy at Term: association between a higher preventive labor induction rate and improved birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, James M.; Caughey, Aaron; Stenson, Ms. Morghan H.; Cronholm, Peter; Kellar, Lisa; Bennett, Ian; Margo, Katie; Stratton, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine if exposure of multiparous women to a high rate of preventive labor induction was associated with a significantly lower cesarean delivery rate. Study Design Retrospective cohort study involving 123 multiparas, who were exposed to the frequent use of preventive labor induction, and 304 multiparas, who received standard management. Rates of cesarean delivery and other adverse birth outcomes were compared in the two groups. Logistic regression controlled for confounding covariates. Results The exposed group had a lower cesarean delivery rate (aOR 0.09, 0.8% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.02) and a higher uncomplicated vaginal delivery rate (OR 0.53, 78.9% vs. 66.4%, p=0.01). Exposure was not associated with higher rates of other adverse birth outcomes. Conclusion Exposure of multiparas to a high rate of preventive labor induction was significantly associated with improved birth outcomes including a very low cesarean delivery rate. A prospective randomized trial is needed to determine causality. PMID:19254584

  15. Is pregnancy planning associated with background characteristics and pregnancy-planning behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, Jenny; Salih Joelsson, Lana; Tydén, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    household income, to be currently working (≥50%) and to have longer relationships than women with unplanned pregnancies. The level of pregnancy planning was associated with planning behavior, such as information-seeking and intake of folic acid, but without a reduction in alcohol consumption. One......-third of all women took folic acid 1 month prior to conception, 17% used tobacco daily and 11% used alcohol weekly 3 months before conception. Conclusions A majority rated their pregnancy as very or fairly planned, with socio-economic factors as explanatory variables. The level of pregnancy planning should......Introduction Prevalence of planned pregnancies varies between countries but is often measured in a dichotomous manner. The aim of this study was to investigate to what level pregnant women had planned their pregnancies and whether pregnancy planning was associated with background characteristics...

  16. [Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended.

  17. Bleeding during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in pregnancy? • What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? • Can bleeding be a sign of preterm labor? • ... the hospital. What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? Several problems with the placenta later in pregnancy ...

  18. Contraception use and unplanned pregnancies among injection drug-using women in St Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Nadia; Kershaw, Trace; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V; Kozlov, Andrei P

    2011-07-01

    This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence of contraceptive methods and investigated whether abortion rates influence contraceptive behaviour among injection drug-using (IDU) women in St Petersburg, Russia. A self-administered questionnaire of behaviour in the last 3 months was applied to a convenient sample of IDU women. Of 80 sexually active participants, 67% had had an abortion. No participant reported using hormonal contraceptives or intrauterine devices (IUDs). The only valid method of contraception used was condoms, which was reported by half of the participants. Consistent condom use was reported by 22% of participants and was no more likely among those who had an abortion. Condom use was significantly associated with having multiple or casual sex partners [prevalence ratio (PR) 1.75, 95% (confidence interval) CI 1.11-2.78, p = 0.01], having an IDU sex partner (PR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.85, p = 0.029) and with a negative attitude toward condoms (PR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33-0.84, p = 0.01). Abortions were less likely among those who had multiple or casual sex partners (PR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97, p = 0.03). Despite the high prevalence of abortions among IDU women, none reported the use of hormonal contraception or IUDs. Having had an abortion was not associated with greater likelihood of using condoms. Participants mostly used condoms with casual or multiple sex partners, suggesting that condoms were used mainly to prevent HIV/sexually transmitted infection transmission and not to prevent pregnancy. Programmes to prevent unwanted pregnancies and reduce abortion-related health risks among this understudied vulnerable group are needed.

  19. Determinantes do ganho ponderal excessivo durante a gestação em serviço público de pré-natal de baixo risco Determinants of excessive weight gain during pregnancy in a public low risk antenatal care service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara E. Stulbach

    2007-03-01

    , as sem companheiro, as primíparas e aquelas com estado nutricional inicial adequado ou sobrepeso/obesidade durante a gestação, mais atenção deveria ser dada à prevenção e ao controle do problema durante o pré-natal.INTRODUCTION: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy tends to result in postpartum weight retention and contributes to obesity in women. METHODS: This study evaluated the influence of socio-economic factors, obstetric history, smoking, having a job, and initial nutritional status on excessive weight gain (EWG. EWG was estimated according to IOM recommendations (weekly gain > 0.58g, >0.53g and >0.39g which correspond to an initial nutritional status of underweight, eutrophic, overweight/obesity, respectively. We studied a cohort of 141 healthy pregnant women enrolled in public health services, between March 1997 and March 1998. The influence of each study variable on EWG was checked separately for the 2nd and 3rd trimesters using the Poisson model for hierarchy multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Amongst the 237 eligible pregnant women, there were 37.8% of patient losses, but no statistical significance was detected for the main study variables. The incidence of EWG during the 2nd trimester was 38.6% (CI95% 30.5 - 47.2 and during 3rd trimester it was 36.4% (CI95% 28.5 - 45.0. During the 2nd trimester only schooling was associated with EWG. When comparing women who studied less than 5 years, with the ones who studied 5 to 8 years and those with more than 8 years of schooling, relative risks were 2.09 (CI95% 1.03 - 4.25 and 2.62 (CI95% 1.32 - 5.22, respectively. In the 3rd trimester the variables that resulted in statistical significance were: less than 8 years of schooling (RR= 1.91 [CI95% 1.22 - 2.97], living without a partner (RR=1.66 [(CI95% 1.06 - 2.59], primiparas (RR= 2.13 [CI95% 1.20 - 3.85]; adequate initial nutritional status and overweight/obesity (RR= 1.53 [CI95% 0.82 - 2.84] and RR=2.02 [IC95% 1.04 - 3.92], respectively in comparison

  20. Substance use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzanne; Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-04-01

    To improve awareness and knowledge of problematic substance use in pregnancy and to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of this challenging clinical issue for all health care providers. This guideline reviews the use of screening tools, general approach to care, and recommendations for clinical management of problematic substance use in pregnancy. Evidence-based recommendations for screening and management of problematic substance use during pregnancy and lactation. Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched for articles published from 1950 using the following key words: substance-related disorders, mass screening, pregnancy complications, pregnancy, prenatal care, cocaine, cannabis, methadone, opioid, tobacco, nicotine, solvents, hallucinogens, and amphetamines. Results were initially restricted to systematic reviews and randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials. A subsequent search for observational studies was also conducted because there are few RCTs in this field of study. Articles were restricted to human studies published in English. Additional articles were located by hand searching through article reference lists. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline up to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was also identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table 1). This guideline is intended to increase the knowledge and comfort level of health care providers caring for pregnant women who have substance use disorders. Improved access to

  1. Wegener's granulomatosis occurring de novo during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfhaily, F; Watts, R; Leather, A

    2009-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is rarely diagnosed during the reproductive years and uncommonly manifests for the first time during pregnancy. We report a case of de novo WG presenting at 30 weeks gestation with classical symptoms of WG (ENT, pulmonary). The diagnosis was confirmed by radiological, laboratory, and histological investigations. With a multidisciplinary approach, she had a successful vaginal delivery of a healthy baby. She was treated successfully by a combination of steroids, azathioprine and intravenous immunoglobulin in the active phase of disease for induction of remission and by azathioprine and steroids for maintenance of remission. The significant improvement in her symptoms allowed us to continue her pregnancy to 37 weeks when delivery was electively induced. Transplacental transmission of PR3-ANCA occurred but the neonate remained well. This case of de novo WG during pregnancy highlights the seriousness of this disease and the challenge in management of such patients.

  2. Teenage Pregnancy. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Laurie L.

    This fact sheet addresses the issue of teenage pregnancy. Six factors contributing to the current attention focused on teenage pregnancy and parenthood are listed and teenage pregnancy and birth rates are discussed. Other areas covered include teenage nonuse of contraception, sex education by schools and parents, family planning services, and the…

  3. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, David

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  4. Production of no-carrier-added 139Pr via precursor decay in the proton bombardment of natPr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, G.F.; Vermeulen, C.; Nortier, F.M.; Szelecsenyi, F.; Kovacs, Z.; Qaim, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Excitation functions and production rates are presented for various Pr and Nd radionuclides formed in the bombardment of Pr with protons, from their respective thresholds up to 100 MeV. The indirect production route 141 Pr(p, 3n) 139m Nd → 139 Pr is investigated as an alternative to the direct production route 140 Ce(p, 2n) 139 Pr for producing no-carrier-added 139 Pr of high radionuclidic purity. The simultaneous production of 139 Pr and 140 Nd using Pr as target is investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of both production routes are discussed. Experimental thick-target production rates are presented for selected Pr radionuclides formed in the bombardment of nat Ce with protons at incident energies of 20, 26 and 32 MeV. All the experimental excitation functions obtained in this work are compared with theoretical predictions by means of the geometry-dependent hybrid (GDH) model as implemented in the code ALICE-IPPE. The results of this work are also compared with previous literature experimental data, if available

  5. Interaction between Shadoo and PrP Affects the PrP-Folding Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Danica; Richard, Charles-Adrien; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Sibille, Pierre; Daude, Nathalie; Westaway, David; Adrover, Miguel; Béringue, Vincent; Martin, Davy; Rezaei, Human

    2015-06-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by conformational changes of a cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a β-sheet-enriched and aggregated conformer (PrP(Sc)). Shadoo (Sho), a member of the prion protein family, is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and is highly conserved among vertebrates. On the basis of histoanatomical colocalization and sequence similarities, it is suspected that Sho and PrP may be functionally related. The downregulation of Sho expression during prion pathology and the direct interaction between Sho and PrP, as revealed by two-hybrid analysis, suggest a relationship between Sho and prion replication. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that Sho forms a 1:1 complex with full-length PrP with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range, and this interaction consequently modifies the PrP-folding pathway. Using a truncated PrP that mimics the C-terminal C1 fragment, an allosteric binding behavior with a Hill number of 4 was observed, suggesting that at least a tetramerization state occurs. A cell-based prion titration assay performed with different concentrations of Sho revealed an increase in the PrP(Sc) conversion rate in the presence of Sho. Collectively, our observations suggest that Sho can affect the prion replication process by (i) acting as a holdase and (ii) interfering with the dominant-negative inhibitor effect of the C1 fragment. Since the inception of the prion theory, the search for a cofactor involved in the conversion process has been an active field of research. Although the PrP interactome presents a broad landscape, candidates corresponding to specific criteria for cofactors are currently missing. Here, we describe for the first time that Sho can affect PrP structural dynamics and therefore increase the prion conversion rate. A biochemical characterization of Sho-PrP indicates that Sho acts as an ATP-independent holdase. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  6. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnet, Christian; Millot, Guy

    2006-10-01

    COLOQ, réunion nationale biennale initiée en 1988 par la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique atteint sa neuvième édition. Depuis sa création, les objectifs poursuivis sont les suivants : - réunir la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique, en dépassant les clivages fondamental/appliqué, recherche publique/industrielle, - faire le point sur les avancées récentes, - permettre aux jeunes chercheurs de se rencontrer, de s'exprimer et de s'aguerrir au plan national. Le but est que tout thésard du domaine de l'optique puisse participer à COLOQ une fois durant sa thèse, présenter son travail et de se confronter à la communauté de l'optique. COLOQ9 s'est tenu, pour sa 9e édition, sur le campus universitaire de Dijon, du 7 au 9 septembre 2005. Il a été une grande réussite : nombre de participants (255) et de présentations scientifiques record (148 affiches), forte représentation des industriels (15) et participation d'environ 200 lycéens aux conférences grand public. Le nombre plus élevé que prévu d'affiches a rendu un peu serrée leur présentation : une attention particulière sera portée à cet aspect lors des prochaines éditions. Ces journées ont été consacrées à des conférences invitées données par des scientifiques de haut niveau et à des présentations sous forme d'affiches. Une plage de temps importante a été réservée pour des discussions autour des affiches. À proximité immédiate de la salle de conférence, l'exposition de matériels spécialisés pour les lasers, l'optique et l'optoélectronique a été une occasion pour les jeunes participants de découvrir et contacter les industriels et les autres grands acteurs de l'optique. L'année 2005 ayant été l'année mondiale de la physique, COLOQ9 a retenu comme thème central ”1905-2005 : à propos d'Einstein". Plusieurs grandes conférences ont été dédiées à ce th

  7. Unintended Pregnancy and Intimate Partner Violence before and during Pregnancy among Latina Women in Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathryn R.; Garcia, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy among Latinas. A cross-sectional interview measuring pregnancy intent, IPV, and acculturation, using the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA-II), was conducted among Latina women…

  8. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Haber

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Les articles réunis dans ce dossier de la revue Astérion portent sur la première génération de la Théorie critique (dont Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, Theodor W. Adorno, Herbert Marcuse et Erich Fromm constituent sans doute les figures principales. Ils se concentrent plus précisément sur les contributions philosophiques qui marquèrent la période ouverte par l’accession de Horkheimer à la direction de l’Institut de recherches sociales (1931 et close par la publication en 1944 de Dialektik...

  9. Pregnancy Acne: What's the Best Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. Drug safety: Pregnancy ratings classifications and controversies. Clinics in Dermatology. 2016;34:401. Acne: Tips ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  10. On PR group classes and PR algebra membership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedenko, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The necessary and sufficient conditions are found for the membership of Lee algebras to PR algebra class, to algebras with commutation relations of [Hsub(i), Hsub(j)]=rsub(ij)Hsub(i) (i< j) type. Due to this, a criterion is obtained for the membership of the Lee froups to PR group classes, connected and simply connected Lee groups, which Lee algebras are PR algebras

  11. Diabetes and perinatal mortality in twin pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Cheng Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes in pregnancy has been associated with a paradoxically reduced risk of neonatal death in twin pregnancies. Risk "shift" may be a concern in that the reduction in neonatal deaths may be due to an increase in fetal deaths (stillbirths. This study aimed to clarify the impact of diabetes on the risk of perinatal death (neonatal death plus stillbirth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of twin births using the largest available dataset on twin births (the U.S. matched multiple birth data 1995-2000; 19,676 neonates from diabetic pregnancies, 541,481 from non-diabetic pregnancies. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR of perinatal death accounting for twin cluster-level dependence. RESULTS: Comparing diabetic versus non-diabetic twin pregnancies, overall perinatal mortality rate was counterintuitively lower [2.1% versus 3.3%, aHR 0.70 (95% confidence intervals 0.63-0.78]. Individually, both stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were lower in diabetic pregnancies, but we identified significant differences by gestational age and birth weight. Diabetes was associated with a survival benefit in pregnancies completed before 32 weeks [aHR 0.55 (0.48-0.63] or with birth weight =2500 g [aHR 2.20 (1.55-3.13]. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in pregnancy appears to be "protective" against perinatal death in twin pregnancies ending in very preterm or very low birth weight births. Prospective studies are required to clarify whether these patterns of risk are real, or they are artifacts of unmeasured confounders. Additional data correlating these outcomes with the types of diabetes in pregnancy are also needed to distinguish the effects of pre-gestational vs. gestational diabetes.

  12. [Urinary incontinence and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, X

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to systematically review the literature concerning urinary incontinence and pregnancy, in order to develop recommendations for clinical practice. The prevalence of urinary stress incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms increase with gestational age during pregnancy (from the first to the third trimester), and decrease during the third months following delivery. Obstetrics factors (position during delivery, length of the second part of the labour, forceps, episiotomy, epidural or pudendal anaesthesia) do not modify the risk of post-partum or long term urinary incontinence. At short term follow-up, caesarean delivery is associated with a lower rate of post-partum urinary incontinence. At long term follow-up, data are lacking. Non elective caesarean section is not associated with a decrease in the rate of post-partum or long-term urinary incontinence. Elective caesarean section and systematic episiotomy are not recommended methods for the prevention of post-partum urinary incontinence (grade B), even in "high risk" women. Pelvic floor muscle therapy is the first line treatment for prenatal or post-partum urinary incontinence (grade A). Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Canto pré-natal: alquimias sonoras para gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Trasel Martins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo irá focar no canto pré-natal; nos benefícios da música e do canto durante a gestação; na audição do feto no ventre e na escuta da gestante do seu corpo. Como metodologia para pesquisar sobre estes temas foram realizados estudos teóricos nas áreas da musicoterapia obstétrica, da terapia sonora e da medicina e também foram realizadas práticas de canto pré-natal. Arte, movimento e saúde são integrados com as alquimias sonoras para ampliar a consciência da corporeidade da mulher durante a gestação. Com cantos femininos em um círculo de mulheres, nos apoiamos e nos fortalecemos durante a gestação e enviamos vibrações sonoras harmoniosas para o bebê no ventre. ABSTRACT This article will focus on prenatal singing; on the benefits of music and singing during pregnancy; on the baby's hearing in the womb and on the listening of the pregnant woman to her body. To determine the methodology for researching these themes, theoretical studies were done in obstetrical music therapy, sound therapy, medicine and also practical research in prenatal singing classes. Art, movement and health are integrated with sound alchemy to widen the woman’s body awareness during pregnancy. With feminine chants in a circle of women, we support and strengthen ourselves during pregnancy and we send harmonious sounds vibrations to the baby in the womb. KEYWORDS Prenatal singing, prenatal music, pregnancy, listening, consciousness.

  14. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) modulates early developmental rate in zebrafish independent of its proteolytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Sørensen, Kasper; Engholm, Ditte Høyer; Kamei, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    the developmental rate beginning during gastrulation without affecting the normal patterning of the embryo. This phenotype is different from those resulting from deficiency of Igf receptor or ligand in zebrafish, suggesting a function of Papp-a outside the Igf system. Biochemical analysis of recombinant zebrafish...... Papp-a demonstrates conservation of proteolytic activity, specificity, and intrinsic regulatory mechanism. However, in vitro transcribed mRNA, which encodes a proteolytically inactive Papp-a mutant, recues the papp-a knockdown phenotype as efficient as wild-type Papp-a. Thus, the developmental...

  15. Pregnancy and Single Parenthood in the Navy: Results of a 1997 Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    .... The Navy's annual pregnancy rates parallel civilian rates for age cohorts. Half of the women experiencing an unplanned pregnancy were not using birth control, whereas the pill was the most failure-prone method of contraception...

  16. Associations of adolescent hopelessness and self-worth with pregnancy attempts and pregnancy desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowicz, Anna R; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Schreiner, Pamela J; Bolland, John M

    2014-08-01

    We examined the associations of pregnancy desire (ambivalence or happiness about a pregnancy in the next year) and recent pregnancy attempts with hopelessness and self-worth among low-income adolescents. To evaluate independent associations among the study variables, we conducted gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression analyses with data derived from 2285 sexually experienced 9- to 18-year-old participants in the Mobile Youth Survey between 2006 and 2009. Fifty-seven percent of youths reported a desire for pregnancy and 9% reported pregnancy attempts. In multivariable analyses, hopelessness was positively associated and self-worth was negatively associated with pregnancy attempts among both female and male youths. Hopelessness was weakly associated (P = .05) with pregnancy desire among female youths. The negative association of self-worth and the positive association of hopelessness with pregnancy attempts among young men as well as young women and the association of hopelessness with pregnancy desire among young women raise questions about why pregnancy is apparently valued by youths who rate their social and cognitive competence as low and who live in an environment with few options for material success.

  17. STRATEGIJSKA ULOGA PR U SPORTU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Tomić

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available PR in the modern world are developed with rapid speed and become important aspect of strategic management. Modern menagers are very interesting in PR and they observe that there is not successful strategy without experiance theory and practice in PR. The goals must be defined, basic phylosophy to, and managers must take responsability and describe everithing what they have to do. It must be financial fond and evaluation must be done

  18. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Duvillard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Le moment est opportun, la question foncière est de retour, légitimée par presque une décennie (2001-2008 d’augmentation continue des prix de l’immobilier. De « sommets » , en articles de presse, la montagne et les Alpes en particulier font l’objet, dans ce domaine, d’une attention toute particulière. Le contexte est ici délicat. Les sociétés alpines sont partagées entre désir de préservation d’une forte identité montagnarde et crainte d’une « déprise » économique (agricole, touristique et/...

  19. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Hitzel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available « À ma connaissance, il n'est pas de compagnon plus fidèle à ses engagements, plus prompt à honorer les faveurs reçues, plus empressé à offrir ses services, et ce à moindre frais, que le livre. Je ne connais aucun arbre qui ait un fruit plus succulent, plus précoce, plus aisé à cueillir, plus disponible à tout moment, comme le livre. Je ne sais pas de produit qui, malgré son jeune âge et la proximité de sa naissance, la facilité avec laquelle on peut se le procurer, la modicité de son prix, a...

  20. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bouvier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Le 7 juin 1844, Flaubert écrit à Louis de Cormenin : « J’ai lu Candide vingt fois, je l’ai traduit en anglais et je l’ai encore relu de temps à autre. » Quel que soit le degré de sérieux de cette affirmation, elle témoigne d’un intérêt précoce de Flaubert pour l’acte de traduire. De même, l’écrivain attachait de l’importance aux traductions qu’il lisait : « Je relis maintenant Don Quichotte dans la nouvelle traduction de Damas Hinard » écrit-il à Louise Colet en novembre 1847. Il lui arrivait...

  1. Présentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Monod Becquelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches présentées dans ce volume sont issues des travaux de chercheurs qui se réunissent régulièrement depuis 2005 sur le thème de l’« Agentivité ». Ce groupe rassemble des ethnologues et des linguistes du Laboratoire d’ethnologie et de sociologie comparative (umr 7186, cnrs/université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, du Laboratoire d’anthropologie sociale (umr 7130, Collège de France/ehess Paris/cnrs, de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales, de l’Institut des hautes étude...

  2. Intermittent auscultation of fetal heart rate during labour - a widely accepted technique for low risk pregnancies: but are the current national guidelines robust and practical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholapurkar, S L

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent auscultation of fetal heart rate is an accepted practice in low risk labours in many countries. National guidelines on intrapartum fetal monitoring were critically reviewed regarding timing and frequency of intermittent auscultation. Hypothetical but plausible examples are presented to illustrate that it may be possible to miss significant fetal distress with strict adherence to current guidelines. Opinion is forwarded that intermittent auscultation should be performed for 60 seconds before and after three contractions over about 10 min every half an hour in the first stage of labour. Reasons are put forward to show how this could be more practical and patient friendly and at the same time could improve detection of fetal distress. The current recommendation of intermittent auscultation every 15 min in the first stage is associated with poor compliance and leads to unnecessary burden, stress and medicolegal liability for birth attendants. Modification of current national guidelines would be desirable.

  3. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  4. State diagram of Pr-Bi system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulkhaev, V.L.; Ganiev, I.N.

    1994-01-01

    By means of thermal differential analysis, X-ray and microstructural analysis the state diagram of Pr-Bi system was studied. Following intermetallic compounds were defined in the system: Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 , Pr Bi, PrBi 2 , Pr 2 Bi, Pr 5 Bi 3 , Pr 4 Bi 3 and PrBi 2 . The data analysis on Ln-Bi diagram allowed to determine the regularity of change of properties of intermetallic compounds in the line of rare earth elements of cerium subgroup.

  5. Pregnancy outcome and complications in women with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, M; Grover, S; Dunne, K; Bryan, D

    2000-09-01

    To describe the antenatal complications, mode of delivery and outcome of pregnancy in women with spina bifida. Case series of women known to have attended the spina bifida clinic at the Royal Children's Hospital. Medical records, postal questionnaire and telephone interview were utilized to collect data on the effect of pregnancy on the health of women and the effect of spina bifida on pregnancy outcome. Of 207 women born between 1945 and 1975, 23 reported having a pregnancy, and 17 who had completed pregnancies agreed to participate. The 17 women had a total of 29 pregnancies, with 23 pregnancies progressing to births. Fourteen of 17 women had antenatal admissions, with wheelchair-dependent women requiring more-frequent and longer admissions. Recurrent urinary infections in pregnancy occurred in women with a prior history of urinary infections; stomal problems occurred but were not serious; mobility was reduced for two women during pregnancy, with full recovery afterwards; and preexisting pressure sores worsened during pregnancy. Vaginal deliveries occurred in one in five pregnancies of women who were wheelchair dependent and in ten of eighteen pregnancies in independently mobile women, including seven of eight pregnancies of independently mobile women without ileal conduits. Cesarean sections were accompanied by postoperative complications in 10 women. Women with spina bifida who become pregnant generally have a positive outcome, with relatively low complication rates.

  6. Incident pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kathryn E; Kwok, Cynthia; Rinaldi, Anne; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Magwali, Tulani; Nyamapfeni, Prisca; Salata, Robert A; Morrison, Charles S

    2015-12-01

    To describe pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women and examine factors associated with live birth among those receiving and not receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The present analysis included women with HIV from Uganda and Zimbabwe who participated in a prospective cohort study during 2001-2009. Incident pregnancies and pregnancy outcomes were recorded quarterly. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate incident pregnancy probabilities; factors associated with live birth were evaluated by Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations. Among 306 HIV-infected women, there were 160 incident pregnancies (10.1 per 100 women-years). The pregnancy rate was higher among cART-naïve women than among those receiving cART (10.7 vs 5.5 per 100 women-years; P=0.047), and it was higher in Uganda than in Zimbabwe (14.4 vs 7.7 per 100 women-years; Ppregnancy (relative risk 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.7-1.0). Women not receiving cART have higher pregnancy rates than do those receiving cART, but cART use might not affect the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Timely prenatal care and monitoring of illnesses during pregnancy should be incorporated into treatment services for HIV-infected women. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Travel during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 36 weeks of pregnancy. Some domestic airlines restrict travel completely or require a medical certificate during the last month of pregnancy. For international flights, the cutoff point often is earlier, sometimes as early as 28 ...

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  9. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  10. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - vaginal bleeding; Maternal blood loss - vaginal ... Up to 1 in 4 women have vaginal bleeding at some time during their pregnancy. Bleeding is more common in the first 3 months (first trimester), especially with twins.

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  13. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) Last reviewed: April, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  14. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you quit. Or contact: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (800) 622-2255 Substance Abuse Treatment Facility Locator (800) 662-4357 Last reviewed: November, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  15. Prescription Opioids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Administration Mother to Baby National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence Treating for Two Last reviewed: September, 2017 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  16. Etanercept (Enbrel) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are forming. Can taking etanercept during my pregnancy cause pregnancy complications such as preterm delivery? Two studies found ... of age. Rotavirus is one of the leading causes of vomiting and severe diarrhea in ... breastfeeding, including treatment with TNF inhibitors. Your ...

  17. Venlafaxine (Effexor) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also cause miscarriage. Can taking venlafaxine during my pregnancy cause birth defects in my baby? Studies have looked ... there is no evidence that taking venlafaxine during pregnancy causes changes in the baby’s behavior or intellect. Several ...

  18. Having a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to you. Changes to Expect in Your Body Pregnancy causes lots of physical changes in the body. Here ... your skin is "glowing" when you are pregnant — pregnancy causes an increase in blood volume, which can make ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  1. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  2. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Who Were Treated with hGH Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy Thyroid disease is a group of disorders that ... prescribes. What role do thyroid hormones play in pregnancy? Thyroid hormones are crucial for normal development of ...

  3. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  4. Infections and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  6. Primary omental pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildizhan, R.; Kurdoglu, M.; Kolusari, A.; Erten, R.

    2008-01-01

    Omental pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy and can be seen primarily or secondary to a tubal pregnancy. A 25-yeal-old woman presented with abdominal distention with pain and anemia without vaginal bleeding. After a provisional diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy, laparotomy was performed. On surgical exploration, the bilateral tubes and ovaries were intact, however, an omental pregnancy was detected as the cause of hemoperitoneum. Partial omentectomy was performed. Although most cases are secondary, presented here is an additional case of primary omental pregnancy at 12 weeks according to Studdiford's criteria. Histological evidence of neovascularization into the supporting tissue confirmed our diagnosis. A primary omental pregnancy should always be considered as a possible explanation for severe hemoperitoneum in ectopic pregnancies presenting with acute abdomen and with intact adnexes on surgical exploration. (author)

  7. Inter-Pregnancy Interval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buchi

    1, 2 of the current pregnancy. This definition excludes. 1, 2 miscarriage as a preceding pregnancy event. Often the IPI is .... These include the type of caesarean section, post operative course ... puerperal endometritis, gestational diabetes and.

  8. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  9. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  10. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  12. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy ... birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy ...

  13. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and Pregnancy Print ...

  14. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleeping During Pregnancy What's in ...

  15. Anemia and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Anemia Anemia and Pregnancy Your body goes through significant changes ... becoming anemic. back to top Is Pregnancy-Related Anemia Preventable? Good nutrition is the best way to ...

  16. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  17. Pregnancy and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 17, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 611 Pregnancy and HIV HOW DO BABIES GET AIDS? HOW CAN WE ... doses due to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy, giving HIV a chance to develop resistance The risk of ...

  18. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ... Babies Nacersano Share Your Story OUR CAUSE HEALTH TOPICS RESEARCH & PROFESSIONALS MEDIA GET INVOLVED DONATE Our mission ...

  19. Twin versus singleton pregnancies: the incidence, pregnancy complications, and obstetric outcomes in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiechina, Nj; Okolie, Ve; Eleje, Gu; Okechukwu, Zc; Anemeje, Oa

    2011-01-01

    Twin pregnancy is associated with more pregnancy complications and poorer pregnancy outcome than singleton pregnancy. Hence periodic review is necessary to improve on the pregnancy outcome. To determine the incidence and compare pregnancy complications and obstetric outcomes of twin pregnancies and singleton pregnancies. The twin pregnancies (study group) that were delivered at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, South-East Nigeria from 1st February 2005 to 31st January 2010 were compared with singleton deliveries (control group) that occurred in the same hospital during the same period. A total of 3351 deliveries were conducted during the study period, of which 113 were twin deliveries, giving an incidence of 1:29.6 deliveries. Only 100 case files could be retrieved for analysis. The mean parities for the twins and singletons were 2.7 ± 2.33 weeks and 1.96 ± 1.87 weeks whereas the mean gestational age at delivery for twin and singleton deliveries were 34 ± 5.2 weeks and 38.7 ± 2.4 weeks respectively (P < 0.05). The mean birth weights were 3.14 ± 0.73 kg and 2.3 ± 1.0 kg for singletons and twins respectively (P < 0.05). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, cord prolapse, malpresentation, premature rupture of membranes, low Apgar scores, cesarean section rate, and perinatal death were significantly higher in twin pregnancies than in singleton. The incidence of twin pregnancy over the study period was high and was significantly associated with more pregnancy complications and poorer obstetric outcomes. Close antenatal and intrapartum care are needed in order to improve outcome and decrease complications.

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Consumption Between Conception and Recognition of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Clare; Hutchinson, Delyse; Burns, Lucy; Wilson, Judy; Elliott, Elizabeth; Allsop, Steve; Najman, Jake; Jacobs, Sue; Rossen, Larissa; Olsson, Craig; Mattick, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Current estimates of the rates of alcohol-exposed pregnancies may underestimate prenatal alcohol exposure if alcohol consumption in early trimester 1, prior to awareness of pregnancy, is not considered. Extant literature describes predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy; however, alcohol consumption prior to awareness of pregnancy is a distinct behavior from consumption after becoming aware of pregnancy and thus may be associated with different predictors. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption by women prior to awareness of their pregnancy, and trajectories of change to alcohol use following pregnancy recognition. Pregnant women (n = 1,403) were prospectively recruited from general antenatal clinics of 4 public hospitals in Australian metropolitan areas between 2008 and 2013. Women completed detailed interviews about alcohol use before and after recognition of pregnancy. Most women (n = 850, 60.6%) drank alcohol between conception and pregnancy recognition. Binge and heavy drinking were more prevalent than low-level drinking. The proportion of women who drank alcohol reduced to 18.3% (n = 257) after recognition of pregnancy. Of women who drank alcohol, 70.5% ceased drinking, 18.3% reduced consumption, and 11.1% made no reduction following awareness of pregnancy. Socioeconomic status (SES) was the strongest predictor of alcohol use, with drinkers more likely to be of high rather than low SES compared with abstainers (OR = 3.30, p alcohol use prior to pregnancy recognition, age, pregnancy planning, and illicit substance use. In this sample of relatively high SES women, most women ceased or reduced drinking once aware of their pregnancy. However, the rate of alcohol-exposed pregnancies was higher than previous estimates when the period prior to pregnancy recognition was taken into account. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Effect of Pregnancy on Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpinski, Kurt; Iodice, Valeria; Sandroni, Paola; Low, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical presentation, autonomic dysfunction, and pregnancy outcomes in parous and nulliparous women with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and in women with POTS before and after pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study consists of women who had at least 1 pregnancy during which time they met criteria for POTS between May 1993 and July 2009. All patients underwent standard autonomic testing. POTS was defined as a heart rate (HR) increase of greater than 30 beats/min on head-up tilt (HUT) with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively to determine pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics related to POTS did not differ between parous and nulliparous women except for disease duration (parous, 3.7±2.6; nulliparous, 2.1±2.2; Pchange in HR on HUT: parous, 42.6±12.0 beats/min; nulliparous, 41.3±10.6 beats/min; P=.39). Of 116 total pregnancies, adverse pregnancy outcomes were reported in 9% and maternal complications in 1%. No complication was related to POTS. There was a trend toward modest improvement in autonomic dysfunction before and after pregnancy (change in HR on HUT: before pregnancy, 38.1±22.7 beats/min; after pregnancy, 21.9±14.9 beats/min; P=.07). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of pregnancy on POTS does not appear to be clinically important. However, there does appear to be a trend toward improvement in the short-term postpartum period. Adverse pregnancy events were similar to those seen in the general public and do not present a barrier to women with POTS who want to have children. PMID:20516426

  2. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe A Teasdale

    Full Text Available Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI is high among pregnant women in certain settings. We estimated STI incidence and compared STI risk in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data came from the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. Women aged 18-50 years with at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of enrollment were included. Follow-up visits included laboratory testing for pregnancy, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV, as well as self-report of hormonal contraceptive (HC use, sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices. All visits were classified according to pregnancy status. Incidence of each STI was calculated using follow-up time. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using pregnancy as a time-varying exposure and sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices as time-varying covariates. Among 4,549 women, 766 (16.8% had a positive pregnancy test. Median follow-up time was 18 months [IQR: 12-24]. The overall incidence rate of chlamydia was 6.7 per 100 person years (py and 9.9/100py during pregnancy; gonorrhea incidence was 2.7/100py and 4.9/100py during pregnancy; trichomoniasis incidence was 7.1/100py overall and 9.2/100py during pregnancy. Overall HIV incidence was 3.9/100py and 3.8/100py during pregnancy. In crude models, pregnancy increased risk for chlamydia (hazard ratio (HR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.2, however there was no increased risk of any measured STI in adjusted models. STI Incidence was high during pregnancy however pregnancy did not increase STI risk after adjustment for sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to help pregnant women avoid STIs.

  3. Outdoor Activity and High Altitude Exposure During Pregnancy: A Survey of 459 Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Linda E; Hackett, Peter H; Luks, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate whether women engage in outdoor activities and high altitude travel during pregnancy; the health care advice received regarding high altitude during pregnancy; and the association between high altitude exposure and self-reported pregnancy complications. An online survey of women with at least 1 pregnancy distributed on websites and e-mail lists targeting mothers and/or mountain activities. Outcome measures were outdoor activities during pregnancy, high altitude (>2440 m) exposure during pregnancy, and pregnancy and perinatal complications. Hiking, running, and swimming were the most common activities performed during pregnancy. Women traveled to high altitude in over half of the pregnancies (244/459), and most did not receive counseling regarding altitude (355, 77%), although a small proportion (14, 3%) were told not to go above 2440 m. Rates of miscarriage and most other complications were similar between pregnancies with and without travel above 2440 m. Pregnancies with high altitude exposure were more likely to have preterm labor (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% CI 0.97-5.4; P = .05). Babies born to women who went to high altitude during pregnancy were more likely to need oxygen at birth (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.04-5.26; P sports and travel to high altitude have a low rate of complications. Given the limitations of our data, further research is necessary on the risks associated with high altitude travel and physical activity and how these apply to the general population. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points:\\ud - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks\\ud - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby\\ud - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  5. Hypopituitarism and successful pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xue; Yuan, Qing; Yao, Yanni; Li, Zengyan; Zhang, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a disorder characterized by the deficiency of one or more of the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Hypopituitarism patients may present the symptoms of amenorrhea, poor pregnancy potential, infertility, and no production of milk after delivery. Successful pregnancy in hypopituitarism patient is rare because hypopituitarism is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abruption, p...

  6. HEMOSTASIOLOGICAL MONITORING DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Medyannikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As gestation progresses, all hemostatic components show changes aimed at compensating for the expenditures associated with fetal development. Activation of the hemostatic system during pregnancy creates a premorbid background for thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. Hemostasiological examination is one of the compulsory dispensary management stages for pregnant women. An algorithm for the diagnosis of pregnancy-associated disorders in the hemostatic system is to solve the following problems: to identify the causes of hemocoagulation disorders, to determine the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic disorders, to prevent obstetric complications, and to monitor antithrombotic therapy. Hemostatic monitoring in pregnant women is based on rating and special methods and includes 3 stages: early, extended, and differential.The need for extended hemostatic examination is first determined and the direction of a search for a defective component is concretized in relation of the changes found. Interpretation of laboratory test values in terms of a female medical history and gestational age underlies the timely diagnosis, adequate treatment policy, and effective prevention of gestational complications.

  7. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? • What risks are associated with having a seizure ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? Seizure disorders can affect pregnancy in several ways: • ...

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  9. Ectopic ovarian pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.S.; Jatoi, N.; Memon, R.A.; Sachdev, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of ectopic ovarian pregnancy is presented occurring in a 24 years old woman after natural conception. The clinical diagnosis was ruptured tubal pregnancy. Gross findings were suggestive of ruptured corpus luteum cyst on exploration. The histopathological examination of specimen brought forward the diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy. (author)

  10. Hodgkin's disease in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szelc, S.; Szeliga, E.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnancy outcome and its influence on the effect of the MOPP chemotherapy for 30 patients with Hodgkin's disease were analyzed. During the first 6 months after completing the treatment 305 of pregnancies were interrupted. Pregnancy during complete remission of Hodgkin's disease after combined treatment does not increase the risk of relapse and is not a risk to delivery and foetus. (author)

  11. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.

  12. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  13. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, M. V.; Budyal, Sweta; Kasliwal, Rajeev; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented. PMID:23226664

  14. The PR Officer's Survival Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrum, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    A former corporate public relations (PR) professional shares strategies for communicating and cooperating with the chief executive officer, and particularly for coping with differences in perceptions of the public relations officer's role. Basic attributes of a successful PR professional are outlined: good communication skills, an analytical…

  15. PR's involvement in International Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    1995-01-01

    In The Netherlands, the Research Station for Cattle, Sheep and Horse Husbandry (in Dutch abbreviated as PR) bridges the gap between more basic and disciplinary research done at universities and research institutes on the one hand and the extension service and the farmers on the other hand. The PR

  16. Prólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Hooker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este volumen No. 11 presenta una compilación estructurada en 6 secciones temáticas las cuales comprenden 9 artículos. La primera sección en Educación, presenta los artículos: Métodos de enseñanza de Física en la modalidad a distancia en el instituto sabatino “Esperanza”,en el municipio de Siuna; y, Comportamiento disciplinario en la escuela “Niño Jesús”, Siuna, Región Autónoma Atlántico Norte, 2011. La segunda sección, titulada Educación Superior en la Costa Caribe Nicaragüense presenta los artículos: Formación de los docentes de la URACCAN en el Área de Recursos Naturales; asimismo, Pertinencia de los programas para el aprendizaje del inglés en Administración de Empresas, Recinto Nueva Guinea y Prácticas de campo en la formación de estudiantes de Ingeniería en Zootecnia, URACCAN Nueva Guinea. La tercera sección denominada Revitalización Lingüística y Cultural comprende dos artículos: Etno-matemática en indígenas ulwas, comunidad de Karawala, Región Autónoma Atlántico Sur, Nicaragua y Ma-Kuagro: Elementos de la cultura de San Basilio Palenque, Colombia, y su incidencia en las prácticas pedagógicas. La cuarta sección Cultura Indígena y Afrodescendiente comprende un artículo: Economía indígena en la comunidad de Wasakín, municipio de Rosita, RAAN. Clausura la quinta sección denominada Ciencias Sociales, el artículo La república Bolivariana de Venezuela y Nicaragua, en el marco del acuerdo energético.

  17. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention does not diminish the pregnancy prevention effectiveness of hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Pamela M; Heffron, Renee; Ronald, Allan; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Donnell, Deborah; Mugo, Nelly R; Were, Edwin; Mujugira, Andrew; Kiarie, James; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2014-07-31

    For women at risk of HIV-1, effective contraception and effective HIV-1 prevention are global priorities. In a clinical trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1-serodiscordant couples, we estimated the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (oral contraceptive pills, injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, and hormonal implants) for pregnancy prevention relative to no contraception among 1785 HIV-1-uninfected women followed up to 36 months. We compared the effectiveness of each method among women assigned PrEP versus placebo. Contraception was not required for participation, but was offered on-site and was recorded monthly; incident pregnancy was determined by monthly urine testing. For women using no contraception, overall pregnancy incidence was 15.4% per year. Women reporting oral contraceptive use had comparable pregnancy incidence to women using no contraception, and this lack of contraceptive effectiveness was similar for those assigned PrEP and placebo (17.7 and 10.0% incidence per year, respectively; P-value for difference in effect by PrEP use = 0.24). Women reporting injectable contraception had reduced pregnancy incidence compared to those reporting no contraception, which did not differ by arm (PrEP 5.1%, placebo 5.3% per year; P-value for difference = 0.47). Contraceptive effectiveness was highest among women using implants (pregnancy incidence <1% per year in both arms). PrEP had no adverse impact on hormonal contraceptive effectiveness for pregnancy prevention. As seen previously in similar populations, women reporting contraceptive pill use had little protection from pregnancy, possibly due to poor adherence. Injectable or implantable hormonal contraception and PrEP provide effective prevention for pregnancy and HIV-1.

  18. Carnitine Deficiency and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk de Bruyn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of carnitine deficiency in pregnancy. In our first case, systematic screening revealed L-carnitine deficiency in the first born of an asymptomatic mother. In the course of her second pregnancy, maternal carnitine levels showed a deficiency as well. In a second case, a mother known with carnitine deficiency under supplementation was followed throughout her pregnancy. Both pregnancies had an uneventful outcome. Because carnitine deficiency can have serious complications, supplementation with carnitine is advised. This supplementation should be continued throughout pregnancy according to plasma concentrations.

  19. Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeka Madu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile dermatomyositis has variable clinical presentations both in and outside of pregnancy. A literature review indicated that optimal maternal and fetal outcomes can be anticipated when the pregnancy is undertaken while the disease is in remission. Poorer outcomes are associated with flare-up of the disease in early pregnancy compared with exacerbation in the second or third trimester, when fetal prognosis is usually good. We present a case of JDM in pregnancy with disease exacerbation late in pregnancy and review of the relevant literature.

  20. Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Vanessa H; Ferguson, James E

    2017-10-01

    Routine exercise should be recommended to healthy pregnant women after consultation with an obstetric provider. Even pregnant women who have not been exercising regularly can gradually increase their exercise during pregnancy. Regular exercise during pregnancy promotes overall wellness and helps maintain appropriate gestational weight gain and appropriate fetal weight gain. Exercise in pregnancy may also reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes, and may be associated with shorter first stage of labor and decreased risk for cesarean section. Exercise in pregnancy is safe for pregnant women and their fetuses and can have multiple health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Hyperthyroidism in molar pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Mahdoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2014-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of molar pregnancy. We report a 39-year-old woman who presented a thyrotoxic syndrome accompanying a molar pregnancy. Serum thyroid hormones were elevated and returned to normal level after uterine evacuation of a molar pregnancy. The authors detail the role of thyroid stimulating property of human gonadotropin chorionic hormone and its structural changes during the gestational trophoblastic diseases. These changes give the latter the thyroid stimulating properties and signs of hyperthyroidism. Molar pregnancy may be a cause of hyperthyroidism. The diagnosis of molar pregnancy should be a mention to thyrotoxicosique syndrome in a woman of childbearing age. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspect, Alain

    2004-11-01

    COLOQ est une conférence regroupant, tous les deux ans, la communauté scientifique et industrielle nationale travaillant dans les domaines des lasers, de l'optique non-linéaire et de l'optique quantique. Elle s'est tenue pour sa huitième édition à Toulouse, du 3 au 5 septembre 2004, sur le campus de I'INSA. Comme il est de tradition tous les quatre ans, COLOQ était couplé avec Horizons de l'optique, avec en particulier une journée commune dont le programme avait été préparé en concertation par les deux comités scientifiques. Depuis sa création, COLOQ a pour but de favoriser les rencontres entre les chercheurs des différents laboratoires nationaux publics ou privés travaillant sur les lasers et l'optique quantique au sens large. C'est un moyen privilégié de resserrer les liens de cette communauté et d'y intégrer les jeunes chercheurs. Ces derniers y trouvent l'occasion de se connaître, de se faire connaître, de découvrir la communauté à laquelle ils appartiennent et d'élargir leurs connaissances des thèmes qui la structurent. La participation de 230 chercheurs et d'une vingtaine d'exposants de matériels spécialisés dans les lasers et l'optoélectronique témoigne de la vitalité de COLOQ et de son audience dans les laboratoires et chez les industriels de l'optique. Le programme de COLOQ 8 comportait d'une vingtaine de conférences générales données par des chercheurs de renom international, et des séances de communications par affiches, occasions privilégiées de rencontres et d'échanges. Les exposés ont porté sur des sujets particulièrement actifs au niveau national et international, avec un accent sur des thèmes importants pour la région toulousaine : contrôle cohérent, optique et nanosciences, optique et astronomie, sans oublier la traditionnelle rubrique phénomènes fondamentaux, éclectique pour ne pas dire hétéroclite, mais si représentative d'une des ambitions de COLOQ qui est d'offrir à ses participants une

  3. [Multiple pregnancies prevalence: its raise on last decade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ricardo Jorge Hernández; Torres, Mauro Ochoa; Santos, Roberto Flores; Flores, Raúl Cortés; Sánchez, Gerardo Forsbasch

    2008-09-01

    Multiple pregnancies prevalence has been increasing in last decade, which have also increased the requirements of neonatal intensive care units and all problems related to premature neonate or low birth weight. Prevalence rate of twin (18 to 26 in 1,000 births), and triple pregnancies (0.37 to 1.74 in 1,000 births) have raised too, perhaps due to assisted reproductive techniques. To know incidence of multiple pregnancies at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad no. 23, from Institute Mexicano del Seguro Social. Retrospective and descriptive study. We review the files of multiple pregnancies from 1972 to 2006 to estimate its rate and change every five and ten years. We registered 9,055 twin pregnancies during the period, with a rate of 7.1 to 14.4 in 1,000 (63% of increase in the last decade [12.6 in 1,000 births] compared with the previous decade [7.7 in 1,000 births]; p < 0.005). Pregnancies with three or more fetuses were 202, with 191 triplets, 13 with four, three with five, and one with six products (646 newborns). Incidence of multiple pregnancies with four or more products has also increased in last decade: 230 times higher than two decades before. Multiple pregnancies rate has increased in last decade: 63% in twin pregnancies, 217% in triplets, and 230 times more than expected in four or more products pregnancies.

  4. Pregnancies in women with hyperprolactinaemia: clinical course and obstetric complications of 41 pregnancies in 27 women. [Yttrium 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, W.F.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Banks, L.M.; Gordon, H.; Joplin, G.F.

    1979-09-01

    Observations are reported on 41 pregnancies in 27 patients who initially had infertility and raised serum prolactin concentrations. Associated symptoms were secondary amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea. All patients were at risk of pituitary expansion during pregnancy, especially these 19 (70 per cent) with radiological evidence of pituitary tumors. Fifteen patients had 21 pregnancies after pituitary implantation with 90 yttrium; 14 patients had 20 pegnancies without prior pituitary implantation or any other attempt to prevent tumor expansion. The induction and Cesarean section rates were about 30 per cent in 32 term pregnancies in 25 patients. Details of how pregnancy was achieved and the associated obstetric problems are given.

  5. Taxa de juros e prêmio de risco: investigando a hipótese Bresser-Nakano para a economia brasileira, 1995-2005 Interest rate and the risk premium: Bresser-Nakano's hypothesis in the brazilian economy, 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M. Marques

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A proposta Bresser-Nakano deflagrou uma forte discussão sobre a política de juros no Brasil, suscitando uma série de críticas e contribuições para o seu aperfeiçoamento. Seu argumento central baseia-se na suposição de que o sentido da causalidade vai da taxa de juros para o prêmio de risco, e não o contrário. Com isso, a autoridade monetária, ao reduzi-la, promove um círculo virtuoso na economia, reduzindo o prêmio de risco e, através da taxa de câmbio, a própria inflação. Essa hipótese, no entanto, continua controversa e carece de estudos empíricos visando à sua verificação. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é investigar a sua validade para a economia brasileira nos últimos 10 anos de política monetária. Aplicando testes de causalidade de Granger, os resultados encontrados apóiam a hipótese Bresser-Nakano.The Bresser-Nakano's proposal raised a wide discussion on the monetary policy in Brazil and several critiques were brought about as well as contributions for its improvement. Their main argument is based upon a causality relation that runs from interest rate to risk premium with a positive correlation. In this case a cut in the interest rate shifts down the risk premium, and could even reduce the price inflation by the exchange rate. This assumption is linked to others issues in financial integration in an open economy context. The traditional view is that the interest rate is determined by the interest rate parity condition and that the monetary authority has no autonomy to set different rates from those determined by the "capital's flows". An alternative approach defends that is possible to peg with wide autonomy the domestic interest rate, even in this context. The results endorse Bresser-Nakano's proposal and suggest it could be feasible for Brazilian real situation.

  6. Diabetes insipidus during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) in pregnancy is a heterogeneous syndrome, most classically presenting with polyuria and polydipsia that can complicate approximately 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The presentation can involve exacerbation of central or nephrogenic DI during pregnancy, which may have been either overt or subclinical prior to pregnancy. Women without preexisting DI can also be affected by the actions of placental vasopressinase which increases in activity between the 4th and 38th weeks of gestation, leading to accelerated metabolism of AVP and causing a transient form of DI of pregnancy. This type of DI may be associated with certain complications during pregnancy and delivery, such as preeclampsia. Management of DI of pregnancy depends on the pathophysiology of the disease; forms of DI that lack AVP can be treated with desmopressin (DDAVP), while forms of DI that involve resistance to AVP require evaluation of the underlying causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Philippe; Salenave, Sylvie

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It is usually transient, being due to increased placental production of vasopressinase that inactivates circulating vasopressin. Gestational, transient DI occurs late in pregnancy and disappears few days after delivery. Acquired central DI can also occur during pregnancy, for example in a patient with hypophysitis or neuroinfundibulitis during late pregnancy or postpartum. Finally, pre-existing central or nephrogenic DI may occasionally be unmasked by pregnancy. Treatment with dDAVP (desmopressin, Minirin(®)) is very effective on transient DI of pregnancy and also on pre-existing or acquired central DI. Contrary to vasopressin, dDAVP is not degraded by vasopressinase. Nephrogenic DI is insensitive to dDAVP and is therefore more difficult to treat during pregnancy if fluid intake needs to be restricted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  9. The role of continuing metformin therapy during pregnancy in the reduction of gestational diabetes and improving pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A. Abd El Hameed

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: Continuous metformin therapy throughout pregnancy in women with PCOS improves pregnancy outcomes by decreasing spontaneous miscarriage rates and prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus with its co morbidity and mortality.

  10. Hyperproteic diet and pregnancy of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, A M; Sticchi, R; Gambardella, P; D'Aponte, D; Ferrante, P

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the effects of a purified diet enriched with animal protein (casein 40%, lactalbumin 20%) on different stages of rat pregnancy. We observed that hyperproteic diet, especially when administered from the first day of pregnancy, induces morphological alterations of liver, adrenal cortex, heart and kidney. Moreover, haematic dosages, carried out on 15th day of pregnancy, have shown moderate but significant increase of glucose and triglycerides and significant decrease of circulating aldosterone and corticosterone as well. Finally an early administration of hyperproteic diet causes less numerous litters and high mortality rate at birth.

  11. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerdane, Youcef; Laporte, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    L'objectif de la série de colloques UVX est de réunir, au rythme d'une fois tous les deux ans, les scientifiques et industriels travaillant dans le domaine du développement des sources de photon de grande énergie (UV, VUV, et X) et de leurs applications. En particulier cette manifestation est l'occasion de faire se rencontrer une communauté très pluridisciplinaire (physique, chimie, biologie, sciences de l'univers) liée à des domaines en forte évolution technologique (lasers et rayonnement synchrotron notamment). Le colloque UVX 2004 s'est tenu au Palais des Congrès de Saint-Étienne (42000) du 7 au 11 juin 2004. La période écoulée depuis l'édition précédente (Oléron 2002) a été particulièrement active dans tous les domaines concernés : grands projets de sources, méthodes de diagnostic au sens large. Une nouvelle fois on constate que le bref et l'ultra-bref ont une place privilégiée, qu'il s'agisse du travail sur les accélérateurs ou sur les lasers qui, bien sûr, dans la course aux temps courts remportent la palme avec la présence de spécialistes du domaine attoseconde. La communauté représentée a la chance d'être en prise directe avec de très grands projets en phase active de réalisation comme le Laser Megajoule (LMJ), la source SOLEIL, et un projet d'ampleur plus modeste mais remarquable dans son domaine : la source LASERIX d'Orsay/Palaiseau. On pourra citer aussi le projet Arc en Ciel qui, lui, est encore au stade de sa définition. - SOLEIL, source de nouvelle génération de rayonnement synchrotron (plateau de Saclay) est dans une phase active de réalisation : achèvement de l'infrastructure en 2005 et injection du 1o faisceau dans l'anneau de stockage prévu également en 2005. Cette source devrait être la meilleure au monde dans le domaine VUV/X mous, tout en restant très polyvalente (brillance, accordabilité, structure temporelle, polarisation) et complémentaire de l'ESRF. Au final on disposera de 21 lignes de lumi

  12. Management of prolonged pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare two strategies for management of prolonged pregnancy (= or >294 days) i.e. induction (intervention) versus expectant management (non-intervention) and evaluate the associated feto-maternal risks. Subjects and Methods: One hundred cases of uncomplicated prolonged gestation were selected. The gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound in first trimester. One group (50 patients) was managed by intervention i.e. induction of labour (group A) and other group (50 patients) by non-intervention i.e. expectant management (group B). In group A intervention was done at 42 weeks. In expectant group, the methods of monitoring were fetal kick charting recorded daily by the patient, and ultrasound for amniotic fluid index. The biophysical profile score and NST (non stress test) were performed once a week till 42 weeks and then twice weekly. Results: The frequency of prolonged pregnancy was found to be 10.9%. There was no significant difference in the number of spontaneous vaginal deliveries between the two groups. The rate of LSCS (lower segment caesarean section) was higher in intervention group ( 30% versus 18% ). The neonatal depression at birth was more in group B ( 10% versus 4%) and at 5 minutes almost same between two groups (4% versus 2%). There were 11 cases of meconium aspiration syndrome, leading to one neonatal death. Among nine perinatal deaths two were neonatal deaths. Seven cases of intrauterine deaths in which antepartum deaths occurred because of non compliance of patients. No cause could be detected for the other three fetuses. Conclusion: There was increased LSCS rate in group A. However in expectant group B perinatal mortality was about twice more as compared to intervention group. Active early intervention at 42 weeks is warranted to reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  13. Pregnancy incidence and outcomes in women with perinatal HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Laura; Sconza, Rebecca; Foster, Caroline; Tookey, Pat A; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Thorne, Claire

    2017-07-31

    To estimate the incidence of first pregnancy in women living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) in the United Kingdom and to compare pregnancy management and outcomes with age-matched women with behaviourally acquired HIV (BHIV). The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood is a comprehensive, population-based surveillance study that collects demographic and clinical data on all pregnant women living with HIV, their children, and all HIV-infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The incident rate ratio of first pregnancy was calculated for all women of reproductive age who had been reported to the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood as vertically infected children. These women and their pregnancies were compared to age-matched pregnant women with BHIV. Of the 630 women with PHIV reported in the United Kingdom as children, 7% (45) went on to have at least one pregnancy, with 70 pregnancies reported. The incident rate ratio of first pregnancy was 13/1000 woman-years. The BHIV comparison group comprised 118 women (184 pregnancies). Women with PHIV were more likely to be on combined antiretroviral therapy at conception and have a lower baseline CD4 cell count (P pregnancy incidence, but those who become pregnant are at risk of detectable viral load near delivery, reflecting their often complex clinical history, adherence, and drug resistance issues.

  14. ESO PR Highlights in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Last year proved to be another exceptional year for the European organisation for ground-based astronomy. ESO should begin the New Year with two new member states: Spain (PR 05/06) and the Czech Republic (PR 52/06). ESO PR Highlights 2006 2006 was a year of renovation and revolution in the world of planets. A new Earth-like exoplanet has been discovered (PR 03/06) using a network of telescopes from all over the world (including the Danish 1.54-m one at ESO La Silla). It is not the only child of this fruitful year: thanks to the combined use of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and La Silla instruments, a surprising system of twin giant exoplanets was found (PR 29/06), and a trio of Neptune-like planets hosted by a nearby star were identified (PR 18/06). These results open new perspectives on the search for habitable zones and on the understanding of the mechanism of planet formation. The VISIR instrument on the VLT has been providing unique information to answer this last question, by supplying a high resolution view of a planet-forming disc (PR 36/06). There are not only new members in the planets' register: during the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union held in Prague (Czech Republic), it was decided that Pluto is not a planet anymore but a 'dwarf planet'. Whatever its status, Pluto still has a satellite, Charon, whose radius and density have been measured more accurately by observing a rare occultation from different sites, including Cerro Paranal (PR 02/06). The scientific community dedicated 2006 to the great physicist James Clerk Maxwell (it was the 175th anniversary of the birth): without his electromagnetic theory of light, none of the astonishing discoveries of modern physics could have been achieved. Nowadays we can look at distant galaxies in great detail: the GIRAFFE spectrograph on the VLT revealed that galaxies 6 billion years ago had the same amount of dark matter relative to stars than nowadays (PR 10/06), while SINFONI gave an

  15. Native Teen Voices: adolescent pregnancy prevention recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L

    2008-01-01

    American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.

  16. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamieh, Tayssir

    2005-05-01

    Né simultanément à Mulhouse et à Beyrouth en 1996 dans le cadre d'une collaboraiion franco-libanaise sur une initiative personnelle de Monsieur Tayssir HAMIEH. le Colloque Franco-Libanais sur la Science des Matériaux (CSM), qui s'inscrit dans le cadre des relations étroites entre la France et le Liban, est très vite devenu une occasion très importante de rencontre entre scientifiques de haut niveau, non seulement, du contour méditerranéen mais également des pays européens, américains et arabes. La quatrieme édition CSM4 est une véritable réussite grâce à la participation des chercheurs confirmés dans tous les domaines des sciences de matériaux et venant de plusieurs pays tels que la France, I'Algérie, Le Liban, la Syrie, le Maroc, la Tunisie, l'Italie, l'Espagne, le Portugal, le Royaume Uni, les États-Unis, la Russie, l'Allemagne, le Japon et I'Inde ; pour présenter plus de 350 communications orales et par affiche et couvrant presque toutes les disciplines des systèmes des matériaux. Le choix des diffèrents thèmes du colloque sur la science des matériaux a été dicté par l'importance capitale de cette discipline dans notre civilisation moderne. En fait, les matériaux utilisés pour la fabrication artisanale ou industrielle d'objets, de produits et de systèmes ainsi que pour la réalisation de constructions et d'équipements ont de tout temps défini le niveau de notre civilisation technique. La réalisation des objectifs communs de notre monde en plein développement, pour ne pas dire en pleine mutation, est en grande partie tributaire de la mise au point de nouveaux matériaux et de procédés de transformation et d'assemblages nouveaux, présentant des performances et des qualités améliorées. Le colloque a illustré et traduit, de manière remarquables, l'excellente collaboration entre chercheurs libanais et français. Le partenariat est exemplaire par la qualité des laboratoires impliqués et par le niveau scientifique des r

  17. Increased venous thrombosis incidence in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Tarp; Kesmodel, U S; Juul, S

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is venous thrombosis risk increased in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization? SUMMARY ANSWER The venous thrombosis incidence was significantly increased in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization; especially in the first trimester and in the first 6 weeks post-partum. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY In vitro fertilization without pregnancy is not associated with increased venous thrombosis incidence. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This national register-based cohort study covered the period from 1995 to 2005. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS All Danish pregnancies conceived...... by in vitro fertilization (n = 18 787) were included. Venous thrombosis incidence rates in pregnancies after in vitro fertilization were compared with venous thrombosis incidence rates in reference pregnancies, by calculating incidence rate ratios. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In total, 48 cases were...

  18. Political PR is dying. Long live business PR! / Ilyn Oleg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oleg, Ilyn

    2005-01-01

    Vene suurima suhtekorraldusagentuuri Imageland Public Relations rahvusvaheliste suhete juhi hinnangul on Venemaal peamisteks probleemideks PR professionaalide vähesus, nende kehv haritus oma erialal, samuti vähene teadlikkus suhtekorralduse tähtsusest äris

  19. Risk of post-pregnancy hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Ida; Basit, Saima; Melbye, Mads; Lykke, Jacob A; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Bundgaard, Henning; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Boyd, Heather A

    2017-07-12

    Objectives  To determine how soon after delivery the risk of post-pregnancy hypertension increases in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and how the risk evolves over time. Design  Nationwide register based cohort study. Setting  Denmark. Populations  482 972 primiparous women with a first live birth or stillbirth between 1995 and 2012 (cumulative incidence analyses), and 1 025 118 women with at least one live birth or stillbirth between 1978 and 2012 (Cox regression analyses). Main outcome measures  10 year cumulative incidences of post-pregnancy hypertension requiring treatment with prescription drugs, and hazard ratios estimated using Cox regression. Results  Of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in a first pregnancy in their 20s, 14% developed hypertension in the first decade post partum, compared with 4% of women with normotensive first pregnancies in their 20s. The corresponding percentages for women with a first pregnancy in their 40s were 32% and 11%, respectively. In the year after delivery, women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy had 12-fold to 25-fold higher rates of hypertension than did women with a normotensive pregnancy. Rates in women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy were threefold to 10-fold higher 1-10 years post partum and remained twice as high even 20 or more years later. Conclusions  The risk of hypertension associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is high immediately after an affected pregnancy and persists for more than 20 years. Up to one third of women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy may develop hypertension within a decade of an affected pregnancy, indicating that cardiovascular disease prevention in these women should include blood pressure monitoring initiated soon after pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The biochemistry of saliva throughout pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rio, Rute; Azevedo, Álvaro; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Marinho, Jorge; Silva, Mário Jorge; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Sialometric and sialochemical analyses during pregnancy are not consistent, and frequently contradictory in terms of salivary flow rate, pH, and concentration of calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and α-amylase. We, therefore, measured the evolution of these parameters throughout pregnancy. METHOD: A cross-sectional study compared sialometric and sialochemical analyses of 30 pregnant women vs. 30 age-matched non-pregnant women, and a longitudin...