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Sample records for pregnancy prenatal alcohol

  1. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5‐year‐old children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falgreen Eriksen, H‐L; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2012-01-01

    ..., Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5‐year‐old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191–1200. Objective...

  2. RE-AIM evaluation of the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project: educational resources to inform health professionals about prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Janet M; France, Kathryn E; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather A; Bartu, Anne E; O'Leary, Colleen M; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Bower, Carol; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project that provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources to inform them about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The authors developed, produced, and distributed educational resources to 3,348 health professionals in WA. Six months later, they surveyed 1,483 of these health professionals. The authors used the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) to evaluate the project. The educational resources were effective in producing a 31% increase in the proportion of health professionals who routinely provided pregnant women with information about the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. One hundred percent of the settings adopted the project, it reached 96.3% of the target population, it was implemented as intended, and the resources were maintained (http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy). The educational resources for health professionals have potential to contribute to reducing prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD.

  3. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  4. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ...

  5. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  6. Alcohol use, injuries, and prenatal visits during three successive pregnancies among American Indian women on the Northern Plains who have children with fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Leonardson, Gary R; Borzelleca, Joseph; Brock, Ellen; Neff-Smith, Martha; Welty, Thomas K

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare three sequential pregnancies of American Indian women who have children with FAS or children with incomplete FAS with women who did not have children with FAS. Two retrospective case-control studies were conducted of Northern Plains American Indian children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (Study 1) or incomplete FAS (Study 2) in 1981-1993. Three successive pregnancies ending in live births of 43 case mothers who had children with FAS, and 35 case mothers who had children with incomplete FAS were compared to the pregnancies of 86 and 70 control mothers who did not have children with FAS, respectively, in the two studies. Prenatal records were abstracted for the index child (child with FAS or incomplete FAS) and siblings born just before and just after the index child, and comparable prenatal records for the controls. Compared to the controls, significantly more case mothers used alcohol before and after all three pregnancies and during pregnancy with the before sibling and the index child. Mothers who had children with FAS reduced their alcohol use during the pregnancy following the birth of the index child. All Study 1 case mothers (100%) and 60% of Study 2 case mothers used alcohol during the pregnancy with the index child compared to 20 and 9% of respective control mothers. More study 1 case mothers experienced unintentional injuries (OR 9.50) and intentional injuries during the index pregnancy (OR 9.33) than the control mothers. Most case mothers began prenatal care in the second trimester. Alcohol use was documented before, during and after each of the three pregnancies. Women of child-bearing age should be screened for alcohol use whenever they present for medical services. Mothers who had a child with FAS decreased their alcohol consumption with the next pregnancy, a finding that supports the importance of prenatal screening throughout pregnancy. Women who receive medical care for injuries should be screened for

  7. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  8. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  9. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  10. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  11. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  12. Prenatal diagnosis in multiple pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Fisk, N M

    2000-08-01

    Fetal abnormality is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. This, together with the requirement to consider the risks with at least two babies to sample correctly each fetus and to undertake accurately-targeted selective termination, amounts to a major challenge for obstetricians involved in prenatal diagnosis. Early determination of chorionicity should be routine, since this influences not only the genetic risks but also the invasive procedure chosen for karyotyping or genotyping. Assessment of nuchal translucency identifies individual fetuses at risk of trisomy. Contrary to expectation, invasive procedures in twins appear to have procedure-related miscarriage rates that are similar to those in singletons. Instead, contamination remains a concern at chorionic villus sampling. Elective late karyotyping of fetuses may have a role in some countries. Whereas management options for discordant fetal abnormality are relatively straightforward in dichorionic pregnancies, monochorionic pregnancies are at risk of co-twin sequelae after any single intrauterine death. Techniques have now been developed to occlude completely the cord vasculature by laser and/or ultrasound guided bipolar diathermy. Given the complexities associated with prenatal diagnosis, all invasive procedures in multiple pregnancies should be performed in tertiary referral centres. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  13. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  14. Prenatal risk indicators of a prolonged pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annette Wind; Westergaard, Jes Grabow; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prenatal risk factors of prolonged pregnancy, a pregnancy of 42 weeks or more, are known. The objective was to examine whether sociodemographic, reproductive, toxicologic, or medical health conditions were associated with the risk of prolonged pregnancy. METHODS: Data from the Dan...

  15. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Cortical Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Normandy University, and Rouen and Brest Universities, France studied the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels in mice.

  16. Biomarkers for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov; Bager, Heidi; Husby, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful...... method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing...... literature. Studies were selected to give an overview on clinically relevant neonatal and maternal biomarkers. The direct biomarkers fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate, and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) were found to be the most appropriate biomarkers in relation...

  17. [Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy: prevention, prenatal diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, P; Biedermann, K; Extermann, P; Gyr, T

    1995-01-01

    Maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii acquired during pregnancy occurs in more than 500 women per year in Switzerland. Systematic screening at the beginning of pregnancy allows the introduction of health education programs. The screening during pregnancy is performed to diagnose primary maternal infections and to propose prenatal diagnosis and treatment. The administration of specific antibiotherapy during pregnancy (spiramycine or the association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides) significantly reduces the risk of fetal infection. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is possible and reliable. It avoids unnecessary termination of pregnancy when the fetus is not infected and specific therapy in case of infection (association of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides). Prenatal treatment may be proposed without prenatal diagnosis as of the 16th week of gestation. In any case, prenatal treatment seems to reduce the incidence of severe congenital toxoplasmosis.

  18. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Developing Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnak Assadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical and experimental studies strongly suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with zinc deficiency and impaired renal tubular function. Whether maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes renal tubular cell injury is unknown.Material & Methods: Renal function was studied in 8 infants with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS and 8 healthy age-matched infants. Renal function and structure were also examined in 11 offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during gestation.Findings: Infants with FAS had limited ability to concentrate urine after water restriction (P<0.001 and impaired acidification after acute acid loading (P<0.001 compared to control group. Plasma zinc levels were lower (P<0.001 and urinary zinc excretion was higher (P<0.001 in infants with FAS compared to control infants. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed cytoplasmic mitochondrial hypertrophy and vacuolar structures of the epithelial cells of the cortical collecting ducts in the rat kidney following fetal exposure to alcohol.Conclusion: These findings suggest that offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during fetal life have renal functional and structural abnormalities that may be responsible in the genesis of renal functional abnormalities as described in infants with FAS.

  19. Alcohol binge drinking during pregnancy and cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst;

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested gestational weeks 8-14 as a time window of particular importance to the intrauterine development of the male genitalia, and prenatal exposure to alcohol is under suspicion as a risk factor for cryptorchidism. We examined if prenatal exposure to alcohol, and especially...

  20. Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

  1. Korean women's attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritham, U A; Sammons, L N

    1993-01-01

    A convenience sample of 40 native-born pregnant Korean women receiving prenatal care at a U.S. military facility in a major metropolitan area in Korea completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care. Responses revealed a family life characterized by positive maternal and paternal perceptions of the pregnancy and less preference for a male child than we had anticipated. Traditional beliefs in Tae Mong, a conception dream, and Tae Kyo, rituals for safe childbirth, were followed. Food taboos, including protein sources, were reported. Attitudes toward prenatal care services, care providers, and maternal health habits are described.

  2. FIRST-TRIMESTER PRENATAL-DIAGNOSIS IN TWIN PREGNANCIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHRISTIAENS, GCML; Oosterwijk, JC; STIGTER, RH; DEUTZTERLOUW, PP; KNEPPERS, ALJ; BAKKER, E

    Two twin pregnancies at risk for a sex-linked disorder are described. Both pregnancies were dichorionic. Transabdominal sampling was chosen for prenatal diagnosis. Molecular genetic techniques raised suspicion with regard to the accuracy of the samples in one case. Second-trimester amniocentesis

  3. Complications arising in twin pregnancy: findings of prenatal ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Lee, Hak Jong; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Kyung Sang; Cho, Byung Jae; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    Multifetal gestations are high-risk pregnancies involving higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and are subject to unique complications including twin oligohydramnios- polyhydramnios sequence, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, acardiac twins, conjoined twins, co-twin demise, and heterotopic pregnancies. The purpose of this study is to describe the prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of these complications.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations in 500 pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leschot, N.J.; Treffers, P.E.; Verjaal, M.; Weduwen, J.J. der; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.T.

    1979-01-01

    The organization, techniques used and diagnostic findings of 500 prenatal diagnoses are reported in detail. In 15 cases the pregnancy was terminated because of abnormal laboratory findings. Follow-up of the remaining pregnancies revealed a perinatal mortality of 1.7%, and the risk of an abortion ind

  5. FIRST-TRIMESTER PRENATAL-DIAGNOSIS IN TWIN PREGNANCIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHRISTIAENS, GCML; Oosterwijk, JC; STIGTER, RH; DEUTZTERLOUW, PP; KNEPPERS, ALJ; BAKKER, E

    1994-01-01

    Two twin pregnancies at risk for a sex-linked disorder are described. Both pregnancies were dichorionic. Transabdominal sampling was chosen for prenatal diagnosis. Molecular genetic techniques raised suspicion with regard to the accuracy of the samples in one case. Second-trimester amniocentesis con

  6. A 14-year retrospective maternal report of alcohol consumption in pregnancy predicts pregnancy and teen outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Ager, Joel W; Greenwald, Mark K; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Detecting patterns of maternal drinking that place fetuses at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is critical to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention but is challenging because information on antenatal drinking collected during pregnancy is often insufficient or lacking. Although retrospective assessments have been considered less favored by many researchers due to presumed poor reliability, this perception may be inaccurate because of reduced maternal denial and/or distortion. The present study hypothesized that fetal alcohol exposure, as assessed retrospectively during child adolescence, would be related significantly to prior measures of maternal drinking and would predict alcohol-related behavioral problems in teens better than antenatal measures of maternal alcohol consumption. Drinking was assessed during pregnancy, and retrospectively about the same pregnancy, at a 14-year follow-up in 288 African-American women using well-validated semistructured interviews. Regression analysis examined the predictive validity of both drinking assessments on pregnancy outcomes and on teacher-reported teen behavior outcomes. Retrospective maternal self-reported drinking assessed 14 years postpartum was significantly higher than antenatal reports of consumption. Retrospective report identified 10.8 times more women as risk drinkers (≥ one drink per day) than the antenatal report. Antenatal and retrospective reports were moderately correlated and both were correlated with the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy based on retrospective report identified significantly more teens exposed prenatally to at-risk alcohol levels than antenatal, in-pregnancy reports. Retrospective report predicted more teen behavior problems (e.g., attention problems and externalizing behaviors) than the antenatal report. Antenatal report predicted younger gestational age at birth and retrospective report predicted smaller birth size

  7. Prenatal vitamin intake during pregnancy and offspring obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougan, M M; Willett, W C; Michels, K B

    2015-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to multivitamins may be associated with obesity in the offspring; however, data in humans are sparse. We therefore examined the association between prenatal vitamin intake during pregnancy and offspring obesity. We investigated the association between prenatal vitamin intake and obesity among 29,160 mother-daughter dyads in the Nurses' Health Study II. Mothers of participants provided information on prenatal vitamin use during pregnancy with the nurse daughter. Information on body fatness at ages 5 and 10, body mass index (BMI) at age 18, weight in 1989 and 2009, waist circumference, and height was obtained from the daughter. Polytomous logistic regression was used to predict BMI in early adulthood and adulthood, and body fatness in childhood. Linear regression was used to predict waist circumference in adulthood. In utero exposure to prenatal vitamins was not associated with body fatness, either in childhood or in adulthood. Women whose mothers took prenatal vitamins during pregnancy had a covariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of being obese in adulthood of 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.05, P-value = 0.68) compared with women whose mothers did not take prenatal vitamins. Women whose mothers took prenatal vitamins during pregnancy had a covariate-adjusted OR of having the largest body shape at age 5 of 1.02 (95% CI 0.90-1.15, P-value = 0.78). In additional analyses, in utero exposure to prenatal vitamins was also unrelated to adult abdominal adiposity. Exposure to prenatal vitamins was not associated with body fatness either in childhood or in adulthood.

  8. Spontaneous pregnancy outcome after prenatal diagnosis of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquier, M; Klein, A; Boltshauser, E

    2006-08-01

    Parents are usually told that many anencephalic offspring die in utero or soon after delivery, and many obstetricians offer elective termination of the pregnancy. Following the personal experience of the first author, a personal website was created with the intention of providing information and exchanging views with other parents confronted with a prenatal diagnosis of anencephaly. Data were collected from 211 pregnancies where the parents opted not to terminate pregnancy. These data revealed that polyhydramnios was a feature in 56 (26%) pregnancies, death in utero in 15 (7%) pregnancies, 72 (34%) babies were born prematurely (anencephaly is medically safe and should be considered as an option.

  9. A Dual-Focus Motivational Intervention to Reduce the Risk of Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Mary M.; Ingersoll, Karen S.; Sobell, Mark B.; Floyd, R. Louise; Sobell, Linda Carter; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Project CHOICES developed an integrated behavioral intervention for prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure in women at high risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Settings included primary care, university-hospital based obstetrical/gynecology practices, an urban jail, substance abuse treatment settings, and a media-recruited sample in three large…

  10. Pregnancy anxiety and prenatal cortisol trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 and 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. PMID:24655090

  12. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and semen quality in the male offspring: two decades of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Toft, G; Jensen, M S

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent alcohol exposure has been associated with reduced fecundity, but no studies have estimated the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on male fecundity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, semen quality and levels...

  13. The Relationship between Prenatal Parental Stress and Pregnancy Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neihardt, Joanne E.

    To explore the relationship between prenatal parental stress and pregnancy outcome, this study investigated the hypothesis that parents of infants with defects would report greater amounts of stress in the year prior to their infant's birth than would parents of normally developing infants. Data on levels of parental stress were obtained from 37…

  14. Impact of early pregnancy on prenatal development in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lende, van der T.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study aspects of the impact of early pregnancy on the average prenatal development per litter and on the within-litter weight distribution at birth have been investigated. The aims of the present study are given in the introduction (chapter 1). A brief review of the literatur

  15. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  16. Problem in twin pregnancy: Findings of prenatal sonography and autopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Hak Jong; Chun, Yi Kyeong; Kim, Yee Jeong; Hong, Sung Ran [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Multifetal gestations are high risk pregnancies with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Multifetal gestations are subject to unique complications including conjoined twins, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), acardiac twins, twin embization of co-twin demise and heterotopic pregnancies. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of types and complications of multifetal gestations is important for antenatal care and prediction of fetal outcome. This study was performed to present the prenatal ultrasonographic findings and pathologic findings of the unique complications of twin pregnancy. Acardia is a lethal anomaly occurring in 1% of monozygotic twin. The acardiac twin has a parasitic existence and depends on the donor (pump) twin for its blood supply via placental anastomoses and retrograde perfusion of umbilical cord. This twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is a most extreme manifestation on the TTTS. Doppler verification reversed flow in umbilical cord of the acardiac twin confirms the diagnosis.

  17. Prenatal alcohol exposure and language delay in 2-year-old children: the importance of dose and timing on risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Colleen; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L; Dixon, Glenys; Bower, Carol

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dose and timing of prenatal alcohol exposure with early language acquisition. We examined language delay in a randomly selected, population-based sample of Western Australian children born in 1995-1996 whose mothers had agreed to participate in a longitudinal study on health-related behaviors and who had completed the 2-year questionnaire (N = 1739). Information on alcohol consumption was collected at 3 months after birth for four periods; the three months pre-pregnancy and for each trimester separately. Prenatal alcohol exposure was grouped into none, low, moderate-heavy and binge (>5) based on the total quantity consumed per week, quantity consumed per occasion, and frequency of consumption. The communication scale from the Ages & Stages Questionnaire was used to evaluate language delay. Logistic regression analysis was used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for confounding factors. There was no association between low levels of alcohol consumption and language delay at any time period, although there was a nonsignificant 30% increase in risk when moderate-to-heavy levels of alcohol were consumed in the third trimester. Children exposed to a binge pattern of maternal alcohol consumption in the second trimester had nonsignificant, three-fold increased odds of language delay, with a similar estimate following third trimester alcohol exposure after controlling for covariates. This study did not detect an association between low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and language delay when compared with women who abstained from alcohol during pregnancy. A nonsignificant threefold increase in the likelihood of language delay was seen in children whose mothers binged during late pregnancy. However, the small numbers of women with a binge-drinking pattern in late pregnancy limited the power of this study; studies analyzing larger numbers of children exposed to binge drinking in late

  18. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  19. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters adult hippocampal neurogenesis and causes enduring memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Juan J; Ferrer-Donato, Agueda

    2014-01-01

    Recreational drug use among pregnant women is a source of concern due to potential harmful effects of drug exposure on prenatal and infant development. The simultaneous abuse of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] and alcohol is prevalent among young adults, including young expectant mothers. Here, we used a rat model to study the potential risks associated with exposure to alcohol and MDMA during pregnancy. Pregnant rats received alcohol, MDMA, or both alcohol and MDMA by gavage at E13 through E15 twice daily. Female offspring treated prenatally with the combination of alcohol and MDMA, but not those exposed to either drug separately, showed at 3 months of age decreased exploratory activity and impaired working memory function. Prenatal treatment with the combination of alcohol and MDMA decreased proliferation of neuronal precursors in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, as measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labelling, and adult neurogenesis, assessed by quantifying doublecortin expression. These results provide the first evidence that the simultaneous abuse of alcohol and ecstasy during pregnancy, even for short periods of time, may cause significant abnormalities in neurocognitive development.

  20. Single-session motivational intervention to decrease alcohol use during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Robin L.; Carle, Adam C.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gates, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of a single-session of motivational interviewing (MI) to decrease alcohol use during pregnancy, while examining theory-based mechanisms of the intervention. Eligible pregnant women who drank any amount of alcohol in the previous year (n=122) were randomized to an intervention or comparison group. Drinking behaviors, basic psychological need satisfaction, and autonomous motivation to decrease prenatal alcohol use were measured at baseline, 30 day postbaseline, and 30 day postpartum follow-ups. Poisson and linear regression with generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate treatment effects over time. Although MI was not found effective in decreasing alcohol use, low levels of reported alcohol use by the women at baseline left little room for improvement due to the intervention. To prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, future studies will use self-report and biomarkers to more accurately identify women in need of interventions to reduce their risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancies. PMID:24637202

  1. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these products. Smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, and nicotine gel strips are not safe substitutes for cigarettes. Why ... during pregnancy? Medicines sold over the counter, including herbal supplements and vitamins, can cause problems during pregnancy. ...

  2. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.

  3. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yadegari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  4. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances supplied through food, such as vitamins and minerals. Obstetrician: A physician who specializes in caring for women during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period. Opioids: Medications that ...

  5. The clinical utility of non-invasive prenatal testing in pregnancies with ultrasound anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, Lean; Faas, Brigitte H W; Feenstra, Ilse; van Vugt, John M G; Bekker, Mireille N

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the application of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as an alternative to invasive diagnostic prenatal testing for pregnancies with abnormal ultrasound findings. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was performed of 251 single and multiple pregnancies at high

  6. Clinical utility of non-invasive prenatal testing in pregnancies with ultrasound anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, L.; Faas, B.H.W.; Feenstra, I.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Bekker, M.N.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the application of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as an alternative to invasive diagnostic prenatal testing in pregnancies with abnormal ultrasound findings. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 251 singleton and multiple pregnancies at high risk for fetal

  7. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: A comparison of indices

    OpenAIRE

    Green Chris G; Newburn-Cook Christine V; Heaman Maureen I; Elliott Lawrence J; Helewa Michael E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to determine rates of prenatal care utilization in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada from 1991 to 2000; to compare two indices of prenatal care utilization in identifying the proportion of the population receiving inadequate prenatal care; to determine the association between inadequate prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm birth, low birth weight [LBW], and small-for-gestational age [SGA]), using each of the indices; and, to asse...

  8. Social behavior of offspring following prenatal cocaine exposure in rodents: a comparison with prenatal alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Krishna Sobrian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure(PCEalters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models,a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally-directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently conmplex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation.

  9. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

  10. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  11. Current problems regarding abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajn-Tatić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current ethical and legal issues with regard to abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy are discussed in this paper. These problems are considered from the legal theory point of view as well as from the standpoint of the Serbian Law, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, European Court of Human Rights, legal regulations of several EU countries, the USA, Japan, and their judicial practice. First, the pregnancy termination standards that exist in Serbia are introduced. Then the following issues are explained separately: the pro life and pro choice approaches to abortion; abortion according to the legal approach as a way of survival; the moral and legal status of the fetus; prenatal genetic testing, and finally matters regarding managing pregnancy today. Moral and legal principals of autonomy, namely freedom of choice of the individual, privacy and self-determination give women the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies. In addition, the basic question is whether the right of the woman to abortion clashes with the rights of others. Firstly, with the right of the "fetus to life". Secondly, with the right of the state to intervene in the interest of protecting "the life of the fetus". Third, with the rights of the woman’s partner. The fetus has the moral right to life, but less in relation to the same right of the woman as well as in relation to her right to control her life and her physical and moral integrity. On the other hand, the value of the life of the fetus increases morally and legally with the maturity of gestation; from the third trimester, the interest of the state prevails in the protection of the "life of the fetus" except when the life or health of the pregnant woman are at risk. As regards the rights of the woman’s partner, namely the husband’s opinion, there is no legal significance. The law does not request his participation in the decision on abortion because

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  13. Low to moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of psychomotor deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Støvring, Henrik; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    . At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the "Movement Assessment Battery for Children" (MABC). Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, and gender of child were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal......Background: To examine the effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child motor function at age 5. Methods: A prospective follow-up study of 685 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy...... maternal binge drinking episodes, age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. Results: There were no systematic or significant differences in motor function between children of mothers...

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption--need for intervention programs in pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meberg, A; Halvorsen, B; Holter, B; Ek, I J; Askeland, A; Gaaserud, W; Steinsvåg, J

    1986-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol was investigated in two groups of pregnant women: an intervention group (n = 58) (two structured interviews during pregnancy including counseling focused on reduction of alcohol consumption and potential benefits to the fetus, and interview after delivery), and a control group (n = 74) (interview after delivery). Prepregnancy 80% of the women were light or moderate alcohol consumers, and 20% teetotalers. Pregnancy considerably reduced alcohol consumption in both groups. 66% abstained from alcohol during pregnancy, and use of liquor nearly ceased. The changes in alcohol consumption occurred independently to the intervention program. Strategy for reducing alcohol consumption during pregnancy should include a structured alcohol anamnesis at the first ante-natal visit, accompanied by counseling focused on reduction of alcohol consumption. More extensive intervention programs may be reserved for pregnancies at higher risk (high-consumers, abusers).

  15. Why women want prenatal ultrasound in normal pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudex, Claire; Nielsen, Bentt Løwe; Madsen, Monika

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate women's reasons for requesting prenatal ultrasound in the absence of clinical indications. Methods A postal questionnaire was completed by 370 pregnant women with no apparent obstetric risk factors, who had expressed a desire to have ultrasound scanning in their current...... for ultrasound were to check for fetal abnormalities (60% of women) to see that all was normal (55%) and for own reassurance (44%). Lower income was related to wanting to see the baby (P=0.028) and wanting an ultrasound picture (P=0.017); higher income was related to checking that all was normal (P=0......-003) and for own reassurance (P=0.015). Women in their first pregnancy were more likely to want themselves and the father to see the baby (P=0.001); women who had given birth previously were more likely to want reassurance (P=0.002), as were women with a previous miscarriage or induced abortion. Women who believed...

  16. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  17. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  18. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  19. Resident Fathers' Pregnancy Intentions, Prenatal Behaviors, and Links to Involvement with Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Ryan, Suzanne; Carrano, Jennifer; Moore, Kristen A.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, 9-month resident father surveys (N= 6,816), this paper examines the association between male pregnancy intentions, prenatal behaviors, and postbirth father involvement. Findings indicate that prenatal behaviors are associated with five domains of father involvement. Men who did…

  20. Timing of moderate level prenatal alcohol exposure influences gene expression of sensory processing behavior in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Schneider

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory processing disorder (SPD, characterized by over- or under-responsivity to non-noxious environmental stimuli, is a common but poorly understood disorder. We examined the role of prenatal alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR, and striatal dopamine (DA function on behavioral measures of sensory responsivity to repeated non-noxious sensory stimuli in macaque monkeys. Results indicated that early gestation alcohol exposure induced behavioral under-responsivity to environmental stimuli in monkeys carrying the short (s rh5-HTTLPR allele compared to both early-exposed monkeys homozygous for the long (l allele and monkeys from middle-to-late exposed pregnancies and controls, regardless of genotype. Moreover, prenatal timing of alcohol exposure altered the relationship between sensory scores and DA D2R availability. In early-exposed monkeys, a positive relationship was shown between sensory scores and DA D2R availability, with low or blunted DA function associated with under-responsive sensory function. The opposite pattern was found for the middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group. These findings raise questions about how the timing of prenatal perturbation and genotype contributes to effects on neural processing and possibly alters neural connections.

  1. Biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure: a critical review of fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Larry; Hofer, Ryan

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was a review of published studies utilizing measurement of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in meconium as biomarkers for prenatal alcohol exposure. We completed a literature search of PubMed using the terms meconium, fatty acid ethyl esters, biomarkers, and prenatal alcohol exposure. We included only peer reviewed studies utilizing analysis of meconium for the presence of FAEE in humans through the year 2007. We found 10 articles reporting on original research examining the relationship of FAEE from meconium and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The 10 articles used six different PAE assessment strategies and four different analytical techniques for determining FAEE endpoints. The articles included 2,221 subjects (range 4 to 725) with 455 (20.5%) subjects identified as exposed using the methods stated in the articles. FAEE levels above the studies' respective cutoffs were reported for 502 (22.6%) subjects. The accurate identification of alcohol-exposed pregnancies represents a significant challenge in the development of FAEE detection cutoffs to maximize the sensitivity and specificity of the test. We present several options for the improvement of exposure assessment in future studies of FAEE as biomarkers for PAE. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The impact of group prenatal care on pregnancy and postpartum weight trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magriples, Urania; Boynton, Marcella H; Kershaw, Trace S; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Tobin, Jonathan N; Epel, Elissa; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether group prenatal care (Centering Pregnancy Plus [CP+]) has an impact on pregnancy weight gain and postpartum weight loss trajectories and to determine whether prenatal depression and distress might moderate these trajectories. This was a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized trial of CP+ in 14 Community Health Centers and hospitals in New York City. Participants were pregnant women aged 14-21 years (n = 984). Medical record review and 4 structured interviews were conducted: in the second and third trimesters and 6 and 12 months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling was utilized to evaluate the weight change trajectories in the control and intervention groups. Prenatal distress and depression were also assessed to examine their impact on weight change. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in baseline demographics. Thirty-five percent of the participants were overweight or obese, and more than 50% had excessive weight gain by Institute of Medicine standards. CP+ was associated with improved weight trajectories compared with controls (P prenatal care gained less weight during pregnancy and lost more weight postpartum. This effect was sustained among women who were categorized as obese based on prepregnancy body mass index (P Prenatal depression and distress were significantly associated with higher antepartum weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Women with the highest levels of depression and prenatal distress exhibited the greatest positive impact of group prenatal care on weight trajectories during pregnancy and through 12 months postpartum. Group prenatal care has a significant impact on weight gain trajectories in pregnancy and postpartum. The intervention also appeared to mitigate the effects of depression and prenatal distress on antepartum weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Targeted efforts are needed during and after pregnancy to improve

  3. Changes in health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice following provision of educational resources about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Janet; France, Kathryn; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne; O'Leary, Colleen; Elliott, Elizabeth; Bower, Carol

    2011-07-01

    We provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and assessed changes in their knowledge, attitudes and practice concerning fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol consumption in pregnancy. Following our 2002 survey of health professionals in WA, we developed and distributed educational resources to 3348 health professionals in WA in 2007. Six months later we surveyed 1483 of these health professionals. Prevalence rate ratios [PRR] and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were calculated to compare 2007 results with results from the 2002 survey. Of the 1001 responding health professionals, 69.8% had seen the educational resources; of these 77.1% have used them and 48.5% said the resources had assisted them to change their practice or their intention to change their practice. Compared with 2002, there was an increase in the proportion who knew all the essential features of FAS from 11.7% to 15.8% [PRR 1.35; 95% CI 1.09, 1.67] and had diagnosed FAS, from 4.8% to 7.3% [PRR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08, 2.13]. In 2007, 98.1% of health professionals stated they would advise pregnant women to consider not drinking at all or advise them that no alcohol in pregnancy is the safest choice. Health professionals surveyed in 2007 have increased their knowledge, changed their attitudes and practice about FAS, and altered the advice they give to pregnant women about alcohol consumption since our survey in 2002. It is essential that we build on this change and continue to support health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice about the prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. The educational resources for health professionals may be ordered as hard copies and downloaded from the internet http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy.

  4. Moderate alcohol intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Controversies still exist regarding the existence of a 'safe' level of alcohol intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth) according to maternal alcohol consumption in a large Danish pregnancy cohort.......Controversies still exist regarding the existence of a 'safe' level of alcohol intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth) according to maternal alcohol consumption in a large Danish pregnancy cohort....

  5. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    Objectives The objective of this PhD. was to examine the relation between low weekly average maternal alcohol consumption and ‘Binge drinking' (defined as intake of 5 or more drinks per occasion) during pregnancy and information processing time (IPT) in children aged five years. Since a method...... to investigate IPT in very young children does not exist, it was decided to develop a method to test this based on Sternberg's paradigm. Method development Sternberg's original method of testing IPT used nine digits in a computer based program, where a subject had to decide whether a shown digit was found...... that provided detailed information on maternal alcohol drinking patterns before and during pregnancy and other lifestyle factors. These women were categorized in groups of prenatally average alcohol intake and binge drinking, timing and number of episodes. At the age of five years the children of these women...

  6. Association between body mass index and the timing of pregnancy recognition and entry into prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Courtney D; Tumin, Rachel; Prasad, Mona R

    2014-11-01

    To assess whether prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is independently associated with the timing of pregnancy recognition and initiation of prenatal care. Data from 2009 to 2010 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. The 30 participating states contacted sampled mothers 2-4 months after delivery and had them complete the standardized Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System questionnaire. Prepregnancy BMI was calculated from the participants' self-reported prepregnancy weight and height. Timing of pregnancy recognition and initiation of prenatal care were also self-reported on the questionnaire. Among the 72,913 participants, 69,872 (96%) met the eligibility criteria for analysis. After adjustment for maternal race, ethnicity, smoking status in the 3 months before pregnancy, pregnancy intentions, insurance status, maternal age, marital status, maternal education, and parity, there was no association between prepregnancy BMI status and the week of pregnancy recognition. Obese women initiated prenatal care 0.20 weeks earlier on average compared with normal-weight women, although the difference was not clinically important (mean difference -0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.38 to -0.03). When examining the odds of receiving late or no prenatal care, there was no association with prepregnancy BMI. Uninsured women, however, reported initiating prenatal care almost 3 weeks later on average than privately insured women (mean difference 2.83, 95% CI 2.27-3.38) and had a more than fourfold increased odds of receiving late or no prenatal care (odds ratio 4.04, 95% CI 3.13-5.23). Prepregnancy BMI was not meaningfully associated with a delay in pregnancy recognition or with increased odds of receiving late or no prenatal care.

  7. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  8. Pregnancy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avoid all alcohol and drug use and limit caffeine. Quit smoking, if you smoke. Go for prenatal visits and tests: You will see your provider many times during your pregnancy for prenatal care. The number of visits and types of exams you receive will change, depending on where you ...

  9. [Study on the relationship between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and perinatal prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junling; Kuang, Jingxia; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the association between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and the perinatal prognosis, as well as the characteristics of perinatal situations. A retrospective study on the clinical data of 88 cases intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and prognosis that were treated in our hospital from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2014 was carried out. Relationship between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and perinatal prognosis, together with the epidemiological features of infants were analyzed. The incidence rates of perinatal meconium stained amniotic fluid, asphyxia neonatorum, premature and fetal distress were significantly higher in the study group than those in the controls, with differences statistically significant (P intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, with most frequently seen as meconium stained amniotic fluid. It was necessary to monitor the level of prenatal CG, ALT, AST, TBIL and TBA in puerperant in predicting the perinatal prognosis.

  10. The effects of low to moderate alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.

    2012-01-01

    the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy......Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...

  11. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-05-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. This study examined the interaction between these 2 factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8 to 16 years, M = 12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with ADHD (AE+, n = 82), children with prenatal alcohol exposure without ADHD (AE-, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects analyses of covariance. There were significant main effects of AE (p VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication, F(1, 308) = 7.49, p = 0.007, partial η(2) = 0.024, but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > 0.27). Follow-up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE-), and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE- vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these 2 factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broaden our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2014

  12. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developmental pattern of temperature preference in a thermocline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, B; Tomlinson, T M; Glaser, J; Beckstead, J W

    1993-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of impairments in neonatal state regulatory systems. Since prenatal alcohol exposure causes thermoregulatory deficits in response to both heat and cold stress in rats, body temperature set-point might be altered in alcohol-exposed offspring. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on behavior in a thermocline was investigated in 10-, 15-, and 125-day-old male and female rats from three prenatal treatment conditions: alcohol liquid diet, pair-fed liquid diet control, or standard control. Subjects were placed in the thermocline in the cold, hot, or middle start positions and observed for 60 min. Subjects exposed to alcohol prenatally had a wider "preference zone" than control subjects at 10 and 15 days of age, but did not as adults. This widening of the temperature set-point in young subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol may represent a developmental lag in the development of body temperature set-point or a central compensatory process allowing the animal to adapt to alternating experiences of heat and cold stress.

  13. Epilogue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure--Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Way, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    This epilogue summarizes the six articles presented in the clinical forum focused on understanding children who have been affected by maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure. It presents common themes that emerged among the articles and future research directions.

  14. Prevalence and risk of Down syndrome in monozygotic and dizygotic multiple pregnancies in Europe: implications for prenatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, B; Morris, J K; McConkey, R

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine risk of Down syndrome (DS) in multiple relative to singleton pregnancies, and compare prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. DESIGN: Population-based prevalence study based on EUROCAT congenital anomaly registries. SETTING: Eight European countries. POPULATION: 14...

  15. Pregnancy, prenatal care, and delivery of mothers with disabilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Nam Gu; Lee, Jin Yong; Park, Ju Ok; Lee, Jung-A; Oh, Juhwan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the whole picture regarding pregnancy, prenatal care, obstetrical complications, and delivery among disabled pregnant women in Korea. Using the data of National Health Insurance Corporation, we extracted the data of women who terminated pregnancy including delivery and abortion from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Pearson's chi-square test and Student-t test were conducted to examine the difference between disabled women and non-disabled women. Also, to define the factors affecting inadequate prenatal care, logistic regression was performed. The total number of pregnancy were 463,847; disabled women was 2,968 (0.6%) and 460,879 (99.4%) were by non-disabled women. Abortion rates (27.6%), Cesarean section rate (54.5%), and the rate of receiving inadequate prenatal care (17.0%), and the rate of being experienced at least one obstetrical complication (11.3%) among disabled women were higher than those among non-disabled women (P inadequate prenatal care. In conclusion, disabled women are more vulnerable in pregnancy, prenatal care and delivery. Therefore, the government and society should pay more attention to disabled pregnant women to ensure they have a safe pregnancy period up until the delivery.

  16. Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalberg, Wendy O; Provost, Beth; Tollison, Sean J; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Eugene Hoyme, H; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Buckley, David; Aragon, Alfredo S; May, Philip A

    2006-12-01

    Researchers are increasingly considering the importance of motor functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The purpose of this study was to assess the motor development of young children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) to determine the presence and degree of delay in their motor skills and to compare their motor development with that of matched children without FAS. The motor development of 14 children ages 20 to 68 months identified with FAS was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In addition, 2 comparison groups were utilized. Eleven of the children with FAS were matched for chronological age, gender, ethnicity, and communication age to: (1) 11 children with prenatal alcohol exposure who did not have FAS and (2) 11 matched children without any reported prenatal alcohol exposure. The motor scores on the VABS were compared among the 3 groups. Most of the young children with FAS in this study showed clinically important delays in their motor development as measured on the VABS Motor Domain, and their fine motor skills were significantly more delayed than their gross motor skills. In the group comparisons, the young children with FAS had significantly lower Motor Domain standard (MotorSS) scores than the children not exposed to alcohol prenatally. They also had significantly lower Fine Motor Developmental Quotients than the children in both the other groups. No significant group differences were found in gross motor scores. For MotorSS scores and Fine Motor Developmental Quotients, the means and standard errors indicated a continuum in the scores from FAS to prenatal alcohol exposure to nonexposure. These findings strongly suggest that all young children with FAS should receive complete developmental evaluations that include assessment of their motor functioning, to identify problem areas and provide access to developmental intervention programs that target deficit areas such as fine motor skills. Fine motor

  17. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: A comparison of indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Chris G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to determine rates of prenatal care utilization in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada from 1991 to 2000; to compare two indices of prenatal care utilization in identifying the proportion of the population receiving inadequate prenatal care; to determine the association between inadequate prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm birth, low birth weight [LBW], and small-for-gestational age [SGA], using each of the indices; and, to assess whether or not, and to what extent, gestational age modifies this association. Methods We conducted a population-based study of women having a hospital-based singleton live birth from 1991 to 2000 (N = 80,989. Data sources consisted of a linked mother-baby database and a physician claims file maintained by Manitoba Health. Rates of inadequate prenatal care were calculated using two indices, the R-GINDEX and the APNCU. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between inadequate prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Stratified analysis was then used to determine whether the association between inadequate prenatal care and LBW or SGA differed by gestational age. Results Rates of inadequate/no prenatal care ranged from 8.3% using APNCU to 8.9% using R-GINDEX. The association between inadequate prenatal care and preterm birth and LBW varied depending on the index used, with adjusted odds ratios (AOR ranging from 1.0 to 1.3. In contrast, both indices revealed the same strength of association of inadequate prenatal care with SGA (AOR 1.4. Both indices demonstrated heterogeneity (non-uniformity across gestational age strata, indicating the presence of effect modification by gestational age. Conclusion Selection of a prenatal care utilization index requires careful consideration of its methodological underpinnings and limitations. The two indices compared in this study revealed different patterns of utilization of prenatal care

  18. Inadequate prenatal care and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a comparison of indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Maureen I; Newburn-Cook, Christine V; Green, Chris G; Elliott, Lawrence J; Helewa, Michael E

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine rates of prenatal care utilization in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada from 1991 to 2000; to compare two indices of prenatal care utilization in identifying the proportion of the population receiving inadequate prenatal care; to determine the association between inadequate prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes (preterm birth, low birth weight [LBW], and small-for-gestational age [SGA]), using each of the indices; and, to assess whether or not, and to what extent, gestational age modifies this association. We conducted a population-based study of women having a hospital-based singleton live birth from 1991 to 2000 (N = 80,989). Data sources consisted of a linked mother-baby database and a physician claims file maintained by Manitoba Health. Rates of inadequate prenatal care were calculated using two indices, the R-GINDEX and the APNCU. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between inadequate prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Stratified analysis was then used to determine whether the association between inadequate prenatal care and LBW or SGA differed by gestational age. Rates of inadequate/no prenatal care ranged from 8.3% using APNCU to 8.9% using R-GINDEX. The association between inadequate prenatal care and preterm birth and LBW varied depending on the index used, with adjusted odds ratios (AOR) ranging from 1.0 to 1.3. In contrast, both indices revealed the same strength of association of inadequate prenatal care with SGA (AOR 1.4). Both indices demonstrated heterogeneity (non-uniformity) across gestational age strata, indicating the presence of effect modification by gestational age. Selection of a prenatal care utilization index requires careful consideration of its methodological underpinnings and limitations. The two indices compared in this study revealed different patterns of utilization of prenatal care, and should not be used interchangeably. Use of these indices to

  19. Impaired Odor Identification in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Emily; Szajer, Jacquelyn; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to behavioral and cognitive impairments across multiple domains. Many of the brain regions impacted by prenatal alcohol exposure are also linked with olfactory processing, and odor identification deficits have been documented in certain neurological disorders associated with these brain regions. As odor identification following prenatal alcohol exposure is not well studied, we compared odor identification in children with prenatal exposure to alcohol (AE) to typically developing controls (CON) (N = 16/group). It was hypothesized that children in the AE group would perform more poorly than children in the CON group on the San Diego Odor Identification Test, an identification test of 8 common household odorants. Children exposed to alcohol during prenatal development were significantly impaired in olfactory identification (M = 5.95, SE = 0.37) compared to typically developing controls (M = 7.24, SE = 0.37). These findings confirmed the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with odor identification deficits, and suggest that further research is warranted to identify the mechanisms underlying these deficits, the integrity of brain areas that are involved, and to determine whether olfactory performance might contribute to better identification of children at risk for behavioral and cognitive deficits. PMID:23683527

  20. Effects of prenatal stress on pregnancy and human development: mechanisms and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coussons-Read, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that prenatal stress can have significant effects on pregnancy, maternal health and human development across the lifespan. These effects may occur directly through the influence of prenatal stress-related physiological changes on the developing fetus, or indirectly through the effects of prenatal stress on maternal health and pregnancy outcome which, in turn, affect infant health and development. Animal and human studies suggest that activation of the maternal stress response and resulting changes in endocrine and inflammatory activity play a role in the aetiology of these effects. Ongoing research is focusing on clarifying these mechanisms, understanding the role of racial and cultural factors in these effects, and examining the epigenetic and transgenerational influences of prenatal stress. PMID:27757157

  1. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Treit

    Full Text Available Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144 and healthy controls (n = 145, aged 5-19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with

  2. Factors predictive of alcohol use during pregnancy in three rural states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struck Judy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substance use screening instrument was used to determine factors predictive of drinking during pregnancy. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to negative birth outcomes. Methods The participants (n = 4,828 for the study were sampled from pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota. Clinic sites for the administration of the screening instrument were selected in each state, based on geographic and known population characteristics. Univariate and multivariate statistical procedures were used to determine factors predictive of drinking during pregnancy. Results Women who drank tended to: be single, be between 21–25 years old, have had fewer children, have had abortions, and be unemployed. Demographic factors that were protective of drinking when pregnant were married and full-time housewife status. Other variables associated with maternal alcohol use were: past sexual abuse, current or past physical abuse, tobacco use, other drug use, lived with substance users, and had mates who were substance users. Other contributing factors for alcohol use included: feeling sad, believing that drinking any amount of alcohol while pregnant was acceptable, had been in treatment, could use treatment now, and were able to hold four or more drinks. Conclusion Because drinking rates were high and factors correlated with drinking are known, alcohol screening for this population is essential.

  3. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute high doses in vivo. In this study, we used our established moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) model, resulting in maternal blood alcohol content of approximately 20 mM, and subsequent ex vivo cell culture to assess expression of genes related to neurogenesis. Proliferating and differentiating neural progenitor cell culture conditions were established from telencephalic tissue derived from embryonic day (E) 15-17 tissue exposed to alcohol via maternal drinking throughout pregnancy. Gene expression analysis on mRNA derived in vitro was performed using a microarray, and quantitative PCR was conducted for genes to validate the microarray. Student's t tests were performed for statistical comparison of each exposure under each culture condition using a 95% confidence interval. Eleven percent of genes on the array had significantly altered mRNA expression in the prenatal alcohol-exposed neural progenitor culture under proliferating conditions. These include reduced expression of Adora2a, Cxcl1, Dlg4, Hes1, Nptx1, and Vegfa and increased expression of Fgf13, Ndn, and Sox3; bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in cell growth and proliferation. Decreased levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a were also found under proliferating conditions. Under differentiating conditions, 7.3% of genes had decreased mRNA expression; these include Cdk5rap3, Gdnf, Hey2, Heyl, Pard6b, and Ptn, which are associated with survival and differentiation as indicated by bioinformatics analysis

  4. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. Up to 40% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects (CHDs) including life-threatening outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies. Previously we established a PAE model in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay looping-stage (early) cardiac function/structure and septation-stage (late) cardiac defects. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septae, and aortic vessels. However, supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, prevented cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valves, and normalized cardiac parameters. Immunofluorescent staining for 5-methylcytosine in transverse embryo sections also revealed that DNA methylation levels were reduced by ethanol but normalized by co-administration of betaine. Furthermore, supplementation with folate, another methyl donor, in the PAE model appeared to normalize retrograde flow levels which are typically elevated by ethanol exposure. Studies are underway to correlate retrograde flow numbers for folate with associated cushion volumes. Finally, preliminary findings have revealed that glutathione, a key endogenous antioxidant which also regulates methyl group donation, is particularly effective in improving alcohol-impacted survival and gross defect rates. Current investigations will determine whether glutathione has any positive effect on PAE-related CHDs. Our studies could have significant implications for public health, especially related to prenatal nutrition recommendations.

  5. A decrease in the size of the basal ganglia following prenatal alcohol exposure: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, S N; Riley, E P; Jernigan, T L; Garcia, A; Kaneko, W M; Ehlers, C L; Jones, K L

    1994-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause damage to the central nervous system. This study sought to further elucidate the structural brain damage that occurs following prenatal alcohol exposure in both children and rats. Two children with histories of maternal alcohol abuse but who did not qualify for a diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), based on established criteria, underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Reduced volumes were found for the cerebrum and cerebellum. In addition, the proportional volume of the basal ganglia was reduced, although the proportional volumes of cortical and subcortical fluid, cortical gray matter, limbic and nonlimbic cortex, and diencephalic structures were unaffected. These findings are compared with our recent MRI findings in two cases of FAS. In addition, the caudate-putamen and ventricular areas were assessed in rats exposed to alcohol prenatally. Whereas the overall brain section area was not reduced in size, the area of the caudate-putamen was reduced and that of the ventricles was enlarged.

  6. Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time...... to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and >12 months) was used for 39 612 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort within the first 24 weeks of pregnancy from 1997 to 2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (OR) for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to alcohol intake. RESULTS......: In nulliparous women neither moderate nor high alcohol intake was related with longer waiting time to pregnancy compared with a low intake. In parous women, a modest association was seen only among those with an intake of >14 drinks per week (subfecundity OR 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.7). Women who...

  7. Pregnancy and alcohol: occasional, light drinking may be safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Many pregnant women drink varying quantities of alcohol, although several guidelines recommend total abstinence. What is known of the dangers of alcohol for the outcome of pregnancy and for the unborn child? To answer this question, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. Fetal alcohol syndrome, which combines facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and intellectual disability, occurs in about 5% of children who are regularly exposed to at least five standard units per day (about 50 g of alcohol per day). Four studies have explored the link between heavy maternal alcohol use over a short period and the risk of cognitive impairment in the child. The results were inconclusive, however, and the authors failed to take concomitant chronic alcohol consumption into account. A methodologically sound study showed an increase in neurological abnormalities (seizures and epilepsy) when the mother drank heavily during short periods between the 11th and 16th weeks of pregnancy. There is a risk of cognitive and behavioural problems in children whose mothers regularly drank more than 2 standard units per day. Studies involving a total of about 150 000 pregnancies sought a link between low-level alcohol consumption and abnormal pregnancy outcomes. Very few showed a statistically significant link, and the results are undermined by the failure to take other risk factors into account. Weekly consumption of 5 standard units or more during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of cryptorchidism. Studies in a total of 57 000 pregnancies showed no effect of minimal alcohol consumption on the risk of malformations. A study of 1000 pregnancies showed a statistically significant risk of major malformations, but there were several apparent biases. A link between infant mortality and alcohol consumption during pregnancy was examined in large cohort studies. Consumption of at least 4 standard units per week increased the risk of early neonatal

  8. Prenatal alcohol exposure and traumatic childhood experiences: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alan; Cook, Penny A; Norgate, Sarah; Mukherjee, Raja

    2017-05-25

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and traumatic childhood experiences (trauma) such as abuse or neglect can each cause central nervous system neurobiological changes or structural damage which can manifest as cognitive and behavioural dysfunction. In cases where both exposures have occurred, the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment may be greater, but this interaction has not been well studied. Here we present a systematic review that identified five primary research studies which investigated either the impact of trauma in children with PAE, or of PAE in children with trauma. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, narrative analysis was applied. Children in these cohorts with both exposures were more likely to show deficits in language, attention, memory and intelligence, and exhibit more severe behavioural problems than children with one exposure in absence of the other. However, the current literature is scarce and methodologically flawed. Further studies are required that: assess dual exposure in other neurodevelopmental domains; feature developmentally impaired yet non-exposed controls; and account for the wide spectrum of effects and different diagnostic criteria associated with PAE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Prenatal stress perception and coping strategies: Insights from a longitudinal prospective pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletzke, J; Kocalevent, R-D; Hansen, G; Rose, M; Becher, H; Hecher, K; Arck, P C; Diemert, A

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal distress has been linked to pregnancy complications and poor offspring's health, despite the fact that longitudinal assessments of various stress dimensions are still lacking. Hence, we aimed to assess perceived stress over the course of pregnancy. Moreover, we examined whether social support and coping styles are linked to prenatal stress trajectories. Data from 543 women participating in the PRINCE (Prenatal Identification of Children Health) study, a prospective population-based cohort study, was used for the present analyses. Once per trimester the women completed questionnaires regarding different psychometric measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Linear mixed regression models were used to examine perceived stress development longitudinally and to relate social support and coping styles to stress trajectories during pregnancy. A significant decrease of perceived stress was observed over the course of pregnancy. Stratifying the study sample according to parity, women delivering their first child had continuously lower perceived stress scores compared to women having already one or more children, and a significant decrease during pregnancy was exclusively observed in primiparous women. Both, positive coping strategies and higher perceived and received social support were independently associated with lower perceived stress, while evasive coping strategies were associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Our study reveals stress perception trajectories during pregnancies in primi- and multiparous women. Our findings underscore the need for intervention strategies aiming to improve social support and positive coping strategies especially in multiparous women in order to reduce the risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pregnancy outcome and prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome abnormalities in Hawaii, 1986-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B; Merz, Ruth D

    2003-06-15

    Sex chromosome abnormalities such as Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, triple X syndrome, and 47,XYY can be prenatally diagnosed and electively terminated. This investigation examined the pattern of pregnancy outcome of prenatally and postnatally diagnosed sex chromosome abnormalities in Hawaii during 1986-1999 and calculated prenatal diagnosis and subsequent elective termination rates for various factors. Data were obtained from a statewide population-based birth defects registry. The study included 205 detected sex chromosome abnormality cases of which 93 (45%) were live births, 18 (9%) late fetal deaths, 37 (18%) early fetal deaths, and 57 (28%) elective terminations. Pregnancy outcome distribution varied by type of sex chromosome abnormality. Prenatal diagnosis was reported for 132 (64%) of the cases, of which 46 (35%) were subsequently electively terminated. Eleven cases were elective terminations where the sex chromosome abnormality was diagnosed after delivery. Elective termination rates subsequent to prenatal diagnosis differed by sex chromosome abnormality, being highest for 45,X (54%), followed by 47,XXY (46%), 47,XYY (29%), and 47,XXX (17%). Although prenatal diagnosis rates increased significantly over the time period (P = 0.006), the subsequent elective termination rate declined slightly, albeit the trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.440). The prenatal diagnosis rate was highest for the 35-39-year maternal age group, although this age group did not have subsequent elective termination rates higher than other maternal age groups. Pregnancy outcome distribution and prenatal diagnosis and subsequent elective termination of sex chromosome abnormalities appeared to depend on the type of sex chromosome abnormality, year of delivery, and maternal age.

  11. Prior illicit drug use and missed prenatal vitamins predict nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: adherence analysis A5084.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Susan E; Umbleja, Triin; Mrus, Joseph; Bardeguez, Arlene D; Andersen, Janet W; Chesney, Margaret A

    2008-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy is crucial to optimize its efficacy and minimize mother-to-child transmission. Our objective was to examine adherence patterns to ART and health behaviors during and after pregnancy among HIV-positive women enrolled in A5084, a prospective, observational, multisite study. Between 2002-2005, HIV-infected women between 20 and 34 weeks'gestation completed at least 1 self-reported adherence questionnaire antepartum (AP), and were followed through 12 weeks' postpartum (PP). Questionnaires also addressed tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs use. Adherence was defined as reporting not having missed any doses for more than 3 months. Exact McNemar's tests were used for paired binary data and exact logistic regression was used for predictors of nonadherence. We report on 149 women (55% black, 26% Hispanic, 32% less than 25 years, 9% with AIDS, 100% on ART). PP, 31 (21%) women stopped ART and 18 (12%) withdrew from the study. AP, 57% reported adherence to ART and PP, 45% (p = 0.03, n = 87). AP, 11% reported ongoing alcohol use and 23% tobacco use compared to 37% and 30% PP (p vitamins had 4.84 times higher odds (p = 0.001) of ART nonadherence. Women reporting a history of illicit drug use and/or having missed prenatal vitamins should be targeted for programs to enhance adherence to ART during pregnancy.

  12. Associations between prenatal arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcome and child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Hsuan; Islam, Tariqul; Hore, Samar Kumar; Sarwar, Golam; Shahriar, Mohammad Hasan; Yunus, Mohammad; Graziano, Joseph H; Harjes, Judith; Baron, John A; Parvez, Faruque; Ahsan, Habibul; Argos, Maria

    2017-10-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure is a public health concern in many parts of the world, with elevated concentrations in groundwater posing a threat to millions of people. Arsenic is associated with various cancers and an array of chronic diseases; however, the relationship with adverse pregnancy outcomes and child mortality is less established. We evaluated associations between individual-level prenatal arsenic exposure with adverse pregnancy outcomes and child mortality in a pregnancy study among 498 women nested in a larger population-based cohort in rural Bangladesh. Creatinine-adjusted urinary total arsenic concentration, a comprehensive measure of exposure from water, food, and air sources, reflective of the prenatal period was available for participants. Self-reported pregnancy outcomes (livebirth, stillbirth, spontaneous/elective abortion) were ascertained. Generalized estimating equations, accounting for multiple pregnancies of participants, were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Vital status of livebirths was subsequently ascertained through November 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals in relation to child mortality. We observed a significant association between prenatal arsenic exposure and the risk of stillbirth (greater than median; adjusted OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.04, 6.01). We also observed elevated risk of child mortality (greater than median; adjusted HR = 1.92; 95% CI = 0.78, 4.68) in relation to prenatal arsenic exposure. Prospective studies should continue to evaluate prenatal and early life health effects of arsenic exposure and arsenic remediation strategies for women of child-bearing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pre-conception and prenatal alcohol exposure from mothers and fathers drinking and head circumference: results from the Norwegian Mother-Child Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccolo, Luisa; DeRoo, Lisa A; Wills, Andrew K; Davey Smith, George; Suren, Pål; Roth, Christine; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per

    2016-12-23

    Although microcephaly is a feature of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, it is currently unknown whether low-to-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure affects head circumference. Small magnitude associations reported in observational studies are likely to be misleading due to confounding and misclassification biases. Alternative analytical approaches such as the use of family negative controls (e.g. comparing the effects of maternal and paternal exposure) could help disentangle causal effects. We investigated the association of maternal and paternal alcohol drinking before and early in pregnancy with infant head circumference, using data from 68,244 mother-father-offspring trios from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (1999-2009). In analyses adjusted for potential confounders, we found no consistent pattern of association between maternal or paternal alcohol intake before or during pregnancy and offspring head circumference modelled as a continuous outcome. However, we found higher odds of microcephaly at birth for higher paternal, but not maternal, alcohol consumption before pregnancy, and similar but weaker effect estimates for first trimester drinking. Associations with paternal drinking before pregnancy were unexpected and should be regarded as hypothesis generating, until independently replicated, although potentially important given the absence of guidelines on safe drinking levels for men in couples trying for a pregnancy.

  14. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmodel, U S; Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Underbjerg, M; Kilburn, T R; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Mortensen, E L

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Follow-up study. Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. A cohort of 1617 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. WPPSI-R. There were no systematic or significant differences in general intelligence between children of mothers reporting binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes, except that binge drinking in gestational weeks 1-2 significantly reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.96) when adjusted for core confounding factors. The results were otherwise not statistically significantly related to the number of binge episodes (with a maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. We found no systematic association between binge drinking during early pregnancy and child intelligence. However, binge drinking reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ in gestational weeks 1-2. This finding may be explained by residual confounding. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  15. The influence of prenatal screening and termination of pregnancy on perinatal mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Graafmans, W.; Biermans, M.C.J.; Richardus, J.H.; Zijlstra, A.G.; Reefhuis, J.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives This study concerns the possible effect of practice of prenatal screening of congenital anomalies followed by termination of pregnancy on the perinatal mortality between European countries. Methods Data of nine region-specific EUROCAT registries from five European countries were used to c

  16. Prenatal Pregnancy Complications and Psychiatric Symptoms: Children with ASD versus Clinic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the association between prenatal pregnancy complications (PPC) and childhood psychiatric symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD children who were referred to a psychiatric clinic (Controls). Parents completed a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale and developmental history questionnaire.…

  17. Prenatal care, pregnancy outcomes, and postpartum birth control plans among pregnant women with opiate addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlier, Anna Beth; Fagan, Blake; Ramage, Melinda; Galvin, Shelley

    2014-11-01

    To describe how effectively we provided adequate prenatal care and postpartum contraception to prevent repeat, unintended pregnancies to women using opiates or medication maintenance therapy (MMT) during pregnancy. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 94 women using opiates or MMT during 96 pregnancies while receiving prenatal care in the regional high-risk maternity care clinic between July 2010 and June 2012. We examined prenatal care usage, birth outcomes, and postpartum contraception using χ(2), Kruskal-Wallis, and binary logistic regression modeling. Patients were predominately white (93.6%), multiparous (75.5%), and in their 20s; 71 (74%) used MMT and 25 (26%) used prescribed or illicit opiates. Fewer than half (44% [46.2%]) received any documented prenatal counseling about postpartum contraception. Sixteen (17%) babies were premature. Sixty-four (66.7%) infants were diagnosed as having neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Only 42 (43.8%) women attended their postpartum visits. Overall, 60 (62.5%) women received postpartum contraception. The only significant predictors of postpartum contraception use were preterm birth and postpartum appointment attendance. Alternative strategies for providing postpartum care should be explored because women using opiates or MMT during pregnancy are significantly more likely to use postpartum contraception if they attend their postpartum appointments.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of Meckel-Gruber syndrome in a pregnancy obtained with ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Claudio; Prefumo, Federico; Liberati, Marco; Gallo, Giuseppina; Di Nisio, Quirino; Rotmensch, Sigfried

    2006-06-01

    The association of occipital encephalocele, cleft palate, postaxial polydactyly, polycystic kidneys, and hepatic cysts is well known as Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MGS). Nowadays, the diagnosis of MGS is usually performed prenatally by ultrasound findings. MGS was previously described following in vitro fertilization. We report a case of MGS diagnosed at 17 weeks in a pregnancy obtained with intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

  19. Prenatal Profile of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS): A Review of 53 Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dinah M.; Sherer, Ilana; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Byrne, Janice L.B.; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J.M.; Jackson, Laird G.; Krantz, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem developmental disorder characterized by growth retardation, cognitive impairment, external and internal structural malformations, and characteristic facial features. Currently, there are no definitive prenatal screening measures that lead to the diagnosis of CdLS. In this study, documented prenatal findings in CdLS syndrome were analyzed towards the development of a prenatal profile predictive of CdLS. We reviewed 53 cases of CdLS (29 previously reported and 24 unreported) in which prenatal observations/findings were available. The review of these cases revealed a pattern of sonographic findings, including obvious associated structural defects, growth restriction, as well as a more subtle, but strikingly characteristic, facial profile, suggestive of a recognizable prenatal ultrasonographic profile for CdLS. In addition the maternal serum marker, PAPP-A, may be reduced and fetal nuchal translucency may be increased in some pregnancies when measured at an appropriate gestational age. In conclusion, CdLS can be prenatally diagnosed or readily ruled out in a family with a known mutation in a CdLS gene. The characteristic ultrasonographic profile may allow for prenatal diagnosis of CdLS in 1) subsequent pregnancies to a couple with a prior child with CdLS in whom a mutation has not been identified or 2) when there are unexplained pregnancy signs of fetal abnormality such as oligo- or polyhydramnios, a low maternal serum PAPP-A level and/or increased nuchal translucency, fetal growth retardation, or structural anomalies consistent with CdLS. PMID:22740382

  20. Neurotoxicity of prenatal alcohol exposure on medullary pre-Bötzinger complex neurons in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-li Ji; Yun-hong Wu; Zhi-bin Qian

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure disrupts the development of normal fetal respiratory function, but whether it perturbs respiratory rhythmical discharge activity is unclear. Furthermore, it is un-known whether the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) is involved in the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. In the present study, pregnant female rats received drinking water containing alcohol at concentrations of 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8% or 10% (v/v) throughout the gestation period. Slices of the medulla from 2-day-old neonatal rats were obtained to record respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels in the pre-Bötzing-er complex of the respiratory center were measured by western blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Compared with the 0% alcohol group, respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in medullary slices in the 4%, 8% and 10% alcohol groups was decreased, and the reduc-tion was greatest in the 8% alcohol group. Respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in the 10%alcohol group was irregular. Thus, 8% was the most effective alcohol concentration at attenuating respiratory rhythmical discharge activity. These ifndings suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure attenuates respiratory rhythmical discharge activity in neonatal rats by downregulating 5-HT2AR protein and mRNA levels.

  1. Prenatal alcohol exposure inducing the apoptosis of mossy cells in hippocampus of SMS2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai; Wu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoqing; Deng, Jiexin; Ma, Zhanyou; Fan, Wenjuan; He, Weiya; Deng, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis through the ceramide pathway, sphingomyelin synthase 2 knockout (SMS2-/-) mice were used to make the prenatal alcohol exposure model, and the role of ceramide regulation on alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis was studied in the offspring. Initially the levels of serum sphingomyelin (SM) were detected with enzymatic method in P0 pups after alcohol exposure in parents. Then the apoptosis of mossy cells in the offspring hippocampus was investigated after prenatal alcohol exposure with immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay. Finally the expression of activated Caspase 8 and activated Caspase 3 in the offspring hippocampus was detected with Western blot analysis. Our results showed that SM levels were down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner (palcohol exposure in wild-type (WT) and SMS2-/- pups. However, SM levels of serum in SMS2-/- pups were significantly lower than that in WT pups (palcohol-induced neuroapoptosis. In both WT pups and SMS2-/- pups, the number of apoptotic mossy cells in the hippocampus increased after prenatal alcohol exposure in a dose dependent manner (palcohol exposure, consistent with results from TUNEL assay and immunocytochemistry. Our study suggests that mossy cells may be the easily attacked cells for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), and ceramide is involved in the alcohol-induced neural apoptosis. The mechanism probably lies in the accumulated ceramide in SMS2 mice, and the increase of activated Caspase 8 and Caspase 3 promotes alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis.

  2. Smoking and alcohol drinking during pregnancy as the risk factors for poor child neurodevelopment – A review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jurewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal active and passive smoking and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy, taking into account the level of exposure and developmental or behavioral outcomes, are recognized as a significant issue from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The article aims at evaluating the impact of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy on children neurodevelopment by reviewing the most recently published literature. Relevant studies were identified by searching the Pubmed, Medline and Ebsco literature databases. This review is restricted to 29 human studies published in English in peer reviewed journals since 2006. The studies published recently continued to show some relationship between tobacco smoke exposure, from active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy, and children’s psychomotor development independent of other variables, but this relationship is not straightforward. The association is mostly consistent for measures of academic achievements and behavioral problems which require further attention. The results of the studies on low or moderate exposure to alcohol are not fully conclusive, but some of them suggest that consumption of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect children’s intelligence quotient (IQ, mental health, memory and verbal or visual performance. As the reviewed studies indicate, maternal lifestyle during pregnancy like alcohol drinking or smoking may affect children neurodevelopment. All effort should be taken to eliminate such exposure to ensure appropriate children’s development.

  3. Alcohol drinking pattern during pregnancy and risk of infant mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønboek, Morten; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2009-01-01

    The safety of small amounts of alcohol drinking and occasional binge-level drinking during pregnancy remains unsettled. We examined the association of maternal average alcohol intake and binge drinking (>or=5 drinks per sitting) with infant mortality, both in the neonatal and postneonatal period....

  4. Prenatal decision-making in the second and third trimester in trisomy 21-affected pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Alexander; Braun, Thorsten; Deutinger, Christine; Henrich, Wolfgang; Kalache, Karim D; Neymeyer, Joerg

    2017-02-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosome abnormality among live-born infants and the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability. The majority of pregnancies affected by DS are terminated. The decision concerning whether or not to continue a pregnancy following the prenatal diagnosis of DS is complex and amongst others, motivated by attitudes towards termination, socioeconomic factors, and ultrasound findings. In Germany, termination of pregnancy (TOP) is a legal option, even during the later stages of gestation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes as well as possible factors that influence the decisions made by women with trisomy 21-affected pregnancies. In our study 112 pregnancies affected by trisomy 21 were included. Our data confirm that most patients are more likely to terminate a trisomy 21-affected pregnancy [76 (67.9%) vs. 36 (32.1%) continued pregnancies]. Beyond that we found that women who continued their pregnancy tended to be at an advanced stage in their pregnancy at the time of karyotyping. With regards to factors from their medical history as well as sonographic findings there was no identifiable single factor that could distinguish between women that opted to continue or terminate their pregnancy.

  5. Prenatal diagnosis of sickle-cell anemia in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, M; Dumez, Y; Kaplan, L; Lupker, M; Chabret, C; Henrion, R; Rosa, J

    1983-10-06

    To investigate the usefulness of chorionic biopsy for prenatal diagnosis of sickle-cell anemia by restriction-endonuclease analysis of fetal DNA, we studied 30 pregnancies before elective abortion. When the reproducibility of the technique for obtaining adequate DNA samples was established, we successfully applied the test to five pregnancies at risk for sickle-cell anemia. In two cases, sickle-cell disease of the fetus led to a decision to terminate the pregnancy. In three other cases, a normal or AS genotype was demonstrated. One normal infant has been born, and one other pregnancy is continuing normally. In one case in which fetal death was observed three weeks after sampling, placental abnormalities found on histologic examination were compatible with a chromosomal aberration. Our study shows that chorionic biopsy is feasible for the prenatal diagnosis of sickle-cell disease before the 10th gestational week. If subsequent experience demonstrates this technique to be safe enough for mother and fetus, the ability to test in early pregnancy may make prenatal diagnosis acceptable to more couples at risk for serious genetic disorders.

  6. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...... during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...

  7. Later Prenatal Checkups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  8. Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  9. Discordance between prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, A; Tabor, A

    1984-01-01

    From 1.3.73 to 30.9.80 5580 women had an amniocentesis performed here or elsewhere; fetal chromosome analyses were carried out in this laboratory. We found 112 abnormal karyotypes (2 per cent) out of 5591 chromosome analyses. In 40 women (0.7 per cent) no cytogenetic diagnosis was obtained. Follow-up was successful in 99.5 per cent. Nine cases are reported in detail: Three cases had discrepancy between the karyotype in amniotic fluid and peripheral blood after delivery, two of these cases turned out to be 46,XX (male) while the third was prenatally determined as trisomy 21, but had a 46,XX karyotype at birth. Six cases had discrepancy between the karyotype in amniotic fluid and the phenotypic outcome at birth/abortion. One case was a prenatally undetected 45,X/46,XY mosaicism; one case was an unexplained 45,X male fetus; two cases were prenatally determined as trisomy 21, but at abortion a normal karyotype was determined and in two cases maternal cells were probably examined. The incidence of cytogenetic errors in this study was very low.

  10. Pregnancy Outcome following Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosomal Anomaly: A Record Linkage Study of 26,261 Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Cooper, Sally-Ann; McGowan, Ruth; Nelson, Scott M; Pell, Jill P

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of changes in the age at which women give birth, and of developments in prenatal screening and diagnosis on the number of pregnancies diagnosed and terminated with chromosomal anomalies. However, we are unaware of any population studies examining pregnancy terminations after diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies that has included all aneuploidies and the influence of maternal factors. The aims of this study were to examine the association between results of prenatal tests and pregnancy termination, and the proportion of foetuses with and without chromosomal anomalies referred for invasive diagnostic tests over time. Diagnostic information of 26,261 prenatal invasive tests from all genetic service laboratories in Scotland from 2000 to 2011 was linked to Scottish Morbidity Records to obtain details on pregnancy outcome. Binary logistic regression was carried out to test the associations of year and type of diagnosis with pregnancy termination, while controlling for maternal age, neighbourhood deprivation and parity. There were 24,155 (92.0%) with no chromosomal anomalies, 1,483 (5.6%) aneuploidy diagnoses, and 623 (2.4%) diagnoses of anomaly that was not aneuploidy (including translocations and single chromosome deletions). In comparison with negative test results, pregnancies diagnosed with trisomy were most likely to be terminated (adjusted OR 437.40, 95% CI 348.19-549.46) followed by other aneuploid anomalies (adjusted OR 95.94, 95% CI 69.21-133.01). During the study period, fewer pregnancies that were diagnosed with aneuploidy were terminated, including trisomy diagnoses (adjusted OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.73). Older women were less likely to terminate (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.28, 0.42), and parity was also an independent predictor of termination. In keeping with previous findings, while the number of invasive diagnostic tests declined, the proportion of abnormal results increased from 6.09% to 10.88%. Systematic advances in

  11. Betaine supplementation reduces congenital defects after prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.

  12. [Use of alcohol during conception, pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Tj; Flikweert, S; Zeeman, K; Schagen van Leeuwen, J H

    2005-08-13

    Recently, the Dutch Health Council published a report on the risks of the use of alcohol during conception, pregnancy and lactation. Because the medical literature does not prove the safety of the use of small amounts of alcohol, the Health Council recommends using no alcohol whatsoever. One may wonder whether the advice of the Health Council is not too rigid. Since Karl Popper, it is evident that the truth of the hypothesis that the consumption of small amounts of alcohol is safe will never be verified. Because the medical literature also does not prove the harmfulness of the irregular use of small amounts of alcohol, it is not necessary to upset pregnant women who occasionally take an alcoholic beverage. It is preferable to use no alcohol; however, the rare consumption of a single glass does not seem to be harmful.

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute h...

  14. [Effects of prenatal alcohol consumption upon fecundity, natality, growth, vaginal opening and sexual cycle in the rat (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueyo-Silva, A; Menéndez-Patterson, A; Marin, B

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of prenatal alcohol consumption upon offspring and sexual maturity parameters on a rat strain which, for several years, drank only a brandy/water solution. With regard to fecundity and number of pups our results show no variation, while weight, vaginal opening, and sexual cycle are severely affected by alcohol intake. Possible alterations upon offspring due to chronic prenatal alcohol intake are examined.

  15. Automated cerebellar segmentation: Validation and application to detect smaller volumes in children prenatally exposed to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Cardenas

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: These results demonstrate excellent reliability and validity of automated cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal area measurements, compared to manual measurements. These data also illustrate that this new technology for automatically delineating the cerebellum leads to conclusions regarding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum consistent with prior studies that used labor intensive manual delineation, even with a very small sample.

  16. Prologue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2007-01-01

    This prologue introduces an important topic for multiple disciplines involved with children and their families. This introduction includes a review of some of the current literature on the effects of maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure on child development, an explanation of why this topic is essential learning for communication…

  17. Association Between Obesity During Pregnancy and the Adequacy of Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozzaro-Smith, Paula E; Bacak, Stephen; Conway, Ciara; Park, Jennifer; Glantz, J Christopher; Thornburg, Loralei L

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, more than a third of women are obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30]. Although obese populations utilize health care at increased rates and have higher health care costs than non-obese patients, the adequacy of prenatal care in this population is not well established and assumed to be suboptimal. We therefore evaluated adequacy of prenatal care among obese women. We utilized an electronic database including 7094 deliveries with pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 18.5 from January 2009 through December 2011. Subjects were categorized as normal weight 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25-29.9 kg/m2, and obese ≥30 kg/m2 (class I-II-III). Adequacy of prenatal care (PNC) was evaluated using the Kotelchuck Index (KI), corrected for gestational age at delivery. Adequate care was defined as KI "adequate" or "adequate plus," and non-adequate as "intermediate" or "inadequate." Chi square and logistic regression were used for comparisons. When compared to non-obese women, obese women were more likely to have adequate PNC (74.1 vs. 68.7%; OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.47). After adjusting for age, race, education, diabetes, hypertension, and practice type, obesity remained a significant predictor of adequate prenatal care (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.14-1.46). While age and hypertension were not significant independent predictors of adequate PNC, college education, Caucasian, diabetes, and resident or MFM care had positive associations. Maternal obesity is associated with increased adequacy of prenatal care. Although some comorbidities associated with obesity increase utilization of prenatal services, this did not explain the improvement in PNC adequacy associated with obesity. Overweight and obese women are at a higher risk of pregnancy complications with obesity contributing to increased morbidity and mortality of the mother. Several studies have evaluated barriers to routine health care services, with obese parturients perceiving their weight to be a barrier to obtaining appropriate

  18. Sex chromosome trisomies in Europe: prevalence, prenatal detection and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Patricia Anne; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess prevalence and pregnancy outcome for sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) diagnosed prenatally or in the first year of life. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) database on SCT cases delivered 2000-2005 from 19 population-based registries ...... to differences in screening policies as well as organizational and cultural factors.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 25 August 2010; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.148....

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Thailand: experience from 100 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucharoen, S; Winichagoon, P; Thonglairoam, V; Siriboon, W; Siritanaratkul, N; Kanokpongsakdi, S; Vantanasiri, C

    1991-03-01

    In this review, we describe a simple strategy to detect the three severe thalassemic diseases commonly found in Thailand. Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis can be detected unambiguously by ultrasonography at 18-20 weeks of gestation or detected early in the first trimester by the gene amplification technique. Prenatal diagnosis for homozygous beta-thalassemia is better performed in the second trimester by in vitro protein synthesis. This is because the molecular defects of some beta-thalassemias are still unknown and homozygosity of the same mutation is low. In contrast, beta-thalassemia/Hb E is easily detected, in the first trimester, by direct visualization on electrophoresis or by dot blot analysis of enzymatically amplified DNA with a set of nonradioactively labeled oligonucleotide probes complementary to the most common mutations. We also found that the beta/gamma synthesis ratio in homozygous Hb E is similar to that of beta-thalassemia/Hb E and DNA analysis is the only method to distinguish these two conditions in the couple at risk of having either beta-thalassemia/Hb E or asymptomatic homozygous Hb E. In 100 pregnancies studied, the diagnoses were achieved in 96 pregnancies. Complications leading to fetal loss were found in 3 pregnancies: one woman developed amnionitis after fetal blood sampling; one had amniotic fluid leakage after the biopsy, and the third, carrying a normal fetus, aborted 10 days after fetal blood sampling with urinary tract infection and high fever. However, these figures are compatible with other reports and the risks are significantly lower than that of thalassemic disease the fetus is facing. One case of beta-thalassemia/Hb E was incorrectly diagnosed prenatally as being Hb E trait. In twenty-five pregnancies (25%) prenatally diagnosed to carry affected fetuses it was decided to have abortion. This study shows the feasibility of prenatal diagnosis for thalassemic diseases in Thailand which, in addition to screening and genetic counseling

  20. Prenatal diagnosis by chorionic villus sampling in multiple pregnancies prior to fetal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Catte, L; Camus, M; Bonduelle, M; Liebaers, I; Foulon, W

    1998-05-01

    Ovulation induction and assisted-reproduction techniques have dramatically increased the incidence of high-risk multiple pregnancies over the past 10 years. Perinatal outcome may be improved by the use of multifetal reduction. The fetus to be reduced used to be selected only on technical grounds. We report on the results of prenatal diagnosis by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) during the first trimester in 32 multifetal pregnancies in which fetal reduction was requested. The mean gestational age at CVS was 10.5 weeks. Chromosomal analyses were available for all sampled fetuses, three of which were chromosomally abnormal. In 24 couples, fetal reduction to twin pregnancies was successfully carried out within 1 week after the CVS. In seven cases, the couples elected not to proceed with fetal reduction after receiving information that the chromosomal analysis was normal in all fetuses. Mean gestational ages at delivery were, respectively, 34.6 and 31.8 weeks in the reduced and the nonreduced groups (p = 0.04). No fetal losses occurred in either group; one neonatal death was observed after a preterm delivery because of preeclampsia in a twin pregnancy. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis during the first trimester in multiple pregnancies prior to fetal reduction appears to be feasible, accurate, and safe. Abnormal chromosomal results indicate the fetus(es) to be reduced. The parents' decisions not to proceed with the fetal reduction procedure, where chromosomal results in all the fetuses were normal, were unexpected.

  1. Genetic Counseling and Prenatal Diagnosis of Triploidy During the Second Trimester of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarski, Milenko; Ahmetovic, Begzudin; Beres, Maja; Topic, Radomir; Nikic, Vedran; Kavecan, Ivana; Sabic, Semin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Triploidy is a lethal chromosomal numeric abnormality, characterized on extra haploid set of chromosomes. It occurs in 2 to 3% of conceptuses and accounts for approximately 20% of chromosomally abnormal first-trimester miscarriages. As such, triploidy is estimated to occur in 1 of 3,500 pregnancies at 12 weeks’, 1 in 30,000 at 16 weeks’, and 1 in 250,000 at 20 weeks’ gestation. Case report: We present a case of second-trimester triploidy diagnosed prenataly at our center. 28-years-old gravida with a first spontaneous pregnancy had early gestational hypertension. Ultrasound examination in 146/7 weeks’ gestation revealed asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation. We recommended biochemical maternal serum screening during second trimester of pregnancy (AFP, HCG, uE3). Result of biochemical screening was indication for cytogenetic analysis from amniotic fluid cells and we recommended early amniocentesis in 156/7 weeks’ gestation. Result showed abnormal karyotype of the fetus (69,XXX triploidy), and DNA analysis confirmed Type-2 Diginy. Parents decided to terminate this pregnancy, and it was done at 22 weeks’ gestation. Conclusion: We emphasize the importance of non-invasive prenatal exminationes-biochemical serum screening during second trimester of pregnancy, and ultrasound examinations in prenatal screening of syndroma Down and other chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:28790549

  2. Fetal blood sampling in twin pregnancies. Prenatal diagnosis and management of 19 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, W L; Forestier, F; Capella-Pavlovsky, M; Daffos, F

    1987-01-01

    Twin pregnancies pose particular problems in both prenatal diagnosis and obstetric management. We present 19 twin pregnancies that underwent fetal blood sampling (FBS). The indications were mostly similar to those for singleton pregnancies, with both fetuses being sampled. There was one indication specific to twin pregnancies; disseminated intravascular coagulation in the retained twin after the death-in-utero (DIU) of the other. In 5 cases, only 1 twin was sampled; in 2 because the second twin was female in the diagnosis of an X-linked disorder; in 1 because of technical failure, and in 2 the other twin had predeceased. Eight pregnancies continued after the FBS delivering 2 live, healthy infants, though 5 were delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. In 7 cases there was a discordance in the diagnosis between the twins. In 3 of these cases the affected fetus underwent selective termination by air embolism; in 2 cases the pregnancies were continued and the affected twin not resuscitated; 1 pregnancy is still in progress, and 1 patient had a non-medically supervised termination of both twins in another country. Two patients miscarried within a week of the FBS. Two patients had only 1 living twin at the time of FBS; 1 had a second DIU a month after the FBS and the other a neonatal death at 11 days of age in an infant with severe porencephaly. FBS is technically feasible for similar indications as for singleton pregnancies though discordance in diagnosis raises specific management problems.

  3. Assessment of weight gain during pregnancy in general prenatal care services in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an emerging major health risk for women around the world. In this regard, little attention has been given to pregnancy, a moment of risk not only for major weight gain in these women, but also for macrosomia in their offspring. The objective of this study is to evaluate weight gain during pregnancy. Data pertains to a cohort of pregnant women attending general prenatal care clinics in six state capitals in Brazil, from 1991 to 1995. We studied women aged 20 years and over with singleton pregnancies and no diagnosis of diabetes outside pregnancy, enrolled at approximately 20 - 28 weeks of gestation. According to the Institute of Medicine criteria, 38% (95%CI: 36-40% of the women studied gained less and 29% (95%CI: 28-31% had more than the recommended total weight gain. These proportions vary according to pre-pregnancy nutritional status. Given the increasing epidemic of obesity, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Brazilian women prior to pregnancy, and the lack of achievement of recommended weight gain during pregnancy, more effective means of managing weight gain during pregnancy are necessary.

  4. Prenatal care and pregnancy outcomes: A cross-sectional study in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimi, Tazi; Fraga, Sílvia; Costa, Diogo; Campos, Paulo; Barros, Henrique

    2016-11-01

    To describe prenatal care in Angolan women delivered at a large tertiary care unit, and to explore the association between prenatal care and selected perinatal outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2012 and February 2013, involving 995 women aged 13-46years, delivered at Lucrécia Paím Maternity, Luanda. Trained interviewers collected information on timing, frequency, place, and satisfaction with prenatal care; sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; birth weight; and gestational age. Logistic regression models were fitted, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95%CI) estimated. Quantitatively inadequate prenatal care (care. More visits, both in primiparas and multiparas, were independently associated with more cesarean deliveries. After adjustment, having fewer than four visits was significantly associated with low birth weight (OR 2.00; 95% CI, 1.15-3.50) and preterm delivery (OR 2.74; 95% CI, 1.69-4.44 for 2-4 visits); similar associations were found regarding late entrance into care. Early entrance into prenatal care and the recommended number of visits are major determinants of mode of delivery and pregnancy outcomes, constituting targets to improve perinatal health. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn;

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the association between amount and type of alcohol consumed during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery and whether the relation differs among very (... of alcohol, no increased risk of preterm delivery was found. Among women who consumed seven or more drinks per week, the relative risk of very preterm delivery was 3.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 13.24) compared with that of nondrinkers. There were no differences in the associations between type...

  6. The effects of prenatal and postnatal (via nursing) exposure to alcohol in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekvasil, N.; Baggio, C. (St. Mary' s Coll., Notre Dame, IN (United States))

    1992-02-26

    Pregnant and post-partum rats were given daily doses of 20% alcohol during days 13-21 gestation and postnatal days 3-12, respectively. Following exposure, all rat pups, were tested for balance, blood pressure, right and left cerebral hemisphere weights, and cerebellar weight. Results were grouped according to exposure and gender. The postnatal group was the only one to demonstrate difficulties with balance. The mean arterial pressure in males exposed postnatally was significantly lower than the control and prenatal males. Females exposed postnatally had a significantly higher blood pressure than control females. Within the postnatal group, males had a significantly lower blood pressure than the females. Prenatal and control females differed significantly for left cerebral hemisphere (LCH) weight with the prenatal weighing less. Male pups exposed prenatally had significantly heavier LCH than the postnatal and control males. For both males and females, postnatal LCH weights did not differ from those of the control pups. Within the prenatal group, the LCH weight in females was significantly lower than in males. Mean cerebellar weights were significantly lower in postnatal animals compared to control animals. A major finding of this study is that the effect of alcohol exposure on rat pups depends on gender and developmental age.

  7. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  8. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Computer-Delivered Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use in Pregnancy: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondersma, Steven J.; Beatty, Jessica R.; Svikis, Dace S.; Strickler, Ronald C.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Chang, Grace; Divine, W.; Taylor, Andrew R.; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use has demonstrated efficacy in some trials, its implementation has been limited. Technology-delivered approaches are a promising alternative, particularly during pregnancy when the importance of alcohol use is amplified. The present trial evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of an interactive, empathic, video-enhanced, and computer-delivered SBI (e-SBI) plus three separate tailored mailings, and estimated intervention effects. Methods We recruited 48 pregnant women who screened positive for alcohol risk at an urban prenatal care clinic. Participants were randomly assigned to the e-SBI plus mailings or to a control session on infant nutrition, and were reevaluated during their postpartum hospitalization. The primary outcome was 90-day period-prevalence abstinence as measured by timeline follow-back interview. Results Participants rated the intervention as easy to use and helpful (4.7-5.0 on a 5-point scale). Blinded follow-up evaluation at childbirth revealed medium-size intervention effects on 90-day period prevalence abstinence (OR = 3.4); similarly, intervention effects on a combined healthy pregnancy outcome variable (live birth, normal birthweight, and no NICU stay) were also of moderate magnitude in favor of e-SBI participants (OR=3.3). As expected in this intentionally under-powered pilot trial, these effects were non-significant (p = .19 and .09, respectively). Conclusions This pilot trial demonstrated the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a computer-delivered screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) plus tailored mailings for alcohol use in pregnancy. These findings mirror the promising results of other trials using a similar approach, and should be confirmed in a fully-powered trial. PMID:26010235

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of alcohol can be harmful, including all wine and beer. The baby’s brain, body, and organs ... FDA-approved methods of birth control and patient education and counseling as prescribed by a health care ...

  11. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption...

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of lethal osteogenesis imperfecta in twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, L R; Herlicoviez, M; Loisel, J C; Jacob, B; Feuilly, C; Stanescu, V

    1991-06-01

    Lethal osteogenesis imperfecta was diagnosed at 27 weeks amenorrea in one fetus of a bichorial twin pregnancy. Sonographic findings included: short-limb dwarfism, hypotrophy and hypoechoic bones. The affected fetus was so translucent that only the normal fetus could be seen on plain in utero radiography. The affected fetus died immediately after birth. Postmortem radiography and histology were typical of lethal osteogenesis imperfecta of type IIA. Aids to the etiological diagnosis of in utero dwarfism are presented. Sonographic features correlated with neonatal death are described.

  13. Brugada Syndrome and Pregnancy: Highlights on Antenatal and Prenatal Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Giambanco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Brugada syndrome is characterized by a disruption of heart’s normal rhythm. It is an autosomal dominant disease due to a mutation of SNC5A gene. Its prevalence is low all over the world, but it is a lethal disease. Sudden cardiac death is the result of phenotypic manifestation of Brugada syndrome. Among asymptomatic Brugada patients, arrhythmia could be provoked by physical activity, fever, or pregnancy. About obstetrical management, very few data or reports have been published since this syndrome has been diagnosed in late 1992. Case Presentation. A 20-year-old pregnant woman at 13 weeks of gestation was referred to our department because of her familial history of sudden cardiac deaths. Brothers and sisters of her mother died of Brugada syndrome in childhood or older and live components of this family were carrier of mutation in Brugada gene. The pregnancy was uneventful. The patient gave birth vaginally without any arrhythmia. Strictly cardiological monitoring was performed during labour, delivery, and 12 hours of the postpartum. Conclusion. Even though patient at low risk may never have arrhythmia, some conditions could represent a Brugada trigger. The management could be very easy and uneventful. Otherwise it could be very difficult with need of ECMO or antiarrhythmics drugs or intracardiac device. Obstetrical management of Brugada pregnant women should be very strict and multidisciplinary in cooperation with cardiologist and anaesthesiologist and should provide an informed consent to the couple.

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy: screening, diagnostic, and treatment practices among prenatal care providers in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, J S; Koumans, E H; Toomey, K E; Grayson, C; Markowitz, L E

    2001-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes. We conducted a prenatal care provider survey to determine STD screening, diagnosis, and treatment practices. Standard questionnaires were mailed to Georgia-licensed obstetrician/ gynecologists, family practitioners, and nurse-midwives (N = 3,082) in 1998. Of the 1,300 care providers who returned the survey, 565 (44%) provided prenatal care, 390 (57%) were male, and 396 (70%) were obstetrician/ gynecologists. Overall, 553 prenatal care providers (98%) reported screening all pregnant patients for syphilis, 551 (98%) for hepatitis B, 501 (89%) for trichomonas, 474 (84%) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 401 (71%) for gonorrhea, 403 (71%) for chlamydia, 475 (84%) for group B streptococci, and 130 (23%) for bacterial vaginosis (BV) (high risk). Less than 10% used amplification tests for chlamydia or gonorrhea. Most providers used appropriate regimens to treat STD in pregnant women. A written office policy on testing for BV or HIV was associated with increased screening. Provider education is needed about diagnosis and treatment of STD during pregnancy.

  15. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on social behavior in humans and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S J; Day, N; Streissguth, A P

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during development causes central nervous system alterations in both humans and animals. Although the most common behavioral manifestation of these alterations is a reduction in cognitive abilities, it is becoming increasingly apparent that deficits in social behavior may be very prevalent sequelae of developmental alcohol exposure. In infancy and early childhood, deficits in attachment behavior and state regulation are seen in both alcohol-exposed people and animals, suggesting that these changes are largely the result of the alcohol exposure rather than maternal behavior. In the periadolescent period, people exposed to alcohol during development show a variety of difficulties in the social domain as measured by checklists filled out by either a parent or teacher. Rats exposed to alcohol during development show changes in play and parenting behaviors. In adulthood, prenatal alcohol exposure is related to high rates of trouble with the law, inappropriate sexual behavior, depression, suicide, and failure to care for children. These high rates all suggest that there may be fundamental problems in the social domain. In other animals, perinatal alcohol exposure alters aggression, active social interactions, social communication and recognition, maternal behavior, and sexual behavior in adults. In conclusion, research suggests that people exposed to alcohol during development may exhibit striking changes in social behavior; the animal research suggests that these changes may be largely the result of the alcohol insult and not the environment.

  16. Alcohol content in declared non-to low alcoholic beverages: implications to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Y Ingrid; Verjee, Zulfikar; Koren, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may result in serious adverse fetal outcome. Non- or low alcoholic wines and beers may be a risk-reduction strategy to help alcohol-dependent individuals to prevent or limit ethanol consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify ethanol concentrations in Canadian beverages claiming to contain no or low alcohol content. Forty-five different beverages claiming to contain no or low alcohol content in the Canadian market were tested for ethanol concentration using gas chromatography. Thirteen (29%) of the beverages contained ethanol levels higher than the declared concentration on their label. Six beverages claiming to contain no alcohol were found to contain greater than 1% ethanol. Pregnant women seeking replacement to alcoholic beverages may be misled by these labels, unknowingly exposing themselves and their unborn babies to ethanol.

  17. Anencephaly: pitfalls in pregnancy outcome and relevance of the prenatal exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tica, V I; Beghim, M; Tica, Irina; Zaher, M; Beghim, Esra

    2009-01-01

    Anencephaly is an embryological malformation of the central nervous system, invariable lethal, characterized by the absence of the brain and cranial vault and by other defects of the cranial structures. It has no cure but it can be detected during the pregnancy with ultrasonography. We present a rare case of a 15-year-old primipara, with no prenatal care, who delivered at 37 weeks an anencephalous female newborn. Ultrasonography avoided the confusion with a breach presentation, which, in conjunction with the prematurity, premature rupture of membranes and the young maternal age would have favored the cesarean section. The rarity of the case is increased by the singularity of the malformation. The importance of the prenatal care and genetic workup are stressed out in this embryologic pathology.

  18. Pregnancy 101: a call for reproductive and prenatal health education in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Christine

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a college course in preconception health and prenatal development at improving reproductive health awareness in college students. Students enrolled in the course completed pretest and posttest assessments and a course evaluation. Students' self-perception of awareness of the positive and negative factors that can affect pregnancy increased from 13% at the beginning of the course to 89 and 93% at the end of the course, respectively. Correspondingly, students' knowledge of course-related information improved across nearly all areas assessed. The average score among students increased from 67 to 90% correct from pretest to posttest. Course evaluation results indicated that over 94% of students found the course to be beneficial and informative. College courses are a practical way to disseminate reproductive and prenatal health information. Educating college students in these areas has clear benefits to both individual students and society and, as such, merits increased attention in college curricula.

  19. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS AND SCREENING OF GENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN EARLY PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Kiran Kohli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Genetic diseases are one of the major causes of hospital admissions due to disability and mortality particularly among children (1:5 children of hospital admission either partially/completely as distribution of genetic diseases is not related to socioeconomic background, which implies that developing world has a large number of genetic diseases largely left uncared for, i.e. overall incidence of foetal/neonatal loss due to genetic/genetic environmental causes are as follows: 1:50 newborns have major congenital abnormality, 1:100 have a unifactorial disorder, 1:200 have a major chromosomal abnormality before birth. Diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies in foetus is one of the most important challenges in modern perinatology as invasive or noninvasive methods. The aim of the study is to review on cytogenetic evaluation of CVS obtained (transcervically during first trimester of pregnancy by direct karyotyping of tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in 2001 in Department of Anatomy along with Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, LNJP Hospital. 37 healthy cases with 6-12 weeks of gestational age coming for medical termination of pregnancy were included in the study. After written informed consent for procedure, ultrasound-guided transcervical chorionic villus sampling was done (Brambati’s method. Tissue procured was then processed for direct karyotyping and studied. Metaphase spreads were photographed and karyotypes prepared and studied. RESULTS Out of 37 pregnant females, 30 samples were successfully prepared and processed by Direct method out of which 23 were normal female (46, XX and 7 were normal male (46, XY. No normal anomaly was detected. Best biopsies were obtained with 8-12 weeks gestation. G Banding could not be performed as chromosome obtained were found to be resistant to banding. CONCLUSIONS To summarise chromosome preparations obtained from CVS by Direct method has advantage of providing sufficient number

  20. Experiences of prenatal diagnosis and decision-making about termination of pregnancy: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jan; Pitt, Penelope; Metcalfe, Sylvia; Halliday, Jane; Menezes, Melody; Fisher, Jane; Hickerton, Chriselle; Petersen, Kerry; McClaren, Belinda

    2016-12-01

    Advances in genetic technologies and ultrasound screening techniques have increased the ability to predict and diagnose congenital anomalies during pregnancy. As a result more prospective parents than ever before will receive a prenatal diagnosis of a fetal abnormality. Little is known about how Australian women and men experience receiving a prenatal diagnosis and how they make their decision about whether or not to continue the pregnancy. This qualitative study aims to describe parental experiences and examine how best to provide support after a prenatal diagnosis. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 102 women and men approximately six weeks post-diagnosis of fetal abnormality. Data were elicited using a narrative, chronological approach and women (n = 75) and a sample of male partners (n = 27) were separately interviewed. Thematic analysis, involving a rigorous process of qualitative coding, enabled iterative development and validation of emergent themes. Participants identified that the shock of the diagnosis can be lessened when good care is delivered, by provision of: clear, accurate and respectful communication; empathic, non-judgemental, professional support; timely access to further testing and appointments; seamless interactions with services and administration; appropriate choices about invasive testing; acknowledgment of the enormity and unexpected nature of the diagnosis, and of the subsequent decision-making challenges; and discussion of the myriad feelings likely to emerge throughout the process. This study has demonstrated the importance of providing timely access to accurate information and supportive, non-judgemental care for women and their partners following prenatal diagnosis of a fetal abnormality. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  2. Understanding Specific Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiangchuan; Coles, Claire D.; Lynch, Mary E; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with various adverse effects on human brain and behavior. Recently, neuroimaging studies have begun to identify PAE effects on specific brain structures. Investigation of such specific PAE effects is important for understanding the teratogenic mechanism of PAE on human brain, which is critical for differentiating PAE from other disorders. In this structural MRI study with young adults, PAE effects on the volumes of automatically segmented cortical...

  3. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    pregnancy. The overall proportion of women reporting binge drinking during early pregnancy was 35 % (n = 1,134). The following independent risk factors for binge drinking in early pregnancy were identified: lower degree of planned pregnancy, smoking and alcohol habits before pregnancy ((1 unit/weekly aOR 4......BACKGROUND: Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy...... drinking in early pregnancy among women living in the capital of Denmark. Secondly to identify pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with binge drinking during early pregnancy. METHODS: Data were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics...

  4. Pre-pregnancy and Early Prenatal Care are Associated with Lower Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy Complications in the Medicaid Population: 2004-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, Debra B; Cain, Loretta; Hasham Dahlquist, Irma; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Complications are more common among women with Medicaid or no insurance compared to those with private insurance. It is unknown whether preventive care prior to pregnancy and prenatal care, which are covered by Medicaid, would decrease complications if they were more fully utilised. Medicaid claims were used to identify a clinical cohort of women who experienced an ectopic pregnancy during 2004-08 among all female Medicaid enrolees from a large 14-state population, ages 15-44. Diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify ectopic pregnancies and associated complications. The primary outcomes were complications associated with ectopic pregnancy: blood transfusion, sterilisation, or hospitalisation with length of stay greater than 2 days. Independent variables were documentation of preventive care within 1 year prior to the ectopic pregnancy and prenatal care within 4 months prior. Controlling for race, age, and state of residence, women's risks of any ectopic pregnancy complication were independently higher among those who did not receive any Medicaid-covered preventive care within 1 year before the ectopic pregnancy compared to those who did (RR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09, 1.16), and among those who did not receive any Medicaid-covered prenatal care within 4 months prior, compared to those who did (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.83, 1.96). Pre-pregnancy and prenatal care are independently associated with decreased risk of ectopic pregnancy complications among Medicaid beneficiaries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Relationship between adequacy of prenatal care utilization index and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Tahereh; Zahrani, Shahnaz Turk; Mohammadpour, Rezaali

    2013-09-01

    Prenatal care is a comprehensive antepartum care program involving a coordinated approach to medical care and psychosocial support that is optimally offered before conception. Inadequate care during pregnancy can lead to undesirable outcomes, including preterm labor and low birth weight. One of these new, accurate, and comprehensive indicator measurements is adequacy of prenatal care utilization index. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of care and its relationship with preterm labor and low birth weight. This analytic historical cohort study was performed on 420 mothers who referred to health centers in Sari during 2010. Data were collected by interviews and questionnaires. Based on the adequacy of prenatal care utilization, this care was classified into four groups: intensive, adequate, intermediate, and inadequate. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Spearman correlation coefficient, and relative risk (RR). Of the 420 mothers who were studied, inadequate care was observed in 151 (36%) cases, which was the highest percentage of care. There was a significant relationship between the adequacy of prenatal care utilization and preterm labor and low birth weight (for both P inadequate care, the rate of preterm labor was RR = 1.36 times and the rate of low birth weight was RR = 1.08 times more than in adequate and intensive care. According to the programs that reduced the number of referrals of pregnant mothers (standardization protocol for mothers in Iran), this study confirms the efficacy of adequacy of prenatal care on reducing preterm labor and low birth weight. This study emphasizes on minimum care performance and the importance of conducting further studies to assess the relationship between quantities of care and other outcomes.

  6. Your First Prenatal Care Checkup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: May, 2011 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  7. Alcohol and Pregnancy: Why Take the Risk? PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-02

    This public service announcement is based on the February 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. More than three million women in the U.S. are at risk for exposing their developing baby to alcohol. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause physical, behavioral, and intellectual disabilities that can affect a child’s whole life. Learn what can be done to keep developing babies healthy.  Created: 2/2/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2016.

  8. Risks and guidelines for the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    not been consistently associated with short and long term adverse outcomes. Health authorities in most countries recommend that pregnant women completely abstain from alcohol. Even so, many health professionals including doctors, midwives and nurses do not provide information to pregnant women...... in accordance with the official recommendations, although a large proportion of women of child bearing age and pregnant women drink alcohol, especially before recognition of pregnancy. The discrepancy between guidelines and the information practice of health personnel is likely to continue to exist because...

  9. Prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with schizophrenia: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Herng-Ching; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lee, Hsin-Chien

    2009-09-01

    To compare the number of prenatal care visits for women with and without schizophrenia and to explore the relationship between the level of prenatal care and adverse pregnancy outcomes (low birth weight [LBW], preterm gestation, and small-for-gestational-age [SGA] babies). We identified a total of 607 women who gave birth from 2001 to 2003, who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia (ICD-9-CM criteria) in the 2 years preceding the index delivery, together with 1,821 matched women as a comparison cohort. Multivariate logistic regression and Poisson regression analyses were performed for estimation. Results show women with schizophrenia had a significantly lower mean number of prenatal care visits (7.92 vs 8.72, P inadequate prenatal care. The results also show that after adjusting for other factors, schizophrenic women who received inadequate prenatal care were 2.47 (95% CI, 1.27-4.77; P = .007), 1.84 (95% CI, 1.02-3.37; P = .036), and 1.77 (95% CI, 1.15-2.73; P = .010) times more likely to have preterm births, LBW babies, and SGA babies, compared to schizophrenic women who received adequate care. We conclude that women with schizophrenia were more likely to receive inadequate prenatal care than women without this disorder. Schizophrenic women who received inadequate prenatal care had a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes than schizophrenic women who received adequate care. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Prenatal vitamin use and vitamin D status during pregnancy, differences by race and overweight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, H H; Thomas, A; Zera, C A; McElrath, T F

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to study whether prenatal vitamin (PNV) use protects against low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in all women and particularly in obese and black women who are both at risk of vitamin D deficiency and poor pregnancy outcomes. We studied 1019 women enrolled in a prospective study at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, from 2007 to 2009. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze associations of PNV use and odds of vitamin D deficiency defined as 25[OH]D levels vitamin D deficient. Lack of PNV use among black women was not associated with vitamin D deficiency (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4, 2.3) but was among white women (OR 3.5, 95% CI 2.1, 5.8) (interaction Pvitamin D supplementation during pregnancy should consider potential effect modification by race/ethnicity.

  11. Termination of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida: a German perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domröse, Christian M; Bremer, Sandra; Buczek, Caroline; Geipel, Annegret; Berg, Christoph; Gembruch, Ulrich; Willruth, Arne

    2016-10-01

    To analyze fetal cases with spina bifida undergoing termination of pregnancy according to chromosomal analysis and further diagnosed sonographic findings. Retrospective analysis of cases with spina bifida leading to termination of pregnancy in a tertiary referral center from 2002 to 2011. In the study period, 246 cases of spina bifida were diagnosed in our center and 157 parents chose termination of pregnancy. The time of diagnosis was on average 2 days before the first presentation at our department (22 + 3, range: 12 + 3 - 33 + 3 weeks of gestation). Among 157 pregnancies with spina bifida and termination of pregnancy, further malformations could be detected in 46 (29.3 %) cases. An abnormal karyotype could be found in 13 (18.1 %). Severe ventriculomegaly or mild/moderate ventriculomegaly was present in 109 (69.4 %) and 29 (18.5 %) of the cases, respectively, while banana sign was detectable in 153 cases (97.5 %). In the majority, the upper lesion level was lumbar (71.3 %). In 67 cases (42.7 %), termination of pregnancy took place in or after the 24th week of gestation. Direct and indirect signs of spina bifida were detectable in nearly all cases independent of the gestational age. Therefore, the diagnosis could have been made in all cases with late termination. Implementation of a uniform prenatal care including first-trimester scan with potential signs for open spina bifida and second-trimester anomaly scan with indirect intracranial findings and direct detection of spinal lesion could lead to an earlier diagnosis and help to reduce late termination of pregnancy in neural tube defects.

  12. Alcohol reduction in the first trimester is unrelated to smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A. Schmidt

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Women reported reducing their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, including those screening positive for pre-pregnancy problem drinking. First trimester alcohol reduction cannot be accounted for by smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics; public health initiatives, psychological factors and hormonal mechanisms may be implicated.

  13. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn;

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the association between amount and type of alcohol consumed during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery and whether the relation differs among very (preterm delivery. The study is based on data of 40......,892 pregnant women included in the first part of the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women completed a computer-assisted telephone interview between December 12, 1997, and December 31, 2000, and delivered a liveborn singleton. Of these women, 1,880 gave birth preterm. Compared with those who abstained during...... pregnancy, the relative risks for preterm delivery among women who consumed from four to less than seven drinks and seven or more drinks per week during pregnancy were 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.57) and 1.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.94, 3.31), respectively. Below these intake levels...

  14. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the association between amount and type of alcohol consumed during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery and whether the relation differs among very (preterm delivery. The study is based on data of 40......,892 pregnant women included in the first part of the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women completed a computer-assisted telephone interview between December 12, 1997, and December 31, 2000, and delivered a liveborn singleton. Of these women, 1,880 gave birth preterm. Compared with those who abstained during...... pregnancy, the relative risks for preterm delivery among women who consumed from four to less than seven drinks and seven or more drinks per week during pregnancy were 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.57) and 1.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.94, 3.31), respectively. Below these intake levels...

  15. Differences in pregnancy outcomes, prenatal care utilization, and maternal complications between teenagers and adult women in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Seung Mi; Lim, Nam Gu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Sung-Hee; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Un-Na; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Teenage mothers are at high risk for maternal and neonatal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic circumstances of teenage pregnancy, and determine whether these increased risks remained after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Corporation database, we selected women who terminated pregnancy, by delivery or abortion, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Abortion, delivery type, and maternal complications were defined based on the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. We compared teenagers (13–19 years at the time of pregnancy termination) with other age groups and investigated differences based on socioeconomic status, reflected by Medical Aid (MA) and National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. We used multivariate analysis to define the factors associated with preterm delivery. Among 463,847 pregnancies, 2267 (0.49%) involved teenagers. Teenage mothers were more likely to have an abortion (33.4%) than deliver a baby when compared with other age groups (20.8%; P teenage mothers had never received prenatal care throughout pregnancy. Among teenage mothers, 61.7% of MA recipients made fewer than 4 prenatal care visits (vs 38.8% of NHI beneficiaries) (P Teenage mothers more often experienced preterm delivery and perineal laceration (P Teenage mothers (Teenage mothers had higher risk of inadequate prenatal care and subsequently of preterm delivery, which remained significantly higher after adjusting for socioeconomic confounding variables and adequacy of prenatal care in Korean teenagers (P < 0.001). PMID:27559960

  16. [Pre-pregnancy nutritional status, maternal weight gain, prenatal care, and adverse perinatal outcomes among adolescent mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marta Maria Antonieta de Souza; Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; de Barros, Denise Cavalcante; Pinto, Alessandra de Almeida; Pedrosa, Priscila La Marca; Saunders, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    To identify the association between pre-gestational nutritional status, maternal weight gain, and prenatal care with low birth weight (LBW) and prematurity outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers. Cross-sectional study with 542 pairs of adolescent mothers and their children attending a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from medical records. To determine the association between independent variables and the outcomes studied, odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated With respect to pre-pregnancy nutritional status of adolescents, 87% had normal weight, 1% were underweight, 10% were overweight, and 2% obese. Inadequate total gestational weight gain (72%) exceeded adequacy (28%). Birth weight was favored with greater gestational weight gain, and reduced with late onset of prenatal care. The comparison between the low birth weight and normal birth weight groups revealed significant differences between variable means: interval between the past pregnancy and current pregnancy (p = 0.022), pre-gestational weight (p = 0.018); pre-gestational body mass index (p prenatal visits. Birth weight was associated with inter-gestational interval, pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index before pregnancy. The minimum frequency of six prenatal care visits was a protective factor against LBW and prematurity.

  17. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Febrile seizure is a common type of seizure in childhood, probably caused by both genetic and early environmental factors. Little is known about the effect of environmental factors that operate in prenatal life, although the fetal brain may be particular vulnerable as a result...... of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... follow-up. We extracted from medical records additional information on febrile seizures in children in the Aarhus Birth Cohort who were born between 1989 and 1992. RESULTS: We found a slightly increased risk for febrile seizures in children who were exposed to 10 or more cigarettes per day in the Aarhus...

  18. Towards prenatal biomonitoring in Nanjing, China: lead and cadmium levels in the duration of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kang-sheng; MAO Xiao-dong; HAO Jia-hu; SHI Juan; DAI Chun-fang; CHEN Wen-jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal lead and cadmium exposure will not only influence the mother's organ systems,but also will provide an environment that may influence the fetus and neonate in a harmful way.In the present study,we detected the blood lead levels (BLLS) and cadmium levels for the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery and to analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.Methods A cohort study survey was carried out.We recruited 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnancy or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes as the gravida group,and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group.Results The lead concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and in the postpartum period were:(5.98±2.43),(5.54±2.01),(5.59±1.97),and (6.76±1.74) μg/dl; and (6.75±2.13) μg/dl in the control group.The cadmium concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum period were 1.61±0.45,1.63±0.46,1.64±0.49,and 1.67±0.57.We found that the BLLs in the gravida group were lower than in the control group during all three trimesters.Occupations,supplement nutritional elements (dietary supplements and nutritional (food) elements),and the time of house painting could affect BLLs in pregnant women.Lead-related occupations,using cosmetics,and living in a house painted more recently than one year previously are risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women,while calcium,iron,zinc,and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusions These findings may help people,especially pregnant women,to reduce lead exposure via supplements of calcium,iron,zinc,and milk or avoiding contacting risk factors.

  19. Ethylglucuronide in Maternal Hair as a Biomarker of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F.; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D.; Bakhireva, Ludmila N.

    2015-01-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair might allow for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers (gamma glutamyltranspeptidase [GGT], carbohydrate-deficient transferrin [%dCDT],...

  20. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... follow-up. We extracted from medical records additional information on febrile seizures in children in the Aarhus Birth Cohort who were born between 1989 and 1992. RESULTS: We found a slightly increased risk for febrile seizures in children who were exposed to 10 or more cigarettes per day in the Aarhus...

  1. Integrating a Nurse-Midwife-Led Oral Health Intervention Into CenteringPregnancy Prenatal Care: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sally H; Gregorich, Steven E; Rising, Sharon S; Hutchison, Margaret; Chung, Lisa H

    2017-07-01

    National and professional organizations recommend oral health promotion in prenatal care to improve women's oral health. However, few prenatal programs include education about oral health promotion. The objective of this study was to determine if women receiving a brief, low-cost, and sustainable educational intervention entitled CenteringPregnancy Oral Health Promotion had clinically improved oral health compared to women receiving standard CenteringPregnancy care. Women attending CenteringPregnancy, a group prenatal care model, at 4 health centers in the San Francisco Bay Area, participated in this nonrandomized controlled pilot study in 2010 to 2011. The intervention arm received the CenteringPregnancy Oral Health Promotion intervention consisting of two 15-minute skills-based educational modules addressing maternal and infant oral health, each module presented in a separate CenteringPregnancy prenatal care session. The present analysis focused on the maternal module that included facilitated discussions and skills-building activities including proper tooth brushing. The control arm received standard CenteringPregnancy prenatal care. Dental examinations and questionnaires were administered prior to and approximately 9 weeks postintervention. Primary outcomes included the Plaque Index, percent bleeding on probing, and percent of gingival pocket depths 4 mm or greater. Secondary outcomes were self-reported oral health knowledge, attitudes (importance and self-efficacy), and behaviors (tooth brushing and flossing). Regression models tested whether pre to post changes in outcomes differed between the intervention versus the control arms. One hundred and one women participated in the study; 49 were in the intervention arm, and 52 were in the control arm. The control and intervention arms did not vary significantly at baseline. Significant pre to post differences were noted between the arms with significant improvements in the intervention arm for the Plaque Index

  2. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Meintjes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.

  3. Risks and guidelines for the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    not been consistently associated with short and long term adverse outcomes. Health authorities in most countries recommend that pregnant women completely abstain from alcohol. Even so, many health professionals including doctors, midwives and nurses do not provide information to pregnant women...... in accordance with the official recommendations, although a large proportion of women of child bearing age and pregnant women drink alcohol, especially before recognition of pregnancy. The discrepancy between guidelines and the information practice of health personnel is likely to continue to exist because...... guidelines of abstinence are not clearly evidence-based and not in line with current focus on autonomy and informed choice for patients, and because guidelines do not consider the everyday clinical communication situation....

  4. The impact of Centering Pregnancy Group Prenatal Care on postpartum family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Nathan; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of group prenatal care (GPNC) on postpartum family-planning utilization. A retrospective cohort of women continuously enrolled in Medicaid for 12 months (n = 3637) was used to examine differences in postpartum family-planning service utilization among women participating in GPNC (n = 570) and those receiving individual prenatal care (IPNC; n = 3067). Propensity scoring methods were used to derive a matched cohort for additional analysis of selected outcomes. Utilization of postpartum family-planning services was higher among women participating in GPNC than among women receiving IPNC at 4 points in time: 3 (7.72% vs 5.15%, P planning visits were highest among non-Hispanic black women at each interval, peaking with 31.84% by 12 months postpartum. After propensity score matching, positive associations between GPNC and postpartum family-planning service utilization remained consistent by 6 (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.92), 9 (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.90), and 12 (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.90) months postpartum. These findings demonstrate the potential that GPNC has to positively influence women's health outcomes after pregnancy and to improve the utilization rate of preventive health services. Utilization of postpartum family-planning services was highest among non-Hispanic black women, further supporting evidence of the impact of GPNC in reducing health disparities. However, despite continuous Medicaid enrollment, postpartum utilization of family-planning services remained low among all women, regardless of the type of prenatal care they received. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Congenital hydrocephalus - prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and outcome of pregnancy in four European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe prevalence, prenatal diagnosis and outcome for fetuses and infants with congenital hydrocephalus. METHODS: Data were taken from four European registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). The registries included are based on multiple sources of information and include...... information about livebirths, fetal deaths with GA>/=20weeks and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (TOPFA). All cases from the four registries diagnosed with congenital hydrocephalus and born in the period 1996-2003 were included in the study. Cases with hydrocephalus associated with neural tube...... defects were not included in the study. RESULTS: Eighty-seven cases with congenital hydrocephalus were identified during the study period giving an overall prevalence of 4.65 per 10,000 births. There were 41 livebirths (47%), four fetal deaths (5%) and 42 TOPFA (48%). Nine percent of all cases were from...

  6. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Rodents As a Promising Model for the Study of ADHD Molecular Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.; Padilla-Velarde, Edgar; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A physiological parallelism, or even a causal effect relationship, can be deducted from the analysis of the main characteristics of the “Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders” (ARND), derived from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and the behavioral performance in the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These two clinically distinct disease entities, exhibits many common features. They affect neurological shared pathways, and also related neurotransmitter systems. We briefly review here these parallelisms, with their common and uncommon characteristics, and with an emphasis in the subjacent molecular mechanisms of the behavioral manifestations, that lead us to propose that PAE in rats can be considered as a suitable model for the study of ADHD. PMID:28018163

  7. Neuronal reduction in frontal cortex of primates after prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mark W; Palmour, Roberta M; Ervin, Frank R; Ptito, Maurice

    2009-01-07

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) show behavioral and intellectual impairments that indicate frontal lobe dysfunction, but the extent of damage to this region has not been clarified by brain imaging studies. This study uses the St Kitts vervet monkey, a species that voluntarily consumes beverage alcohol, to examine the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant vervets were allowed to drink the equivalent of 3-5 standard drinks four times a week during the third trimester. Using unbiased stereology, we estimated neuronal reduction and found significantly fewer cells in the frontal lobes of FASD offspring as well as an increased density of interstitial white matter neurons. These cytoarchitectonic effects are consistent with the behavioral and cognitive changes observed in FASD.

  8. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior in Children With Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adaptive behavior, the ability to respond successfully to everyday demands, may be especially sensitive to the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. Similar adaptive dysfunction is common in other developmental disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is frequently present in alcohol-exposed children and this overlap in clinical presentation makes identification of alcohol-exposed children difficult. Direct comparison of children with prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD may yield distinct patterns of cognitive and behavioral performance and add to growing knowledge of the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to compare adaptive behavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD), and typically developing controls (CON). Methods Sixty-five children (ALC = 22, ADHD = 23, CON = 20) were selected from a larger ongoing study of the behavioral teratogenicity of alcohol. Alcohol-exposed and control participants were selected to match the ADHD subjects on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. Caregivers were administered the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a semi-structured interview, and were asked to rate their child’s behavior on 3 domains of adaptive function. Data were analyzed using regression techniques. Results Relative to controls, children in both the ALC and ADHD groups showed adaptive behavior deficits on all 3 domains and children in the ALC group were significantly more impaired than the ADHD group on the daily living skills domain. Within the ALC group, socialization standard scores were lower at older ages. This negative relationship between age and standard scores in the ALC group was also observed on the communication domain, a finding not previously reported. Conclusions This study suggests that both children with prenatal alcohol exposure and

  10. Primary prevention of hemoglobinopathies by prenatal diagnosis and selective pregnancy termination in a Muslim country: Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suha Mustafa Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies (HBP are the most common genetic disorder in Oman and are in need of prevention programs due to the high incidence of β-thalassemia major and sickle cell disease. Prenatal diagnosis (PD and selective pregnancy termination is shown to be the most effective prevention tool for the control of HBP. However, PD is not available in Oman thus far because abortion is subject to religious, cultural and ethical issues. We have examined the attitude of a number of Omani HBP carrier couples towards prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion. We have interviewed 35 couples at risk visiting the main premarital clinic in Muscat between Jan 2011 and Jan 2012. Couples were interviewed using a pre-structured questionnaire. The majority would have accepted prenatal diagnosis (94% if the service would be available in the country but pregnancy termination was greatly influenced by religious values. 血红蛋白病(HBP)是一种在阿曼最常见的遗传性疾病,由于其高发的B型地中海贫血症及镰状细胞症,相关的预防措施对于这一国家来说,相当重要。产前诊断(PD)和选择性终止妊娠被证实是针对管控血红蛋白病(HBP)的最有效方法。然而,由于受到宗教、文化和伦理抵制堕胎的影响,产前诊断(PD)并不能在该国得以应用。我们对该国一部分血红蛋白病患夫妇做了一项关于产前诊断的意向调查。2011年一月至2012年一月,我们在马斯喀特(阿曼首都)的一家婚前诊所对35对夫妇做了相关的采访调查。调查的问卷是事先设置好的。大部分(94%)夫妇表示接受产前诊断如果相应的措施能得到广泛的普及,但是他们对于选择性终止妊娠的态度受到了其宗教价值观的极大影响。

  11. Pregnancy outcomes in prenatally diagnosed 47, XXX and 47, XYY syndromes: a 30-year French, retrospective, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchy, Nicolas; Blondeel, Eleonore; Le Meur, Nathalie; Joly-Hélas, Géraldine; Chambon, Pascal; Till, Marianne; Herbaux, Martine; Vigouroux-Castera, Adeline; Coussement, Aurélie; Lespinasse, James; Amblard, Florence; Jimenez Pocquet, Mélanie; Lebel-Roy, Camille; Carré-Pigeon, Frédérique; Flori, Elisabeth; Mugneret, Francine; Jaillard, Sylvie; Yardin, Catherine; Harbuz, Radu; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Vago, Philippe; Valduga, Mylène; Leporrier, Nathalie; Vialard, François

    2016-06-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies are frequently detected fortuitously in a prenatal diagnosis. Most cases of 47, XXX and 47, XYY syndromes are diagnosed in this context, and parents are thus faced with an unexpected situation. The objective of the present study was to characterize a French cohort of prenatally diagnosed cases of 47, XXX and 47, XYY and to evaluate the termination of pregnancy (TOP) rate before and after France's implementation of multidisciplinary centres for prenatal diagnosis in 1997. This retrospective study identified respectively 291 and 175 cases of prenatally diagnosed 47, XXX and 47, XYY between 1976 and 2012. For each case, the indication, maternal age, karyotype and outcome were recorded. Most diagnoses of the two conditions were fortuitous. The occurrence of 47, XXX was associated with advanced maternal age. The overall TOP rate was higher for 47, XXX (22.9%) than for 47, XYY (14.6%), although this difference was not statistically significant. However, the TOP rates fell significantly after 1997 (from 41.1% to 11.8% for 47, XXX and from 25.8% to 6.7% for 47, XYY). The TOP rates after prenatal diagnoses of 47, XXX and 47, XYY fell significantly after 1997, following France's implementation of multidisciplinary centres for prenatal diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....

  13. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.; Burger, H.; Verbeek, T.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxie

  14. The epidemiology of alcohol utilization during pregnancy: an analysis of the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (MES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Farah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy may potentially constitute a major public health concern in Canada but despite this, the available epidemiological data on both rates and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is limited. The present study assessed the prevalence and predictors of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy of women living in Canada from 2005-2006 who had a singleton live birth and whose child remained in their care 5-9 months following birth. Prevalence of maternal alcohol consumption was examined across the Canadian provinces. Methods The analysis was based on the Maternity Experience Survey (MES, a population-based survey that assessed pregnancy, delivery and postnatal experiences of mothers and their children between November 2005 and May 2006. The main outcome variable assessed was ever drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The sample of mothers who drank during pregnancy consisted mainly of low to moderate level-alcohol drinkers (95.8%, while only 1.7% of the sample were heavy drinkers (>1 drink per day. Socio-economic factors, demographic factors, maternal characteristics, and pregnancy related factors that proved to be significant at the bivariate level were considered for a logistic regression analysis. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design. Results Analysis of 5882 mothers, weighted to represent 72,767 Canadian women, found that 10.8% of women drank alcohol at some point during their pregnancies. This mainly reflects prevalence of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption. Prevalence of drinking alcohol during pregnancy was 13.8% in Eastern-Central provinces, 7.8% in Western Provinces-British Columbia, 4.1% in Eastern-Atlantic provinces and 4.0% in Western-Prairie Provinces. Utilizing alcohol during gestation was significantly associated with several important factors including marital status, smoking status, reaction to the pregnancy and

  15. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Diagnosis of Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Setting With No Systematic Screening in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Tijana; Bobic, Branko; Klun, Ivana; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Srbljanovic, Jelena; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2016-03-01

    To determine the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) and provide early (pre- or postnatal) identification of cases of CT in the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy.I n the presented cross-sectional study, serological criteria were used to date Toxoplasma gondii infection versus conception in 80 pregnant women with fetal abnormalities or referred to as suspected of acute infection, and in 16 women after delivery of symptomatic neonates. A combination of serological, molecular (qPCR), and biological (bioassay) methods was used for prenatal and/or postnatal diagnosis of CT. Most (77.5%) pregnant women were examined in advanced pregnancy. Of all the examined seropositive women (n = 90), infection could not be ruled out to have occurred during pregnancy in 93.3%, of which the majority (69%) was dated to the periconceptual period. CT was diagnosed in 25 cases, of which 17 prenatally and 8 postnatally. Molecular diagnosis proved superior, but the diagnosis of CT based on bioassay in 7 instances and by Western blot in 2 neonates shows that other methods remain indispensable. In the absence of systematic screening in pregnancy, maternal infection is often diagnosed late, or even only when fetal/neonatal infection is suspected. In such situations, use of a complex algorithm involving a combination of serological, biological, and molecular methods allows for prenatal and/or early postnatal diagnosis of CT, but lacks the preventive capacity provided by early maternal treatment.

  16. Prenatal diet, nutrient intake and pregnancy outcome in urban Ecuadorian primiparas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M M; Nárváez, W M; López, A; Félix, C; López, P

    1991-03-01

    A nutritional survey was conducted in an urban public maternity hospital, Hospital Gineco-Obstétrico Isidro Ayora (HGOIA), located in Quito, Ecuador. Seventy-four primiparas in the third trimester of pregnancy were recruited to assess the influence of sociedemographic factors on food patterns and nutrient intake, and the interrelationship between prenatal nutrient intake, maternal weight gain and pregnancy outcome. Results of the regression analysis indicated that maternal education was the factor most strongly associated with nutrient intake, followed by monthly per capita income. Maternal nutrient intake was next analyzed and compared with the WHO (1974, 1985) and NRC (1980) recommended daily allowances. Results also indicated the average daily intake of energy, protein, phosphorus, vitamins C and A, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin met or exceeded the recommended daily allowances. Dietary calcium and iron intake, however, were below recommendations. Sodium and fat intake were both relatively high. Higher dietary fat intake was associated with increased birth weight, while lower protein intake was associated with increased risk of delivering a low-birth weight baby. Maternal weight gain during the third trimester predicted baby birth weight and height but not head circumference.

  17. Prenatal management, pregnancy and pediatric outcomes in fetuses with septated cystic hygroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Y. Sanhal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that, compared with simple increased nuchal translucency, fetal cases with septated cystic hygroma (CH are more likely to face perinatal handicaps. However, pediatric outcomes and proper prenatal counseling for this anomaly have not yet been truly defined. We performed this study to determine pregnancy and pediatric outcomes of fetuses with septated CH. We searched records for cases with septated CH and collected data for structural abnormalities, karyotype analysis, and pregnancy outcomes. Fetuses born with septated CH were also evaluated for their pediatric outcomes. Sixty-nine fetuses with septated CH were enrolled in the study. Results showed that chromosomal abnormalities were present in 28 fetuses (40.6%, and the most common aneuploidy was Turner syndrome (n=14, 20.3%; 16 (23.2% of the remaining cases, in which aneuploidy was not found, had coexistent structural malformations; 25 (36.2% cases had normal karyotype and morphology. The total number of live births and infants with unfavorable neurologic follow-up were 13 (18.8% and 2 (2.9%, respectively. Septated CH is associated with poor perinatal outcomes; therefore, karyotype analysis and ultrasonographic anomaly screening should be performed as initial steps, and expectant management should be offered to couples with euploid fetuses that have normal morphology.

  18. Oral-systemic health during pregnancy: exploring prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and behavioral skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Walsh, Margaret L; Thompson, Erika; Daley, Ellen M; Detman, Linda; DeBate, Rita

    2015-06-01

    Pregnancy is identified as a sensitive period of increased risk for poor oral health among mothers and offspring. Subsequently, both medical and dental associations have re-endorsed consolidated, inter-professional guidelines promoting oral health during pregnancy. The objective was to explore prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and practice behaviors related to oral health during pregnancy. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with prenatal and oral health providers based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method in NVivo 10. Providers held variable knowledge with regards to identified oral-systemic connections and implications. Most providers were unaware of the guidelines; however, some oral health providers reported avoiding specific treatment behaviors during this period. Motivation to address oral-systemic health during pregnancy included: prevention; healthy pregnancy/birth outcomes; patient's complaint/question as cue to action; comprehensive, patient-centered, and family-centered care; ethical duty; and professional governing body. Oral health providers reported assessing, educating, and communicating with patients about oral health issues; whereas prenatal providers rarely addressed oral health but reported signing approval forms to receive such care. A few oral health providers highlighted lifecourse implications and the need for family-centered care when addressing poor oral health among pregnant patients. Findings suggest gaps in oral health prevention information and behaviors among prenatal and oral health providers. Future efforts should examine effective dissemination and implementation strategies that translate evidence-based guidelines into clinical practice, with the ultimate goal of improve oral-systemic health among women and their offspring across the lifecourse.

  19. How to measure prenatal stress? A systematic review of psychometric instruments to assess psychosocial stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, Irina; Bolten, Margarete; Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Hellhammer, Dirk H

    2013-07-01

    A growing body of literature documents associations of maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy with fetal, infant and child behaviour and development. However, findings across studies are often inconsistent, which may in part be due to differences in stress definitions and assessments. We systematically reviewed methods applied to assess maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy in studies looking at associations with biobehavioural outcomes in the offspring. A systematic literature search was performed on Web of Science and PubMed for the time period between January 1999 and October 2009. Psychometric instruments assessing maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy were identified and described if data on psychometric properties were available. We identified 115 publications that assessed psychosocial stress during pregnancy with validated methods. These publications applied overall 43 different instruments assessing constructs falling under seven categories, ordered according to their frequency of use: anxiety, depression, daily hassles, aspects of psychological symptomatology (not reduced to anxiety or depression), life events, specific socio-environmental stressors and stress related to pregnancy and parenting. If available, we provide information on validity and reliability of the instruments for samples of pregnant women. Within the 'prenatal stress' research, a broad range of instruments is applied to assess psychosocial stress during pregnancy. Prenatal stress research should take into consideration that the variety of methods in use might hamper the comparability of stress research results. In each category of stress constructs, one instrument with good psychometric properties in pregnant women is highlighted as the best currently available measure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Alcohol Use During Pregnancy in a South African Community: Reconciling Knowledge, Norms, and Personal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Dennis, Alexis C.; Choi, Karmel W.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Due to high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in South Africa, reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority. The aim of this study was to qualitatively explore knowledge and attitudes about maternal alcohol consumption among women who reported alcohol use during pregnancy. Methods The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were pregnant or within 1 year postpartum and self-reported alcohol use during pregnancy. In-depth interviews explored personal experiences with drinking during pregnancy, community norms and attitudes towards maternal drinking, and knowledge about FASD. Transcripts were analyzed using a content analytic approach, including narrative memos and data display matrices. Results Interviews revealed competing attitudes. Women received anti-drinking messages from several sources, but these sources were not highly valued and the messages often contradicted social norms. Women were largely unfamiliar with FASD, and their knowledge of impacts of fetal alcohol exposure was often inaccurate. Participants' personal experiences influenced their attitudes about the effects of alcohol during pregnancy, which led to internalization of misinformation. The data revealed a moral conflict that confronted women in this setting, leaving women feeling judged, ambivalent, or defensive about their behaviors, and ultimately creating uncertainty about their alcohol use behaviors. Conclusions Data revealed the need to deliver accurate information about the harms of fetal alcohol exposure through sources perceived as trusted and reliable. Individual-level interventions to help women reconcile competing attitudes and identify motivations for reducing alcohol use during pregnancy would be beneficial. PMID:26197733

  1. The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Adolescent Cognitive Processing: A Speed-Accuracy Trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Paul D.; Kerr, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Streissguth, Ann P.; Hunt, Earl; Barr, Helen M.; Bookstein, Fred L.; Thiede, Keith

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of cognitive processing were evaluated for 462 adolescents followed for 14 years. Adolescents had been exposed prenatally to a broad range of maternal drinking, mostly at "social" levels. Alcohol-related deficits on cognitive tasks were summarized by a speed-accuracy trade-off on the spatial-visual reasoning task. (SLD)

  2. An Economic Analysis of Cell-Free DNA Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in the US General Pregnancy Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Benn

    Full Text Available Analyze the economic value of replacing conventional fetal aneuploidy screening approaches with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT in the general pregnancy population.Using decision-analysis modeling, we compared conventional screening to NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA analysis in the annual US pregnancy population. Sensitivity and specificity for fetal aneuploidies, trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and monosomy X, were estimated using published data and modeling of both first- and second trimester screening. Costs were assigned for each prenatal test component and for an affected birth. The overall cost to the healthcare system considered screening costs, the number of aneuploid cases detected, invasive procedures performed, procedure-related euploid losses, and affected pregnancies averted. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of variation in parameters. Costs were reported in 2014 US Dollars.Replacing conventional screening with NIPT would reduce healthcare costs if it can be provided for $744 or less in the general pregnancy population. The most influential variables were timing of screening entry, screening costs, and pregnancy termination rates. Of the 13,176 affected pregnancies undergoing screening, NIPT detected 96.5% (12,717/13,176 of cases, compared with 85.9% (11,314/13,176 by conventional approaches. NIPT reduced invasive procedures by 60.0%, with NIPT and conventional methods resulting in 24,596 and 61,430 invasive procedures, respectively. The number of procedure-related euploid fetal losses was reduced by 73.5% (194/264 in the general screening population.Based on our analysis, universal application of NIPT would increase fetal aneuploidy detection rates and can be economically justified. Offering this testing to all pregnant women is associated with substantial prenatal healthcare benefits.

  3. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2014-02-20

    A recent meta-analysis showed no relationships between light to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), or small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Here, we present the first epidemiological study on this topic in Japan. Study subjects were 1565 Japanese mothers with singleton pregnancies and the babies born from these pregnancies. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was classified into three categories (none, < 1 g/day, and ≥ 1 g/day). The mean birth weight of the babies was 3006.3 g. 7.7% were classified as LBW, 4.0% as PTB, and 7.8% as SGA. The range of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was 0.0 to 11.7 g per day: 1356 (86.7%) mothers were abstainers and the 95th percentile value was 0.84 g per day. Compared with abstinence, alcohol consumption of 1.0 g or more per day during pregnancy was significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB with a significant positive linear trend: the adjusted OR for PTB associated with maternal alcohol consumption of 1.0 g or more per day was 2.58 (95% CI: 1.004 - 5.80, P for trend = 0.03). No significant relationships were observed between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of LBW or SGA, and there was no material association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and birth weight. This is the first study in Japan to show that maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy of 1.0 g or more per day was significantly positively associated with the risk of PTB, but not LBW or SGA.

  4. Dermatosparaxis (Ehlers-Danlos type VIIC): prenatal diagnosis following a previous pregnancy with unexpected skull fractures at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Joyce; Coucke, Paul; Symoens, Sofie; Cohen, Marta C; Pope, F Michael; Wagner, Bart E; Sobey, Glenda; Black, Rebecca; Cilliers, Deirdre

    2013-05-01

    Dermatosparaxis Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (or EDS VIIC), a rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder, is characterized by extreme skin fragility, premature rupture of membranes in pregnancy, and spontaneous rupture of internal organs. Here we report a second patient with EDS VIIC presenting with congenital skull fractures and skin lacerations at birth, complications which may occur more frequently than previously thought in this condition. We also discuss the role of prenatal diagnosis in the management of a subsequent normal pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory

  6. Moderate alcohol exposure compromises neural tube midline development in prenatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Sari, Youssef; Powrozek, Teresa; Goodlett, Charles R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2003-08-12

    We previously reported that fetal alcohol treatment compromised the development of the midline raphe and the serotonin neurons contained in it. In this study, we report that the timely development of midline neural tissue during neural tube formation is sensitive to alcohol exposure. Pregnant dams were treated from embryonic day 7 (E7, prior to neurulation) or E8.5 (at neurulation) with the following diets: (a) alcohol (ALC), given as either a 20% or 25% ethanol-derived calorie (EDC) liquid diet, or (b) isocaloric liquid diet pair-fed (PF), or (c) standard rat chow (Chow). Fetal brains from each group were examined on E13, E15, or E18. Neural tube development was compromised as a result of alcohol exposure in the following ways: (1) approximately 60% of embryos at E13 and 20% at E15 showed perforation of the floor plate in the diencephalic vesicle, (2) although completely closed at E13, 70-80% of embryos failed to complete the formation of neural tissue at the roof as the alcohol exposure continued to E15, and (3) 60-80% of embryos show delayed 'occlusion' of the ventral canal by newly formed nestin-positive neuroepithelial cells and S100beta-positive glia in the brainstem of E15. The compromised (incomplete) neural tube midline (cNTM) occurred near the ventricles at E13 and E15, but was later completed at E18. In all cases, the cNTM was accompanied by an enlarged ventricle, and dose-dependent brain weight reduction. The midline of the neural tube at the roof and floor plates is known to mediate timely trophic induction for neural differentiation. Prenatal midline deficits also have the potential to affect the development of midline neurons such as raphe, septal nuclei, and the timely crossing of commissural fibers. The results of the liquid diet alcohol exposure paradigm suggest it is more a model for Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) featuring neuropsychiatric disorders than for full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with noticeable facial

  7. Prenatal Stress as a Modifier of Associations between Phthalate Exposure and Reproductive Development: results from a Multicentre Pregnancy Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Parlett, Lauren E; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Redmon, J Bruce; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Swan, Shanna H

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal phthalate exposure is associated with altered male reproductive tract development, and in particular, shorter anogenital distance (AGD). AGD, a sexually dimorphic index of prenatal androgen exposure, may also be altered by prenatal stress. How these exposures interact to impact AGD is unknown. Here, we examine the extent to which associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and infant AGD are modified by prenatal exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Phthalate metabolites [including those of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and their molar sum (ΣDEHP)] were measured in first trimester urine from 738 pregnant women participating in The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES). Women completed questionnaires on SLEs, and permitted infant AGD measurements at birth. Subjects were classified as 'lower' and 'higher' stress (0 first trimester SLEs vs. 1+).We estimated relationships between phthalate concentrations and AGD (by infant sex and stress group) using adjusted multiple regression interaction models. In the lower stress group, first trimester ΣDEHP was inversely associated with two measures of male AGD: anoscrotal distance (AGD-AS; β = -1.78; 95% CI -2.97, -0.59) and anopenile distance (AGD-AP; β = -1.61; 95% CI -3.01, -0.22). By contrast, associations in the higher stress group were mostly positive and non-significant in male infants. No associations were observed in girls. Associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and altered genital development were only apparent in sons of mothers who reported no SLEs during pregnancy. Prenatal stress and phthalates may interact to shape fetal development in ways that have not been previously explored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided.

  9. An evaluation of social skills in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, C; Becker, M; McLennan, J; Urichuk, L; Andrew, G

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine social skills deficits among children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) who were both referred to a respite programme. Thirty-seven children with PAE and 23 non-exposed children (aged 3 to 8 years) were evaluated on the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) by their caregivers and respite workers. As compared with the non-exposed children, those with PAE showed more deficits on caregiver ratings of responsibility, hyperactivity, internalizing problems and overall social skills, as well as respite worker ratings of hyperactivity. The social skills among the PAE group were not related to home placement variables. Among both groups, caregivers rated social skills lower than respite workers, and among the PAE group, girls tended to display more social skills deficits than boys. The SSRS is useful in identifying unique social skills deficits among children with PAE. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  11. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  12. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  13. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ...

  14. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  15. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  16. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (psmoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  17. Effect of prenatal counselling on compliance and outcomes of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersal, F A; Esmat, O M; Khalil, G M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of prenatal counselling on compliance for health promotion and pregnancy outcomes we conducted an experimental randomized control study on a sample of 86 teenage pregnant women attending the maternal and child health centre in Elkhosos village, Egypt. Data were collected pre-counselling, post-counselling and after delivery. At the post test, women in the study (counselling) group showed statistically significantly greater knowledge and compliance of health promotion (P < 0.001) than women in the control group. In the study group, 90.7% were full term at labour compared with 41.9% in the control group; 88.4% of the women in the study group had normal vaginal delivery compared with 76.7% of those in the control group. The health condition in 90.7% of the study group neonates was classified as good compared with only 46.5% in the control group. Only 9.3% of the study group babies had low birth weight compared with 32.6% of the control group babies (P = 0.008).

  18. Exploring the associations between intimate partner violence victimization during pregnancy and delayed entry into prenatal care: Evidence from a population-based study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Jahirul; Broidy, Lisa; Baird, Kathleen; Mazerolle, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy can have serious health consequences for mothers and newborns. The aim of the study is to explore: 1) the influence of experiencing IPV during pregnancy on delayed entry into prenatal care; and 2) whether women's decision-making autonomy and the support for traditional gender roles act to mediate or moderate the relationship between IPV and delayed entry into prenatal care. cross-sectional survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were estimated that control for various socio-demographic and pregnancy related factors to assess whether women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to delay entry into prenatal care compared with women who had not experienced IPV. The influence of traditional gender roles acceptance and decision-making autonomy were examined both as independent variables and in interaction with IPV, to assess their role as potential mediators or moderators. Chandpur district, Bangladesh. the sample comprised of 426 Bangladeshi women, aged 15-49 years. Postpartum mothers who visited vaccinations centres to receive their children's vaccinations constitute the sampling frame. almost 70% of the women surveyed reported patterns consistent with delayed entry into prenatal care. Accounting for the influence of other covariates, women who experienced physical IPV during pregnancy were 2.61 times more likely (95% CI [1.33, 5.09]) to have delayed entry into prenatal care than their counterparts who did not report physical IPV. Neither sexual nor psychological IPV victimization during pregnancy was linked with late entry into prenatal care. Both gender role attitudes and levels of autonomy mediate the effect of IPV on prenatal care. the results suggest that the high rates of IPV in Bangladesh have effects that can compromise women's health seeking behaviour during pregnancy, putting them and their developing fetus at risk. Specifically, Bangladeshi women who experience physical IPV during

  19. Prenatal exposure to vanilla or alcohol induces crawling after these odors in the neonate rat: The role of mu and kappa opioid receptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Aranda-Fernández, P Ezequiel; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Rat fetuses can perceive chemosensory stimuli derived from their mother's diet, and they may learn about those stimuli. In previous studies we have observed that prenatal exposure to alcohol during the last days of gestation increases the acceptance and liking of an alcohol flavor in infant and adolescent rats. While these results were not found after prenatal exposure to vanilla, cineole or anise, suggesting that the pharmacological properties of alcohol, mediated by the opioid system, underlie the effects observed with this drug. Considering that other studies report enhanced acceptance of non-alcohol flavors experienced prenatally when subjects were tested before infancy, we explore the possibility of observing similar results if testing 1-day old rats exposed prenatally to vanilla. Using an "odor-induced crawling" testing procedure, it was observed that neonates exposed prenatally to vanilla or alcohol crawl for a longer distance towards the experienced odor than to other odors or than control pups. Blocking mu, but not kappa opioid receptors, reduced the attraction of vanilla odor to neonates exposed to vanilla in utero, while the response to alcohol in pups exposed prenatally to this drug was affected by both antagonists. Results confirm that exposure to a non-alcohol odor enhances postnatal responses to it, observable soon after birth, while also suggesting that the mu opioid receptor system plays an important role in generating this effect. The results also imply that with alcohol exposure, the prenatal opioid system is wholly involved, which could explain the longer retention of the enhanced attraction to alcohol following prenatal experience with the drug.

  20. Prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: impact of counseling patterns on parental perceptions and decisions regarding termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton-Kamm, Debra; Chang, Ruey-Kang; Sklansky, Mark

    2012-12-01

    An online survey for parents of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) was developed to study parents' experiences at the time of diagnosis. The survey was distributed to online support groups. A total of 841 responses from parents of children with CHD were received during a 4-week period. The current study examined those respondents (211 [25 %]) who reported their child's diagnosis as hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Among these, 138 (65 %) reported receiving the diagnosis prenatally. 32 % of those receiving a prenatal diagnosis reported that after they declined to terminate the pregnancy, termination was mentioned again by their physicians. Parents who had termination mentioned again after their initial decline reported significantly lower optimism regarding their child's life expectancy than those who did not have it mentioned again (66 vs. 94 %, p parents, when termination of pregnancy was mentioned after the parents declined it, or if the parents felt pressure to terminate, the parents perceived a lower chance of survival, felt less optimistic about their child's life expectancy, and were more likely to choose another PC for long-term follow-up care. Our study could not determine whether repeated discussions of the possibility for termination of pregnancy independently impacts parental optimism regarding prognosis or whether those who counsel with repeated discussions of termination tend to have more guarded notions of the prognosis of children with HLHS. Further study is warranted to identify the implications of counseling patterns on parental perceptions and decisions regarding termination of pregnancy.

  1. [Prenatal alcohol exposure as an etiological factor in neuropsychiatric diseases of childhood, adolescence and adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Sergio Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    In Argentina, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an almost neglected condition as an important etiological factor for the induction of a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric diseases that may appear during childhood, adolescence or adulthood. Children born to alcoholic mothers may show a spectrum of diseases ranging from an apparent normality to a profound mental retardation, passing through epilepsy, attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity, autism and pervasive developmental disorders, and different types of learning disorders. When adolescents, they may develop different kinds of personality disorders and substance abuse disorders. Finally, in adulthood, they may suffer from different types of affective and psychotic disorders, among others. A great number of those children may not develop their full mental and social potentiality as free individuals. They usually have diverse types of cognitive, attentional, mnemonic and affective impairments. Not infrequently, they engage in antisocial behaviors, have school or work troubles. In this work, I review the present clinical classifications of the disorders emerging from a PAE and the several neuropsychiatric diseases that can be induced by them, in order to call attention to the Argentinian neuropsychiatric community about the increasingly, although underdiagnosed, frequency of these disorders in our country.

  2. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  3. Placental Fatty Acid ethyl esters are elevated with maternal alcohol use in pregnancies complicated by prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Theresa W; Mohan, Sowmya S; Gross, Teresa S; Harris, Frank L; Guidot, David M; Brown, Lou Ann S

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium of term newborns has been described as one potential biomarker of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. FAEEs accumulate in multiple alcohol-exposed fetal tissues and in the placenta. Limited research has focused on the identification of the premature newborn exposed to alcohol in utero. We hypothesized that maternal alcohol use occurs in a significant proportion of premature deliveries and that this exposure can be detected as elevated placental FAEEs. The goals of this study were to 1) determine the prevalence of maternal alcohol use in the premature newborn and 2) investigate whether placental FAEEs could identify those newborns with fetal alcohol exposure. This prospective observational study evaluated 80 placentas from 80 women after premature delivery. Subjects were interviewed for alcohol intake and placental FAEEs were quantified via GC/MS. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) Curves were generated to evaluate the ability of placental FAEEs to predict maternal drinking during pregnancy. Adjusted ROC curves were generated to adjust for gestational age, maternal smoking, and illicit drug use. 30% of the subjects admitted to drinking alcohol during pregnancy and approximately 14% answered questions indicative of problem drinking (designated AUDIT+). The specific FAEEs ethyl stearate and linoleate, as well as combinations of oleate + linoleate + linolenate (OLL) and of OLL + stearate, were significantly (p<0.05) elevated in placentas from AUDIT+ pregnancies. Adjusted ROC Curves generated areas under the curve ranging from 88-93% with negative predictive values of 97% for AUDIT+ pregnancies. We conclude that nearly one third of premature pregnancies were alcohol-exposed, and that elevated placental FAEEs hold great promise to accurately determine maternal alcohol use, particularly heavy use, in pregnancies complicated by premature delivery.

  4. Placental Fatty Acid ethyl esters are elevated with maternal alcohol use in pregnancies complicated by prematurity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa W Gauthier

    Full Text Available The accumulation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs in meconium of term newborns has been described as one potential biomarker of maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. FAEEs accumulate in multiple alcohol-exposed fetal tissues and in the placenta. Limited research has focused on the identification of the premature newborn exposed to alcohol in utero. We hypothesized that maternal alcohol use occurs in a significant proportion of premature deliveries and that this exposure can be detected as elevated placental FAEEs. The goals of this study were to 1 determine the prevalence of maternal alcohol use in the premature newborn and 2 investigate whether placental FAEEs could identify those newborns with fetal alcohol exposure. This prospective observational study evaluated 80 placentas from 80 women after premature delivery. Subjects were interviewed for alcohol intake and placental FAEEs were quantified via GC/MS. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC Curves were generated to evaluate the ability of placental FAEEs to predict maternal drinking during pregnancy. Adjusted ROC curves were generated to adjust for gestational age, maternal smoking, and illicit drug use. 30% of the subjects admitted to drinking alcohol during pregnancy and approximately 14% answered questions indicative of problem drinking (designated AUDIT+. The specific FAEEs ethyl stearate and linoleate, as well as combinations of oleate + linoleate + linolenate (OLL and of OLL + stearate, were significantly (p<0.05 elevated in placentas from AUDIT+ pregnancies. Adjusted ROC Curves generated areas under the curve ranging from 88-93% with negative predictive values of 97% for AUDIT+ pregnancies. We conclude that nearly one third of premature pregnancies were alcohol-exposed, and that elevated placental FAEEs hold great promise to accurately determine maternal alcohol use, particularly heavy use, in pregnancies complicated by premature delivery.

  5. Alcohol consumption and other maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol syndrome among three distinct samples of women before, during, and after pregnancy: the risk is relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Gossage, J Phillip; White-Country, Mary; Goodhart, Karen; Decoteau, Sara; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Kalberg, Wendy O; Viljoen, Denis L; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2004-05-15

    Data were obtained from three samples of women of childbearing age. One sample of women is from prenatal clinics serving Plains Indian women. The second sample is of women from the Plains whose children were referred to special diagnostic developmental clinics, as their children were believed to have developmental issues consistent with prenatal alcohol consumption. The third sample is of women from South Africa, each of whom has given birth to a child diagnosed with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Data across samples conform to expected trends on many variables. For example, the maternal age at time of pregnancy, a major risk factor for FAS, ranged from a mean of 23.5 years for the prenatal clinic sample, to 23.8 years for the developmental clinic sample, to 27.6 for the sample of women who have delivered children with FAS. Other variables of maternal risk for FAS expected from the extant literature, such as high gravidity and parity, binge drinking, heavy intergenerational drinking in the mother's extended family and immediate social network, and length of drinking career, were compared across the three samples with variable results. However, normative measures of drinking problems are unreliable when reported across cultures. An unexpected finding from this three-sample comparison was the differential risk found when comparing U.S. women to South African women. Women in the U.S. Plains Indian samples report a high consumption of alcohol in a binge pattern of drinking, yet there is less detectable damage to the fetus than among the South African women. Body mass index (BMI) and lifelong and current nutrition may have a substantial impact, along with the above factors, in relative risk for an FAS birth. The level of risk for producing a child with FAS is influenced by environmental and behavioral conditions that vary between populations and among individual women. Also, because many syndromes are genetically based, there is a need for full behavioral and

  6. Depressive symptoms and gestational length among pregnant adolescents: Cluster randomized control trial of CenteringPregnancy® plus group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Epel, Elissa; Lewis, Jessica B; Cunningham, Shayna D; Tobin, Jonathan N; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Thomas, Melanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-06-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with preterm birth among adults. Pregnant adolescents have high rates of depressive symptoms and low rates of treatment; however, few interventions have targeted this vulnerable group. Objectives are to: (a) examine impact of CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care on perinatal depressive symptoms compared to individual prenatal care; and (b) determine effects of depressive symptoms on gestational age and preterm birth among pregnant adolescents. This cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 community health centers and hospitals in New York City. Clinical sites were randomized to receive standard individual prenatal care (n = 7) or CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care (n = 7). Pregnant adolescents (ages 14-21, N = 1,135) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale during pregnancy (second and third trimesters) and postpartum (6 and 12 months). Gestational age was obtained from medical records, based on ultrasound dating. Intention to treat analyses were used to examine objectives. Adolescents at clinical sites randomized to CenteringPregnancy® Plus experienced greater reductions in perinatal depressive symptoms compared to those at clinical sites randomized to individual care (p = .003). Increased depressive symptoms from second to third pregnancy trimester were associated with shorter gestational age at delivery and preterm birth (prenatal care may be an effective nonpharmacological option for reducing depressive symptoms among perinatal adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  8. Prenatal Care: Third Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the third trimester, prenatal care might include vaginal exams to check the baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  9. Prenatal Care: Second Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week During the second trimester, prenatal care includes routine lab tests and measurements of your ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art- ...

  10. Drinking or Not Drinking in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating associations between prenatal exposure to low-moderate doses of alcohol and mental health development in childhood are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to compare women who drink and who do not drink alcohol in pregnancy on a number of potential confounding...

  11. Stressful Events and Continued Smoking and Continued Alcohol Consumption during Mid-Pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.; Ormel, J.; Meijer, J. L.; Verbeek, T.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Burger, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  12. Stressful events and continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  13. Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

    This booklet is the first in a series of publications designed to provide parents with useful information about childrearing. Contents are organized into three parts. Part I focuses on the pregnancy, prenatal care, development of the baby, pregnant lifestyles, nutrition, common discomforts, and problems of pregnancy. Part II provides information…

  14. Health-related quality of life of Canadian children and youth prenatally exposed to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungar Wendy J

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, the incidence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD has been estimated to be 1 in 100 live births. Caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol, FASD is the leading cause of neuro-developmental disabilities among Canadian children, and youth. Objective: To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQL of Canadian children and youth diagnosed with FASD. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study design was used. One-hundred and twenty-six (126 children and youth diagnosed with FASD, aged 8 to 21 years, living in urban and rural communities throughout Canada participated in the study. Participants completed the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3. HUI3 measures eight health attributes: vision, hearing, speech, ambulation, dexterity, emotion, cognition, and pain. Utilities were used to measure a single cardinal value between 0 and 1.0 (0 = all-worst health state; 1 = perfect health to reflect the global HRQL for that child. Mean HRQL scores and range of scores of children and youth with FASD were calculated. A one-sample t-test was used to compare mean HRQL scores of children and youth with FASD to those from the Canadian population. Results Mean HRQL score of children and youth with FASD was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.42 to 0.52 as compared to a mean score of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.94 in those from the general Canadian population (p Conclusion Children and youth with FASD have significantly lower HRQL than children and youth from the general Canadian population. This finding has significant implications for practice, policy development, and research.

  15. Neurocircuitry underlying stress and emotional regulation in animals prenatally exposed to alcohol and subjected to chronic mild stress in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlis eRaineki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals exposed to alcohol during gestation show higher rates of psychopathologies. The hyperresponsivity to stress induced by prenatal alcohol exposure may be related to this increased rate of psychopathologies, especially because this population is more likely to be exposed to stressful environments throughout life. However, alcohol-induced changes in the overlapping neurocircuitries that underlie stress and the expression of psychopathologies are not fully understood. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the neural activity within central areas known to play key roles in both emotional and stress regulation. Adult male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control conditions were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS. Following CMS, the neural activity (c-fos mRNA of the amygdala, ventral hippocampal formation, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN was assessed in response to an acute stress (elevated plus maze. Our results demonstrate that, overall, PAE decreased neural activity within the amygdala and hippocampal formation in males and increased neural activity within the amygdala and mPFC in females. CMS reduced neural activity within the mPFC and PVN in PAE males, but reduced activity in all areas analyzed in control males. By contrast, CMS reduced neural activity in the mPFC in PAE females and had no effects in control females. Furthermore, the constrained principal component analysis revealed that these patterns of neural activity resulted in differential activation of functional neural networks in males compared to females, indicating sexually dimorphic effects of PAE and CMS. Importantly, the altered networks of brain activation in PAE animals may underlie the hyperresponsivity to stress and increased psychopathologies observed among individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol.

  16. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies with treatment of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in a single center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, YueQiu; Gao, Ya; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to report the performance of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies after the treatment of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Method: In two years period, 565 pregnant women with ART twin pregnancies were prospectively tested by NIPT......-test counseling. Results: In total of 565 cases, NIPT had a failure rate of 0.9% (5/565). Four cases of T21 were identified by NIPT and confirmed by karyotyping, resulting in 100% (95%CI 39.8%-100%) positive predictive value. Among 556 cases with NIPT negative results, 506 cases (91.0%) were confirmed by follow......-up of postnatal phenotypes, while 33 cases (5.9%) had adverse pregnant outcomes with unconfirmed reasons because of the lack of cytogenetic samples. The remaining 17 cases (3.1%) refused follow-up. No false negative result was reported. Conclusion: With apparently high positive predictive value and low false...

  17. Healthy Pregnancies. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A woman's behaviors during pregnancy can have a significant influence on her baby's healthy development. Women who smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy, go without prenatal care or suffer from poor nutrition are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy or childbirth, and their babies are at increased risk for developing a number…

  18. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care During Pregnancy Print ... both moms and their babies. Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

  19. Medical Care during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care During Pregnancy A ... both moms and their babies. Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

  20. Timing of prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events and adverse pregnancy outcomes: A population study of 2.6 million pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; D'Onofrio, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify the impact of timing of prenatal stress exposure on offspring risk for shortened gestational age (GA), preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) using a population-based sample. Methods Swedish longitudinal population registries were linked to study all individuals born in Sweden 1973–2004. Prenatal maternal stress exposure was defined as death of the father of the child or first degree relative of the mother. Using linear and logistic regression, timing of stress exposure was examined across pregnancy, by month, and by novel periods created based on month of stress exposure findings. Results A total of 2,618,777 live-born, singleton infants without congenital anomalies were included; 32,286 exposed to prenatal maternal stress. Examining associations between stress exposure and outcome by the month revealed that risk increases mid-gestation, particularly following months 5 and 6. Combining months 1–4, 5 and 6, and 7–9 as potential periods of differing vulnerability, it was found that stress during period 2 (months 5 and 6) was associated with the greatest risk for shortened GA (−0.52 days, SE=0.15, p=0.0006), PTB (OR=1.24, 99% CI=1.08–1.42), LBW (OR=1.38, 99% CI=1.19–1.61), and SGA (OR=1.25, 99% CI=1.05–1.49). Conclusions Risk for shortened GA, PTB, LBW, and SGA are greater following stress exposure during the 5th and/or 6th month of pregnancy. It may be beneficial to refine future analyses to these months. Possible mechanisms include alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated stress-responsive molecular regulators. PMID:21321257

  1. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  2. Differences in pregnancy outcomes, prenatal care utilization, and maternal complications between teenagers and adult women in Korea: A nationwide epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyung; Lee, Seung Mi; Lim, Nam Gu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Sung-Hee; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Un-Na; Lee, Jin Yong; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Teenage mothers are at high risk for maternal and neonatal complications. This study aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic circumstances of teenage pregnancy, and determine whether these increased risks remained after adjustment for socioeconomic circumstances in Korea. Using the National Health Insurance Corporation database, we selected women who terminated pregnancy, by delivery or abortion, from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Abortion, delivery type, and maternal complications were defined based on the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision. We compared teenagers (13-19 years at the time of pregnancy termination) with other age groups and investigated differences based on socioeconomic status, reflected by Medical Aid (MA) and National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries. We used multivariate analysis to define the factors associated with preterm delivery. Among 463,847 pregnancies, 2267 (0.49%) involved teenagers. Teenage mothers were more likely to have an abortion (33.4%) than deliver a baby when compared with other age groups (20.8%; P prenatal care throughout pregnancy. Among teenage mothers, 61.7% of MA recipients made fewer than 4 prenatal care visits (vs 38.8% of NHI beneficiaries) (P inadequate prenatal care and subsequently of preterm delivery, which remained significantly higher after adjusting for socioeconomic confounding variables and adequacy of prenatal care in Korean teenagers (P < 0.001).

  3. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  4. The impact of sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In Poland there are 900 cases of full-blown foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in neonates per year, and in 9000 children there are some symptoms of it. Aim of the research : To analyse the impact of sensory integration (SI therapy on gross motor skills function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 20 children aged 4–5 years with information from an interview about prenatal exposure to alcohol. The diagnosis of sensory integration disorder consisted of two 60-minute diagnostics meetings. Twelve trials with clinical observations were performed by Ayres: finger to nose, cocontraction, prone extension posture, flexed position supine, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATOS, symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STOS, muscle tension, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, gravitational insecurity, and trunk stabilisation. The therapeutic program included: normalisation of the vestibular and proprioceptive system, normalisation of the touch system, strengthening muscle tension, development of motion planning, development of oculomotor performance, development of motor coordination, hand therapy, integration of ATOS, STOS, development of locomotion and balance functions, and improving efficiency of gross and small motor skills. Results and conclusions : High efficiency of SI therapy has been shown in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol on the example of gross motor skills. Positive effects of SI therapy have been shown for tests: finger to nose, in the erect position on the stomach, the flexural position on the back, ATOS, STOS, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, and the uncertainty of gravity and trunk stabilisation. Only cocontraction and muscle tension tests showed no efficacy of SI therapy. The a-Cronbach position analysis showed high reliability of the performed tests both before and after the therapy. It is advisable to continue the study on a

  5. Prenatal diagnostic procedures used in pregnancies with congenital malformations in 14 regions of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garne, E; Loane, M; de Vigan, C; Scarano, G; de Walle, H; Gillerot, Y; Stoll, C; Addor, MC; Stone, D; Gener, B; Feijoo, M; Mosquera-Tenreiro, C; Gatt, M; Queisser-Luft, A; Baena, N; Dolk, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate outcomes of ultrasound investigations (US) and invasive diagnostic procedures in cases of congenital malformations (CM), and to compare the use of invasive prenatal test techniques (amniocentesis (AC) versus chorionic villus sampling (CVS)) among European populations. Design

  6. Anthropometric and Health-Related Behavioral Factors in the Explanation of Social Inequalities in Low Birth Weight in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pfinder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.59, 4.86 and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24. Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  7. Anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors in the explanation of social inequalities in low birth weight in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfinder, Manuela

    2014-01-08

    There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW) in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59, 4.86) and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24). Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  8. Effects of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicountry analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Anamaale Tuoyire, Derek

    2016-12-01

    We analysed the extent of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and how they predict optimal use of prenatal (timing and number of antenatal) care services in 30 African countries. We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 African countries between 2006 and 2015. We described the extent of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and further used mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression estimation techniques to examine the impacts of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services. In total, 73.65% of pregnancies in all countries were planned. Mistimed pregnancy ranged from 7.43% in Burkina Faso to 41.33% in Namibia. Unwanted pregnancies were most common in Swaziland (39.54%) and least common in Niger (0.74%). Timely (first trimester) initiation of ANC was 37% overall in all countries; the multicountry average number of ANC visits was optimal [4.1; 95% CI: 4.1-4.2] but with notable disparities between countries. Overall, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies were strongly associated with late ANC attendance and fewer visits women made in the pooled analysis. Unintended pregnancies are critical risks to achieving improved maternal health in respect of early and optimal ANC coverage for women in Africa. Programmes targeted at advancing coverage of ANC in Africa need to deploy contextually appropriate mechanisms to prevent unintended pregnancies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A prospective cohort study of alcohol exposure in early and late pregnancy within an urban population in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2014-02-01

    Most studies of alcohol consumption in pregnancy have looked at one time point only, often relying on recall. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether alcohol consumption changes in early and late pregnancy and whether this affects perinatal outcomes. We performed a prospective cohort study, conducted from November 2010 to December 2011 at a teaching hospital in the Republic of Ireland. Of the 907 women with a singleton pregnancy who booked for antenatal care and delivered at the hospital, 185 (20%) abstained from alcohol in the first trimester but drank in the third trimester, 105 (12%) consumed alcohol in the first and third trimesters, and the remaining 617 (68%) consumed no alcohol in pregnancy. Factors associated with continuing to drink in pregnancy included older maternal age (30-39 years), Irish nationality, private healthcare, smoking, and a history of illicit drug use. Compared to pre-pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy was markedly reduced, with the majority of drinkers consuming ≤ 5 units per week (92% in first trimester, 72-75% in third trimester). Perhaps because of this, perinatal outcomes were similar for non-drinkers, women who abstained from alcohol in the first trimester, and women who drank in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. Most women moderate their alcohol consumption in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, and have perinatal outcomes similar to those who abstain.

  10. Adequate prenatal care reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with history of infertility: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibekova, Raushan; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. A retrospective cohort study. Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83), 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18), and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12) higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs) compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility.

  11. Adequate prenatal care reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with history of infertility: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raushan Alibekova

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. RESULTS: Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24, 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18, and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12 higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility.

  12. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  13. [Analysis of prenatal follow-up strategies for trisomy 21 affected pregnancies in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, J-M; Simon-Bouy, B; Zebina, A; Pessione, F; Royère, D; Doco-Fenzy, M

    2017-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to screen the prenatal follow-up of women with live birth trisomy 21 child in order to evaluate the proportion of prenatal screening failure versus cases where the women refused either the screening or the prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. This study covers the period of time from 2009 to 2012 when the national prenatal screening policy changed from second to first trimester and allows for a comparative assessment of the nationwide efficiency of the various maternal serum marker based strategies. All authorized cytogenetic laboratories sent required data for all cases of trisomy 21 diagnosed in FRANCE in new-borns (less than 1-year-old) from January 2010 to July 2013. A total of 1253 cases of trisomy 21 were diagnosed before 1 year of age whose mother did not had prenatal diagnosis. For 861 of them, information on the prenatal follow-up was available, with 72% of cases where a prenatal screening was organized either by maternal serum marker or by ultrasound. Results of the screening strategy was positive with maternal serum marker in 28% of cases (calculated risk≥1/250), positive because of abnormal ultrasound in 5% and negative with maternal marker screening (whatever the strategy used) in 67% of cases. Detection rate over the period of the study was 82%, with similar efficiency of first and second trimester strategies (83%) but significantly lower with sequential association of first trimester Nuchal translucency measurement and second trimester serum screening (70%). Switching from second trimester to first trimester screening strategy, with as many trisomy 21 foetuses diagnosed with half invasive procedures fulfilled national health policy objectives. Analysis of these data gives useful insights to elaborate a future screening policy involving cell-free foetal DNA sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on child’s general intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Underbjerg, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Falgreen Eriksen H, Underbjerg M, Kilburn T, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Mortensen E. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children. BJOG 2012;119:1222-1231. Objective  To examine the effects of binge alcohol...... consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1617 women and their children...... sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods  Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental...

  15. Prenatal alcohol exposure modifies glucocorticoid receptor subcellular distribution in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs frontal cortex-dependent learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Allan

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice.

  16. Avaliação do Consumo de Bebida Alcoólica Durante a Gravidez Evaluation of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleika de Oliveira Lima Kaup

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar o consumo de bebida alcoólica durante a gravidez, quanto ao tipo, quantidade ingerida, ao conhecimento dos riscos do consumo e seu rastreamento durante a assistência pré-natal. Método: foram entrevistadas 445 puérperas de uma maternidade de São Paulo, de janeiro a maio de 1999. A análise dos dados foi realizada usando os testes t de Student e não-paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. Resultados: das gestantes entrevistadas 66,3% não consumiram bebida alcoólica, 17,8% consumiram durante toda a gravidez e 15,9% consumiram até a confirmação da gravidez que ocorreu em média com 9,6 semanas; 98,7% das gestantes consumiram nos finais de semana e/ou em festas e 1,3% diariamente. A média ingerida foi 14,74 gramas/ocasião nas que consumiram durante toda a gravidez e 25,83 gramas/ocasião nas que fizeram até a confirmação, havendo diferença estatística entre os índices médios nos dois grupos. O consumo médio por ocasião foi classificado como moderado. A bebida mais consumida foi a cerveja (64,0%. Quanto aos riscos de consumo, 71,5% acreditam que faça mal ao concepto e 15,5%, à própria saúde. O rastreamento do consumo foi referido por 48,8% das mulheres. Conclusão: quantidade significativa de mulheres consumiu bebida alcoólica em algum período da gestação, mesmo tendo conhecimento dos danos para o concepto. O pré-natal não tem sido utilizado como momento oportuno para o rastreamento do consumo de bebida alcoólica e o incentivo ao abandono do mesmo.Purpose: to check alcohol consumption during pregnancy regarding type of drink, amount ingested, awareness of alcohol consumption risk, and tracking its consumption during prenatal care. Methods: interview of 445 women who had just given birth in a maternity hospital from January to May, 1999. The data analysis was performed using Student's t test and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Results: of the women interviewed, 66.3% did not consume alcohol, 17

  17. The impact of national prenatal screening on the time of diagnosis and outcome of pregnancies affected with common trisomies, a cohort study in the Northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Katelijne; Bakker, Marian K.; Birnie, Erwin; ter Beek, Lies; Bilardo, Caterina M.; van Langen, Irene M.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the impact of the introduction of prenatal screening on time of detection and pregnancy outcome for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18) and trisomy 13 (T13). Methods: We performed a retrospective, population-based cohort study in the Northern Netherlands including 503 trisomy

  18. The impact of national prenatal screening on the time of diagnosis and outcome of pregnancies affected with common trisomies, a cohort study in the Northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Katelijne; Bakker, Marian K.; Birnie, Erwin; ter Beek, Lies; Bilardo, Caterina M.; van Langen, Irene M.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the impact of the introduction of prenatal screening on time of detection and pregnancy outcome for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18) and trisomy 13 (T13). Methods: We performed a retrospective, population-based cohort study in the Northern Netherlands including 503 trisomy

  19. The Role of Trust in CenteringPregnancy : Building Interpersonal Trust Relationships in Group-Based Prenatal Care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kweekel, L.; Gerrits, T.; Rijnders, M.; Brown, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background CenteringPregnancy (CP) is a specific model of group-based prenatal care for women, implemented in 44 midwifery practices in The Netherlands since 2011. Women have evaluated CP positively, especially in terms of social support, and improvements have been made in birthweight and preterm-bi

  20. Prenatal Evaluation of MicroRNA Expressions in Pregnancies with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biray Erturk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, the data available on the utility of miRNAs in noninvasive prenatal testing is insufficient in the literature. We evaluated the expression levels of 14 miRNAs located on chromosome 21 in maternal plasma and their utility in noninvasive prenatal testing of Down Syndrome. Method. A total of 56 patients underwent invasive prenatal testing; 23 cases were carrying Down Syndrome affected fetuses, and 33 control cases carrying unaffected, normal karyotype fetuses were included for comparison. Indications for invasive prenatal testing were advanced maternal age, increased risk of Down Syndrome in screening tests, and abnormal finding in the sonographic examination. In both the study and control groups, all the pregnant women were at 17th and 18th week of gestation. miRNA expression levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR. Results. Significantly increased maternal plasma levels of miR-3156 and miR-99a were found in the women carrying a fetus with Down Syndrome. Conclusion. Our results provide a basis for multicenter studies with larger sample groups and microRNA profiles, particularly with the microRNAs which were found to be variably expressed in our study. Through this clinical research, the utility of microRNAs in noninvasive prenatal testing can be better explored in future studies.

  1. Effects of prenatal yoga on women's stress and immune function across pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Yang, Luke; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Li, Chia-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of prenatal yoga on biological indicators have not been widely studied. Thus, we compared changes in stress and immunity salivary biomarkers from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation between women receiving prenatal yoga and those receiving routine prenatal care. For this longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial, we recruited 94 healthy pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation through convenience sampling from a prenatal clinic in Taipei. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=48) or control (n=46) groups using Clinstat block randomization. The 20-week intervention comprised two weekly 70-min yoga sessions led by a midwife certified as a yoga instructor; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A levels were collected before and after yoga every 4 weeks from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation. The intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (pyoga than the control group. Specifically, the intervention group had significantly higher long-term salivary immunoglobulin A levels than the control group (p=0.018), and infants born to women in the intervention group weighed more than those born to the control group (pyoga significantly reduced pregnant women's stress and enhanced their immune function. Clinicians should learn the mechanisms of yoga and its effects on pregnant women. Our findings can guide clinicians to help pregnant women alleviate their stress and enhance their immune function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Pregnancy Outcome following Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosomal Anomaly: A Record Linkage Study of 26,261 Pregnancies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Cooper, Sally-Ann; McGowan, Ruth; Nelson, Scott M; Pell, Jill P

    2016-01-01

    ... and terminated with chromosomal anomalies. However, we are unaware of any population studies examining pregnancy terminations after diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies that has included all aneuploidies and the influence of maternal factors...

  3. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use and rates of quitting during pregnancy: is it hard to quit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazici AB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmet Bulent Yazici,1 Hilal Uslu Yuvaci,2 Esra Yazici,3 Ebru Halimoglu Caliskan,4 Arif Serhan Cevrioglu,2 Atila Erol3 1Department of Psychiatry, Training and Research Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 3Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey Background: Alcohol and substance use is a major health challenge in Turkey, as it is worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in the number of females using substances and although usage tends to reduce during pregnancy, it is of critical importance to determine its exact level as substance use negatively impacts on the health of both the mother and infant.  Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking, alcohol, and substance use, and quitting rates during pregnancy.  Method: This study was conducted on pregnant females in Sakarya, Turkey. A total of 1,082 consecutively presenting females who agreed to participate in the study were evaluated. The study team prepared a sociodemographic data form and adapted the “Introduction” section, derived from the Addiction Profile Index, to cover substance use during pregnancy. Results: The substances most frequently used by pregnant females in their previous pregnancies and current pregnancies were cigarettes/tobacco products (11% and 11.8%, respectively, alcohol (0.6% and 0.4%, respectively, and rarely, synthetic cannabinoids (0.3% and 0.2%, respectively. Daily tobacco smokers continued to smoke during pregnancy, with a rate of 42.5%. Based on research into predictors of smoking (cigarettes in pregnancy, a correlation was found between lifetime smoking and smoking during a previous pregnancy. A similar link was found with respect to alcohol. Conclusion: Cigarettes are the most frequently used substance in pregnancy, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and synthetic

  4. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  5. Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort…

  6. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-03-22

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26-34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0-110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health.

  7. Ethylglucuronide in the urine as a marker of alcohol consumption during pregnancy: Comparison with four alcohol screening questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraguti, Giampiero; Ciolli, Paola; Carito, Valentina; Battagliese, Gemma; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ciafrè, Stefania; Tirassa, Paola; Ciccarelli, Rosaria; Cipriani, Alessia; Messina, Marisa Patrizia; Fiore, Marco; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2017-06-05

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is an ethanol metabolite and EtG is used as a biomarker of alcohol drinking. EtG can be detected in the blood and in several biological matrices including urine, hair and nails. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a strong risk factor for fetus health so in the recent years different strategies to reveal alcohol use have been planning including the use of screening questionnaires as the AUDIT-C, T-ACE and TWEAK. The present study aims to investigate in pregnant women the specificity and predictive value of the AUDIT-C, T-ACE and TWEAK plus a food diary in use in Sapienza University Hospital compared with the results of urine EtG measurement. Seventy pregnant women were enrolled and examined. Urine samples were provided by pregnant women immediately after the interviews. EtG determinations were performed by Enzyme Immunoassay with a cut-off established at 100ng/mL. Data show that 34.28% of the enrolled pregnant women overcame the EtG cut off. No direct correlation was found between EtG data and the alcohol screening interviews showing lower levels of alcohol consumption, although T-ACE revealed the same at risk percentage. However, a significant concordance was observed with food diary data and T-ACE only in patients with higher EtG urinary concentration. This study provides clinical evidence that the diagnosis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy only based on indirect methods, such as questionnaires and food diary, may significantly underestimate alcohol use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on the prenatal toxicity of toluene in rabbits following inhalation exposure and proposal of a pregnancy guidance value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimisch, H.J.; Hellwig, J. (BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany). Abt. fuer Toxikologie); Hofmann, A. (Merck (E.), Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie)

    1992-07-01

    Prenatal toxicity of toluene was determined in two separate studies by inhalation exposure of Himalayan rabbits. In the first study 15 artificially inseminated females per group were exposed to 30, 100, or 300 ppm and in the second study 20 artificially inseminated females per group inhaled 100 or 500 ppm. In each case the rabbits were exposed for 6 hours per day from day 6 post-insemination (p.i.) to day 18 p.i. The respective controls inhaled conditioned clean air under the same exposure conditions. No signs of maternal toxicity were observed. All data obtained on gestational parameters were found to be within the variation range reported for this rabbit strain. The fetal external, soft tissue and skeletal findings, were seen in toluene exposed fetuses in a frequency similar to the corresponding and/or historical controls. Differences observed between the groups were not concentration dependent and were considered incidental rather than compound related. Therefore, toluene was not embryotoxic, fetotoxic, or teratogenic for rabbits exposed during the period of organogenesis. The highest concentration tested under these conditions (500 ppm) was found to be a no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both the adult and the fetal Himalayan rabbit. Based on these and previous results of animal studies of prenatal toxicity, a safety or uncertainty factor approach is considered for setting limits of exposure for women at workplaces. A pregnancy guidance value of 20 ppm is proposed. (orig.).

  9. Positive prenatal well-being: conceptualising and measuring mindfulness and gratitude in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Leary, Karen; Dockray, Samantha; Hammond, Sean

    2016-08-01

    Little research has examined the usefulness of positive well-being factors during pregnancy. Recent mindfulness research demonstrates that inconsistencies and the suitability of extant measures have yet to be examined in pregnancy. Effects of gratitude during pregnancy have yet to be examined despite consistently reported benefits in non-pregnant groups. The aims of this paper were to develop the Gratitude during Pregnancy (GDP) scale, validate the Mindfulness Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS) and examine the importance of gratitude and mindfulness during pregnancy. In study 1, 375 pregnant women completed gratitude and mindfulness measures. The one-factor structure of the MAAS was retained and demonstrated good reliability α = 0.88. Using exploratory factor analysis, an 18-item GDP scale was developed, demonstrating good reliability α = 0.89. The four GDP factors are as follows: general gratitude, physical changes, antenatal care and social support. In study 2, 87 pregnant women completed well-being questionnaires, including the GDP and MAAS. Gratitude correlated with positive affect, life satisfaction and pregnancy uplifts (p mindfulness correlated negatively with negative affect and pregnancy hassles (p mindfulness and gratitude and provide a reliable means to measure both constructs during pregnancy.

  10. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure, adaptive function, and entry into adult roles in a prospective study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n =5 9) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy and risk of oral clefts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorente, C; Cordier, S; Goujard, J; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; De Walle, HEK; Knill-Jones, R

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between maternal tobacco and alcohol consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy and oral clefts. Methods. Data were derived from a European multicenter case-control study including 161 infants with oral clefts and 1134 control infants. Result

  13. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Infant Social, Mental, and Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carole Williams; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Croninger, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant social problem associated with developmental difficulties in young children. Child developmental and behavioral characteristics were examined from the 9-month data point of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies-Birth Cohort, a prospective nationally representative study. Several…

  14. Self-reported alcohol intake in pregnancy: comparison between four methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, U; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess the agreement between four different measures of alcohol intake in pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING Danish speaking pregnant women referred to the Midwife Centre in Aarhus, Denmark, for routine antenatal care were contacted at their first visit at approximately 15–16 weeks...

  15. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Infant Social, Mental, and Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carole Williams; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Croninger, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant social problem associated with developmental difficulties in young children. Child developmental and behavioral characteristics were examined from the 9-month data point of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies-Birth Cohort, a prospective nationally representative study. Several…

  16. The Association between Prenatal Yoga and the Administration of Ritodrine Hydrochloride during Pregnancy: An Adjunct Study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Kawanishi

    Full Text Available While the beneficial effects of prenatal yoga have been reported in recent years, little is known about its effectiveness in pregnant Japanese women. Despite several adverse effects, ritodrine hydrochloride is frequently prescribed to suppress preterm labor in Japan, and its usage may therefore indicate cases of preterm labor. This study aimed to clarify the association between prenatal yoga and ritodrine hydrochloride use during pregnancy.An observational study was conducted as an adjunct study by the Hokkaido unit of the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Information on prenatal yoga practice was collected using a self-questionnaire between March 21, 2012, and July 7, 2015, targeting women who had recently delivered. Ritodrine hydrochloride use was identified from medical records. A total of 2,692 women were analyzed using logistic regression models that adjusted for possible confounders.There were 567 (21.1% women who practiced prenatal yoga, which was associated with a lower risk of ritodrine hydrochloride use (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.77; 95% CI 0.61-0.98. This was especially evident in women with a total practice duration that exceeded 900 minutes throughout their pregnancy (adjusted OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.38-0.76. A sensitivity analysis that excluded patients with threatened abortion during the study period produced similar results.Prenatal yoga was associated with a lower risk of ritodrine hydrochloride use, particularly in women with more than 900 minutes of practice time over the course of their pregnancy. Prenatal yoga may be a beneficial option for pregnant women in the selection of alternative therapies.

  17. PS-313 An Inquiry Into Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy In The Netherlands (2007–2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, C.I.; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with several adverse outcomes for the developing child, of which fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most well-known. In The Netherlands it is recommended not to drink any alcohol while pregnant. Our objective was to describe the

  18. The association of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking with child neuropsychological functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Kjærsgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Denny, Clark H.

    2015-01-01

    alcohol consumption before pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children atFive (TEACh-5), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). The Behaviour Rating Inventory......Objective: To examine the effects of pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking on child neuropsychological functioning. Design: Prospective follow-up study. Setting and population: 154 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods: Participants were sampled based on maternal...... on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the TEACh-5, theMABC, and the BRIEF. Results: Intake of 15–21 drinks/week on average prior to pregnancy was not associated with any of the outcomes, but intake of ≥22 drinks/week on average was associated with a significantly lower adjusted mean...

  19. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Dantas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls’. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19, although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36 and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46 a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03. Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  20. Chapter 5 The impact of alcohol misclassification on the relationship between alcohol and pregnancy outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Underreporting, more than overreporting, is a problem in studies of the effects of alcohol consumption using selfreported data. Numerical examples illustrate that in studies of the effect of alcohol, nondifferential misclassification of alcohol consumption due to underreporting may lead to a bias aw

  1. Prenatal exposure of a girl with autism spectrum disorder to 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense herbal remedy and alcohol: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Salcedo Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder in which the interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences are thought to play a causal role. In humans, throughout embryonic and fetal life, brain development is exquisitely susceptible to injury caused by exposure to toxic chemicals present in the environment. Although the use of herbal supplements during pregnancy is relatively common, little information is available on their association with fetal neurodevelopment. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report in the literature to associate a new plausible mechanism of neurodevelopmental toxicity with a case of autism spectrum disorder through a vitamin deficiency potentiated by concomitant use of herbal supplements and ethanol exposure. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a three-year-old Caucasian girl with an autism spectrum disorder. We utilized her pediatric environmental history to evaluate constitutional, genetic, and environmental factors pertinent to manifestation of neurodevelopment disorders. Both parents reported prenatal exposure to several risk factors of interest. A year prior to conception the mother began a weight loss diet and ingested 1200 mg/day of 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense herbal remedies containing thiaminase, an enzyme that with long-term use can lead to vitamin deficiency. The mother reported a significant weight loss during the pregnancy and a deficiency of B-complex vitamins. Thiamine (vitamin B1 deficiency could have been potentiated by the horsetail's thiaminase activity and ethanol exposure during pregnancy. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and careful pediatric environmental history, which includes daily intake, herbal remedies and ethanol exposure, should be obtained from all patients with autism spectrum disorder. Maternal consumption of ethanol and of herbal supplements with suspected or

  2. Prenatal Testing: Is It Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Prenatal testing, including screening and diagnostic tests, can provide valuable information about your baby's ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-testing/art- ...

  3. Prenatal listening to songs composed for pregnancy and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwebube, Chineze; Glover, Vivette; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-05-08

    Prenatal anxiety and depression are distressing for the expectant mother and can have adverse effects on her fetus and subsequently, her child. This study aimed to determine whether listening to specially composed songs would be an effective intervention for reducing symptoms of prenatal anxiety and depression. Pregnant women were recruited online and randomly assigned to one of two groups: the music group (daily listening to specially composed songs) or control group (daily relaxation) for 12 weeks each. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of State and Trait anxiety (Spielberger) and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)). Trait anxiety was measured as the primary outcome, while State anxiety and depression were the secondary outcomes. 111 participants were randomised to each group. 20 participants in the intervention group and 16 participants in the active control group completed the study. The music group demonstrated lower Trait Anxiety (p = .0001) (effect size 0.80), State Anxiety (p = .02) (effect size 0.64), and EPDS (p = .002) (effect size 0.92) scores at week 12 compared to baseline, by paired t test. There were no such changes in the control group. Though this pilot study had high levels of attrition, the results do suggest that regular listening to relaxing music should be explored further as an effective non-pharmacological means for reducing prenatal anxiety and depression. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02776293 LV-001. Registered 17 May 2016. Retrospectively registered.

  4. Physicians' Knowledge of Alcohol, Tobacco and Folic Acid in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, L. G.; Ordean, A.; Midmer, D.; Kahan, M.; Tolomiczenko, G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess: (1) physicians' knowledge and clinical confidence regarding problematic substance use in pregnancy compared to folic acid, and (2) physicians' desire for education in this area and their preferred learning modalities tools. Design: Self-administered survey. Setting: "Family Medicine Forum 2004" in Toronto, Canada.…

  5. Physicians' Knowledge of Alcohol, Tobacco and Folic Acid in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, L. G.; Ordean, A.; Midmer, D.; Kahan, M.; Tolomiczenko, G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess: (1) physicians' knowledge and clinical confidence regarding problematic substance use in pregnancy compared to folic acid, and (2) physicians' desire for education in this area and their preferred learning modalities tools. Design: Self-administered survey. Setting: "Family Medicine Forum 2004" in Toronto, Canada.…

  6. Pregnancy Complications: Cervical Insufficiency and Short Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  7. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: January, 2013 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  8. Pregnancy Complications: Group B Strep Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  9. Healthy Choices: What to Eat during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Body & lifestyle changes Is ...

  10. Isotretinoin and Other Retinoids During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  11. [Oral health and pregnancy: promotion of oral health during the pre-natal training in the Latina province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, F; La Penna, C; Carcione, P; Vestri, A; Polimeni, A; Ottolenghi, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in the Province of Latina, was to verify knowledge, attitudes, and lifestyles in relation to oral health in a sample of pregnant women, assessing their subjective perception of oral health, and highlight prenatal dental prevention need specialist in the area and provide adequate information on the importance of good oral hygiene in order to achieve a better health level both of the mother and the child. The study was conducted on a sample of pregnant women between the 26th and 39th gestational week, in the period from June to October 2009, during the childbirth training courses in the Province of Latina. Each patient was administered a questionnaire for the assessment of oral habits during pregnancy and for the definition of specific knowledge on and perception of themselves and their own oral condition. The survey shows that more than one third of the sample reported visiting a dentist only in case of pain, over half (56.9%) did not undergo any dental visit during the gestational period, only 24 subjects (33.3%) having applied to a dental hygienist for professional oral hygiene and that only 7 out of 72 women had been prescribed a dental checkup by a gynecologist. The study showed that knowledge about dental problems that may arise during pregnancy is insufficient to guarantee a good threshold to oral health care for the mother hence the need to promote information programs, oral health and pregnancy prevention and training in the territory mainly directed to health-care specialists (gynecologists and obstetricians) and to pregnant women.

  12. Prenatal diagnostics in TESA/PESA pregnancies in Denmark 1995-2007: a shift from invasive procedures to nuchal translucency examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Erb, Karin; Humaidan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Evidently, children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are at an increased risk of having sex chromosomal abnormalities. Here we evaluate the change in methods used for prenatal diagnostics in patients having ICSI with epididymal or testicular sperm from the introduction of the pr......Evidently, children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are at an increased risk of having sex chromosomal abnormalities. Here we evaluate the change in methods used for prenatal diagnostics in patients having ICSI with epididymal or testicular sperm from the introduction...... of the procedure in 1995 until December 2007. Four hundred and fifty pregnancies resulted in the birth of 553 children. Of the Danish subpopulation 115 (34.2%) received nuchal translucency examination (NT) and 43 (12.8%) received invasive prenatal diagnostics (IPD). IPD was carried out in 11 out of 23 couples (48...

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  15. Effect of iron content on the tolerability of prenatal multivitamins in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarson Tom R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal irritability can deter pregnant women from starting or continuing prenatal multivitamin supplementation. In a previous study, suboptimal tolerability was observed among pregnant women taking a large tablet (18 mm × 8 mm × 8 mm multivitamin with high elemental iron content (60 mg as ferrous fumarate. The objective of the present study was to compare rates of adherence and reported adverse events among pregnant women who were randomized to commence supplementation with a small-tablet prenatal multivitamin, containing either low or high iron content. Methods Pregnant women who called the Motherisk Program (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto and had not started taking or had discontinued any multivitamin due to adverse events were included in this prospective, randomized, open-label, 2-arm study. Women were randomized to take a small-size (16 mm × 9 mm × 4 mm, low elemental iron content (35 mg as ferrous fumarate multivitamin ('35 mg' group; or a small-size (5 mm radius, 5 mm thickness, high elemental iron content (60 mg as ferrous sulphate multivitamin ('60 mg' group. Follow-up interviews documented pill intake and adverse events. Rates of adherence and adverse events were compared between groups using chi-squared tests and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Results Of 167 randomized women, 92 in the '35 mg' group and 75 in the '60 mg' group were included in the analysis. Despite ideal conditions and regular follow-ups, mean adherence based on pill intake recall, in both groups was approximately 50%. No statistically significant difference was detected in proportions of women who actually started taking either multivitamin. Among those who started, no difference was detected in rates of adherence or reported adverse events. Conclusion The present results suggest that iron content is not a major determinant of adherence to prenatal multivitamins. Combined with our previous study, tablet size may be the more

  16. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Emerenciano, Mariana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08-2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71-2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88-2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  17. Prenatal depressive symptoms and abnormalities of glucose tolerance during pregnancy among Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Karen A; Silveira, Marushka; Pekow, Penelope; Braun, Barry; Manson, JoAnn E; Solomon, Caren G; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively examine the association between maternal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in mid-pregnancy. We evaluated this association among 934 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) women in Western Massachusetts. Depressive symptoms were assessed in early pregnancy using the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Scores ≥13 indicated at least probable minor depression and scores ≥15 indicated probable major depression. AGT and IGT were diagnosed using American Diabetes Association criteria. In early pregnancy, 247 (26.5 %) participants experienced at least minor depression and 163 (17.4 %) experienced major depression. A total of 123 (13.2 %) were classified with AGT and 56 (6.0 %) were classified with IGT. In fully-adjusted models, the odds ratio for AGT associated with minor depression was 1.20 (95 % CI 0.77-1.89) and for major depression was 1.34 (95 % CI 0.81-2.23). The odds ratio for IGT associated with minor depression was 1.22 (95 % CI 0.62-2.40) and for major depression was 1.53 (95 % CI 0.73-3.22). We did not observe an association with continuous screening glucose measures. Findings in this prospective cohort of Hispanic women did not indicate a statistically significant association between minor or major depression in early pregnancy and AGT or screening glucose values in mid-pregnancy. Due to the small number of cases of IGT, our ability to evaluate the association between depression and IGT risk was constrained.

  18. Developmental Trajectories for Visuo-Spatial Attention are Altered by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Longitudinal FMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, P; Nuñez, S C; Narr, K L; Mattson, S N; May, P A; Adnams, C M; Riley, E P; Jones, K L; Kan, E C; Sowell, E R

    2015-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reveals brain activation abnormalities during visuo-spatial attention and working memory among those with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in cross-sectional reports, but little is known about how activation changes over time during development within FASD or typically developing children. We studied 30 controls and 31 individuals with FASD over 2 years (7-14 years at first participation) with a total of 122 scans, as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Despite comparable performance, there were significant group differences in visuo-spatial activation over time bilaterally in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Controls showed an increase in signal intensity in these multiple regions whereas FASD participants showed a decrease in brain activation. Effects were also found in 2 small independent samples from the USA, corroborating the findings from the larger group. Results suggest that the long-lasting effect of prenatal alcohol may impact the maturation of visuo-spatial attention and differentiate those with FASD from controls. Based on this first longitudinal fMRI study in FASD children, our novel findings suggest a possible neural mechanism for attention deficits common among individuals with FASD.

  19. Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  20. Cystic Fibrosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  2. Pregnancy Complications: Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  3. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  4. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  5. Radiation and Pregnancy

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    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  6. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  7. Pregnancy Complications: Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  8. Pregnancy Complications: Salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  10. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  11. Pregnancy week by week

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  12. Getting Fit Before Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  13. Heroin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  14. Prescription Opioids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  15. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  16. Cravings during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  17. Is the Presence of the Father of the Baby during First Prenatal Ultrasound Study Visit Associated with Improved Pregnancy Outcomes in Adolescents and Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, Rina; Kuper-Sassé, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether the presence of the father of the baby (FOB) at the first prenatal ultrasound study (US) visit of pregnant adolescents and young adults (AYA) is a marker for improved pregnancy outcomes. Charts of 400 pregnant AYA aged 14–22 years seen at an academic maternity hospital were assessed retrospectively for support persons brought to prenatal US visits. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between FOB presence and gestational age and birth weight. Of 400 charts with support person recorded, 298 charts with first US visit data, singleton birth, and complete gestational data available were analyzed. FOB was present at 30.2% of visits, while the parent of the mother was present at 34.2% of visits. With FOB present, 3.3% of infants were born preterm (gestational age < 37 weeks) compared with 10.5% of infants with FOB absent (p = 0.04). Patients with FOB present also had significantly earlier gestational age at the first US visit (15 weeks) than those who did not (19 weeks; p = 0.02). For AYA, the presence of FOB at initial prenatal US visits is a predictor of improved pregnancy outcome and likely represents increased support during the pregnancy.

  18. CDC Vital Signs-Alcohol and Pregnancy: Why Take the Risk?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-02

    This podcast is based on the February 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. More than three million women in the U.S. are at risk for exposing their developing baby to alcohol. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause physical, behavioral, and intellectual disabilities that can affect a child’s whole life. Learn what can be done to keep developing babies healthy.  Created: 2/2/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 2/2/2016.

  19. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy by Danish women and their spouses--a potential source of fetal morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D H; Krasilnikoff, P A; Leventhal, J M; Berget, A; Weil, B

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption behavior during pregnancy was examined in a select group of Danish women and their spouses. Five-hundred consecutive women who had uncomplicated pregnancies and delivered full-term babies were interviewed 3+ days postpartum. Information was collected about smoking and drinking behavior of all household members during pregnancy. We found (1) a high percentage of Danish women (70%) and their spouses (80%) consume alcohol during pregnancy, and (2) a significant correlation between maternal and paternal smoking (r = .25, P .0001) and maternal and paternal drinking (r = .35, P .0001). These data suggest that even though the potential dangers of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy have been well publicized, there is still a high percentage of women who participate in such behaviors. There may also exist an important role for the father in affecting these two behaviors and therefore indirectly affecting fetal development.

  20. The impact of micronutrient supplementation in alcohol-exposed pregnancies on information processing skills in Ukrainian infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The role that micronutrients play in ameliorating the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure was explored in a clinical trial conducted in the Ukraine. Cardiac orienting responses during a habituation/dishabituation learning paradigm were obtained from 6-12 month-olds to assess neurodevelop...

  1. Tobacco and alcohol use in the context of adolescent pregnancy and postpartum: a scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls' substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use. © 2014 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Actual and predicted prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the WHO African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Probst, Charlotte; Shield, Kevin; Kraicer-Melamed, Hannah; Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy among the general population in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region, by country. First, a comprehensive systematic literature search was performed to identify all published and unpublished studies. Then, several meta-analyses, assuming a random-effects model, were conducted to estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy among the general population for countries in the WHO African Region with two or more studies available. Lastly, for countries with less than two studies or no known data predictions were obtained using regression modelling. The estimated prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among the general population ranged from 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-2.8%; Equatorial Guinea) to 12.6% (95% CI: 9.9-15.4%; Cameroon) in Central Africa, 3.4% (95% CI: 2.6-4.3%; Seychelles) to 20.5% (95% CI: 16.4-24.7%; Uganda) in Eastern Africa, 5.7% (95% CI: 4.4-7.1%; Botswana) to 14.2% (95% CI: 11.1-17.3%; Namibia) in Southern Africa, 6.6% (95% CI: 5.0-8.3%; Mauritania) to 14.8% (95% CI: 11.6-17.9%; Sierra Leone) in Western Africa, and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.2-5.3%; Algeria) in Northern Africa. The high prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking during pregnancy in some African countries calls for educational campaigns, screening and targeted interventions for women of childbearing age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis of Cantrell's Pentalogy Associated with Agenesis of Left Limb in a Twin Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Yigit; Doger, Emek; Babaoglu, Kadir; Caliskan, Eray; Yucesoy, Gulseren

    2014-01-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare malformation described in the literature. We report a case of pentalogy of Cantrell associated with left limb deficiency in a twin pregnancy. The fetus with multiple anomalies revealed kyphosis, ectopia cordis, and a large defect with protruding liver and bowel loops at 12 weeks and 3 days of gestational age on ultrasound scan. The other fetus was ultrasonographically normal. We diagnosed a case of pentalogy of Cantrell in a twin pregnancy after exclusion of limb body wall complex, body stalk anomaly, and amniotic band syndrome and after delivery of the fetuses. Macroscopic examinations were ectopia cordis, extrusion of the abdominal organs without membranes surrounding, and agenesis of the left limb. PMID:24782934

  4. Unhealthy behaviors during pregnancy : who continues to smoke and consume alcohol, and is treatment of anxiety and depressive symptoms effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigated continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and treatment of anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy using cognitive behavioral therapy. Data from a large prospective population-based cohort study and a randomized controlled trial were used. Regardin

  5. Tobacco and alcohol use in pregnancy in France: The role of migrant status: The nationally representative ELFE study

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine,; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Dufourg, Marie-Noëlle; Van Der Waerden, Judith; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Introduction : Tobacco and alcohol use in pregnancy are modifiable yet frequent risk factors of poor perinatal outcomes. We examined whether characteristics associated with substance use in pregnancy vary between native and migrant women, who often differ in terms of socio-demographic characteristics.Methods : Data come from a nationally representative sample of children born in France in 2011 (ELFE study, n = 18,014). Maternal substance use in pregnancy (tobacco: ≥ 1 ...

  6. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy as risk factors for sudden infant death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell-Naughton, M

    2012-04-01

    A population based case control study was conducted to examine alcohol consumption and maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of SIDS in an Irish population. Each SIDS case (n = 287) was compared with control infants (n = 832) matched for date and place of birth for infants born from 1994 to 2001. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate differences between Cases and Controls establishing Odds Ratio\\'s (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Mothers who smoked were 3 times more likely to have a SIDS Case, and a dose response effect was apparent, with mothers smoking 1-10 cigarettes\\/day OR 2.93 (CI 1.50-5.71), and those smoking > 10 cigarettes\\/day OR 4.36 (CI 2.50-7.61). More Case mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy than Control mothers and, within drinkers, the amount of alcohol consumed was also greater (p < 0.05). A dose response with frequency of drinking was apparent. The adjusted odds ratio for those consuming alcohol in all three trimesters was 3.59 (CI:1.40-9.20). Both of these risk factors are modifiable and need to be incorporated into antenatal education from a SIDS point of view.

  7. Our children are not a diagnosis: the experience of parents who continue their pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 or 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guon, Jennifer; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Farlow, Barbara; Brazg, Tracy; Janvier, Annie

    2014-02-01

    Trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 (T13-18) are associated with high rates of perinatal death and with severe disability among survivors. Prenatal diagnosis (PND) may lead many women to terminate their pregnancy but some women choose to continue their pregnancy. We sent 503 invitations to answer a questionnaire to parents who belong to T13 and 18 internet support groups. Using mixed methods, we asked parents about their prenatal experience, their hopes, the life of their affected child, and their family experience. 332 parents answered questions about 272 children; 128 experienced PND. These parents, despite feeling pressure to terminate (61%) and being told that their baby would likely die before birth (94%), chose to continue the pregnancy. Their reasons included: moral beliefs (68%), child-centered reasons (64%), religious beliefs (48%), parent-centered reasons (28%), and practical reasons (6%). At the time of the diagnosis, most of these parents (80%) hoped to meet their child alive. By the time of birth, 25% chose a plan of full interventions. A choice of interventions at birth was associated with fewer major anomalies (P < 0.05). Parents describe "Special" healthcare providers as those who gave balanced and personalized information, respected their choice, and provided support. Parents make decisions to continue a pregnancy and choose a plan of care for their child according to their beliefs and their child's specific medical condition, respectively. Insights from parents' perspective can better enable healthcare providers to counsel and support families.

  8. Pregnancy outcome after genetic counselling for prenatal diagnosis of unexpected chromosomal anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Maurizio; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Ponchia, Rossella; Petrella, Marilena; Andrisani, Alessandra; Tenconi, Romano

    2006-01-01

    Couples undergoing invasive prenatal diagnosis (PD) are informed and concerned mainly about autosomal trisomies. However, unexpected chromosomal abnormalities (UCA) are a frequent finding at PD. We have analysed the psychological and practical consequences in the couples counselled in our centre because of the identification of foetal UCA at PD. The study was carried out on a sample of 52 couples referred for genetic counselling in the period 1997-2000. The couples underwent a structured interview and two self-report instruments to measure anxiety and psychological characteristics. The couples have been divided into three groups: (1) low risk - without or with negligible risk, (2) mild risk - with mild risk or mild clinical phenotype and (3) sex chromosome anomaly. All couples received the diagnosis of chromosomal anomaly from the obstetrician without any other comments and were referred to our service for genetic counselling. Most couples felt fear (11/17 in the LR group, 5/7 in the MR group and 12/21 in the SCA group), while sadness was lower frequently felt by those parents-to-be in the LR group. Our study suggests that a specific counselling that mentions the possibility of UCA is mandatory before PD, and the cost-benefit estimate of PD should take into account the psychological implications of UCA detection.

  9. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bertrand, J.; Denny, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Kesmodel U, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Skarpness B, Denny C, Mortensen E, the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study Group. The effect of different alcohol drinking patterns in early to mid pregnancy on the child's intelligence, attention, and executive function. BJOG 2012......;119:1180-1190. Objective To conduct a combined analysis of the estimated effects of maternal average weekly alcohol consumption, and any binge drinking, in early to mid pregnancy on general intelligence, attention, and executive function in 5-year-old children. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing...... in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. At age 5 years, the children were tested for general intelligence, attention...

  10. The Effect of Folic Acid Consumption (In Prenatal Care on Blood Pressure Change during Pregnancy in Urban and Rural Health Centers in Eastern Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rasoolpoor-Farzin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Preeclampsia is one of the most threatening problems in pregnancy and potentially is followed by preterm birth, miscarriage, low birth weight and maternal mortality. Folic acid supplementation is commonly prescribed for women in child bearing age to reduce the prevalence of neural tube defects. However, its role in pre-eclampsia and hypertension is not proven and is debatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of folic acid on before pregnancy care on blood pressure in pregnancy. Material and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted as census on all 1939 women referred to receive prenatal care between 2008 and 2013 in rural and urban healthcare centers in Sarab, Bostanabad and Khosroshahr. We compared blood pressure changes in two groups with folic acid consumption and another group, not consuming folic acid. Collected data were filled in the checklist and underwent statistical analysis of descriptive and analytical methods by SPSS 16. Results: The mean age of women in this study was 25.98±5.78 years. Ninety-two percent of mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. The peak period of high blood pressure was reported at weeks 37-35 with 8.2% in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure at week 37-35 and more than 37 weeks with 1.6%. Systolic and diastolic pressure in mothers taking folic acid was significantly lower (P Conclusion: Folic acid intake during pregnancy, as a part of prenatal care, significantly reduces the incidence of hypertension of pregnancy. During this period, folic acid intake can diminish pre-eclampsia and promote maternal and new born health.

  11. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  12. Prenatal Diagnosis of Amniotic Band Syndrome in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy using 3D Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic band syndrome is characterized by a build-up of bands and strings of fibrous tissue that adhere to the fetus and can compress parts of the fetus, thus causing malformations and even limb amputation while the fetus is still in the uterus. The clinical manifestations are extremely variable and their extent may range from a single abnormality, like a constriction ring, to multiple abnormalities. Such abnormalities are generally diagnosed at the end of the first or the beginning of the second trimester using two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS. Three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS in rendering mode allows spatial analysis of the fetus and amniotic band, thus enabling better comprehension of this pathological condition and better counseling for the parents. There has not previously been any evidence to show that 3DUS would be useful in cases of late diagnosis (third trimester of amniotic band syndrome. In the present case, a primigravid woman underwent her second obstetric ultrasound scan in the 34 th week, from which we observed two bands in contact with the right forearm, but with normal movement of this limb and its fingers. 3DUS made it possible to see the spatial relationship of these bands to the fetal body, thereby confirming their adherence to the limb. After the birth, the prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome without limb constriction was confirmed. A surgical procedure was carried out on the third day after birth to excise the bands, and the newborn was then discharged in a good general condition.

  13. Comparison of three prenatal risk scores in a series of low-risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R B; Acheson, L S; Zyzanski, S J

    1988-01-01

    Three prepartum obstetrical risk-scoring methods (Goodwin, Halliday, Hobel) were retrospectively applied to a consecutive series of 795 singleton pregnancies. The study population was low risk overall, with a perinatal mortality rate of 11 per 1000 and a primary cesarean section rate of 9.7%. The predictive ability of the scores was tested for individual outcomes as well as for a "combined measure" designed to group outcomes of clinical interest. Outcome variables examined included labor arrests, need for augmentation of labor, fetal heartrate abnormalities during labor, selection of or transfer to a more intensive level of care, indicated forceps delivery, cesarean section, resuscitation, Apgar scores, permanent injury, and perinatal deaths. Along with expected differences in sensitivity and specificity, there were differences among the three scores in performance as measured by positive and negative predictive value. Goodwin's system performed somewhat better overall. All three systems performed better in multiparous than in primiparous patients, but primiparas experienced more adverse outcomes.

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects progenitor cell numbers in olfactory bulbs and dentate gyrus of vervet monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Mark W; Inyatkin, Alexey; Ptito, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts...... vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) to (1) investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2) determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years......). Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group...

  15. Graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A population-based study in remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Jirikowic, Tracy; Tsang, Tracey W; Watkins, Rochelle E; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have examined graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Graphomotor skills were assessed in 108 predominantly Australian Aboriginal children aged 7.5-9.6 years in remote Western Australia using clinical observations (pencil grasp; writing pressure) and standardised assessment tools (the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting; and the Miller Function and Participation Scales - The Draw-a-Kid Game). Skills were compared between children (i) without PAE, (ii) PAE but not FASD and (iii) FASD. Most children used a transitional pencil grasp and exerted heavy handwriting pressure (83.3% and 30.6% of the cohort). The percentage of letters (M = 62.9%) and words (M = 73.3%) written legibly was low. Children with FASD were more likely than children without PAE to use a cross-thumb grasp (P = 0.027), apply heavy writing pressure (P = 0.036), be unable to write a sentence (P = 0.041) and show poorer word legibility (P = 0.041). There were no significant differences between groups for drawing outcomes, although some children with FASD drew pictures that appeared delayed for their age. There were no significant differences between children without PAE and those with PAE but who were not diagnosed with FASD. Overall, graphomotor skills were poor in this cohort, but children with FASD performed significantly worse than children without PAE. Findings suggest the need for improved occupational therapy services for children in remote regions and evaluation of graphomotor skills in children with PAE. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  16. Long-term genomic and epigenomic dysregulation as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure: a model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan L Kleiber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure leads to a range of behavioural and cognitive impairments, categorized under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs. These disorders are pervasive in Western cultures and represent the most common preventable source of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The genetic and epigenetic etiology of these phenotypes, including those factors that may maintain these phenotypes throughout the lifetime of an affected individual, has become a recent topic of investigation. This review integrates recent data that has progressed our understanding FASD as a continuum of molecular events, beginning with cellular stress response and ending with a long-term ‘footprint’ of epigenetic dysregulation across the genome. It reports on data from multiple ethanol-treatment paradigms in mouse models that identify changes in gene expression that occur with respect to neurodevelopmental timing of exposure and ethanol dose. These studies have identified patterns of genomic alteration that are dependent on the biological processes occurring at the time of ethanol exposure. This review also adds to evidence that epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA regulation may underlie long-term changes to gene expression patterns. These may be initiated by ethanol-induced alterations to DNA and histone methylation, particularly in imprinted regions of the genome, affecting transcription which is further fine-tuned by altered microRNA expression. These processes are likely complex, genome-wide, and interrelated. The proposed model suggests a potential for intervention, given that epigenetic changes are malleable and may be altered by postnatal environment. This review accentuates the value of mouse models in deciphering the molecular etiology of FASD, including those processes that may provide a target for the ammelioration of this common yet entirely preventable disorder.

  17. Long-term Administration of Alcohol in Rats: Effects on Glucagon and Insulin Levels in Sera During Pre-Pregnancy, Pregnancy and Lactation Periods

    OpenAIRE

    ZEYBEK, Birsen; TÜRKMEN, Gülhan

    2002-01-01

    The effects of long-term administration of ethyl alcohol on insulin and glucagon hormone levels during pregnancy and lactation periods of rats were investigated. Female wistar albinos, 200±20 g, were used in this study. The control group consisted of 15 rats, and the experimental group consist of 25 ethyl-alcohol-addicted rats. While 0.9% saline (with sucrose) was to the control group, a 5 g kg perday dose of 20% ethyl alcohol was given to the experimental group. Blood samples were taken fiv...

  18. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the development of white matter volume and change in executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a wide range of deficits in executive function that persist throughout life, but little is known about how changes in brain structure relate to cognition in affected individuals. In the current study, we predicted that the rate of white matter volumetric development would be atypical in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD when compared to typically developing children, and that the rate of change in cognitive function would relate to differential white matter development between groups. Data were available for 103 subjects [49 with FASD, 54 controls, age range 6–17, mean age = 11.83] with 153 total observations. Groups were age-matched. Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and an executive function (EF battery. Using white matter volumes measured bilaterally for frontal and parietal regions and the corpus callosum, change was predicted by modeling the effects of age, intracranial volume, sex, and interactions with exposure status and EF measures. While both groups showed regional increases in white matter volumes and improvement in cognitive performance over time, there were significant effects of exposure status on age-related relationships between white matter increases and EF measures. Specifically, individuals with FASD consistently showed a positive relationship between improved cognitive function and increased white matter volume over time, while no such relationships were seen in controls. These novel results relating improved cognitive function with increased white matter volume in FASD suggest that better cognitive outcomes could be possible for FASD subjects through interventions that enhance white matter plasticity.

  19. Acardiac twin pregnancy: successful intrauterine ablative treatment with alcohol at 14 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, M A; Koc, O; Bodur, H; Erkanli, S; Bagis, T; Usal, D

    2016-01-01

    Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is a serious condition of monochorionic twin pregnancy, occurring in approximately one in 35,000 cases. First trimester treatment of TRAP sequence is controversial with higher incidence of procedure related complications. Present case demonstrates a TRAP sequence that was managed by intrauterine treatment with one-ml 100% pure alcohol injection into the abdominal part of the umbilical artery and obliteration of the acardiac twin at 14 weeks of gestation. Antenatal follow-up was uneventful and elective cesarean section was performed at 39 weeks' gestation. Postnatal outcome of the pump twin was excellent at 30 months after birth. Early second trimester elective ablation by alcohol injection can be an inexpensive, alternative, and reasonable minimal invasive treatment option to prevent fetal loss of pump twin before mid and late second trimester in perinatology centers where intrafetal cord occlusive methods are not available.

  20. Prenatal and childhood growth, and hospitalization for alcohol use disorders in adulthood: the Helsinki birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Lahti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small birth size - an indicator of a sub-optimal prenatal environment - and variation in growth after birth have been associated with non-communicable diseases in later life. We tested whether birth size or growth in childhood associated with the risk of hospital admission for alcohol use disorders (AUDs from early to late adulthood. METHODS: The sample comprised 6544 men and 6050 women born between 1934 and 1944 in Helsinki, Finland. Data on anthropometric measures were extracted from medical records and diagnoses of AUD from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Causes of Death Register covering a 40-year period from 1969 to 2008. RESULTS: Altogether 171 women (2.8% and 657 men (10.0% were diagnosed at a hospital with AUD. After adjusting for major confounders, shorter length at birth, shorter height up to two years of age, and lower weight at two years associated with hospitalization for AUD in women. In men, slower growth in height, particularly from 2 to 7 years, and slower weight gain from 7 to 11 years as well as shorter height and lower weight at 7 and 11 years associated with a diagnosis of AUD in men. CONCLUSIONS: Pre- and postnatal growth associates with the risk for AUD later in life differently in women than in men: the fetal period and infancy seem to be the sensitive periods for women, whereas those for men the occur from toddlerhood onwards.

  1. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Vaccinations and pregnancy Vaccinations and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... date before you get pregnant. What is a vaccination? A vaccination is a shot that contains a ...

  2. Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Common discomforts of pregnancy Common discomforts of pregnancy E-mail to a friend ... like back ache and being really tired are common and shouldn’t make you worry. For most ...

  3. Risk of Spina Bifida and Maternal Cigarette, Alcohol, and Coffee Use during the First Month of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Werler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the association between the risks of spina bifida (SB in relation to cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption by women during the first month of pregnancy. Between 1988–2012, this multi-center case-control study interviewed mothers of 776 SB cases and 8,756 controls about pregnancy events and exposures. We evaluated cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking, and caffeine intake during the first lunar month of pregnancy in relation to SB risk. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Levels of cigarette smoking (1–9 and ≥10/day, alcohol intake (average ≥4 drinks/day and caffeine intake (<1, 1, and ≥2 cups/day were not likely to be associated with increased risk of SB. Further, results were similar among women who ingested less than the recommended amount of folic acid (400 μg/day.

  4. Prenatal Vitamins: Why They Matter, How to Choose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Wonder if you need to take prenatal vitamins? Which brand is best? Or what ... 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-vitamins/art- ...

  5. Infant outcomes among women with Zika virus infection during pregnancy: results of a large prenatal Zika screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Emily H; Nelson, David B; Johnson, Kathryn A; Jacobs, Sara; Rogers, Vanessa L; Roberts, Scott W; Sexton, Taylor; McIntire, Donald D; Casey, Brian M

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a known cause of congenital microcephaly and other neurologic morbidities. We present the results of a large-scale prenatal screening program in place at a single-center health care system since March 14, 2016. Our aims were to report the baseline prevalence of travel-associated Zika infection in our pregnant population, determine travel characteristics of women with evidence of Zika infection, and evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes compared to women without evidence of Zika infection. This is a prospective, observational study of prenatal Zika virus screening in our health care system. We screened all pregnant women for recent travel to a Zika-affected area, and the serum was tested for those considered at risk for infection. We compared maternal demographic and travel characteristics and perinatal outcomes among women with positive and negative Zika virus tests during pregnancy. Comprehensive neurologic evaluation was performed on all infants delivered of women with evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Head circumference percentiles by gestational age were compared for infants delivered of women with positive and negative Zika virus test results. From March 14 through Oct. 1, 2016, a total of 14,161 pregnant women were screened for travel to a Zika-affected country. A total of 610 (4.3%) women reported travel, and test results were available in 547. Of these, evidence of possible Zika virus infection was found in 29 (5.3%). In our population, the prevalence of asymptomatic or symptomatic Zika virus infection among pregnant women was 2/1000. Women with evidence of Zika virus infection were more likely to have traveled from Central or South America (97% vs 12%, P Zika virus infection. Additionally, there was no difference in mean head circumference of infants born to women with positive vs negative Zika virus testing. No microcephalic infants born to women with Zika infection were identified

  6. Does caffeine and alcohol intake before pregnancy predict the occurrence of spontaneous abortion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Kjær, S. K.; Munk, C

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumption of caffeine and alcohol is suspected to affect pregnancy outcome. Use of both stimulants is widespread and even minor effects on fetal viability are of public health interest. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population......-based cohort comprising 11088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n = 303) or who gave birth (n = 1381) during follow-up [mean time: 2.1 years (range: 1.6-3.4)] were selected. Associations between self-reported exposures to caffeine and/or alcohol...... at enrolment and spontaneous abortion were analysed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared with women with a pre-pregnancy intake of caffeine per day, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for spontaneous abortion was 1.26 (0.77-2.06), 1.45 (0.87-2.41), 1.44 (0.87-2.37) and 1...

  7. Does caffeine and alcohol intake before pregnancy predict the occurrence of spontaneous abortion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Kjær, S. K.; Munk, C

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumption of caffeine and alcohol is suspected to affect pregnancy outcome. Use of both stimulants is widespread and even minor effects on fetal viability are of public health interest. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population......-based cohort comprising 11088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n = 303) or who gave birth (n = 1381) during follow-up [mean time: 2.1 years (range: 1.6-3.4)] were selected. Associations between self-reported exposures to caffeine and/or alcohol...... at enrolment and spontaneous abortion were analysed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared with women with a pre-pregnancy intake of caffeine per day, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for spontaneous abortion was 1.26 (0.77-2.06), 1.45 (0.87-2.41), 1.44 (0.87-2.37) and 1...

  8. THE ISSUE OF PREGNANCY AND DELIVERY WITH PRENATAL INFECTION OF THE FETUS, HEALTH STATUS OF BABIES ON THE FIRST YEARS OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and delivery of 27 women with prenatal infection of the fetus, neonatal period of the babies with prenatal pneumonia, health status of up to 2 children were researched in retrospect. Women with inflammation of the genitals (78,6% and extragenital pathology of the inflammatory genesis (36,3% had prenatal infection of the fetus. In the early neonatal period every baby had cerebral ischemia, every third child had haemorrhages in different cerebral structures. All babies have been transferred to children's hospital for treatment where the rehabilitation was carried out during 1-2,5 months. Infantile cerebral paralysis, hydrocephaly, epilepsy, epileptoid attacks were detected in 8 babies on the first year of life (29,6%. 5 babies (18,5% had atrophy of discs of optic nerves, retinal angiopathy. All babies with local pathology of the central nervous system were premature born on the 26-32 week. Majority has herniae of different localization (55,5%, congenital dysplasia of the hip joint (74%, 26 babies (96,2% were on the books because of anaemiae, pneumoniae, bronchites, pyelonephrites, septicaemiae. Using the received data we can draw a conclusion: in order to reduce perinatal complications in the maternal organism, in the organism of newborn baby and baby on the first year of life it is necessary to sanify the birth canal, to do preclinical diagnostics and preventive therapy of the prematurely born, gestosis, fetoplacental insufficiency.

  9. Prenatal screening, diagnosis, and pregnancy management of fetal neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas; Wilson, R Douglas; Audibert, Francois; Brock, Jo-Ann; Campagnolo, Carla; Carroll, June; Cartier, Lola; Chitayat, David; Gagnon, Alain; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Langlois, Sylvie; MacDonald, W Kim; Murphy-Kaulbeck, Lynn; Okun, Nanette; Pastuck, Melanie; Popa, Vanessa

    2014-10-01

    Objectif : Fournir, aux professionnels de la santé des domaines de l’obstétrique et de la génétique, des lignes directrices et des recommandations en ce qui a trait au dépistage / diagnostic prénatal et à la prise en charge obstétricale du dysraphisme spinal ouvert / fermé (DSOF) chez le fœtus. Options : La présente analyse englobe les techniques de dépistage / diagnostic prénatal qui sont actuellement utilisées aux fins de la détection du DSOF, y compris le dépistage des concentrations sériques en alphafoetoprotéines chez la mère, l’échographie, l’imagerie par résonance magnétique visant le fœtus et l’amniocentèse. Issues : Améliorer le dépistage / diagnostic prénatal et la prise en charge obstétricale du DSOF, tout en prenant en considération les soins offerts à la patiente, l’efficacité, les coûts et les interventions de soins. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en novembre 2013 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (p. ex. « prenatal screening », « congenital anomalies », « neural tube defects », « alpha-fetoprotein », « ultrasound scan », « magnetic resonance imaging »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles publiés en anglais entre 1977 et 2012. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et ont été intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’au 30 novembre 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d

  10. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming".

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters p35, CDK5 and GSK3β in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampus of adolescent mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L. Goggin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs are the number one cause of preventable mental retardation. An estimated 2–5% of children are diagnosed as having a FASD. While it is known that children prenatally exposed to alcohol experience cognitive deficits and a higher incidence of psychiatric illness later in life, the pathways underlying these abnormalities remain uncertain. GSK3β and CDK5 are protein kinases that are converging points for a vast number of signaling cascades, including those controlling cellular processes critical to learning and memory. We investigated whether levels of GSK3β and CDK5 are affected by moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE, specifically in the hippocampus and medial frontal cortex of the adolescent mouse. In the present work we utilized immunoblotting techniques to demonstrate that moderate PAE increased hippocampal p35 and β-catenin, and decreased total levels of GSK3β, while increasing GSK3β Ser9 and Tyr216 phosphorylation. Interestingly, different alterations were seen in the medial frontal cortex where p35 and CDK5 were decreased and increased total GSK3β was accompanied by reduced Tyr216 of the enzyme. These results suggest that kinase dysregulation during adolescence might be an important contributing factor to the effects of PAE on hippocampal and medial frontal cortical functioning; and by extension, that global modulation of these kinases may produce differing effects depending on brain region.

  12. APPLICATION OF FIRST-MIDTRIMESTER PREGNANCY ULTRASOUND COMBINED WITH INVASIVE PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN TWIN PREGNANCY%早中孕期超声联合有创性产前诊断在双胎妊娠中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡矩锋; 李炳星; 高丽丽

    2015-01-01

    效降低出生缺陷,在提高人口素质方面有重要的应用价值。%Objective Evaluate application value that ultrasound of first‐midtrimester combined with in‐vasive prenatal diagnosis in linyi city .Methods Research of first‐midtrimester pregnancy ultrasound com‐bined with invasive prenatal diagnosis in twin pregnancy from Octobor 2014 to May 2015 clinic in our hos‐pital during the 11 weeks ago ,statistics of pregnant age ,first trimester ultrasound ,18 to 22 weeks ultra‐sound ,invasive prenatal diagnosis ,prenatal diagnosis ,selective reduction ,etc .summary all the data ,a‐nalysis the application value of first‐midtrimester pregnancy ultrasound combined with invasive prenatal di‐agnosis in twin pregnancy in linyi city .Results Included in the study of a total of 1437 cases of twin preg‐nancy ,anomaly detection ,with pregnancy ultrasound system is 56 cases ,ultrasonic detection of first tri‐mestr abnormalities is 7 cases ,abnormal ultrasonic detection of midtrimester is 49 cases ,invasive prenatal diagnosis to all ultrasonic detection pregnancy ,actually have invasive prenatal diagnosis ,27 cases (48 . 2% ) ,including 3 patients to CVS ,24 cases to amniocentesis .The actual number of prenatal diagnosis of fetal 47 (including twins prenatal diagnosis in 21 cases ,one of the tires to prenatal diagnosis of 5 cases) , diagnosis of five chromosome abnormality ,are one of the twins anomalies (including 1 case no abnormal sonographic findings but prenatal diagnosis) ,including 2 cases of one of twins 21 three body syndrome , chromosome abnormality rate 10 .6% (5/47) .7 cases to selective reduction (5 cases of abnormal chromo‐some abnormality and 2 cases of ultrasonic normal chromosome) ,else choose expectation .Avoided the born of abnormal karyotypes including 2 cases of 47 ,+21 (including ultrasonic no abnormality in 1 case)、2 cases of 47 ,+18 and 1 case of 47 ,+13 ,and 1 case of fetal ascites ,1 cases of tetralogy of fallot

  13. Prenatal exposure to non-ionizing radiation: effects of WiFi signals on pregnancy outcome, peripheral B-cell compartment and antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambucci, Manolo; Laudisi, Federica; Nasta, Francesca; Pinto, Rosanna; Lodato, Rossella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Lovisolo, Giorgio Alfonso; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    During embryogenesis, the development of tissues, organs and systems, including the immune system, is particularly susceptible to the effects of noxious agents. We examined the effects of prenatal (in utero) exposure to WiFi signals on pregnancy outcome and the immune B-cell compartment, including antibody production. Sixteen mated (plug-positive) female mice were assigned to each of the following groups: cage control, sham-exposed and microwave-exposed (WiFi signals at 2.45 GHz, whole body, SAR 4 W/kg, 2 h/day, 14 consecutive days starting 5 days after mating). No effects due to exposure to WiFi signals during pregnancy on mating success, number of newborns/mother and body weight at birth were found. Newborn mice were left to grow until 5 or 26 weeks of age, when immunological analyses were performed. No differences due to exposure were found in spleen cell number, B-cell frequency or antibody serum levels. When challenged in vitro with LPS, B cells from all groups produced comparable amounts of IgM and IgG, and proliferated at a similar level. All these findings were consistently observed in the female and male offspring at both juvenile (5 weeks) and adult (26 weeks) ages. Stress-associated effects as well as age- and/or sex-related differences were observed for several parameters. In conclusion, our results do not show any effect on pregnancy outcome or any early or late effects on B-cell differentiation and function due to prenatal exposure to WiFi signals.

  14. A exposição pré-natal ao álcool como fator de risco para comportamentos disfuncionais: o papel do pediatra Prenatal alcohol exposure as a risk factor for dysfunctional behaviors: the role of the pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Ainda que as características clássicas da síndrome fetal alcoólica tenham sido descritas desde 1968, a pesquisa sobre a teratogênese do álcool apenas recentemente demonstrou que o cérebro é o órgão do corpo mais vulnerável aos efeitos da exposição pré-natal ao álcool. No presente artigo, fazemos uma revisão da literatura focalizando principalmente os distúrbios comportamentais relacionados à exposição pré-natal ao álcool. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa com base no PubMed sobre a literatura publicada entre 1968 e 2006, com as palavras-chave etanol, gestação e comportamento. Foram estabelecidos limites a estudos em humanos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os dados apresentados nesta revisão sugerem que jovens com efeitos do espectro do álcool fetal estão sob risco maior de terem comportamento social disruptivo, entre outros problemas neurocomportamentais. CONCLUSÕES: Ainda que seja impossível separar completamente a teratogênese sobre o cérebro decorrente da exposição ao álcool de influências ambientais pós-natais como a causa definitiva desses resultados, o pediatra deve ser estimulado ao diagnóstico precoce de crianças afetadas pela síndrome fetal alcoólica e efeitos do espectro do álcool fetal. Isso permite iniciar o manejo e cuidados apropriados para evitar as conseqüências em longo prazo no comportamento e assegurar uma adaptação social e escolar melhor e mais produtiva.OBJECTIVE: Although the classic features of fetal alcohol syndrome have been recognized since 1968, research on alcohol teratogenesis has only recently demonstrated that the brain is the organ in the body most vulnerable to the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. In this present article, we reviewed the literature focusing mainly on behavioral disturbances related to prenatal ethanol exposure. SOURCES: We performed a PubMed search on the literature published between 1968 and 2006 using the terms ethanol, pregnancy and

  15. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Pregnancy Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ...

  16. Noninvasive prenatal testing using a novel analysis pipeline to screen for all autosomal fetal aneuploidies improves pregnancy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayindir, Baran; Dehaspe, Luc; Brison, Nathalie; Brady, Paul; Ardui, Simon; Kammoun, Molka; van der Veken, Lars; Lichtenbelt, Klaske; van den Bogaert, Kris; van Houdt, Jeroen; Peeters, Hilde; van Esch, Hilde; de Ravel, Thomy; Legius, Eric; Devriendt, Koen; Vermeesch, Joris R.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing by massive parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has rapidly been adopted as a mainstream method for detection of fetal trisomy 21, 18 and 13. Despite the relative high accuracy of current NIPT testing, a substantial number of false-positive and false-negative test

  17. Down Syndrome Due to Unbalanced Homologous Acrocentric Rearrangements and its Recurrence in Subsequent Pregnancies: Prenatal Diagnosis by Amniocentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: We found a frequency of 0.019% for rea(21q21q Down syndrome in patients undergoing amniocentesis. Down syndrome caused by the homologous rearrangement rea(21q21q can be associated with recurrence. Prenatal diagnosis of rea(21q21q Down syndrome should include extensive cytogenetic and molecular analyses of the parents and probands.

  18. Prevalence, timing of diagnosis and pregnancy outcome of abdominal wall defects after the introduction of a national prenatal screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke-Rozema, Hanneke; van de Kamp, Karline; Bakker, Marian; Pajkrt, Eva; Bilardo, Caterina; Snijders, Rosalinde

    ObjectiveTo examine prevalence, time of diagnosis and outcome of fetuses with an exomphalos or gastroschisis, diagnosed since the introduction of a national prenatal screening program in 2007. MethodsA prospective cohort study was undertaken in two fetal medicine units in the Netherlands. Cases were

  19. Associação entre abuso de álcool durante a gestação e o peso ao nascer Asociación entre abuso de alcohol durante la gestación y el peso al nacer Association between alcohol abuse during pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelissa da Silva

    2011-10-01

    alcohol abuse during gestation and low birth weight. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based nested study from a cohort of 957 pregnant women who received prenatal assistance through Sistema Único de Saúde (National Health System in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, and delivered their babies between September 2007 and September 2008. The mothers were interviewed at two distinct moments: prenatal and postpartum periods. In order to verify alcohol abuse, the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener scale was used. Bivariate analyses were carried out, as well as multiple logistic regression adjusted by the variables prematurity and alcohol abuse. The level of significance that was adopted was 95%. RESULTS: Of the women who participated in the study, 2.1% abused alcohol during pregnancy and, among these, 26.3% had low birth weight children. There was an association between alcohol abuse and low birth weight (p<0.038. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that alcohol abuse during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight.

  20. New Mexico women with no prenatal care: reasons, outcomes, and nursing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Burton, M

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine why women received no prenatal care during pregnancy and their subsequent maternal and neonatal outcomes. Five hundred and eighty medical records from 1990 through 1993 that were labeled as no care were reviewed. Actually, only 270 records had no care and of these, 92 had 156 recorded reasons as to why women did not receive prenatal care. These reasons were categorized into three types of barriers: attitudinal, sociodemographic, and system-related. The majority of the women were young, Hispanic, unmarried, between 20 and 29 years of age, and uninsured, and had one to three children. Overall, the women did not smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use drugs during pregnancy. Overall, the women had good maternal and newborn outcomes. Results suggest a need to reevaluate the effect of prenatal care use on young Hispanic women.

  1. Prenatal ultrasonic features of twin pregnancy with fetal abnormalities%双胎妊娠胎儿异常的产前超声特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一休; 杨筱; 孟华; 欧阳云淑; 姜玉新; 戴晴; 徐钟慧; 杨萌; 袁岩; 鲁嘉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of ultrasound in twin pregnancy with fetal abnormalities. Methods The ultrasonic features and clinical data of 14 twin pregnancies with fetal abnormalities found by prenatal ultrasound were analyzed retrospectively. Results Among 14 twin pregnancies, there were 5 twins with structurally anomalous in 1 fetus, 1 with structurally anomalous in both fetuses, 1 with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, 2 with selective intrauter-ine growth restriction, 1 with co-twin neurological abnormality following the death of 1 twin, 2 with conjoined twins, 2 with twin reverse arterial perfusion sequence. Conclusion Ultrasound can diagnose structural complications and abnormalities of twin pregnancy, and plays an important role in clinical treatment.%目的 探讨产前超声诊断双胎妊娠胎儿异常的价值.方法 回顾性分析14对双胎妊娠胎儿异常的产前声像图特征及临床资料.结果 超声诊断5对为双胎之一结构畸形,1对为双胎均结构畸形,1对为双胎输血综合征,2对为选择性胎儿宫内发育迟缓,1对为双胎之一死亡后孪生胎神经系统损伤,2对为联体双胎,2对为双胎反向动脉灌注序列症.结论 超声有助于诊断多种双胎妊娠并发症和畸形,有重要临床指导意义.

  2. A Novel Integration Effort to Reduce the Risk for Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy Among Women Attending Urban STD Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Heidi E.; Chander, Geetanjali; Green, Patricia P.; Hutsell, Catherine A.; Weingarten, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) is a significant public health problem in the United States. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics serve female clients with a high prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption coupled with ineffective contraceptive use. Project CHOICES (Changing High-Risk AlcOhol Use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness) is an evidence-based, brief intervention to lower risk of AEP by targeting alcohol and contraceptive behaviors through motivational interviewing and individualized feedback. We describe our experience integrating and implementing CHOICES in STD clinics. This endeavor aligns with CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention's program collaboration and service integration strategic priority to strengthen collaborative work across disease areas and integrate services provided by related programs at the client level. PMID:24385650

  3. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What happens during prenatal visits? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What happens during ...

  4. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at risk for complications? How does stress affect pregnancy? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preconception Care and Prenatal Care: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is preconception ...

  5. Foods to Avoid or Limit during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  6. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermatosis of pregnancy; Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy; Melasma - pregnancy; Prenatal skin changes ... breasts enlarge to prepare for breastfeeding. During your pregnancy, your stretch marks may appear red, brown, or ...

  7. Clinical experience from Thailand noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manotaya, S.; Uerpairojkit, B.; Chen, F.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this article is to report the clinical experience and performance of massively parallel sequencing-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as a screening method in detecting trisomy 21, 18, and 13 (T21/T18/T13) in a mixed-risk population in Thailand. MethodsIn a 30-month...... period, 121 medical centers in Thailand offered NIPT as clinical screening tests for fetal T21, T18, and T13 in the mixed-risk population. All NIPT-positive cases were recommended to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. ResultsA total of 4736 participants received the NIPT test, including 2840 high...... 36T21, 19T18, and 8T13; 82.5% (52/63) took prenatal diagnosis, and 11.5% (6/52) false-positive cases were observed. The positive predictive values for the detection of T21, T18, and T13 were 94.4%, 79.0%, and 87.5%, respectively. ConclusionWith stringent protocol, our prospective large...

  8. Relationship between prenatal care and maternal complications in women with preeclampsia: Implications for continuity and discontinuity of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Liu

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: The types of prenatal care may be associated with different pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care may be predictors of pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia.

  9. Familiy Planning and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Storage Pool Deficiencies Home About Bleeding Disorders Family planning and pregnancy Carriers should receive genetic counselling about ... Diagnosis When to Test for Carrier Status Family Planning and Pregnancy Conception Options Prenatal Diagnosis Fetal Sex ...

  10. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... From Puerto Rico Meet our National Ambassador for 2017 Read and share stories Become inspired by stories ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  11. Assessment of Prevalence and Associated Factors of Alcohol Use during Pregnancy among the dwellers of Bahir-Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Kirubel Anteab; Balem Demtsu; Mulualem Megra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol is the most commonly used teratogen substance which is used during pregnancy with detrimental effects on the fetus and the mother. Objective: to assess prevalence and associated factors of alcohol use during pregnancy among the dwellers of Bahir-Dar, Northwest Ethiopia Method: Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 810 pregnant women in Bahar-Dar City from March to June 2014. Information on socio-demographic characteristics reproductive health and alc...

  12. 孕中期产前筛查的价值%Value of prenatal screening during the second trimester of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左振伟; 杜焕青; 白洁; 侯灵彤

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨产前筛查在孕中期产前诊断中的价值.方法:2006年1月~ 2009年9月对2 880例孕16~20周的妇女行产前筛查,检测其血清中甲胎蛋白(AFP)、游离β绒毛膜促性腺激素(F-βHCG)和游离雌三醇(μE3)浓度,结合年龄、体重等因素,评定危险系数.高危孕妇进行羊膜腔穿刺,羊水细胞染色体核型检查以确诊.结果:共有2 880例孕妇接受筛查.其中筛出唐氏综合征(DS)高风险5例,经羊水细胞染色体核型分析确诊2例;18-三体高风险2例,确诊1例:神经管缺陷(NTD)高风险2例,确诊2例.所有筛查孕妇均随访至胎儿出生,1例筛查阴性的孕妇分娩唐氏儿.结论:产前筛查可提高先天缺陷儿的检出率,是提高出生人口素质的有效技术措施.%Objective; To explore the value of prenatal screening in prenatal diagnosis of women during the second trimester of pregnancy. Methods; A total of 2 880 women during 16 -20 gestational weeks received prenatal screening from January 2006 to September 2009, the serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) , free human ($ gonadotropin (F - pHCG) , and free estriol were detected, the risk index was evaluated combined with other factors, such as age and body weight. The high risk pregnant women underwent anmiocentesis, then they were diagnosed definitely by chromosomal karyotype test of amniotic fluid cells. Results ? A total of 2 880 pregnant women received prenatal screening, five pregnant women were found with high risk of Downs syndrome, after chromosomal karyotype test of amniotic fluid cells, two pregnant women were diagnosed definitely; two pregnant women were found with high risk of trisomy 18, after chromosomal karyotype test of amniotic fluid cells, one pregnant woman was diagnosed definitely; two pregnant women were found with high risk of neural tube defect, after chromosomal karyotype test of amniotic fluid cells, two pregnant women were diagnosed definitely. All the pregnant women were

  13. Dietary Patterns and Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy: Secondary Analysis of Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coathup, Victoria; Northstone, Kate; Gray, Ron; Wheeler, Simon; Smith, Lesley

    2017-06-01

    Large general population surveys show that heavy regular and episodic alcohol consumption are associated with lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, and higher intakes of processed and fried meat. This is of particular concern regarding pregnant women, as both alcohol intake and inadequate maternal nutrition are independently associated with adverse fetal outcomes. The current study aimed to determine associations between maternal dietary patterns and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Women were participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and provided details of alcohol consumption at 18 weeks' gestation and diet at 32 weeks' gestation (n = 9,839). Dietary patterns were derived from the food frequency questionnaire data using principal components analysis. Associations between alcohol consumption and dietary patterns were determined using multiple linear regression, adjusted for various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. After adjustment, drinking ≥1 unit/d during the first trimester (β = 0.23 [95% CI: 0.08, 0.38]; p = 0.002) and binge drinking (≥4 units in 1 day) during the first half of pregnancy (β = 0.14 [95% CI: 0.07, 0.21]; p pattern (high intakes of processed meat and low intakes of fruit and vegetables). Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (≤1 drink/d) during the first trimester was associated with greater adherence to the "Health conscious" dietary pattern (high intakes of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and fish) (β = 0.09 [95% CI: 0.04, 0.14]; p < 0.0001). Two important components of health behavior during pregnancy appear to be related: greater consumption of processed foods associated with heavier alcohol consumption, and healthier dietary choices associated with light-to-moderate alcohol intake. Potential synergistic effects of these behaviors may have implications for maternal and fetal health and warrant further investigation. A more holistic approach to addressing health behaviors in

  14. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  15. Adequacy of prenatal care as a major determinant of folic acid, iron, and vitamin intake during pregnancy Adequação dos cuidados pré-natais como determinante da utilização de ácido fólico, ferro e vitaminas durante a gravidez

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Lunet; Teresa Rodrigues; Sofia Correia; Henrique Barros

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the association between adequacy of prenatal care and prevalence of folic acid, iron, and multivitamin intake during pregnancy. Data were obtained on socio-demographics, prenatal care, pregnancy complications, and use of vitamin/mineral supplements for 836 women, using a postpartum interview. Associations with the use of vitamin/mineral supplements were quantified with risk ratios (RR), computed by generalized binomial regression. A high proportion of women report...

  16. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-06-17

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures.

  17. Prenatal stress and gender role behavior in girls and boys: a longitudinal, population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Johnston, Katie J; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Stevens, Madeleine; Golding, Jean

    2002-09-01

    Prenatal stress influences neural and behavioral sexual differentiation in rodents. Male offspring of stressed pregnancies show reduced masculine-typical characteristics and increased feminine-typical characteristics, whereas female offspring show the opposite pattern, reduced feminine-typical and increased masculine-typical characteristics. These outcomes resemble those seen following manipulations of gonadal hormones and are thought to occur because stress influences these hormones during critical periods of development. Research on prenatal stress and human sexual differentiation has produced inconsistent results, perhaps because studies have used small samples and assessed prenatal stress retrospectively. We related maternal self-reports of prenatal stress to childhood gender role behavior in a prospective, population study of 13,998 pregnancies resulting in 14,138 offspring. Neither stress reported during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy nor stress reported from week 19 of pregnancy to week 8 postnatal related to gender role behavior in male offspring at the age of 42 months. In female offspring, maternal reports of stress during both periods showed only small correlations with masculine-typical behavior. Although this relationship remained significant when other factors that related to stress were controlled, these other factors made larger contributions to girls' gender role behavior than did prenatal stress. In addition, in both boys and girls, older male or female siblings, parental adherence to traditional sex roles, maternal use of tobacco or alcohol during pregnancy, and maternal education all related significantly to gender role behavior. Our results suggest that prenatal stress does not influence the development of gender role behavior in boys and appears to have relatively little, if any, influence on gender role behavior in girls.

  18. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups.

  19. Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs affects global motion perception in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S; Jacobs, Robert J; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M; Wouldes, Trecia A; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-11-19

    Prenatal exposure to recreational drugs impairs motor and cognitive development; however it is currently unknown whether visual brain areas are affected. To address this question, we investigated the effect of prenatal drug exposure on global motion perception, a behavioural measure of processing within the dorsal extrastriate visual cortex that is thought to be particularly vulnerable to abnormal neurodevelopment. Global motion perception was measured in one hundred and forty-five 4.5-year-old children who had been exposed to different combinations of methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine and marijuana prior to birth and 25 unexposed children. Self-reported drug use by the mothers was verified by meconium analysis. We found that global motion perception was impaired by prenatal exposure to alcohol and improved significantly by exposure to marijuana. Exposure to both drugs prenatally had no effect. Other visual functions such as habitual visual acuity and stereoacuity were not affected by drug exposure. Prenatal exposure to methamphetamine did not influence visual function. Our results demonstrate that prenatal drug exposure can influence a behavioural measure of visual development, but that the effects are dependent on the specific drugs used during pregnancy.

  20. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  1. Prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure is associated with decreased gestational length but not birth weight: archived samples from the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezios Katrina L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, known endocrine disruptors, were banned in 1979 but persist in the environment. Previous studies are inconsistent regarding prenatal exposure to PCBs and pregnancy outcomes. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to PCBs and gestational length and birth weight. Methods In a sample of 600 infants (born between 1960 and 1963 randomly selected from Child Health and Development Studies participants followed through adolescence we measured 11 PCB congeners in maternal post partum sera (within three days of delivery. Length of gestation was computed from the reported first day of the last menstrual period (LMP and delivery date. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between PCB exposure and gestational age and birth weight, adjusting for potential confounders. PCBs were grouped according to hypothesized biological action (1b (sum of weak phenobarbital inducers, 2b (sum of limited dioxin activity, and 3 (sum of CYP1A and CYP2b inducers or degree of ortho- substitution (mono, di, tri. Secondary analyses examined associations between total PCB exposure and exposure to individual congeners. Results Each unit increase in mono-ortho substituted PCBs was associated with a 0.30 week decrease (95% confidence interval (CI -0.59, -0.016, corresponding to a 2.1 (95% CI −4.13, -0.11 day decrease in length of gestation. Similar associations were estimated for di-ortho substituted PCBs, (1.4 day decrease; (95% CI −2.9, 0.1 and group 3 PCBs (0.84 day decrease; (95% CI −1.8, 0.11. We found similar associations in congener specific analyses and for the sum of congeners. Conclusions Our study provides new evidence that PCB exposure shortens length of gestation in humans. This may have public health implications for population exposures.

  2. Does binge drinking during early pregnancy increase the risk of psychomotor deficits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Wimberley, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    , on child motor function at age 5. METHODS: We performed a prospective follow-up study of 678 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Movement Assessment Battery...... for Children. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, sex of child, and tester were considered core confounders, while the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index, parity, home...

  3. Impacts of Elevated Prenatal Blood Lead on Trace Element Status and Pregnancy Outcomes in Occupationally Non-exposed Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Obuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Lead toxicity has been reported to affect hematopoietic, nervous, reproductive, cardiovascular and urinary tract systems. Many investigators have so far studied the effects of high blood lead levels on pregnancy outcomes.Objective: To investigate the effects of elevated maternal blood lead during pregnancy on some trace elements and pregnancy outcomes.Methods: Blood lead and plasma copper, iron and zinc were measured in 349 pregnant women with a mean±SD age of 27.0±4.8 years, and gestational age of 21.8±3.1 weeks, at recruitment using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded during follow-up and at delivery, respectively. A blood lead level of ≥10 µg/dL was considered high.Results: Women with elevated blood lead had significantly higher plasma copper and iron and lower plasma zinc than women with low blood lead level (Conclusion: Complications of pregnancy may be induced by a high blood lead level possibly through the alterations in trace element metabolism.

  4. Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy: Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Information Processing Time in Five-Year-Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R Kilburn

    Full Text Available Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT and information processing time (IPT in young children.Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R was administered.Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT. There was, however, an indication of slower CRT associated with binge drinking episodes in gestational weeks 1-4.This study observed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or IPT as assessed by the Sternberg paradigm. However, there were some indications of CRT being associated with binge drinking during very early pregnancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate effects of different patterns of maternal alcohol consumption on basic cognitive processes in offspring.

  5. Developmental model of depression applied to prenatal depression: role of present and past life events, past emotional disorders and pregnancy stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Dayan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several risk factors for depression during pregnancy have already been established. However, very few studies have conducted a multivariate analysis incorporating both the major predictors of depression in women, in accordance with comprehensive developmental models of depression, and specific stressors associated with the biological and psychosocial state of the mother-to-be. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a cross-sectional cohort design to analyze the associations between prenatal depression and potential risk factors. 693 French-speaking women with singleton pregnancies at 20-28 weeks' gestation were consecutively recruited at Caen University Hospital. Fifty women with missing values were subsequently excluded from the analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Risk factors were either extracted from the computerized obstetric records or assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. The associations between prenatal depression and the potential risk factors were assessed using log-binomial regression models to obtain a direct estimate of relative risk (RR. The following factors were found to be significant in the multivariate analysis: level of education (p<0.001, past psychiatric history (adjusted RR=1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1;2.8, p=0.014, stress related to the health and viability of the fetus (adjusted RR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.6;4.1, p<0.001, and stress related to severe marital conflicts (adjusted RR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.5;3.9, p<0.001 or to serious difficulties at work (adjusted RR=1.6, 95% CI :1.04;2.4, p=0.031. An association was also found with the previous delivery of a child with a major or minor birth defect (adjusted RR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.04;4.0, p=0.038. Univariate analyses revealed a strong association with childhood adversity (parental rejection: RR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.2;2.8, p=0.0055 and family secrets: RR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2;3.1, p=0.0046 and with lack of partner

  6. Assessment of Prevalence and Associated Factors of Alcohol Use during Pregnancy among the dwellers of Bahir-Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirubel Anteab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol is the most commonly used teratogen substance which is used during pregnancy with detrimental effects on the fetus and the mother. Objective: to assess prevalence and associated factors of alcohol use during pregnancy among the dwellers of Bahir-Dar, Northwest Ethiopia Method: Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 810 pregnant women in Bahar-Dar City from March to June 2014. Information on socio-demographic characteristics reproductive health and alcohol use were collected using pre prepared structured checklist and analyzed using SPSS version 20.00. Besides association between dependent and in dependent variables was analyzed and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Most (40.6% of the respondents were found between the age of 25-29 years old and 48.3% of them were in the third trimester of pregnancy. This study revealed 34% of respondents consumed alcohol during pregnancy at least once per week.”Tella”, beer, and wine were the commonest kinds of alcohol beverages consumed by the pregnant mothers. In this study, being married (AOR = 3.09; 95% CI: 1.79, 5.33, having alcohol consuming partner (AOR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.67 and (AOR=3.84; 95% CI: 2.34, 6.30, being unemployed (AOR=3.11; 95% CI: 1.73, 5.60, and unplanned pregnancy AOR = 3.12; 95% CI: (1.85, 5.28 were found significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion: This study indicated that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is still high. Hence, responsible bodies working on maternal and child health shall endeavor while planning interventions to mitigate or eliminate the above listed factors.

  7. Fatores associados ao uso de álcool e cigarro na gestação Factors associated to alcohol and smoking use in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Freire

    2009-07-01

    public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, from 1999 to 2006. Information on the mother and the newborn was collected at the moment of delivery and during puerperium through an interview and inspection of the medical records. "Use of alcohol during gestation" and "use of cigarette during gestation" have been considered when detected at any gestational age and written down on the medical record. RESULTS: it was observed that 5.5 and 7.7% of the pregnant women reported cigarette and alcohol use during gestation, respectively. Maternal features related to tobacco use during pregnancy were marital status (p=0.005, age (p=0.01 and pre-natal nutritional guidance (p=0.003. Tobacco use during pregnancy has been strongly associated with alcohol use, 31.3% of the women reporting concomitant use of both substances (p0.05 has been detected. CONCLUSIONS: these results suggest that tobacco and alcohol use should be investigated during pre-natal care among all women, particularly single women, over 35 years old, with history of miscarriage, and with unwanted pregnancy. Nutritional guidance had a protective effect against tobacco use during gestation, and thus pregnant women should be informed as to the harmful effects of substance use to ensure better obstetric outcome.

  8. Gene expression signatures affected by alcohol-induced DNA methylomic deregulation in human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Omar; Kim, Jeffrey J.; Kim, Hyun-Sung; Hoang, Michael; Tu, Thanh G.; Elie, Omid; Lee, Connie; Vu, Catherine; Horvath, Steve; Spigelman, Igor; Kim, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells, especially human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), are useful models to study molecular mechanisms of human disorders that originate during gestation. Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) consumption during pregnancy causes a variety of prenatal and postnatal disorders collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). To better understand the molecular events leading to FASDs, we performed a genome-wide analysis of EtOH's effects on the maintenance and differentiation of hESCs ...

  9. Factors associated with alcohol use prior to and during pregnancy among HIV-infected pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kirsty; Remien, Robert H; Phillips, Tamsin; Zerbe, Allison; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon; Mellins, Claude A

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent in South Africa, but there are few prospectively-collected data exploring patterns of consumption among HIV-infected women, which may be important to improve maternal and child health outcomes. We examined patterns of and factors associated with alcohol use prior to and during pregnancy among HIV-infected pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were enrolled when entering antenatal care at a large primary care clinic, and alcohol use was assessed using the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). In analysis, the AUDIT-C scoring was used as a measure of hazardous drinking, and we examined factors associated with patterns of alcohol use in logistic regression models. Among 580 women (median age: 28.1 years), 40% reported alcohol use during the 12 months prior to pregnancy, with alcohol use characterised by binge drinking and associated with single relationship status, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), and lower levels of HIV-related stigma. Of this group, 65% had AUDIT-C scores suggesting hazardous alcohol use, with hazardous alcohol users more likely to report having experienced IPV and having higher levels of education. Among hazardous alcohol users, 70% subsequently reported reduced levels of consumption during pregnancy. Factors independently associated with reduced consumption included earlier gestation when entering antenatal care and report of a better patient-healthcare provider relationship. These unique data provide important insights into alcohol use trajectories in this context, and highlight the urgent need for an increased focus on screening and intervention at primary care level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis of Cantrell’s Pentalogy Associated with Agenesis of Left Limb in a Twin Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigit Cakiroglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare malformation described in the literature. We report a case of pentalogy of Cantrell associated with left limb deficiency in a twin pregnancy. The fetus with multiple anomalies revealed kyphosis, ectopia cordis, and a large defect with protruding liver and bowel loops at 12 weeks and 3 days of gestational age on ultrasound scan. The other fetus was ultrasonographically normal. We diagnosed a case of pentalogy of Cantrell in a twin pregnancy after exclusion of limb body wall complex, body stalk anomaly, and amniotic band syndrome and after delivery of the fetuses. Macroscopic examinations were ectopia cordis, extrusion of the abdominal organs without membranes surrounding, and agenesis of the left limb.

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  12. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  13. [Diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wieringen, Hester; Letteboer, Tom G W; Pereira, Rob Rodrigues; de Ruiter, Sanne; Balemans, Walter A F; Lindhout, Dick

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure may cause decreased growth of the child, congenital abnormalities, specific facial characteristics, and, most importantly, mental retardation and behavioural disorders, all known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A significant number of pregnant women in the Netherlands drink alcohol, but the prevalence of FASD in our country is unknown. Repeated and high peak blood alcohol concentrations, for example in the case of binge drinking by the mother, result in more severe abnormalities; a safe limit for alcohol consumption in pregnancy cannot be defined. In 2007 and 2008, Dutch paediatricians reported a total of 56 diagnosed cases of FASD, mostly adopted and foster children. Possibly the condition has not always been diagnosed. Use of international guidelines for diagnosis by the medical profession may improve detection. The guidelines of the Canadian Public Health Agency provide a useful and generally accepted classification, with strict cut-off points to avoid overdiagnosis; attention should always be paid to the broad differential diagnosis.

  14. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism. Articles were retrieved by searching PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the influence of confounding variables.We selected 32 articles, including 12 case-control, five nested case-control, and 15 cohort studies. The meta-analysis showed that maternal smoking (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23 or diabetes (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46 during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. Overall, the association between maternal alcohol drinking (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.07, pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95-1.09 and risk of cryptorchidism were not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed reduced risk (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96 of cryptorchidism with moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy. No dose-response relationship was observed for increments in body mass index in the risk of cryptorchidism. Sensitivity analysis revealed an unstable result for the association between maternal diabetes, alcohol drinking and cryptorchidism. Moderate heterogeneity was detected in studies of the effect of maternal alcohol drinking and diabetes. No publication bias was detected.Maternal gestational smoking, but not maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, was associated with increased cryptorchidism risk in the offspring. Moderate alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of cryptorchidism while gestational diabetes may be a risk factor, but further studies are needed to verify this.

  15. Maternal alcohol consumption in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa – Research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. DeRoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a valuable resource for the study of the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. MoBa’s strengths include a population-based sample of over 107,000 pregnancies, concurrent and retrospective assessment of maternal prenatal and postnatal alcohol consumption, and prospective follow-up for pregnancy and child outcomes. Direct questions were asked on the frequency, dose and timing of maternal alcohol consumption. Screening tools including the T-ACE and partial Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index were used to identify women at risk for drinking during pregnancy. Comprehensive information on potential confounders was collected including maternal medical history, reproductive history, smoking, and other substance use. The detailed alcohol data allow the differentiation between non-binge and binge-level drinking, important for studying different thresholds of exposure. The availability of maternal and infant DNA enables the study of genetic differences in alcohol metabolism. Besides conventional analyses, sibship studies of differentially exposed siblings can be conducted among the offspring of over 15,000 women who participated in the study for more than one pregnancy. Although there are low levels of social disadvantage in Norway (poverty increases the risk of harms from prenatal drinking, binge drinking is a common pattern of consumption and previous studies found that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is not uncommon. Here, I provide a brief review of prenatal alcohol literature and measurement issues, describe MoBa alcohol variables, and discuss how MoBa can contribute to maternal alcohol research within the context of Norway.

  16. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde;

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  17. Neuroprotective peptide ADNF-9 in fetal brain of C57BL/6 mice exposed prenatally to alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karty Jonathan A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A derived peptide from activity-dependent neurotrophic factor (ADNF-9 has been shown to be neuroprotective in the fetal alcohol exposure model. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of ADNF-9 against alcohol-induced apoptosis using TUNEL staining. We further characterize in this study the proteomic architecture underlying the role of ADNF-9 against ethanol teratogenesis during early fetal brain development using liquid chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed from embryonic days 7-13 (E7-E13 to a 25% ethanol-derived calorie [25% EDC, Alcohol (ALC] diet, a 25% EDC diet simultaneously administered i.p. ADNF-9 (ALC/ADNF-9, or a pair-fed (PF liquid diet. At E13, fetal brains were collected from 5 dams from each group, weighed, and frozen for LC-MS/MS procedure. Other fetal brains were fixed for TUNEL staining. Results Administration of ADNF-9 prevented alcohol-induced reduction in fetal brain weight and alcohol-induced increases in cell death. Moreover, individual fetal brains were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Statistical differences in the amounts of proteins between the ALC and ALC/ADNF-9 groups resulted in a distinct data-clustering. Significant upregulation of several important proteins involved in brain development were found in the ALC/ADNF-9 group as compared to the ALC group. Conclusion These findings provide information on potential mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of ADNF-9 in the fetal alcohol exposure model.

  18. Effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) dissemination project: a science to prenatal care practice partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Richard; Clark, Jeannie; Cleary, Sean; Davis, Amanda; Thorn, Stephanie; Abroms, Lorien; Wedeles, John

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Program selected by the West Virginia-Right From The Start Project for state-wide dissemination. A process evaluation documented the fidelity of SCRIPT delivery by Designated Care Coordinators (DCC), licensed nurses and social workers who provide home-based case management to Medicaid-eligible clients in all 55 counties. We implemented a quasi-experimental, non-randomized, matched Comparison (C) Group design. The SCRIPT Experimental E Group (N = 259) were all clients in 2009-2010 that wanted to quit, provided a screening carbon monoxide (CO), and received a SCRIPT home visit. The (C) Group was derived from all clients in 2006-2007 who had the same CO assessments as E Group clients and reported receiving cessation counseling. We stratified the baseline CO of E Group clients into 10 strata, and randomly selected the same number of (C) Group clients (N = 259) from each matched strata to evaluate the effectiveness of the SCRIPT Program. There were no significant baseline differences in the E and (C) Group. A Process Evaluation documented a significant increase in the fidelity of DCC delivery of SCRIPT Program procedures: from 63 % in 2006 to 74 % in 2010. Significant increases were documented in the E Group cessation rate (+9.3 %) and significant reduction rate (+4.5 %), a ≥50 % reduction from a baseline CO. Perinatal health case management staff can deliver the SCRIPT Program, and Medicaid-supported clients can change smoking behavior, even very late in pregnancy. When multiple biases were analyzed, we concluded the SCRIPT Dissemination Project was the most plausible reason for the significant changes in behavior.

  19. Meta-analysis of gene expression patterns in animal models of prenatal alcohol exposure suggests role for protein synthesis inhibition and chromatin remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogic, Sanja; Wong, Albertina; Pavlidis, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in an array of morphological, behavioural and neurobiological deficits that can range in their severity. Despite extensive research in the field and a significant progress made, especially in understanding the range of possible malformations and neurobehavioral abnormalities, the molecular mechanisms of alcohol responses in development are still not well understood. There have been multiple transcriptomic studies looking at the changes in gene expression after PAE in animal models, however there is a limited apparent consensus among the reported findings. In an effort to address this issue, we performed a comprehensive re-analysis and meta-analysis of all suitable, publically available expression data sets. Methods We assembled ten microarray data sets of gene expression after PAE in mouse and rat models consisting of samples from a total of 63 ethanol-exposed and 80 control animals. We re-analyzed each data set for differential expression and then used the results to perform meta-analyses considering all data sets together or grouping them by time or duration of exposure (pre- and post-natal, acute and chronic, respectively). We performed network and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to further characterize the identified signatures. Results For each sub-analysis we identified signatures of differential expressed genes that show support from multiple studies. Overall, the changes in gene expression were more extensive after acute ethanol treatment during prenatal development than in other models. Considering the analysis of all the data together, we identified a robust core signature of 104 genes down-regulated after PAE, with no up-regulated genes. Functional analysis reveals over-representation of genes involved in protein synthesis, mRNA splicing and chromatin organization. Conclusions Our meta-analysis shows that existing studies, despite superficial dissimilarity in findings, share features that allow us

  20. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uban, Kristina A; Comeau, Wendy L; Ellis, Linda A; Galea, Liisa A M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-10-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine (DA) systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic DA activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and DA systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and DA systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24h following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared to CVS-exposed control

  1. 某市孕中期产前筛查诊断结果分析%Analysis on the prenatal screening and diagnosis in the second trimester of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传英; 赵咏梅; 孟君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical application value of prenatal screening and diagnosis in the second trimester of pregnancy .Methods Pregnant women whose ages were less than 35 years old ,were detected with serum alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) ,human chorionic fluid(free-β-HCG) and free three female alcohol(Ue3) by using luminescence analysis system in the mid-gestation .According to detection result ,we made use of software system to compute risk value of Down′s syndrome ,Edward syndrome and neural tube defect .Once the high-risk pregnant women were found out ,we preceded prenatal diagnosis on them by means of amniotic fluid puncture .And for the pregnant women with the age over 35 or having indication were directly carried on amniotic fluid puncture prenatal diagnosis after Informed Consent .Results There were 145 cases to be at high risk among pregnant women with ages under 35 ,and the screening positive rate was 6 .8% .Among 124 cases which took amniotic fluid chromosome exami-nation ,1 cases of Down′s syndrome ,1 cases of Edwards′s syndrome and 3 cases of the other chromosome abnormality were found out respectively .In addition ,there were 8 cases of chromosome abnormality were diagnosis among the pregnant women with the age over 35 or having indication of amniotic fluid puncture .Conclusion The mid-gestation prenatal test abnormal rate is higher among pregnant women with age less than 35 years old in Suining ,and it is very important to perform mid-gestation prenatal screening in order to prevent and reduce born defects .%目的:通过对孕中期孕妇进行产前筛查及产前诊断,探讨其临床应用价值。方法对于35岁以下的孕妇,采用化学发光分析系统,测定孕中期(15~20+6周)血清中甲胎蛋白(A FP )、游离β人绒毛膜促性腺激素(Freeβ-HCG)及游离雌三醇(uE3)的浓度。采用配套风险评估软件计算出唐氏综合征(21-三体)、爱德华综合征(18-三体综合征

  2. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur between 34 and 36 weeks—these are late-preterm births. 5 Infants born in the 37th and 38th ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  3. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years.......To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years....

  4. A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth problems. Women who are well supported during pregnancy may be less anxious and have less stress in the weeks after childbirth. You can be supportive by educating yourself about pregnancy, going with your partner to prenatal care appointments, ...

  5. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  6. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces the size of the forepaw representation in forepaw barrel subfield (FBS) cortex in neonatal rats: relationship between periphery and central representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margret, Cecilia P; Chappell, Tyson D; Li, Cheng X; Jan, Taha A; Matta, Shannon G; Elberger, Andrea J; Waters, Robert S

    2006-07-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters limb development that may lead to structural and functional abnormalities of the limb reported in children diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. To determine whether PAE alters the central representation of the forelimb we used the rodent barrel cortex as our model system where it was possible to visualize and quantitatively measure the size of the forepaw representation in the forepaw barrel subfield (FBS) in first somatosensory cortex. In the present study, we examined the effects of PAE on pattern and size of the forepaw and forepaw representation in FBS in neonatal rats at gestational day 32 that corresponds to postnatal day 9. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically intubated with binge doses of ethanol (6 g/kg) from gestational day 1 through gestational day 20. The offspring of the ethanol treated dams comprised the ethanol (EtOH) group. The effect of PAE on the EtOH group was compared with a nutritional-controlled pairfed (PF) group and a normal chowfed (CF) group. The ventral (glabrous) surface area of the forepaw digits, length of digit 2 through digit 5, and the corresponding glabrous forepaw digit representations in the FBS were measured and compared between treatment groups. In rats exposed to in utero alcohol, the sizes of the overall glabrous forepaw and forepaw digits were significantly reduced in EtOH pups compared to CF and PF pups; overall glabrous forepaw area was 11% smaller than CF controls. Glabrous digit lengths were also smaller in EtOH rats compared to CF controls and significantly smaller in digit 2 through digit 4. The glabrous digit representation in FBS was 18% smaller in the EtOH group when compared to the CF treatment. However, PAE did not produce malformations in the forepaw or alter the pattern of the forepaw representation in FBS; instead, PAE significantly reduced both body and brain weights compared to controls. Unexpectedly, little or no correlation was observed between the

  7. The Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Adoption Scale: evaluating the diffusion of a tobacco treatment innovation to a statewide prenatal care program and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Richard; Cleary, Sean; Ramiah, Kalpana; Clark, Jeannie; Abroms, Lorien; Davis, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    When a new patient education program is being considered for adoption by a public health agency, it is essential to determine provider perceptions of its acceptability for routine use. In 2007, the West Virginia Bureau of Public Health Perinatal Program, Right From The Start (RFTS), decided to adopt the Smoking Cessation and Reduction in Pregnancy Treatment (SCRIPT) Program. RFTS is a statewide perinatal home visitation initiative delivered by designated care coordinators (DCCs). The authors developed the SCRIPT Adoption Scale (SAS) in the absence of a valid instrument to assess the perceived attributes of a tobacco treatment innovation among the RFTS DCC population. They evaluated the validity of the five constructs of the Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations model in an organization (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability, and trialability) to predict SCRIPT use. After reviewing the literature and developing draft SAS forms, 2 expert panel reviews established the face and content validity of a 43-item SAS. It was administered to 90% (85/90) of the RFTS DCC population. Psychometric analyses confirmed the validity and reliability of a 28-item scale. All 28 items had factor loadings greater than 0.40 (range = 0.43-0.81). All SAS subscales were strongly correlated, r = 0.51 to 0.97, supporting the convergent validity of a 5-factor SAS. There was a significant association between the DCC SAS score and DCC SCRIPT Program Implementation Index supporting the SAS convergent (construct) validity (r = 0.38). The SAS internal consistencyr = 0.93 and stabilityr = 0.76. Although 2 specific subscales need to be improved, the SAS can be adapted by prenatal care programs to measure the attributes of adoption of new, evidence-based patient education and counseling methods.

  8. Prenatal care effectiveness and utilization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Castilla, Eduardo E; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2009-05-01

    The impact of prenatal care use on birth outcomes has been understudied in South American countries. This study assessed the effects of various measures of prenatal care use on birth weight (BW) and gestational age outcomes using samples of infants born without and with common birth defects from Brazil, and evaluated the demand for prenatal care. Prenatal visits improved BW in the group without birth defects through increasing both fetal growth rate and gestational age, but prenatal care visits had an insignificant effect on BW in the group with birth defects when adjusting for gestational age. Prenatal care delay had no effects on BW in both infant groups but increased preterm birth risk in the group without birth defects. Inadequate care versus intermediate care also increased LBW risk in the group without birth effects. Quantile regression analyses revealed that prenatal care visits had larger effects at low compared with high BW quantiles. Several other prenatal factors and covariates such as multivitamin use and number of previous live births had significant effects on the studied outcomes. The number of prenatal care visits was significantly affected by several maternal health and fertility indicators. Significant geographic differences in utilization were observed as well. The study suggests that more frequent use of prenatal care can increase BW significantly in Brazil, especially among pregnancies that are uncomplicated with birth defects but that are at high risk for low birth weight. Further research is needed to understand the effects of prenatal care use for pregnancies that are complicated with birth defects.

  9. Pregnancy After Age 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider can help you find ways to reduce stress so it doesn’t affect your pregnancy. During pregnancy Go to all of your prenatal ... be harmful to your baby and reduce your stress . Last reviewed: April, 2016 ... complications Other Complications & Loss topics ') document.write(' Pregnancy ...

  10. Prenatal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and child’s cognitive performance at 6–8 years of age in rural Burkina Faso: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselme Simeon Sanou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In Burkina Faso, it is not uncommon for mothers to drink alcohol, even during pregnancy. We aimed to study the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the child’s cognitive performance using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II and the Children’s Category Test Level 1 (CCT-1 in rural Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted a follow-up study of a community cluster-randomised Exclusive breastfeeding trial, and re-enrolled the children in rural Burkina Faso. A total of 518 children (268 boys and 250 girls aged 6–8 years were assessed using the KABC-II and the CCT-1. We examined the effect size difference using Cohen’s d and conducted a linear regression analysis to examine the association. Results Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy was 18.5% (96/518. Children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorly for memory and spatial abilities tests from small effect size difference for ‘Atlantis’ (0.27 and ‘Triangle’ (0.29 to moderate effect size difference for ‘Number recall’ (0.72 compared to children whose mothers did not consume alcohol during pregnancy; the exposed children scored significantly higher errors with a small effect size (0.37 at problem solving (CCT-1 test compared to unexposed children. At unstandardized and standardized multivariable analysis, children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorer for memory-‘Atlantis’ (p = 0.03 and ‘Number recall’ (p = 0.0001, and spatial ability tests-‘Triangle’ (p = 0.03; they scored significantly higher errors at problem solving CCT-1 test (p = 0.002; all the results were adjusted for age, sex, schooling, stunting, father’s education, mother’s employment and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding. No statistical association was found for visual abilities-‘Conceptual Thinking’,

  12. Within prisons, is there an association between the quantity of prenatal care and infant birthweight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Strobino, Donna; Sherman, Susan; Crum, Rosa

    2008-07-01

    There is still controversy surrounding the effectiveness of prenatal care in reducing low birthweight. In addition, very few studies have assessed the relationship between prenatal care and infant birthweight among pregnant women within the prison system. We sought to ascertain whether there is an association between the quantity of prenatal care and infant birthweight among pregnant women within such a setting. We examined the prison medical records of 147 infants born to women delivering at term (37-41 weeks of gestation) between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2004 who were incarcerated during pregnancy in Texas state prisons. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between the number of prison prenatal care visits and infant birthweight while adjusting for potential confounders (age, gravidity, maternal education, maternal race, history of substance use, history of alcohol use, history of tobacco use and the presence of any chronic disease). We also adjusted for the interaction between the gestational age at admission to prison and the number of prison prenatal care visits. There was a statistically significant 120.5 g increase in adjusted mean birthweight with each additional prison prenatal care visit (P = 0.001) among study infants whose mothers entered prison during the first trimester. This trend was not observed among women who came in after the first trimester. There appears to be a positive association between the amount of prison prenatal care and infant birthweight among incarcerated pregnant women delivering at term, but this association appears to be limited to women entering prison during the first trimester of pregnancy.

  13. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  14. The Dianosis Value of Prenatal Ultrasound Screening Combined with Prenatal Maternal Serum Markers Detecting in Trimester Pregnancy for the 21 - trisomy Syndrome%中孕B超产前检查联合母血清标记物对21-三体综合征的临床诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 陈大雁; 胡桂朗; 荆志敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility, effectiveness and necessity of the prenatal ultrasound screenings,combined with the content inspection of the mothers' prenatal maternal serum markers:in trimester pregnancy Alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP), free estriol ( uE3 ), total serum β human chorionic gonadotropin ( hCG) in the 21 -trisomy syndrome. Method: We summarized the detection rate of the 21 -trisomy syndrome by prenatal ultrasound screening and the prenatal maternal serum markers. Result: The detection rate in terms of the positive signs of the prenatal ultrasound screening in trimester pregnancy combined with the prenatal maternal serum markers in the 21-trisomy syndrome diagnosis was 80%-90%. Conclusion:The prenatal ultrasound screening in trimester pregnancy combined with prenatal maternal serum markers in the 21trisomy syndrome diagnosis is a non-invasive checking method, not only can reduce the abnormal or deformed children are born, can also reduce the invasive inspection; It has the davantage of clinically simple,application and testing of a wide range of safe and effective, cost-effective, with higher screening detection rate, and reduce the intrusion caused by the check normal fetal abortion rate.%目的:探讨中孕B超产前检查出现阳性征,及联合母体血清标记物指标:甲胎蛋白(AFP)、游离雌三醇(uE3)、血清总β绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)的含量检查对21-三体综合征的产前筛查和诊断的可行性、有效性和必要性.方法:回顾了中孕B超产前检查联合母血清标记物对21-三体综合征检出率.结果:中孕B超产前检查的阳性征,联合母体血清标记物检查指标对21三体综合征检出率高达80%-90%.结论:中孕超声检查,及联合母血清标记物进行唐氏综合征胎儿筛查是一种非侵入性的检查方法,不但可以减少异常或畸型儿童出生,提高人口素质,也可以减少侵入性的检查;且具有临床操作简便、应用范围和检验范围面广

  15. Efeitos do consumo de bebida alcoólica sobre o feto Effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácio de Melo Freire

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o consumo de bebida alcoólica durante a gravidez e avaliar os efeitos teratógenos do álcool no feto. MÉTODO: no período de abril a novembro de 2004, foram entrevistadas por meio do questionário T-ACE, 150 puérperas de uma maternidade de Ribeirão Preto/SP e dividas em consumidoras e não-consumidoras de álcool durante a gestação. Os recém-nascidos (RNs destas mulheres foram avaliados em relação a peso, comprimento e perímetro cefálico ao nascimento. Estes parâmetros antropométricos foram comparados com o consumo de bebida alcoólica pelas mulheres. A análise dos dados foi realizada usando os testes t de Student, teste de Mann-Whitney U e teste do chi2, sendo adotado nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: das puérperas entrevistadas, 79,3% (119 não foram identificadas como consumidoras de álcool pelo questionário T-ACE, ao passo que 20,7% (31 foram consideradas consumidoras pelo mesmo instrumento. A média de comprimento dos RNs cujas mães não consumiram álcool foi de 48,2 cm, ao passo que naqueles cujas mães ingeriram bebida alcoólica foi de 46,7 cm e esta diferença foi significante. Também se observou redução média de 109 g no peso e de 0,42 cm no perímetro cefálico nos filhos de mães consumidoras de álcool, sendo que nos fetos do sexo feminino a redução de peso foi mais acentuada (186 g. CONCLUSÃO: o questionário T-ACE mostrou-se instrumento sensível para rastreamento do consumo alcoólico durante a gravidez. O uso de álcool na gravidez esteve associado à restrição do crescimento fetal, sendo os fetos do sexo feminino aparentemente mais suscetíveis aos efeitos do álcool.PURPOSE: to check alcohol consumption during pregnancy and to estimate teratogenic effects on the fetus. METHODS: the T-ACE questionnaire was applied to 150 women who had just given birth in a maternity hospital in Ribeirão Preto/SP, from April to November 2004. The patients were divided into those who

  16. The Effects of Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy on Executive Function in Five-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design  Follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population  A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled...... status, family home environment, postnatal parental smoking, pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), and the health status of the child. Main outcome measures  The BRIEF parent and teacher forms. Results  Adjusted for all potential confounding factors, no statistically significant associations......Please cite this paper as: SkogerbøÅ, Kesmodel U, Wimberley T, Støvring H, Bertrand J, Landrø N, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1201-1210. Objective  To examine...

  17. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  18. 妊娠中期血清标记物检测在唐氏综合症产前筛查中的探讨%To investigate the serum marker pregnancy detection in prenatal screening for Down syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晃堆

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the analysis of second trimester maternal serum marker for prenatal screening of Down's syndrome and the significance. Methods:The selection of 2012.10-2013.10 in our hospital during the application of resolution immunofluorescence assay was used to detect 2468 cases of 15-20+6 weeks pregnant women were detected serum Free-, P-HCG, AFP markers and content, combined with maternal age, gestational weeks, single twins, smoking history, body mass, whether patients with diabetes, previous factors without abnormal pregnancy history, the use of Life Cycle 3 version of the system risk assessment.Results:The 2468 cases of pregnant women, screening out the abnormal chromosome 138 cases of pregnant women with high risk pregnancy, including 34 cases of pregnant women were amniocentesis antenatal examination, diagnosis of Down syndrome (English referred to as DS) in 8 cases, 1 cases of trisomy 18-syndrome, 4 cases of other fetal chromosomal abnormalities. DS maternal fetal blood AFP, free three female alcohol content was significantly lower than that in normal pregnant women;Free-beta-HCG was significantly higher than that of normal pregnant women, the difference was statistical y significant P<0.05. Trisomy 18-fetal maternal blood AFP, free three female alcohol, Free-beta-HCG was obviously lower than that of normal pregnant women, the difference was statistical y significant P<0.05. Conclusions:The second trimester serum marker examination can be used as an important index prediction of fetal chromosomal abnormalities, and take effective measures in a timely manner through the prenatal diagnosis, can significantly reduce the birth defects, to help students work.%目的:研究分析妊娠中期血清标记物在产前筛查唐氏综合症的意义。方法:择取2012.10-2013.10期间在我院应用实践分辨免疫荧光法检测的2468例孕15-20+6周的孕妇,均进行血清Free-β-HCG、AFP标记物含量检测,并结合孕妇的年龄、孕周

  19. Effects of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and/or Lactation on the Morphology of Thyroid Gland in Male Wistar Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Onu*, B. O. Oke1, P. C. Ozegbe1 and J. O. Oyewale2

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was conducted to document the effect of alcohol on the morphology of thyroid gland of male rat offspring whose dams consumed alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. Seventy-five female rats divided into three groups, 1, 2, and 3, of 25 each and their offspring were used. Group 1 served as control (C, group 2 was exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and lactation (APL while group 3 was exposed to alcohol during lactation only (AL. At day 35 and 49 postpartum 5 male rat offspring were randomly selected from the three groups and sacrificed. After the sacrifice, the thyroids were dissected out and their absolute and relative weights determined. Thereafter, the thyroid tissues were prepared for routine histological examination. The results of the investigation showed significant reduction (P<0.05 in the weights of the thyroid and thyroid follicles. There was also disorganization and desquamation of follicular cells. Our findings suggest that alcohol intake during pregnancy and/or lactation could be injurious to the thyroid glands of the offspring.

  20. Moderate use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during pregnancy: new approaches and update on research findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in fetal origins of adverse offspring outcomes has grown extensively in the last decade. This has resulted in many published studies focusing on exposure in utero to substances and human offspring outcomes. Exposure to maternal substance use in pregnancy is believed to be a preventable haza

  1. Moderate use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during pregnancy: New approaches and update on research findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Interest in fetal origins of adverse offspring outcomes has grown extensively in the last decade. This has resulted in many published studies focusing on exposure in utero to substances and human offspring outcomes. Exposure to maternal substance use in pregnancy is believed to be a preventable haza

  2. 产前超声在双胎妊娠中胎儿心脏复杂畸形中的应用%Application of Prenatal Ultrasound in Fetal Cardiac Complex Malformation in Twin Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁凤霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析产前超声在双胎妊娠中胎儿心脏复杂畸形中的临床价值。方法:回顾性分析我院于2012年1月~2015年1月期间经产前超声检查的双胎妊娠孕妇16例,至少有1例孕妇合并心脏复杂畸形,对孕妇产前、产后超声结果进行总结,并分析其产前漏诊原因。结果:经产后超声检查,证实本组16例孕妇均合并心脏复杂畸形的双胎,其中有11例为单绒毛膜囊双胎,有5例为双绒毛膜囊双胎。有14例孕妇经产前超声检查明确诊断,且由产后随访检查证实;有1例A型主动脉弓离断,其心脏复杂畸形多与心外畸形共存;有1例右室双出口出现漏诊,经产前诊断为室间隔缺损。结论:通过产前超声筛查,可有效诊断单绒毛膜囊双胎合并心脏复杂畸形的发生率明显高于双绒毛膜囊双胎,其具有良好的临床价值。%Objective: to analyze the clinical value of prenatal ultrasound in fetal cardiac complex malformation in twin pregnancy.Methods:a retrospective analysis of our hospital in 2012 January 2015 period in January by prenatal ultrasound examination of twin pregnancy in 16 cases, at least 1 cases of pregnant women with complex heart malformation, the prenatal and postnatal ultrasound results are summarized and and analysis of prenatal reasons for misdiagnosis.Results: multiparous after ultrasound examination, confirmed that this group of 16 cases of pregnant women were associated with cardiac malformation complex twins, of which 11 cases for sac properties of monochorionic twins, 5 cases of cystic nature of dichorionic twin pregnancy. With 14 cases pregnant women by prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and confirmed by postnatal follow-up examination;1 case of type A aortic arch interruption, the complex heart malformation with extracardiac malformations coexist; 1 case of right ventricular double outlet of missed diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis for ventricular septal defect

  3. Pregnancy Complications: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Anemia Anemia E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... anemia at a prenatal care visit . What causes anemia? Usually, a woman becomes anemic (has anemia) because ...

  4. Bupropion (Wellbutrin) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is very little known about long term effects on children exposed to bupropion during pregnancy. One study has suggested an association between prenatal exposure to bupropion and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There are many factors that contribute to ...

  5. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . '; $("#video-display").html( ...

  6. Pregnancy - health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider before trying to get pregnant. Seeing a prenatal provider before trying to get pregnant or early in the pregnancy can help prevent, or detect and control health risks to the mother and unborn baby ...

  7. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . '; $("#video-display").html( ...

  8. Fish consumption during pregnancy, prenatal mercury exposure, and anthropometric measures at birth in a prospective mother-infant cohort study in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramón, Rosa; Ballester, Ferran; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Amurrio, Ascensión; Vioque, Jesús; Lacasaña, Marina; Rebagliato, Marisa; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    .... The objective was to assess the association of consumption of different types of fish and prenatal mercury exposure with birth weight, birth length, and classification as small for gestational age (SGA) in newborns...

  9. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen Markussen; Dalsgaard, Søren; Obel, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to examine the literature assessing the relationship between prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and psychosocial stress during pregnancy to the risk of developing behavioral problems related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD...... indicated a greater risk of ADHD-related disorders among children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Contradictory findings were reported in the alcohol studies, and no conclusion could be reached on the basis of the caffeine study. Results from studies on psychological stress during pregnancy were...... in methods and data sources to permit a quantitative meta-analysis. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies on nicotine (tobacco smoking), nine on alcohol, one on caffeine, and five on psychosocial stress were identified. All were published between 1973 and 2002. In spite of inconsistencies, the studies on nicotine...

  10. Factors associated with inadequate prenatal care in Ecuadorian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, I; Hidalgo, L; Chedraui, P; Palma, J; Eugenio, J

    2005-02-01

    Although inadequate prenatal care has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, reports on the factors associated with poor prenatal care in developing Latin American countries are scarce. To determine factors associated with inadequate prenatal care among women from low socioeconomic circumstances. Women delivered after a pregnancy duration of more than 20 weeks at the Enrique C. Sotomayor Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Guayaquil, Ecuador, were surveyed. The questionnaire collected sociodemographic data and reasons for having inadequate prenatal care. Adequacy of prenatal care was measured with the Kessner index and correlated to the sociodemographic data. During the study period, 1016 pregnant women were surveyed. Among them, there were adolescents (23.7%), primigravidas (30.8%), and women with a high-risk pregnancy (29.3%). According to the Kessner index, prenatal care was considered adequate or inadequate in 24.5% and 75.5% of cases, respectively. Knowledge regarding the importance of adequate prenatal care and the effects of poor prenatal care was lower among women who had received inadequate prenatal care. The women that were considered to have had adequate prenatal care had at least one visit, and they were more often cared for by a specialist than women who considered having inadequate prenatal care. The three most important reasons associated to inadequate prenatal care in this series (n=767), were economic difficulties having to care for a small child, and transportation difficulties. Logistic regression analysis determined that women with undesired pregnancies who resided in rural areas and were para 5 or higher had an increased risk of inadequate prenatal care. On the other hand, an adverse outcome to a prior pregnancy (abortion, intrauterine fetal demise, or ectopic pregnancy) decreased this risk. Marital status and educational level were confounding factors. Although prenatal care at our institution is free, adequacy was thought to be low

  11. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  12. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  13. 326 cases of early pregnancy chorionic biopsy prenatal diagnosis analysis%326例早孕期绒毛膜活检产前诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马京梅; 潘虹; 孙瑜; 付杰; 于丽; 杨慧霞

    2015-01-01

    case with intrauterine fetal death six months after CVS procedure. All testing for single gene disorders and FISH for common aneuploidy were reported. While for CVS long-term culture, the success rate was 95. 7% (312/326) and increased year by year (2012, 91. 0%;2013, 93. 5%;2014, 98. 3%). 35 aneuploidy were diagnosed with CVS (35/312, 11. 2%), 32 (32/144, 22. 2%) of chromosome abnormities were with indication of abnormal ultrasound findings, 2 (2/79, 2. 5%) were with indication of family history of single gene disorder,1(1/52, 1. 9%) was with negative reproductive history . Conclusion CVS is valuable with safety in prenatal diagnosis especially for pregnancy with high risk of fetal genetic diseases. Karyotyping should not be omitted even for those with indication of single gene disorders testing.

  14. Turning Points: A Resource Guide on Teenagers, Pregnancy, Alcohol, and Other Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, Karen; Strong, Sherrill

    This resource guide was written for teachers; school counselors and nurses; principals and school administrators; other professionals in health care, family planning, alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) prevention and treatment; and community agencies who work with pregnant teenagers and their partners. It is designed to help these practitioners…

  15. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  16. Prenatal management of anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rebecca J; Erdman, Joanna N; Hevia, Martin; Dickens, Bernard M

    2008-09-01

    About a third of anencephalic fetuses are born alive, but they are not conscious or viable, and soon die. This neural tube defect can be limited by dietary consumption of foliates, and detected prenatally by ultrasound and other means. Many laws permit abortion, on this indication or on the effects of pregnancy and prospects of delivery on a woman's physical or mental health. However, abortion is limited under some legal systems, particularly in South America. To avoid criminal liability, physicians will not terminate pregnancies, by induced birth or abortion, without prior judicial approval. Argentinian courts have developed means to resolve these cases, but responses of Brazilian courts are less clear. Ethical concerns relate to late-term abortion, meaning after the point of fetal viability, but since anencephalic fetuses are nonviable, many ethical concerns are overcome. Professional guidance is provided by several professional and institutional codes on management of anencephalic pregnancies.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal diagnosis of a number of congenital diseases is possible by amniocentesis in the 14th - 16th week of pregnancy and subsequent analysis of cultured amniotic fluid cells or amniotic fluid supernatant. Parents at risk for a child with a chromosomal disorder, an X-linked disease, a

  18. Renal disease in pregnancy ambulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Sharon T

    2012-09-01

    Acute and chronic renal disease will complicate prenatal care. Normal physiological changes during pregnancy make the urinary tract system more vulnerable to infectious complications or worsening of preexisting disease. Much of the focus of prenatal care includes screening for these concerns both at the onset of prenatal care and through the pregnancy and postpartum course. With careful and attentive care, the pregnancy outcome for women with significant renal disease has improved and the occurrence of renal injury or obstetric complications due to infectious insults has decreased. This manuscript reviews the current ambulatory prenatal care as it relates to the urinary tract in pregnancy.

  19. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  20. Prenatal screening for congenital malformations: diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care of the pregnancy in terms of antenatal care, and referral for birth as ... photographed and only represent a proportion of all the malformed ... KEY WORDS: foetal malformafion, newborn deaths, prenatal care, pregnancy terminafion. Figure 1. Case 1 ... multiple methods, including ultrasound, are combined to make a ...

  1. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Annika C

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children.

  2. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Annika C

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. PMID:27499649

  3. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis.

  4. Determination of maternal-fetal biomarkers of prenatal exposure to ethanol: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, X; Friguls, B; Ortigosa, S; Papaseit, E; Martínez, S E; Manich, A; Garcia-Algar, O; Pacifici, R; Vall, O; Pichini, S

    2012-10-01

    The deleterious effects exerted by prenatal ethanol exposure include physical, mental, behavioural and/or learning disabilities that are included in the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Objective assessment of exposure to ethanol at both prenatal and postnatal stages is essential for early prevention and intervention. Since pregnant women tend to underreport alcohol drinking by questionnaires, a number of biological markers have been proposed and evaluated for their capability to highlight gestational drinking behaviour. These biomarkers include classical biomarkers (albeit indirect) of alcohol-induced pathology (mean corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) acetaldehyde-derived conjugates, and finally derivatives of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphaditylethanol (PEth)). Since ethanol itself and acetaldehyde are only measured few hours after ethanol intake in conventional matrices such as blood, urine and sweat, they are only useful to detect recent ethanol exposure. In the past few years, the non-oxidative ethanol metabolites have received increasing attention because of their specificity and in some case wide time-window of detection in non-conventional matrices from the pregnant mother (oral fluid and hair) and fetus-newborn (neonatal hair, meconium, placenta and umbilical cord). This article reviews bioanalytical procedures for the determination of these markers of ethanol consumption during pregnancy and related prenatal exposure. In addition, clinical toxicological applications of these procedures are presented and discussed.

  5. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n = 692) were categorized according to the adequacy of prenatal care utilization index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way analysis of variance and independent samples t tests. Between 2001 and 2008 85.4 % of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P = 0.02), maternal unemployment (P = 0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P = 0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initiation. Giving birth in 2007-2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 vs. 25.12 weeks; P prenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007-2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population.

  6. The Effects of Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy on Selective and Sustained Attention in Five-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2012-01-01

    consumption, age, body mass index (BMI), parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures  TEACh-5 attention scores. Results  There were no significant effects on test performance in children of mothers......Please cite this paper as: Underbjerg M, Kesmodel U, Landrø N, Bakketeig L, Grove J, Wimberley T, Kilburn T, Svaerke C, Thorsen P, Mortensen E. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on selective and sustained attention in 5-year-old children. BJOG...... 2012;119:1211-1221. Objective  The aim was to examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children's attention at 5 years of age. Design  Prospective follow-up study. Setting  Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003...

  7. Family psychosocial characteristics, tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use, and teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilia Susana Faler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze associations between demographic factors, family psychosocial characteristics, tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use, and adolescent motherhood. This was a case-control study in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, with 431 adolescents 14 to 16 years of age who gave birth in 2009 (cases and 862 adolescents who had never given birth (controls. Three-stage hierarchical logistic regression was performed (demographic, family psychosocial, and lifestyle variables. Lower economic class, not having lived with the parents from 10 to 14 years of age (OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.12-2.48, having taken care of other children (OR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.09-1.87, siblings who had children before 20 years of age (OR = 1.56; 95%CI: 1.192.06, having tried smoking (OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.35-2.78, and having arrived home intoxicated (OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.12-2.48 were associated with adolescent motherhood. Greater attention should be given to family relations in association with tobacco and alcohol consumption, since the use of these substances is associated with adolescent motherhood.

  8. Parental smoking, maternal alcohol, coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy and childhood malignant central nervous system tumours: the ESCALE study (SFCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichart, Matthieu; Menegaux, Florence; Lacour, Brigitte; Hartmann, Olivier; Frappaz, Didier; Doz, François; Bertozzi, Anne-Isabelle; Defaschelles, Anne-Sophie; Pierre-Kahn, Alain; Icher, Céline; Chastagner, Pascal; Plantaz, Dominique; Rialland, Xavier; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2008-08-01

    Parental smoking and maternal alcohol and caffeinated beverage consumption are prevalent exposures which may play a role, either directly or through their influence on metabolism, in the aetiology of childhood malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumours. The hypothesis was investigated in the Epidemiological Study on childhood Cancer and Leukemia ESCALE study, a national population-based case-control study carried out in France in 2003-2004. The study included 209 incident cases of CNS tumours and 1681 population-based controls, frequency matched with the cases by age and sex. The data were collected through a standardized telephone interview of the biological mothers. No association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CNS tumours [odds ratio (OR): 1.1 (0.8-1.6)] was observed. Paternal smoking during the year before birth was associated with CNS tumours (P for trend=0.04), particularly astrocytomas [OR: 3.1 (1.3-7.6)]. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was not associated with CNS tumours. Associations between ependymomas and the highest consumption of coffee [OR: 2.7 (0.9-8.1)] and tea [OR: 2.5 (1.1-5.9)] were observed. A strong association between CNS tumours and the highest maternal consumption of both coffee and tea during pregnancy was observed [OR: 4.4 (1.5-13)]. The results constitute additional evidence for a role of paternal smoking and suggest that maternal coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy may also increase the risk of CNS tumours. The study does not suggest an increased risk of CNS tumours related to alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

  9. Control Prenatal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA; M.D. Peter Soothill, MR

    2014-01-01

    Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así...

  10. Using the Health Belief Model to Illustrate Factors That Influence Risk Assessment during Pregnancy and Implications for Prenatal Education about Endocrine Disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree; Barrett, Emily S.; Velez, Marissa; Conn, Kelly; Heinert, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are ubiquitous in our environment and a growing body of research indicates that EDCs may adversely affect human development. Fetal development is particularly susceptible to EDC exposure, and prenatal care providers are being asked to educate women about the risks of…

  11. Using the Health Belief Model to Illustrate Factors That Influence Risk Assessment during Pregnancy and Implications for Prenatal Education about Endocrine Disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree; Barrett, Emily S.; Velez, Marissa; Conn, Kelly; Heinert, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are ubiquitous in our environment and a growing body of research indicates that EDCs may adversely affect human development. Fetal development is particularly susceptible to EDC exposure, and prenatal care providers are being asked to educate women about the risks of…

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Gayle C.; Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD…

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Gayle C.; Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD…

  14. Alcohol intake in pregnancy increases the child's risk of atopic dermatitis. the COPSAC prospective birth cohort study of a high risk population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Giwercman Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis has increased four-fold over the recent decades in developed countries, indicating that changes in environmental factors associated with lifestyle may play an important role in this epidemic. It has been proposed that alcohol consumption may be one contributing risk factor in this development. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of alcohol intake during pregnancy on the development of atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life. METHOD: The COPSAC cohort is a prospective, longitudinal, birth cohort study of 411 children born to mothers with a history of asthma, followed up for 7 years with scheduled visits every 6 months as well as visits for acute exacerbations of atopic dermatitis. Risk of atopic dermatitis from any alcohol consumption during pregnancy was analyzed as time-to-diagnosis and adjusted for known risk factors. RESULTS: 177 of 411 children developed atopic dermatitis before age 7 years. We found a significant effect of alcohol intake during pregnancy on atopic dermatitis development (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99 p=0.024. This conclusion was unaffected after adjustment for smoking, mother's education and mother's atopic dermatitis. LIMITATIONS: The selection of a high-risk cohort, with all mothers suffering from asthma, and all children having a gestational age above 35 weeks with no congenital abnormality, systemic illness, or history of mechanical ventilation or lower airway infection. CONCLUSION: Alcohol intake by pregnant women with a history of asthma, is significantly associated with an increased risk for the child for developing atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life.

  15. PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS IN ORGANIC ACIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh SANEIFARD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic acidemias are the group of metabolic disorders which define by high anion gap metabolic acidosis, hypo or hyperglycemia & hyperammonemia.Because of the severity of disease in children and its fatality in severe form of disease and also need for life long treatment, prenatal diagnosis is an important diagnostic tool.Three approaches to prenatal diagnosis may be possible, including measurement of analytes in amniotic fluid or use of cells obtained by Choronic Villus sampling (CVS or amniocentesis to either assay enzyme activity or extract DNA for molecular genetic testing.Biochemical genetic testing: Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemia, biotin-unresponsive3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, glutaric acidemia type 1, ketothiolase deficiency, methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cblC type, and isovaleric acidemia is possible by analysis of amniotic fluid if highly accurate quantitative methods are used to measure the appropriate analytes. Amniocentesis is usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for MSUD is possible by measurement of enzyme activity in fetal cells obtained by chorionic villous sampling(CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks gestation or amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks gestation.(If cells from CVS are used, extreme care must be taken to assure that they are fetal rather than maternal cells.Molecular genetic testing:Prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk for all disorders is possible by analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells obtained by amniocentesis usually performed at approximately 15 to 18 weeks of gestation or chorionic villous sampling (CVS at approximately ten to 12 weeks of gestation. Both disease-causing allels of an affected family member must be identified before prenatal testing.Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD

  16. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Alcohol Consumption in Two Regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Christina D.; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Korzhynskyy, Yuriy; Ostapchuk, Lyubov; Akhmedzhanova, Diana; Chan, Priscilla H.; Xu, Ronghui; Wertelecki, Wladimir

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are thought to be a leading cause of developmental disabilities worldwide. However, data are lacking on alcohol use among pregnant women in many countries.. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption by pregnant women in Ukraine. Methods Cross sectional screening of pregnant women was conducted in two regions of Ukraine during the recruitment phase of an ongoing clinical study that is part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD). Women attending a routine prenatal visit at one of two participating regional centers were asked about alcohol consumption. Quantity and frequency of alcoholic beverages consumed in the month around conception and in the most recent month of pregnancy were measured using a standard interview instrument. Results Between 2007 and 2012, 11,909 pregnant women were screened on average in the second trimester of pregnancy. Of these, 92.7% reported being ever-drinkers. Among ever-drinkers, 54.8% reported drinking alcohol in the month around conception, and 12.9% consumed at least three drinks on at least one day in that time period. In the most recent month of pregnancy, 46.3% continued to report alcohol use and 9.2% consumed at least three drinks per day. Significant predictors of average number of drinks or heavier drinking per day in either time period in pregnancy included lower gravidity, being single, unmarried/living with a partner, or separated, lower maternal education, smoking, younger age at initiation of drinking and higher score on the TWEAK screening test for harmful drinking. Conclusions These findings support the need for education/intervention in women of childbearing age in Ukraine, and can help inform targeted interventions for women at risk of an alcohol exposed pregnancy. The initiation of a standard screening protocol in pregnancy is a step in the right direction. PMID:24834525

  18. Results of prenatal screening for fetal chromosome abnormality during the first trimester pregnancy in Guangzhou%广州市早孕期产前筛查胎儿染色体异常的结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许遵鹏; 李蓓; 廖灿; 孙茜; 白雪; 李东至

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficiency of first trimester prenatal screening for fetal chromosome abnormality using maternal serum marker test and/or plus nuchal translucency (NT) in Guangzhou region.Methods The results of prenatal screening were retrospectively analyzed among 43 703 women with singleton pregnancies from January 2007 to September 2012.A total of 43 703 pregnancies between 9 and 13+6 weeks of pregnancy were collected and analyzed for maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA),free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) with or without crownrump length (CRL).Nuchal translucency was measured by ultrasonographic scan between 11 and 13+6 weeks of pregnancy.Gestational age was estimated by ultrasonographic scan.The risk values of Down syndrome (DS) and trisomy 18 were calculated using the software Lifcycle.Comparing the difference between the combined screening (PAPPA,free β-hCG and NT) and serum marker screening (PAPPA and free β-hCG).Results Among the 43 703 pregnant women,screening showed that 1385 (3.17%) were Down syndrome positive and 55 (0.13%) were trisomy 18 positive.The final outcomes of pregnancy showed that 142 cases presented chromosomal abnormalities,of which 54 cases suffered from Down syndrome,13 had trisomy 18,and 75 had other chromosome abnormalities.The total detection rate of Down syndrome and trisomy 18 were 83.33% and 76.92%,respectively.The positive rate is lower,and the detection rate is higher in combined screening group than serum marker screening group.The median PAPPA MoM was lower and the median free β-hCG MoM and NT measured value was higher in Down syndrome pregnancies than control group.The median PAPPA and free β-hCG MoM were lower and the median NT measured value was higher in trisomy 18 pregnancies than control group.Conclusion The first trimester prenatal screening can effectively detect Down syndrome and trisomy 18 pregnancy.The combined screening method is superior to the serum

  19. Barriers to adequate prenatal care utilization in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Brown, Carolyn; Nu’usolia, Ofeira; Ah-Ching, John; Muasau-Howard, Bethel; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the utilization of prenatal care in American Samoan women and to identify socio-demographic predictors of inadequate prenatal care utilization. Methods Using data from prenatal clinic records, women (n=692) were categorized according to the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index as having received adequate plus, adequate, intermediate or inadequate prenatal care during their pregnancy. Categorical socio-demographic predictors of the timing of initiation of prenatal care (week of gestation) and the adequacy of received services were identified using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent samples t-tests. Results Between 2001 and 2008 85.4% of women received inadequate prenatal care. Parity (P=0.02), maternal unemployment (P=0.03), and both parents being unemployed (P=0.03) were negatively associated with the timing of prenatal care initation. Giving birth in 2007–2008, after a prenatal care incentive scheme had been introduced in the major hospital, was associated with earlier initiation of prenatal care (20.75 versus 25.12 weeks; Pprenatal care utilization in American Samoa is a major concern. Improving healthcare accessibility will be key in encouraging women to attend prenatal care. The significant improvements in the adequacy of prenatal care seen in 2007–2008 suggest that the prenatal care incentive program implemented in 2006 may be a very positive step toward addressing issues of prenatal care utilization in this population. PMID:24045912

  20. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her child’s genetic make-up, and changes in gene activity caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. NIH . . . Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www. niaaa. nih. gov • 301.443.3860 Interventions ...

  1. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag AC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Annika C Montag Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs are a collection of physical and neuro­behavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. Keywords: fetal alcohol-spectrum disorder (FASD, alcohol, pregnancy, screening, biomarkers, SBIRT

  2. Childbirth education prenatal simulation the influence of the first-time mothers pregnancy outcome%产前模拟分娩教育在初产妇妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢亚梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究产前模拟分娩教育对初产妇妊娠结局的影响。方法前瞻性选取我院2014年3月-2015年3月收治的初产妇患者,分别给予常规产前教育和产前模拟分娩教育,每组30例,并观察两组患者分娩方式与产程时间的变化情况。结果研究组初产妇产程时间明显低于对照组(P<0.05),研究组自然分娩率为70.00%明显高于对照组的20.00%(P<0.05),但研究组的阴道助产率、剖宫产率分别为16.67%、13.33%明显低于对照组的43.33%和36.67%(P<0.05)。结论产前模拟分娩教育可有效改善初产妇负面影响,提高自然分娩率,值得临床应用与推广。%Objective To explore the prenatal simulation childbirth education affect mothers pregnancy outcome. Methods A prospectie, select our hospital in March 2014-March 2015 patients of first-time mothers, were given routine prenatal education and prenatal simulation childbirth education, 30 cases in each group, and observed two groups of patients with the change of way of delivery and the labor time. Results The team primipara labor time significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05), the team with 70.00% natural births are significantly higher than 20.00%in the control group (P<0.05), but the team's rate of vaginal midwifery, cesarean section rate is respectively 16.67%, 13.33%, significantly lower than the control group of 43.33% and 43.33% (P<0.05). Conclusion Prenatal simulation childbirth education can effectively improve primipara negative effect, increase the natural births, worthy of clinical application and promotion.

  3. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen Markussen; Dalsgaard, Søren; Obel, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to examine the literature assessing the relationship between prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and psychosocial stress during pregnancy to the risk of developing behavioral problems related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD...... indicated a greater risk of ADHD-related disorders among children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Contradictory findings were reported in the alcohol studies, and no conclusion could be reached on the basis of the caffeine study. Results from studies on psychological stress during pregnancy were...... inconsistent but indicated a possible modest contribution to ADHD symptoms in the offspring. Many studies suffered from methodological shortcomings, such as recall bias, crude or inaccurate exposure assessments, low statistical power, and lack of or insufficient control of confounders. A general lack...

  4. Good Health Before Pregnancy: Preconception Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to start taking a prenatal vitamin supplement before pregnancy. Prenatal vitamin supplements contain all the recommended daily vitamins and ... pregnant. Can the medications I take affect my pregnancy? Some medications, including vitamin supplements, over-the-counter medications, and herbal remedies, ...

  5. Opiniones y creencias de embarazadas en control prenatal relacionadas con salud oral y embarazo Opinion and beliefs of pregnancy women in prenatal control related to oral health and pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos vitales son motivo de preguntas para la humanidad. La cultura popular da respuestas a éstas, no siempre científicamente, transformando las creencias en mitos. En salud oral, se cree que las embarazadas desarrollarían caries más fácilmente que la población general, considerándose normal que "por cada hijo se pierda un diente", y mujeres embarazadas no desean recibir atención odontológica por el daño que podría producir al feto el uso de anestésicos locales, hecho importante ante la carencia de información del bajo riesgo que poseen para el paciente éstos procedimientos por algunos médicos, quienes rehusan someter a embarazadas a tratamientos dentales. La cultura tiene una profunda relación en el estilo de vida, sociabilización y autoayuda, mecanismos de intervención que serían cimientos que basan la promoción en salud. La investigación busca conocer las ideas que posee un grupo de embarazadas en control prenatal, en torno a la salud oral y el embarazo. Fue confeccionada una encuesta con 5 preguntas cerradas, aplicándose a 65 embarazadas seleccionadas aleatoriamente. La muestra fue obtenida por conveniencia. El 98% de las encuestadas cree que durante el embarazo es necesario consultar al odontólogo, el 60% cree que el embarazo produce caries y el 70% cree que el embarazo puede producir pérdida de piezas dentarias. Se requieren más esfuerzos en educación durante el control prenatal para entregar conocimientos adecuados a las embarazadas en relación a salud oral y embarazo, incluyendo el factor cultural, que les permita mejorar las medidas de auto cuidado durante este período.Vital processes have created questions to humankind. People’s culture gives non-scientific response to some of it, changing beliefs into myths. Related to oral health, several cultures believe that pregnant women could suffer more frequently dental caries than general population, is considered normal that "by each one baby, mother lost

  6. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women and factors associated with maternal prenatal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Fatma; Akin, Semiha; Durna, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    To assess: (1) the prenatal distress level in Turkish pregnant women and (2) to examine the association between prenatal maternal distress and personal and pregnancy-specific factors. Pregnant women experience stress originating from a variety of pregnancy-specific issues, including physical symptoms and changes, changes in body image, physiological, social and emotional changes, parenting concerns, changes in relationships with significant others, medical problems, anxiety about labour and delivery, concerns about birth and the baby's health. A descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at a gynaecology clinic of a private hospital in Istanbul, Turkey within a 12-month period. The study sample comprised 522 pregnant women continuing their regular visits for prenatal care. Pregnancy Description Form and Turkish Version of Revised Version of Prenatal Distress Questionnaire [(NUPDQ)-17 Item Version] were used for data collection. Study sample was moderately distressed. Turkish pregnant women were mostly distressed and concerned about premature delivery, having an unhealthy baby, labour and delivery, feeling tired and having low energy during pregnancy. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women was associated with personal and pregnancy-related characteristics. This study found that pregnant women need to be supported emotionally, physically and socially. A better understanding of prenatal maternal distress could assist in informing healthcare professionals about the provision of physically, emotionally, socially and behaviourally appropriate support for achieving a healthy pregnancy. It is crucial for pregnant women to be regularly assessed and educated for dealing successfully with concerns and fears about prenatal period, birth and postnatal period and about difficulties that women may encounter during their pregnancy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  8. Analysis of prenatal screening results in 10 877 cases of pregnancy in Yanbian area%延边地区10877例孕中期产前筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    太莲淑

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨延边地区2012年10月~2014年9月期间的孕中期产前筛查在临床中的应用。方法:采用时间分辨荧光免疫分析法测定孕中期母血清中甲胎蛋白(AFP)、游离β人绒毛膜促性腺激素(free β-HCG)以及游离雌三醇(uE3)浓度,结合孕妇年龄、孕周及体重等因素,经配套的风险评估软件RISK-2T进行风险评估。结果:10877例孕妇共筛查出高风险449例,其中21-三体375例,18-三体23例,NTD 51例,高风险孕妇经医生产前咨询进行进一步产前诊断人数有251例,经上一级医院染色体核型分析的产前诊断确诊为真阳性数为15例,其中21-三体8例、18-三体4例,NTD高风险经B超诊断确诊3例。结论:孕中期产前筛查作为一种无创性检测手段,可以大大降低出生缺陷的发生。%Objective To study the application of prenatal screening in the mid-pregnancy which between October 2012 to September 2014 in Yanbian.Method Using the Time resolved fluoresecence immunoassay (TRFIA)determined the concentration of AFP、free β-HCG、uE3 in the mid-pregnancy.Combine the pregnant age、weight and other facts,assess the risks with RISK-2T software.Results 449 cases of high risks from 10 877 pregnancies which include 375 cases of Trisomy-21,23 cases of Tri-somy-18,51 cases of NTD,were screened out 251 cases of further prenatal diagnosis,15 cases of confirmed positive test result in Karyotype analysis.There were 8 cases of Trisomy-21、4 cases of Trisomy-18、3 cases of NTD among the positive cases in Kary-otype.Conclusion Prenatal screening in the mid-pregnancy is harmless and plays an objective role in reducing birth defects.

  9. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  10. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Genco Usta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal stress on psychopathology has been observed in many animal and human studies. In many studies, stress during prenatal period has been shown to result in negative feedback dysregulation and hyperactivity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prenatal stres also may cause increased risk of birth complications, startle or distress in response to novel and surprising stimuli during infancy; lower Full Scale IQs, language abilities and attention deficiency in period of 3-5 years; increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome, anxiety symptoms, depressive disorder and impulsivity during adolescence. Additionally, timing of prenatal stress is also important and 12-22 weeks of gestation seems to be the most vulnerable period. The results underline the need for early prevention and intervention programs for highly anxious women during pregnancy. Administration of prenatal stress monitoring to public health programs or removing pregnant women who have been exposed to life events such as natural disaster, terror attack to secure areas that provide basic needs may be crucial.

  11. Differential effects of the histamine H3 receptor agonist methimepip on dentate granule cell excitability, paired-pulse plasticity and long-term potentiation in prenatal alcohol-exposed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael K.; Rosenberg, Martina J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that prenatal alcohol-induced deficits in dentate gyrus (DG) long-term potentiation (LTP) are ameliorated by the histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist ABT-239. ABT-239 did not enhance LTP in control rats, suggesting a heightened H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamate release in prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE) offspring. As the modulation of glutamate release is one important facet of LTP, we examined the effect of methimepip, a histamine H3 receptor agonist, on DG granule cell excitability, glutamate release and LTP in control and PAE rats. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or 5% ethanol solution four hours daily throughout gestation. Male adult offspring were anesthetized with urethane and electrodes implanted into the entorhinal cortex and DG. PAE reduced coupling of excitatory post-synaptic field potentials to population spikes, an effect mimicked in control rats treated with 1 mg/kg methimepip. Methimepip decreased release probability in controls but not in PAE offspring. GABAergic feedback inhibition of granule cell responsiveness was not affected by either PAE or methimepip. PAE reduced LTP in the DG, another effect mimicked in methimepip-treated control rats. Again, methimepip did not exacerbate the PAE-induced LTP deficit. Thus, while methimepip treatment of control rats mimicked some baseline and activity-dependent deficits observed in saline-treated PAE offspring, methimepip treatment of PAE rats did not exacerbate these deficits. Whether the absence of an added methimepip effect in PAE offspring is a consequence of a “floor effect” for the responses measured or is due to differential drug dose responsiveness will require further investigation. Further, more detailed studies of H3 receptor-mediated responses in vitro may provide clearer insights into the role of the H3 receptor regulation of excitatory transmission at the perforant path - DG synapse in PAE rats. PMID:24818819

  12. Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of traditional and complementary health practices in prenatal, delivery and ... (THPs), i.e. herbalists, diviners and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on HIV, ... extend herbalists/diviners) play a significant role in pregnancy and postnatal ...

  13. Prenatal psychobiological predictors of anxiety risk in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A

    2012-08-01

    Experimental animal models have demonstrated that one of the primary consequences of prenatal stress is increased fear and anxiety in the offspring. Few prospective human studies have evaluated the consequences of prenatal stress on anxiety during preadolescence. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the consequences of prenatal exposure to both maternal biological stress signals and psychological distress on anxiety in preadolescent children. Participants included 178 mother-child pairs. Maternal psychological distress (general anxiety, perceived stress, depression and pregnancy-specific anxiety) and biological stress signals were evaluated at 19, 25, and 31 gestational weeks. Anxiety was evaluated in the children at 6-9 years of age using the Child Behavior Checklist. Analyses revealed that prenatal exposure to elevated maternal cortisol, depression, perceived stress and pregnancy-specific anxiety was associated with increased anxiety in children. These associations remained after considering obstetric, sociodemographic and postnatal maternal psychological distress; factors that could influence child development. When all of the prenatal measures were considered together, cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety independently predicted child anxiety. Children exposed to elevated prenatal maternal cortisol and pregnancy-specific anxiety were at an increased risk for developing anxiety problems during the preadolescent period. This project identifies prenatal risk factors associated with lasting consequences for child mental health and raises the possibility that reducing maternal distress during the prenatal period will have long term benefits for child well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. No association between prenatal exposure to psychotropics and intelligence at age five

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    /SAMPLE: A total of 1780 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. METHODS: Self-reported information on use of SSRI and anxiolytics was obtained from the Danish National Birth Cohort at the time of consent and from two prenatal interviews. Intelligence was assessed at age 5 years......, and parental education, maternal intelligence quotient (IQ), maternal smoking and alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the child's age at testing, sex, and tester were included in the full model. The IQ of 13 medication-exposed children was compared with the IQ of 19 children whose mothers had untreated...... depression and 1748 control children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised. RESULTS: In unadjusted analyses, children of mothers who used antidepressants or anxiolytics during pregnancy had higher verbal IQ; this association, however, was insignificant after...

  15. 中晚孕期染色体异常胎儿产前超声声像特征%Prenatal Ultrasonic Characteristics of Fetus with Chromosomal Abnormality in Middle and Last Trimester of Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦君; 石伟元; 廖敏兰; 彭旭红; 张彤; 阳敏; 颜海英

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the prenatal ultrasonic characteristics of fetus with chromosomal abnormality in middle and last trimester of pregnancy. [ Methods] The result of chromosomal test and prenatal ultrasonic characteristics of 29 fetuses with chromosomal abnormality in middle and last trimester of pregnancy were analyzed retrospectively, [Results] Among 29 fetuses with chromosomal abnormality, there were 5 cases of single deformity, 17 cases of multiple deformity, 5 cases of minor anomaly and 2 cases of no anomaly detected by prenatal ultrasonography. The abnormal rate of ultrasound was 93. 1% (27/29). Ultrasound minor a-nomaly was found in 18 fetal abnormalities, and the rate of ultrasound minor anomaly was 85. 2% (23/27). A-mong 10 fetuses with trisomy 18, prenatal ultrasonographic findings of 9 fetuses were multiple deformity mainly including nervous system abnormality(7/9) , heart abnormality(7/9) and abnormal hand posture(5/9) , and one case was fetal hydrops. Among 5 cases of trisomy 21, 3 cases had no structural malformation and only showed one or more ultrasonic minor anomaly, and 2 cases had no any abnormality. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of 3 fetuses with trisomy 13 were serious nervous system abnormality including holoprosen-cephaly in 2 cases and Dandy-Walker syndrome in other 1 case. The 45 X0 was found in 4 cases. Chromosomal structure abnormality was found in 7 cases. Heart abnormality or other abnormal ultrasound appearance were found in 3 cases(3/7). [Conclusion]The prenatal ultrasonography of fetus with chromosomal abnormality in middle and last trimester of pregnancy can mostly find abnormal image, in which multiple deformity is commonly seen. Most of them are accompanied by ultrasound minor abnormality. A part of fetuses with chromosomal abnormality have corresponding typical abnormal image.%[目的]探讨中晚孕期染色体异常胎儿产前超声声像表现特点.[方法]回顾性总结分析29例中晚孕期染色体异常胎

  16. High rates of same-sex attraction/gender nonconformity in the offspring of mothers with thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy: proposal of prenatal thyroid model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sabuncuoglu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65% males and 270 (35% females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8% were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2% had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test. The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test. There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring.

  17. CenteringPregnancy Smiles: A Community Engagement to Develop and Implement a New Oral Health and Prenatal Care Model in Rural Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Robert E.; Skelton, Judith; Mullins, M. Raynor; Langston, LeAnn; Womack, Sara; Morris, Jack; Martin, Dan; Brooks, Robert; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    CenteringPregnancy Smiles[TM] (CPS) is a partnership between the University of Kentucky, Trover Health System, and Hopkins County Health Department. The purpose of the partnership is to: (1) establish an infrastructure to address health problems requiring research-based solutions, (2) develop a model for community partnership formation, and (3)…

  18. Prenatal Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Do Not Affect Pregnancy or Childbirth Complications or Cesarean Delivery in Bangladesh: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Paul, Rina Rani; Hussain, Sohrab; Sarker, Mostofa; Hossain, Mokbul; Peerson, Janet M; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-09-01

    Background: Pregnancy and childbirth complications and cesarean delivery are common in Bangladesh.Objective: We evaluated the effect of lipid-based nutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women (LNS-PL) on pregnancy and childbirth complications and cesarean delivery.Methods: We conducted the Rang-Din Nutrition Study, a cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial within a community health program in rural Bangladesh. We enrolled 4011 pregnant women in early pregnancy. Women in 48 clusters received iron and folic acid (IFA; 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d) and women in 16 clusters received LNS-PL (20 g/d, 118 kcal) containing essential fatty acids and 22 vitamins and minerals. Pregnancy and childbirth complications and the cesarean delivery rate were secondary outcomes of the study.Results: Women in the LNS-PL group did not differ significantly from the IFA group with respect to mean systolic blood pressure at 36 wk gestation (113 and 112 mm Hg; P = 0.17), diastolic blood pressure at 36 wk gestation (68.9 and 68.7 mmHg; P = 0.88), or mean total number of pregnancy and childbirth complications (0.32 and 0.31; P = 0.86). They also did not differ significantly with respect to the prevalence of high blood pressure at 36 wk (1.74% and 2.03%; P = 0.62), antepartum hemorrhage (0.83% and 1.39%; P = 0.21), prolonged labor (8.34% and 8.79%; P = 0.68), early rupture of membranes (9.30% and 8.45%; P = 0.43), convulsions (1.57% and 1.08%; P = 0.24), high blood pressure in labor (1.54% and 1.19%; P = 0.46), obstructed labor (2.83% and 2.91%; P = 0.90), any complications during pregnancy or childbirth (35.9% and 37.1%; P = 0.64), episiotomy (6.31% and 6.44%; P = 0.90), or cesarean delivery (15.6% and 14.2%; P = 0.48).Conclusion: Compared with IFA, antenatal LNS-PL did not increase or decrease pregnancy and childbirth complications or cesarean delivery among women in rural Bangladesh. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715038. © 2017 American

  19. Correlation Between Biophysical Profile and Middle Cerebral/Umbilical Artery Resistance Index Ratio in the Assessment of Prenatal Outcome in High Risk Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Eshraghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Antenatal fetal surveillance tests have led to a significant decrease in perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, especially in high risk pregnancies (e.g placenta previa, intrauterine growth retardation. But there is no concurrence on the best and accurate modality yet. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of antenatal assessment with biophysical profile and Doppler sonography (cerebral and umbilical artery regarding fetal acidosis and asphyxia. "nMaterials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on fetuses of seventy women with a 28-42 week singleton pregnancy who had hypertension (pre eclampsia, diabetes mellitus or intra uterine growth retardation and were admitted as high risk pregnancies to AL-Zahra hospital. The study population routinely underwent sonographic evaluation of cerebral and umbilical arteries and a biophysical profile twice a week until the end of pregnancy. "nResults: Infants who had a lower score of biophysical profile, had a lower umbilical PH and a negative base deficit. Fetuses with a lower MCA/Umb. A RI had a higher base deficit and acidosis (measured from umbilical blood after birth. Apgar on minute 5 was higher in infants with a history of higher profile score as well as a higher MCA/Umb. A. RI ratio. On the other hand; there was no significant correlation between MCA RI and umbilical PH. Correlation between Umb. A. RI and umbilical PH was not significant either. "nConclusion: Biophysical profile and assessment of the umbilical and cerebral arteries are valuable modalities for predicting the fetal condition and the outcome in high risk pregnancies. MCA/Umb. A RI Index ratio is a better indicator compared to its components.

  20. The prenatal diagnosis value of chorionic villus sampling in early pregnancy%早孕期绒毛活检在产前诊断中的应用价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建芳; 徐慧; 燕凤; 刘淑娟; 宋晖; 陈必良

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨早孕期经腹绒毛活检在产前诊断中的应用价值及其安全性.方法 150例孕63-98天的孕妇经腹抽取绒毛组织,剪碎后部分原位培养进行染色体核型分析;部分直接低渗制片进行荧光原位杂交(FISH)分析.结果 150例患者中,培养及核型分析成功148例,成功率98.7%.FISH分析成功149例,成功率99.3%.共发现异常核型20例,包括染色体结构异常2例,常染色体三体6例,性染色体异常6例,染色体多态性5例,嵌合体1例.FISH与核型分析结果完全一致.除1例患者术后当天有少量阴道出血外,未发现明显的并发症.结论 早孕期经腹绒毛活检是一种安全可靠的产前诊断技术,对常见的染色体病和遗传病可做到早发现、早处理,减少中晚期引产的痛苦,避免缺陷儿的出生.%Objective; To investigate the prenatal diagnosis value and safety of chorionic villus sampling in early pregnancy. Methods: Villus specimens retrieved by Transabdominal chorionic villus sampling (TA -CVS) from 150 women pregnant 63 -98 days. Villus were cut to small pieces, some of which were cultured for karyotype analysis and the other were used for FISH. Results; 148 of 150 specimens succeeded for karyotype analysis and the achievement ratio is 98.1%. FISH were succeeded in 149 specimens and the achievement ratio is 99. 3%. There are 20 abnormal karyotype, including 2 structural chromosomal abnormality, 6 somatic chromosome abnormality, 6 sex chromosomal abnormality, 1 chimera and 5 chromosomal polymorphism. The FISH and karyotype is concor-dante. Severe complication is not detected except 1 vaginal bleeding. Conclusion: TA - CVS in early pregnancy is a safe and reliable prenatal diagnostic technique.

  1. A follow-up analysis of prenatal screening in 3651 cases on middle period pregnancy%3651例孕中期产前筛查孕妇随访结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚爱玲; 陈艳玲; 马爱军

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical application and value in prenatal screening of Down's syndrome and open nervous tube defect on middle period pregnancy.Methods: Serum samples were collected from 3651 pregnant women on middle period pregnancy (15 -20 +6 week) and free-β-human chorionic gonadot ropin (free-β-hCG) and alphafetoprotein (AFP) level were determined by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA, or DELFIA) method.Risk2T was used to calculate the risk rate of Down's syndrome (DS), 13/18 trisomy syndrome and open nervous tube defect (ONTD).Results: The calculated results show that 241, 20 and 30 cases were with high risk of DS, 13/18 trisomy syndrome and ONTD in 3651 test samples, respetively.After - birth visit on the highrisk pregnant women indicated that 5 births suffered DS, no birth suffered 13/18 trisomy syndrome and 2 births suffered ONTD.Among 3390 low-risk cases of DS, there was also one birth suffered DS.Conclusion: The results in this paper indicate that prenatal screening of middle period serum of pregnant women can reduce the risk of birth defects incidence.%目的 孕中期产前筛查在临床中的应用和意义.方法 应用时间分辨法,以血清AFP、free-β-HCG作为指标,对3651例孕15周~20周+6孕妇进行血清学产前筛查,Risk2T软件计算风险值.结果 检出唐氏综合征高危孕妇241例,随访发现5例唐氏综合症患儿,低危孕妇3390例,随访发现1例唐氏综合症患儿;检出13/18三体高危孕妇20例,随访未发现患儿;检出开放性神经管缺陷高危孕妇30例,随访发现2例无脑儿.结论 孕中期产前筛查可降低出生缺陷的发生.

  2. [The need of prenatal public health initiatives in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław J

    2012-11-01

    The author emphasizes the achievements of the Polish Gynecological Society in the field of improving the health indicators concerning perinatal mortality among infants during the last two decades in Poland. Attention is paid to the contribution of the members of the Society to organizational change in Polish health care after 1990, which resulted in the improvement of the care of mother and child. It is also underlined that the members of the Society contributed to the creation of early detection system of breast and cervical cancer in Poland. However it is noteworthy that in 'Polish Gynecology' - the publication of the Polish Gynecological Society - the number of reports devoted to risky health behaviors of women during periconceptional period and pregnancy is scarce. The author draws attention to the percentage of women who smoke cigarettes and consume alcohol before and during pregnancy Emphasis is also placed on the problem of nutritional disorders (mainly pathological methods of dieting) among Polish women during the reproductive period and in the first weeks of pregnancy (before the pregnancy is confirmed). These aspects may result in epigenetic changes shaping the phenotype of the offspring. The author refers to the Barker's theory of Developmental Origins of Adult Diseases and warns that the above-mentioned health behaviors of women may bring about negative effects for the offspring and future generations, namely susceptibility to chronic diseases: arterial hypertension, obesity type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Negative effects for the health of offspring may also result from low level of physical activity of women before and during pregnancy The author concludes that it is necessary to intensify the efforts of the Polish Gynecological Society in the area of prenatal public health.

  3. Umbilical Cord Mercury Concentration as Biomarker of Prenatal Exposure to Methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Poul J.

    2005-01-01

    biomarker, exposure assessment, food contamination, hair analysis, mercury/analysis, methylmercury compounds/analysis, organomercury compounds/blood, pregnancy, prenatal exposure delayed effects, preschool child, seafood, umbilical cord.......biomarker, exposure assessment, food contamination, hair analysis, mercury/analysis, methylmercury compounds/analysis, organomercury compounds/blood, pregnancy, prenatal exposure delayed effects, preschool child, seafood, umbilical cord....

  4. Out of sight, out of mind? A national survey of paediatricians in Ireland regarding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, I

    2017-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are one of the major causes of preventable developmental delay. There is no register of children with FASDs in Ireland. Up to 81% of Irish women report drinking alcohol during the periconceptual period or pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate self-reported knowledge and practice of doctors working in paediatrics in Ireland with regards to FASDs and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. We circulated a survey to all paediatric doctors in Ireland, either enrolled in specialist training or registered as trainers. Fifty-six respondents (31.3%) were unaware of the existence of FASDs. Sixty-two (34.6%) believed most patients with FASDs have dysmorphic features. Seventy-three respondents (40.8%) routinely ask about maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the context of developmental delay. Thirty-one respondents (17.3%) stated that mild alcohol intake in the third trimester of pregnancy is safe. Our survey suggests prenatal alcohol exposure may not be routinely considered in the evaluation of children with developmental delay by paediatric doctors in Ireland.

  5. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may recommend you have an invasive test, like amniocentesis , to confirm the results. Chorionic villus sampling (also ... done at 15 to 22 weeks of pregnancy. Amniocentesis (also called amnio). Tests the amniotic fluid from ...

  6. Prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation impact on biochemical indicators during pregnancy and postpartum Efecto de la suplementación prenatal con micronutrimentos múltiples en indicadores bioquímicos durante el embarazo y el posparto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando García-Guerra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis was to test the impact of daily supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MM during pregnancy on Zn, vitamin A and folate status compared to iron only (Fe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out during 1997-2000 in a semi-urban community in Morelos state, Mexico. Women were randomly assigned to MM (n= 249 or Fe (n= 258 and received supplements daily (6 d/wk under supervision by the field team from recruitment (approximately 9 weeks pregnancy until delivery. Blood samples were collected on a sub-sample of women at baseline, 32 weeks pregnancy and one month postpartum (1PP and assessed for serum zinc, retinol and whole blood folate (baseline and 1PP only. A breast milk sample was extracted at 1PP and assessed for retinol content. RESULT: At baseline there was no significant difference between supplementation groups in mean Zn, retinol or folate concentrations or the prevalence of deficiencies (Zn 12.2%, vitamin A 2.8%, folate 5.3%. Mean change in Zn and retinol concentrations from baseline to 32 weeks pregnancy did not differ between groups or between baseline and 1PP for Zn, retinol or folate. At 1PP, there was a tendency (p= 0.09 towards a lower prevalence of folate deficiency/depletion in the MM group (10.0% than the Fe group (18.5%. CONCLUSIONS: MM supplementation during pregnancy did not improve zinc or vitamin A status compared to Fe only. There is some indication that folate status may have improved with MM supplementation despite low prevalence of deficiency. While lack of response in serum retinol may be explained by generally adequate status, the lack of impact on zinc status requires further exploration.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación diaria con múltiples micronutrimentos (MM durante el embarazo en el estado de zinc, vitamina A y folato comparado con la suplementación sólo con hierro (Fe. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en una comunidad semiurbana en

  7. Prenatal exclusion of severe combined immunodeficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Levinsky, R J; Linch, D. C.; Beverly, C L; Rodeck, C.

    1982-01-01

    By analysing leucocyte subpopulations with monoclonal antisera, we have shown that the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency can be made soon after birth. The technique of staining has been adapted for small blood samples, and normal ranges of leucocyte subpopulations have been established for fetal blood taken from mid-trimester pregnancies. Using this information, we gave prenatal advice to an at risk family and predicted that the pregnancy would be normal; this was confirmed after ...

  8. 妊娠高血压疾病产前预测及预防%Prediction and Prevention in Prenatal Hypertension of Pregnancy Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴淑荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors and preventions of hypertension of pregnancy disease. Methods 30 cases of hypertension of pregnancy had predicted the risk factors,in order to be avoided the happening of the disease and prevented the complications. Results Total 30 patients were analyzed, 9 cases were adopt artificial midwifery,21 cases were adopt cesarean section. Conclusion The effective prevention and treatment intervention are given in early pregnancy,in order to prevent the happening of the complications caused by disease.%目的:探讨妊娠期高血压疾病有关的危险因素及预防。方法对妊娠期高血压疾病患者30例进行高危因素预测,避免疾病的发生及预防疾病所致并发症的发生。结果30例患者,生产时行人工助产9例,剖宫产21例。结论早期妊娠时需发挥有效的预防和治疗干预,清楚了解疾病的病因并避免疾病的发生。

  9. Family structure and use of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Martins, Simone; Barros, Henrique

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04), an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02), and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively). The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  10. Family structure and use of prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04, an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02, and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively. The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80,552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism.......To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism....

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163096.html Fetal Alcohol Syndrome a Global Problem: Report Countries with highest alcohol use during pregnancy include Belarus, Britain, Denmark, Ireland ...

  13. Perfil de adolescentes com repetição da gravidez atendidas num ambulatório de pré-natal Perfil de las adolescentes con repetición del embarazo atendidas en un ambulatorio de prenatal Profile of adolescents with repeated pregnancies attended at a prenatal clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Persona

    2004-10-01

    ; y ausencia a la revisión pos-parto anterior.This study identified the biopsychosocial profile of adolescent with repeated pregnancies, who were attended at a prenatal clinic. Data were collected through patient records and interviews and were subject to quantitative analysis. Based on the obtained results and in accordance with literature, factors that are strongly associated with the occurrence of pregnancy repetition were selected in the adolescents' profiles. These are: early menarche; first sexual intercourse shortly after menarche; school repetition; school dropout; non remunerated occupation; low family income; involvement with older partners; living with the partner; consensual union with the partner; one partner; low condom use; family history of adolescent pregnancy; father's absence because of death or abandonment; positive family reaction to previous pregnancy; previous abortion; adolescent's positive concepts about previous delivery; and absence from previous postpartum consultations.

  14. 内蒙古地区孕中期产前筛查研究分析%ANALYSIS OF PRENATAL SCREENING OF MID PREGNANCY WOMEN IN INNER MONGOLIA REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武艾宁; 赵晓曦; 于荣鑫

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the positive rate of birth defects through the serological screening results of the pregnant metaphase women in our hospital,and provide prenatal intervention evidence for reducing birth defects. Methods:Full automatic time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay ( DELFIA ) was used in serum examination of mid pregnancy women, and using the Lifecycle risk assessment software to calculate the risk rate of 21-three body syndrome ( DS ) , 18-three body syndrome ( Edward) , neural tube defects ( NTD ) and other defects of fetus, ultrasound and amniotic fluid karyotype detection would be done in the pregnant women with high-risk for further diagnosis. Results:251 cases were detected with high-risk in 8100 cases,the positive rate was 3. 09%. 18 and 21-three body syndrome and NTD screening positive rate was 2 . 21% ( 179/8100 ) , 0 . 35% ( 28/8100 ) and 0. 54%(44/8100) respectively. Through the prenatal diagnosis,the results confirmed 21-three body syndrome in 3 cases,1 case of NTD,1 case of 13-three body syndrome and 1 case of inversion between the arms in 251 cases with high-risk. 1 case of DS was leakage screen after follow-up for low-risk pregnant women. Conclusion:21-three body syndrome(DS)has high incidence of birth defects,mid pregnancy prenatal serological screening is one of the important means to predict birth defects and has important clinical value to reduce birth defects.%目的::通过对我院孕中期孕妇的血清学筛查结果进行分析,探讨出生缺陷的阳性检出率特征,为最大限度降低出生缺陷率提供产前干预依据。方法:采用全自动时间分辨荧光免疫分析法( DELFIA)对孕中期孕妇血清进行三联筛查,利用美国Lifecycle风险评估软件计算21-三体综合征( Down`s sgndrome DS)、18-三体综合征( Edward)、神经管畸形( neural tube defects NTD)等缺陷在胎儿中的风险率,高风险者进一步行B超检查、羊水核型检测等方法进行

  15. 产前超声监测羊水量不均衡双胎妊娠的临床价值%Value of prenatal surveillances of ultrasonography in twin pregnancies with amniotic fluid discordance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 吴瑛; 王慧芳; 谭喜平; 甘晗靖; 林琪; 焦阳; 熊奕; 姜燕; 张辉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the values of prenatal surveillances of ultrasonography in twin pregnancies with amniotic fluid discordance. Methods Two hundred and seventy cases of diamniotic twins were included. Both postnatal outcomes and prenatal amniotic fluid discordant variations were analyzed,and the incidences of amniotic fluid discordance were compared between the monochorionic-diamniotic(MCDA)and dichorionic-diamniotic (DCDA) gruop. Results Twenty four cases of twins with amniotic fluid discordance were found in the study. The incidence of amniotic fluid discordance in MCDA group was much higher than that in DCDA group (28.9% vs 5.6%, P <0. 001 ) ,and 24 cases of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) were diagnosed in the former group and none were found in the latter group. Downward tendency of amniotic fluid discordance was shown in non-TTTS cases of MCDA group. Compared with TTTS cases, the postnatal outcomes of non-TTTS cases with amniotic fluid discordance were much better in MCDA group ( P <0.001 ). Conclusions TTTS and MCDA twins with amniotic fluid discordance may overlap each other in the early stage. Serial surveillances of ultrasonography are necessary for prenatal differentiating twin pregnancies complicated by amniotic fluid discordance,and providing strong support to clinical treament.%目的 探讨产前超声监测羊水量不均衡双胎的临床价值.方法 分析270例双羊膜囊双胎中单绒毛膜双羊膜囊双胎(monochorionic-diamniotic twin,MCDA)与双绒毛膜双羊膜囊双胎(dichorionicdiamniotic twin,DCDA)羊水量不均衡的发生率,妊娠过程中羊水量变化趋势及与妊娠结局的关系.结果 共45例双胎间羊水量不均衡,MCDA组37例,其中24例为双胎输血综合征(twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome,TTTS);DCDA组8例,无TTTS发生.MCDA组羊水量不均衡的发生率明显高于DCDA组(P<0.001).MCDA组中羊水量不均衡的非TTTS双胎,羊水量的差异随孕周增加呈减少趋势,且

  16. Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD? Study underscores importance of good prenatal nutrition To ... during pregnancy could influence a child's risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study warns. Researchers found that ...

  17. Prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Simona; Basevi, Vittorio; Gagliotti, Carlo; Spettoli, Daniela; Gori, Gianfranco; D'Amico, Roberto; Magrini, Nicola

    2015-10-23

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways, which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. The overall quality of the two studies, as assessed using the GRADE approach, was low, with high risk of detection and attrition bias in both included trials.One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. This trial did not report on any of the review's pre-specified primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes reported results only as P values. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were also high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a

  18. Inadequate use of prenatal services among Brazilian women: the role of maternal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Diego G; Surkan, Pamela J; Olinto, Maria Teresa A

    2009-03-01

    To improve the uptake of prenatal care, it is important to know how the use of prenatal care varies by maternal attitudes and social and demographic factors. Information about social and demographic variables, prenatal care, parity, pregnancy planning, abortion attempts, satisfaction with pregnancy and satisfaction with the relationship with the child's father was collected from 611 postpartum women in Porto Alegre in southern Brazil. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between these variables and whether the women's use of prenatal care was adequate, partially inadequate or inadequate. About 40% of women had inadequate or partially inadequate prenatal care. After adjustment for other covariates, including satisfaction with the pregnancy, women having an unplanned pregnancy were significantly more likely to have had inadequate care than women who had planned their pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.0). Not living with the child's father (2.8) and dissatisfaction with pregnancy (2.1) were also associated with inadequate use of prenatal care. Women having their second or higher order birth were significantly more likely to report inadequate use of prenatal care than women having their first birth (3.9-9.0). Household income was inversely associated with inadequate use of care. The study suggests that maternal attitudes may be important for adequate prenatal care. Interventions should be created to encourage women with negative maternal attitudes to use prenatal care and to ensure that they have access to the care they need.

  19. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  20. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Ornoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.

  1. Prenatal nutrition and early childhood behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.J. Steenweg-de Graaff (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis focuses on the relation between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring emotional and behavioural development within the general population. The studies described in this thesis explore whether the maternal prenatal diet as a whole, as well as maternal blood con

  2. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, ``Review of the Prenatal Alcohol in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome And Stillbirth (PASS)...

  3. Development of prenatal event history calendar for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chin Hwa Gina; Lori, Jody; Martyn, Kristy

    2008-01-01

    To identify psychosocial factors that Black women think should be addressed in prenatal care assessment and develop a Prenatal Event History Calendar to assess these factors. A qualitative descriptive study. Two inner city hospital prenatal care clinics in Southeastern Michigan. Twenty-two Black women who had attended at least 2 prenatal care visits. Three focus groups were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Using the constant comparative method of analysis (Glaser, 1978, 1992) themes were identified that were relevant to Black women during prenatal care visits. The women in this study wanted to talk with their providers about psychosocial factors and not just the physical aspects of pregnancy. To "go off the pregnancy" represents pregnant women's desire to discuss psychosocial factors that were important to them during prenatal care. Five themes emerged from the data and were used to develop categories for the Prenatal Event History Calendar: relationships, stress, routines, health history perceptions, and beliefs. One vital component of prenatal care assessment is assessing for psychosocial risk factors. Prenatal Event History Calendar was specifically developed to provide a comprehensive and contextually linked psychosocial risk assessment for use with pregnant Black women.

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis of Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Johnson, Candice Y.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Correa, Adolfo; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in nearly 1% of live births. We sought to assess factors associated with prenatal CHD diagnosis in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). Methods We analyzed data from mothers with CHD-affected pregnancies from 1998–2005. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was defined as affirmative responses to questions about abnormal prenatal ultrasounds and/or fetal echocardiography obtained during a structured telephone interview. Results Fifteen percent (1,097/7,299) of women with CHD-affected pregnancies (excluding recognized syndromes and single-gene disorders) reported receiving a prenatal CHD diagnosis. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was positively associated with advanced maternal age, family history of CHD, type 1 or type 2 diabetes, twin or higher order gestation, CHD complexity and presence of extracardiac defects. Prenatal CHD diagnosis was inversely associated with maternal Hispanic race/ethnicity, prepregnancy overweight or obesity, and pre-existing hypertension. Prenatal CHD diagnosis varied by time to NBDPS interview and NBDPS study site. Conclusions Further work is warranted to identify reasons for the observed variability in maternal reports of prenatal CHD diagnosis and the extent to which differences in health literacy or health system factors such as access to specialized prenatal care and/or fetal echocardiography may account for such variability. PMID:24222433

  5. Maternal Prenatal Mental Health and Placental 11β-HSD2 Gene Expression: Initial Findings from the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Wellbeing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaina Seth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High intrauterine cortisol exposure can inhibit fetal growth and have programming effects for the child’s subsequent stress reactivity. Placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD2 limits the amount of maternal cortisol transferred to the fetus. However, the relationship between maternal psychopathology and 11β-HSD2 remains poorly defined. This study examined the effect of maternal depressive disorder, antidepressant use and symptoms of depression and anxiety in pregnancy on placental 11β-HSD2 gene (HSD11B2 expression. Drawing on data from the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Wellbeing Study, placental HSD11B2 expression was compared among 33 pregnant women, who were selected based on membership of three groups; depressed (untreated, taking antidepressants and controls. Furthermore, associations between placental HSD11B2 and scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS during 12–18 and 28–34 weeks gestation were examined. Findings revealed negative correlations between HSD11B2 and both the EPDS and STAI (r = −0.11 to −0.28, with associations being particularly prominent during late gestation. Depressed and antidepressant exposed groups also displayed markedly lower placental HSD11B2 expression levels than controls. These findings suggest that maternal depression and anxiety may impact on fetal programming by down-regulating HSD11B2, and antidepressant treatment alone is unlikely to protect against this effect.

  6. Comparison of prenatal ultrasound screening results and fetal health status of twin pregnancy and twin pregnancy in assisted reproductive technology%辅助生殖技术受孕双胎与自然受孕双胎的产前超声筛查结果及胎儿的健康状况比较观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋华景; 郭津含; 陈静; 林丽璇; 熊剑

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the prenatal ultrasound screening results and fetal health status of twin pregnancy and twin pregnancy in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Methods 90 cases of pregnant women with twin pregnancy after ART from January 2011 to June 2015 were selected as observation group, 100 cases of spontaneous twin pregnant women were selected as control group. The relevant data of prenatal ultrasound examination and fetal situation were collected, and pregnancy outcome of the two groups were compared. Results Polyhydramnios, umbilical cord around the neck, the incidence of premature rupture of membranes rate, placenta previa incidence, anemia rate and postpartum hemorrhage incidence of the two groups had no significant difference (P 0.05). Twin transfusion syndrome incidence of observation group was significantly lower than that of control group (P 0.05). The average body weight of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group (P <0.05). Conclusion ART twin pregnancy does not increase the risk of perinatal complications. Compared to natural pregnancy, it has obvious advantages on amniotic fluid abnormalities, changes in the umbilical cord and the twin transfusion syndrome.%目的:比较辅助生殖技术受孕双胎与自然受孕双胎的产前超声筛查结果及胎儿的健康状况。方法选取2011年1月~2015年6月期间在我院应用辅助生殖技术(ART)怀孕双胎90例孕妇设为观察组,及同期自然受孕双胎100例孕妇为参照组,收集产前超声检测得到的相关数据以及胎儿情况,对比分析并比较两组的妊娠结局。结果两组在羊水过多、脐带绕颈发生率、胎膜早破发生率、前置胎盘发生率、贫血发生率和产后出血发生率等方面比较无显著差异(P<0.05);观察组平均羊水量显著多于参照组,羊水过少、脐带附着位置变化发生率显著低于参照组(P<0.05)。两组患者胎儿畸形率、

  7. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Developmental Alcohol-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its damaging consequences on the developing infant brain are significant public health, social, and economic issues. The major distinctive features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans are cognitive and behavioral dysfunction due to damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which results in a continuum of disarray that is collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Many rodent models have been developed to understand the mechanisms of and to reproduce the human FASD phenotypes. These animal FASD studies have provided several molecular pathways that are likely responsible for the neurobehavioral abnormalities that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure of the developing CNS. Recently, many laboratories have identified several immediate, as well as long-lasting, epigenetic modifications of DNA methylation, DNA-associated histone proteins and microRNA (miRNA biogenesis by using a variety of epigenetic approaches in rodent FASD models. Because DNA methylation patterns, DNA-associated histone protein modifications and miRNA-regulated gene expression are crucial for synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, they can therefore offer an answer to many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities that are found in FASD. In this review, we briefly discuss the current literature of DNA methylation, DNA-associated histone proteins modification and miRNA and review recent developments concerning epigenetic changes in FASD.

  8. Ceramide is involved in alcohol-induced neural proliferation****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixin Wang; Tongxing Deng; Jiexin Deng; Jinbo Deng; Xiaoqun Gao; Yuanyuan Shi; Bin Liu; Zhanyou Ma; Haixiao Jin

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure, especial y during early pregnancy, can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome. The pharmacological and toxicological mechanisms of ethanol are related to the effects of ceramide. In this study, we established an alcohol exposure model in wild-type mice and in knockout mice for the key enzyme involved in ceramide metabolism, sphingomyelin synthase 2. This model received daily intragastric administration of 25%ethanol, and pups were used at postnatal days 0, 7, 14, 30 for experiments. Serology and immunofluorescence staining found that ethanol exposure dose-dependently reduced blood sphingomyelin levels in two genotypes of pups, and increased neural cel proliferation and the number of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Western blot analysis showed that the relative expression level of protein kinase C α increased in two notypes of pups after ethanol exposure. Compared with wild-type pups, the expression level of the important activator protein of the ceramide/ceramide-1-phosphate pathway, protein kinase Cα, was reduced in the hippocampus of sphingomyelin synthase 2 knockouts. Our findings il ustrate that ceramide is involved in alcohol-induced neural proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of pups after prenatal ethanol exposure, and the mechanism may be associated with increased pression of protein kinase Cαactivating the ceramide/ceramide-1-phosphate pathway.

  9. Parental adaptation to termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenromp, Marijke José

    2006-01-01

    The expanding use of prenatal diagnosis and improvements in prenatal screening lead to an increasing number of fetal abnormalities diagnosed in early pregnancy. While the majority of parents who have opted for prenatal diagnosis will be reassured that their child does not have the anomaly the test w

  10. Stress: pregnancy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    Stress-induced pregnancy complications represent a significant cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality due to preterm labor, low-birth-weight babies, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and neuropsychological developmental delays of affected offspring. Psychosocial factors such as socioeconomic status, work status, marital status, level of education, access to prenatal care, substance abuse, ethnicity, cultural background, and quality of relationships with partners and parents have been identified as determinants of stress during pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model of health and disease aptly explains the interactions of these psychosocial factors in the genesis of stress-induced pregnancy complications. Prenatal screening and intervention for relevant biopsychosocial risk factors may be useful in preventing stress-related perinatal complications. Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians. After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to describe how stress is manifested biologically, discuss stress and its impact from the biopsychosocial model of health and disease, recognize how stress may lead to pregnancy complications such as preterm labor, preeclampsia, and low-birth-weight infants, explain how stress may impact the neuropsychological development of children whose mothers experienced perinatal stress, and demonstrate how prenatal screening and appropriate interventions may reduce perinatal stress and associated pregnancy complications.

  11. 孕中期产前筛查母血清标志物中位数分析%Analysis on medians of serum markers in prenatal screening during the second trimester of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊国萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the results of serum markers in prenatal triple screening during the second trimester of pregnancy among normal pregnant women in the region, explore the applicability of medians embedded into current software used for Downs syndrome screening. Methods: Chemiluminescence was used to detect the levels of serum alpha — fetoprotein (AFP) , p — human chorionic gonadotro-pin ((3-HCG) , and free estriol in 2 384 pregnant women atl4-21+6 gestational weeks, the medians were determined according to gesta-tional age, then the results were compared with software embedded medians. Results; There was significant difference between the medians of serum markers of normal pregnant women in the region and software embedded medians (AFP; P 0.05) . Conclusion: The laboratories in different regions should establish their own criteria for medians of serum markers to improve the quality of prenatal screening.%目的:回顾性分析该地区正常孕妇孕中期母血清产前三联筛查结果,探讨目前采用的唐氏筛查软件内嵌中位数的适用性.方法:采用化学发光法对2 384例(14~21+6周)孕妇血清中甲胎蛋白(AFP)、人绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)和游离雌三醇(uE3)进行检测,分别按孕龄确定其中位数并与软件内嵌中位数进行比较.结果:该地区正常孕妇血清标志物的中位数与软件给定的中位数有差异(P值:AFP<0.05,uE3 <0.01,β-HCG>0.05).结论:各地区实验室应建立自己的中位数标准,从而提高产前筛查质量.

  12. Sequential screening for psychosocial and behavioural risk during pregnancy in a population of urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, M; Gantz, M G; El-Khorazaty, M N; El-Mohandes, A A E

    2013-10-01

    Screening for psychosocial and behavioural risks, such as depression, intimate partner violence, and smoking, during pregnancy is considered to be state of the art in prenatal care. This prospective longitudinal analysis examines the added benefit of repeated screening, compared with a single screening, in identifying such risks during pregnancy. Data were collected as part of a randomised controlled trial to address intimate partner violence, depression, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in African American women. Prenatal care sites in the District of Columbia serving mainly women of minority background. A cohort of 1044 African American pregnant women in the District of Columbia. Mothers were classified by their initial response (acknowledgement of risks), and these data were updated during pregnancy. Risks were considered new if they were not previously reported. Standard hypothesis tests and logistic regression were used to predict the acknowledgment of any new risk(s) during pregnancy. New risks: psychosocial variables to understand what factors might help identify the acknowledgement of additional risk(s). Repeated screening identified more mothers acknowledging risk over time. Reported smoking increased by 11%, environmental tobacco smoke exposure increased by 19%, intimate partner violence increased by 9%, and depression increased by 20%. The psychosocial variables collected at the baseline that were entered into the logistic regression model included relationship status, education, Medicaid, illicit drug use, and alcohol use during pregnancy. Among these, only education less than high school was associated with the acknowledgement of new risk in the bivariate analyses, and significantly predicted the identification of new risks (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.90). It is difficult to predict early on who will acknowledge new risks over the course of pregnancy, and thus all women should be screened repeatedly to allow for the identification of risks

  13. A Prenatal Case Report with Patau Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Balkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, prenatal diagnosis and elective pregnancy termination have affected the reported birth prevalence of trisomies. Trisomy 13, or Patau syndrome, represents the third autosomic trisomy in order of frequency, after trisomy 21 (Down syndrome and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome, with a prevalence at birth estimated as between 1:12000 and 1:29000. In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and clinic assessment in fetus of a woman at 22 weeks gestation, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with abnormal triple test result, omphalosel and hydrocephaly. We performed the cordocentesis and pedigree analysis. We found a karyotype (47,XY,+13 in fetus. Because individuals of the family didn’t want, we were not followed the pregnancy prognosis for the mother and the fetus. We were recommending to the prenatal diagnosis for their further pregnancies.

  14. [Coverage characterization of pre-natal in Maranhão State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Geny Rose Cardoso; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa; Gama, Mônica Elinor Alves; Coelho, Leidyane Silva Caldas; da Costa, Andreia Susana Vieira; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to characterize the coverage of prenatal care in the State of Maranhão. A population-based study, descriptive in 30 municipalities of the State of Maranhão, with 2075 women of childbearing age, with previous pregnancy, from July 2008 to Januray 2009. The results demonstrated that the units of family health accounted for 45.9% of the care of pregnant women and that 46.8% reported carrying out consultations six or more prenatal care during last pregnancy and 64.6% started prenatal in the first three months of pregnancy. The coverage of prenatal care, without regard to adequacy, was 85.6%, however, when considering the coverage of adequate prenatal as established by Brazilian Health Ministry was 43.4%. Although coverage of prenatal above 80%, less than half is considered adequate, showing a gap in primary care quality.

  15. CDC Signos Vitales-Alcohol y embarazo ¿Por qué correr el riesgo? (Alcohol and Pregnancy: Why Take the Risk?)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-02

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de febrero del 2016 del informe de Signos Vitales de los CDC. Más de 3 millones de mujeres en los EE. UU. tienen riesgo de exponer a su bebé en gestación al alcohol. Beber alcohol durante el embarazo puede causar discapacidades físicas, del comportamiento e intelectuales que pueden afectar a los niños de por vida. Sepa qué se puede hacer para mantener a los bebés en gestación sanos.  Created: 2/2/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2016.

  16. Individual and familial factors associated with teenage pregnancy: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldre, Kai; Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2009-06-01

    The determinants of teenage sexual health, including pregnancies, can be addressed from social, familial and individual level perspectives. The main objective of this study was to examine whether pregnancy among 18 years old and younger girls were associated with selected individual (age at coitarche, score of sexual health knowledge, dislike of school) and family (mother's education) and family functioning (alcohol abuse in the family, parents' acceptance of sexual relationship) characteristics. An interview survey in two medical institutions in Estonia among 279 18 year old and younger girls, who: (i) used contraception, had been sexually active for at least 6 months and had not pregnancies--(148 girls); (ii) came for termination of pregnancy--abortion group; (iii) planned to deliver and came for prenatal care--delivery group. The last two groups were analysed together as the 'pregnancy group'--131 girls. Multivariate analysis, by means of logistic regression models, was used to explore whether the associations were sustained after adjusting for other variables. Crude odds ratios (ORs), adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, with girls having no pregnancies as the reference group. Risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy were low score of sexual health knowledge (adjusted ORs 3.07; 95% CIs 1.73-5.46), dislike of school (adjusted ORs 1.96; 95% CIs 1.08-3.54), alcohol abuse by family members (adjusted ORs 2.03; 95% CIs 1.16-3.54). Sexual knowledge of teenagers, their attitude towards school, alcohol abuse in the family are factors associated with teenage pregnancies.

  17. 1560例孕中期妇女血清学产前筛查结果分析%Analysis on the maternal serum prenatal screening results of 1560 pregnant women during the second trimester of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂志华; 黄慈丹; 杨春; 朱晓妹; 周小婉; 王洁

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨孕中期妇女血清学产前筛查唐氏综合征、18-三体综合征、开放性神经管畸形筛查结果的特点,为临床服务提供参考数据.方法 采用时间分辨免疫荧光法检测孕中期妇女血清uE3、游离-hCG、AFP含量,结合孕妇年龄、体重等信息,通过Lifecycle3.2软件评估胎儿唐氏综合征、18-三体综合征、开放性神经管畸形高危与否.孕妇产后两个月内回访妊娠结局.结果 唐氏综合征高风险阳性率为5.32%,1例高风险阳性确诊唐氏综合征;18-三体综合征高风险阳性率为0.90%;开放性神经管畸形高风险阳性率为0.64%.唐氏综合征高风险阳性率海南省妇幼保健院与合作医院比较,差异有统计学意义(x2=4.72,P< 0.05),35岁及以上组孕妇高于35岁以下组,两者差异有显著统计学意义(x2=70.63,P<0.01),35岁以下组高风险阳性率也达3.71%.结论 多单位协作进行产前筛查时,应重视标本采集、运送等规范操作;每个年龄段的孕妇均应重视产前筛查.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of prenatal screening results for Down's syn drome (DS), Edward's syndrome (ES) and open neural tube defects (ONTD), and to provide reference for clin ical service. Methods Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was used to detect the count of uE3, free-β-hCG, AFP in serum of pregnant women during the second trimester. The software Lifecycle3.2 was used to calculate the risk values of DS, ES, ONTD by importing the data of uE3, free-β-hCG, AFP, age, body weight, et al. The pregrant women were followed up 2 months after postpartum for pregnancy outcome. Results The positive rate of the high risk DS was 5.32%. One case of the high risk DS was diagnosed definitely. The positive rate of high risk ES was 0.90%, and the positive rate of high risk ONTD was 0.64%. The positive rates of high risk DS of Hainan Provincial Maternity and Child Health Hospital and cooperation hospitals were

  18. Control Prenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Susana Aguilera, DRA.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Los principales objetivos del control prenatal son identificar aquellos pacientes de mayor riesgo, con el fin de realizar intervenciones en forma oportuna que permitan prevenir dichos riesgos y así lograr un buen resultado perinatal. Esto se realiza a través de la historia médica y reproductiva de la mujer, el examen físico, la realización de algunos exámenes de laboratorio y exámenes de ultrasonido. Además es importante promover estilos de vida saludables, la suplementación de ácido fólico, una consejería nutricional y educación al respecto.

  19. The relationship between social capital, social support and the adequate use of prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Lamarca, Gabriela de Almeida; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social capital and social support and the adequate use of prenatal care. A follow-up study involving 1,485 pregnant women was conducted in two cities in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, social support and social capital data were collected during the first trimester of pregnancy. The post-partum period included information on levels of prenatal care utilization, social networks, parity, obstetric and gestational risk and prenatal care attendance. Hierarchized multinomial logistic regression was used in the statistical analysis. Prenatal care use above adequate levels was associated with high social capital at the city level (aggregated social capital), socioeconomic status and working during pregnancy. Lower non-aggregated contextual and compositional social capital, gestational risk and pattern of prenatal care were associated with inadequate prenatal care utilization. Contextual social capital and social support were found to be social determinants for the appropriate use of prenatal care.

  20. Child maltreatment and foster care: unpacking the effects of prenatal and postnatal parental substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana K; Johnson, Amber B; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; DeGarmo, David S

    2007-05-01

    Parental substance use is a well-documented risk for children. However, little is known about specific effects of prenatal and postnatal substance use on child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions. In this study, the authors unpacked unique effects of (a) prenatal and postnatal parental alcohol and drug use and (b) maternal and paternal substance use as predictors of child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions in a sample of 117 maltreated foster care children. Models were tested with structural equation path modeling. Results indicated that prenatal maternal alcohol use predicted child maltreatment and that combined prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use predicted foster care placement transitions. Prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use also predicted postnatal paternal alcohol and drug use, which in turn predicted foster care placement transitions. Findings highlight the potential integrative role that maternal and paternal substance use has on the risk for child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions.