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Sample records for predicted co-receptor usage

  1. Current V3 genotyping algorithms are inadequate for predicting X4 co-receptor usage in clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Andrew J; Dong, Winnie; Chan, Dennison; Sing, Tobias; Swanstrom, Ronald; Jensen, Mark; Pillai, Satish; Good, Benjamin; Harrigan, P Richard

    2007-09-12

    Integrating CCR5 antagonists into clinical practice would benefit from accurate assays of co-receptor usage (CCR5 versus CXCR4) with fast turnaround and low cost. Published HIV V3-loop based predictors of co-receptor usage were compared with actual phenotypic tropism results in a large cohort of antiretroviral naive individuals to determine accuracy on clinical samples and identify areas for improvement. Aligned HIV envelope V3 loop sequences (n = 977), derived by bulk sequencing were analyzed by six methods: the 11/25 rule; a neural network (NN), two support vector machines, and two subtype-B position specific scoring matrices (PSSM). Co-receptor phenotype results (Trofile Co-receptor Phenotype Assay; Monogram Biosciences) were stratified by CXCR4 relative light unit (RLU) readout and CD4 cell count. Co-receptor phenotype was available for 920 clinical samples with V3 genotypes having fewer than seven amino acid mixtures (n = 769 R5; n = 151 X4-capable). Sensitivity and specificity for predicting X4 capacity were evaluated for the 11/25 rule (30% sensitivity/93% specificity), NN (44%/88%), PSSM(sinsi) (34%/96%), PSSM(x4r5) (24%/97%), SVMgenomiac (22%/90%) and SVMgeno2pheno (50%/89%). Quantitative increases in sensitivity could be obtained by optimizing the cut-off for methods with continuous output (PSSM methods), and/or integrating clinical data (CD4%). Sensitivity was directly proportional to strength of X4 signal in the phenotype assay (P < 0.05). Current default implementations of co-receptor prediction algorithms are inadequate for predicting HIV X4 co-receptor usage in clinical samples, particularly those X4 phenotypes with low CXCR4 RLU signals. Significant improvements can be made to genotypic predictors, including training on clinical samples, using additional data to improve predictions and optimizing cutoffs and increasing genotype sensitivity.

  2. Trofile HIV co-receptor usage assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Andrew J; McGovern, Rachel A; Harrigan, P Richard

    2009-03-01

    The introduction of CCR5 antagonists increases the options available for constructing therapeutic drug regimens for HIV-positive patients. However, as these drugs do not inhibit HIV variants that use the CXCR4 co-receptor, a pretreatment test is required to determine accurately HIV co-receptor usage (tropism) before initiating CCR5 antagonist-based therapy. To discuss the Monogram Trofile assay as a diagnostic tool for determining HIV tropism by critically reviewing reported literature and available data. Monogram Trofile has become, largely by default, the de facto standard for HIV tropism assay. However, there is significant room for improvement in the speed, cost and availability of the test. Furthermore, the test is not quantitative, requires high-input HIV RNA viral loads, and produces results that are less biologically stable than expected. These technical considerations may limit the use of CCR5 antagonists in therapy. Nevertheless, this test is likely to remain the most widely used tropism diagnostic for the short term. We expect that a more practical and possibly more accurate method for measuring HIV tropism can be developed.

  3. Determination of HIV-1 co-receptor usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly the β-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and the α-chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. In this chapter, methods to determine the co-receptor usage of HIV-1 variants are described.

  4. gCUP: rapid GPU-based HIV-1 co-receptor usage prediction for next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Michael; Steuwer, Michel; Gorlatch, Sergei; Heider, Dominik

    2014-11-15

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has a large potential in HIV diagnostics, and genotypic prediction models have been developed and successfully tested in the recent years. However, albeit being highly accurate, these computational models lack computational efficiency to reach their full potential. In this study, we demonstrate the use of graphics processing units (GPUs) in combination with a computational prediction model for HIV tropism. Our new model named gCUP, parallelized and optimized for GPU, is highly accurate and can classify >175 000 sequences per second on an NVIDIA GeForce GTX 460. The computational efficiency of our new model is the next step to enable NGS technologies to reach clinical significance in HIV diagnostics. Moreover, our approach is not limited to HIV tropism prediction, but can also be easily adapted to other settings, e.g. drug resistance prediction. The source code can be downloaded at http://www.heiderlab.de d.heider@wz-straubing.de. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. XMRV: usage of receptors and potential co-receptors

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    Gaddam Durga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background XMRV is a gammaretrovirus first identified in prostate tissues of Prostate Cancer (PC patients and later in the blood cells of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS. Although XMRV is thought to use XPR1 for cell entry, it infects A549 cells that do not express XPR1, suggesting usage of other receptors or co-receptors. Methods To study the usage of different receptors and co- receptors that could play a role in XMRV infection of lymphoid cells and GHOST (GFP- Human osteosarcoma cells expressing CD4 along with different chemokine receptors including CCR1, CCR2, etc., were infected with XMRV. Culture supernatants and cells were tested for XMRV replication using real time quantitative PCR. Results Infection and replication of XMRV was seen in a variety of GHOST cells, LNCaP, DU145, A549 and Caski cell lines. The levels of XMRV replication varied in different cell lines showing differential replication in different cell lines. However, replication in A549 which lacks XPR1 expression was relatively higher than DU145 but lower than, LNCaP. XMRV replication varied in GHOST cell lines expressing CD4 and each of the co- receptors CCR1-CCR8 and bob. There was significant replication of XMRV in CCR3 and Bonzo although it is much lower when compared to DU145, A549 and LNCaP. Conclusion XMRV replication was observed in GHOST cells that express CD4 and each of the chemokine receptors ranging from CCR1- CCR8 and BOB suggesting that infectivity in hematopoietic cells could be mediated by use of these receptors.

  6. In vivo evolution of HIV-1 co-receptor usage and sensitivity to chemokine-mediated suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatti, G; Tresoldi, E; Björndal, A; Fredriksson, R; Colognesi, C; Deng, H K; Malnati, M S; Plebani, A; Siccardi, A G; Littman, D R; Fenyö, E M; Lusso, P

    1997-11-01

    Following the identification of the C-C chemokines RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta as major human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells, several chemokine receptors were found to serve as membrane co-receptors for primate immunodeficiency lentiretroviruses. The two most widely used co-receptors thus far recognized, CCR5 and CXCR4, are expressed by both activated T lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. CCR5, a specific RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1 receptor, is used preferentially by non-MT2-tropic HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains and by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), whereas CXCR4, a receptor for the C-X-C chemokine SDF-1, is used by MT2-tropic HIV-1 and HIV-2, but not by SIV. Other receptors with a more restricted cellular distribution, such as CCR2b, CCR3 and STRL33, can also function as co-receptors for selected viral isolates. The third variable region (V3) of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 has been fingered as a critical determinant of the co-receptor choice. Here, we document a consistent pattern of evolution of viral co-receptor usage and sensitivity to chemokine-mediated suppression in a longitudinal follow-up of children with progressive HIV-1 infection. Viral isolates obtained during the asymptomatic stages generally used only CCR5 as a co-receptor and were inhibited by RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, but not by SDF-1. By contrast, the majority of the isolates derived after the progression of the disease were resistant to C-C chemokines, having acquired the ability to use CXCR4 and, in some cases, CCR3, while gradually losing CCR5 usage. Surprisingly, most of these isolates were also insensitive to SDF-1, even when used in combination with RANTES. An early acquisition of CXCR4 usage predicted a poor prognosis. In children who progressed to AIDS without a shift to CXCR4 usage, all the sequential isolates were CCR5-dependent but showed a reduced sensitivity to C-C chemokines. Discrete changes in the V3 domain

  7. HIV Co-receptor usage in HIV-related non-hodgkin's lymphoma

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    Reid Erin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study 15 banked samples of HIV-related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL cases were tested for HIV co-receptor usage and SDF1 3'A polymorphism. Reportable tropism from 9 plasma samples had 1 (11.1% HIV case with CXCR4 and 8 (88.9% with CCR5 usage, even though most of the cases occurred at a late stage of HIV (2/3 had CD4 counts below 200, where expected CXCR4 usage would be 60%. Based on the expected proportion of less than 50% CCR5 in chronically infected individuals, this would suggest that in NHL may be associated with CCR5 usage (P = 0.04.

  8. HIV-1 co-receptor usage: influence on mother-to-child transmission and pediatric infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2011-01-27

    Viral CCR5 usage is not a predictive marker of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. CXCR4-using viral variants are little represented in pregnant women, have an increased although not significant risk of transmission and can be eventually also detected in the neonates. Genetic polymorphisms are more frequently of relevance in the child than in the mother. However, specific tissues as the placenta or the intestine, which are involved in the prevalent routes of infection in MTCT, may play an important role of selective barriers. The virus phenotype of the infected children, like that of adults, can evolve from R5 to CXCR4-using phenotype or remain R5 despite clinical progression to overt immune deficiency. The refined classification of R5 viruses into R5(narrow) and R5(broad) resolves the enigma of the R5 phenotype being associated with the state of immune deficiency. Studies are needed to address more in specific the relevance of these factors in HIV-1 MTCT and pediatric infection of non-B subtypes.

  9. Accurate and efficient gp120 V3 loop structure based models for the determination of HIV-1 co-receptor usage

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    Vaisman Iosif I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 targets human cells expressing both the CD4 receptor, which binds the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, as well as either the CCR5 (R5 or CXCR4 (X4 co-receptors, which interact primarily with the third hypervariable loop (V3 loop of gp120. Determination of HIV-1 affinity for either the R5 or X4 co-receptor on host cells facilitates the inclusion of co-receptor antagonists as a part of patient treatment strategies. A dataset of 1193 distinct gp120 V3 loop peptide sequences (989 R5-utilizing, 204 X4-capable is utilized to train predictive classifiers based on implementations of random forest, support vector machine, boosted decision tree, and neural network machine learning algorithms. An in silico mutagenesis procedure employing multibody statistical potentials, computational geometry, and threading of variant V3 sequences onto an experimental structure, is used to generate a feature vector representation for each variant whose components measure environmental perturbations at corresponding structural positions. Results Classifier performance is evaluated based on stratified 10-fold cross-validation, stratified dataset splits (2/3 training, 1/3 validation, and leave-one-out cross-validation. Best reported values of sensitivity (85%, specificity (100%, and precision (98% for predicting X4-capable HIV-1 virus, overall accuracy (97%, Matthew's correlation coefficient (89%, balanced error rate (0.08, and ROC area (0.97 all reach critical thresholds, suggesting that the models outperform six other state-of-the-art methods and come closer to competing with phenotype assays. Conclusions The trained classifiers provide instantaneous and reliable predictions regarding HIV-1 co-receptor usage, requiring only translated V3 loop genotypes as input. Furthermore, the novelty of these computational mutagenesis based predictor attributes distinguishes the models as orthogonal and complementary to previous methods that utilize sequence

  10. HIV-1 co-receptor usage:influence on mother-to-child transmission and pediatric infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavarelli Mariangela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral CCR5 usage is not a predictive marker of mother to child transmission (MTCT of HIV-1. CXCR4-using viral variants are little represented in pregnant women, have an increased although not significant risk of transmission and can be eventually also detected in the neonates. Genetic polymorphisms are more frequently of relevance in the child than in the mother. However, specific tissues as the placenta or the intestine, which are involved in the prevalent routes of infection in MTCT, may play an important role of selective barriers. The virus phenotype of the infected children, like that of adults, can evolve from R5 to CXCR4-using phenotype or remain R5 despite clinical progression to overt immune deficiency. The refined classification of R5 viruses into R5narrow and R5broad resolves the enigma of the R5 phenotype being associated with the state of immune deficiency. Studies are needed to address more in specific the relevance of these factors in HIV-1 MTCT and pediatric infection of non-B subtypes.

  11. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Hyun Paik; Hyun Cho; Ji-Won Chun; Jo-Eun Jeong; Dai-Jin Kim

    2017-01-01

    Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1) individuals who played only computer games; (2) individuals who played computer games more than smart...

  12. ABOUT POSSIBILITY OF USAGE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

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    Ruslan Valentinovich Druzin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the most common foreign methods showed that they were designed to analyze enterprises in the sustainable economic development with low-shadowing of the economy. The most appropriate retrospective analysis results were obtained using Springate model, Lis ratio and Beaver ratio. Domestic methods analysis allows us to conclude that they make it difficult to account criterion of insolvency using a number of factors. Ukrainian researchers, as well as foreigners, use indexes for bankruptcy prediction that are based on convolution values of different insolvency signs. However, we believe that usage of a single indicator as a result doesn’t allow us to make an insolvency diagnosis. The reason is high probability of an erroneous calculation because of the unreliability of the data used. Also, one of domestic methods problems is their orientation to the official statistics that increases the error due to significant domestic shadowing economy.

  13. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun; Chun, Ji-Won; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1) individuals who played only computer games; (2) individuals who played computer games more than smartphone games; (3) individuals who played computer and smartphone games evenly; (4) individuals who played smartphone games more than computer games; (5) individuals who played only smartphone games. Data on demographics, gaming-related behaviors, and scales for Internet and smartphone addiction, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use were collected. Combined users, especially those who played computer and smartphone games evenly, had higher prevalence of IGD, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. These subjects were more prone to develop IGD than reference group (computer only gamers) (B = 0.457, odds ratio = 1.579). Smartphone only gamers had the lowest prevalence of IGD, spent the least time and money on gaming, and showed lowest scores of Internet and smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that gaming device usage patterns may be associated with the occurrence, course, and prognosis of IGD. PMID:29206183

  14. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Soo-Hyun; Cho, Hyun; Chun, Ji-Won; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2017-12-05

    Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1) individuals who played only computer games; (2) individuals who played computer games more than smartphone games; (3) individuals who played computer and smartphone games evenly; (4) individuals who played smartphone games more than computer games; (5) individuals who played only smartphone games. Data on demographics, gaming-related behaviors, and scales for Internet and smartphone addiction, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use were collected. Combined users, especially those who played computer and smartphone games evenly, had higher prevalence of IGD, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. These subjects were more prone to develop IGD than reference group (computer only gamers) (B = 0.457, odds ratio = 1.579). Smartphone only gamers had the lowest prevalence of IGD, spent the least time and money on gaming, and showed lowest scores of Internet and smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that gaming device usage patterns may be associated with the occurrence, course, and prognosis of IGD.

  15. Gaming Device Usage Patterns Predict Internet Gaming Disorder: Comparison across Different Gaming Device Usage Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Hyun Paik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaming behaviors have been significantly influenced by smartphones. This study was designed to explore gaming behaviors and clinical characteristics across different gaming device usage patterns and the role of the patterns on Internet gaming disorder (IGD. Responders of an online survey regarding smartphone and online game usage were classified by different gaming device usage patterns: (1 individuals who played only computer games; (2 individuals who played computer games more than smartphone games; (3 individuals who played computer and smartphone games evenly; (4 individuals who played smartphone games more than computer games; (5 individuals who played only smartphone games. Data on demographics, gaming-related behaviors, and scales for Internet and smartphone addiction, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use were collected. Combined users, especially those who played computer and smartphone games evenly, had higher prevalence of IGD, depression, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder. These subjects were more prone to develop IGD than reference group (computer only gamers (B = 0.457, odds ratio = 1.579. Smartphone only gamers had the lowest prevalence of IGD, spent the least time and money on gaming, and showed lowest scores of Internet and smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that gaming device usage patterns may be associated with the occurrence, course, and prognosis of IGD.

  16. Usage of neural network to predict aluminium oxide layer thickness.

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    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A · dm(-2) and 3 A · dm(-2) for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  17. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness

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    Peter Michal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A·dm−2 and 3 A·dm−2 for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  18. Prediction of Electricity Usage Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis Information- and communication technology IKT590 - University of Agder 2017 Convolutional Neural Networks are overwhelmingly accurate when attempting to predict numbers using the famous MNIST-dataset. In this paper, we are attempting to transcend these results for time- series forecasting, and compare them with several regression mod- els. The Convolutional Neural Network model predicted the same value through the entire time lapse in contrast with the other ...

  19. Automated Irrigation System using Weather Prediction for Efficient Usage of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Alakananda, T.; Apoorva, M. L.; Ramesh, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    In agriculture the major problem which farmers face is the water scarcity, so to improve the usage of water one of the irrigation system using drip irrigation which is implemented is “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms” (AISPF). But this method has some drawbacks which can be improved and here we are with a method called “Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources’ (AISWP), it solves the shortcomings of AISPF process. AISWP method helps us to use the available water resources more efficiently by sensing the moisture present in the soil and apart from that it is actually predicting the weather by sensing two parameters temperature and humidity thereby processing the measured values through an algorithm and releasing the water accordingly which is an added feature of AISWP so that water can be efficiently used.

  20. Frameworks to monitor and predict resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 30,000 CPU cores which filter events at up to 100 kHz input rate. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger, this enables detailed monitoring of the system and allows for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. This talk will present an overview of how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on both CPU usage and dataflow over the data-acquisition network during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special `Enhanced Bias' event selection. This mechanism will be explained along with how is used to profile expected resource usage and output event-rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  1. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219969; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger thus enabling detailed monitoring of the system and allowing for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special ‘Enhanced Bias’ event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  2. Normalized Synergy Predicts That CD8 Co-Receptor Contribution to T Cell Receptor (TCR and pMHC Binding Decreases As TCR Affinity Increases in Human Viral-Specific T Cells

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    Chad M. Williams

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of naturally occurring T cell receptors (TCRs that confer specific, high-affinity recognition of pathogen and cancer-associated antigens remains a major goal in cellular immunotherapies. The contribution of the CD8 co-receptor to the interaction between the TCR and peptide-bound major histocompatibility complex (pMHC has previously been correlated with the activation and responsiveness of CD8+ T cells. However, these studies have been limited to model systems of genetically engineered hybridoma TCRs or transgenic mouse TCRs against either a single epitope or an array of altered peptide ligands. CD8 contribution in a native human antigen-specific T cell response remains elusive. Here, using Hepatitis C Virus-specific precursor CTLs spanning a large range of TCR affinities, we discovered that the functional responsiveness of any given TCR correlated with the contribution of CD8 to TCR/pMHC binding. Furthermore, we found that CD8 contribution to TCR/pMHC binding in the two-dimensional (2D system was more accurately reflected by normalized synergy (CD8 cooperation normalized by total TCR/pMHC bonds rather than synergy (total CD8 cooperation alone. While synergy showed an increasing trend with TCR affinity, normalized synergy was demonstrated to decrease with the increase of TCR affinity. Critically, normalized synergy was shown to correlate with CTL functionality and peptide sensitivity, corroborating three-dimensional (3D analysis of CD8 contribution with respect to TCR affinity. In addition, we identified TCRs that were independent of CD8 for TCR/pMHC binding. Our results resolve the current discrepancy between 2D and 3D analysis on CD8 contribution to TCR/pMHC binding, and demonstrate that naturally occurring high-affinity TCRs are more capable of CD8-independent interactions that yield greater functional responsiveness even with CD8 blocking. Taken together, our data suggest that addition of the normalized synergy parameter to our

  3. Prediction of HIV-1 coreceptor usage (tropism) by sequence analysis using a genotypic approach.

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    Sierra, Saleta; Kaiser, Rolf; Lübke, Nadine; Thielen, Alexander; Schuelter, Eugen; Heger, Eva; Däumer, Martin; Reuter, Stefan; Esser, Stefan; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Pfister, Herbert; Oette, Mark; Lengauer, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is the first licensed antiretroviral drug from the class of coreceptor antagonists. It binds to the host coreceptor CCR5, which is used by the majority of HIV strains in order to infect the human immune cells (Fig. 1). Other HIV isolates use a different coreceptor, the CXCR4. Which receptor is used, is determined in the virus by the Env protein (Fig. 2). Depending on the coreceptor used, the viruses are classified as R5 or X4, respectively. MVC binds to the CCR5 receptor inhibiting the entry of R5 viruses into the target cell. During the course of disease, X4 viruses may emerge and outgrow the R5 viruses. Determination of coreceptor usage (also called tropism) is therefore mandatory prior to administration of MVC, as demanded by EMA and FDA. The studies for MVC efficiency MOTIVATE, MERIT and 1029 have been performed with the Trofile assay from Monogram, San Francisco, U.S.A. This is a high quality assay based on sophisticated recombinant tests. The acceptance for this test for daily routine is rather low outside of the U.S.A., since the European physicians rather tend to work with decentralized expert laboratories, which also provide concomitant resistance testing. These laboratories have undergone several quality assurance evaluations, the last one being presented in 2011. For several years now, we have performed tropism determinations based on sequence analysis from the HIV env-V3 gene region (V3). This region carries enough information to perform a reliable prediction. The genotypic determination of coreceptor usage presents advantages such as: shorter turnover time (equivalent to resistance testing), lower costs, possibility to adapt the results to the patients' needs and possibility of analysing clinical samples with very low or even undetectable viral load (VL), particularly since the number of samples analysed with VL < 1000 copies/μl roughly increased in the last years (Fig. 3). The main steps for tropism testing (Fig. 4) demonstrated in

  4. Are Students Really Connected? Predicting College Adjustment from Social Network Usage

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    Raacke, John; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in popularity of social networking sites has spurred research exploring the impact of usage in a variety of areas. The current study furthered this line of research by examining the relationships between social network usage and adjustment to college in the academic, social, personal-emotional and university affiliation domains.…

  5. A novel tool to predict youth who will show recommended usage of diabetes technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neylon, Orla M.; Skinner, Timothy C.; O'Connell, Michele A.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding which individuals will benefit most from commencement of diabetes technologies such as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS), such as 'real-time' sensor-augmented pumping (SAP). Because higher usage correlates ...

  6. Comparative analysis of codon usage patterns and identification of predicted highly expressed genes in five Salmonella genomes

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    Mondal U

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To anlyse codon usage patterns of five complete genomes of Salmonella , predict highly expressed genes, examine horizontally transferred pathogenicity-related genes to detect their presence in the strains, and scrutinize the nature of highly expressed genes to infer upon their lifestyle. Methods: Protein coding genes, ribosomal protein genes, and pathogenicity-related genes were analysed with Codon W and CAI (codon adaptation index Calculator. Results: Translational efficiency plays a role in codon usage variation in Salmonella genes. Low bias was noticed in most of the genes. GC3 (guanine cytosine at third position composition does not influence codon usage variation in the genes of these Salmonella strains. Among the cluster of orthologous groups (COGs, translation, ribosomal structure biogenesis [J], and energy production and conversion [C] contained the highest number of potentially highly expressed (PHX genes. Correspondence analysis reveals the conserved nature of the genes. Highly expressed genes were detected. Conclusions: Selection for translational efficiency is the major source of variation of codon usage in the genes of Salmonella . Evolution of pathogenicity-related genes as a unit suggests their ability to infect and exist as a pathogen. Presence of a lot of PHX genes in the information and storage-processing category of COGs indicated their lifestyle and revealed that they were not subjected to genome reduction.

  7. Using protection motivation theory to predict condom usage and assess HIV health communication efficacy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Stanaland, Andrea J S; Chan, Desmond

    2010-01-01

    The number of individuals infected with HIV/AIDS continues to rise in Asia. Condom use is considered to be the first line of defense against AIDS (UNAIDS, 2006). Using protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), this research aims to first understand the factors affecting condom usage intention among homosexual and heterosexual men in Singapore, and then to utilize those findings to assess the efficacy of HIV-directed health communications. We collected survey data from 484 men and analyzed the data using hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling. We found self-efficacy to be a significant predictor for both groups of men, together with perceived severity for homosexuals and response efficacy for heterosexuals. Next, we analyzed HIV-directed condom usage communication materials and found that the use of threat appeal themes is more common than themes promoting self-efficacy. Implications for health communications and policy are discussed.

  8. Big data modeling to predict platelet usage and minimize wastage in a tertiary care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Leying; Tian, Xiaoying; Gombar, Saurabh; Zemek, Allison J; Krishnan, Gomathi; Scott, Robert; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Tibshirani, Robert J; Pham, Tho D

    2017-10-24

    Maintaining a robust blood product supply is an essential requirement to guarantee optimal patient care in modern health care systems. However, daily blood product use is difficult to anticipate. Platelet products are the most variable in daily usage, have short shelf lives, and are also the most expensive to produce, test, and store. Due to the combination of absolute need, uncertain daily demand, and short shelf life, platelet products are frequently wasted due to expiration. Our aim is to build and validate a statistical model to forecast future platelet demand and thereby reduce wastage. We have investigated platelet usage patterns at our institution, and specifically interrogated the relationship between platelet usage and aggregated hospital-wide patient data over a recent consecutive 29-mo period. Using a convex statistical formulation, we have found that platelet usage is highly dependent on weekday/weekend pattern, number of patients with various abnormal complete blood count measurements, and location-specific hospital census data. We incorporated these relationships in a mathematical model to guide collection and ordering strategy. This model minimizes waste due to expiration while avoiding shortages; the number of remaining platelet units at the end of any day stays above 10 in our model during the same period. Compared with historical expiration rates during the same period, our model reduces the expiration rate from 10.5 to 3.2%. Extrapolating our results to the ∼2 million units of platelets transfused annually within the United States, if implemented successfully, our model can potentially save ∼80 million dollars in health care costs.

  9. Changing word usage predicts changing word durations in New Zealand English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sóskuthy, Márton; Hay, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the emergence of lexicalized effects of word usage on word duration by looking at parallel changes in usage and duration over 130years in New Zealand English. Previous research has found that frequent words are shorter, informative words are longer, and words in utterance-final position are also longer. It has also been argued that some of these patterns are not simply online adjustments, but are incorporated into lexical representations. While these studies tend to focus on the synchronic aspects of such patterns, our corpus shows that word-usage patterns and word durations are not static over time. Many words change in duration and also change with respect to frequency, informativity and likelihood of occurring utterance-finally. Analysis of changing word durations over this time period shows substantial patterns of co-adaptation between word usage and word durations. Words that are increasing in frequency are becoming shorter. Words that are increasing/decreasing in informativity show a change in the same direction in duration (e.g. increasing informativity is associated with increasing duration). And words that are increasingly appearing utterance-finally are lengthening. These effects exist independently of the local effects of the predictors. For example, words that are increasing utterance-finally lengthen in all positions, including utterance-medially. We show that these results are compatible with a number of different views about lexical representations, but they cannot be explained without reference to a production-perception loop that allows speakers to update their representations dynamically on the basis of their experience. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA can baseline characteristics and early patterns of CPAP usage predict those who are likely to be longer-term users of CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Christopher D; Bratton, Daniel J; Craig, Sonya E; Kohler, Malcolm; Stradling, John R

    2016-02-01

    Long-term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage varies between individuals. It would be of value to be able to identify those who are likely to benefit from CPAP (and use it long term), versus those who would not, and might therefore benefit from additional help early on. First, we explored whether baseline characteristics predicted CPAP usage in minimally symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, a group who would be expected to have low usage. Second, we explored if early CPAP usage was predictive of longer-term usage, as has been shown in more symptomatic OSA patients. The MOSAIC trial was a multi-centre randomised controlled trial where minimally symptomatic OSA patients were randomised to CPAP, or standard care, for 6 months. Here we have studied only those patients randomised to CPAP treatment. Baseline characteristics including symptoms, questionnaires [including the Epworth sleepiness score (ESS)] and sleep study parameters were recorded. CPAP usage was recorded at 2-4 weeks after initiation and after 6 months. The correlation and association between baseline characteristics and 6 months CPAP usage was assessed, as was the correlation between 2 and 4 weeks CPAP usage and 6 months CPAP usage. One hundred and ninety-five patients randomised to CPAP therapy had median [interquartile range (IQR)] CPAP usage of 2:49 (0:44, 5:13) h:min/night (h/n) at the 2-4 weeks visit, and 2:17 (0:08, 4:54) h/n at the 6 months follow-up visit. Only male gender was associated with increased long-term CPAP use (male usage 2:56 h/n, female 1:57 h/n; P=0.02). There was a moderate correlation between the usage of CPAP at 2-4 weeks and 6 months, with about 50% of the variability in long-term use being predicted by the short-term use. In patients with minimally symptomatic OSA, our study has shown that male gender (and not OSA severity or symptom burden) is associated with increased long-term use of CPAP at 6 months. Although, in general, early patterns of CPAP

  11. Reducing usage of the computational resources by event driven approach to model predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Stefan; Bradac, Zdenek; Cela, Arben

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with a real-time and optimal control of dynamic systems while also considers the constraints which these systems might be subject to. Main objective of this work is to propose a simple modification of the existing Model Predictive Control approach to better suit needs of computational resource-constrained real-time systems. An example using model of a mechanical system is presented and the performance of the proposed method is evaluated in a simulated environment.

  12. Predictive factor and antihypertensive usage of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced hypertension in kidney cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    IZUMI, KOUJI; ITAI, SHINGO; TAKAHASHI, YOSHIKO; MAOLAKE, AERKEN; NAMIKI, MIKIO

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is the common adverse event associated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKI). The present study was performed to identify the predictive factors of TKI-induced HT and to determine the classes of antihypertensive agents (AHTA) that demonstrate optimal efficacy against this type of HT. The charts of 50 cases of patients that had received VEGFR-TKI treatment were retrospectively examined. The association between patient background and TKI-induced HT, and the effect of administering AHTA were analyzed. High systolic blood pressure at baseline was identified to be a predictive factor for HT. In addition, there was no difference observed between calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and angiotensin receptor II blockers (ARBs) as first-line AHTA for the control of HT. The findings of the present study may aid with predicting the onset of TKI-induced HT, as well as for its management via the primary use of either CCBs or ARBs. PMID:24959266

  13. Analgesics use in competitive triathletes: its relationship to doping and on predicting its usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Pavel; Dalaker, Robert; Letzel, Stephan; Ulrich, Rolf; Simon, Perikles

    2016-10-01

    The two major objectives of this study were (i) to assess variables that predict the use of analgesics in competitive athletes and (ii) to test whether the use of analgesics is associated with the use of doping. A questionnaire primarily addressing the use of analgesics and doping was distributed among 2,997 triathletes. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the use of analgesics. Moreover, the randomised response technique (RRT) was used to estimate the prevalence of doping in order to assess whether users of analgesics have a higher potential risk for doping than non-users. Statistical power analyses were performed to determine sample size. The bootstrap method was used to assess the statistical significance of the prevalence difference for doping between users and non-users of analgesics. Four variables from a pool of 16 variables were identified that predict the use of analgesics. These were: "version of questionnaire (English)", "gender (female)", "behaviour in case of pain (continue training)", and "hours of training per week (>12 h/week)". The 12-month prevalence estimate for the use of doping substances (overall estimate 13.0%) was significantly higher in athletes that used analgesics (20.4%) than in those athletes who did not use analgesics (12.4%). The results of this study revealed that athletes who use analgesics prior to competition may be especially prone to using doping substances. The predictors of analgesic use found in the study may be of importance to prepare education material and prevention models against the misuse of drugs in athletes.

  14. The use of a measure of acute irritation to predict the outcome of repeated usage of hand soap products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C; Wilkinson, M; McShane, P; Pennington, D; Fernandez, C; Pierce, S

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is an important worldwide problem that could be reduced by better hand hygiene practice. However, an increasing number of healthcare workers are experiencing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands as a result of repeated hand washing. This may lead to a reduced level of compliance with regard to hand hygiene. To assess whether a measure of acute irritation by hand soaps could predict the effects of repeated usage over a 2-week period. In a double-blind, randomized comparison study, the comparative irritation potential of four different hand soaps was assessed over a 24-h treatment period. The effect of repeated hand washing with the hand soap products over a 2-week period in healthy adult volunteers on skin barrier function was then determined by assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), epidermal hydration and a visual assessment using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) at days 0, 7 and 14. A total of 121 subjects from the 123 recruited completed phase 1 of the study. All four products were seen to be significantly different from each other in terms of the irritant reaction observed and all products resulted in a significantly higher irritation compared with the no-treatment control. Seventy-nine of the initial 121 subjects were then enrolled into the repeated usage study. A statistically significant worsening of the clinical condition of the skin as measured by HECSI was seen from baseline to day 14 in those subjects repeatedly washing their hands with two of the four soap products (products C and D) with P-values of 0·02 and 0·01, respectively. Subclinical assessment of the skin barrier function by measuring epidermal hydration was significantly increased from baseline to day 7 after repeated hand washing with products A, B and D but overall no significant change was seen in all four products tested by day 14. A statistically significant increase in TEWL at day 14 was seen for product A (P = 0·02) indicating a

  15. A Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Ability of Anticipated Pain, Perceived Analgesic Needs, and Psychological Traits to Predict Pain and Analgesic Usage following Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to determine if preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings could predict pain intensity and analgesic usage following cesarean delivery (CD. Methods. 50 healthy women undergoing scheduled CD with spinal anesthesia comprised the prospective study cohort. Preoperative predictors included 4 validated psychological questionnaires (Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI, Fear of Pain (FPQ, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and 3 simple ratings: expected postoperative pain (0–10, anticipated analgesic threshold (0–10, and perceived analgesic needs (0–10. Postoperative outcome measures included post-CD pain (combined rest and movement and opioid used for the 48-hour study period. Results. Bivariate correlations were significant with expected pain and opioid usage (r=0.349, anticipated analgesic threshold and post-CD pain (r=-0.349, and perceived analgesic needs and post-CD pain (r=0.313. Multiple linear regression analysis found that expected postoperative pain and anticipated analgesic needs contributed to post-CD pain prediction modeling (R2=0.443, p<0.0001; expected postoperative pain, ASI, and FPQ were associated with opioid usage (R2=0.421, p<0.0001. Conclusion. Preoperative psychological tests combined with simple pain prediction ratings accounted for 44% and 42% of pain and analgesic use variance, respectively. Preoperatively determined expected postoperative pain and perceived analgesic needs appear to be useful predictors for post-CD pain and analgesic requirements.

  16. Usage Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinaltenkamp, Michael; Plewa, Carolin; Gudergan, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance extant theorizing around resourceintegration by conceptualizing and delineating the notion of a usage center. Ausage center consists of a combination of interdependent actors that draw onresources across their individual usage processes to create v...

  17. Modelling and Predicting eHealth Usage in Europe: A Multidimensional Approach From an Online Survey of 13,000 European Union Internet Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Sellens, Joan; Díaz-Chao, Ángel; Soler-Ramos, Ivan; Saigí-Rubió, Francesc

    2016-07-22

    More advanced methods and models are needed to evaluate the participation of patients and citizens in the shared health care model that eHealth proposes. The goal of our study was to design and evaluate a predictive multidimensional model of eHealth usage. We used 2011 survey data from a sample of 13,000 European citizens aged 16-74 years who had used the Internet in the previous 3 months. We proposed and tested an eHealth usage composite indicator through 2-stage structural equation modelling with latent variables and measurement errors. Logistic regression (odds ratios, ORs) to model the predictors of eHealth usage was calculated using health status and sociodemographic independent variables. The dimensions with more explanatory power of eHealth usage were health Internet attitudes, information health Internet usage, empowerment of health Internet users, and the usefulness of health Internet usage. Some 52.39% (6811/13,000) of European Internet users' eHealth usage was more intensive (greater than the mean). Users with long-term health problems or illnesses (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.29) or receiving long-term treatment (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20), having family members with long-term health problems or illnesses (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.34-1.55), or undertaking care activities for other people (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.40-1.77) had a high propensity toward intensive eHealth usage. Sociodemographic predictors showed that Internet users who were female (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.31), aged 25-54 years (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.21), living in larger households (3 members: OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.36; 5 members: OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.97-1.28; ≥6 members: OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), had more children 65 years of age (1 member: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.50; ≥4 members: OR 1.82, 95% CI 0.54-6.03) had a greater propensity toward intensive eHealth usage. Likewise, users residing in densely populated areas, such as cities and large towns (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.25), also had a greater propensity

  18. Predicting Forearm Physical Exposures During Computer Work Using Self-Reports, Software-Recorded Computer Usage Patterns, and Anthropometric and Workstation Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysmans, Maaike A; Eijckelhof, Belinda H W; Garza, Jennifer L Bruno; Coenen, Pieter; Blatter, Birgitte M; Johnson, Peter W; van Dieën, Jaap H; van der Beek, Allard J; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-12-15

    Alternative techniques to assess physical exposures, such as prediction models, could facilitate more efficient epidemiological assessments in future large cohort studies examining physical exposures in relation to work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate two types of models that predict arm-wrist-hand physical exposures (i.e. muscle activity, wrist postures and kinematics, and keyboard and mouse forces) during computer use, which only differed with respect to the candidate predicting variables; (i) a full set of predicting variables, including self-reported factors, software-recorded computer usage patterns, and worksite measurements of anthropometrics and workstation set-up (full models); and (ii) a practical set of predicting variables, only including the self-reported factors and software-recorded computer usage patterns, that are relatively easy to assess (practical models). Prediction models were build using data from a field study among 117 office workers who were symptom-free at the time of measurement. Arm-wrist-hand physical exposures were measured for approximately two hours while workers performed their own computer work. Each worker's anthropometry and workstation set-up were measured by an experimenter, computer usage patterns were recorded using software and self-reported factors (including individual factors, job characteristics, computer work behaviours, psychosocial factors, workstation set-up characteristics, and leisure-time activities) were collected by an online questionnaire. We determined the predictive quality of the models in terms of R2 and root mean squared (RMS) values and exposure classification agreement to low-, medium-, and high-exposure categories (in the practical model only). The full models had R2 values that ranged from 0.16 to 0.80, whereas for the practical models values ranged from 0.05 to 0.43. Interquartile ranges were not that different for the two models, indicating that only for some

  19. Response to Vicriviroc in Treatment-Experienced Subjects Using an Enhanced Sensitivity Co-receptor Tropism Assay: Reanalysis of AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaohui; Gulick, Roy M.; Krambrink, Amy; Coakley, Eoin; Hughes, Michael D.; Han, Dong; Flexner, Charles; Wilkin, Timothy J.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Greaves, Wayne L.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    The enhanced sensitivity Trofile assay was used to re-test co-receptor usage at study screening and entry for the 118 ACTG A5211 treatment-experienced subjects who had CCR5-tropic (R5) virus by the original Trofile assay at study screening. Among 90 vicriviroc recipients, a significantly (P<0.001) greater mean reduction in HIV-1 RNA was observed in 72 subjects with R5 virus versus 15 subjects reclassified with dual/mixed-tropic viruses at screening: −1.11 vs. −0.09 (day 14), −1.91 vs. −0.57 (week 24) log10 copies/mL, respectively. Results suggest that the enhanced sensitivity assay is a better screening tool for determining patient eligibility for CCR5 antagonist therapy. PMID:19874179

  20. Biochemical Profile of Heritage and Modern Apple Cultivars and Application of Machine Learning Methods To Predict Usage, Age, and Harvest Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadi, Maria; Mohareb, Fady; Redfern, Sally P; Berry, Mark; Simmonds, Monique S J; Terry, Leon A

    2017-07-05

    The present study represents the first major attempt to characterize the biochemical profile in different tissues of a large selection of apple cultivars sourced from the United Kingdom's National Fruit Collection comprising dessert, ornamental, cider, and culinary apples. Furthermore, advanced machine learning methods were applied with the objective to identify whether the phenolic and sugar composition of an apple cultivar could be used as a biomarker fingerprint to differentiate between heritage and mainstream commercial cultivars as well as govern the separation among primary usage groups and harvest season. A prediction accuracy of >90% was achieved with the random forest method for all three models. The results highlighted the extraordinary phytochemical potency and unique profile of some heritage, cider, and ornamental apple cultivars, especially in comparison to more mainstream apple cultivars. Therefore, these findings could guide future cultivar selection on the basis of health-promoting phytochemical content.

  1. Measuring, Predicting and Visualizing Short-Term Change in Word Representation and Usage in VKontakte Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Ian; Arendt, Dustin; Bell, Eric; Volkova, Svitlana

    2017-01-01

    Language in social media is extremely dynamic: new words emerge, trend and disappear, while the meaning of existing words can fluctuate over time. Such dynamics are especially notable during a period of crisis. This work addresses several important tasks of measuring, visualizing and predicting short term text representation shift, i.e. the change in a word's contextual semantics, and contrasting such shift with surface level word dynamics, or concept drift, observed in social media streams. ...

  2. Measuring, Predicting and Visualizing Short-Term Change in Word Representation and Usage in VKontakte Social Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Ian B.; Arendt, Dustin L.; Bell, Eric B.; Volkova, Svitlana

    2017-05-17

    Language in social media is extremely dynamic: new words emerge, trend and disappear, while the meaning of existing words can fluctuate over time. This work addresses several important tasks of visualizing and predicting short term text representation shift, i.e. the change in a word’s contextual semantics. We study the relationship between short-term concept drift and representation shift on a large social media corpus – VKontakte collected during the Russia-Ukraine crisis in 2014 – 2015. We visualize short-term representation shift for example keywords and build predictive models to forecast short-term shifts in meaning from previous meaning as well as from concept drift. We show that short-term representation shift can be accurately predicted up to several weeks in advance and that visualization provides insight into meaning change. Our approach can be used to explore and characterize specific aspects of the streaming corpus during crisis events and potentially improve other downstream classification tasks including real-time event forecasting in social media.

  3. B cell recognition of the conserved HIV-1 co-receptor binding site is altered by endogenous primate CD4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias N E Forsell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The surface HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 on the target cell surface to induce the co-receptor binding site on gp120 as the initial step in the entry process. The binding site is comprised of a highly conserved region on the gp120 core, as well as elements of the third variable region (V3. Antibodies against the co-receptor binding site are abundantly elicited during natural infection of humans, but the mechanism of elicitation has remained undefined. In this study, we investigate the requirements for elicitation of co-receptor binding site antibodies by inoculating rabbits, monkeys and human-CD4 transgenic (huCD4 rabbits with envelope glycoprotein (Env trimers possessing high affinity for primate CD4. A cross-species comparison of the antibody responses showed that similar HIV-1 neutralization breadth was elicited by Env trimers in monkeys relative to wild-type (WT rabbits. In contrast, antibodies against the co-receptor site on gp120 were elicited only in monkeys and huCD4 rabbits, but not in the WT rabbits. This was supported by the detection of high-titer co-receptor antibodies in all sera from a set derived from human volunteers inoculated with recombinant gp120. These findings strongly suggest that complexes between Env and (high-affinity primate CD4 formed in vivo are responsible for the elicitation of the co-receptor-site-directed antibodies. They also imply that the naïve B cell receptor repertoire does not recognize the gp120 co-receptor site in the absence of CD4 and illustrate that conformational stabilization, imparted by primary receptor interaction, can alter the immunogenicity of a type 1 viral membrane protein.

  4. B cell recognition of the conserved HIV-1 co-receptor binding site is altered by endogenous primate CD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Mattias N E; Dey, Barna; Mörner, Andreas; Svehla, Krisha; O'dell, Sijy; Högerkorp, Carl-Magnus; Voss, Gerald; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Shaw, George M; Mascola, John R; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Wyatt, Richard T

    2008-10-03

    The surface HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds to CD4 on the target cell surface to induce the co-receptor binding site on gp120 as the initial step in the entry process. The binding site is comprised of a highly conserved region on the gp120 core, as well as elements of the third variable region (V3). Antibodies against the co-receptor binding site are abundantly elicited during natural infection of humans, but the mechanism of elicitation has remained undefined. In this study, we investigate the requirements for elicitation of co-receptor binding site antibodies by inoculating rabbits, monkeys and human-CD4 transgenic (huCD4) rabbits with envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers possessing high affinity for primate CD4. A cross-species comparison of the antibody responses showed that similar HIV-1 neutralization breadth was elicited by Env trimers in monkeys relative to wild-type (WT) rabbits. In contrast, antibodies against the co-receptor site on gp120 were elicited only in monkeys and huCD4 rabbits, but not in the WT rabbits. This was supported by the detection of high-titer co-receptor antibodies in all sera from a set derived from human volunteers inoculated with recombinant gp120. These findings strongly suggest that complexes between Env and (high-affinity) primate CD4 formed in vivo are responsible for the elicitation of the co-receptor-site-directed antibodies. They also imply that the naïve B cell receptor repertoire does not recognize the gp120 co-receptor site in the absence of CD4 and illustrate that conformational stabilization, imparted by primary receptor interaction, can alter the immunogenicity of a type 1 viral membrane protein.

  5. An Extended Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict the Usage Intention of the Electric Car: A Multi-Group Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Moons

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An Extended Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB is developed that integrates emotions towards car driving and electric cars as well as car driving habits of the DTPB, and is empirically validated in a Belgian sample (n = 1023. Multi-group comparisons explore how the determinants of usage intention are different between groups of consumers differing in environmentally-friendly behaviour, environmental concern, innovativeness and personal values. Besides attitudes, media, perceived complexity, compatibility and relative advantage, emotions towards the electric car and reflective emotions towards car driving have a strong effect on usage intention. Car driving habits and perceived behavioural control (facilitators and constraints do not substantially affect usage intention. Only people differing in personal values show a different motivational structure for a number of important drivers of usage intention.

  6. Digital technology ownership, usage, and factors predicting downloading health apps among caucasian, filipino, korean, and latino americans: the digital link to health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Melinda S; Choi, JiWon; Arai, Shoshana; Paul, Steven M; Gonzalez, Prisila; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2014-10-22

    Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Americans are avid digital technology owners and users. However, limited datasets exist regarding digital technology ownership and use, especially among specific racial/ethnic subgroups. Such information is needed to inform development of culturally tailored mHealth tools for use with lifestyle interventions promoting healthy behaviors for these at-risk racial/ethnic populations. The intent of the study was to examine (1) digital technology ownership and usage, and (2) factors predicting downloading health apps for Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino American subgroups. A cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2013 through December 2013 recruited 904 participants (Caucasians n=172, Filipinos n=250, Koreans n=234, and Latinos n=248), age >18 years, from California community events, clinics, churches, and online. English, Spanish, and Korean surveys were administered via paper or online. Descriptive statistics characterized the sociodemographics and digital technology ownership/usage of the 904 participants. Differences among groups in categorical variables were examined using chi-square statistics. Logistic regression was used to determine factors predicting downloading health apps. Overall, mean age was 44 years (SD 16.1), with 64.3% (581/904) female. Only 44.7% (404/904) of all participants reported English as their primary language (Caucasian 98.3%, 169/172; Filipino 67.6%, 169/250; Korean 9.4%, 22/234, and Latino 17.7%, 44/248. Overall, mobile phone ownership was 92.8% (839/904). Compared to all groups, Koreans were more likely to own a mobile phone (82.8%, 194/234), computer

  7. The Role of Habits in Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Usage: Predicting Excessive and Problematic Gaming Through Players' Sensitivity to Situational Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavská, Kateřina; Hrabec, Ondřej; Chrz, Vladimír

    2016-04-01

    We examined the effect of habitual regulation of massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing on the problematic (addictive) usage and excessiveness of gaming (time that user spent playing weekly, per session, and in relation to his other leisure activities). We developed the approach to assess the strength of habitual regulation that was based on sensitivity to situational cues. We defined cues as real-life or in-game conditions (e.g., work to be done, activities with friends or family, need to relax, new game expansion) that usually promote gaming (proplay cues) or prevent it (contraplay cues). Using a sample of 377 MMORPG players, we analyzed relationships between variables through partial least squares path modeling. We found that proplay cues sensitivity significantly positively affected the excessiveness of gaming (playing time) as well as the occurrence of problematic usage symptoms. Conversely, contraplay cues sensitivity functioned as a protective factor from these conditions; significant negative effects were found for playing time and problematic usage. Playing time was confirmed to be a mediating variable, affected by cues sensitivity and at the same time affecting problematic usage symptoms. We obtained moderately strong coefficients of determination for both endogenous variables (R(2) = 0.28 for playing time; R(2) = 0.31 for problematic usage) suggesting that the proposed variables possess good explanatory power. Based on our results, we argue that the strength of habitual regulation within MMORPG usage has both positive and negative effects on excessive and problematic usage, which is a new and important finding within the area of Internet gaming addiction.

  8. Covariance of charged amino acids at positions 322 and 440 of HIV-1 Env contributes to coreceptor specificity of subtype B viruses, and can be used to improve the performance of V3 sequence-based coreceptor usage prediction algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Cashin

    Full Text Available The ability to determine coreceptor usage of patient-derived human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strains is clinically important, particularly for the administration of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc. The envelope glycoprotein (Env determinants of coreceptor specificity lie primarily within the gp120 V3 loop region, although other Env determinants have been shown to influence gp120-coreceptor interactions. Here, we determined whether conserved amino acid alterations outside the V3 loop that contribute to coreceptor usage exist, and whether these alterations improve the performance of V3 sequence-based coreceptor usage prediction algorithms. We demonstrate a significant covariant association between charged amino acids at position 322 in V3 and position 440 in the C4 Env region that contributes to the specificity of HIV-1 subtype B strains for CCR5 or CXCR4. Specifically, positively charged Lys/Arg at position 322 and negatively charged Asp/Glu at position 440 occurred more frequently in CXCR4-using viruses, whereas negatively charged Asp/Glu at position 322 and positively charged Arg at position 440 occurred more frequently in R5 strains. In the context of CD4-bound gp120, structural models suggest that covariation of amino acids at Env positions 322 and 440 has the potential to alter electrostatic interactions that are formed between gp120 and charged amino acids in the CCR5 N-terminus. We further demonstrate that inclusion of a "440 rule" can improve the sensitivity of several V3 sequence-based genotypic algorithms for predicting coreceptor usage of subtype B HIV-1 strains, without compromising specificity, and significantly improves the AUROC of the geno2pheno algorithm when set to its recommended false positive rate of 5.75%. Together, our results provide further mechanistic insights into the intra-molecular interactions within Env that contribute to coreceptor specificity of subtype B HIV-1 strains, and demonstrate that incorporation

  9. Differences in smartphone usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustarini, Mattia; Scipioni, Marcello Paolo; Fanourakis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the users’ intimacy to investigate the differences in smartphone usage, considering the user’s location and number and kind of people physically around the user. With a first user study we (1) validate the intimacy concept, (2) evaluate its correlation to smartphone usage features and ...

  10. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  11. Bullying Victimization, Social Network Usage, and Delinquent Coping in a Sample of Urban Youth: Examining the Predictions of General Strain Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas; Pelfrey, William V

    2016-12-01

    Guided by the propositions of general strain theory, this study examines the impact of experienced and anticipated strains on the delinquent coping of adolescents while accounting for the usage of social networking sites. Specifically, this study uses self-report survey data collected from 3,195 middle and high school students in a single Midwest city in the United States to explore the effect of experiencing the strains of traditional bullying victimization and cyberbullying victimization on adolescents self-reported soft drug use, hard drug use, and weapon carrying behavior. These relationships are explored among both frequent and infrequent users of social networking sites. Results indicate that cyberbullying victimization and the anticipated strain of feeling unsafe at or on the way to or from school are significantly and positively associated with all three mechanisms of delinquent coping among both frequent and infrequent social network users.

  12. Predicting Business Opportunities and/or Threats - Business Intelligence in the Service of Corporate Security (Empirical Analysis of the Usage in the Economy of Republic of Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Bilandžić, Mirko; Lucić, Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Predicting business opportunity sand risks is based on existing knowledge about them. In practice, this knowledge comes from collecting business information from the business environment, within the framework of something that is known as business intelligence (BI). Prediction of opportunities and risks is inherent in business of successful company. Corporate security as a framework for ensuring the safety of business is based on timely and accurate information that becomes foreknowledge of t...

  13. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  14. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, W.G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can

  15. Premarital Contraceptives Usage among Male and Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornick, Joesph P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Variables important in predicting female contraception usage were found to be those which involved dyadic commitment, conditions of love, self-esteem, and father's occupation (social class). The best predictors of male contraception usage involved experience in dating and internalization of role models via mother's and father's permissiveness.…

  16. Codon usage and amino acid usage influence genes expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Prosenjit; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-02-01

    Highly expressed genes in any species differ in the usage frequency of synonymous codons. The relative recurrence of an event of the favored codon pair (amino acid pairs) varies between gene and genomes due to varying gene expression and different base composition. Here we propose a new measure for predicting the gene expression level, i.e., codon plus amino bias index (CABI). Our approach is based on the relative bias of the favored codon pair inclination among the genes, illustrated by analyzing the CABI score of the Medicago truncatula genes. CABI showed strong correlation with all other widely used measures (CAI, RCBS, SCUO) for gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, CABI outperforms all other measures by showing better correlation with the wet-lab data. This emphasizes the importance of the neighboring codons of the favored codon in a synonymous group while estimating the expression level of a gene.

  17. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  18. Universality and Shannon entropy of codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sciarrino, A; Sorba, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The distribution functions of the codon usage probabilities, computed over all the available GenBank data, for 40 eukaryotic biological species and 5 chloroplasts, do not follow a Zipf law, but are best fitted by the sum of a constant, an exponential and a linear function in the rank of usage. For mitochondriae the analysis is not conclusive. A quantum-mechanics-inspired model is proposed to describe the observed behaviour. These functions are characterized by parameters that strongly depend on the total GC content of the coding regions of biological species. It is predicted that the codon usage is the same in all exonic genes with the same GC content. The Shannon entropy for codons, also strongly depending on the exonic GC content, is computed.

  19. Gene number determination and genetic polymorphism of the gamma delta T cell co-receptor WC1 genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chuang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WC1 co-receptors belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR superfamily and are encoded by a multi-gene family. Expression of particular WC1 genes defines functional subpopulations of WC1+ γδ T cells. We have previously identified partial or complete genomic sequences for thirteen different WC1 genes through annotation of the bovine genome Btau_3.1 build. We also identified two WC1 cDNA sequences from other cattle that did not correspond to sequences in the Btau_3.1 build. Their absence in the Btau_3.1 build may have reflected gaps in the genome assembly or polymorphisms among animals. Since the response of γδ T cells to bacterial challenge is determined by WC1 gene expression, it was critical to understand whether individual cattle or breeds differ in the number of WC1 genes or display polymorphisms. Results Real-time quantitative PCR using DNA from the animal whose genome was sequenced (“Dominette” and sixteen other animals representing ten breeds of cattle, showed that the number of genes coding for WC1 co-receptors is thirteen. The complete coding sequences of those thirteen WC1 genes is presented, including the correction of an error in the WC1-2 gene due to mis-assembly in the Btau_3.1 build. All other cDNA sequences were found to agree with the previous annotation of complete or partial WC1 genes. PCR amplification and sequencing of the most variable N-terminal SRCR domain (domain 1 which has the SRCR “a” pattern of each of the thirteen WC1 genes showed that the sequences are highly conserved among individuals and breeds. Of 160 sequences of domain 1 from three breeds of cattle, no additional sequences beyond the thirteen described WC1 genes were found. Analysis of the complete WC1 cDNA sequences indicated that the thirteen WC1 genes code for three distinct WC1 molecular forms. Conclusion The bovine WC1 multi-gene family is composed of thirteen genes coding for three structural forms whose

  20. Lipid raft localization of TLR2 and its co-receptors is independent of membrane lipid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hellwing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Toll like receptors (TLRs are an important and evolutionary conserved class of pattern recognition receptors associated with innate immunity. The recognition of Gram-positive cell wall constituents strongly depends on TLR2. In order to be functional, TLR2 predominantly forms a heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 within specialized membrane microdomains, the lipid rafts. The membrane lipid composition and the physicochemical properties of lipid rafts are subject to modification by exogenous fatty acids. Previous investigations of our group provide evidence that macrophage enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA induces a reordering of lipid rafts and non-rafts based on the incorporation of supplemented PUFA as well as their elongation and desaturation products. Methods In the present study we investigated potential constraining effects of membrane microdomain reorganization on the clustering of TLR2 with its co-receptors TLR1 and TLR6 within lipid rafts. To this end, RAW264.7 macrophages were supplemented with either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA or arachidonic acid (AA and analyzed for receptor expression and microdomain localization in context of TLR stimulation. Results and Conclusions Our analyses showed that receptor levels and microdomain localization were unchanged by PUFA supplementation. The TLR2 pathway, in contrast to the TLR4 signaling cascade, is not affected by exogenous PUFA at the membrane level.

  1. The Wnt Co-Receptor Lrp5 Is Required for Cranial Neural Crest Cell Migration in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Willems

    Full Text Available During vertebrate neurulation, cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, delaminate from the neural plate border, and migrate as separate streams into different cranial regions. There, they differentiate into distinct parts of the craniofacial skeleton. Canonical Wnt signaling has been shown to be essential for this process at different levels but the involved receptors remained unclear. Here we show that the frizzled co-receptor low-density-lipoprotein (LDL receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5 plays a crucial role in CNCC migration and morphogenesis of the cranial skeleton. Early during induction and migration of CNCCs, lrp5 is expressed ubiquitously but later gets restricted to CNCC derivatives in the ventral head region besides different regions in the CNS. A knock-down of lrp5 does not interfere with induction of CNCCs but leads to reduced proliferation of premigratory CNCCs. In addition, cell migration is disrupted as CNCCs are found in clusters at ectopic positions in the dorsomedial neuroepithelium after lrp5 knock-down and transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. These migratory defects consequently result in malformations of the craniofacial skeleton. To date, Lrp5 has mainly been associated with bone homeostasis in mammals. Here we show that in zebrafish, lrp5 also controls cell migration during early morphogenetic processes and contributes to shaping the craniofacial skeleton.

  2. Relationship between Impulsivity, Social Media Usage and Loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Savci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between impulsivity, social media usage, and loneliness and to test the structural hypothetical model developed based on the literature. The study was conducted on 307 (164 female, 143 male university students. Data collection instruments of the study were the Barratt Impulsivity Scale Short Form (BIS-11-SF, Social Media Usage Scale (SMUS, and UCLA Loneliness Scale Short Form (ULS-8. The measurement models of the latent variables were tested initially and it was observed that the scales of the latent variables were efficient enough to be included in the structural equation model. In addition, the suggested hypothetical model was tested. According to the analysis, it was observed that impulsivity directly, positively and significantly predicts social media usage, that social media usage directly, positively and significantly predicts loneliness, and that impulsivity indirectly, positively and significantly predicts loneliness.

  3. Antecedents of Continued Usage Intentions of Web-Based Learning Management System in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwoga, Edda Tandi; Komba, Mercy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that predict students' continued usage intention of web-based learning management systems (LMS) in Tanzania, with a specific focus on the School of Business of Mzumbe University. Specifically, the study investigated major predictors of actual usage and continued usage intentions of…

  4. Porflow Capabilities, Usage, History, and Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    1998-05-01

    To support closure of the Savannah River Site High Level Waste tanks, the PORFLOW computer program is being applied to predict long term movement of residual contaminants from the tanks. The PORFLOW program has greater capabilities than simpler programs that have been used previously, and PORFLOW results have been accepted by state and federal regulators throughout the United States. This document briefly discusses the PORFLOW capabilities and presents lists of reports showing PORFLOW's usage history and testing

  5. Growing natural gas usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarni, T.

    1996-01-01

    Finnish natural gas usage topped the 3.3 billion cubic metre mark last year, up 3.6 % on the 1994 figure. Growth has increased now for 12 years in a row. Thanks to offtake by large individual users, the pipeline network has been expanded from South-East Finland to the Greater Helsinki area and central southern Finland. Natural gas plays a much larger role in this region than the 10 % accounted for by natural gas nationally would indicate. The growth in the share of Finland's energy use accounted for by natural gas has served to broaden the country's energy supply base. Natural gas has replaced coal and oil, which has considerably reduced the level of emissions resulting form energy generation

  6. Rivet usage at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radziej, Markus; Hebbeker, Thomas; Sonnenschein, Lars [III. Phys. Inst. A, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In this talk an overview of Rivet and its usage at the CMS experiment is presented. Rivet stands for ''Robust Independent Validation of Experiment and Theory'' and is used for optimizing and validating Monte Carlo event generators. By using the results of published analyses, distributions of the simulation can be compared to experimental measurements (corrected for detector effects). This gives insight into the agreement on the particle-level. Starting off with an introduction to the Rivet environment, the purpose of this tool in modern particle physics is explained. Before taking a closer look at the analysis structure, the software necessary to get comparisons is outlined. Analysis implementations are discussed using code examples, showcasing the powerful framework that Rivet provides. A few selected final distributions displaying both Monte Carlo generated events and recorded data are presented, showing the potential to perform particle-level comparisons.

  7. The Isolation of Novel Phage Display-Derived Human Recombinant Antibodies Against CCR5, the Major Co-Receptor of HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Shimoni, Moria; Herschhorn, Alon; Britan-Rosich, Yelena; Kotler, Moshe; Benhar, Itai; Hizi, Amnon

    2013-01-01

    Selecting for antibodies against specific cell-surface proteins is a difficult task due to many unrelated proteins that are expressed on the cell surface. Here, we describe a method to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against native cell-surface proteins. We applied this method to isolate antibodies that selectively recognize CCR5, which is the major co-receptor for HIV entry (consequently, playing a pivotal role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis). We employed a phage screening s...

  8. The PTK7-Related Transmembrane Proteins Off-track and Off-track 2 Are Co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 Required for Male Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Linnemannstöns, Karen; Ripp, Caroline; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Brechtel-Curth, Katja; Hedderich, Marie; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was identified as a Wnt co-recept...

  9. [Smartphone usage among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmendi, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Among our technological gadgets smartphones play the most important role, new generation devices offer other functions beyond calling (internet availability, computer games, music player, camera functions etc.) In everydays can be experienced that youth spend more and more time with their smartphones and despite the actuality of this issue there are no studies on the excessive smartphone usage in Hungary and we can find only a few international studies. Our goal is to examine smartphone usage in primary and secondary schools in Hajdu-Bihar county, Hungary and its relationship with personality traits. Our sample consist of 263 youth from primary and secondary schools. We measured the characteristics of smartphone using and attitudes with a Mobilephone Using Questionnare. Personality traits are measured with Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness, Empathy Scale. The Child Behavior Checklist gives information about peer relationships, mental state and emotions. Average phone using time is 4,48 hours per day regarding the whole sample. This mean for boys is 3,40 hour for girls 5,39 hour. Average phone using time is higher at 16 (6,35 hour per day). The most frequent used applications are calling and visiting community sites. There is no connection between phone using and grades. The smartphone using time per day shows a significant positive relationship with Impulsivity, Anxiety and Depression, Attention deficits and Somatic problems within 17-19 ages. One of the explanation of excessive smartphone using may be the frequent visiting of community sites. Mobile phones in this case raise the availability of addictive object (community site) therefore contribute to the development of community site addiction. The connection with impulsivity, somatic problems and attention deficits refer to the anxiety reducing role of smartphones within 17-19 ages.

  10. Structure-based stabilization of HIV-1 gp120 enhances humoral immune responses to the induced co-receptor binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Dey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, possesses conserved binding sites for interaction with the primary virus receptor, CD4, and also for the co-receptor, generally CCR5. Although gp120 is a major target for virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, the gp120 variable elements and its malleable nature contribute to evasion of effective host-neutralizing antibodies. To understand the conformational character and immunogenicity of the gp120 receptor binding sites as potential vaccine targets, we introduced structure-based modifications to stabilize gp120 core proteins (deleted of the gp120 major variable regions into the conformation recognized by both receptors. Thermodynamic analysis of the re-engineered core with selected ligands revealed significant stabilization of the receptor-binding regions. Stabilization of the co-receptor-binding region was associated with a marked increase in on-rate of ligand binding to this site as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Rabbit immunization studies showed that the conformational stabilization of core proteins, along with increased ligand affinity, was associated with strikingly enhanced humoral immune responses against the co-receptor-binding site. These results demonstrate that structure-based approaches can be exploited to stabilize a conformational site in a large functional protein to enhance immunogenic responses specific for that region.

  11. The PTK7-related transmembrane proteins off-track and off-track 2 are co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 required for male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemannstöns, Karen; Ripp, Caroline; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Brechtel-Curth, Katja; Hedderich, Marie; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP) in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk) are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964), which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract.

  12. The PTK7-related transmembrane proteins off-track and off-track 2 are co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 required for male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Linnemannstöns

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7 was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964, which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract.

  13. Characterization and Comparative Analysis of Olfactory Receptor Co-Receptor Orco Orthologs Among Five Mirid Bug Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytophagous mirid bugs of Apolygus lucorum, Lygus pratensis as well as three Adelphocoris spp., including Adelphocoris lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis are major pests of multiple agricultural crops in China, which have distinct geographical distribution and occurrence ranges. Like many insect species, these bugs heavily rely on olfactory cues to search preferred host plants, thereby investigation on functional co-evolution and divergence of olfactory genes seems to be necessary and is of great interest. In the odorant detection pathway, olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco plays critical role in the perception of odors. In this study, we identified the full-length cDNA sequences encoding three putative Orcos (AsutOrco, AfasOrco, and LpraOrco in bug species of A. suturalis, A. fasciaticollis, and L. pratensis based on homology cloning method. Next, sequence alignment, membrane topology and gene structure analysis showed that these three Orco orthologs together with previously reported AlinOrco and AlucOrco shared high amino acid identities and similar topology structure, but had different gene structure especially at the length and insertion sites of introns. Furthermore, the evolutional estimation on the ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous (Ka/Ks revealed that Orco genes were under strong purifying selection, but the degrees of variation were significant different between genera. The results of quantitative real-time PCR experiments showed that these five Orco genes had a similar antennae-biased tissue expression pattern. Taking these data together, it is thought that Orco genes in the mirid species could share conserved olfaction roles but had different evolution rates. These findings would lay a foundation to further investigate the molecular mechanisms of evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants, which might in turn contribute to the development of pest management strategy for mirid bugs.

  14. The Scope of Usage-based Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eIbbotson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the ‘cognitive commitment’ of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure versus cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works.

  15. Sparing carbapenem usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A Peter R

    2017-09-01

    Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report. Older agents remain active against some of the pathogens, although expectations of broad-spectrum cover for empirical treatment have risen. Education, expert advice on treatment and antimicrobial stewardship can produce significant reductions in use. More agents may need to be introduced onto the antibiotic formulary of the hospital, despite the poor quality of scientific studies in some cases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Modelling of word usage frequency dynamics using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslennikova, Yu S; Bochkarev, V V; Voloskov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the method for modelling of word usage frequency time series is proposed. An artificial feedforward neural network was used to predict word usage frequencies. The neural network was trained using the maximum likelihood criterion. The Google Books Ngram corpus was used for the analysis. This database provides a large amount of data on frequency of specific word forms for 7 languages. Statistical modelling of word usage frequency time series allows finding optimal fitting and filtering algorithm for subsequent lexicographic analysis and verification of frequency trend models

  17. Understanding usage patterns of electric kettle and energy saving potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.M.; Liao, J.; Stankovic, L.; Stankovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Time-of-use analysis to motivate kettle usage and consumption prediction. • Identification of households whose kettle usage and consumption is outside the norm. • Mathematical model to estimate water volume from consumed power measurements only. • Quantification of energy savings if a household uses its kettle more efficiently. • Kettle usage and demand prediction using an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. - Abstract: The availability of smart metering and smart appliances enables detecting and characterising appliance use in a household, quantifying energy savings through efficient appliance use and predicting appliance-specific demand from load measurements is possible. With growing electric kettle ownership and usage, lack of any efficiency labelling guidelines for the kettle, slow technological progress in improving kettle efficiency relative to other domestic appliances, and current consumer attitudes, urgent investigation into consumer kettle usage patterns is warranted. From an efficiency point of view, little can be done about the kettle, which is more efficient than other methods of heating water such as the stove top kettle. However, since a majority households use the kettle inefficiently by overfilling, in order to meet energy targets, it is imperative to quantify inefficient usage and predict demand. For the purposes of scalability, we propose tools that depend only on load measurement data for quantifying and visualising kettle usage and energy consumption, assessing energy wastage through overfilling via our proposed electric kettle model, and predicting kettle-specific demand, from which we can estimate potential energy savings in a household and across a housing stock. This is demonstrated using data from a longitudinal study across a sample of 14 UK households for a two-year period.

  18. Zebrafish GDNF and its co-receptor GFRα1 activate the human RET receptor and promote the survival of dopaminergic neurons in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulia Saarenpää

    Full Text Available Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF is a ligand that activates, through co-receptor GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRα1 and receptor tyrosine kinase "RET", several signaling pathways crucial in the development and sustainment of multiple neuronal populations. We decided to study whether non-mammalian orthologs of these three proteins have conserved their function: can they activate the human counterparts? Using the baculovirus expression system, we expressed and purified Danio rerio RET, and its binding partners GFRα1 and GDNF, and Drosophila melanogaster RET and two isoforms of co-receptor GDNF receptor-like. Our results report high-level insect cell expression of post-translationally modified and dimerized zebrafish RET and its binding partners. We also found that zebrafish GFRα1 and GDNF are comparably active as mammalian cell-produced ones. We also report the first measurements of the affinity of the complex to RET in solution: at least for zebrafish, the Kd for GFRα1-GDNF binding RET is 5.9 μM. Surprisingly, we also found that zebrafish GDNF as well as zebrafish GFRα1 robustly activated human RET signaling and promoted the survival of cultured mouse dopaminergic neurons with comparable efficiency to mammalian GDNF, unlike E. coli-produced human proteins. These results contradict previous studies suggesting that mammalian GFRα1 and GDNF cannot bind and activate non-mammalian RET and vice versa.

  19. Social network usage, shame, guilt and pride among high school students: Model testing

    OpenAIRE

    Doğan, Uğur; Çelik, Eyüp; Karakaş, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at testing a model which applies structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain social networking sites (SNS) usage. Performing SEM with a sample of 500 high school students (40% male, 60% female), the model examined the relationships among shame, guilt and pride on SNS, such Facebook and Twitter. It was hypothesized that SNS usage was predicted directly by shame and indirectly by pride and guilt. The SEM showed that shame affected SNS usage directly and positively, while ...

  20. A Study of Age and Gender seen through Mobile Phone Usage Patterns in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sarraute, Carlos; Blanc, Pablo; Burroni, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone usage provides a wealth of information, which can be used to better understand the demographic structure of a population. In this paper we focus on the population of Mexican mobile phone users. Our first contribution is an observational study of mobile phone usage according to gender and age groups. We were able to detect significant differences in phone usage among different subgroups of the population. Our second contribution is to provide a novel methodology to predict demogra...

  1. Manufacturer Usage Description Specification Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturer Usage Description Specification (MUDS) is aframework under RFC development that aims to automate Internet access control rules for IoT devices . These access controls prevent malicious IoT devices from attacking other devices and also protect the IoT devices from being attacked by other devices.We are implementing this framework and trying to improve its security.

  2. Video personalization for usage environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Belle L.; Lin, Ching-Yung; Smith, John R.

    2002-07-01

    A video personalization and summarization system is designed and implemented incorporating usage environment to dynamically generate a personalized video summary. The personalization system adopts the three-tier server-middleware-client architecture in order to select, adapt, and deliver rich media content to the user. The server stores the content sources along with their corresponding MPEG-7 metadata descriptions. Our semantic metadata is provided through the use of the VideoAnnEx MPEG-7 Video Annotation Tool. When the user initiates a request for content, the client communicates the MPEG-21 usage environment description along with the user query to the middleware. The middleware is powered by the personalization engine and the content adaptation engine. Our personalization engine includes the VideoSue Summarization on Usage Environment engine that selects the optimal set of desired contents according to user preferences. Afterwards, the adaptation engine performs the required transformations and compositions of the selected contents for the specific usage environment using our VideoEd Editing and Composition Tool. Finally, two personalization and summarization systems are demonstrated for the IBM Websphere Portal Server and for the pervasive PDA devices.

  3. Genomic composition factors affect codon usage in porcine genome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    j.khobondo

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... The mutational bias hypothesis predicted that genes in the GC-rich regions of the genome ... observed codon divided by its expected frequency at equilibrium. An RSCU value close to 1 indicates lack of bias, ..... study our results points to preferred usage of both C or G and A or T at the synonyms sites as ...

  4. Student Empowerment Through Internet Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    in a University in Southern India to empower the female students through Internet usage. The study was done to find out the problems the woman students faced in gaining access and using Internet and how they can be empowered through Internet usage. Future workshop was conducted to find out the problems...... and reflecting. The paper will explore the various cultural issues and explicate how the social context plays a major role in the use of Internet even if there is sufficient access. These issues will be addressed from an empowerment perspective. The paper ends by recommending the methods to be adopted for more......Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been widely recognized as a tool for human development (UNDP 2001). The rate at which ICT are growing is changing the way knowledge is developed, acquired and delivered. (Tongia, et al. 2005) Internet is one of the Information & Communication...

  5. Understanding Mobile Social Media Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chunmei; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity and growing trend of mobile social media in China, factors affecting users’ continued usage behavior remains unclear and deserves further scholarly attention. Synthesizing theories of expectation confirmation as well as uses and gratification, we advance a uses...... and gratification expectancy model that depicts how confirmation, perceived usability and gratification affect users’ continuance intention towards mobile social media. Empirical findings from an online survey of 247 respondents reveal that continuance intention is determined by a range of gratifications, including...... information sharing, media appeal and perceived enjoyment. In addition, confirmation of expectations and perceptions of usefulness gleaned through prior usage of mobile social media have significant effects on gratifications of information sharing, perceived enjoyment, social interaction, passing time...

  6. Opportunistic resource usage in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, Peter; Hufnagel, Dirk; Dykstra, D; Gutsche, O; Tadel, M; Sfiligoi, I; Letts, J; Wuerthwein, F; McCrea, A; Bockelman, B; Fajardo, E; Linares, L; Wagner, R; Konstantinov, P; Blumenfeld, B; Bradley, D

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  7. P-value based visualization of codon usage data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fricke Wolfgang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two important and not yet solved problems in bacterial genome research are the identification of horizontally transferred genes and the prediction of gene expression levels. Both problems can be addressed by multivariate analysis of codon usage data. In particular dimensionality reduction methods for visualization of multivariate data have shown to be effective tools for codon usage analysis. We here propose a multidimensional scaling approach using a novel similarity measure for codon usage tables. Our probabilistic similarity measure is based on P-values derived from the well-known chi-square test for comparison of two distributions. Experimental results on four microbial genomes indicate that the new method is well-suited for the analysis of horizontal gene transfer and translational selection. As compared with the widely-used correspondence analysis, our method did not suffer from outlier sensitivity and showed a better clustering of putative alien genes in most cases.

  8. Facebook usage by students in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, N.F.; de la Poza, Elena; Dormènech, Jozep; Lloret, Jaime; Vincent Vela, M. Cinta; Zuriaga Agustí, Elena

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I measure first year student Facebook usage as part of a broader PhD study into the influence of social media usage on the success of students in higher education. A total of 906 students were asked to complete 3 surveys on Facebook usage with their peers, for two consecutive years

  9. USAGE OF BELARUS TRANSIT POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Antioushenya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been determined that sustainable and safety operation of a transport system and also efficient functioning of transport infrastructure depend on introduction of modern systems and technologies of passenger and load transportation  with usage of logistic approaches. The paper cites results of marketing investigations testifying to availability of the potential for formation of a transport and logistic system in the Republic. A conclusion has been made that realization of the mentioned key ideas shall allow efficiently to integrate in the world economic system.

  10. Toll-like receptor 3 signalling up-regulates expression of the HIV co-receptor G-protein coupled receptor 15 on human CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kiene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many HIV-2 and SIV isolates, as well as some HIV-1 strains, can use the orphan 7-transmembrane receptor GPR15 as co-receptor for efficient entry into host cells. GPR15 is expressed on central memory and effector memory CD4(+ T cells in healthy individuals and a subset of these cells is susceptible to HIV-1 and SIV infection. However, it has not been determined whether GPR15 expression is altered in the context of HIV-1 infection. RESULTS: Here, we show that GPR15 expression in CD4(+ T cells is markedly up-regulated in some HIV-1 infected individuals compared to the rest of the infected patients and to healthy controls. Infection of the PM1 T cell line with primary HIV-1 isolates was found to up-regulate GPR15 expression on the infected cells, indicating that viral components can induce GPR15 expression. Up-regulation of GPR15 expression on CD4(+ T cells was induced by activation of Toll-like receptor 3 signalling via TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF and was more prominent on gut-homing compared to lymph node-homing CD4(+ T cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that infection-induced up-regulation of GPR15 expression could increase susceptibility of CD4(+ T cells to HIV infection and target cell availability in the gut in some infected individuals.

  11. The Isolation of Novel Phage Display-Derived Human Recombinant Antibodies Against CCR5, the Major Co-Receptor of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Moria; Herschhorn, Alon; Britan-Rosich, Yelena; Kotler, Moshe; Benhar, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Selecting for antibodies against specific cell-surface proteins is a difficult task due to many unrelated proteins that are expressed on the cell surface. Here, we describe a method to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against native cell-surface proteins. We applied this method to isolate antibodies that selectively recognize CCR5, which is the major co-receptor for HIV entry (consequently, playing a pivotal role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis). We employed a phage screening strategy by using cells that co-express GFP and CCR5, along with an excess of control cells that do not express these proteins (and are otherwise identical to the CCR5-expressing cells). These control cells are intended to remove most of the phages that bind the cells nonspecifically; thus leading to an enrichment of the phages presenting anti-CCR5-specific antibodies. Subsequently, the CCR5-presenting cells were quantitatively sorted by flow cytometry, and the bound phages were eluted, amplified, and used for further successive selection rounds. Several different clones of human single-chain Fv antibodies that interact with CCR5-expressing cells were identified. The most specific monoclonal antibody was converted to a full-length IgG and bound the second extracellular loop of CCR5. The experimental approach presented herein for screening for CCR5-specific antibodies can be applicable to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against any cell-surface expressed protein of interest. PMID:23941674

  12. A conserved aspartic acid is important for agonist (VUAA1 and odorant/tuning receptor-dependent activation of the insect odorant co-receptor (Orco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh N Kumar

    Full Text Available Insect odorant receptors function as heteromeric odorant-gated cation channels comprising a conventional odorant-sensitive tuning receptor, and a conserved co-receptor (Orco. An Orco agonist, VUAA1, is able to activate both heteromeric and homomeric Orco-containing channels. Very little is known about specific residues in Orco that contribute to cation permeability and gating. We investigated the importance of two conserved Asp residues, one in each of transmembrane domains 5 and 7, for channel function by mutagenesis. Drosophila melanogaster Orco and its substitution mutants were expressed in HEK cells and VUAA1-stimulated channel activity was determined by Ca(2+ influx and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Substitution of D466 in transmembrane 7 with amino acids other than glutamic acid resulted in a substantial reduction in channel activity. The D466E Orco substitution mutant was ~2 times more sensitive to VUAA1. The permeability of the D466E Orco mutant to cations was unchanged relative to wild-type Orco. When D466E Orco is co-expressed with a conventional tuning odorant receptor, the heteromeric complex also shows increased sensitivity to an odorant. Thus, the effect of the D466E mutation is not specific to VUAA1 agonism or dependent on homomeric Orco assembly. We suggest the gain-of-activation characteristic of the D466E mutant identifies an amino acid that is likely to be important for activation of both heteromeric and homomeric insect odorant receptor channels.

  13. Down-regulation of fibroblast growth factor 2 and its co-receptors heparan sulfate proteoglycans by resveratrol underlies the improvement of cardiac dysfunction in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Célia Maria Cássaro; Roggerio, Alessandra; Cruz, Paula Lázara; Pacanaro, Ana Paula; Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Benvenuti, Luiz Alberto; Mansur, Antonio de Pádua; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2017-02-01

    Cardiac remodeling in diabetes involves cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is an important mediator of this process. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic antioxidant, reportedly promotes the improvement of cardiac dysfunction in diabetic rats. However, little information exists linking the amelioration of the cardiac function promoted by resveratrol and the expression of FGF2 and its co-receptors, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs: Glypican-1 and Syndecan-4), in cardiac muscle of Type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced experimentally by the injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide, and the rats were treated with resveratrol for 6 weeks. According to our results, there is an up-regulation of the expression of genes and/or proteins of Glypican-1, Syndecan-4, FGF2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic rats. On the other hand, resveratrol treatment promoted the attenuation of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and the down-regulation of the expression of all proteins under study. The trigger for the changes in gene expression and protein synthesis promoted by resveratrol was the presence of diabetes. The negative modulation conducted by resveratrol on FGF2 and HSPGs expression, which are involved in cardiac remodeling, underlies the amelioration of cardiac function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Managing time-substitutable electricity usage using dynamic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Hosking, Jonathan R.; Natarajan, Ramesh; Subramaniam, Shivaram; Zhang, Xiaoxuan

    2017-02-21

    A predictive-control approach allows an electricity provider to monitor and proactively manage peak and off-peak residential intra-day electricity usage in an emerging smart energy grid using time-dependent dynamic pricing incentives. The daily load is modeled as time-shifted, but cost-differentiated and substitutable, copies of the continuously-consumed electricity resource, and a consumer-choice prediction model is constructed to forecast the corresponding intra-day shares of total daily load according to this model. This is embedded within an optimization framework for managing the daily electricity usage. A series of transformations are employed, including the reformulation-linearization technique (RLT) to obtain a Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP) model representation of the resulting nonlinear optimization problem. In addition, various regulatory and pricing constraints are incorporated in conjunction with the specified profit and capacity utilization objectives.

  15. Managing time-substitutable electricity usage using dynamic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Hosking, Jonathan R.; Natarajan, Ramesh; Subramaniam, Shivaram; Zhang, Xiaoxuan

    2017-02-07

    A predictive-control approach allows an electricity provider to monitor and proactively manage peak and off-peak residential intra-day electricity usage in an emerging smart energy grid using time-dependent dynamic pricing incentives. The daily load is modeled as time-shifted, but cost-differentiated and substitutable, copies of the continuously-consumed electricity resource, and a consumer-choice prediction model is constructed to forecast the corresponding intra-day shares of total daily load according to this model. This is embedded within an optimization framework for managing the daily electricity usage. A series of transformations are employed, including the reformulation-linearization technique (RLT) to obtain a Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP) model representation of the resulting nonlinear optimization problem. In addition, various regulatory and pricing constraints are incorporated in conjunction with the specified profit and capacity utilization objectives.

  16. Usage of marketing in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-party political system led to competition between political parties which caused the need for marketing in politics that improves political reputation. Politics, based on rich experience of political practice, used existing, developed methods and techniques of commercial marketing. Political marketing openly admits that politics and politicians are simply goods that are being sold on a political market. Political marketing is a whole way of operation by political parties which ask these questions: how do the voters choose; what affects their preference and how that preference can be influenced. Usage of political marketing in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not on a satisfactory level but the knowledge about the importance of political marketing is increasing.

  17. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  18. Discovering More Accurate Frequent Web Usage Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Murat Ali; Toroslu, Ismail Hakki; Cosar, Ahmet; Fidan, Guven

    2008-01-01

    Web usage mining is a type of web mining, which exploits data mining techniques to discover valuable information from navigation behavior of World Wide Web users. As in classical data mining, data preparation and pattern discovery are the main issues in web usage mining. The first phase of web usage mining is the data processing phase, which includes the session reconstruction operation from server logs. Session reconstruction success directly affects the quality of the frequent patterns disc...

  19. The Scope of Usage-based Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Paul eIbbotson

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the “cognitive commitment” of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highli...

  20. A genotypic method for determining HIV-2 coreceptor usage enables epidemiological studies and clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Matthias; Borrego, Pedro; Büch, Joachim; Martins, Andreia; Friedrich, Georg; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge; Eberle, Josef; Kaiser, Rolf; Lengauer, Thomas; Taveira, Nuno; Pfeifer, Nico

    2016-12-20

    CCR5-coreceptor antagonists can be used for treating HIV-2 infected individuals. Before initiating treatment with coreceptor antagonists, viral coreceptor usage should be determined to ensure that the virus can use only the CCR5 coreceptor (R5) and cannot evade the drug by using the CXCR4 coreceptor (X4-capable). However, until now, no online tool for the genotypic identification of HIV-2 coreceptor usage had been available. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on the determinants of HIV-2 coreceptor usage. Therefore, we developed a data-driven web service for the prediction of HIV-2 coreceptor usage from the V3 loop of the HIV-2 glycoprotein and used the tool to identify novel discriminatory features of X4-capable variants. Using 10 runs of tenfold cross validation, we selected a linear support vector machine (SVM) as the model for geno2pheno[coreceptor-hiv2], because it outperformed the other SVMs with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.95. We found that SVMs were highly accurate in identifying HIV-2 coreceptor usage, attaining sensitivities of 73.5% and specificities of 96% during tenfold nested cross validation. The predictive performance of SVMs was not significantly different (p value 0.37) from an existing rules-based approach. Moreover, geno2pheno[coreceptor-hiv2] achieved a predictive accuracy of 100% and outperformed the existing approach on an independent data set containing nine new isolates with corresponding phenotypic measurements of coreceptor usage. geno2pheno[coreceptor-hiv2] could not only reproduce the established markers of CXCR4-usage, but also revealed novel markers: the substitutions 27K, 15G, and 8S were significantly predictive of CXCR4 usage. Furthermore, SVMs trained on the amino-acid sequences of the V1 and V2 loops were also quite accurate in predicting coreceptor usage (AUCs of 0.84 and 0.65, respectively). In this study, we developed geno2pheno[coreceptor-hiv2], the first online tool for the prediction of HIV-2 coreceptor

  1. The Selective Advantage of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Brandis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic code in mRNA is redundant, with 61 sense codons translated into 20 different amino acids. Individual amino acids are encoded by up to six different codons but within codon families some are used more frequently than others. This phenomenon is referred to as synonymous codon usage bias. The genomes of free-living unicellular organisms such as bacteria have an extreme codon usage bias and the degree of bias differs between genes within the same genome. The strong positive correlation between codon usage bias and gene expression levels in many microorganisms is attributed to selection for translational efficiency. However, this putative selective advantage has never been measured in bacteria and theoretical estimates vary widely. By systematically exchanging optimal codons for synonymous codons in the tuf genes we quantified the selective advantage of biased codon usage in highly expressed genes to be in the range 0.2-4.2 x 10-4 per codon per generation. These data quantify for the first time the potential for selection on synonymous codon choice to drive genome-wide sequence evolution in bacteria, and in particular to optimize the sequences of highly expressed genes. This quantification may have predictive applications in the design of synthetic genes and for heterologous gene expression in biotechnology.

  2. Sleeping with technology: cognitive, affective, and technology usage predictors of sleep problems among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Larry; Carrier, Louis M; Miller, Aimee; Rokkum, Jeffrey; Ruiz, Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Sleep problems related to technology affect college students through several potential mechanisms including displacement of sleep due to technology use, executive functioning abilities, and the impact of emotional states related to stress and anxiety about technology availability. In the present study, cognitive and affective factors that influence technology usage were examined for their impact upon sleep problems. More than 700 US college students completed an online questionnaire addressing technology usage, anxiety/dependence, executive functioning, nighttime phone usage, bedtime phone location, and sleep problems. A path model controlling for background variables was tested using the data. The results showed that executive dysfunction directly predicted sleep problems as well as affected sleep problems through nighttime awakenings. In addition, anxiety/dependence increased daily smartphone usage and also increased nighttime awakenings, which, in turn, affected sleep problems. Thus, both the affective and cognitive factors that influence technology usage affected sleep problems. Copyright © 2016 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MRI usage in a pediatric emergency department: an analysis of usage and usage trends over 5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheinfeld, Meir H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Emergency Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Moon, Jee-Young; Wang, Dan [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Fagan, Michele J. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Davoudzadeh, Reubin [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Taragin, Benjamin H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usage has anecdotally increased due to the principles of ALARA and the desire to Image Gently. Aside from a single abstract in the emergency medicine literature, pediatric emergency department MRI usage has not been described. Our objective was to determine whether MRI use is indeed increasing at a high-volume urban pediatric emergency department with 24/7 MRI availability. Also, we sought to determine which exams, time periods and demographics influenced the trend. Institutional Review Board exemption was obtained. Emergency department patient visit and exam data were obtained from the hospital database for the 2011-2015 time period. MRI usage data were normalized using emergency department patient visit data to determine usage rates. The z-test was used to compare MRI use by gender. The chi-square test was used to test for trends in MRI usage during the study period and in patient age. MRI usage for each hour and each weekday were tabulated to determine peak and trough usage times. MRI usage rate per emergency department patient visit was 0.36%. Headache, pain and rule-out appendicitis were the most common indications for neuroradiology, musculoskeletal and trunk exams, respectively. Usage in female patients was significantly greater than in males (0.42% vs. 0.29%, respectively, P<0.001). Usage significantly increased during the 5-year period (P<0.001). Use significantly increased from age 3 to 17 (0.011% to 1.1%, respectively, P<0.001). Sixty percent of exams were performed after-hours, the highest volume during the 10 p.m. hour and lowest between 4 a.m. and 9 a.m. MRI use was highest on Thursdays and lowest on Sundays (MRI on 0.45% and 0.22% of patients, respectively). MRI use in children increased during the study period, most notably in females, on weekdays and after-hours. (orig.)

  4. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri; Ryu, Shi Yong; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. ► 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. ► 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-κB-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. ► MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-β gene and IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  5. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Shi Yong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-{kappa}B-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-{beta} gene and IFN-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  6. The Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale: An empirical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L.D.; Whaling, K.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Rokkum, J.

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to measuring people’s everyday usage of technology-based media and other computer-related activities have proved to be problematic as they use varied outcome measures, fail to measure behavior in a broad range of technology-related domains and do not take into account recently developed types of technology including smartphones. In the present study, a wide variety of items, covering a range of up-to-date technology and media usage behaviors. Sixty-six items concerning technology and media usage, along with 18 additional items assessing attitudes toward technology, were administered to two independent samples of individuals, comprising 942 participants. Factor analyses were used to create 11 usage subscales representing smartphone usage, general social media usage, Internet searching, e-mailing, media sharing, text messaging, video gaming, online friendships, Facebook friendships, phone calling, and watching television in addition to four attitude-based subscales: positive attitudes, negative attitudes, technological anxiety/dependence, and attitudes toward task-switching. All subscales showed strong reliabilities and relationships between the subscales and pre-existing measures of daily media usage and Internet addiction were as predicted. Given the reliability and validity results, the new Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale was suggested as a method of measuring media and technology involvement across a variety of types of research studies either as a single 60-item scale or any subset of the 15 subscales. PMID:25722534

  7. The Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale: An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L D; Whaling, K; Carrier, L M; Cheever, N A; Rokkum, J

    2013-11-01

    Current approaches to measuring people's everyday usage of technology-based media and other computer-related activities have proved to be problematic as they use varied outcome measures, fail to measure behavior in a broad range of technology-related domains and do not take into account recently developed types of technology including smartphones. In the present study, a wide variety of items, covering a range of up-to-date technology and media usage behaviors. Sixty-six items concerning technology and media usage, along with 18 additional items assessing attitudes toward technology, were administered to two independent samples of individuals, comprising 942 participants. Factor analyses were used to create 11 usage subscales representing smartphone usage, general social media usage, Internet searching, e-mailing, media sharing, text messaging, video gaming, online friendships, Facebook friendships, phone calling, and watching television in addition to four attitude-based subscales: positive attitudes, negative attitudes, technological anxiety/dependence, and attitudes toward task-switching. All subscales showed strong reliabilities and relationships between the subscales and pre-existing measures of daily media usage and Internet addiction were as predicted. Given the reliability and validity results, the new Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale was suggested as a method of measuring media and technology involvement across a variety of types of research studies either as a single 60-item scale or any subset of the 15 subscales.

  8. Problematic Internet Usage of ICT Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Semseddin

    2017-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) have affected all area in a society. Human can learn quickly and accurately from the internet. The aim of this study was to investigate what the problematic internet usage of ICT teachers. Therefore, the present study investigated the problematic internet usage, who worked as an ICT teacher in…

  9. Neurotic Anxiety, Pronoun Usage, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Lewis Sigmund; Groman, William D.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the function of a particular aspect of verbal communication, pronoun usage, by (a) using a Gestalt Therapy theory conceptual framework and (b) experimentally focusing on the relationship of pronoun usage to neurotic anxiety and emotional stress. (Author/RK)

  10. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  11. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  12. Interactive publications: creation and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, George R.; Ford, Glenn; Chung, Michael; Vasudevan, Kirankumar; Antani, Sameer

    2006-02-01

    As envisioned here, an "interactive publication" has similarities to multimedia documents that have been in existence for a decade or more, but possesses specific differentiating characteristics. In common usage, the latter refers to online entities that, in addition to text, consist of files of images and video clips residing separately in databases, rarely providing immediate context to the document text. While an interactive publication has many media objects as does the "traditional" multimedia document, it is a self-contained document, either as a single file with media files embedded within it, or as a "folder" containing tightly linked media files. The main characteristic that differentiates an interactive publication from a traditional multimedia document is that the reader would be able to reuse the media content for analysis and presentation, and to check the underlying data and possibly derive alternative conclusions leading, for example, to more in-depth peer reviews. We have created prototype publications containing paginated text and several media types encountered in the biomedical literature: 3D animations of anatomic structures; graphs, charts and tabular data; cell development images (video sequences); and clinical images such as CT, MRI and ultrasound in the DICOM format. This paper presents developments to date including: a tool to convert static tables or graphs into interactive entities, authoring procedures followed to create prototypes, and advantages and drawbacks of each of these platforms. It also outlines future work including meeting the challenge of network distribution for these large files.

  13. [Usage of antibiotics in hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternák, G; Almási, I

    1996-12-29

    The authors publish the results of a survey conducted among hospital records of patients discharged from eight inpatient's institutes between 1-31st of January 1995 to gather information on the indications and usage of antibiotics. The institutes were selected from different part of the country to represent the hospital structure as much as possible. Data from the 13,719 documents were recorded and analysed by computer program. It was found that 27.6% of the patients (3749 cases) received antibiotic treatment. 407 different diagnosis and 365 different surgical procedures (as profilaxis) were considered as indications of antibiotic treatment (total: 4450 indications for 5849 antibiotic treatment). The largest group of patients receiving antibiotics was of antibiotic profilaxis (24.56%, 1093 cases), followed by lower respiratory tract infections (19.89%, 849 cases), uroinfections (10.53%, 469 cases) and upper respiratory tract infections. Relatively large group of patients belonged to those who had fever or subfebrility without known reason (7.35%, 327 cases) and to those who did not have any proof in their document indicating the reasons of antibiotic treatment (6.4%, 285 cases). We can not consider the antibiotic indications well founded in those groups of patients (every sixth or every fifth cases). The most frequently used antibiotics were of [2-nd] generation cefalosporins. The rate of nosocomial infections were found as 6.78% average. The results are demonstrated on diagrams and table.

  14. MESUR metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Sompel, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    Usage data is increasingly regarded as a valuable resource in the assessment of scholarly communication items. However, the development of quantitative, usage-based indicators of scholarly impact is still in its infancy. The Digital Library Research & Prototyping Team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Research library has therefore started a program to expand the set of usage-based tools for the assessment of scholarly communication items. The two-year MESUR project, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, aims to define and validate a range of usage-based impact metrics, and issue guidelines with regards to their characteristics and proper application. The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting c...

  15. Challenges for future energy usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the last 2000 years the world's population and the worldwide total energy consumption have been continuously increasing, at a rate even greater than exponential. By now a situation has been reached in which energy resources are running short, which for a long time have been treated as though they were almost inexhaustible. The ongoing growth of the world's population and a growing hunger for energy in underdeveloped and emerging countries imply that the yearly overall energy consumption will continue to grow, by about 1.6 percent every year so that it would have doubled by 2050. This massive energy consumption has led to and is progressively leading to severe changes in our environment and is threatening a climatic state that, for the last 10 000 years, has been unusually benign. The coincidence of the shortage of conventional energy resources with the hazards of an impending climate change is a dangerous threat to the well-being of all, but it is also a challenging opportunity for improvements in our energy usage. On a global scale, conventional methods such as the burning of coal, gas and oil or the use of nuclear fission will still dominate for some time. In their case, the challenge consists in making them more efficient and environmentally benign, and using them only where and when it is unavoidable. Alternative energies must be expanded and economically improved. Among these, promising techniques such as solar thermal and geothermal energy production should be promoted from a shadow existence and further advanced. New technologies, for instance nuclear fusion or transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste, are also quite promising. Finally, a careful analysis of the national and global energy flow systems and intelligent energy management, with emphasis on efficiency, overall effectiveness and sustainability, will acquire increasing importance. Thereby, economic viability, political and legal issues as well as moral aspects such as fairness to disadvantaged

  16. Immersion Suit Usage Within the RAAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    IMMERSION SUIT USED UVIC QDIS HOLDINGS 202. in 12 Sizes, held by ALSS 492SQN REQUIREMENTS No comment USAGE POLICY REFERENCE DIRAF) AAP 7215.004-1 (P3C...held by ALSS 492SQN. REQUIREMENTS No comment ISACE POLICY REFERENCE DIIAF) AAP 7215.004-1 (P3C Flight Manual) RAAF Supplement No 92 USAGE POUICY UVIC...TYPE P3C REFERENCE Telecon FLTLT Toft I I SQNfRESO AVMED Dated 22 Mar 91 IMMERSION SUIT USED UVIC QDIS HOLDINGS No comment REQUIREMENTS No comment USAGE

  17. Problems of Usage Labelling in English Lexicography*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ancies in the contextual usage labelling in the dictionaries were established and are discussed. ..... Likewise, the noun vagrant meaning 'a person who has no job .... tions: Proceedings of the 36th Conference of the American Translators ...

  18. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  19. Internet Usage and Academic Performance of Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internet Usage and Academic Performance of Undergraduate Students in University of Ilorin, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... This study adopted descriptive survey method. Six faculties ...

  20. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  1. CloudMonitor: Profiling Power Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James William; Khajeh-Hosseini, Ali; Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Sommerville, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In Cloud Computing platforms the addition of hardware monitoring devices to gather power usage data can be impractical or uneconomical due to the large number of machines to be metered. CloudMonitor, a monitoring tool that can generate power models for software-based power estimation, can provide insights to the energy costs of deployments without additional hardware. Accurate power usage data leads to the possibility of Cloud providers creating a separate tariff for power and therefore incen...

  2. Tattoo inks in general usage contain nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, T; Löschner, Katrin; Löf, D

    2011-01-01

    the particle sizes in tattoo inks in general usage. Methods The particle size was measured by laser diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results The size of the pigments could be divided into three main classes. The black pigments were the smallest, the white pigments the largest...... in general usage is new and may contribute to the understanding of tattoo ink kinetics. How the body responds to NP tattoo pigments should be examined further....

  3. Personality Traits, Motivations, and Emotional Consequences of Social Media Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jhih-Syuan; Lee, Yen-I; Jin, Yan; Gilbreath, Bob

    2017-10-01

    This study explores social media users' personality traits and motivations for the usage of two different social media platforms, Facebook and Pinterest, as well as how the varied uses impact users' negative emotional experiences. The findings suggest that the intensity of social media usage is positively related to negative emotions. For Facebook users, socialization, entertainment, and information seeking motivations significantly influence their platform use intensity and, subsequently, lead to negative emotions. Self-status seeking also has a direct effect on Facebook users' negative emotions. For Pinterest users, socialization is not a significant motivation for usage of that platform. However, entertainment, information seeking, and self-status seeking significantly predict their platform use intensity, which subsequently lead to negative emotions. Similarly, all four motivations for Facebook and Pinterest uses are influenced by users' personality traits: extraversion and openness. Yet, openness has a greater impact on using Pinterest than Facebook in terms of fulfilling socialization needs. Neuroticism has a positive impact on socialization and information seeking motives for use of both platforms, while conscientiousness and agreeableness have a negative influence on fulfilling self-status seeking needs. In addition, agreeable social networking site users are less likely to use Facebook than Pinterest for fulfilling self-status related gratifications, while they are likely to use Pinterest instead of Facebook for entertainment and information needs. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  4. Extracting Baseline Electricity Usage Using Gradient Tree Boosting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehoon [Ulsan Nat. Inst. of Sci. & Tech., Ulsan (South Korea); Lee, Dongeun [Ulsan Nat. Inst. of Sci. & Tech., Ulsan (South Korea); Choi, Jaesik [Ulsan Nat. Inst. of Sci. & Tech., Ulsan (South Korea); Spurlock, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sim, Alex [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    To understand how specific interventions affect a process observed over time, we need to control for the other factors that influence outcomes. Such a model that captures all factors other than the one of interest is generally known as a baseline. In our study of how different pricing schemes affect residential electricity consumption, the baseline would need to capture the impact of outdoor temperature along with many other factors. In this work, we examine a number of different data mining techniques and demonstrate Gradient Tree Boosting (GTB) to be an effective method to build the baseline. We train GTB on data prior to the introduction of new pricing schemes, and apply the known temperature following the introduction of new pricing schemes to predict electricity usage with the expected temperature correction. Our experiments and analyses show that the baseline models generated by GTB capture the core characteristics over the two years with the new pricing schemes. In contrast to the majority of regression based techniques which fail to capture the lag between the peak of daily temperature and the peak of electricity usage, the GTB generated baselines are able to correctly capture the delay between the temperature peak and the electricity peak. Furthermore, subtracting this temperature-adjusted baseline from the observed electricity usage, we find that the resulting values are more amenable to interpretation, which demonstrates that the temperature-adjusted baseline is indeed effective.

  5. Feature Usage Explorer: Usage Monitoring and Visualization Tool in HTML5 Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunas Marciuska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Feature Usage Explorer is a JavaScript library, which automatically detects features in HTML5 based applications and monitors their usage. The collected information can be visualized in a Feature Usage Diagram, which is automatically generated from an input json file. Currently, the users of Feature Usage Explorer have to design their own tool in order to generate the json file from collected usage information. This option remains viable when using the library in order not to constraint the user’s choice of preferred data storage. Feature Usage Explorer can be reused in any HTML5 based applications where an understanding of how users interact with the system is required (i.e. user experience and usability studies, human computer interaction field, or requirement prioritization area.

  6. Learning physics concepts as a function of colloquial language usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Steven J.

    Data from two sections of college introductory, algebra-based physics courses (n1 = 139, n2 = 91) were collected using three separate instruments to investigate the relationships between reasoning ability, conceptual gain and colloquial language usage. To obtain a measure of reasoning ability, Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning Ability (TSR) was administered once near mid-term for each sample. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered at the beginning and at the end of the term for pre- and post-test measures. Pre- and post-test data from the Mechanics Language Usage instrument were also collected in conjunction with FCI data collection at the beginning and end of the term. The MLU was developed specifically for this study prior to data collection, and results of a pilot test to establish validity and reliability are reported. T-tests were performed on the data collected to compare the means from each sample. In addition, correlations among the measures were investigated between the samples separately and combined. Results from these investigations served as justification for combining the samples into a single sample of 230 for performing further statistical analyses. The primary objective of this study was to determine if scientific reasoning ability (a function of developmental stage) and conceptual gains in Newtonian mechanics predict students' usages of "force" as measured by the MLU. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate these mediated relationships among TSR and FCI performance as a predictor of MLU performance. Statistically significant correlations and relationships existed among several of the measures, which are discussed at length in the body of the narrative. The findings of this research are that although there exists a discernable relationship between reasoning ability and conceptual change, more work needs to be done to establish improved quantitative measures of the role language usage has in developing understandings

  7. [Evaluation of percentage of lymphocytes B with expression of co-receptors CD 40, CD22 and CD72 in hypertrophied adenoid at children with otitis media with effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Jolanta; Zelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Ratomski, Karol; Skotnicka, Bozena; Hassmann-Poznańska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    In hypertrophied adenoid lymphocytes B make up about 60% all lymphocytes. When the lymphocytes B come in interaction with antigens this membranes signal be passed through their receptor (BCR) to interior of cell. This signal affect modulation on gene expression, activation from which depends activation, anergy or apoptosis of lymphocyte B. Accompany BCR co-receptors regulate his functions influence stimulate or inhibitive. To the most important co-receptors stepping out on lymphocyte B belong: CD40, CD22, CD72. The aim of study was evaluation of lymphocytes B (CD19) with co-expression with CD72 and CD40 receptors in hypertrophied adenoid with at children with otitis media with effusion. An investigation was executed in hypertrophied adenoids with or without otitis media with effusion. By flow cytometry percentage of lymphocytes B with co-receptors CD 40, CD22 and CD72 in was analyzed. The percentages of CD19+CD72+ lymphocytes in the group of children with adenoid hypertrophy and exudative otitis media were lower as compared to the reference group. However, the percentages of CD19+CD22+, CD19+CD40+ in the study group was approximate to the reference group. The lower percentage of lymphocytes B CD72 + near approximate percentages of lymphocytes B CD40+ and BCD22+ at children with otitis media with effusion can be the cause of incorrect humoral response in hypertrophied adenoid at children. Maybe it is cause reduced spontaneous production IgA and IgG through lymphocyte at children with otitis media with effusion.

  8. ICT in University Education: Usage and Challenges among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was a survey which explored ICT usage and challenges among academic staff. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the areas of ICT usage among academic staff; identify the obstacles to their ICT usage and identify their areas of training need in ICT usage. Five research questions were posed ...

  9. Review of Bison Usage in VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Russell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pawlowski, Roger P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Bison is being used in VERA in a variety of ways; this milestone will document an independent review of the current usage of Bison and provide guidance that will improve the accuracy, performance, and consistency in the ways that Bison is used. This task will entail running a suite of small, single and multi-cycle problems with VERA-CS, followed by Bison, and Tiamat (inline) and evaluating the usage. It will also entail performing several detailed ramp to full power solutions to compare the one-way coupled solver with the fully-coupled Tiamat. This will include at least one iteration with the PHI team to incorporate some of the feedback and improve the usage. This work will also be completed in conjunction with an FMC task to evaluate the ability of Bison to model load-follow in a PWR

  10. Using Support Vector Machine to Forecast Energy Usage of a Manhattan Skyscraper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, R.; Boulanger, A.; Anderson, R.; Wu, L.

    2011-12-01

    As our society gains a better understanding of how humans have negatively impacted the environment, research related to reducing carbon emissions and overall energy consumption has become increasingly important. One of the simplest ways to reduce energy usage is by making current buildings less wasteful. By improving energy efficiency, this method of lowering our carbon footprint is particularly worthwhile because it actually reduces energy costs of operating the building, unlike many environmental initiatives that require large monetary investments. In order to improve the efficiency of the heating and air conditioning (HVAC) system of a Manhattan skyscraper, 345 Park Avenue, a predictive computer model was designed to forecast the amount of energy the building will consume. This model uses support vector machine (SVM), a method that builds a regression based purely on historical data of the building, requiring no knowledge of its size, heating and cooling methods, or any other physical properties. This pure dependence on historical data makes the model very easily applicable to different types of buildings with few model adjustments. The SVM model was built to predict a week of future energy usage based on past energy, temperature, and dew point temperature data. The predictive model closely approximated the actual values of energy usage for the spring and less closely for the winter. The prediction may be improved with additional historical data to help the model account for seasonal variability. This model is useful for creating a close approximation of future energy usage and predicting ways to diminish waste.

  11. Motivations and usage patterns of Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixuan; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-06-01

    Referred to as "Weibo," microblogging in China has witnessed an exponential growth. In addition to the Twitter-like functionality, Weibo allows rich media uploads into user feeds, provides threaded comments, and offers applications, games, and Weibo medals. This expanded functionality, as well as the observed differences in trending content, suggests potentially different user motivations to join Weibo and their usage patterns compared to Twitter. This pioneering study identifies dominant Weibo user motivations and their effects on usage patterns. We discuss the findings of an online survey of 234 Weibo users and suggest managerial implications and future research directions.

  12. Power factor regulation for household usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Tarmizi, Muhammad Haziq Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Power factor regulator technology has recently drawn attention to the consumer and to power generation company in order for consumers to use electricity efficiently. Controlling of power factor for efficient usage can reduce the production of power in fulfilment demands hence reducing the greenhouse effect. This paper presents the design method of power factor controller for household usage. There are several methods to improve the power factor. The power factor controller used by this method is by using capacitors. Total harmonic distortion also has become a major problem for the reliability of the electrical appliances and techniques to control it will be discussed.

  13. TOWARDS A USAGE-BASED COGNITIVE PHONOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitten Kristiansen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage-based conception of language is a major tenet in Cognitive Linguistics, but cognitive phonology has not yet been developed sufficiently in this direction. Often, phonemic analysis is carried out at the high level of abstraction of `a language´, disregarding rich patterns of languageinternal variation. This paper first argues that cognitive phonology must aim at a higher degree of descriptive refinement, especially in the direction of social variation. Then it goes on to examine the implications of a usage-based and multi-faceted model for a theoretical discussion of the phoneme as a prototype category.

  14. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  15. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  16. Twitter Usage of Universities in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolcu, Ozgu

    2013-01-01

    Universities are among the users of the most popular social media networks. Usage of social media by especially students and many other people and institutions, which constitutes the target audience for universities, encourages the universities to effectively use this environment. Twitter is among these social media networks which facilitate the…

  17. Student Time Usage during Fall Reading Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ken; Pschibul, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the time usage and levels of perceived stress, academic workload, and recreation time for 177 students at the University of Windsor before, during, and after Fall Reading Week (FRW). Over a three-week span (at various times of the day), students received a message to their smartphone to complete a 20-second survey…

  18. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…

  19. Decay-usage scheduling in multiprocessors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, D.H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Decay-usage scheduling is a priority-aging time-sharing scheduling policy capable of dealing with a workload of both interactive and batch jobs by decreasing the priority of a job when it acquires CPU time, and by increasing its priority when it does not use the (a) CPU. In this article we deal with

  20. MESUR: metrics from scholarly usage of resources

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The MESUR project is constructing a large-scale semantic model of the scholarly community that seamlessly integrates a wide range of bibliographic, citation and usage data. Functioning as a reference data set, this model is analyzed to characterize the intricate networks of typed relationships that exist in the scholarly community. The resulting ...

  1. Aspiration Curettage and its Outpatient Usage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspiration Curettage and its Outpatient Usage. D. A. G. BARFORD, M, NOTELOVITZ. SUMMARY ... its use on a number of outpatients without anaesthesia is discussed. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 22 (1974). In order to ... plastic aspiration chamber and suction is applied centrally at the base of the chamber, a cylindrical filter within the.

  2. An Empirical Investigation of Campus Portal Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghapour, Mohsen; Iranmanesh, Mohammad; Zailani, Suhaiza; Goh, Gerald Guan Gan

    2018-01-01

    This study has determined the determinants of the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness and their influence on campus portal usage. A quantitative approach was employed, using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire, adapted from previous studies. Data were gathered through a survey conducted with 341 staff working in the University of…

  3. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  4. Notational usage modulates attention networks in binumerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atesh eKoul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multicultural environments require learning multiple number notations wherein some are encountered more frequently than others. This leads to differences in exposure and consequently differences in usage between notations. We find that differential notational usage imposes a significant neurocognitive load on number processing. Despite simultaneous acquisition, forty-two adult binumerate populations, familiar with two positional writing systems namely Hindu Nagari digits and Hindu Arabic digits, reported significantly lower preference and usage for Nagari as compared to Arabic. Twenty-four participants showed significantly increased reaction times and reduced accuracy while performing magnitude comparison tasks in Nagari with respect to Arabic. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that processing Nagari elicited significantly greater activity in number processing and attention networks. A direct subtraction of networks for Nagari and Arabic notations revealed a neural circuit comprising of bilateral intra-parietal sulcus, inferior and mid frontal gyri, fusiform gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex (FDR p<0.005. Additionally, whole brain correlation analysis showed that activity in the left inferior parietal region was modulated by task performance in Nagari. We attribute the increased activation in Ng to increased task difficulty due to infrequent exposure and usage. Our results reiterate the role of the left intra-parietal sulcus in modulating performance in numeric tasks and highlight that of the attention network for monitoring symbolic notation mode in binumerates.

  5. Usage of cell nomenclature in biomedical literature

    KAUST Repository

    Kafkas, Senay; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-01-01

    large scale for understanding the level of uptake of cell nomenclature in literature by scientists. In this study, we analyse the usage of cell nomenclature, both in Vivo, and in Vitro in biomedical literature by using text mining methods and present our

  6. Sporforming probiotics and their usage in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The data of literature about spore-forming probiotics, as well as their usage in the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract in children were sumerised. Analysis of the data allows us to recommend the preparation «Biosporin-Biopharma» for preventive measures and treatment of gastrointestinal tract diseases at all levels of children health care, including infants.

  7. Mobile Device Usage in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcker, Jan; Honal, Andrea; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on mobile device usage of students in higher education. While more and more students embrace mobile devices in their daily life, institutions attempt to profit from those devices for educational purposes. It is therefore crucial for institutional development to identify students' needs and how mobile devices may facilitate these…

  8. Google Scholar Usage: An Academic Library's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Howard, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Google Scholar is a free service that provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly works and to connect patrons with the resources libraries provide. The researchers in this study analyzed Google Scholar usage data from 2006 for three library tools at San Francisco State University: SFX link resolver, Web Access Management proxy server,…

  9. Avatars, Media Usage, and the Linkages to E-learning Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    theory, and emotional interest theory were used to predict media usage and learning engagement. Media Richness Theory Daft and Lengel described...2010, from http://www.cogtech.usc.edu/publications/aera_ onlinelearningresearch_clark4_09.pdf Daft , R.L., Lengel, R.H. (1986). Organizational

  10. E-Book Usage and the "Choice" Outstanding Academic Book List: Is There a Correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter Williams, Karen; Best, Rickey

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the staff of the library at Auburn University at Montgomery analyzed circulation patterns for electronic books in the fields of Political Science, Public Administration and Law to see if favorable "Choice" reviews can be used to predict usage of electronic books. A comparison of the circulations between print and…

  11. Codon usage bias and the evolution of influenza A viruses. Codon Usage Biases of Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Emily HM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influenza A virus is an important infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and was responsible for 3 pandemics in the 20th century. As the replication of the influenza virus is based on its host's machinery, codon usage of its viral genes might be subject to host selection pressures, especially after interspecies transmission. A better understanding of viral evolution and host adaptive responses might help control this disease. Results Relative Synonymous Codon Usage (RSCU values of the genes from segment 1 to segment 6 of avian and human influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1, were studied via Correspondence Analysis (CA. The codon usage patterns of seasonal human influenza viruses were distinct among their subtypes and different from those of avian viruses. Newly isolated viruses could be added to the CA results, creating a tool to investigate the host origin and evolution of viral genes. It was found that the 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus contained genes with mammalian-like viral codon usage patterns, indicating that the introduction of this virus to humans was not through in toto transfer of an avian influenza virus. Many human viral genes had directional changes in codon usage over time of viral isolation, indicating the effect of host selection pressures. These changes reduced the overall GC content and the usage of G at the third codon position in the viral genome. Limited evidence of translational selection pressure was found in a few viral genes. Conclusions Codon usage patterns from CA allowed identification of host origin and evolutionary trends in influenza viruses, providing an alternative method and a tool to understand the evolution of influenza viruses. Human influenza viruses are subject to selection pressure on codon usage which might assist in understanding the characteristics of newly emerging viruses.

  12. Facebook addiction among Turkish college students: the role of psychological health, demographic, and usage characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa; Gulyagci, Seval

    2013-04-01

    This study explored Facebook addiction among Turkish college students and its behavioral, demographic, and psychological health predictors. The Facebook Addiction Scale (FAS) was developed and its construct validity was assessed through factor analyses. A total of 447 students reported their personal information and Facebook usage and completed the FAS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The results revealed that weekly time commitment, social motives, severe depression, and anxiety and insomnia positively predicted Facebook addiction. Neither demographic variables nor the interactions of gender by usage characteristics were found to be significant predictors.

  13. Fuel cell usage in motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellone, R.

    1998-01-01

    Much interest has been aroused by fuel cell usage in motor vehicles, since this technology seems to overcome the conventional limits by other kinds of drive, i.e. the high environmental impact of internal-combustion engines and the drawbacks of electric battery vehicles in terms of maximum operating range and battery recharge time. After 2010 its costs are expected to fall in competitive levels with internal-combustion engines [it

  14. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  15. Usage of Wifi Technology for PLC Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír ŠKUTA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes usage of WIFI technology for programming and parameterization of application in PLC. INSYS WLAN unit from the Microelectronics INSYS Corporation is the base of application. Software access point with using USB WIFI component WL167 is running in industrial PC. Particular PC clients are connecting into network infrastructure PLC by the help of this access point and INSYS WLAN unit. This connection allows configuring and uploading program into this PLC.

  16. Correlation matrix for quartet codon usage

    CERN Document Server

    Frappat, L; Sorba, Paul

    2005-01-01

    It has been argued that the sum of usage probabilities for codons, belonging to quartets, that have as third nucleotide C or A, is independent of the biological species for vertebrates. The comparison between the theoretical correlation matrix derived from these sum rules and the experimentally computed matrix for 26 species shows a satisfactory agreement. The Shannon entropy, weakly depending on the biological species, gives further support. Suppression of codons containing the dinucleotides CG or AU is put in evidence.

  17. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, P.; Vile, R.; Osborne, L.A.; Romano, M.; Truzoli, R.

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their ...

  18. LHCb Computing Resource usage in 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzi, Concezio

    2018-01-01

    This document reports the usage of computing resources by the LHCb collaboration during the period January 1st – December 31st 2017. The data in the following sections have been compiled from the EGI Accounting portal: https://accounting.egi.eu. For LHCb specific information, the data is taken from the DIRAC Accounting at the LHCb DIRAC Web portal: http://lhcb-portal-dirac.cern.ch.

  19. Cost Focussed Firms and Internet Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne Loundes

    2002-01-01

    This paper looks at Internet usage by Australian firms that have a cost focussed competitive strategy. The data source for this analysis is the Melbourne Institute Business Survey, conducted by the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research. The survey was conducted in late 2001, and targeted large Australian firms. Instrumental variables estimation found that cost-focussed organizations utilised the Internet more intensively for both internal organizational activities and ex...

  20. Perceived driving safety and seatbelt usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, O; Fischhoff, B; MacGregor, D

    1985-04-01

    Swedish and U.S. subjects judged their own driving skills and safety in relation to other drivers. As in earlier studies, most subjects showed an optimism bias: a tendency to judge oneself as safer and more skillful than the average driver, with a smaller risk of getting involved and injured in an accident. Different measures of the optimism effect were strongly correlated with one another, with driving experience and with the judged importance of human factors (as opposed to technical and chance factors) in causing accidents. Degree of optimism was positively, but weakly, correlated with reported seatbelt usage and worry about traffic accidents. Seatbelt usage was positively related to the extent to which belts are judged to be convenient and popular, and more modestly related to the belt's perceived contributions to safety. These results suggest that providing more information about the effectiveness of seatbelts may not be as efficient a way of increasing seatbelt usage as emphasizing other factors, such as comfort and social norms, which cannot be outweighed by optimism.

  1. Usage of the cyclotron facility local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzmann, H.; Peters, J.; Thow, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Local area network of controllers at the Karlsruhe cyclotyron is shown. Experience after two years of usage is described. The system is applied controlling, data acquisition, management, databases usage

  2. Enabling active and healthy ageing decision support systems with the smart collection of TV usage patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billis, Antonis S; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S; Karagianni, Maria; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes.

  3. Burnout and Humor Usage among Community College Nursing Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Assesses the correlation of burnout among community college nursing faculty members and their use of humor to mediate academic stress related to burnout. Differences in burnout between high versus low humor usage respondents showed a higher sense of personal accomplishment with high humor usage. Of those with low humor usage, workload was related…

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Synonymous Codon Usage Patterns in Riemerella anatipestifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA belongs to the Flavobacteriaceae family and can cause a septicemia disease in poultry. The synonymous codon usage patterns of bacteria reflect a series of evolutionary changes that enable bacteria to improve tolerance of the various environments. We detailed the codon usage patterns of RA isolates from the available 12 sequenced genomes by multiple codon and statistical analysis. Nucleotide compositions and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU analysis revealed that A or U ending codons are predominant in RA. Neutrality analysis found no significant correlation between GC12 and GC3 (p > 0.05. Correspondence analysis and ENc-plot results showed that natural selection dominated over mutation in the codon usage bias. The tree of cluster analysis based on RSCU was concordant with dendrogram based on genomic BLAST by neighbor-joining method. By comparative analysis, about 50 highly expressed genes that were orthologs across all 12 strains were found in the top 5% of high CAI value. Based on these CAI values, we infer that RA contains a number of predicted highly expressed coding sequences, involved in transcriptional regulation and metabolism, reflecting their requirement for dealing with diverse environmental conditions. These results provide some useful information on the mechanisms that contribute to codon usage bias and evolution of RA.

  5. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borini

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Brazil PARTICIPANTS: The study was made among 123 patients interned in the Hospital Espírita de Marília from October 1996 to December 1998, divided into 3 groups: 26 (21% using only marijuana, 83 (67.5% using marijuana and crack, and 14 (11.4% consuming marijuana and alcohol. PROCEDURES AND MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Patients were examined clinically with special emphasis on types of drugs used, drug intake route, age when consumption began, length and pattern of usage, presence of tattooing, jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Serum determinations of total proteins, albumin, globulin, total and fractions of bilirubin, aspartate (AST and alanine (ALT aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (AP, gamma-glutamyltransferase and prothrombin activity were performed. RESULTS: Among users of only marijuana, hepatomegaly was observed in 57.7% and splenomegaly in 73.1%, and slightly elevated AST (42.3%, ALT (34.6% and AP (53.8%. The three groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly. The group using both marijuana and alcohol showed the highest prevalence of alterations and highest levels of aminotransferases. Mean AP levels were above normal in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic marijuana usage, on its own or in association with other drugs, was associated with hepatic morphologic and enzymatic alterations. This indicates that cannabinoids are possible hepatotoxic substances.

  6. Roflumilast Usage from 2010 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvesen, Øyvind Nicolay Ulland; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor, is marketed as add-on treatment to inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids in COPD patients with frequent exacerbations. Although marketed since 2010, usage pattern of roflumilast for an entire nation has not previously been explored. This study...... (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.49-0.80). The decreasing incidence and high level of early roflumilast discontinuation could be due to lack of benefit, a low awareness of romiflulast's indication among physicians, secondary to a challenging prescribing procedure, or to adverse effects. This article is protected...

  7. An assessment of worldwide supercomputer usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, H.J.; Simmons, M.L.; Hayes, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a comparative study of advanced supercomputing usage in Japan and the United States as of Spring 1994. It is based on the findings of a group of US scientists whose careers have centered on programming, evaluating, and designing high-performance supercomputers for over ten years. The report is a follow-on to an assessment of supercomputing technology in Europe and Japan that was published in 1993. Whereas the previous study focused on supercomputer manufacturing capabilities, the primary focus of the current work was to compare where and how supercomputers are used. Research for this report was conducted through both literature studies and field research in Japan.

  8. Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage

    OpenAIRE

    Borini, Paulo; Guimarães, Romeu Cardoso; Borini, Sabrina Bicalho

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: transversal study SETTING: Hospital Espírita de Marília, Marília, São Paulo, Braz...

  9. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  10. Usage of burnable poison on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarino, Eduardo Anibal

    2002-01-01

    The fuel assemblies with burnable poison are widely used on power reactors, but there are not commonly used on research reactors. This paper shows a neutronic analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the burnable poison usage on research reactors. This paper analyses both burnable poison design used on research reactors: Boron on the lateral wall and Cadmium wires. Both designs include a parametric study on the design parameters like the amount and geometry of the burnable poison. This paper presents the design flexibility using burnable poisons, it does not find an optimal or final design, which it will strongly depend on the core characteristics and fuel management strategy. (author)

  11. Empirical Flutter Prediction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-05

    been used in this way to discover species or subspecies of animals, and to discover different types of voter or comsumer requiring different persuasions...respect to behavior or performance or response variables. Once this were done, corresponding clusters might be sought among descriptive or predictive or...jump in a response. The first sort of usage does not apply to the flutter prediction problem. Here the types of behavior are the different kinds of

  12. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  13. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  14. Usage of cell nomenclature in biomedical literature

    KAUST Repository

    Kafkas, Senay

    2017-12-21

    Background Cell lines and cell types are extensively studied in biomedical research yielding to a significant amount of publications each year. Identifying cell lines and cell types precisely in publications is crucial for science reproducibility and knowledge integration. There are efforts for standardisation of the cell nomenclature based on ontology development to support FAIR principles of the cell knowledge. However, it is important to analyse the usage of cell nomenclature in publications at a large scale for understanding the level of uptake of cell nomenclature in literature by scientists. In this study, we analyse the usage of cell nomenclature, both in Vivo, and in Vitro in biomedical literature by using text mining methods and present our results. Results We identified 59% of the cell type classes in the Cell Ontology and 13% of the cell line classes in the Cell Line Ontology in the literature. Our analysis showed that cell line nomenclature is much more ambiguous compared to the cell type nomenclature. However, trends indicate that standardised nomenclature for cell lines and cell types are being increasingly used in publications by the scientists. Conclusions Our findings provide an insight to understand how experimental cells are described in publications and may allow for an improved standardisation of cell type and cell line nomenclature as well as can be utilised to develop efficient text mining applications on cell types and cell lines. All data generated in this study is available at https://github.com/shenay/CellNomenclatureStudy.

  15. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Reed

    Full Text Available Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test, depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire, sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and their current health - General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28. This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol.

  16. Problematic Internet Usage and Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Vile, Rebecca; Osborne, Lisa A.; Romano, Michela; Truzoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Problematic internet use has been associated with a variety of psychological comorbidities, but it relationship with physical illness has not received the same degree of investigation. The current study surveyed 505 participants online, and asked about their levels of problematic internet usage (Internet Addiction Test), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales), social isolation (UCLA Loneliness Questionnaire), sleep problems (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and their current health – General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and the Immune Function Questionnaire. The results demonstrated that around 30% of the sample displayed mild or worse levels of internet addiction, as measured by the IAT. Although there were differences in the purposes for which males and females used the internet, there were no differences in terms of levels of problematic usage between genders. The internet problems were strongly related to all of the other psychological variables such as depression, anxiety, social-isolation, and sleep problems. Internet addiction was also associated with reduced self-reported immune function, but not with the measure of general health (GHQ-28). This relationship between problematic internet use and reduced immune function was found to be independent of the impact of the co-morbidities. It is suggested that the negative relationship between level of problematic internet use and immune function may be mediated by levels of stress produced by such internet use, and subsequent sympathetic nervous activity, which related to immune-supressants, such as cortisol. PMID:26244339

  17. Cloud Usage Patterns : A Formalism for Description of Cloud Usage Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milenkoski, Aleksandar; Iosup, Alexandru; Kounev, Samuel; Sachs, Kai; Rygielski, Piotr; Ding, Jason; Cirne, Walfredo; Rosenberg, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is becoming an increasingly lucrative branch of the existing information and communication technologies (ICT). Enabling a debate about cloud usage scenarios can help with attracting new customers, sharing best-practices, and designing new cloud services. In contrast to previous

  18. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  19. Do usage and scientific collaboration associate with citation impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, P.S.; Glänzel, W.

    2016-07-01

    In this study usage counts and times cited from Web of Science Core Collection (WoS) were collected for each article published in 2013 with Belgian, Israeli and Iranian addresses. We investigate the relations among three indicators related to citation impact, usage counts coauthorship, respectively. In addition, we apply the method of Characteristic Scores and Scal (CSS) to analyse the distributions of citations and usage counts. The results show that citations and usage counts in WoS correlate to each other significantly, especially in the social sciences. However, the increase of the number of co-authors does not increase usage counts or citations significantly. Furthermore, the stability of CSS-class distributions proves the availability of CSS in characterising both usage and citation distributions. (Author)

  20. Le Feu et ses Usages Militaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finó, J. F.

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available LE feu a toujours été une arme puissante. L'homme préhistorique, les Assyriens, les Grecs, les Byzantins, les Arabes, les bombes incendiaires de notre aviation, autant d'exemples de son usage militaire dans des pays et des temps fort divers. De plus, une de ses variantes, le feu grégeois pulvérulent, a été à l'origine de la poudre à canon. Il a donc paru intéressant de rassembler quelques données à ce sujet et de rappeler briévement la production des feux de guerre, leur lancement et la défense contre ses effets. Accessoirement, de dire quelques mots sur une autre branche de la chimie de guerre: les gaz asphyxiants.

  1. Medication usage in Majuro, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Andrew

    2005-03-01

    To conduct a drug utilisation study to determine the top 50 drugs by prescription count, top 50 drugs by cost to government and the top 30 drugs by consumption for Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands for the year 2003. Data was collected from the Majuro Hospital computer dispensing system. All outpatient prescriptions dispensed in the year 2003 were included. The defined daily dose (DDD) methodology was employed. Drug consumption was presented as DDD/1000 population/day. The top 5 drugs by consumption in Majuro for 2003 were glibenclamide (glyburide), enalapril, ferrous sulphate, amoxycillin and ascorbic acid. Values for the DDD/1000 population/day were on average lower than many other countries. This is the first local study of medication usage in the Marshall Islands. It provided some useful baseline data.

  2. IceProd 2 Usage Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delventhal, D.; Schultz, D.; Diaz Velez, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    IceProd is a data processing and management framework developed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory for processing of Monte Carlo simulations, detector data, and data driven analysis. It runs as a separate layer on top of grid and batch systems. This is accomplished by a set of daemons which process job workflow, maintaining configuration and status information on the job before, during, and after processing. IceProd can also manage complex workflow DAGs across distributed computing grids in order to optimize usage of resources. IceProd has recently been rewritten to increase its scaling capabilities, handle user analysis workflows together with simulation production, and facilitate the integration with 3rd party scheduling tools. IceProd 2, the second generation of IceProd, has been running in production for several months now. We share our experience setting up the system and things we’ve learned along the way.

  3. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  4. Estimating Usage Can Reduce the Stress of Social Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Y.; Bird, J.; Cox, A. L.; Brumby, D.

    2013-01-01

    Social networks are increasingly popular and provide benefits such as easy peer group communication. However, there is evidence that they can have negative consequences, such as increased stress levels. For two weeks, we provided participants with an objective measure of their social network usage and also asked them for a daily estimate of their usage over the previous 24 hours. Although their social network usage did not significantly change, participants’ perception of this activity was tr...

  5. 50 CFR 600.910 - Definitions and word usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.910..., Consultation, and Recommendations § 600.910 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the... undertaken by a state agency. (b) Word usage. The terms “must”, “shall”, “should”, “may”, “may not”, “will...

  6. 50 CFR 600.810 - Definitions and word usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions and word usage. 600.810...) § 600.810 Definitions and word usage. (a) Definitions. In addition to the definitions in the Magnuson...-Stevens Act. (b) Word usage. The terms “must”, “shall”, “should”, “may”, “may not”, “will”, “could”, and...

  7. Health-related behaviors and technology usage among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Bridget F; Bigham, Lauren E; Bland, Helen W; Bird, Matthew; Fairman, Ciaran

    2014-07-01

    To examine associations between technology usage and specific health factors among college students. The research employed was a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional design; undergraduate students enrolled in spring 2012 general health education courses were recruited to participate. To explore college students' specific technology usage and health-related behaviors, a 28-item questionnaire was utilized. Statistical significant differences of technology usage were found between 3 of the 4 health-related behaviors under study (BMI, sleep, and nutrition) (p technology usage continues to evolve within the college student population, health professionals need to understand its implications on health behaviors.

  8. Patterns of Internet Usage: Learning Sphere and the Socio-cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimabadi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the curriculum and the learning targets, there are some other points –as “the culture of the real life”, “patterns of communication and virtual-life’s experiencing”, and generally “pattern of communication and internet usage”- should be considered in evaluating internet. Applying results of a survey on the impacts of both the web-based and the traditional educational methods on students’ learning and motivation, the present study explores the patterns of internet usage. Research method is experimental, using the t test for independent groups and analyzing multi-variable regression, and some points as the population, method of sampling and data gathering is explained in the article. Results show that there is a meaningful difference between the grades of the test group and the witness group; thus variable of “the internet usage” could predict changes in learning. In other words, supra-usage of internet would decrease learning and curriculum development. However, using internet for scientific and schooling would cause students to correlate their patterns of computer and internet usage. As results show, decline in entertaining usage of internet is related to the socio-cultural context, way and amount of participating in the web, and the quality of virtual learning sphere, rather than the interest or disinterest of the users.

  9. Exploring How Usage-Focused Business Models Enable Circular Economy through Digital Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Bressanelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies advocate that digital technologies are key enabling factors for the introduction of servitized business models. At the same time, these technologies support the implementation of the circular economy (CE paradigm into businesses. Despite this general agreement, the literature still overlooks how digital technologies enable such a CE transition. To fill the gap, this paper develops a conceptual framework, based on the literature and a case study of a company implementing a usage-focused servitized business model in the household appliance industry. This study focuses on the Internet of Things (IoT, Big Data, and analytics, and identifies eight specific functionalities enabled by such technologies (improving product design, attracting target customers, monitoring and tracking product activity, providing technical support, providing preventive and predictive maintenance, optimizing the product usage, upgrading the product, enhancing renovation and end-of-life activities. By investigating how these functionalities affect three CE value drivers (increasing resource efficiency, extending lifespan, and closing the loop, the conceptual framework developed in this paper advances knowledge about the role of digital technologies as an enabler of the CE within usage-focused business models. Finally, this study shows how digital technologies help overcome the drawback of usage-focused business models for the adoption of CE pointed out by previous literature.

  10. Vocal communication in a complex multi-level society: constrained acoustic structure and flexible call usage in Guinea baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Fischer, Julia

    2013-09-23

    To understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints. In terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. In closely related taxa, one would therefore predict a higher flexibility in call usage compared to call structure. In the present study, we investigated the vocal repertoire of free living Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and examined the structure and usage of the animals' vocal signals. Guinea baboons live in a complex multi-level social organization and exhibit a largely tolerant and affiliative social style, contrary to most other baboon taxa. To classify the vocal repertoire of male and female Guinea baboons, cluster analyses were used and focal observations were conducted to assess the usage of vocal signals in the particular contexts. In general, the vocal repertoire of Guinea baboons largely corresponded to the vocal repertoire other baboon taxa. The usage of calls, however, differed considerably from other baboon taxa and corresponded with the specific characteristics of the Guinea baboons' social behaviour. While Guinea baboons showed a diminished usage of contest and display vocalizations (a common pattern observed in chacma baboons), they frequently used vocal signals during affiliative and greeting interactions. Our study shows that the call structure of primates is largely unaffected by the species' social system (including grouping patterns and social interactions), while the usage of calls can be more flexibly adjusted, reflecting the quality of social interactions of the individuals. Our results support the view that the primary function of social signals is to regulate social interactions, and therefore the degree of competition and cooperation may be more important to explain variation in call usage

  11. Describing Speech Usage in Daily Activities in Typical Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laine; Baylor, Carolyn R; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    "Speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to meet communication demands in life roles. The purpose of this study was to contribute to validation of the Levels of Speech Usage scale by providing descriptive data from a sample of adults without communication disorders, comparing this scale to a published Occupational Voice Demands scale and examining predictors of speech usage levels. This is a survey design. Adults aged ≥25 years without reported communication disorders were recruited nationally to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Levels of Speech Usage scale, questions about relevant occupational and nonoccupational activities (eg, socializing, hobbies, childcare, and so forth), and demographic information. Participants were also categorized according to Koufman and Isaacson occupational voice demands scale. A total of 276 participants completed the questionnaires. People who worked for pay tended to report higher levels of speech usage than those who do not work for pay. Regression analyses showed employment to be the major contributor to speech usage; however, considerable variance left unaccounted for suggests that determinants of speech usage and the relationship between speech usage, employment, and other life activities are not yet fully defined. The Levels of Speech Usage may be a viable instrument to systematically rate speech usage because it captures both occupational and nonoccupational speech demands. These data from a sample of typical adults may provide a reference to help in interpreting the impact of communication disorders on speech usage patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of hydrogen usage in aviation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, İlker; İlbaş, Mustafa; Taştan, Murat; Tarhan, Cevahir

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine usage of liquid hydrogen as a fuel in aircrafts. ► Engine performance is a little better for liquid hydrogen fuel than kerosene. ► Liquid hydrogen can be a potential alternative to kerosene as aviation fuel. ► Usage of liquid hydrogen will provide national independence for fuel supply. ► Increased production of liquid hydrogen will decrease its cost disadvantage. - Abstract: Fossil-based fuels are commonly used in aircraft engines but they have a polluting effect and they cause a greenhouse effect for our world. This study reports a research about aircraft gas turbine engines which are fired by liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) in terms of performance and environmental aspects. Also, the performance and emissions of LH 2 fueled engines are compared with those of kerosene fired aircraft engines. Same flights from Istanbul to London, and Paris to Kabul are examined to estimate the emission from a conventional aircraft as an application in aviation sector. It is shown that the amount of NO x , HC and CO emissions for traveling by a conventional aircraft for London is 78.36, 1.202 and 22.4 kg, while Paris is 71.55, 1.171 and 21.63 kg, and Kabul is 111.44, 1.36 and 26.11 kg, respectively. For the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel, amount of gas emissions decreases for any destination like London, Paris and Kabul. Total HC and CO emissions are going to be nearly 0 kg because of lack of carbon in the fuel. Also NO x emission is lower because of wider flammability limit of LH 2 . Results show that the aircraft engines with LH 2 have great potential for emissions reduction and engine performance parameters are a little better for LH 2 fuel. It is strongly emphasized that one of the most important advantages for the use of LH 2 is national independence for fuel supply. Oil cannot be extracted in every countries territory but LH 2 is producible for every country and this is so important for a countries freedom.

  13. Web-based pathology practice examination usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Klatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: General and subject specific practice examinations for students in health sciences studying pathology were placed onto a free public internet web site entitled web path and were accessed four clicks from the home web site menu. Subjects and Methods: Multiple choice questions were coded into. html files with JavaScript functions for web browser viewing in a timed format. A Perl programming language script with common gateway interface for web page forms scored examinations and placed results into a log file on an internet computer server. The four general review examinations of 30 questions each could be completed in up to 30 min. The 17 subject specific examinations of 10 questions each with accompanying images could be completed in up to 15 min each. The results of scores and user educational field of study from log files were compiled from June 2006 to January 2014. Results: The four general review examinations had 31,639 accesses with completion of all questions, for a completion rate of 54% and average score of 75%. A score of 100% was achieved by 7% of users, ≥90% by 21%, and ≥50% score by 95% of users. In top to bottom web page menu order, review examination usage was 44%, 24%, 17%, and 15% of all accessions. The 17 subject specific examinations had 103,028 completions, with completion rate 73% and average score 74%. Scoring at 100% was 20% overall, ≥90% by 37%, and ≥50% score by 90% of users. The first three menu items on the web page accounted for 12.6%, 10.0%, and 8.2% of all completions, and the bottom three accounted for no more than 2.2% each. Conclusions: Completion rates were higher for shorter 10 questions subject examinations. Users identifying themselves as MD/DO scored higher than other users, averaging 75%. Usage was higher for examinations at the top of the web page menu. Scores achieved suggest that a cohort of serious users fully completing the examinations had sufficient preparation to use them to support

  14. High School Students' Social Media Usage Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezci, Erdogan; Içen, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Social media which is an important product of Computer and Internet Technologies has a growing usage level day by day. Increasing social media usage level gives opportunity for new software developments and making investments in this area. From this aspect, therefore, social media has not only economic function but also make persons participate in…

  15. Insecticide-treated nets usage and malaria episodes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is urgent need on the part of all the three tiers of Government for public health awareness campaigns through information, education and communication (IEC) to create positive ITN culture and usage. It is also suggested that ITN usage among boarding school pupils should be incorporated into school health service.

  16. The Current State Of Secondary Resource Usage In Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Makovetska

    2011-01-01

    The state and the perspectives of the development of secondary resource usage in Ukraine have been analyzed in the article. The level of the main types recyclable materials as paper and cardboard, glass, plastics, waste tires are considered. Priority directions of development of the secondary resources usage have been defined.

  17. A Factor Analytic Study of the Internet Usage Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, David M.; Whatley, Mark A.; Hinkle, Kerry T.; Cunningham, Kerry T.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Kisling, Rhea

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an Internet Usage Scale (IUS) for use with adolescent populations. The IUS is a 26-item scale that measures participants' beliefs about how their Internet usage impacts their behavior. The sample for this study consisted of 947 middle school students. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the…

  18. Benchmarking Usage Statistics in Collection Management Decisions for Serials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Cory

    2009-01-01

    Usage statistics are an important metric for making decisions on serials. Although the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries have been collecting usage statistics, the statistics had not frequently been used to make decisions and had not been included in collection development policy. After undergoing a collection assessment, the…

  19. E-book usage: counting the challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Conyers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries are spending a growing proportion of their increasingly stretched budgets on e-books each year. Within this context, demonstrating a return on investment is imperative, but gathering data about e-resource usage is not always easy.    This article summarizes how libraries and library consortia are acquiring and evaluating e-books, how usage statistics feature within library workflows, the issues faced in doing so and the resulting impact of these issues on understanding usage and informing purchasing of new titles. Discussions with publishers indicate how usage data are being used within the organization, the requirements of customers and the challenges involved in providing usage data for e-books. Assessing and evaluating e-book usage is a complex and challenging task with processes and workflows in development. A transition from print to e-books represents a significant change for libraries, and the availability of reliable usage statistics to support purchase decisions is vital. The article is based on a series of case study interviews with representatives from a small cross-section of academic libraries, library consortia, publishers and aggregators.    This work is of interest to anyone with responsibility for creating, managing, developing, delivering and supporting usage statistics and standards for e-books.

  20. 40 CFR 52.254 - Organic solvent usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic solvent usage. 52.254 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.254 Organic solvent usage. (a) This... (d) of this section and the architectural coatings and solvent disposal emission limitations...

  1. ICT USAGE BY DISTANCE LEARNERS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar AWADHIYA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Open Universities across the world are embracing ICT based teaching and learning process to disseminate quality education to their learners spread across the globe. In India availability and access of ICT and learner characteristics are uneven and vary from state to state. Hence it is important to establish the facts about ICT access among learners, their ICT usage patterns and their readiness to use ICT for educational purpose. In view of this, a study was conducted with the objective to find out the access level of ICT among distance learners. The analysis indicates that maximum learners have desktop/laptops and most of them are accessing internet very frequently from their home. The analysis also indicates that maximum respondents are browsing social networking sites followed by educational and e-mail service providing websites. Findings suggest that there is a need to generate ICT based tutorials complemented with social networking tools and mobile applications. Study also shows that learners are equipped with mobile phones and they are browsing internet through it and also availing support services offered by the university. Hence possibility of integrating mobile phone services may be used for providing learner support services and content delivery.

  2. Association and Sequence Mining in Web Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Elena DINUCA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Web servers worldwide generate a vast amount of information on web users’ browsing activities. Several researchers have studied these so-called clickstream or web access log data to better understand and characterize web users. Clickstream data can be enriched with information about the content of visited pages and the origin (e.g., geographic, organizational of the requests. The goal of this project is to analyse user behaviour by mining enriched web access log data. With the continued growth and proliferation of e-commerce, Web services, and Web-based information systems, the volumes of click stream and user data collected by Web-based organizations in their daily operations has reached astronomical proportions. This information can be exploited in various ways, such as enhancing the effectiveness of websites or developing directed web marketing campaigns. The discovered patterns are usually represented as collections of pages, objects, or re-sources that are frequently accessed by groups of users with common needs or interests. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview how to use frequent pattern techniques for discovering different types of patterns in a Web log database. In this paper we will focus on finding association as a data mining technique to extract potentially useful knowledge from web usage data. I implemented in Java, using NetBeans IDE, a program for identification of pages’ association from sessions. For exemplification, we used the log files from a commercial web site.

  3. Internet Usage among Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karayagiz Muslu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Computers have occupied increasingly central roles in children’s world with the advance of technology. They have proved to be an ideal companion for children in developing and developed countries who spend most of their time at school or home with computers. As a measure of development and modernization, technology has made people’s lives easier and contributed positively to social well-being so far while it has also brought about some problems and threats stemming from irresponsible use of Internet. Unmonitored use of Internet may cause damages in children’s and young people’s physical, psychological, social and cognitive development. It seems imperative to assure that children and young people can benefit from computers and Internet resources effectively and productively while measures for appropriate and safe use of Internet are to be taken into serious consideration. Therefore, the government offices and institutions should lay stress upon the issue; education professionals and parents should be well-informed and regularly updated; and finally children and young people should be educated and monitored to achieve a better and efficient use of Internet. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage on physical, psychosocial and cognitive health of children and young people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 445-450

  4. Fossil fuel usage and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect and global warming, ozone formation in the troposphere, ozone destruction in the stratosphere, and acid rain are important environmental issues. The relationship of fossil fuel usage to some of these issues is discussed. Data on fossil fuel consumption and the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and ozone indicate that natural gas provides lower emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen and sulfur oxides than other fossil fuels. Global emissions of methane from the gas industry are significantly less than those from other anthropogenic activities and natural sources, and methane plays an important role along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in tropospheric ozone formation. Reductions in any or all of these air pollutants would reduce ozone in the lower atmosphere. Several remedial measures have been or are being implemented in certain countries to reduce fossil fuel emissions. These include removal of emissions from the atmosphere by new biomass growth, fuel substitution by use of cleaner burning fuels for stationary and mobile sources, and fossil fuel combustion at higher efficiencies. It is unlikely that concerted environmental action by all governments of the world will occur soon, but much progress has been made to achieve clean air

  5. Contract Report for Usage Inspection of KN-12 Transport Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, D. H.; Min, D. K

    2007-03-15

    The usage inspection of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport package was performed to receive the license for reuse. According to the Korea Atomic Energy Act, all type B transport package should receive and pass the usage inspection every five years. The KN-12 transport cask was designed to transport twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies under wet and dry conditions. The cask was developed and licensed in 2002 in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. The areas of usage inspection include: visual inspection, nondestructive weld inspection, load test, maximum operating pressure test, leakage test, shielding test, thermal test, external surface contamination test. In the results of the usage inspection, the damage or defect could not found out and the performance of the cask was maintained according to the requirements of the regulation. Therefore, the usage inspection was successfully performed to acquire the license for the reuse.

  6. Usage Inspection of KN-12 Spent Fuel Transport Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, D. H.; Min, D. K

    2007-03-15

    The usage inspection of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport package was performed to receive the license for reuse. According to the Korea Atomic Energy Act, all type B transport package should receive and pass the usage inspection every five years. The KN-12 transport cask was designed to transport twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies under wet and dry conditions. The cask was developed and licensed in 2002 in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. The areas of usage inspection include: visual inspection, nondestructive weld inspection, load test, maximum operating pressure test, leakage test, shielding test, thermal test, external surface contamination test. In the results of the usage inspection, the damage or defect could not found out and the performance of the cask was maintained according to the requirements of the regulation. Therefore, the usage inspection was successfully performed to acquire the license for the reuse.

  7. World Wide Web Usage Mining Systems and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chen Hu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining is used to discover interesting user navigation patterns and can be applied to many real-world problems, such as improving Web sites/pages, making additional topic or product recommendations, user/customer behavior studies, etc. This article provides a survey and analysis of current Web usage mining systems and technologies. A Web usage mining system performs five major tasks: i data gathering, ii data preparation, iii navigation pattern discovery, iv pattern analysis and visualization, and v pattern applications. Each task is explained in detail and its related technologies are introduced. A list of major research systems and projects concerning Web usage mining is also presented, and a summary of Web usage mining is given in the last section.

  8. Contract Report for Usage Inspection of KN-12 Transport Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, D. H.; Min, D. K.

    2007-03-01

    The usage inspection of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport package was performed to receive the license for reuse. According to the Korea Atomic Energy Act, all type B transport package should receive and pass the usage inspection every five years. The KN-12 transport cask was designed to transport twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies under wet and dry conditions. The cask was developed and licensed in 2002 in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. The areas of usage inspection include: visual inspection, nondestructive weld inspection, load test, maximum operating pressure test, leakage test, shielding test, thermal test, external surface contamination test. In the results of the usage inspection, the damage or defect could not found out and the performance of the cask was maintained according to the requirements of the regulation. Therefore, the usage inspection was successfully performed to acquire the license for the reuse

  9. Usage Inspection of KN-12 Spent Fuel Transport Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. C.; Seo, K. S.; Bang, K. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, D. H.; Min, D. K.

    2007-03-01

    The usage inspection of the KN-12 spent nuclear fuel transport package was performed to receive the license for reuse. According to the Korea Atomic Energy Act, all type B transport package should receive and pass the usage inspection every five years. The KN-12 transport cask was designed to transport twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies under wet and dry conditions. The cask was developed and licensed in 2002 in accordance with the Korea and the IAEA's safe transport regulations. The areas of usage inspection include: visual inspection, nondestructive weld inspection, load test, maximum operating pressure test, leakage test, shielding test, thermal test, external surface contamination test. In the results of the usage inspection, the damage or defect could not found out and the performance of the cask was maintained according to the requirements of the regulation. Therefore, the usage inspection was successfully performed to acquire the license for the reuse

  10. Rank Dynamics of Word Usage at Multiple Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Morales

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent dramatic increase in online data availability has allowed researchers to explore human culture with unprecedented detail, such as the growth and diversification of language. In particular, it provides statistical tools to explore whether word use is similar across languages, and if so, whether these generic features appear at different scales of language structure. Here we use the Google Books N-grams dataset to analyze the temporal evolution of word usage in several languages. We apply measures proposed recently to study rank dynamics, such as the diversity of N-grams in a given rank, the probability that an N-gram changes rank between successive time intervals, the rank entropy, and the rank complexity. Using different methods, results show that there are generic properties for different languages at different scales, such as a core of words necessary to minimally understand a language. We also propose a null model to explore the relevance of linguistic structure across multiple scales, concluding that N-gram statistics cannot be reduced to word statistics. We expect our results to be useful in improving text prediction algorithms, as well as in shedding light on the large-scale features of language use, beyond linguistic and cultural differences across human populations.

  11. Research on the usage of a deep sea fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsubo, Akira; Kowata, Yasuki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-09-01

    Many new types of fast reactors have been studied in PNC. A deep sea fast reactor has the highest realization probability of the reactors studied because its development is desired by many specialists of oceanography, meteorology, deep sea bottom oil field, seismology and so on and because the development does not cost big budget and few technical problems remain to be solved. This report explains the outline and the usage of the reactor of 40 kWe and 200 to 400 kWe. The reactor can be used as a power source at an unmanned base for long term climate prediction and the earth science and an oil production base in a deep sea region. On the other hand, it is used for heat and electric power supply to a laboratory in the polar region. In future, it will be used in the space. At the present time, a large FBR development plan does not proceed successfully and a realization goal time of FBR has gone later and later. We think that it is the most important to develop the reactor as fast as possible and to plant a fast reactor technique in our present society. (author)

  12. Excessive use of Facebook: The influence of self-monitoring and Facebook usage on social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikanda Pornsakulvanich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of self-monitoring and the amount of Facebook use on Facebook addiction, and the associations among self-monitoring, Facebook addiction, Facebook usage, and social support. A cross-sectional design was used to collect the data from 257 college students who have used Facebook. The findings indicated that high self-monitors were more likely to be addicted to Facebook than were low self-monitors. In addition, the number of friends and Facebook activities were the major predictors of the amount of time on Facebook. High self-monitors, Facebook activities, and the amount of time predicted Facebook addiction. Moreover, the number of friends and low-self-monitors were linked to social support. Keywords: Facebook addiction, Facebook usage, self-monitoring, social support

  13. A Cinnamon-Derived Procyanidin Compound Displays Anti-HIV-1 Activity by Blocking Heparan Sulfate- and Co-Receptor- Binding Sites on gp120 and Reverses T Cell Exhaustion via Impeding Tim-3 and PD-1 Upregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette Janine Connell

    Full Text Available Amongst the many strategies aiming at inhibiting HIV-1 infection, blocking viral entry has been recently recognized as a very promising approach. Using diverse in vitro models and a broad range of HIV-1 primary patient isolates, we report here that IND02, a type A procyanidin polyphenol extracted from cinnamon, that features trimeric and pentameric forms displays an anti-HIV-1 activity against CXCR4 and CCR5 viruses with 1-7 μM ED50 for the trimer. Competition experiments, using a surface plasmon resonance-based binding assay, revealed that IND02 inhibited envelope binding to CD4 and heparan sulphate (HS as well as to an antibody (mAb 17b directed against the gp120 co-receptor binding site with an IC50 in the low μM range. IND02 has thus the remarkable property of simultaneously blocking gp120 binding to its major host cell surface counterparts. Additionally, the IND02-trimer impeded up-regulation of the inhibitory receptors Tim-3 and PD-1 on CD4+ and CD8+ cells, thereby demonstrating its beneficial effect by limiting T cell exhaustion. Among naturally derived products significantly inhibiting HIV-1, the IND02-trimer is the first component demonstrating an entry inhibition property through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein. These data suggest that cinnamon, a widely consumed spice, could represent a novel and promising candidate for a cost-effective, natural entry inhibitor for HIV-1 which can also down-modulate T cell exhaustion markers Tim-3 and PD-1.

  14. Application Examples for Handle System Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, F.; Weigel, T.; Thiemann, H.; Höck, H.; Stockhause, M.; Lautenschlager, M.

    2012-12-01

    Besides the well-known DOI (Digital Object Identifiers) as a special form of Handles that resolve to scientific publications there are various other applications in use. Others perhaps are just not yet. We present some examples for the existing ones and some ideas for the future. The national German project C3-Grid provides a framework to implement a first solution for provenance tracing and explore unforeseen implications. Though project-specific, the high-level architecture is generic and represents well a common notion of data derivation. Users select one or many input datasets and a workflow software module (an agent in this context) to execute on the data. The output data is deposited in a repository to be delivered to the user. All data is accompanied by an XML metadata document. All input and output data, metadata and the workflow module receive Handles and are linked together to establish a directed acyclic graph of derived data objects and involved agents. Data that has been modified by a workflow module is linked to its predecessor data and the workflow module involved. Version control systems such as svn or git provide Internet access to software repositories using URLs. To refer to a specific state of the source code of for instance a C3 workflow module, it is sufficient to reference the URL to the svn revision or git hash. In consequence, individual revisions and the repository as a whole receive PIDs. Moreover, the revision specific PIDs are linked to their respective predecessors and become part of the provenance graph. Another example for usage of PIDs in a current major project is given in EUDAT (European Data Infrastructure) which will link scientific data of several research communities together. In many fields it is necessary to provide data objects at multiple locations for a variety of applications. To ensure consistency, not only the master of a data object but also its copies shall be provided with a PID. To verify transaction safety and to

  15. Evolution of DOI Usage and Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, N.; Wanchoo, L.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project has implemented an automated system for assigning Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to Earth Science data products being managed by its network of 12 distributed active archive centers (DAACs). Using the ESDIS DOI system, over 3000 DOIs have been assigned, registered, and made publicly accessible while over 1000 assigned DOIs are being held in reserve until ready for public use. The goal is to assign a DOI to each of the 8000+ data collections under ESDIS management. DOIs make it easier for researchers to discover and use earth science data and they enable users to provide valid citations for the data they use in research. Also for the researcher wishing to reproduce the results presented in science publications, the DOI can be used to locate the exact data or data products being cited. ESDIS DOIs also provide data "Provenance" which is information about the creation and history of the data in question. This would include when the data was collected, which instrument was used to collect the data, and the version of the product at the time the DOI was assigned. Over the past few years, requests for DOIs have increased significantly as DAACs assign DOIs to both legacy data from earlier missions and new data products from in-orbit missions. This study will evaluate the evolution of DOI registration and its usage over those years comparing data products as they are organized by mission, science discipline and data product level. It is hoped that the study results will help NASA determine how to prioritize future products for DOI assignment and inform future studies that would identify trends over time of increased use of data citations resulting in increased discovery and distribution of NASA Earth science data products.

  16. Usage of Business Simulation Games in Croatia: Perceived Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Zoroja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Business simulation games (BSGs enhance learning, since they actively involve students in the educational process through game playing. They began to play important role in business education in many universities in Croatia. However, quantitative information on their usage in higher educational institutions (HEIs in Croatia is still scarce. Goals of the paper are to explore: (1 differences among BSGs users and non-users according to demographic characteristics, (2 differences among BSGs users and non-users according to perceived obstacles of BSGs usage, and (3 impact of both demographic characteristics and perceived obstacles on the decision on usage or not-usage of BSGs. A survey was taken in business and economics departments of HEIs in Croatia. A regression model has been used to test the impact of demographic characteristics of educators and the perceived obstacles to the usage of BSGs in educational practice. Results indicate that BSGs usage is currently at a low level, mainly due to the lack of funds and management support. Academic rank, gender, and attitude toward new technologies also impact BSGs usage.

  17. Exploring the relationship between parental worry about their children's health and usage of an internet intervention for pediatric encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C; Ritterband, Lee M; Thorndike, Frances P; Cox, Daniel J; Borowitz, Stephen M

    2009-06-01

    To investigate whether parental worry about their children's health predicts usage of a pediatric Internet intervention for encopresis. Thirty-nine families with a child diagnosed with encopresis completed a national clinical trial of an Internet-based intervention for encopresis (www.ucanpooptoo.com). Parents rated worry about their children's health, encopresis severity, current parent treatment for depression, and parent comfort with the Internet. Usage indicators were collected while participants utilized the intervention. Regression analyses showed that parents who reported higher baseline levels of worry about their children's health showed greater subsequent intervention use (beta =.52, p =.002), even after accounting for other plausible predictors. Exploratory analyses indicated that this effect may be stronger for families with younger children. Characteristics of individuals using Internet-based treatment programs, such as parental worry about their children's health, can influence intervention usage, and should be considered by developers of Internet interventions.

  18. Internet Usage Habits and Internet Usage in Educational Studies of Vocational School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Deniz Yakıncı

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet is the easiest way to access information. It provides positive contributions to individual and surroundings, in learning and information era. At this point the answers of the questions: ‘How do young people use internet and how much do they use internet for their education?’ come into prominence. In order to find the answers; a questionnaire prepared by resarchers and Young Internet Addiction Test- Short Form (YIAT-SF was used on ‘Health Services Vocational High School’ students, in this study. 3.4 % of students were found to have internet addiction and the average internet usage was found to be 5 hours daily. When students were asked to enumerate the internet sites they use, the result was: social media, news sites, movie and series sites, educational and informational content sites, play sites, e-mail, shopping sites, and sexual content sites in order of usage preferance. While social media was preferred by 79.4% in the first place, educational content sites were determined to be preferred by 5.7% in the first place among others. The second most frequently used sites by students were movies and series (22.8%. Educational / informational content (20.2 % sites were the fifth preferred sites in the preference order.

  19. Usage reporting on recorded lectures using educational data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Pierre; Van Bruggen, Jan; Jochems, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Gorissen, P., Van Bruggen, J., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2012). Usage reporting on recorded lectures using educational data mining. International Journal of Learning Technology, 7, 23-40. doi:10.1504/IJLT.2012.046864

  20. EFFECT OF YAM STORAGE TECHNIQUES USAGE ON FARM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    1Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Faculty of ... significant effect on the usage of yam storage techniques, while access to credit ..... study area at subsidized rates so as to encourage them to use such techniques.

  1. Usage of nuclear data library and proposal to JENDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.; Iijima, S.; Kawai, Y.; Matsunobu, H.; Zukeran, A.

    1987-01-01

    A usage status of nuclear data libraries and proposals to the JENDL library are briefly reviewed. 1) Data bases used in plant design and fuel cycle design fields are summarized. JNDC evaluated data and JENDL are not utilized so much than expected in these fields. 2) Performances between JENDL-2 and ENDF/B-IV are compared in the FBR nuclear design field. JENDL-2 shows good characteristics. 3) Usages of JENDL-2 are shown in the LWR nuclear design field. JENDL-2 isn't always superior to the licensing library. 4) Usages of JENDL-2 are shown in the FBR shielding R D field. JENDL-2 underestimates measured spectra in case of the deep penetration experiment. 5) Based on the above usage status of JENDL-2, proposals to future JENDL and Nuclear Data Center are tabulated. (author)

  2. Verifying Correct Usage of Atomic Blocks and Typestate: Technical Companion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beckman, Nels E; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    In this technical report, we present a static and dynamic semantics as well as a proof of soundness for a programming language presented in the paper entitled, 'Verifying Correct Usage of Atomic Blocks and Typestate...

  3. Computer simulation of forest fire and its possible usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halada, L.; Weisenpacher, P.; Glasa, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation authors deal with computer modelling of forest fires. Their possible usage is discussed. Results of modelling are compared with real forest fire in the National Park Slovensky Raj (Slovak Paradise) in 2000 year

  4. Understanding social media usage by females in Saudi Arabia: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding social media usage by females in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive finding. ... This study was conducted to determine the effects of SM on Saudi females. ... hence more effort should be undertaken to encourage more uptake of SM for ...

  5. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey aimed to evaluate knowledge and safe usage of jungle juice on patients in ... patterns and safety measures employed during use of jungle juice among ... Regarding the specific antidote for severe local anesthetic toxicity and its ...

  6. Everyday Preschool Interpersonal Speech Usage: Methodological, Developmental, and Sociolinguistic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Frances Fuchs; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to provide data on developmental and sociolinguistic patterns of interpersonal speech usage from ages 2 to 5 years which may have important implications for poverty school programs. (Author/CS)

  7. Energy usage optimisation of heavy haul freight trains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available tonnage and long distances an enormous amount of energy is required. Using classical mechanics, an energy usage model for typical freight trains based on available tractive power and typical rolling stock resistances (curvature, friction, gravity etc...

  8. Customers Demographics Influence on Usage of Retail Banking Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha GUPTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the usage of retail banking influenced by customers’ demographics of selected Public Sector Banks (PSBs of India. The study was based on primary data collected through structured questionnaire. The simple random sampling technique used for data collection for sample size 692. The study finds that public sector banks need to understand the usage pattern of an individual customer using delivery channel to add greater value to customers. Respondent age groups influence ATMs usage. Internet banking is majorly influenced by the customers’ demographics. Respondents’ age group and qualification influence mobile banking. Branch lobby kiosk is not influenced by any demographics. The identification of most influential demographic variable will help to build strong and effective cross-selling and up-selling of financial products and services. Our study was limited to the customers of PSBs of India. This study may be helpful to PSBs for enhancing effective usage of delivery channels.

  9. 412 awareness and usage of the baobab in rural communities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    edible fruits, seeds, leaves, resins, tannins, gums, oils and ... potentials of this free gift of nature and its usage among the rural poor ... Literature Review. Scientific ... 1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. University of ...

  10. Codon usage bias analysis for the coding sequences of Camellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... suggested that codon usage bias is driven by selection, particularly for .... For example, as mentioned above, highly expressed genes tend to use fewer ... directional codon bias measure effective number of codons (ENc) was ...

  11. Factors influencing the usage of different types of malaria prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine factors which influence the use of different types of malaria prevention ... risk areas, religion, education and income influenced ITN usage, whereas only age, malaria .... the uptake of IPTp given that the person would not.

  12. Business Education Students' Perception of Educational Usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to establish from business education students in tertiary institutions ... sites for educational activities and faced the problem of poor network service. ... regarding academic usage of social networking sites as a result of gender.

  13. Personality and mental health treatment: Traits as predictors of presentation, usage, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle

    2018-03-08

    Self-report scores on personality inventories predict important life outcomes, including health and longevity, marital outcomes, career success, and mental health problems, but the ways they predict mental health treatment have not been widely explored. Psychotherapy is sought for diverse problems, but about half of those who begin therapy drop out, and only about half who complete therapy experience lasting improvements. Several authors have argued that understanding how personality traits relate to treatment could lead to better targeted, more successful services. Here self-report scores on Big Five and Big Six personality dimensions are explored as predictors of therapy presentation, usage, and outcomes in a sample of community clinic clients (N = 306). Participants received evidence-based treatments in the context of individual-, couples-, or family-therapy sessions. One measure of initial functioning and three indicators of outcome were used. All personality trait scores except Openness associated with initial psychological functioning. Higher Conscientiousness scores predicted more sessions attended for family therapy but fewer for couples-therapy clients. Higher Honesty-Propriety and Extraversion scores predicted fewer sessions attended for family-therapy clients. Better termination outcome was predicted by higher Conscientiousness scores for family- and higher Extraversion scores for individual-therapy clients. Higher Honesty-Propriety and Neuroticism scores predicted more improvement in psychological functioning in terms of successive Outcome Questionnaire-45 administrations. Taken together, the results provide some support for the role of personality traits in predicting treatment usage and outcome and for the utility of a 6-factor model in this context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Internet Usage Habits as a Part of Distance Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Tufan, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Within the scope of this study, which deals with distance education method as a communication process, a focus group interview was conducted with voluntary students who were randomly selected from various areas/majors at the Department of Distance Education in Istanbul University in order to determine the relationship between their general Internet usage habits and their Internet usage as a part of distance learning and in line with their expectations. The questions posed for the students dur...

  15. Media Usage and Civic Life: The Role of Values

    OpenAIRE

    Firat, Rengin Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has observed that media usage influences civic outcomes, including trust and political behavior. However, this research has rarely examined the social psychological mechanisms underlying the relationship between media and civic life. The current study focuses on values as potential explanations for how media usage impacts civic engagement. Using data from Round 5 of the European Social Survey (2010) and employing two-level structural equation modeling, this paper examines wh...

  16. Japanese Mobile Phone Usage in Sweden - Technological and Social Prerequisites

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Susanne; Hillerdal, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Japan is an advanced country when it comes to mobile phone technology. This thesis firstly investigates the mobile phone usage in Japan. Secondly it describes the prerequisites for implementation of some distinguished Japanese mobile phone functions in Sweden. This is done from a social as well as a technological aspect. The Japanese mobile phone usage is investigated on three levels; governmental, industrial and consumer. The governmental level is characterised by an ICT policy which strives...

  17. Fuzzy Clustering: An Approachfor Mining Usage Profilesfrom Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ms.Archana N. Boob; Prof. D. M. Dakhane

    2012-01-01

    Web usage mining is an application of data mining technology to mining the data of the web server log file. It can discover the browsing patterns of user and some kind of correlations between the web pages. Web usage mining provides the support for the web site design, providing personalization server and other business making decision, etc. Web mining applies the data mining, the artificial intelligence and the chart technology and so on to the web data and traces users' visiting characteris...

  18. BEHAVIORAL ASPECT OF ACCOUNTING TEACHERS’ INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USAGE

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Emine; ÖZER, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine behavioral process of accounting teachers’ information technology (IT) acceptance. To this end, we collected data from accounting teachers working in trade high schools. Research model and hypotheses were developed in the light of Theory of Reasoned Action. Accordingly, relationships among attitudes, subjective norms, intentions towards information technology usage and IT usage behaviors were investigated. Explanatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling...

  19. The relationship between codon usage bias and cold resistant genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barozai, M.Y.; Din, M.

    2014-01-01

    This research is based on synonymous codon usage which has been well-known as a feature that affects typical expression level of protein in an organism. Different organisms prefer different codons for same amino acid and this is called Codon Usage Bias (CUB). The codon usage directly affects the level or even direction of changes in protein expression in responses to environmental stimuli. Cold stress is a major abiotic factor that limits the agricultural productivity of plants. In the recent study CUB has been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana cold resistant and housekeeping genes and their homologs in rice (Oryza sativa) to understand the cold stress and housekeeping genes relation with CUB. Six cold resistant and three housekeeping genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and their homologs in rice, were subjected to CUB analysis. The three cold resistant genes (DREB1B, RCI and MYB15) showed more than 50% (52%, 61% and 66% respectively) similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. On the other hand three cold resistant genes (MPK3, ICE1 and ZAT12) showed less than 50% (38%, 38% and 47% respectively) similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. The three housekeeping genes (Actin, Tubulin and Ubiquitin) showed 76% similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. This study will help to manage the plant gene expression through codon optimization under the cold stress. (author)

  20. OER Usage by Instructional Designers and Training Managers in Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Cohen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of Open Educational Resources (OERs, different models regarding the usage of these resources in education have appeared in the literature. Wiley’s 4-Rs model is considered to be one of the leading models. Research based on Wiley’s model shows that using materials without making changes is the most common use. Compared to the extensive literature regarding OER usage in education, the literature barely deals with OER usage by instructional designers or training managers in corporations. The purpose of this research is to examine the OER usage of these two stakeholders, distinguishing between Little and Big OER repositories, in which Little OER repositories such as YouTube and Wikipedia aren’t necessarily designed to fulfill educational purposes. Findings show that these stakeholders almost use only Little repositories and that their usage level is higher than what is documented in the literature: they mostly Revise–modify the form of the resource, and Remix–combine different resources to create new ones. These differences can be explained by the fact that materials from Little OER repositories are raw materials, requiring further editing and adjustment. Significant differences between instructional designers’ and training managers’ usage of OERs were found regarding the Reuse level of resources from internal repositories and the Google Images repository, and the frequency of this Reuse.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of codon usage bias in Ebolavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina, Juan; Moreno, Pilar; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Musto, Héctor

    2015-01-22

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of the family Filoviridae and its genome consists of a 19-kb, single-stranded, negative sense RNA. EBOV is subdivided into five distinct species with different pathogenicities, being Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) the most lethal species. The interplay of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is expected to affect overall viral survival, fitness, evasion from host's immune system and evolution. In the present study, we performed comprehensive analyses of codon usage and composition of ZEBOV. Effective number of codons (ENC) indicates that the overall codon usage among ZEBOV strains is slightly biased. Different codon preferences in ZEBOV genes in relation to codon usage of human genes were found. Highly preferred codons are all A-ending triplets, which strongly suggests that mutational bias is a main force shaping codon usage in ZEBOV. Dinucleotide composition also plays a role in the overall pattern of ZEBOV codon usage. ZEBOV does not seem to use the most abundant tRNAs present in the human cells for most of their preferred codons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Seatbelt usage: is there an association with obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, B; King, D M; Jacobson, S H

    2014-09-01

    Wearing a seatbelt can prevent motor vehicle crash deaths. While primary seatbelt laws are designed to encourage vehicle passengers to wear seatbelts by allowing law enforcement officers to issue tickets when passengers do not wear seatbelts, discomfort may discourage obese individuals from wearing a seatbelt. The objective of this study is to assess the association between state-level obesity and seatbelt usage rates in the US, and to examine the possible role played by seatbelt laws in these associations. The strength of the association between obesity rates, seatbelt usage, and primary seatbelt laws at the state level is investigated using data from 2006 to 2011. Linear regression analysis is employed. This model estimates that increasing the obesity rate by 1% in a state where a primary seatbelt law (by which law enforcement officers can issue a ticket when seatbelts are not worn) is in effect is associated with a 0.06% decrease in seatbelt usage. However the same percentage of increase in the obesity rate in a state where no primary seatbelt law is in effect is associated with a 0.55% decrease in seatbelt usage. The magnitude of the statistical association between state obesity rates and state-level seatbelt usage is related to the existence of a primary seatbelt law, such that obesity has less impact on seatbelt usage in states where primary seatbelt laws are in effect. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Regionally-varying and regionally-uniform electricity pricing policies compared across four usage categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Taeyoung; Kim, Hyun Jae; Park, Kihyun; Roberts, Roland K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our research is to predict how electricity demand varies spatially between status quo regionally-uniform electricity pricing and hypothetical regionally-varying electricity pricing across usage categories. We summarize the empirical results of a case study of electricity demand in South Korea with three key findings and their related implications. First, the price elasticities of electricity demand differ across usage categories. Specifically, electricity demands for manufacturing and retail uses are price inelastic and close to unit elastic, respectively, while those for agricultural and residential uses are not statistically significant. This information is important in designing energy policy, because higher electricity prices could reduce electricity demands for manufacturing and retail uses, resulting in slower growth in those sectors. Second, spatial spillovers in electricity demand vary across uses. Understanding the spatial structure of electricity demand provides useful information to energy policy makers for anticipating changes in demand across regions via regionally-varying electricity pricing for different uses. Third, simulation results suggest that spatial variations among electricity demands by usage category under a regionally-varying electricity-pricing policy differ from those under a regionally-uniform electricity-pricing policy. Differences in spatial changes between the policies provide information for developing a realistic regionally-varying electricity-pricing policy according to usage category. - Highlights: • We compare regionally-varying and regionally-uniform electricity pricing policies. • We summarize empirical results of a case study of electricity demand in South Korea. • We confirm that spatial spillovers in electricity demands vary across different uses. • We find positive spatial spillovers in the manufacturing and residential sectors. • Our methods help policy makers evaluate regionally-varying pricing

  4. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  5. Synonymous Codon Usage Analysis of Thirty Two Mycobacteriophage Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Synonymous codon usage of protein coding genes of thirty two completely sequenced mycobacteriophage genomes was studied using multivariate statistical analysis. One of the major factors influencing codon usage is identified to be compositional bias. Codons ending with either C or G are preferred in highly expressed genes among which C ending codons are highly preferred over G ending codons. A strong negative correlation between effective number of codons (Nc and GC3s content was also observed, showing that the codon usage was effected by gene nucleotide composition. Translational selection is also identified to play a role in shaping the codon usage operative at the level of translational accuracy. High level of heterogeneity is seen among and between the genomes. Length of genes is also identified to influence the codon usage in 11 out of 32 phage genomes. Mycobacteriophage Cooper is identified to be the highly biased genome with better translation efficiency comparing well with the host specific tRNA genes.

  6. Analysis of Usage Patterns in Large Multimedia Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Bhattarai, Bibek

    User behavior in a website is a critical indicator of the web site's usability and success. Therefore an understanding of usage patterns is essential to website design optimization. In this context, large multimedia websites pose a significant challenge for comprehension of the complex and diverse user behaviors they sustain. This is due to the complexity of analyzing and understanding user-data interactions in media-rich contexts. In this chapter we present a novel multi-perspective approach for usability analysis of large media rich websites. Our research combines multimedia web content analysis with elements of web-log analysis and visualization/visual mining of web usage metadata. Multimedia content analysis allows direct estimation of the information-cues presented to a user by the web content. Analysis of web logs and usage-metadata, such as location, type, and frequency of interactions provides a complimentary perspective on the site's usage. The entire set of information is leveraged through powerful visualization and interactive querying techniques to provide analysis of usage patterns, measure of design quality, as well as the ability to rapidly identify problems in the web-site design. Experiments on media rich sites including the SkyServer - a large multimedia web-based astronomy information repository demonstrate the efficacy and promise of the proposed approach.

  7. Mobile usage and sleep patterns among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogesh, Saxena; Abha, Shrivastava; Priyanka, Singh

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of humans to radio frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) both during receiving and transmitting the signals has amplified public and scientific debate about possible adverse effects on human health. The study was designed with the objective of assessing the extent of mobile phone use amongst medical students and finding correlation if any between the hours of usage of mobile to sleep pattern and quality. hundred medical students grouped as cases (n = 57) (> 2 hours/day of mobile usage) and control (n = 43) (≤ 2 hours/day of mobile usage) were examined for their sleep quality & pattern by Pittsburg sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Differences between groups were examined with the Mann Whitney "U" test for proportions (Quantitative values) and with Student't' test for continuous variables. The association of variables was analyzed by Spearman Rank's correlation. Probability was set at usage and sleep indices were observed in both genders (males r = 0.25; p = 0.04, females r = 0.31; p = 0.009). Evening usage of mobile phone in cases showed a statistically significant negative association (-0.606; p = 0.042) with Sleep quality (higher PSQI means sleep deprivation). Students using mobile for > 2 hours/day may cause sleep deprivation and day sleepiness affecting cognitive and learning abilities of medical students.

  8. Designation of facility usage categories for Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.; Ellingson, D.; Scott, M.; Schade, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site methodology used to ensure facility compliance with the natural phenomena design criteria set forth in the US Department of Energy orders and guidance. In particular, the Hanford Site approach to designating a suitable facility open-quotes Usage Category,close quotes is presented. The current Hanford Site methodology for Usage Category designation is based on an engineered feature's safety function and on the feature's assigned Safety Class. At the Hanford Site, Safety Class assignments are deterministic in nature and are based on the consequences of failure, without regard to the likelihood of occurrence. The report also proposes a risk-based approach to Usage Category designation, which is being considered for future application at the Hanford Site. To establish a proper Usage Category designation, the safety analysis and engineering design processes must be coupled. This union produces a common understanding of the safety function(s) to be accomplished by the design feature(s) and a sound basis for the assignment of Usage Categories to the appropriate systems, structures, and components

  9. Social Network Site Usage and Personal Relations of Migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Damian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the relation between social network site (SNS usage and the personal networks of immigrants, using a unique dataset composed of a representative sample of immigrants living in the Netherlands. In theory, SNSs can be a helpful tool for immigrants, because they may help establish social ties in the destination country and help maintain ties with people in the country of origin. We examine whether this is also true in practice by analyzing whether the frequency of using two SNSs—Facebook and Hyves (a Dutch SNS—is associated with the number of ingroup and outgroup ties, as well as the quality of social relations. In addition, we test whether general emotional disclosure boosts the effect of SNS usage on the quality of relationships. We find that SNS usage is associated with more outgroup ties, but not with more ingroup ties. Our analyses also show that SNS usage is associated with greater quality social relationships among migrants. Contrary to our expectations, we found no interaction between general emotional disclosure and SNS usage on satisfaction with social relations. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Complex Codon Usage Pattern and Compositional Features of Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav RoyChoudhury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses infect a wide range of organisms including humans. Among them, HIV-1, which causes AIDS, has now become a major threat for world health. Some of these viruses are also potential gene transfer vectors. In this study, the patterns of synonymous codon usage in retroviruses have been studied through multivariate statistical methods on ORFs sequences from the available 56 retroviruses. The principal determinant for evolution of the codon usage pattern in retroviruses seemed to be the compositional constraints, while selection for translation of the viral genes plays a secondary role. This was further supported by multivariate analysis on relative synonymous codon usage. Thus, it seems that mutational bias might have dominated role over translational selection in shaping the codon usage of retroviruses. Codon adaptation index was used to identify translationally optimal codons among genes from retroviruses. The comparative analysis of the preferred and optimal codons among different retroviral groups revealed that four codons GAA, AAA, AGA, and GGA were significantly more frequent in most of the retroviral genes inspite of some differences. Cluster analysis also revealed that phylogenetically related groups of retroviruses have probably evolved their codon usage in a concerted manner under the influence of their nucleotide composition.

  11. MESUR: USAGE-BASED METRICS OF SCHOLARLY IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    The evaluation of scholarly communication items is now largely a matter of expert opinion or metrics derived from citation data. Both approaches can fail to take into account the myriad of factors that shape scholarly impact. Usage data has emerged as a promising complement to existing methods o fassessment but the formal groundwork to reliably and validly apply usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact is lacking. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded MESUR project constitutes a systematic effort to define, validate and cross-validate a range of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact by creating a semantic model of the scholarly communication process. The constructed model will serve as the basis of a creating a large-scale semantic network that seamlessly relates citation, bibliographic and usage data from a variety of sources. A subsequent program that uses the established semantic network as a reference data set will determine the characteristics and semantics of a variety of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact. This paper outlines the architecture and methodology adopted by the MESUR project and its future direction.

  12. TECHNOLOGY USAGE AMONG CONSTRUCTION STUDENTS THE MODERATING ROLE OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramayah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on the extent of personal computer (PC usage among a group of undergraduates at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It also looks at the moderating role of gender in the above said relationship. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 244 students responded to the survey. Results showed that perceived ease of use (β = 0.309, p < 0.01 was positively related to PC usage. A surprising finding of this study was that perceived usefulness was not a significant predictor of PC usage whereas perceived ease of use was. This can be explained in the context of mandated use where the usefulness is no longer an issue and ease of use becomes the primary concern. Gender was not a moderator in the above said relationship but was a significant independent predictor of usage. Males exhibited higher usage of the PC compared to the female students.

  13. Modeling Jambo wastewater treatment system to predict water re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    C++ programme to implement Brown's model for determining water quality usage ... predicting the re-use options of the wastewater treatment system was a ... skins from rural slaughter slabs/butchers, slaughter .... City (Karnataka State, India).

  14. Complexity and dynamics of HIV-1 chemokine receptor usage in a multidrug-resistant adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Mainetti, Lara; Pignataro, Angela Rosa; Bigoloni, Alba; Tolazzi, Monica; Galli, Andrea; Nozza, Silvia; Castagna, Antonella; Sampaolo, Michela; Boeri, Enzo; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is licensed in clinical practice for patients with R5 virus and virological failure; however, in anecdotal reports, dual/mixed viruses were also inhibited. We retrospectively evaluated the evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of an infected adolescent with a CCR5/CXCR4 Trofile profile who experienced an important but temporary immunological and virological response during a 16-month period of MVC-based therapy. Coreceptor usage of biological viral clones isolated from PBMCs was investigated in U87.CD4 cells expressing wild-type or chimeric CCR5 and CXCR4. Plasma and PBMC-derived viral clones were sequenced to predict coreceptor tropism using the geno2pheno algorithm from the V3 envelope sequence and pol gene-resistant mutations. From start to 8.5 months of MVC treatment only R5X4 viral clones were observed, whereas at 16 months the phenotype enlarged to also include R5 and X4 clones. Chimeric receptor usage suggested the preferential usage of the CXCR4 coreceptor by the R5X4 biological clones. According to phenotypic data, R5 viruses were susceptible, whereas R5X4 and X4 viruses were resistant to RANTES and MVC in vitro. Clones at 16 months, but not at baseline, showed an amino acidic resistance pattern in protease and reverse transcription genes, which, however, did not drive their tropisms. The geno2pheno algorithm predicted at baseline R5 viruses in plasma, and from 5.5 months throughout follow-up only CXCR4-using viruses. An extended methodological approach is needed to unravel the complexity of the phenotype and variation of viruses resident in the different compartments of an infected individual. The accurate evaluation of the proportion of residual R5 viruses may guide therapeutic intervention in highly experienced patients with limited therapeutic options.

  15. The effects of media usage and interpersonal contacts on the stereotyping of lesbians and gay men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jia-Wei; Lee, Tien-Tsung

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little research has investigated the association of information sources and the stereotyping of homosexuals in other cultures. This study is a survey of 226 Chinese college students about their stereotypes of homosexuals and their sources of information on gays and lesbians. The stereotyping of homosexuals is predicted by the size of community, interest in knowing homosexuals, and in-person contacts. A higher level of negative stereotypes is associated with frequent usage of Chinese media.

  16. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na

    2014-10-31

    A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.

  17. Safety and Usage of C1-Inhibitor in Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedl, Marc A; Bygum, Anette; Lumry, William

    2016-01-01

    , international patient registry documented widespread implementation of pnfC1-INH self-administration outside of a health care setting consistent with current HAE guidelines. These real-world data revealed pnfC1-INH usage for a variety of reasons in patients with HAE and showed a high level of safety regardless...... of this study was to describe safety and usage patterns of pnfC1-INH. METHODS: A multicenter, observational, registry was conducted between 2010 and 2014 at 30 United States and 7 European sites to obtain both prospective (occurring after enrollment) and retrospective (occurring before enrollment) safety...... and usage data on subjects receiving pnfC1-INH for any reason. RESULTS: Of 343 enrolled patients, 318 received 1 or more doses of pnfC1-INH for HAE attacks (11,848 infusions) or for prophylaxis (3142 infusions), comprising the safety population. Median dosages per infusion were 10.8 IU/kg (attack treatment...

  18. Analysis of amino acid and codon usage in Paramecium bursaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohra, Hideo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Haruo

    2015-10-07

    The ciliate Paramecium bursaria harbors the green-alga Chlorella symbionts. We reassembled the P. bursaria transcriptome to minimize falsely fused transcripts, and investigated amino acid and codon usage using the transcriptome data. Surface proteins preferentially use smaller amino acid residues like cysteine. Unusual synonymous codon and amino acid usage in highly expressed genes can reflect a balance between translational selection and other factors. A correlation of gene expression level with synonymous codon or amino acid usage is emphasized in genes down-regulated in symbiont-bearing cells compared to symbiont-free cells. Our results imply that the selection is associated with P. bursaria-Chlorella symbiosis. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Usage of ROOT in the LHCb Online System

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, M

    2013-01-01

    The online system in the LHCb experiment uses ROOT in various areas. ROOT is used in all processes participating in event data processing. The degree of usage varies quite significantly - from the very rudimentary usage of the ROOT plugin mechanism to fully equipped applications filling histograms with data describing online the detector status for monitoring purposes and the display of these data. An increasing number of processes uses the python binding offered by PyROOT to configure these processes. PyROOT also allows to efficiently and quickly manipulate certain corners of the experiment controls system where necessary. Beside these areas, where the LHCb online team advocated the usage of ROOT, in other areas other technologies were chosen. These deliberate choices like e.g. in the area of persistency of event data from particle collisions will be discussed.

  20. Persona Usage in Software Development: Advantages and Obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Jane; Stage, Jan; Nielsen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The Personas technique has been promoted as a strong tool for providing software developers with a better understanding of the prospective users of their software. This paper reports from a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about Personas and their usage in software development companies....... The questionnaire survey was conducted in a limited geographical area to establish the extent of Personas usage within all companies in the chosen region and determine whether software development companies used Personas during the development process. Several issues were identified as reasons for either not using...... the technique or for poor application of it. The study showed that 55% of the respondents had never heard about Personas. Among those who had heard about the Personas technique, the following obstacles towards usage of the technique were identified: Lack of knowledge of the technique, lack of resources (time...

  1. Study on online community user motif using web usage mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphy, Meera; Sharma, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    The Web usage mining is the application of data mining, which is used to extract useful information from the online community. The World Wide Web contains at least 4.73 billion pages according to Indexed Web and it contains at least 228.52 million pages according Dutch Indexed web on 6th august 2015, Thursday. It’s difficult to get needed data from these billions of web pages in World Wide Web. Here is the importance of web usage mining. Personalizing the search engine helps the web user to identify the most used data in an easy way. It reduces the time consumption; automatic site search and automatic restore the useful sites. This study represents the old techniques to latest techniques used in pattern discovery and analysis in web usage mining from 1996 to 2015. Analyzing user motif helps in the improvement of business, e-commerce, personalisation and improvement of websites.

  2. Usage of industrial robots in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yoshio; Hamada, Kenjiro

    1982-01-01

    Japan is now at the top level in the world in robot technology.Its application to nuclear power field is one of the most expected. However, their usage spreads over various types of nuclear power plants, their manufacture and operation, and other areas such as fuel reprocessing plants and reactor plant decommissioning. The robots as used for the operation of BWR nuclear power plants, already developed and under development, are described: features in the nuclear-power usage of robots, the robots used currently for automatic fuel exchange, the replacement of control rod drives and in-service inspection; the robots under development for travelling inspection device and the inspection of main steam-relief safety valves, future development of robots. By robot usage, necessary personnel, work period and radiation exposure can be greatly reduced, and safety and reliability are also raised. (Mori, K.)

  3. USAGES – THE LEGAL REGIME IN NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIAN CIONGARU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the broad sense, the concept of law is represented by totality of acts that are elaborated by competent state authorities and their purpose is legislating. There are juridical situations are outside the scope of regulation of legal norms and they are stipulated by the New Civil Code, namely the usages: which are defined, in the broad sense, as rules of conduct for a long time, born of social practice. If the law sanctioned any usage, by a rule of reference, giving them, as such obligatory legal power, they are sources of law and the legislator has provided, as is source of civil law, only usages which are in conformity to public order and morality. This problem there was no in the case of legal rules because, they themselves are created with the purpose of to generate the public order and morality. In the situations not covered by law, the usages have a greater force than that of the legal dispositions regarding similar situations, so the broad interpretation of the rules of civil law is made, in the cases which are not covered by the law, only if such an interpretation is not contrary to the usages. An analysis and understanding of the juridical status of usages representing: the customs and the local habits which is accepted by the members of that community as well as the professional uses, as rules of development of professional activities, may result in to perceive the legal force of their but also to reduce, on as much as possible, some potentials confusions of interpretation and application of the law.

  4. Predicting Baseline for Analysis of Electricity Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Spurlock, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-03

    To understand the impact of new pricing structure on residential electricity demands, we need a baseline model that captures every factor other than the new price. The standard baseline is a randomized control group, however, a good control group is hard to design. This motivates us to devlop data-driven approaches. We explored many techniques and designed a strategy, named LTAP, that could predict the hourly usage years ahead. The key challenge in this process is that the daily cycle of electricity demand peaks a few hours after the temperature reaching its peak. Existing methods rely on the lagged variables of recent past usages to enforce this daily cycle. These methods have trouble making predictions years ahead. LTAP avoids this trouble by assuming the daily usage profile is determined by temperature and other factors. In a comparison against a well-designed control group, LTAP is found to produce accurate predictions.

  5. Empirical modeling of information communication technology usage behaviour among business education teachers in tertiary colleges of a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Dansarki Isiyaku

    2015-11-01

    usage behaviour (β = .512, p < .001 and teachers' behavioural intention influences their ICT usage behaviour ICTs (β = .-368, p < .05. Teachers' behavioural intention to use ICTs has, however, predicted a decrease in their self-reported ICT usage behaviour. This study will benefit school leaders, curriculum planners and researchers in technology acceptance behaviour in Africa, by giving them guidance in taking decisions concerning teachers' perceptions and intentions of using ICTs in the classroom. The study will play a vital role in filling up the research gap that exist in technology acceptance behaviour among business education faculties across tertiary institutions in Nigeria and the rest of Africa. Future research on the subject matter may attempt to investigate the moderating roles of voluntariness and compulsory standards in influencing teachers' ICT usage behaviour.

  6. Context-Aware Usage-Based Grid Authorization Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yongquan; HONG Fan; FU Cai

    2006-01-01

    Due to inherent heterogeneity, multi-domain characteristic and highly dynamic nature, authorization is a critical concern in grid computing. This paper proposes a general authorization and access control architecture, grid usage control (GUCON), for grid computing. It's based on the next generation access control mechanism usage control (UCON) model. The GUCON Framework dynamic grants and adapts permission to the subject based on a set of contextual information collected from the system environments; while retaining the authorization by evaluating access requests based on subject attributes, object attributes and requests. In general, GUCON model provides very flexible approaches to adapt the dynamically security request. GUCON model is being implemented in our experiment prototype.

  7. Les figures de l'usager de Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Domenget , Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    International audience; L’analyse des figures de l’usager de Twitter représente un enjeu de recherche pour comprendre la construction de ces représentations diverses. L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser la notion d’usager dans le cadre de ce dispositif et d’interroger ses relations avec les notions de public(s), d’audience(s) et de communautés. Les quatre principales figures distinguées (twitto, consommateur, abonné, expert) sont étudiées à partir de deuxcritères majeurs : les principes ...

  8. The Terms in the Special Language: Norms, Usage, and Tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Stankevičienė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues of terminology remains term variance (or synonymy. In order to find out the trends of terms usage in the language for specific purposes, the comprehensive analysis of dictionaries, coursebooks, students’ survey was carried out. It allowed to determine prevalent types in the terminology of economics and chemistry, to analyze the prevalence of Lithuanian and international terms synonymy, term usage tendencies in students’ language and academic texts. Summarizing the investigation results it can be stated that in the special language of economics and chemistry, term variants were both presented in dictionaries and used by teachers.

  9. Influences of forest usage on the remainder mass and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Rosabal Quintana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in the handling area "Los Números" belonging to the mountainous ecosystem of the Silvicole Unit Guisa, with the objective of determining the damages to the soil and the remainder mass to the forest usage to give execution to this objective the transcept method was used where punctual observations for every 20 meters were made,, parcels rose and a striped florístic was elaborated from that of a total of 3 302 trees, they were downed 339 which caused the death of 1 313, causing that 7.7% of the usage area was impacted by hints or clearings.

  10. Fatigue - determination of a more realistic usage factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.

    2001-01-01

    The ability to use a suitable counting method for determining the stress range spectrum in elastic and simplified elastic-plastic fatigue analyses is of crucial importance for enabling determination of a realistic usage factor. Determination of elastic-plastic strain range using the K e factor from fictitious elastically calculated loads is also important in the event of elastic behaviour being exceeded. This paper thus examines both points in detail. A fatigue module with additional options, which functions on this basis is presented. The much more realistic determination of usage factor presented here offers various economic benefits depending on the application

  11. Employees Technology Usage Adaptation Impact on Companies’ Logistics Service Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zafer ACAR

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The information technology (IT capability of companies is one of the determinants of their competitive power. However, IT outputs depend on employees intentions to use them. As a technological investment Port automation systems are widely used in container terminals. Therefore behavioral intention in the usage of various IT applications is one of the important factors that may affect logistics service performance. This study aims to explore the employees' technology usage adaptation impact on the logistics service performance of ports. In this context, the behavioral intentions of employees who use port automation systems are investigated using the Technological Acceptance Model.

  12. Usage of demineralized bone powder in dental implant surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Joon Yim

    1999-01-01

    While there is much concern in the dental community about the risk of disease transfer with processed bone a] iografts, there has never been a case of disease transfer with DFDB. Exclusionary techniques and chemical processing of the allogeneic bone has rendered these grafts safe for human implantation. The literature indicates that there has been considerable interest in the biology and applied science of osteoinduction. The accumulated evidence supports the concept of cartilage and bone cell differentiation induced by a unique bone motphogenetic protein (BMP). Currently clinical usage has been focused on the alveolar bone defects associated with the dental implant surgery, which has become one of the most important areas in dental outpatient clinic. Increased application of the endosseous dental implant system results in a lot of demands to regenerate the alveolar bone defects around the dental implants. Anderegg et al.(1991) reported the excellent results from the combination of DFDB powder and expanded PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene) membranes. Since 1980 the author experienced the human DFDB powders for the oral and maxillofacial surgery and the dental implant surgery. Yim and Kim(1993) evaluated 93 surgical sites where DFDB was used and found 96.7% of success rates at re-entry surgery. Mellonig and Triplett (1993) reported 97% of success rates, and Gelb (1993) obtained 98% of success rates. Fugazzotto (1994) placed 59 dental implants at the time of sinus lifts with the composite graft of DFDB and resorbable tricalcium phosphate and none of implants was lost on uncovering and only one was lost while functioning. Yim (1994) placed 44 dental implants at the time of sinus lifts with DFDB, and none of implants was lost on uncovering. Zinner and Small (1996) placed 215 dental implants at the time of sinus lifts (52 sinuses) with the composite graft of DFDB, and other materials, 3 implants of which were failed on uncovering. To date, maxillary sinus lift graft with

  13. Optimizing block-based maintenance under random machine usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Bram; Jakobsons, Edgars

    Existing studies on maintenance optimization generally assume that machines are either used continuously, or that times until failure do not depend on the actual usage. In practice, however, these assumptions are often not realistic. In this paper, we consider block-based maintenance optimization

  14. Usage and User Experience of Communication before and during Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Martin

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a field evaluation of the mobile phone as a "package" of device and services. The evaluation compares 44 university students' usage and user experience of communication before and during rendezvous. During a rendezvous (en route), students rated many aspects of the experience of phone use less favourably than before a rendezvous…

  15. Marine recreational fishing: resource usage, management and research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Elst, R

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This report contains papers presented at a symposium on marine recreational fishing: resource usage, management and research held on 22 and 23 May 1989 in the East London Museum under the auspices of the South African Deep Sea Angling Association...

  16. Channel perceptions and usage: beyond media richness factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan; Teerling, Marije; Ebbers, Wolfgang E.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Scholl, Hans J.; Ferro, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we asses how service channel perceptions affect channel choice and channel usage. Building on communication theories, such as the Media Richness Theory, we explore how different channel characteristics are perceived by citizens in a Dutch governmental service chain. The results of our

  17. Designation of facility usage categories for Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodrich, D.D.; Ellingson, D.R.; Scott, M.A.; Schade, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site methodology used to ensure facility compliance with the natural phenomena design criteria set forth in the US Department of Energy Orders and guidance. The current Hanford Site methodology for Usage Category designation is based on an engineered feature's safety function and on the feature's assigned Safety Class. At the Hanford Site, Safety Class assignments are deterministic in nature and are based on teh consequences of failure, without regard to the likelihood of occurrence. The report also proposes a risk-based approach to Usage Category designation, which is being considered for future application at the Hanford Site. To establish a proper Usage Category designation, the safety analysis and engineering design processes must be coupled. This union produces a common understanding of the safety function(s) to be accomplished by the design feature(s) and a sound basis for the assignment of Usage Categories to the appropriate systems, structures, and components. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  18. A Behavioural Model of E-Banking Usage in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina Capece

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available E‐banking is defined as the automated delivery of new and traditional banking products and services directly to customers through electronic, interactive communication channels. “Pure online” banks are characterized by the absence of physical windows and front‐office personnel. Traditional banks are still integrating traditional distribution channels with online ones; the scenario is therefore still evolving over time. Despite the intrinsic potentialities, Italy is far from being a leader in the usage of innovative online instruments in the banking system and will struggle with new innovation waves. In this paper, we measure the potential effective ebanking usage. Furthermore, we investigate the behaviour of users and adopters, identifying the major causes influencing satisfaction and usage and the impact of these different causes on the intensity of utilization. The analysis is based on a panel of 495 real users, thus allowing the profiling of the Italian adopter to discover the causes of usage and outline strategies for the growth of e‐banking services in Italy.

  19. Influence of children pedestrian behaviour on pedestrian space usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makalew, F. P.; Adisasmita, S. A.; Wunas, S.; Hamid, S.

    2017-11-01

    School children pedestrian behaviour can be seen along their journey to and from school. Pedestrian spaces used by children are places available in urban and rural areas including streets with and without pedestrian pathways. Samples data are collected from 23 elementary schools in urban and rural areas in North Sulawesi, Indonesia in the form of video records and photos taken. The aim of this research is to analyse children pedestrian behaviour and its influence on the space usage on pedestrian areas. Method of analysis is a comparative study on urban and rural areas. Results of this research are types of behaviour, factors that influence the behaviour, physical condition of pedestrian areas and space usage by children. The behaviours are duck-line walking, running, playing, walking backward and walking with bare foot in which running is the main behaviour. These behaviours are influenced by factors including following friends and responding to acts. There are similarities and differences between pedestrian space usage in urban and rural areas. Space use by children pedestrian demonstrates the way pedestrian areas should be planned. Space usage by children pedestrian indicates that there is a need of evaluation of the space available considering pedestrian children behaviour.

  20. Young adult consumers' media usage and online purchase likelihood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... marketers have to ensure that they understand these consumers' wants and needs and ... The objectives of the study are to establish the media usage of traditional ... The target audience included students between 18 and 24 years at one of ...

  1. A Retrospective Evaluation of Intravenous Fluid Usage in Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    n=5), isoplasma (n=3), darrows solution (n=2) and 10% dextrose (n=1). In conclusion, this study revealed that indication for IV fluid usage in VTH, Nsukka was strongly associated with the species and health status of the animals. Also, some ...

  2. Characterization and usage of sexed semen from US field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to characterize sexed semen available and its usage from US field data. This included investigating active Holstein proven bulls with sexed semen available, as well as percentages and frequencies of sexed semen matings for heifers and cows. Herds were also characterized for the...

  3. Usage of patriotic motives in promotion of products in markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhkova Viktoriia Viktorivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the patriotic motives essence in the appeals of manufacturers has been analyzed; the classification of means, which can be used in the appeals with patriotic implication, has been proposed; the directions of justification of expediency of patriotic motives usage for manufacturers have been defined.

  4. Assessment of Antibiotic Usage in Some Selected Livestock Farms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey to assess the use of antibiotics was conducted in 120 livestock farms across the 4 agricultural zones of Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires on respondents characteristics; educational status, usage, adherence to prescription and withdrawal periods and were ...

  5. Antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted from March 2011 to July 2011 on antibiotic usage pattern in selected poultry farms in Ogun State. Using a well-structured questionnaire, a total of 58 poultry farms were randomly surveyed from the four geo-political zones of Ogun State. All the 58 (100%) poultry farms used one or more antibiotics.

  6. Tense Usage Analysis in Verb Distribution in Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Henry W., Comp.

    This section of a four-part research project investigating the syntax of Brazilian Portuguese presents data concerning tense usage in verb distribution. The data are derived from the analysis of selected literary samples from representative and contemporary writers. The selection of authors and tabulation of data are also described. Materials…

  7. Accelerated Peer-Review Journal Usage Technique for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    The internet has given undergraduate students ever-increasing access to academic journals via search engines and online databases. However, students typically do not have the ability to use these journals effectively. This often poses a dilemma for instructors. The accelerated peer-review journal usage (APJU) technique provides a way for…

  8. Game-Theoretic Models for Usage-based Maintenance Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husniah, H.; Wangsaputra, R.; Cakravastia, A.; Iskandar, B. P.

    2018-03-01

    A usage-based maintenance contracts with coordination and non coordination between two parties is studied in this paper. The contract is applied to a dump truck operated in a mining industry. The situation under study is that an agent offers service contract to the owner of the truck after warranty ends. This contract has only a time limit but no usage limit. If the total usage per period exceeds the maximum usage allowed in the contract, then the owner will be charged an additional cost. In general, the agent (Original Equipment Manufacturer/OEM) provides a full coverage of maintenance, which includes PM and CM under the lease contract. The decision problem for the owner is to select the best option offered that fits to its requirement, and the decision problem for the agent is to find the optimal maintenance efforts for a given price of the service option offered. We first find the optimal decisions using coordination scheme and then with non coordination scheme for both parties.

  9. Understanding social media program usage in public transit agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social media has been gaining prominence in public transit agencies in their communication strategies and daily management. This study aims to better understand recent trends in social media usage in public transit agencies, to examine which agencies use what kind of social media programs for what purposes, and how they measure their programs. A survey was conducted of the top transit agencies in the nation, and results are examined through descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis and regression modeling. We found that while most agencies still lack clearly-defined goals and performance metrics to guide their social media development, many are increasing their social media capacity with more structural components. Public transit service usage and the level of transit service provision are the most significant determinants of agencies’ social media programming and resource investments. In contrast, the measurement of social media usage and outcomes is more significantly related to city attributes and demographic characteristics. We anticipate an increase in the usage of social media to convey transit related stories and livability benefits, such as environmental sensitivity or safety improvements, as these programs expand. Public transit agencies’ commitment to measuring social media outcomes underscores the future research need to develop best practices for measuring the impacts and performance of social media communications and investments.

  10. Students' access usage and awareness of electronic information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' access usage and awareness of electronic information resources at the University College Hospital, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. RA Ojo, SO Akande. Abstract. No Abstract. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science Vol. 3(1) 2005: 16-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  11. the impacts of smartphones usage to third year undergraduates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elias

    The Impact of Smart-phones Usage on Third-Year Undergraduates in Tanzania: A .... Business School (UDBS), School of Education (SoED), College of ... which was indicated by 120 (82%) respondents; social networking as .... performance of academic activities as of medium extent, small extent, and no extent whereas.

  12. E-Library and Traditonal Library Resources Usage: A Comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative usage of e-library and traditional resources in Nigerian libraries was examined in this study. A descriptive survey method was adopted and a purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample and the process produced 125 academic, research, and public libraries in Nigeria. A total of 116 cases ...

  13. Domestic Electricity Usage Regulation Using µCHP Appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    Energy saving is a hot topic. People are getting more and more aware of their energy usage because of continuously rising energy prices and awareness of the greenhouse problem. One of the most important causes of the greenhouse effect is the massive emission of carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 is produced

  14. Advanced American Idioms: A Guide to Everyday Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Edward Jay

    A guide to several hundred common American idioms and slang phrases such as "to get something straight,""to mooch," and "in the bag" provides definitions, examples of usage, variations, and explanations when appropriate. A list of common abbreviations, such as "ASAP," and their referents is also included. (MSE)

  15. USAGE OF MULTIMEDIA TECHNOLOGIES IN TRAINING OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL STUDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana S. Ryzhenko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the sensibility of multimedia means of education usage in different types of classes (lectures, practical, seminars and laboratory work. Recommendations as for the giving lectures on the basis of multimedia means of education are given. The article also presents the analysis of the students’ level comprehension of the material presented in a multimedia format.

  16. Investigating Students' Usage and Acceptance of Electronic Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieche, Susan; Krey, Birte; Bastiaens, Theo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate students' usage and acceptance of electronic books. Factors correlating with students' attitude towards e-books were examined using the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw 1989). A questionnaire was administered online for students at University of Hagen. Results indicate that…

  17. Electronic Book Usage: A Survey at the University of Denver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-Clark, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the University of Denver's Penrose Library conducted a survey of its users to determine their degree of awareness of electronic books, how and why they use them, and their level of satisfaction with the format. It is clear from vendor-supplied usage statistics that electronic books are used, but it is not clear how or why…

  18. Determinants of Contraceptive Usage among Married Women in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Asadisarvestani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Contraceptive usage is a central part of the quality of care in the provision of family services. Currently, this issue has gained much importance since the Iranian policy makers are changing their policies about family planning and contraceptives accessibility. Regarding this, the aim of this study was to determine the rate of contraceptive usage and the factors affecting contraceptive use among the married women of reproductive age in Shiraz County, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 626 married women of reproductive age (i.e., 15-49 years living in Shiraz County (including Shiraz city and the rural areas using the quantitative survey method. Sampling was performed using multi-stage cluster and purposive sampling techniques. The sample size was determined based on the Krejcie and Morgan’s formula. The data were collected through a questionnaire filled out by some interviewers. Data analysis was performed both descriptively (i.e., frequency and percentage and analytically (i.e., Chi-square and logistic regression tests using the SPSS version 20. Results: According to the results of this study, the main predictors of contraceptive usage were couple agreement on contraception method, the number of actual births, women’s authority, knowledge and positive attitude about contraceptives, and the number of desired children. Conclusion: Regarding the new population policies, the Iranian policy makers should be aware of the different aspects of family planning programs, particularly those targeting the contraceptive usage.

  19. A usage-centered evaluation methodology for unmanned ground vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Looije, R.; Mioch, T.; Neerincx, M.A.; Smets, N.J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a usage-centered evaluation method to assess the capabilities of a particular Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for establishing the operational goals. The method includes a test battery consisting of basic tasks (e.g., slalom, funnel driving, object detection). Tests can be of

  20. Usage-Based Collection Evaluation with a Curricular Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    Systematic evaluation of a library's collection can be a useful tool for collection development. After reviewing three evaluation methods and their usefulness for our small academic library, I undertook a usage-based evaluation, focusing on narrow segments of our collection that served specific undergraduate courses. For each section, I collected…

  1. Evaluation of School Library Resources, Services and Usage: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper evaluates the library resources services and usage in the International School, University of Ibadan. Data for the study was collected by means of questionnaires administered to students, staff and the librarian of the school. Interviews were conducted and records were observed to support the data gathered The ...

  2. Economic Evaluation pf Antibacterial Usage in Ear, Nose and Throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose ...

  3. Anabolic steroid usage in athletics: facts, fiction, and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Joseph M; Adams, Kent J; Stamford, Bryant A

    2004-11-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests the widespread usage of anabolic steroids among athletes (20-90%), particularly at the professional and elite amateur levels. In contrast, scientific studies indicate that usage is rare and no higher than 6%. Conclusions from scientific studies suggest that anabolic steroid usage declines progressively from high school to college and beyond; however, anecdotal evidence claims the opposite trend. In this clash between "hard" scientific data vs. "soft" anecdotal information, it is natural that professionals would gravitate toward scientifically based conclusions. However, in the case of anabolic steroids (a stigmatized and illegal substance), should word-of-mouth testimony from individuals closest to the issues--those who have participated in and coached sports, those who have served as drug-testing overseers, and journalists who relentlessly track leads and verify sources--be set aside as irrelevant? Not if a complete picture is to emerge. In this review, hard scientific evidence is placed on the table side-by-side with soft anecdotal evidence, without weighting or bias. The purpose is to allow the opportunity for each to illuminate the other and, in so doing, potentially bring us a step closer to determining the true extent of anabolic steroid usage in athletics.

  4. Understanding virtual world usage : A multipurpose model and empirical testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Tibert; Feldberg, Frans; Van Den Hooff, Bart; Meents, Selmar

    2009-01-01

    This study reports an attempt to enhance our understanding of the reasons behind virtual world usage. By providing a mixture of utilitarian and hedonic value, virtual worlds represent an emerging class of multipurpose information systems (MPIS). Previous research seems to fall short in explaining

  5. Awareness and usage of automated library systems by patrons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of automated information systems in libraries has changed the landscape of library environment. This paper assessed awareness and usage of automated information systems in two academic libraries in Nigeria; University of Lagos Main Library and Keneth Dike Library, University of Ibadan. Survey ...

  6. Assessing Usage and Maximizing Finance Lab Impact: A Case Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Magdy; Budden, Michael Craig; Silva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to assess students' usage and perceptions of a finance lab. Finance labs differ from simple computer labs as they typically contain data boards, streaming market quotes, terminals and software that allow for real-time financial analyses. Despite the fact that such labs represent significant and…

  7. Optimizing Memory Usage in L4-Based Microkernel

    OpenAIRE

    Petre Eftime; Lucian Mogoşanu; Mihai Carabaş; Răzvan Deaconescu; Laura Gheorghe; Valentin Gabriel Voiculescu

    2017-01-01

    Memory allocation is a critical aspect of any modern operating system kernel because it must run continuously for long periods of time, therefore memory leaks and inefficiency must be eliminated. This paper presents different memory management algorithms and their aplicability to an L4-based microkernel. We aim to reduce memory usage and increase the performance of allocation and deallocation of memory.

  8. Geography Teachers' Usage of the Internet for Education Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Adem

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine geography teachers' use of the Internet for education purposes and the extent to which Turkish Internet sites can fulfill the needs and requirements of geography teachers' Internet usage. Research is carried out using the screening method. Data were collected by means of a measurement tool that was…

  9. 1991 National campaign to increase safety belt usage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA

    1992-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is the national campaign of the USA to be conducted in 1991 and 1992, in order to reach the goal of 70 percent safety belt usage by 1992. Among other things, it is shown that visible enforcement of existing laws offers the greatest potential for achieving this goal.

  10. Multimedia Usage among Islamic Education Lecturers at Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Mohd Isa; Rinaldi; Razak, Khadijah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the level of multimedia usage among Islamic education lecturers at higher education institutions in West Sumatera, Indonesia. The participants were chosen from three types of higher institutions by using stratified random sampling. The data was collected from 250 students using questionnaires. The findings showed that…

  11. Measuring ICT usage quality for information society building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Danylchenko, Lesya

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the World Summit on Information Society made a call for measuring the state of Information Society (IS) building between countries. The purpose of the measuring was to assess and compare IS practices around the globe as well as share best practices. A number of measurement tools have sinc...... levels of ICT usage for the purpose of better policy-making, while establishing an information society, is accentuated....... these indicators on the actual levels of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) usage off the country’s stakeholders. This paper analyses the most currently used indices for measuring the state of Information Society building from the perspective of their constituent indicators. Based on the analysis......, an alternative framework for IS measurement, addressing the important aspects of ICT usage quality, is developed based on data from EU member states. By applying the framework on measuring of ICT usage quality at Romania, Cyprus and Estonia, the usefulness is tested positive, and the need to evaluate the actual...

  12. Pre Service Teachers' Usage of Dynamic Mathematics Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Mehmet; Bulut, Neslihan

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this study is about mathematics education and dynamic mathematics software. Dynamic mathematics software provides new opportunities for using both computer algebra system and dynamic geometry software. GeoGebra selected as dynamic mathematics software in this research. In this study, it is investigated that what is the usage of pre service…

  13. Mobile phone usage in rural communities in Kwara state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rise in mobile telephony has continued to bridge the wide disparity between urban and rural dwellers, although there are suggestions that mobile phones have not been optimally utilized by rural dwellers. In view of this, the main aim of this study was to examine mobile phone usage in rural communities of Kwara State, ...

  14. Prototyping Service Discovery and Usage in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are envisioned to provide different types of services in an open and dynamic environment. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a service discovery and usage solution for heterogeneous WSNs. The users have the possibility to

  15. Social network site usage and personal relations of migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damian, E.; van Ingen, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the relation between social network site (SNS) usage and the personal networks of immigrants, using a unique dataset composed of a representative sample of immigrants living in the Netherlands. In theory, SNSs can be a helpful tool for immigrants, because they may help

  16. Radiologists' Usage of Social Media : Results of the RANSOM Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranschaert, Erik R.; Van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; McGinty, Geraldine B.; Parizel, Paul M.

    The growing use of social media is transforming the way health care professionals (HCPs) are communicating. In this changing environment, it could be useful to outline the usage of social media by radiologists in all its facets and on an international level. The main objective of the RANSOM survey

  17. Factors Influencing the Usage of Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Malaria in Sudan is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. ... treated mosquito nets (ITNs) for prevention of malaria among pregnant women. ... on malaria causes, 103 (99%) had good knowledge on malaria complications and ... and accessibility to ITNs were significantly associated with current usage of ITNs.

  18. Comparative Costs of Antibacterial Usage in Sexually Transmitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To evaluate the cost of antibacterial usage to patients in a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Methods: Drug utilization evaluation was carried out retrospectively among patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) over a one-year period between 2005 and 2006 in Lagos University. Teaching Hospital (LUTH) ...

  19. Codon usage determines translation rate in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Kurland, C G; Pedersen, Steen

    1989-01-01

    We wish to determine whether differences in translation rate are correlated with differences in codon usage or with differences in mRNA secondary structure. We therefore inserted a small DNA fragment in the lacZ gene either directly or flanked by a few frame-shifting bases, leaving the reading fr...

  20. Factors constraining accessibility and usage of information among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various factors may negatively impact on information acquisition and utilisation. To improve understanding of the determinants of information acquisition and utilisation, this study investigated the factors constraining accessibility and usage of poultry management information in three rural districts of Tanzania. The findings ...

  1. Social Media Usage: Examination of Influencers and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stoney L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with investigating topics surrounding the phenomenon of social media usage. Essay One draws from the technology acceptance literature by utilizing concepts from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), and the model of hedonic technology acceptance. The…

  2. Assessment of Computer Software Usage for Estimating and Tender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been discovered that there are limitations to the use of computer software packages in construction operations especially estimating and tender analysis. The objectives of this research is to evaluate the level of computer software usage for estimating and tender analysis while also assessing the challenges faced by ...

  3. Comparative studies on codon usage pattern of chloroplasts and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    different genomic organization and mutation pressures in nuclear and chloroplast genes. The results of Nc-plots and neutrality plots ... As an important organelle of plants, the chloroplast has its own genomic environment and ... leading to the suggestion that the translation mechanism and patterns of codon usage in ...

  4. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  5. A dynamic usage based perspective on L2 writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspoor, M.H.; Schmid, M.S.; Xu, X.

    The goal of this study was to explore the contribution that a dynamic usage based (DUB) perspective can bring to the establishment of objective measures to assess L2 learners' written texts and at the same time to gain insight into the dynamic process of language development. Four hundred and thirty

  6. The dynamics of a usage-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspoor, Marjolijn; Daems, Jocelyn; Zenner, Eline; Heylen, Kris; Speelman, Dirk; Cuyckens, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    This contribution seeks to connect usage based linguistics with dynamic systems theory, in particular as applied by Edelman (1989) and Thelen and Smith (1994). Edelman’s dynamic biological system starts off with a few simple sub-systems (perception, action, value), all of which interacting with each

  7. Jungle Juice: Knowledge and Usage Among Kenyan Surgical Teams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usage of jungle juice on patients in Kenyan public hospitals. Objectives: To .... and the management of the selected institutions ... given to 10kg child indicated that none of the surgeons ... 38(5.8%); burn surgery 37(5.6%); dentistry 24(3.6%).

  8. Determinants of Fertilizer Usage in Dry Season Amaranthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major tools of analysis used for the study were descriptive statistics and the logistic regression model. The result of analysis revealed that the usage of recommended soil fertility management practices in the study area is low. Furthermore, results of the logistic regression model showed that farm size, contacts with extension ...

  9. Spectrum of microbial growth and antimicrobial usage in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensive-care units (ICUs) are a source of multidrug-resistant organisms, owing to the indiscriminate usage of broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. In such ... Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate from blood and central venous lines, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from tracheal aspirates and wound swabs.

  10. The influence of farmer perception on pesticide usage for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study conducted in eastern Uganda revealed that: (a) pesticide usage depended on farmer production goal, (b) change from one pesticide to another depended on ... Ces résults ont fermément montré que les recommendations de la gestion des pestes aux fermiers doivent prendre en considération la perception des ...

  11. Consumer-Centered Extension Education Website Increases Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franics, Sarah L.; Martin, Peggy; Taylor, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Concern about young families' ability to cope with rising food prices resulted in creating Spend Smart. Eat Smart (SSES), a website focused on budget-friendly nutrition information for limited resource audiences (LRA). SSES was redesigned using LRAs needs and preferences to increase use by LRAs. SSES usage increased after it was revised to…

  12. Informing Evidence Based Decisions: Usage Statistics for Online Journal Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Botchkarev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – The primary objective was to examine online journal database usage statistics for a provincial ministry of health in the context of evidence based decision-making. In addition, the study highlights implementation of the Journal Access Centre (JAC that is housed and powered by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC to inform health systems policy-making. Methods – This was a prospective case study using descriptive analysis of the JAC usage statistics of journal articles from January 2009 to September 2013. Results – JAC enables ministry employees to access approximately 12,000 journals with full-text articles. JAC usage statistics for the 2011-2012 calendar years demonstrate a steady level of activity in terms of searches, with monthly averages of 5,129. In 2009-2013, a total of 4,759 journal titles were accessed including 1,675 journals with full-text. Usage statistics demonstrate that the actual consumption was over 12,790 full-text downloaded articles or approximately 2,700 articles annually. Conclusion – JAC’s steady level of activities, revealed by the study, reflects continuous demand for JAC services and products. It testifies that access to online journal databases has become part of routine government knowledge management processes. MOHLTC’s broad area of responsibilities with dynamically changing priorities translates into the diverse information needs of its employees and a large set of required journals. Usage statistics indicate that MOHLTC information needs cannot be mapped to a reasonably compact set of “core” journals with a subsequent subscription to those.

  13. A Comparative Study of Mobile Internet Usage between the U.S. and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Yunkeun Shin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of smartphones illuminated mobile internet prevalence, highlighting nomophobia. This study explored the mobile internet usage dependency of Korean and U.S. mobile users and investigated the severity of such usage dependency and the factors involved. In the combined data set, it was found that Korean users have higher usage dependency levels than US users and that students, unemployed users, and younger generations are more susceptible to mobile internet usage dependency. When comparing the two countries as separate data sets Korean females present as having higher usage dependency levels. In the U.S., it is students and younger generation groups who present with higher usage dependency levels. Regression analysis found that frequency of access has higher associations with mobile internet usage dependency than usage length. country of origin and age are significantly associated with mobile internet usage dependency.

  14. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Thomas Lorchan; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-08-19

    One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research.

  15. Patterns of youth tobacco and polytobacco usage: The shift to alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.

  16. Accepting or fighting unlicensed usage : Can firms reduce unlicensed usage by optimizing their timing and pricing strategies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmester, Alexa B.; Eggers, Felix; Clement, Michel; Prostka, Tim

    The rise of the Internet and new online services have led to the wide-scale illegal distribution of digital entertainment products, such as music, movies, games, and books. We analyze whether firms in the entertainment industry should fight unlicensed usage by providing specific offers that maximize

  17. fine-GRAPE : Fine-grained APi usage extractor – an approach and dataset to investigate API usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawant, A.A.; Bacchelli, A.

    An Application Programming Interface (API) provides a set of functionalities to a developer with the aim of enabling reuse. APIs have been investigated from different angles such as popularity usage and evolution to get a better understanding of their various characteristics. For such studies,

  18. WATER LAW AND MODEL OF RESPONSIBLE WATER USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Olegovitch Sivakov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As it is known, the water law regulates dynamic social relationships concerning study, usage and protection of water objects, as well as their transformation. The water law explicitly regulates water economic activities. The regulatory method of the water law has a mixed nature and thus is not distinctive. It predetermines in some cases equality and independence of subjects of relationships (water usage agreement and in other – power and submission (permissive nature of water usage. The aim of the publication is to promote scientific ideas about the fate of the water law in order to make a further polygonal and productive discussion in which the reader is invited to participate. Scientific novelty. In 2016 the monograph of D.O. Sivakov “Water law: dynamics, problems, perspectives: monograph” (second edition, reviewed and updated. Moscow: Stolitsa, 2016. 540 p. was published. In 2017 the author reconsidered some conclusions of his monograph and applied scientific achievements of theory of state and law in water sphere. In accordance with this, it is important to mention research of Petrov D.E. related to issues of differentiation and integration of structural formations of Russian legal system. The scientific novelty of the article includes the synthesis of ideas of the monograph and some achievements of theory of state and law. Methods of research. The author of the article relies on some collective and individual monographic studies in the sphere of theory of state and law, natural resource law, arctic law, financial law. Basic results of research. The author promotes the model of responsible water usage. This model shall be based not on the unstable balance of economic and environmental interests (which shall practically lead to the domination of economic interests, but on the obligatory combination of economic activities with technologies, ensuring maximal preservation of water resources. Responsible water usage shall mean a system of

  19. How smartphone usage correlates with social anxiety and loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusong Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early detection of social anxiety and loneliness might be useful to prevent substantial impairment in personal relationships. Understanding the way people use smartphones can be beneficial for implementing an early detection of social anxiety and loneliness. This paper examines different types of smartphone usage and their relationships with people with different individual levels of social anxiety or loneliness. Methods: A total of 127 Android smartphone volunteers participated in this study, all of which have agreed to install an application (MobileSens on their smartphones, which can record user’s smartphone usage behaviors and upload the data into the server. They were instructed to complete an online survey, including the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS and the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS. We then separated participants into three groups (high, middle and low based on their scores of IAS and UCLA-LS, respectively. Finally, we acquired digital records of smartphone usage from MobileSens and examined the differences in 105 types of smartphone usage behaviors between high-score and low-score group of IAS/UCLA-LS. Results: Individuals with different scores on social anxiety or loneliness might use smartphones in different ways. For social anxiety, compared with users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing (Mann-Whitney U = 282.50∼409.00, p U = 388.50, p < 0.01. Discussion: The results show that individuals with social anxiety or loneliness receive less incoming calls and use healthy applications more frequently, but they do not show differences in outgoing-call-related features. Individuals with higher levels of social anxiety also receive less SMSs and use camera apps less frequently, while lonely individuals tend to use system, beautify, browser and social media (RenRen apps more frequently. Conclusion: This paper finds that

  20. How smartphone usage correlates with social anxiety and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yusong; Li, Ang; Zhu, Tingshao; Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Xingyun

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of social anxiety and loneliness might be useful to prevent substantial impairment in personal relationships. Understanding the way people use smartphones can be beneficial for implementing an early detection of social anxiety and loneliness. This paper examines different types of smartphone usage and their relationships with people with different individual levels of social anxiety or loneliness. A total of 127 Android smartphone volunteers participated in this study, all of which have agreed to install an application (MobileSens) on their smartphones, which can record user's smartphone usage behaviors and upload the data into the server. They were instructed to complete an online survey, including the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) and the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). We then separated participants into three groups (high, middle and low) based on their scores of IAS and UCLA-LS, respectively. Finally, we acquired digital records of smartphone usage from MobileSens and examined the differences in 105 types of smartphone usage behaviors between high-score and low-score group of IAS/UCLA-LS. Individuals with different scores on social anxiety or loneliness might use smartphones in different ways. For social anxiety, compared with users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing) (Mann-Whitney U = 282.50∼409.00, p social media (RenRen) (Mann-Whitney >U = 388.50, p social anxiety or loneliness receive less incoming calls and use healthy applications more frequently, but they do not show differences in outgoing-call-related features. Individuals with higher levels of social anxiety also receive less SMSs and use camera apps less frequently, while lonely individuals tend to use system, beautify, browser and social media (RenRen) apps more frequently. This paper finds that there exists certain correlation among smartphone usage and social anxiety and

  1. How smartphone usage correlates with social anxiety and loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Xingyun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of social anxiety and loneliness might be useful to prevent substantial impairment in personal relationships. Understanding the way people use smartphones can be beneficial for implementing an early detection of social anxiety and loneliness. This paper examines different types of smartphone usage and their relationships with people with different individual levels of social anxiety or loneliness. Methods: A total of 127 Android smartphone volunteers participated in this study, all of which have agreed to install an application (MobileSens) on their smartphones, which can record user’s smartphone usage behaviors and upload the data into the server. They were instructed to complete an online survey, including the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) and the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). We then separated participants into three groups (high, middle and low) based on their scores of IAS and UCLA-LS, respectively. Finally, we acquired digital records of smartphone usage from MobileSens and examined the differences in 105 types of smartphone usage behaviors between high-score and low-score group of IAS/UCLA-LS. Results: Individuals with different scores on social anxiety or loneliness might use smartphones in different ways. For social anxiety, compared with users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing) (Mann-Whitney U = 282.50∼409.00, p U = 388.50, p < 0.01). Discussion: The results show that individuals with social anxiety or loneliness receive less incoming calls and use healthy applications more frequently, but they do not show differences in outgoing-call-related features. Individuals with higher levels of social anxiety also receive less SMSs and use camera apps less frequently, while lonely individuals tend to use system, beautify, browser and social media (RenRen) apps more frequently. Conclusion: This paper finds that there exists

  2. Impacts of iPad attributes, Lifestyles and media dependency on adoption of iPad and intensity of iPad usage in Mainland China

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin, Li Xinpeng

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory research is to identify attributes that can distinctly characterize iPad and examine the predictive power of iPad attributes, lifestyles, media dependency, and demographics on adoption of iPad, iPad usage patterns and intensity of iPad usage. Using a snowballing sample, an online survey was conducted with 623 university students in Mainland China, among which 217 were iPad users and 406 were non-users. Results of regression analyses show that application affordanc...

  3. External Variables as Antecedents of Users Perception in Virtual Library Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola I. Akinbobola

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM by examining the antecedents of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use; the present study looks at demographic aspect of external variables in virtual library use among undergraduate students. The purpose of this study is to identify the demographic factors sex, level of study, cumulative grade point average, and computer knowledge that act as external factors that are antecedents of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. The university management makes a large investment in the provision of a virtual library; investigation of the virtual library acceptance by students is important. TAM and theory of reasoned action (TRA are utilised to theoretically test a model for the extension and to predict virtual library acceptance and usage. In a survey study, data was collected by using a structured questionnaire given to 394 randomly selected participants in a private university. Data were analysed by Pearson product moment correlation, multiple and hierarchical regression. The result of the study is consistent with TAM factors examined for explaining virtual library usage. The extension model accounts for 2.5% variance in perceived usefulness, 2.1% in perceived ease of use, 11.7% - 15.2% on intention to use and 7.2% on actual use of virtual library. Implications of the findings of the study on user’s virtual library training are discussed.

  4. The Usage Behavior and Intention Stability of Nurses: An Empirical Study of a Nursing Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Chun; Lin, Chihung; Hsu, Chien-Lung; Roan, Jinsheng; Yeh, Jehn-Shan; Cheng, Yu-Han

    2016-03-01

    Many prior studies of technology adoption treat user intention as the single predictor of actual usage behavior. However, as many researchers of behavioral science have pointed out, multiple factors mediate the relationship between user intention and usage behavior. The present article explores the factors that mediate the relationship between intention and actual behavior. We develop a conceptual framework that is based on the Technology Acceptance Model III and behavior theory to further elicit system usage behavior and to confirm "intention stability" and "past experience" as two significant mediating factors in this relationship. The target system was a nursing information system that had been recently adopted by a medical center in central Taiwan. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey conducted in two rounds. Two hundred forty-five valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 49%). Mediated moderation was analyzed to explore the presence of mediators or moderators between intention and behavior. The results support that intention stability is a mediated moderator and that prior experience is a moderator of the relationship between intention and behavior. These two factors increased by over 13.6% the explanatory power of intention on actual behavior. Furthermore, this study expanded the scope of prior research by confirming intention stability as a moderating variable between intention and behavior. Finally, this study identified the moderating effect of past experience on the intention-behavior relationship, indicating that past experience enhances the predictive power of intention on behavior. The findings of this study may assist hospital managers to better understand the nursing information system usage behaviors of nursing staff and to develop ways to enhance the intention stability of these staff. Managers may improve the familiarity of nursing staff with the system by increasing their system-related practice time. More experience should

  5. Dynamic usage of transcription start sites within core promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaji, Hideya; Frith, Martin C; Katayama, Shintaro

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mammalian promoters do not initiate transcription at single, well defined base pairs, but rather at multiple, alternative start sites spread across a region. We previously characterized the static structures of transcription start site usage within promoters at the base pair level......, based on large-scale sequencing of transcript 5' ends. RESULTS: In the present study we begin to explore the internal dynamics of mammalian promoters, and demonstrate that start site selection within many mouse core promoters varies among tissues. We also show that this dynamic usage of start sites...... is associated with CpG islands, broad and multimodal promoter structures, and imprinting. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal a new level of biologic complexity within promoters--fine-scale regulation of transcription starting events at the base pair level. These events are likely to be related to epigenetic...

  6. Problems of magnesium oxide wallboard usage in construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravit, Marina; Zybina, Olga; Vaititckii, Artem; Kopytova, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Magnesium oxide wallboard is the building and finishing material, which has a reputation of new generational ecological constructing material. It has a wide range of uses: as a revetment in ventilated facades’ production, as a decorative material, as different types of formworks for a foundation filling and as a protector against a fire threat. During the study it was considered that magnesium oxide wallboards have some defects, such as moisture formation as a concentrated brine on the surface under special climatic conditions and absence of clear distinguishing between different types of magnesia boards. Usage of this material can become a cause of frame’s corrosion and origin of mold on wooden details. Authors provide the information from a foreign data source about negative consequences of SML usage. In conclusion researchers state that it is necessary to provide a clear magnesium wallboards classification and define technical requirements, which will, in their opinion, lead to Russian standard formulation.

  7. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Steinmann, Paul [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., erlangen (Germany). Chair of Applied Mechanics

    2015-04-15

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  8. RFID Continuance Usage Intention in Health Care Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Mohammad; Zailani, Suhaiza; Nikbin, Davoud

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) has been proved to be an effective tool both for improving operational efficiency and for gaining competitive advantage in the health care industry despite its relatively low-usage rate in hospitals. The sustained use of RFID by health care professionals will promote its development in the long term. This study evaluates the acceptance continuance of RFID among health care professionals through technology continuance theory (TCT). Data were collected from 178 medical professionals in Malaysia and were then analyzed using the partial least squares technique. The analysis showed that the TCT model provided not only a thorough understanding of the continuance behavior of health care professionals toward RFID but also the attitudes, satisfaction, and perceived usefulness of professionals toward it. The results of this study are expected to assist policy makers and managers in the health care industry in implementing the RFID technology in hospitals by understanding the determinants of continuance of RFID usage intention.

  9. Effects of Perceived Values on Continuance Usage of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng-Li; Lai, Cheng-Yu

    Facebook is one of the renowned social networking sites (SNS) on the Internet. As compared to the conventional SNS, it not only provides social interaction features, but has more entertainment elements on the website. Many Facebook users use the website for the purpose of playing the embedded games rather than use its original social features, i.e., individual's perceived values about the usage of Facebook may have changed. Consequently, it is an interesting issue to know individual's perceived values and satisfaction toward continuance usage of the new style SNS like Facebook. Based on prior literatures, three different value orientations, including social orientation, entertainment orientation and fashion orientation, were adopted in this study to examine their influence on individual's satisfaction and continuance intention to use Facebook. An empirical survey and partial least squares (PLS) technology was utilized to test the proposed hypotheses. Several empirical results were found. Both academic and practical implications are discussed.

  10. Mobile phones: time to rethink and limit usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bobby; Saha, Indranil; Kumar, Sanjay; Samim Ferdows, S K; Ghose, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency waves generated from mobile phones cause potential public health problems. Short-term effects like changes in sleep, heart rate, and blood pressure, and long-term effects like carcinoma are well documented. The Government of India's efforts in laying down regulations regarding the safety limits, manufacture, marketing, and mobile use are still in nascent stage. The need for stringent enforcement of laws for prevention of phone usage while driving and guidelines of medical regulatory bodies regarding rules and regulations of phone usage while at class or attending patients is of utmost importance. This should be supplemented by mass media to raise awareness among people regarding the possible health effects of radiofrequency emissions from mobile phones and the guidelines to minimize its exposure. It is the need of the hour to teach young people to be structured, to know when to have the cell phone on, and to avoid becoming the slave of technology instead of its mastery.

  11. Performance and competence in usage-based construction grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    While formalist approaches in the Chomskian tradition to language distinguish sharply between performance and competence in their modeling of language competence, performance and competence are considered to be in a mutually influential relation in usage-based models of language. Language...... competence, in the latter approach, is, much like in Dell Hymes’ notion of communicative competence, held to be experientially based in the sense that speakers establish their competence through inductive social-cognitive processes of schematization and conventionalization. Making a case for the usage......-based definition of the language system, his paper explores the interplay between performance and competence in a construction grammar perspective in which grammatical constructions are considered meaningful symbolic units on par with lexemes, in relation to the [V until ADJ]-construction, based on a study...

  12. Tense Usage in Selected Humanities and Science Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Maroko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Graduate students are usually not sure of the appropriate tense to use in each rhetorical section of their dissertations in their disciplines. Even style guides provide little information regarding tense usage in academic texts. This paper describes a study in which frequency and usage of types of tense were compared in selected dissertations from the humanities and sciences drawn from Kenyan Public Universities. It was found that graduate research students in both humanities and sciences preferred the simple present and simple past as primary tense forms. It also emerged that authors have to alternate verb tenses even in the same rhetorical section of a dissertation to achieve particular communicative purposes. Suggesting that choices for tense in dissertations are a function of the epistemology and ideology of the disciplines, the paper proposes a genre-based approach to teaching those preparing to write their dissertations.

  13. textbf{Historical Usage Inventories of DDT in China}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wang; Lijuan, Zhao; Jianxin, Hu

    2010-05-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is one of organochlorine pesticides and listed as one of the persistent organic pollutants to be reduced and finally eliminated in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, because of its great persistence, toxics, bio-accumulation and potential for long-range transport. It is critical to create national DDT usage/emission inventories for China to carry out source-receptor relation analysis, risk assessment, and other research related to DDT in this country. Chinese inventories of DDT to the year1983 have been published; however, DDT is still being used indirectly in the dicifol producing and being applied for malaria control in case. Therefore it is needed to supplement and update the inventories. DDT production in China can be divided into three phases. Prior to 1965 is the first stage with an annual output of no more than 10,000 tons; 1966-1983 is the second phase. At this stage DDT was produced with an average annual production of 15,500 tons. After 1984 is the third production phase, of which the average annual DDT production was 6,465 tons. Before 1983, DDT was mainly used for agriculture, forestry and pesticides.China used a total of 270,000 tons of DDT during 1951 - 1983. According to China's cropland area, Li Yi-fan create China's DDT usage inventory of 1951-1983. In 1983 the State Council decided to ban DDT producing and DDT is no longer used in agriculture any more, but it is still being used in the producing of dicofol, malaria prevention and treatment anda small amount for export. To this end, this paper calculated theusage inventory of China's DDT from 1984 to 2003. Using sown areas of cotton, apple, citrus, tea and vegetable as surrogate data, usage of dicifolwas calculated, then the usage inventory of DDT resulting from dicofol use and DDT applied for malaria control with prefecture resolution was created. From 1984 to 2003, China used 15,312 tons of DDT, including 12,912 tons of DDT resulting

  14. Using R and the Tidyverse to Generate Library Usage Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Meyer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gathering, analyzing, and communicating library usage data provides a foundation for thoughtful assessment. However, the amount of time and expertise required creates a barrier to actually using this data. By using the statistical programming language R and the tools and approach of the Tidyverse, the process of gathering, analyzing, and communicating data can be automated in ways that reduce the amount of time and energy required. At the same time, this approach increases staff capacity for other data science projects and creates a shareable model and framework for other libraries. This article focuses on electronic resource usage reports - especially Counter DB1 Reports - but this approach could be extended to other data sources and needs.

  15. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen; Steinmann, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  16. Latent Class Models in action: bridging social capital & Internet usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Barbara Barbosa; Fonseca, Jaime R S

    2015-03-01

    This paper explores how Latent Class Models (LCM) can be applied in social research, when the basic assumptions of regression models cannot be validated. We examine the usefulness of this method with data collected from a study on the relationship between bridging social capital and the Internet. Social capital is defined here as the resources that are potentially available in one's social ties. Bridging is a dimension of social capital, usually related to weak ties (acquaintances), and a source of instrumental resources such as information. The study surveyed a stratified random sample of 417 inhabitants of Lisbon, Portugal. We used LCM to create the variable bridging social capital, but also to estimate the relationship between bridging social capital and Internet usage when we encountered convergence problems with the logistic regression analysis. We conclude by showing a positive relationship between bridging and Internet usage, and by discussing the potential of LCM for social science research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patients' Reported Usage of Weight Management Skills Following Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essayli, Jamal H; LaGrotte, Caitlin A; Fink-Miller, Erin L; Rigby, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    Little is known about which specific weight management skills bariatric patients find most and least valuable. Participants completed a measure assessing their usage of weight management skills at a follow-up appointment one or more years after undergoing bariatric surgery. Decreased usage of skills was associated with unsuccessful weight outcome, defined as losing less than 50% of excess weight, as well as weight regain. Weighing regularly was the skill selected most often by successful participants as helpful, and was chosen by a significantly smaller percentage of unsuccessful participants and those who regained a clinically significant amount of weight. A majority of both successful and unsuccessful participants indicated that they had discontinued food journaling. Weighing regularly may be perceived as a more useful method of self-monitoring.

  18. Designing an Assistant System Encouraging Ergonomic Computer Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜRÜLER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, people of almost every age group are users of computers and computer aided systems. Technology makes our life easier, but it can also threaten our health. In recent years, one of the main causes of the proliferation of diseases such as lower back pain, neck pain or hernia, Arthritis, visual disturbances and obesity is wrong computer usage. The widespread use of computers also increases these findings. The purpose of this study is to direct computer users to use computers more carefully in terms of ergonomics. The user-interactive system developed for this purpose controls distance of the user to the screen and calculates the look angle and the time spent looking at the screen and provides audio or text format warning when necessary. It is thought that this system will reduce the health problems caused by the frequency of computer usage by encouraging individuals to use computers ergonomically.

  19. Manual on usage of the Nuclear Reaction Data File (NRDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    In the computer in the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, there is set up a Nuclear Reaction Data File (NRDF) which has been built in Hokkaido University. While the data base is growing year after year, its trial usage is for the purpose of joint utilization by educational institutions. In section 1, examples of the retrieval are presented to have the user familiarize with NRDF. In section 2, the terms used in retrieval are given in table. Then, in section 3, as a summary of the examples, structure of the retrieval commands is explained. In section 4, for the retrieval results on a CRT, cautions in reading are given. Finally, in section 5, general cautions in usage of NRDF are given. (Mori, K.)

  20. The development on electric discharge machine for hot cell usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sang Bok; Kim, Young Suk; Park, Dae Kyu; Choo, Yong Sun; Oh, Wan Ho

    1998-06-01

    The electric discharge machine(EDM) was developed for hot cell usages in IMEF. This machine will be used to fabricate specimen directly from irradiated components from NPP's. The detailed contents are as follows; 1. Outline of electric discharge machine 2. Specimen shape to be fabricated by EDM 3. Technical specification to manufacture EDM 4. Installation EDM in hot cell 5. Optimum discharge conditions to fabricate specimens from CANDU tube. (author). 4 tabs., 20 figs

  1. Method for effective usage of Google Analytics tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Егорова

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Google Analytics tools have been investigated against effective attraction channels for users and bottlenecks detection. Conducted investigation allowed to suggest modern method for effective usage of Google Analytics tools. The method is based on main traffic indicators analysis, as well as deep analysis of goals and their consecutive tweaking. Method allows to increase website conversion and might be useful for SEO and Web analytics specialists

  2. Moabi ( Baillonella toxisperma Pierre): Arbre à usage multiple de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cet arbre à usages multiples, est recherché par l'industrie forestière pour la qualité de son bois et par les populations rurales pour ses produits autres que le ... L'importance de ce gain incite à promouvoir l'extraction d'huile de Moabi dans le cadre de la diversification des sources de revenus et de la lutte contre la pauvreté.

  3. The Term cybrarian : Concept and The Arabic Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A.Sattar Khalifa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A Study about the term cybrarian, dealing with its origin, definition in the public and specific dictionaries and gives comments for each one , then deals with the usage of term on the Arabic coverage which acted by appearing a printed pamphlet and discussion group entitled cybrarians, and a published study about this topic , also acted by establishing an Arabic web site with the same name, finally the study try to give an Arabic opposite to this term.

  4. Understanding social media program usage in public transit agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny H. Liu; Wei Shi; O.A. (Sam) Elrahman; Xuegang (Jeff) Ban; Jack M. Reilly

    2016-01-01

    Social media has been gaining prominence in public transit agencies in their communication strategies and daily management. This study aims to better understand recent trends in social media usage in public transit agencies, to examine which agencies use what kind of social media programs for what purposes, and how they measure their programs. A survey was conducted of the top transit agencies in the nation, and results are examined through descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analys...

  5. Conditions for acceptance and usage of mobile payment procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2003-01-01

    Mobile payment (MP) is crucial for, but not limited to mobile commerce. The key to mobile payment acceptance is in the hands of customers. In this paper we examine the conditions for acceptance and actual usage of MP procedures by the customer. We identify essential conditions which belong to the categories costs, security and convenience. Different preferences lead to an individual set of essential conditions for any single user. We propose a scheme for their representation and comparison an...

  6. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  7. How smartphone usage correlates with social anxiety and loneliness

    OpenAIRE

    Yusong Gao; Ang Li; Tingshao Zhu; Xiaoqian Liu; Xingyun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of social anxiety and loneliness might be useful to prevent substantial impairment in personal relationships. Understanding the way people use smartphones can be beneficial for implementing an early detection of social anxiety and loneliness. This paper examines different types of smartphone usage and their relationships with people with different individual levels of social anxiety or loneliness. Methods: A total of 127 Android smartphone volunteers participated...

  8. Residential air-conditioner usage in China and efficiency standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianghong; Liu, Chaopeng; Li, Hongqi; Ouyang, Dong; Cheng, Jianhong; Wang, Yuanxia; You, Shaofang

    2017-01-01

    Determining the real energy consumption and usage pattern of a room air-conditioner (RAC) are important issues from the point of view of both RAC design and evaluation of its energy efficiency. An air-conditioner's running time is fundamental data for the calculation of SEER and APF values. Therefore, in 2010, a nationwide investigation of RAC usage was conducted and 400 selected air-conditioning-units were monitored for a full year to obtain data on their cooling and heating usage. Two running time curves (cooling and heating) were obtained for the air-conditioners as a function of outdoor air temperatures using statistical analysis. The results show that the 27–30 °C temperature range accounts for more than 52% of the cooling time. Conversely, the 0–8 °C temperature range is associated with more than 75% of the heating time. The research presented in this paper has significantly contributed to China's new variable-speed RAC efficiency standard (GB21455-2013). It also has far-reaching implications for both the air-conditioner industry and energy policy in China due to its different method of calculating energy efficiency. - Highlights: • A nationwide survey to realize China's residential air-conditions usage behaviors. • Air-conditioner running time-environment temperature curves are obtained. • The peak heating demand and peak cooling demand happen at 28 °C and 4 °C, respectively. • The temperature of 27 °C–30 °C accounts for over 52% refrigeration time. • The temperature of 0 °C–8 °C occupies more than 75% heating time.

  9. Excipient Usage Technical Risk Assessment for Generic Solid Dose Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Babu Pazhayattil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an assessment methodology for solid dose generic small molecule drug products. It addresses the ‘usage of the excipient’ portion of the trinomial by utilizing the systematic approach of Risk Identification, Risk Analysis and Risk Evaluation as per ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management outlined for developing risk control strategies. The assessment and maintenance of excipient risk profile is essential to minimize any potential risk associated to excipients impacting patients.

  10. Mining for Social Media: Usage Patterns of Small Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Shilpa; Rege, Janhavi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Information can now be rapidly exchanged due to social media. Due to its openness, Twitter has generated massive amounts of data. In this paper, we apply data mining and analytics to extract the usage patterns of social media by small businesses. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to describe with an example how data mining can be applied to social media. This paper further examines the impact of social media on small businesses. The Twitter posts related to small businesses are...

  11. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ADJECTIVE USAGE IN THE LANGUAGE OF ADVERTISEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Kamandulytė-Merfeldienė; Skaistė Nenartavičiūtė

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to identify the semantic groups of the adjectives incorporated into the advertisements and to discuss the relationship between the adjective usage and manipulation strategy of the advertisements. A total number of 400 advertisements (totally 853 adjectives) have been taken from the newspapers "Kauno diena", "15 min", "Vakaro žinios" and magazines "Žmonės", "Psichologija tau", "Panelė", "Cosmopolitan", "Autocar", and "Keturi ratai". The analysis revealed that m...

  12. Usage of Cable Bolts for Gateroad Maintenance in Soft Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii Khalymendyk

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: 1. There are no regulations and state standards in regard to cable bolt installation parameters in the mines of Ukraine, consequently the usage of cable bolts for gateroad maintenance required preliminary testing under geological conditions at the Western Donbass mines with soft enclosing rocks. 2. Combining levelling with observations using extensometers allowed for the detection of the rock layers' uniform sagging zone in the roof of the gateroad.

  13. A Brief History of MPLS Usage in IPv6

    OpenAIRE

    Vanaubel, Yves; Mérindol, Pascal; Pansiot, Jean-Jacques; Donnet, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Recent researches have stated the fast deployment of IPv6. It has been demonstrated that IPv6 grows much faster, being so more and more adopted by both Internet service providers but also by servers and end-hosts. In parallel, researches have been conducted to discover and assess the usage of MPLS tunnels. Indeed, recent developments in the ICMP protocol make certain categories of MPLS tunnels transparent to traceroute probing. However, these studies focus only on IPv4, where MPLS is st...

  14. An Exploratory Study on Small Business Website Creation and Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Chuleeporn Changchit; Tim Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring the factors related to the implementation of E-commerce websites by small business owners. While large organizations often consider E-commerce as a fundamental piece of their business strategy, small businesses place varying degrees of importance on E-commerce as a strategic tool to business success. Through a survey of small businesses, this study examines the creation and usage of E-commerce websites for small businesses. For companies with only a web presence, ...

  15. Analysis of Cell Phone Usage Using Correlation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    T S R MURTHY; D. SIVA RAMA KRISHNA

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is a sample survey analysis, examined based on correlation techniques. The usage ofmobile phones is clearly almost un-avoidable these days and as such the authors have made a systematicsurvey through a well prepared questionnaire on making use of mobile phones to the maximum extent.These samples are various economical groups across a population of over one-lakh people. The resultsare scientifically categorized and interpreted to match the ground reality.

  16. Usage rate segmentation: enriching the US wine market profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Kelley,1 Jeffrey Hyde,2 Johan Bruwer3 1Department of Plant Science, 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology, and Education, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA; 3School of Marketing, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: The purpose of this research is to enrich our knowledge of the US wine market and provide insights into how usage rate segmentation can be enhanced by select innovative perspectives of current offerings. Data were collected through a 15-minute online survey of 910 US wine drinkers randomly selected from a panel of consumers. It was found that the “super core” segment not only drank wine more frequently, but also were more likely to drink other types of alcohol presented (beer, distilled spirits, and ready-to-drink cocktails, and at a greater frequency, “at least once a week” and “about once a week”, than “marginal” drinkers. Differences between usage rate segments existed between sex and age generations. Female millennial “super core” consumers would increase wine consumption if the number of calories were reduced to fewer than 80 per 5 oz serving. Practical implications for a winery or wine retailer might include the potential to add these beverages to their product offering or bundling these beverages to create packages (allowing for mass customization, which is used often in retail and appropriately marketing these offerings to their customers. Changes that may invoke a positive response are wine made from “sustainably farmed” or “naturally farmed” grapes, and certified carbon-free wine. From an originality viewpoint, this study is the first to investigate how usage rate segmentation can be enriched by means of variable cross-extension and examination. Keywords: consumer behavior, market segmentation, usage rate, consumption frequency, USA

  17. Trial, Adoption, Usage and Diffusion of Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Reported in the Interviews Participants in this research used a variety of social media technologies, including social networking (e.g., Facebook ...by Respondents Type of Technology Name of Technology Number of Respondents Social networking Facebook 66 MySpace 58 Others 6 Content sharing...used the features of the technologies (see Tables 3 through 8). Table 3: Social Networking Features Usage Feature Facebook Users MySpace Users

  18. Ethical Issues of Social Media Usage in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Denecke, Kerstin; Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Bond, Carol; Gabarron, Elia; Househ, M; Lau, A. Y. S.; Mayer, Miguel A.; Merolli, Mark; Hansen, Margareth

    2015-01-01

    Accepted manuscript version. This article is not an exact copy of the original published article in The IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics. The definitive publisher-authenticated version of "Ethical Issues of Social Media Usage in Healthcare" is available online at http://doi.org/10.15265/IY-2015-001. OBJECTIVE: Social media, web and mobile technologies are increasingly used in healthcare and directly support patientcentered care. Patients benefit from disease self-management tools, ...

  19. Facebook usage among Indian businesses: A website content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajwinder Saini

    2018-01-01

    The revolution of technologies in the era of internet has led to the new ways in which the companies communicate with their stakeholders. Facebook is the popular type of social media which is used by companies in these days as it promotes two- way communication. This study attempts to investigate the facebook usage among Indian business organization by using web content analysis method. A total of 50 business organizations were investigated and it was found that only 41 of them have their fac...

  20. Positive selection for unpreferred codon usage in eukaryotic genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galagan James E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural selection has traditionally been understood as a force responsible for pushing genes to states of higher translational efficiency, whereas lower translational efficiency has been explained by neutral mutation and genetic drift. We looked for evidence of directional selection resulting in increased unpreferred codon usage (and presumably reduced translational efficiency in three divergent clusters of eukaryotic genomes using a simple optimal-codon-based metric (Kp/Ku. Results Here we show that for some genes natural selection is indeed responsible for causing accelerated unpreferred codon substitution, and document the scope of this selection. In Cryptococcus and to a lesser extent Drosophila, we find many genes showing a statistically significant signal of selection for unpreferred codon usage in one or more lineages. We did not find evidence for this type of selection in Saccharomyces. The signal of positive selection observed from unpreferred synonymous codon substitutions is coincident in Cryptococcus and Drosophila with the distribution of upstream open reading frames (uORFs, another genic feature known to reduce translational efficiency. Functional enrichment analysis of genes exhibiting low Kp/Ku ratios reveals that genes in regulatory roles are particularly subject to this type of selection. Conclusion Through genome-wide scans, we find recent selection for unpreferred codon usage at approximately 1% of genetic loci in a Cryptococcus and several genes in Drosophila. Unpreferred codons can impede translation efficiency, and we find that genes with translation-impeding uORFs are enriched for this selection signal. We find that regulatory genes are particularly likely to be subject to selection for unpreferred codon usage. Given that expression noise can propagate through regulatory cascades, and that low translational efficiency can reduce expression noise, this finding supports the hypothesis that translational

  1. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): its usage and libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiq, Muhammad

    2004-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is one of the most exciting technologies that revolutionize the working practices by increasing efficiencies, and improving profitability. The article provides details about RFID, its components, how it works, and its usage in different sectors i.e. retail sales and supply chains, livestock industry, courier services, military and prisons, automobiles and logistics, entertainment industry, publishing industry, wireless transaction, and, especially, in...

  2. Investigation and usage of renewable energy sources. First conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiit, Valdur

    2000-01-01

    The conference was devoted to sustainable development promotion in Estonia. Modern lifestyle and outstanding technical achievements are strongly based on usage of fossil energy sources, especially oil products. Development demands an increasing amount of energy, but the supplies of non-renewable natural resources are limited. Moreover, their usage pollutes the environment and conveys vital oxygen out of the atmosphere. Due to supplies run out the production of fossil fuels will inevitably decrease already after 20 years. The same is likely to happen with Estonian oil shale resources, which is not only a fuel for electric power stations, but also an important staple of chemical industry. And after the rise of oil prices and its fall in market share, oil shale will have even greater value. To satisfy mankind's energy demand we have to take solar energy and processes started by solar (wind, flowing water, synthesis of plants biomass) more into use. The spread of their usage is determined by natural and social situation of the region, and economic expediency. Although rapid growth in using renewable energy sources has started, it will take decades to raise their share over half of total energy use. Estonia has chosen the path of sustainable development, which should guarantee development and healthy environment also in the farther future. There are great solar and wind energy resources plus good assumptions for producing biomass in Estonia. However, for efficient use of national natural resources we need more knowledge and skills, people with environment friendly attitude and extensive scientific, technical and applied investigations. In addition we have to advance sensible international cooperation as well as national industry of this field. The technical progress concerning renewable energy usage has a long way to go, which could apply also Estonians

  3. High school students’ usage behavior and views about mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ergin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine high school students’ usage behavior and views about mobile phones. Methods:Totally 253 (85.5% students educated at Honaz High School within the academic year 2010-2011, participated to this cross-sectional study and a questionnaire consisting of 42 questions which aimed to determine usage behavior and views about mobile phones was administered to the students. Results:The mean age of the students was 16.1 ± 1.1 years, and 56.9% of them were girl. 79.8% of students have mobile phone and 53.9% of them make daily average of over 30 minutes mobile phone calls. 76.1% of participants stated that they did not use headphones, 78.1% did not turn off their mobile phones when they are sleeping and 67.3% put it right next to them or under the pillow. 83.1% of students think mobile phones are harmful for human health, 56.7% think the base stations are harmful to human health and the environment, 91.3% think mobile phones are harmful for children, pregnant women and elderly people. Conclusion: It is found that students’ mobile phone ownership is widespread, the age of starting to use mobile phone and headphones usage is low, knowledge about the base stations is not adequate.

  4. Codon Usage Bias and Determining Forces in Taenia solium Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing; Ma, Xusheng; Luo, Xuenong; Ling, Houjun; Zhang, Xichen; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-12-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is an important human zoonotic parasite that causes great economic loss and also endangers public health. At present, an effective vaccine that will prevent infection and chemotherapy without any side effect remains to be developed. In this study, codon usage patterns in the T. solium genome were examined through 8,484 protein-coding genes. Neutrality analysis showed that T. solium had a narrow GC distribution, and a significant correlation was observed between GC12 and GC3. Examination of an NC (ENC vs GC3s)-plot showed a few genes on or close to the expected curve, but the majority of points with low-ENC (the effective number of codons) values were detected below the expected curve, suggesting that mutational bias plays a major role in shaping codon usage. The Parity Rule 2 plot (PR2) analysis showed that GC and AT were not used proportionally. We also identified 26 optimal codons in the T. solium genome, all of which ended with either a G or C residue. These optimal codons in the T. solium genome are likely consistent with tRNAs that are highly expressed in the cell, suggesting that mutational and translational selection forces are probably driving factors of codon usage bias in the T. solium genome.

  5. Red Storm usage model :Version 1.12.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, Karen L.; Sturtevant, Judith E.

    2005-12-01

    Red Storm is an Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) funded massively parallel supercomputer located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The Red Storm Usage Model (RSUM) documents the capabilities and the environment provided for the FY05 Tri-Lab Level II Limited Availability Red Storm User Environment Milestone and the FY05 SNL Level II Limited Availability Red Storm Platform Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and SNL. Additionally, the Red Storm Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the Tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the ASC community and have been updated in FY05 to reflect the community's needs. For each section of the RSUM, Appendix I maps the ACE requirements to the Limited Availability User Environment capabilities and includes a description of ACE requirements met and those requirements that are not met in that particular section. The Red Storm Usage Model, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and vetted throughout the Tri-Lab community.

  6. Japanese high school students' usage of mobile phones while cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the perception and actual use of mobile phones among Japanese high school students while riding their bicycles, and their experience of bicycle crash/near-crash. A questionnaire survey was carried out at high schools that were, at the time of the survey, commissioned by the National Agency for the Advancement of Sports and Health to conduct school safety research. In the survey, we found that mobile phone use while riding a bicycle was quite common among the students during their commute, but those who have a higher perception of danger in this practice, and those who perceived that this practice is prohibited, were less likely to engage in this practice. Male students and students commuting to school by bicycle only were more likely to have used phones while riding. There was a significant relationship between phone usage while riding a bicycle and the experience of bicycle crash/near-crash, although its causality was not established. Bicycle crash/near-crash experienced while using a phone was less prevalent among the students who had a higher perception of danger in phone usage while riding, students who perceived that this practice is prohibited, and students with a shorter travel time by bicycle during the commute. Since mobile phone use while riding a bicycle potentially increases crash risk among cyclists, student bicycle commuters should be made aware of this risk. Moreover, they should be informed that cyclists' phone usage while riding is prohibited according to the road traffic law.

  7. Translational selection on codon usage in the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Andrés; Sanguinetti, Manuel; Fernández-Calero, Tamara; Naya, Hugo; Ramón, Ana; Musto, Héctor

    2012-09-10

    Aspergillus is a genus of mold fungi that includes more than 200 described species. Many members of the group are relevant pathogens and other species are economically important. Only one species has been analyzed for codon usage, and this was performed with a small number of genes. In this paper, we report the codon usage patterns of eight completely sequenced genomes which belong to this genus. The results suggest that selection for translational efficiency and accuracy are the major factors shaping codon usage in all of the species studied so far, and therefore they were active in the last common ancestor of the group. Composition and molecular distances analyses show that highly expressed genes evolve slower at synonymous sites. We identified a conserved core of translationally optimal codons and study the tRNA gene pool in each genome. We found that the great majority of preferred triplets match the respective cognate tRNA with more copies in the respective genome. We discuss the possible scenarios that can explain the observed differences among the species analyzed. Finally we highlight the biotechnological application of this research regarding heterologous protein expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Codon Usage Patterns of Tyrosinase Genes in Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-An

    2017-04-01

    Codon usage bias (CUB) is a unique property of genomes and has contributed to the better understanding of the molecular features and the evolution processes of particular gene. In this study, genetic indices associated with CUB, including relative synonymous codon usage and effective numbers of codons, as well as the nucleotide composition, were investigated in the Clonorchis sinensis tyrosinase genes and their platyhelminth orthologs, which play an important role in the eggshell formation. The relative synonymous codon usage patterns substantially differed among tyrosinase genes examined. In a neutrality analysis, the correlation between GC 12 and GC 3 was statistically significant, and the regression line had a relatively gradual slope (0.218). NC-plot, i.e., GC 3 vs effective number of codons (ENC), showed that most of the tyrosinase genes were below the expected curve. The codon adaptation index (CAI) values of the platyhelminth tyrosinases had a narrow distribution between 0.685/0.714 and 0.797/0.837, and were negatively correlated with their ENC. Taken together, these results suggested that CUB in the tyrosinase genes seemed to be basically governed by selection pressures rather than mutational bias, although the latter factor provided an additional force in shaping CUB of the C. sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini genes. It was also apparent that the equilibrium point between selection pressure and mutational bias is much more inclined to selection pressure in highly expressed C. sinensis genes, than in poorly expressed genes.

  9. Grip Strength Survey Based on Hand Tool Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman ÇAKIT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand grip strength is broadly used for performing tasks involving equipment in production and processing activities. Most professionals in this field rely on grip strength to perform their tasks. There were three main aims of this study: i determining various hand grip strength measurements for the group of hand tool users, ii investigating the effects of height, weight, age, hand dominance, body mass index, previous Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD diagnosis, and hand tool usage experience on hand grip strength, and iii comparing the obtained results with existing data for other populations. The study groups comprised 71 healthy male facility workers. The values of subjects’ ages was observed between 26 and 74 years. The data were statistically analyzed to assess the normality of data and the percentile values of grip strength. The results of this study demonstrate that there were no significance differences noted between dominant and non-dominant hands. However, there were highly significant differences between the CTD group and the other group. Hand grip strength for the dominant hand was positively correlated to height, weight, and body mass index, and negatively correlated to age and tool usage experience. Hand dominance, height, weight, body mass index, age and tool usage experience should be considered when establishing normal values for grip strength.

  10. Electricity usage scheduling in smart building environments using smart devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunji; Bahn, Hyokyung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent advances in smart grid technologies as well as the increasing dissemination of smart meters, the electricity usage of every moment can be detected in modern smart building environments. Thus, the utility company adopts different price of electricity at each time slot considering the peak time. This paper presents a new electricity usage scheduling algorithm for smart buildings that adopts real-time pricing of electricity. The proposed algorithm detects the change of electricity prices by making use of a smart device and changes the power mode of each electric device dynamically. Specifically, we formulate the electricity usage scheduling problem as a real-time task scheduling problem and show that it is a complex search problem that has an exponential time complexity. An efficient heuristic based on genetic algorithms is performed on a smart device to cut down the huge searching space and find a reasonable schedule within a feasible time budget. Experimental results with various building conditions show that the proposed algorithm reduces the electricity charge of a smart building by 25.6% on average and up to 33.4%.

  11. Prevalence of internet and social media usage in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Emily; Li, Xinning; Nguyen, Joseph; Matzkin, Elizabeth

    2014-08-08

    Prior studies in other specialties have shown that social networking and Internet usage has become an increasingly important means of patient communication and referral. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of Internet or social media usage in new patients referred to a major academic orthopedics center and to identify new avenues to optimize patient recruitment and communication. New patients were surveyed (n=752) between December 2012 to January 2013 in a major academic orthopaedic center to complete a 15-item questionnaire including social media and Internet usage information. Data was collected for all orthopaedic sub-specialties and statistical analysis was performed. Fifty percent of patients use social networking sites, such as Facebook. Sports medicine patients tend to be higher social networking users (35.9%) relative to other services (9.8-17.9%) and was statistically higher when compared to the joints/tumor service (Psocial media. Patients that travelled between 120 to 180 miles from the hospital for their visits were significantly more likely to be social media users, as were patients that did research on their condition prior to their new patient appointment. We conclude that orthopedic patients who use social media/Internet are more likely to be younger, researched their condition prior to their appointment and undergo a longer average day's travel (120-180 miles) to see a physician. In an increasingly competitive market, surgeons with younger patient populations will need to utilize social networking and the Internet to capture new patient referrals.

  12. System and methods of resource usage using an interoperable management framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heileman, Gregory L.; Jamkhedkar, Pramod A.; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2017-10-31

    Generic rights expression language allowing interoperability across different computing environments including resource usage of different applications. A formal framework for usage management provides scaffolding upon which interoperable usage management systems can be built. Certain features of the framework are standardized, such as the operational semantics, including areas free of standards that necessitate choice and innovation to achieve a balance of flexibility and usability for interoperability in usage management systems.

  13. Strategic toolkits: seniority, usage and performance in the German SME machinery and equipment sector

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, R.; Paton, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the strategic tool kit, from a human resource management (HRM) perspective, in terms of usage and impact. Research to date has tended to consider usage, assuming to a certain extent that knowledge and understanding of particular tools suggest that practitioners value them. The research on which this paper is based builds upon the idea that usage indicates satisfaction, but develops the usage theme to investigate which decision-makers are actually engaged in both tool appli...

  14. Remarks on Trade Usages And Business Practices In International Sales Law

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Graffi

    2011-01-01

    Trade usages and business practices are key elements of international commerce. In their day-to-day activities, traders and business people around the world constantly rely upon trade usages and business practices across a variety of industries. Usages and practices tend to be dignified by the business community with a status equivalent to that of actual law. As a matter of fact, many business persons often tend to regard trade usages and business practices as very powerful tools to ensure th...

  15. Characterization of the Usage of the Serine Metabolic Network in Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahya Mehrmohamadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The serine, glycine, one-carbon (SGOC metabolic network is implicated in cancer pathogenesis, but its general functions are unknown. We carried out a computational reconstruction of the SGOC network and then characterized its expression across thousands of cancer tissues. Pathways including methylation and redox metabolism exhibited heterogeneous expression indicating a strong context dependency of their usage in tumors. From an analysis of coexpression, simultaneous up- or downregulation of nucleotide synthesis, NADPH, and glutathione synthesis was found to be a common occurrence in all cancers. Finally, we developed a method to trace the metabolic fate of serine using stable isotopes, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and a mathematical model. Although the expression of single genes didn’t appear indicative of flux, the collective expression of several genes in a given pathway allowed for successful flux prediction. Altogether, these findings identify expansive and heterogeneous functions for the SGOC metabolic network in human cancer.

  16. Selective forces and mutational biases drive stop codon usage in the human genome: a comparison with sense codon usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Edoardo

    2016-05-17

    The three stop codons UAA, UAG, and UGA signal the termination of mRNA translation. As a result of a mechanism that is not adequately understood, they are normally used with unequal frequencies. In this work, we showed that selective forces and mutational biases drive stop codon usage in the human genome. We found that, in respect to sense codons, stop codon usage was affected by stronger selective forces but was less influenced by neutral mutational biases. UGA is the most frequent termination codon in human genome. However, UAA was the preferred stop codon in genes with high breadth of expression, high level of expression, AT-rich coding sequences, housekeeping functions, and in gene ontology categories with the largest deviation from expected stop codon usage. Selective forces associated with the breadth and the level of expression favoured AT-rich sequences in the mRNA region including the stop site and its proximal 3'-UTR, but acted with scarce effects on sense codons, generating two regions, upstream and downstream of the stop codon, with strongly different base composition. By favouring low levels of GC-content, selection promoted labile local secondary structures at the stop site and its proximal 3'-UTR. The compositional and structural context favoured by selection was surprisingly emphasized in the class of ribosomal proteins and was consistent with sequence elements that increase the efficiency of translational termination. Stop codons were also heterogeneously distributed among chromosomes by a mechanism that was strongly correlated with the GC-content of coding sequences. In human genome, the nucleotide composition and the thermodynamic stability of stop codon site and its proximal 3'-UTR are correlated with the GC-content of coding sequences and with the breadth and the level of gene expression. In highly expressed genes stop codon usage is compositionally and structurally consistent with highly efficient translation termination signals.

  17. Codon usage vis-a-vis start and stop codon context analysis of three ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the variation in genomic composition and its effect on codon usage, we performed the comparative analysis of codon usage and nucleotide usage in the genes of three dicots, Glycine max, Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula. The dicot genes were found to be A/T rich and have predominantly ...

  18. Foreign Language Instruction from a dynamic usage-based (DUB) perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousse-Malpat, Audrey; Verspoor, Marjolijn; Tyler, Andrea E.; Ortega, Lourdes; Uno, Mariko; Park, Hae In

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we combine ideas of usage based linguistics and dynamic systems theory to argue that language is a dynamic usage based system and L2 learning is a dynamic process. Two teaching approaches based on Dynamic Usage-based (DUB) principles with mainly implicit attention to form--a movie

  19. Constructing a web recommender system using web usage mining and user’s profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mombeini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web is a great source of information, which is nowadays being widely used due to the availability of useful information changing, dynamically. However, the large number of webpages often confuses many users and it is hard for them to find information on their interests. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a system capable of guiding users towards their desired choices and services. Recommender systems search among a large collection of user interests and recommend those, which are likely to be favored the most by the user. Web usage mining was designed to function on web server records, which are included in user search results. Therefore, recommender servers use the web usage mining technique to predict users’ browsing patterns and recommend those patterns in the form of a suggestion list. In this article, a recommender system based on web usage mining phases (online and offline was proposed. In the offline phase, the first step is to analyze user access records to identify user sessions. Next, user profiles are built using data from server records based on the frequency of access to pages, the time spent by the user on each page and the date of page view. Date is of importance since it is more possible for users to request new pages more than old ones and old pages are less probable to be viewed, as users mostly look for new information. Following the creation of user profiles, users are categorized in clusters using the Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm and S(c criterion based on their similarities. In the online phase, a neural network is offered to identify the suggested model while online suggestions are generated using the suggestion module for the active user. Search engines analyze suggestion lists based on rate of user interest in pages and page rank and finally suggest appropriate pages to the active user. Experiments show that the proposed method of predicting user recent requested pages has more accuracy and

  20. Learning for the Next Generation: Predicting the Usage of Synthetic Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur William, III

    2010-01-01

    The push to further the use of technology in learning has broadened the attempts of many to find innovated ways to aid the new, technologically savvy generation of learners, in acquiring the knowledge needed for their education and training. A critical component to the success of these initiatives is the proper application of the "science of…

  1. Predicting Smartphone Battery Life based on Comprehensive and Real-time Usage Data

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huoran; Liu, Xuanzhe; Mei, Qiaozhu

    2018-01-01

    Smartphones and smartphone apps have undergone an explosive growth in the past decade. However, smartphone battery technology hasn't been able to keep pace with the rapid growth of the capacity and the functionality of smartphones and apps. As a result, battery has always been a bottleneck of a user's daily experience of smartphones. An accurate estimation of the remaining battery life could tremendously help the user to schedule their activities and use their smartphones more efficiently. Ex...

  2. Use of a predictive protocol to measure the antimicrobial resistance risks associated with biocidal product usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesgate, Rebecca; Grasha, Pierre; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2016-04-01

    In this study we assessed the propensity of biocide exposure in the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Our protocol is based on reporting changes in established antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in biocides and antibiotics after during use exposure to a product. The during use exposure reflects worse conditions of product use during application. It differs from the term low concentration, which usually reflects a concentration below the minimal inhibitory concentration, but not necessarily a concentration that occurs in practice. Our results showed that exposure to triclosan (0.0004%) was associated with a high risk of developing resistance and cross-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This was not observed with exposure to chlorhexidine (0.00005%) or a hydrogen peroxide-based biocidal product (in during use conditions). Interestingly, exposure to a low concentration of hydrogen peroxide (0.001%) carried a risk of emerging resistance to antibiotics if the presence of the oxidizing agent was maintained. We observed a number of unstable clinical resistances to antibiotics after exposure to the cationic biocide and oxidizing agent, notably to tobramycin and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. Using a decision tree based on the change in antimicrobial susceptibility test results, we were able to provide information on the effect of biocide exposure on the development of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Such information should address the call from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Union Biocidal Products Regulation for manufacturers to provide information on antimicrobial resistance and cross-resistance in bacteria after the use of their product. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. E-book usage on a global scale: patterns, trends and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levine-Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines worldwide usage of over 600,000 e-books from EBL and ebrary. Using multiple modes of analysis, the study shows that there are variations in usage by geographic region as well as by subject. The study examines usage in relation to availability of titles, different types of usage per session, usage of the top ten percent of titles, and intensive and extensive use. These patterns can be used for benchmarking and as a model for local e-book studies.

  4. Mutation-selection models of codon substitution and their use to estimate selective strengths on codon usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ziheng; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Current models of codon substitution are formulated at the levels of nucleotide substitution and do not explicitly consider the separate effects of mutation and selection. They are thus incapable of inferring whether mutation or selection is responsible for evolution at silent sites. Here we impl...... codon usage in mammals. Estimates of selection coefficients nevertheless suggest that selection on codon usage is weak and most mutations are nearly neutral. The sensitivity of the analysis on the assumed mutation model is discussed.......Current models of codon substitution are formulated at the levels of nucleotide substitution and do not explicitly consider the separate effects of mutation and selection. They are thus incapable of inferring whether mutation or selection is responsible for evolution at silent sites. Here we...... implement a few population genetics models of codon substitution that explicitly consider mutation bias and natural selection at the DNA level. Selection on codon usage is modeled by introducing codon-fitness parameters, which together with mutation-bias parameters, predict optimal codon frequencies...

  5. The User Characteristics Effects to Smart Board Usage on Technology Acceptance Model Variables: The Sample of Bartin Highschool Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Akça

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new technology’s acceptance also gets shaped according to users’ features, expectations and perceptions. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM that developed by Davis (1989, defends that there are perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use variables to determinants of a new technology’s usage by user. These perceptions predict the user’s behavior and explain it. The smart board that has common usage in modern classrooms provides effectiveness at education and learning activities. Teachers who use smart boards can present more effectively. This situation increases the teacher’s productivity and student’s learning success and improvement the class’s education quality. Existence of the smart board in the classroom motivates all by self. Thanks to this technological device, it is easy to access internet based study materials. This study’s purpose is testing the user features explanation power effects to usage of smart board, which is a new education tool, based on TAM variables. For performing of the research, surveys have actualized with 24 teachers at Bartin High School with smart boards. Survey data have been interpreted based on correlation, factor and regression analyses in WarpPLS 5.0. Results have been concluded from analyse strongly supports research model.

  6. Online tables of contents for books: effect on usage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ruth C.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether the presence of online tables of contents (TOC) in an online catalog affects circulation (checkouts and inhouse usage). Two major questions were posed: (1) did the presence of online tables of contents for books increase use, and, (2) if it did, what factors might cause the increase? Method: A randomized and stratified design was used in tracking usage of 3,957 book titles that were previously divided into two groups: one with TOC and one without TOC. Stratification was done for year of imprint, location, subject, previous use, circulating or non-circulating status, and presence of TOC. The use was tracked by the online catalog statistics in the InnoPac online catalog for fourteen months. Results: The study found that tables of contents do increase usage. It also showed a correlation in the size of the effect based on the currency of the titles. In general, even after adjusting for all of the variables (publication date, location, circulation status, subject, and previous use), the odds of a title being used increased by 45% if the titles had online tables of contents, a statistically significant impact at the 0.05 level. Conclusions: This case-control study presents new information about the impact on circulation and inhouse use when tables of contents for books are added to the online catalog record. The study helps to establish the positive role of tables of contents in online catalogs. The research establishes TOC as a major parameter that can be successfully studied using quantitative methods. The study also provides information professionals with some guidance on when enhancement of TOC is likely to be most effective in increasing the use of existing collections. PMID:11209798

  7. Usage Patterns of a Mobile Palliative Care Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haipeng; Liu, David; Marks, Sean; Rickerson, Elizabeth M; Wright, Adam; Gordon, William J; Landman, Adam

    2018-06-01

    Fast Facts Mobile (FFM) was created to be a convenient way for clinicians to access the Fast Facts and Concepts database of palliative care articles on a smartphone or tablet device. We analyzed usage patterns of FFM through an integrated analytics platform on the mobile versions of the FFM application. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the usage data from FFM as a way to better understand user behavior for FFM as a palliative care educational tool. This is an exploratory, retrospective analysis of de-identified analytics data collected through the iOS and Android versions of FFM captured from November 2015 to November 2016. FFM App download statistics from November 1, 2015, to November 1, 2016, were accessed from the Apple and Google development websites. Further FFM session data were obtained from the analytics platform built into FFM. FFM was downloaded 9409 times over the year with 201,383 articles accessed. The most searched-for terms in FFM include the following: nausea, methadone, and delirium. We compared frequent users of FFM to infrequent users of FFM and found that 13% of all users comprise 66% of all activity in the application. Demand for useful and scalable tools for both primary palliative care and specialty palliative care will likely continue to grow. Understanding the usage patterns for FFM has the potential to inform the development of future versions of Fast Facts. Further studies of mobile palliative care educational tools will be needed to further define the impact of these educational tools.

  8. Life extension of components with high cumulative fatigue usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The current ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code fatigue design approach has significant margins of safety as evidenced by fatigue data on full-scale vessels. In order to extend qualification (life) of components which have reached the Code design usage limit of unity, improved criteria are needed which address crack initiation and propagation separately such that safe operation of these components is ensured. The fatigue initiation phase is composed of two processes: initial microcracking of internal particles or accumulation of local strain (cyclic slip) creating discontinuities which form microcracks, and the growth of the microcracks in a noncontinuum manner. The microcracks which initiate will eventually grow to a size in which continuum mechanics apply, and fracture mechanics concepts have been employed. The later propagation to failure of a component is also composed of two parts, continuum crack growth in a stable manner and eventual unstable fracture of the remaining ligament of material. This paper reviews the current status of technology in assessing initiation and propagation relative to the current design Code and suggests areas of improvement to cover extended life of high usage factor components. To illustrate some of these considerations, a case study for a small manufacturing defect was reviewed. A realistic component was analyzed to investigate the interrelationship between the ASME Code Section III design life and crack propagation behavior of a small manufacturing defect. A pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant system was used in the analysis, and the terminal end of the hot-leg pipe at the safe end weld was selected since usage factors as high as 0.95 had been reported. The particular plant chosen was Zion-1 because the necessary information on loading, including thermal transients, was available in the open literature. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. [Exploring nurse, usage effectiveness of mobile nursing station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Mei; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2013-04-01

    A mobile nursing station is an innovative cart that integrates a wireless network, information technology devices, and online charts. In addition to improving clinical work and workflow efficiencies, data is integrated among different information systems and hardware devices to promote patient safety. This study investigated the effectiveness of mobile nursing cart use. We compared different distributions of nursing activity working samples to evaluate the nursing information systems in terms of interface usability and usage outcomes. There were two parts of this study. Part one used work sampling to collect nursing activity data necessary to compare a unit that used a mobile nursing cart (mobile group, n = 18) with another that did not (traditional group, n = 14). Part two applied a nursing information system interface usability questionnaire to survey the mobile unit with nurses who had used a mobile nursing station (including those who had worked in this unit as floating nurses) (n = 30) in order to explore interface usability and effectiveness. We found that using the mobile nursing station information system increased time spent on direct patient care and decreased time spent on indirect patient care and documentation. Results further indicated that participants rated interface usability as high and evaluated usage effectiveness positively. Comments made in the open-ended question section raised several points of concern, including problems / inadequacies related to hardware devices, Internet speed, and printing. This study indicates that using mobile nursing station can improve nursing activity distributions and that nurses hold generally positive attitudes toward mobile nursing station interface usability and usage effectiveness. The authors thus encourage the continued implementation of mobile nursing stations and related studies to further enhance clinical nursing care.

  10. Predicting residential energy and water demand using publicly available data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoşgör, Enes; Fischbeck, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We built regression models using publicly available data as independent variables. • These models were used to predict monthly utility usage. • Such models can empower demand-side management program design, implementation and evaluation. • As well as planning for changes in energy and water demand. - Abstract: The overarching objective behind this work is to merge publicly available data with utility consumption histories and extract statistically significant insight on utility usage for a group of houses (n = 7022) in Gainesville, USA. This study investigates the statistical descriptive power of publicly available information for modeling utility usage. We first examine the deviations that arise from monthly utility usage reading dates as reading dates tend to shift and reading periods tend to vary across different months. Then we run regression models for individual months which in turn we compare to a yearly regression model which accounts for months as a dummy variable to understand whether a monthly model or a yearly model has a larger statistical power. It is shown that publicly available data can be used to model residential utility usage in the absence of highly private utility data. The obtained results are helpful for utilities for two reasons: (1) using the models to predict the monthly changes in demand; and (2) predicting utility usage can be translated into energy-use intensity as a first-cut metric for energy efficiency targeting in their service territory to meet their state demand reduction targets

  11. Usage labels network: an approach to lexical variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Šipka

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The Problem of lexical variation is frequently addressed within the linguistic community. Its complexity and the broad implications of any possible solution have considerable appeal among theoretical linguists. Lexicographers, in their turn, have been forced to address it in order to provide dictionary usage information, which is normally done by means of dictionary labels such as: American English, obsolete, slang , etc. An insightful overview of the relevant lexicological approaches, as well as some lexicographis projects is provided in Lipka (1990. The most exhaustive sociolinguistic classification, however, can be found in Preston (1986. Lexicographis treatments of lexical variation have been addressed in numerous papers listed in Zgusta (1988.

  12. Mobile Phones Usage and Employees’ Performance: A Perspective from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Sarwar Wahla; Abdul Ghafoor Awan

    2014-01-01

    The mobile phone usage by the workers at work place may be considered by some people as a disruption from work which may negatively affect productivity. Some also may be of the view that it will improve communication and as such impact productivity positively. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the employee’s mobile phone dependency and its impact on their performance among the employees of four major industries of Pakistan. A field survey carried out with the help of a structured qu...

  13. Usage et expérience du film

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Ce travail exhibe les origines de la théorie de la réception dans la philosophie allemande du XIXe siècle, il analyse ses développements et explique comment son sens cohérent se trouve dans une redéfinition de l’usage, illustrée par l’exemple de la réception, dans les banlieues, du film de B. de Palma, Scarface. This article analyzes the beginnings of the reception theory in German philosophy, then its developments. It argues that the logical sense of this theory lays in a new definition o...

  14. Alternative Promoter Usage in Healthy and Inflamed Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilje, Berit

    and cell-lines covering the entire human body. This provides a unique dataset to study gene expression, with promoter level precision. Here we use this large collection of data to study alternative transcription start site usage throughout the human body. We find that many alternative transcription start...... with tumour necrosis factor alpha, and on tissue from mice subjected to carbon nanotubes. Both systems show a strong response, with especially alternative transcription start sites being differentially regulated. Taken together this shows that alternative transcription start sites add an important layer...

  15. USAGE OF DIOCTAHEDRAL SMECTITE IN CHILDREN WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Botkina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of enter sorbent — dioctahedral Smectite (Neosmektin — usage as part of complex therapy of children with atopic dermatitis (ATD. It is shown that the administration of Smectite favored better efficacy of baseline treatment of ATD, more express and quick regression of skin manifestations of the disease, decrease in number of children with eosinophilia. High efficacy of ATD treatment with Smectite indicates the pathogenetic justification of efferent therapy of the disease. Observation results witness the good tolerability of Smectite: side effects related to the treatment were only observed in 14 percent of children.Key words: children, atopic dermatits, smectite, treatment.

  16. Quels usages de la bibliotheque au Maroc 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Cohen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Officine de l’âme et de l’esprit, la bibliothèque représente ce lieu où se forme un patrimoine, individuel ou collectif, et où s’élabore une construction, personnelle ou non, référant à une histoire, elle-même relative à une mémoire propre. Afin de cerner ce qu’il en est au Maroc, nous interrogerons, sous un angle ethnologique, le rapport des lecteurs à leur bibliothèque, qu’elle soit publique ou privée, afin non seulement de comprendre quels sont les livres appelés à constituer le patrimoine dont elle sera le dépositaire : à faire patrimoine, mais également cerner les représentations qui lui sont attachées, la mémoire à laquelle elle réfère, les usages qui en découlent, et le rôle qui lui est attribué. Alors que la bibliothèque publique fait l’objet d’usages limités et strictement fonctionnels de la part de ses usagers, la bibliothèque privée donne lieu à davantage d’appropriations personnelles. Nous tenterons de comprendre pourquoi les pratiques attachées à la bibliothèque sont davantage, voire essentiellement, retranchées dans le domaine privé, en interrogeant les usages réels, c'est-à-dire privés, de la bibliothèque. On observera que les bibliothèques privées sont dépositaires d’un patrimoine traditionnel tirant son essence de l’histoire arabe et d’une mémoire de l’Antiquité. Un patrimoine, nous le verrons, davantage véhiculé par l’esthétique propre aux ouvrages qui le portent que par leur contenu. A cette fonction esthétique de la bibliothèque s’ajoute un rôle distinctif, chaque individu en effet, au travers de sa bibliothèque racontant son histoire relative à une mémoire singulière.

  17. FPGA curved track fitter with very low resource usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    Standard least-squares curved track fitting process is tailored for FPGA implementation. The coefficients in the fitting matrices are carefully chosen so that only shift and accumulation operations are used in the process. The divisions and full multiplications are eliminated. Comparison in an application example shows that the fitting errors of the low resource usage implementation are less than 4% bigger than the fitting errors of the exact least-squares algorithm. The implementation is suitable for low-cost, low-power applications such as high energy physics detector trigger systems.

  18. Usages des TIC et socialisation professionnelle des enseignants-chercheurs

    OpenAIRE

    Lavielle-Gutnik, Nathalie; Massou, Luc

    2013-01-01

    En prenant appui sur une nouvelle analyse des données recueillies dans l’enquête Tec-Meus (2008-2011, MSH Lorraine) sur la place accordée par des enseignants-chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales aux technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) dans leur activité d’enseignement, nous souhaitons nous focaliser dans cet article sur la compréhension des processus de socialisation professionnelle en jeu dans leur usage déclaré des TIC. Par socialisation professionnelle, nous e...

  19. THE USAGE OF TECHNOLOGIES IN TERRESTRIAL MEASUREMENTS FOR HAZARD MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELE Dan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of natural phenomena (earthquakes, floods, landslides etc. bring economical and social prejudices year by year, watching on them and taking decisions becomes mandatory for reducing the material and human lives loss. Making hazard maps represents a tool used on wide global scale but also particularly in our country. This paper work has the purpose to reveal the interests of certain authors related to the usage of the new technologies of terrestrial measurements (GPS technologies, photogrammetry, cartography and of remote sensing in order to make these hazard maps.

  20. TECHNOLOGY USAGE AMONG CONSTRUCTION STUDENTS THE MODERATING ROLE OF GENDER

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ramayah; Mastura Jaafar

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on the extent of personal computer (PC) usage among a group of undergraduates at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It also looks at the moderating role of gender in the above said relationship. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 244 students responded to the survey. Results showed that perceived ease of use (β = 0.309, p < 0.01) was positively re...

  1. Usage of LinkedIn in the labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Dušenka, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    This Master thesis looks into the usage of the social network LinkedIn in the labour market by university students and graduates. In the theory, there is aim at explanation of the relationship between human and work, and also how the recruitment process looks like. In the practical part, there is explained how LinkedIn works and then analyzed the process of using it by university students and graduates when searching for a job. At the end, based on the analysis, there is a suggestion how to u...

  2. A PRACTICAL ONTOLOGY FOR THE LARGE-SCALE MODELING OF SCHOLARLY ARTIFACTS AND THEIR USAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    The large-scale analysis of scholarly artifact usage is constrained primarily by current practices in usage data archiving, privacy issues concerned with the dissemination of usage data, and the lack of a practical ontology for modeling the usage domain. As a remedy to the third constraint, this article presents a scholarly ontology that was engineered to represent those classes for which large-scale bibliographic and usage data exists, supports usage research, and whose instantiation is scalable to the order of 50 million articles along with their associated artifacts (e.g. authors and journals) and an accompanying 1 billion usage events. The real world instantiation of the presented abstract ontology is a semantic network model of the scholarly community which lends the scholarly process to statistical analysis and computational support. They present the ontology, discuss its instantiation, and provide some example inference rules for calculating various scholarly artifact metrics.

  3. Modeling nexus of urban heat island mitigation strategies with electricity/power usage and consumer costs: a case study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Humberto; Fillpot, Baron S.

    2018-01-01

    A reduction in both power and electricity usage was determined using a previously validated zero-dimensional energy balance model that implements mitigation strategies used to reduce the urban heat island (UHI) effect. The established model has been applied to show the change in urban characteristic temperature when executing four common mitigation strategies: increasing the overall (1) emissivity, (2) vegetated area, (3) thermal conductivity, and (4) albedo of the urban environment in a series of increases by 5, 10, 15, and 20% from baseline values. Separately, a correlation analysis was performed involving meteorological data and total daily energy (TDE) consumption where the 24-h average temperature was shown to have the greatest correlation to electricity service data in the Phoenix, Arizona, USA, metropolitan region. A methodology was then developed for using the model to predict TDE consumption reduction and corresponding cost-saving analysis when implementing the four mitigation strategies. The four modeled UHI mitigation strategies, taken in combination, would lead to the largest percent reduction in annual energy usage, where increasing the thermal conductivity is the single most effective mitigation strategy. The single least effective mitigation strategy, increasing the emissivity by 5% from the baseline value, resulted in an average calculated reduction of about 1570 GWh in yearly energy usage with a corresponding 157 million dollar cost savings. When the four parameters were increased in unison by 20% from baseline values, an average calculated reduction of about 2050 GWh in yearly energy usage was predicted with a corresponding 205 million dollar cost savings.

  4. Factors Influencing Facebook Usage and Facebook Addictive Tendency in University Students: The Role of Online Psychological Privacy and Facebook Usage Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2016-04-01

    There are few studies analysing the influence of personal traits and motivation factors on Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency as seen in university students. In this study, 225 Taiwanese university students completed a questionnaire to determine their online psychological privacy scale, Facebook usage motivation scale, Facebook usage scale and Facebook addictive tendency scale, in order to evaluate the items that can be conceptualized as the effect of university students' online psychological privacy personal trait and motive factors, and Facebook usage motivation with respect to Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for more online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook and more Facebook usage behaviour among university students who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for or an acceptance of a lower online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook among university students who may have more Facebook usage behaviour. This study can help understand university students' Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency and provide feature indicators for those who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. Finally, this study conducts discussion and proposes relevant suggestions for future study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Heterogeneous mobile phone ownership and usage patterns in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Eagle, Nathan; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Buckee, Caroline O

    2012-01-01

    The rapid adoption of mobile phone technologies in Africa is offering exciting opportunities for engaging with high-risk populations through mHealth programs, and the vast volumes of behavioral data being generated as people use their phones provide valuable data about human behavioral dynamics in these regions. Taking advantage of these opportunities requires an understanding of the penetration of mobile phones and phone usage patterns across the continent, but very little is known about the social and geographical heterogeneities in mobile phone ownership among African populations. Here, we analyze a survey of mobile phone ownership and usage across Kenya in 2009 and show that distinct regional, gender-related, and socioeconomic variations exist, with particularly low ownership among rural communities and poor people. We also examine patterns of phone sharing and highlight the contrasting relationships between ownership and sharing in different parts of the country. This heterogeneous penetration of mobile phones has important implications for the use of mobile technologies as a source of population data and as a public health tool in sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. TURKEY’S MOST POPULAR 10 RADIO STATIONS FACEBOOK USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk INAL

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass media is becoming a different structure day by day. When thinking about the use of fire for communicating with the distant, it is surprising that the development of the last century is remarkable. Today's communication systems make it possible for individuals to be active in many places at the same time thanks to mobile phones, computers and different mobile devices, channels and internet-enabled platforms. These platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, have different billions of users from different parts of the world. These structures, which are generally known as social platforms, offer various possibilities not only for individuals but also for institutions and organizations. Today, many institutions and organizations appear to be on social platforms. According to the constructs, the social platforms of these institutions and organizations have varying purposes and forms of use. The sole example of the influence of social platforms in mass communication is the use of these platforms by mass media. In this study, it was emphasized the issue of the extent to which the radion, one of the oldest mass communication tools, used which effect and for what purpose. In this direction, the usage patterns of 10 most heard radio in Turkey are examined in Facebook, which is ahead of other social platforms in terms of user potential and frequency in Turkey. Meanwhile, Facebook profiles usage and content creation styles of the radios are determined. Finally, the link between the rest of the radios and the Facebook movement breakdown was questioned.

  7. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl: From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl Majorie Liew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Vahl belongs to the family of Verbenaceae and is commonly known as Gervao, Brazilian tea, verbena cimarrona, rooter comb, or blue porter weed. It is one of the important plants with high medicinal and nutraceutical benefits. S. jamaicensis contains various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems, with cures for several diseases. Objective. The objective of this review paper is to collect information concerning the morphology, distribution, traditional usage, phytochemical compositions, biological activities, and safety data of S. jamaicensis. Materials and Methods. The information was obtained from literature search through electronic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar on S. jamaicensis. Results and Conclusion. The high medicinal properties of this plant, for instance, antimicrobial and antifungal effect as the main activities, but verbascoside as the main active chemical component, make it a valuable source of the medicinal compound. This review paper summarizes all information concerning the morphology, distribution, traditional usage, phytochemical compositions, pharmacological activities, and toxicological studies of S. jamaicensis.

  8. Mobile Phone Banking Usage Behaviour: An Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the use of mobile phones in financial transactions is witnessing phenomenal growth at the international level, its growth has been relatively slow in Australia. Drawing on the theory of reasoned action and technology adoption framework, this paper reports the results concerning a survey of mobile phone users for banking transactions in Australia. The paper specifically identified the factors affecting usage behaviour when mobile phone banking services were engaged. The findings broaden and deepen our understanding of the usage of mobile-based banking in the information age. This paper contributes to the knowledge of this subject by including identification and testing of constructs of predictors regarding mobile phone banking, which are additional to those employed in the extant theories indicated above. The findings of this paper have important policy implications for banks in terms of understanding the underlying factors that drive customers’ mobile banking for financial transactions. Accordingly, design strategies have been developed to promote mobile phone banking – a cost effective channel for delivering financial services.

  9. GPS Usage in a Population of Low-Vision Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucuras, Maria; Chun, Robert; Lee, Patrick; Jay, Walter M; Pusateri, Gregg

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed bioptic and non-bioptic low-vision drivers in Illinois, USA, to determine their usage of global positioning system (GPS) devices. Low-vision patients completed an IRB-approved phone survey regarding driving demographics and usage of GPS while driving. Participants were required to be active drivers with an Illinois driver's license, and met one of the following criteria: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) less than or equal to 20/40, central or significant peripheral visual field defects, or a combination of both. Of 27 low-vision drivers, 10 (37%) used GPS while driving. The average age for GPS users was 54.3 and for non-users was 77.6. All 10 drivers who used GPS while driving reported increased comfort or safety level. Since non-GPS users were significantly older than GPS users, it is likely that older participants would benefit from GPS technology training from their low-vision eye care professionals.

  10. Development of carrier usage for the treatment of radioactive effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, A [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1997-02-01

    Low level radioactive liquid wastes are produced in many nuclear applications. Their physico-chemical characteristics may very considerably. Chemical precipitation is a convenient treatment method for the liquid streams of high salinity or solid content containing different radionuclide types. Generally, the concentrations of nuclides in liquid wastes are extremely low. For example, 1000 Bq of {sup 137}Cs makes about 3{center_dot}10{sup -10} g of caesium. Therefore conventional precipitation cannot be applied since the solubility product value is not exceeded. The carriers which are capable to adsorb the nuclides are used to achieve the nuclide removal. Stable isotopes of the nuclide are usually added as the carriers but any reagent which has similar chemical specifications with the nuclide can also be used as the carrier. Precipitation of these non-radioactive carriers ion together with the radionuclide is called co-precipitation. The operational steps of the chemical precipitation process should be established and applied in a treatment facility. Thus, the most suitable carrier for a particular nuclide and its usage conditions are required to be determined. In this study, the carriers for removal of {sup 137}Cs and uranium, their accurate amounts and usage conditions to achieve highest decontamination factors (DF) have been investigated. Residual sludge volumes were evaluated for cementation purposes. The cement composite samples were prepared for each set of experiments and hardening times were measured. 9 refs, 9 figs.

  11. Integrated Cost Allocation of Transmission Usage under Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermagasantos Zein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cost allocation of transmission usage on the power networks is an important issue especially in the modern electricity market mechanism. In this context, all costs that have been embedded in the transmission, embedded cost, should be covered by the transmission users. This paper follows general methods, where generators are fullyresponsible to cover the embedded cost. It proposes a method to determine the cost allocation of transmission usage based on decomposition through the superposition techinique to determine power flow contributions from an integrated base case of the results of the power flow calculations of all transactions, bilateral and nonbilateral contracts. Mathematically, the applied formulations are illustrated clearly in this paper. The proposed method has been tested with 5-bus system and the results are much different compared to a few of the published methods. This is shown by the test results on the 5 bus system. The published methods produce total power flow contributions in each line is greater than the actual. And they earn total revenues approximately 11.6% greater than the embedded cost. While on the proposed method, the power flow contribu tions are equal to the actual and the revenues are equal to the embedded cost. It shows also that the proposed method gives results as expected.

  12. Mining for Social Media: Usage Patterns of Small Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Shilpa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information can now be rapidly exchanged due to social media. Due to its openness, Twitter has generated massive amounts of data. In this paper, we apply data mining and analytics to extract the usage patterns of social media by small businesses. Objectives: The aim of this paper is to describe with an example how data mining can be applied to social media. This paper further examines the impact of social media on small businesses. The Twitter posts related to small businesses are analyzed in detail. Methods/Approach: The patterns of social media usage by small businesses are observed using IBM Watson Analytics. In this paper, we particularly analyze tweets on Twitter for the hashtag #smallbusiness. Results: It is found that the number of females posting topics related to small business on Twitter is greater than the number of males. It is also found that the number of negative posts in Twitter is relatively low. Conclusions: Small firms are beginning to understand the importance of social media to realize their business goals. For future research, further analysis can be performed on the date and time the tweets were posted.

  13. Usage pattern of personal care products in California households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Ritz, Beate; Cassady, Diana L; Lee, Kiyoung; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-11-01

    Given the concern over the potential for health risks associated with certain ingredients (e.g., phthalates) in personal care products, usage patterns of ∼30 types of personal care products (e.g., shampoo, sunscreen, fragrance, etc.) were collected in 604 California households through a telephone interview. Preferences in selecting products, e.g., scented or unscented, aerosol, and brand loyalty, were also investigated. Participants were recruited in three age groups, children (mostly preschoolers), their parents, and adults age 55 or older. Use frequencies of various product types varied by sex, age group, race, education, and climatic region. Product use by parent and child from the same household were correlated. Use frequencies of products in the same class (e.g., skincare) were moderately correlated, which may impact aggregate exposures. Use frequencies observed in this study were generally in the same range as those reported in the EPA Exposure Factor Handbook, but we found differences for some individual products. Our study provides additional data on population-based usage patterns of a large collection of commonly used personal care products pertaining to several age groups and socio-demographic strata. This information will be valuable for exposure and risk assessments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pattern of Internet Usage in Planning after-School Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shahjafari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research studies the pattern of the Internet usage by the third grade students of middle schools in the school year 2012-13 in Tehran. For this purpose, the needs of Iranian teenagers in virtual and cyber space have been identified and studied through an interdisciplinary approach. A researcher-made questionnaire and interviews with specialists and scholars in the fields of curriculum planning, educational technology, educational planning, information technology and communication were used based on an interdisciplinary approach. Finally, the needs of the students were divided and categorized into two factors of knowledge and skill, and individual and social characteristics on the basis of factor analysis method; the pattern of the Internet usage, including leisure factors and accessibility to information and sources, was designed and presented. Also, the results indicate that these factors have no direct effect on the network features and this effect occurs in relation to leisure factors through the location of the programs. Students’ interest in the Internet was mainly for the purposes of downloading videos and music and also playing online games and entertainment programs. This implies the necessity of attention on the part of planners to preparing and providing videos, games and educational, scientific and entertaining programs.

  15. Energy Usage of Residents on Offshore Islands in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Cheng Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted through interviews on offshore islands in Taiwan to investigate the energy usage of local residents. A comparison of household appliance usage in mainland Taiwan with that on the offshore islands revealed that, overall, the most commonly used household appliances are steam cookers/rice cookers, water dispensers, and washing machines. For other household appliances, Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles have lower use penetration rates compared with those in mainland Taiwan and on Level 1 offshore isles, particularly for the use of computers. By contrast, the use penetration rate for chest freezers on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles is high, and each household has one or more freezers on average. This appliance is not a commonly observed household product in mainland Taiwan or on Level 1 offshore isles. Furthermore, because of the government policy, every household on parts of Level 2 offshore isles and on all Level 3 offshore isles has a fixed monthly charge of electricity. The transportation of liquefied petroleum gas is also inconvenient, and the gas price is slightly higher, leading to the tendency of residents to consume excessive amounts of electrical energy, which does not correspond with the aim of the government to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions; thus, the relevant authorities’ review and improvement on energy consumption on Levels 2 and 3 offshore isles are required.

  16. Internet Usage In The Fresh Produce Supply Chainin China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Yanqing; Fu, Zetian; Liu, Xue

    Although effective implementation of the Internet technologies has a great potential for improving efficiency and reducing wastage within the fresh produce supply chain. the situation of the Internet usage by SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) in the fresh produce supply chain is still unclear in China. As the main players, SMEs haven't been given enough attention from both academics and governments. Therefore, this research attempts to address this issue by, first, investigating the current usage of the Internet and related software by Chinese SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain, and then, by identifying enablers and barriers faced by SMEs to call government's attention. As a part of an EU-Asia IT&C funded project, a survey was carried out with SMEs in this industry from five major cities in China. The results reveal that in the relatively developed areas of China, SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain are rapidly adopting the Internet and software packages, but the level of adoption varies greatly and there is a significant lack of integration among the supply chain partners. Chinese SMEs are keen to embrace emerging technologies and have acted to adopt new software and tools. Given that cost of implementation is not a barrier, their concern over legal protection and online security must be addressed for further development.

  17. Study on usage of fluorocarbon for toroidal field coil cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Arai, Takashi

    1998-09-01

    In JT-60 machine, usage of fluorocarbon as an alternate coolant to a cooling channel of toroidal field coil (TF coil) in which a crack was detected is investigated. Fluorinert (a registered trademark of 3M) liquid which is one of fluorocarbon was reviewed, and liquid 'FC-43' was found as an appropriate one for TF coils cooling because of its physical properties about boiling point and thermal capacity. Fortunately, Fluorinert does not have impact on the greenhouse effect for the earth under the temperature of its boiling point. And thermal analysis shows that the cooling effectiveness obtained with liquid 'FC-43' for TF coils is rather well. Moreover, corrosion tests were carried out between liquid 'FC-43' and materials used in JT-60 by considering deterioration of TF coils. The test results demonstrate that there is no problem in applying liquid 'FC-43' as a coolant to cooling channel of TF coils. Results obtained above conclude that usage of fluorocarbon is one of the effective means to perform further experiments in JT-60. (author)

  18. Bisphosphonate: Brief Review of Its Development for Usage in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tita Ratya Utari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate (BP is a class of drug that prevent the loss of bone mass. It inhibits the resorption of bone by encouraging osteoclast to undergo apoptosis. Considering that oral diseases and dental procedures may lead to teeth instability whereas alveolar bone is the main tooth supporting tissue, forceful indication of this drug is for preventing and minimizing bone resorption following oral surgery and relapse movement in orthodontic treatment. Clinical use of BP in dentistry is limited by risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ and of its systemic effects such as an increase of the bone mineral density in another bone area. Topical application with local effect would seem the choice of administration route for usage in dentistry. Until recently, no clinical usage of topical BP has been studied, however some experimental laboratory studies proved that this drug would be beneficial in a wide scope of dental treatments.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i1.154

  19. Development of carrier usage for the treatment of radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, A.

    1997-01-01

    Low level radioactive liquid wastes are produced in many nuclear applications. Their physico-chemical characteristics may very considerably. Chemical precipitation is a convenient treatment method for the liquid streams of high salinity or solid content containing different radionuclide types. Generally, the concentrations of nuclides in liquid wastes are extremely low. For example, 1000 Bq of 137 Cs makes about 3·10 -10 g of caesium. Therefore conventional precipitation cannot be applied since the solubility product value is not exceeded. The carriers which are capable to adsorb the nuclides are used to achieve the nuclide removal. Stable isotopes of the nuclide are usually added as the carriers but any reagent which has similar chemical specifications with the nuclide can also be used as the carrier. Precipitation of these non-radioactive carriers ion together with the radionuclide is called co-precipitation. The operational steps of the chemical precipitation process should be established and applied in a treatment facility. Thus, the most suitable carrier for a particular nuclide and its usage conditions are required to be determined. In this study, the carriers for removal of 137 Cs and uranium, their accurate amounts and usage conditions to achieve highest decontamination factors (DF) have been investigated. Residual sludge volumes were evaluated for cementation purposes. The cement composite samples were prepared for each set of experiments and hardening times were measured. 9 refs, 9 figs

  20. Towards a Residential Air-Conditioner Usage Model for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Goldsworthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Realistic models of occupant behaviour in relation to air-conditioner (a/c use are fundamentally important for developing accurate building energy simulation tools. In Australia and elsewhere, such simulation tools are inextricably bound both in legislation and in the design of new technology, electricity infrastructure and regulatory schemes. An increasing number of studies in the literature confirm just how important occupants are in determining overall energy consumption, but obtaining the data on which to build behaviour models is a non-trivial task. Here data is presented on air-conditioner usage derived from three different types of case study analyses. These are: (i use of aggregate energy consumption data coupled with weather, demographic and building statistics across Australia to estimate key predictors of energy use at the aggregate level; (ii use of survey data to determine characteristic a/c switch on/off behaviours and usage frequencies; and (iii use of detailed household level sub-circuit monitoring from 140 households to determine a/c switch on/off probabilities and their dependence on different building and occupant parameters. These case studies are used to assess the difficulties associated with translation of different forms of individual, aggregate and survey based information into a/c behaviour simulation models. Finally a method of linking the data gathering methodologies with the model development is suggested. This method would combine whole-of-house “smart”-meter data measurements with linked targeted occupant surveying.

  1. Compliance evaluation of removable space maintainer or space regainer usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revanti Ramadhani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature loss could cause a problem with the tooth arrangement or the dental arch size. A space left by the primary tooth loss could cause migration of the adjacent teeth. As a result, space will be narrowed and undermined the eruption of the permanent teeth. The success of the space maintainer or space regainer usage due to the premature loss marked by space for the replacement of the permanent teeth. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the compliance of children in wearing a space maintainer or space regainer after insertion at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The research method was descriptive survey technique. The sample consisted of 30 patients selected using the total sampling technique. Data were obtained with a questionnaire and statistically analyzed. The results showed that majority of the children uses the removable space maintainer or the space regainer daily was only about 23,3% overall. Most of the children only use the removable space maintainer or the space regainer for sometimes. The research concluded that the low rate of pedodontic patients compliance at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital in the usage of the removable space maintainer or the space regainer was usually caused by pain or discomfort. This fact was evidence of a low awareness of parents in preventing malocclusion to their children.

  2. Social Networking Sites (SNSs- Shifting Paradigm of English Language Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal K. Kachhia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available English is the globally accepted language in various nations and professions in different varieties, but the English that has acquired a wider spectrum than all these Englishes is the English used in Social Networking Sites which has changed the scenario of English language usage due to the ease in its accessibility and the kind of flexibility of language usage. The English used in Social Networking Sites like Facebook and Twitter has changed the linguistic behaviour of the people by producing a number of acronyms like BFF, FB etc, creating new verb forms like ‘to tweet’ or nouns like ‘tweeple’ or producing many compound nouns such as ‘netiquette’, changing the meaning of traditional verbs and nouns by introducing new meanings to them, e.g. the word ‘friend’ is used to refer “someone to an online list of acquaintances”, and by making use of prefixes like ‘un’ for the purpose of conveying the meaning of negation as in ‘unlike a comment/update’ by ignoring its original prefix ‘dis’ for referring the antonym of ‘like’. By emphasizing on the aim of communication, grammar and vocabulary are put on the peripheral value in Social Networking Sites. Therefore, the focal point of this paper is to study the changes in the linguistic behaviour of the people caused by the SNSs.

  3. Projecting the Mental Model of Social Networking Site Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hui Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of online social networking sites (SNS has created a new world of connection and communication for online users. SNS usage has become an important part of people’s daily lives. This study aims to obtain new insights towards SNS usage behaviour. Based on participants’ mental models, it is hoped to make more clear exposition about their perceptions and experiences as well as to explore what factors affect their behaviour for using social networking sites. A blend of qualitative methodologies was adopted for data collection and analysis, including the Zaltman metaphor elicitation technique (ZMET method, the laddering technique, and the means-end chain theory. The results of this study show that the most important values of using SNS include its convenience, maintaining relationship, gaining relaxation, as well as reaching coherence. Additionally, participants pointed out they cared about their online privacy issues very much and had found some potential dangers; however, they continued to use these sites because of the great benefits and enjoyment.

  4. Understanding the usage of the Helioviewer Project clients and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J.; Zahniy, S.; Mueller, D.; Nicula, B.; Verstringe, F.; Bourgoignie, B.; Buchlin, E.; Alingery, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Helioviewer Project enables visual exploration of the Sun and the inner heliosphere for everyone, everywhere via intuitive interfaces and novel technology. The project mainly develops two clients, helioviewer.org and JHelioviewer, and the server-side capabilities accessed via those clients. Images from many different ground and space-based sources are currently available from multiple servers. Solar and heliospheric feature and event information, magnetic field extrapolations and important time-series can also be browsed and visualized using Helioviewer Project clients. Users of the Helioviewer Project have made over two million movies and many millions of screenshots since detailed (and anonymous) logging of Helioviewer Project usage was implemented in February 2011. These usage logs are analyzed to give a detailed breakdown on user interaction with solar and heliospheric data via Helioviewer Project clients and services. We present summary statistics on how our users are using our clients and services, which data they are interested in, and how they choose to interact with different data sources. At the poster presentation we will also be soliciting ideas from the community to improve our clients and services.

  5. On Global Electricity Usage of Communication Technology: Trends to 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S. G. Andrae

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an estimation of the global electricity usage that can be ascribed to Communication Technology (CT between 2010 and 2030. The scope is three scenarios for use and production of consumer devices, communication networks and data centers. Three different scenarios, best, expected, and worst, are set up, which include annual numbers of sold devices, data traffic and electricity intensities/efficiencies. The most significant trend, regardless of scenario, is that the proportion of use-stage electricity by consumer devices will decrease and will be transferred to the networks and data centers. Still, it seems like wireless access networks will not be the main driver for electricity use. The analysis shows that for the worst-case scenario, CT could use as much as 51% of global electricity in 2030. This will happen if not enough improvement in electricity efficiency of wireless access networks and fixed access networks/data centers is possible. However, until 2030, globally-generated renewable electricity is likely to exceed the electricity demand of all networks and data centers. Nevertheless, the present investigation suggests, for the worst-case scenario, that CT electricity usage could contribute up to 23% of the globally released greenhouse gas emissions in 2030.

  6. Commercial and Multifamily Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Wang, Na

    2014-11-17

    In a number of cities and states, building owners are required to disclose and/or benchmark their building energy use. This requires the building owner to possess monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer data as a way to give building owners the whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. However, no utilities or regulators appear to have conducted a concerted statistical, cybersecurity, and privacy analysis to justify the level of aggregation selected. Therefore, the Tennant Data Aggregation Task was established to help utilities address these issues and provide recommendations as well as a theoretical justification of the aggregation threshold. This study is focused on the use case of submitting data for ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager (ESPM), but it also looks at other potential use cases for monthly energy consumption data.

  7. Influence of certain forces on evolution of synonymous codon usage bias in certain species of three basal orders of aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva Kumar, C; Nair, Rahul R; Sivaramakrishnan, K G; Ganesh, D; Janarthanan, S; Arunachalam, M; Sivaruban, T

    2012-12-01

    Forces that influence the evolution of synonymous codon usage bias are analyzed in six species of three basal orders of aquatic insects. The rationale behind choosing six species of aquatic insects (three from Ephemeroptera, one from Plecoptera, and two from Odonata) for the present analysis is based on phylogenetic position at the basal clades of the Order Insecta facilitating the understanding of the evolution of codon bias and of factors shaping codon usage patterns in primitive clades of insect lineages and their subtle differences in some of their ecological and environmental requirements in terms of habitat-microhabitat requirements, altitudinal preferences, temperature tolerance ranges, and consequent responses to climate change impacts. The present analysis focuses on open reading frames of the 13 protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome of six carefully chosen insect species to get a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary intricacies of codon bias. In all the six species, A and T contents are observed to be significantly higher than G and C, and are used roughly equally. Since transcription hypothesis on codon usage demands A richness and T poorness, it is quite likely that mutation pressure may be the key factor associated with synonymous codon usage (SCU) variations in these species because the mutation hypothesis predicts AT richness and GC poorness in the mitochondrial DNA. Thus, AT-biased mutation pressure seems to be an important factor in framing the SCU variation in all the selected species of aquatic insects, which in turn explains the predominance of A and T ending codons in these species. This study does not find any association between microhabitats and codon usage variations in the mitochondria of selected aquatic insects. However, this study has identified major forces, such as compositional constraints and mutation pressure, which shape patterns of codon usage in mitochondrial genes in the primitive clades of insect lineages.

  8. Know your data: understanding implicit usage versus explicit action in video content classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Jude; Shamma, David A.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we present a method for video category classification using only social metadata from websites like YouTube. In place of content analysis, we utilize communicative and social contexts surrounding videos as a means to determine a categorical genre, e.g. Comedy, Music. We hypothesize that video clips belonging to different genre categories would have distinct signatures and patterns that are reflected in their collected metadata. In particular, we define and describe social metadata as usage or action to aid in classification. We trained a Naive Bayes classifier to predict categories from a sample of 1,740 YouTube videos representing the top five genre categories. Using just a small number of the available metadata features, we compare the classifications produced by our Naive Bayes classifier with those provided by the uploader of that particular video. Compared to random predictions with the YouTube data (21% accurate), our classifier attained a mediocre 33% accuracy in predicting video genres. However, we found that the accuracy of our classifier significantly improves by nominal factoring of the explicit data features. By factoring the ratings of the videos in the dataset, the classifier was able to accurately predict the genres of 75% of the videos. We argue that the patterns of social activity found in the metadata are not just meaningful in their own right, but are indicative of the meaning of the shared video content. The results presented by this project represents a first step in investigating the potential meaning and significance of social metadata and its relation to the media experience.

  9. Computational prediction of vaccine potential epitopes and 3-dimensional structure of XAGE-1b for non-small cell lung cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Tarek

    2018-04-01

    Conclusions: This study predicted a model of XAGE-1b tertiary structure which could explain its antigenic function and facilitate usage of predicted peptides for experimental validation towards designing immunotherapies against NSCLC.

  10. Usage of Crushed Concrete Fines in Decorative Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Anton; Bazhenova, Sofia

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the questions of usage of crushed concrete fines from concrete scrap for the production of high-quality decorative composite materials based on mixed binder. The main problem in the application of crushed concrete in the manufacture of decorative concrete products is extremely low decorative properties of crushed concrete fines itself, as well as concrete products based on them. However, crushed concrete fines could have a positive impact on the structure of the concrete matrix and could improve the environmental and economic characteristics of the concrete products. Dust fraction of crushed concrete fines contains non-hydrated cement grains, which can be opened in screening process due to the low strength of the contact zone between the hydrated and non-hydrated cement. In addition, the screening process could increase activity of the crushed concrete fines, so it can be used as a fine aggregate and filler for concrete mixes. Previous studies have shown that the effect of the usage of the crushed concrete fines is small and does not allow to obtain concrete products with high strength. However, it is possible to improve the efficiency of the crushed concrete fines as a filler due to the complex of measures prior to mixing. Such measures may include a preliminary mechanochemical activation of the binder (cement binder, iron oxide pigment, silica fume and crushed concrete fines), as well as the usage of polycarboxylate superplasticizers. The development of specific surface area of activated crushed concrete fines ensures strong adhesion between grains of binder and filler during the formation of cement stone matrix. The particle size distribution of the crushed concrete fines could achieve the densest structure of cement stone matrix and improve its resistance to environmental effects. The authors examined the mechanisms of structure of concrete products with crushed concrete fines as a filler. The results of studies of the properties of

  11. Ethnobotanical survey of usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Yin-Yin; Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Seetoh, Wei-Guang; Neo, Soek-Ying; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-09-29

    The use of medicinal plants in human health has been documented since ancient times and they provide a useful source of new therapeutics. In Singapore, despite the accessibility to modern healthcare, there still exist pockets of the population who choose to use locally grown fresh medicinal plants for health promotion and even therapeutic purposes. However to date, there is no published report of first-hand account of their usage in Singapore. As land is scarce and rapidly used for re-development, such important knowledge may be lost if not properly documented in time. This work safeguards the local folk knowledge, and provides information on common and scarcely reported fresh medicinal plants. The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore through face-to-face interviews. Information on demographic data and plant-use methods were collated via face-to-face interviews of 200 fresh medicinal plant users who have used fresh medicinal plants in the last five years. The survey protocol was approved by the National University of Singapore Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from every participant. A total of 414 plants represented by 104 plant species from 44 families were reportedly used by the 200 participants. The five most commonly used plants were Clinacanthus nutans (34 users), Strobilanthes crispus (31 users), Pereskia bleo (25 users), Aloe vera (18 users) and Zingiber officinale (16 users). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part while preparing a decoction was the most common method of preparation. The majority of interviewees used plants for general health purposes and to treat diseases related to the respiratory system and cancer. Our survey has successfully documented the rich wealth of traditional usage and knowledge on 414 fresh medicinal plants grown in Singapore through face-to-face interviews with 200 users. This study will serve as a useful resource for

  12. Cell Based GIS as Cellular Automata for Disaster Spreading Predictions and Required Data Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for prediction and simulation based on the Cell Based Geographic Information System(GIS as Cellular Automata (CA is proposed together with required data systems, in particular metasearch engine usage in an unified way. It is confirmed that the proposed cell based GIS as CA has flexible usage of the attribute information that is attached to the cell in concert with location information and does work for disaster spreading simulation and prediction.

  13. WALS Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Prediction under model uncertainty is an important and difficult issue. Traditional prediction methods (such as pretesting) are based on model selection followed by prediction in the selected model, but the reported prediction and the reported prediction variance ignore the uncertainty

  14. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Ma...

  15. Usage based indicators to assess the impact of scholarly works: architecture and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Johan [Santa Fe, NM; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Santa Fe, NM

    2012-03-13

    Although recording of usage data is common in scholarly information services, its exploitation for the creation of value-added services remains limited due to concerns regarding, among others, user privacy, data validity, and the lack of accepted standards for the representation, sharing and aggregation of usage data. A technical, standards-based architecture for sharing usage information is presented. In this architecture, OpenURL-compliant linking servers aggregate usage information of a specific user community as it navigates the distributed information environment that it has access to. This usage information is made OAI-PMH harvestable so that usage information exposed by many linking servers can be aggregated to facilitate the creation of value-added services with a reach beyond that of a single community or a single information service.

  16. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances...... should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power...... consumption limit, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where the electrical devices are classified in low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate without temporal restrictions...

  17. Security Implications of Typical Grid Computing Usage Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.

    2001-01-01

    A Computational Grid is a collection of heterogeneous computers and resources spread across multiple administrative domains with the intent of providing users uniform access to these resources. There are many ways to access the resources of a Computational Grid, each with unique security requirements and implications for both the resource user and the resource provider. A comprehensive set of Grid usage scenarios are presented and analyzed with regard to security requirements such as authentication, authorization, integrity, and confidentiality. The main value of these scenarios and the associated security discussions are to provide a library of situations against which an application designer can match, thereby facilitating security-aware application use and development from the initial stages of the application design and invocation. A broader goal of these scenarios are to increase the awareness of security issues in Grid Computing

  18. Usage models in reliability assessment of software-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, P.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Korhonen, J. [VTT Electronics, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-04-01

    This volume in the OHA-project report series deals with the statistical reliability assessment of software based systems on the basis of dynamic test results and qualitative evidence from the system design process. Other reports to be published later on in the OHA-project report series will handle the diversity requirements in safety critical software-based systems, generation of test data from operational profiles and handling of programmable automation in plant PSA-studies. In this report the issues related to the statistical testing and especially automated test case generation are considered. The goal is to find an efficient method for building usage models for the generation of statistically significant set of test cases and to gather practical experiences from this method by applying it in a case study. The scope of the study also includes the tool support for the method, as the models may grow quite large and complex. (32 refs., 30 figs.).

  19. Usage monitoring of electrical devices in a smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Saba; Chan, Adrian D C; Goubran, Rafik A

    2011-01-01

    Profiling the usage of electrical devices within a smart home can be used as a method for determining an occupant's activities of daily living. A nonintrusive load monitoring system monitors the electrical consumption at a single electrical source (e.g., main electric utility service entry) and the operating schedules of individual devices are determined by disaggregating the composite electrical consumption waveforms. An electrical device's load signature plays a key role in nonintrusive load monitoring systems. A load signature is the unique electrical behaviour of an individual device when it is in operation. This paper proposes a feature-based model, using the real power and reactive power as features for describing the load signatures of individual devices. Experimental results for single device recognition for 7 devices show that the proposed approach can achieve 100% classification accuracy with discriminant analysis using Mahalanobis distances.

  20. Ban on advertising promoting energy usage violates First Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    In reversing the New York Court of Appeals in the Central Hudson Gas suit, the Supreme Court expanded the protection afforded commercial speech. The result could have a major impact on means used to achieve policy objectives of national and state energy conservation. Public utility commissions attempting to limit the growth of energy usage may have to devise stringent economic regulations that directly affect the marketplace and consumer alternatives. This might require an expansion of the statutory powers of public utility commissions. The Court's decision will require public utility commissions to either adopt regulations that restrict the content and format of utility speech or allocate costs to utility shareholders of impermissible advertising. Otherwise, a utility's unbridled ability to speak, given the economic power of such enterprises and their economic interest, could totally undermine the credibility of national and state energy-conservation policy. 12 references.

  1. Insecticide Usage and Chemical Contamination Assessment in Asiatic Pennywort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumroongsook, S.

    2017-07-01

    The insecticide usage in commercially grown asiatic pennywort plantations in Nakhonpatum and Nonthaburi province, Thailand was surveyed during January-June, 2016. The results showed that asiatic pennywort cuttworms was leaf destructive and caused the most damge to the production. The growers used organophosphate insecticides to control the caterpillars the most, followed by pyrethoid, abamectin, carbamate and organochlorine, respectively. The chemical contaminants of pennywort from 9 fresh markets in Bangkok was monitored, the result indicated that lead was not detected in the samples. The amount of arsenic was less than 0.075 mg / kg. The insecticide residue measurement of dicofol, chlorpyrifos and methidathion was 0.98, 2.84 and 0.46 mg / kg, respectively.

  2. Pecularities of French Pronoun on Usage in Lithuanian Scientific Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Dubikaltytė-Raugalienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientists studying personal identifiers in French scientific discourse incorporate the personal indefinite pronoun “on” into the paradigm. The semantics of the pronoun depends on the genre of scientific discourse. The pronoun “on” can acquire four meanings denoting or including the author. The current paper, based on two databases of native French and Lithuanian authors’ articles, aims at comparing the tendencies of the pronoun “on” usage and its functions in scientific discourse. The analyses has shown that the Lithuanian authors use the personal pronoun almost twice less frequently to mark an author or authors’ denotative or inclusive meaning. In the articles of Lithuanian authors, the pronoun “on” performs fewer pragmatic functions than in scientific discourse of French authors.

  3. Examining student heuristic usage in a hydrogen bonding assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn; Kim, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the role of representational competence in student responses to an assessment of hydrogen bonding. The assessment couples the use of a multiple-select item ("Choose all that apply") with an open-ended item to allow for an examination of students' cognitive processes as they relate to the assignment of hydrogen bonding within a structural representation. Response patterns from the multiple-select item implicate heuristic usage as a contributing factor to students' incorrect responses. The use of heuristics is further supported by the students' corresponding responses to the open-ended assessment item. Taken together, these data suggest that poor representational competence may contribute to students' previously observed inability to correctly navigate the concept of hydrogen bonding. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(5):411-416, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Security Implications of Typical Grid Computing Usage Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.

    2001-06-05

    A Computational Grid is a collection of heterogeneous computers and resources spread across multiple administrative domains with the intent of providing users uniform access to these resources. There are many ways to access the resources of a Computational Grid, each with unique security requirements and implications for both the resource user and the resource provider. A comprehensive set of Grid usage scenarios are presented and analyzed with regard to security requirements such as authentication, authorization, integrity, and confidentiality. The main value of these scenarios and the associated security discussions are to provide a library of situations against which an application designer can match, thereby facilitating security-aware application use and development from the initial stages of the application design and invocation. A broader goal of these scenarios are to increase the awareness of security issues in Grid Computing.

  5. Analysis of alternative fuels for power plant usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szucs, I.; Szemmelveisz, K.; Palotas, A.B.; Winkler, L. [University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetembaros (Hungary)

    2008-07-01

    Decision makers and researchers, mainly experts involved in energy production and environmental protection, are now in agreement that substitution of renewable energy sources for some portion of the fossil fuel usage is one of the potential solutions for mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions. Current firing experience has shown that biomass utilisation in power plants still entails a number of difficulties that need to be addressed. Plant experience shows that one of the most critical parts of biomass firing is the moisture content of the fuel. The purpose of our research was to examine the combustion characteristics of several alterative fuels (wood-chips, energy-grass, sunflower seed shell, help, SRF, coal, DDGS). 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Availability and usage of new antibacterial drugs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, G

    1980-05-15

    The present-day availability and usage of established and new antibacterial drugs approved for clinical and therapeutic purposes in food-producing animals and poultry in the United States and Europe were compared. Presently, 42 such drugs are approved in Europe, 13 of which were approved since Dec 31, 1974. In the United States, 17 such drugs are currently approved, only four were approved since Dec 31, 1974. Most drug products approved in Europe contain two or more antibacterial agents, whereas most of the products approved in the United States are single drug entities. Drugs approved in Europe but not in the United States include sulfonamide and trimethoprim combinations, nafcillin, oxacillin, metampicillin, cephoxazole, cephalonium, cephacetrile, cephalexin, gentamicin, rifamycin SV, nifuroquine, tiamulin, chloramphenicol, colistin, and polymyxin B. Pharmacologic and clinical features of several of these drugs are briefly described.

  7. Consequences of information technology usage on retailer-supplier relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    1. Retailers and suppliers increasingly tend to form long-term co-operative relationships. In the literature, the use of information technology is an enabling factor behind this trend. Nevertheless, our understanding of how information technology influences retailer-supplier relationships is still...... limited. The purpose of this paper therefore is to study the consequences of information technology usage on retailer supplier relationships, focusing on inter-organisational systems. 2. The paper begins by discussing the nature of retailer-supplier relations, noting that whereas these relationships have...... traditionally been adversarial, retailers and suppliers are beginning to realise that they can benefit from co-operating. Further, developmental processes in co-operative inter-organisational relations are discussed and the important role of social exchange in inter-organisational relationships is stressed. 3...

  8. Simple MoCap System for Home Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Magdin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many MoCap systems exist. Generating 3D facial animation of characters is currently realized by using the motion capture data (MoCap data, which is obtained by tracking the facial markers from an actor/actress. In general it is a professional solution that is sophisticated and costly. This paper presents a solution with a system that is inexpensive. We propose a new easy-to-use system for home usage, through which we are making character animation. In its implementation we paid attention to the elimination of errors from the previous solutions. In this paper the authors describe the method how motion capture characters on a treadmill and as well as an own Java application that processes the video for its further use in Cinema 4D. This paper describes the implementation of this technology of sensing in a way so that the animated character authentically imitated human movement on a treadmill.

  9. Meta-model of EPortfolio Usage in Different Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Balaban

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available EPortfolio offers a new philosophy of teaching and learning, giving the learner an opportunity to express oneself, to show one’s past work and experience to all the interested parties ranging from teachers to potential employers. However, an integral model for ePortfolio implementation in academic institutions that would take into account three different levels of stakeholders: 1. Individual (student and teacher; 2. Institution; and 3. Employer, currently does not exist. In this paper the role of ePortfolio in academic environment as well as the context in which ePortfolio operates is analyzed in detail. As a result of the comprehensive analysis that takes into account individual, academic institution and employer, a meta-model of ePortfolio usage in Lifelong Learning is proposed.

  10. The impact of CO2-costs on biogas usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Nielsen, Lise Skovsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has set a target of being fossil fuel independent by 2050 implying that a high degree of inflexible renewable energy will be included in the energy system; biogas can add flexibility and potentially has a negative CO2-emission. In this paper, we investigate the socioeconomic...... system costs of reaching a Danish biogas target of 3.8 PJ in the energy system, and how CO2 costs affect the system costs and biogas usage. We perform our analysis using the energy systems model, Balmorel, and expand the model with a common target for raw biogas and upgraded biogas (biomethane). Raw...... biogas can be used directly in heat and power production, while biomethane has the same properties as natural gas. Balmorel is altered such that natural gas and biomethane can be used in the same technologies. Several CO2-cost estimates are investigated; hereunder a high estimate for the expected CO2...

  11. Instant Messaging Usage and Interruptions in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui‐Jung Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to explore IM interruption by relating it to media choices and purposes of IM use in the workplace. Two major media choice concepts were: media richness and social influence; while four purposes of IM use were: organization work, knowledge work, socializing, and boundary spanning activities. Data (N = 283 were collected via a combination of convenience and snowball sampling of “computer‐using workers” in Taiwan, based on the Standard Occupational Classification system published by the Taiwan government. Results indicated that media choice works better than purpose of IM use to explain IM interruption. Among them, social influence was the best predictor to IM interruption in the workplace. In addition, instant feedback and personalization provided by IM, and IM usage for the purposes of knowledge work and socializing, also relate to IM interruption in the workplace.

  12. Salicylic acid derivatives: synthesis, features and usage as therapeutic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Deniz; Sentürk, Murat; Küfrevioğlu, Ömer İrfan

    2011-12-01

    In the field of medicinal chemistry, there is a growing interest in the use of small molecules. Although acetyl salicylic acid is well known for medical applications, little is known about other salicylic acid derivatives, and there is serious lack of data and information on the effects and biological evaluation that connect them. This review covers the synthesis and drug potencies of salicylic acid derivatives. After a brief overview of the information on salicylic acid and its features, a detailed review of salicylic acids as drugs and prodrugs, usage as cyclooxygenase inhibitors, properties in plants, synthesis and recent patents, is developed. Salicylic acid research is still an important area and innovations continue to arise, which offer hope for new therapeutics in related fields. It is anticipated that this review will guide the direction of long-term drug/nutraceutical safety trials and stimulate ideas for future research.

  13. VHDL Models with Usage of the LFSR_PCKG Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitrych

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available LFSRs (Linear Feedback Shift Registers are very often used in theBIST (Built-In Self-Test methodology. Implementation of the LFSRs tothe design or application of digital system, which supports BISTtechniques or which only uses these LFSRs, can be done by VHDLlanguage. This paper presents VHDL models of the devices andsubroutines (e.g. test pattern generators, signature analysers. Modelsare based on LFSR structures with usage of the LFSR_PCKG packagedescribed in the (Kovalsky and Vlcek, 2001, which can be usedin the applications supporting BIST techniques. Devices are describedas behavioural and structural models. These models and descriptions canbe used e.g. in the (Kovalsky, 2001. The LFSR_PCKG was modifiedand new approach is presented. Naturally, there are presented somesynthesis conclusions of the VHDL models and applications in thispaper.

  14. Usage models in reliability assessment of software-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Pulkkinen, U.; Korhonen, J.

    1997-04-01

    This volume in the OHA-project report series deals with the statistical reliability assessment of software based systems on the basis of dynamic test results and qualitative evidence from the system design process. Other reports to be published later on in the OHA-project report series will handle the diversity requirements in safety critical software-based systems, generation of test data from operational profiles and handling of programmable automation in plant PSA-studies. In this report the issues related to the statistical testing and especially automated test case generation are considered. The goal is to find an efficient method for building usage models for the generation of statistically significant set of test cases and to gather practical experiences from this method by applying it in a case study. The scope of the study also includes the tool support for the method, as the models may grow quite large and complex. (32 refs., 30 figs.)

  15. Usage of the Python programming language in the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, R; Hegner, B; Jones, C D

    2010-01-01

    Being a highly dynamic language and allowing reliable programming with quick turnarounds, Python is a widely used programming language in CMS. Most of the tools used in workflow management and the GRID interface tools are written in this language. Also most of the tools used in the context of release management: integration builds, release building and deploying, as well as performance measurements are in Python. With an interface to the CMS data formats, rapid prototyping of analyses and debugging is an additional use case. Finally in 2008 the CMS experiment switched to using Python as its configuration language. This paper will give an overview of the general usage of Python in the CMS experiment and discuss which features of the language make it well-suited for the existing use cases.

  16. Usage, structure, and substance in the English ditransitive construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    on observation of actual usage-patterns of the construction in naturally occurring discourse. Secondly, Hudson very much treats ditransitives as a functional monolith, assuming functional uniformity and ignoring possible functional variation. Thirdly, his analysis is primarily based on formal structure and pays......-substance-cum-semantic-structure, the scenarios encoded by monotransitives and ditransitives (Rasmussen & Jakobsen 1996: 103-105), the participants associated with T-OBJs and D-OBJs are non-uniform (Goldberg 1995, Croft et al. 2001: 583-586, Hopper and Thompson 1980). Unlike Hudson's (1992) syntactic account, a symbolic account would categorize...... at the level of conceptual content. Hudson (1992: 266-268) observes variation in the functionality of D-OBJs depending on the verb, such that, unlike those occurring with give and deny, D-OBJs occurring with peel take on a more adjunct-like function, but gives the construction the monolithic treatment. We...

  17. Limiting the usage of blood products in cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, P E; Lorenzen, C M; Rhydderch, R D

    1991-03-01

    We studied the effect of the initiation of a five part program of blood component conservation on blood product utilization in patients undergoing major cardiovascular surgery. We encouraged physicians and nurses to adhere to a set of guidelines that would limit the exposure of these patients to complications associated with blood product administration. Through this effort the amounts of packed red cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate used were markedly reduced. After the start of the conservation program, overall blood product usage was reduced 29% despite a 46% increase in the surgical caseload, and there was a 53% decrease in the amount of donor exposure (units of individual blood products administered) per patient.

  18. Radiologists' Usage of Social Media: Results of the RANSOM Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranschaert, Erik R; Van Ooijen, Peter M A; McGinty, Geraldine B; Parizel, Paul M

    2016-08-01

    The growing use of social media is transforming the way health care professionals (HCPs) are communicating. In this changing environment, it could be useful to outline the usage of social media by radiologists in all its facets and on an international level. The main objective of the RANSOM survey was to investigate how radiologists are using social media and what is their attitude towards them. The second goal was to discern differences in tendencies among American and European radiologists. An international survey was launched on SurveyMonkey ( https://www.surveymonkey.com ) asking questions about the platforms they prefer, about the advantages, disadvantages, and risks, and about the main incentives and barriers to use social media. A total of 477 radiologists participated in the survey, of which 277 from Europe and 127 from North America. The results show that 85 % of all survey participants are using social media, mostly for a mixture of private and professional reasons. Facebook is the most popular platform for general purposes, whereas LinkedIn and Twitter are more popular for professional usage. The most important reason for not using social media is an unwillingness to mix private and professional matters. Eighty-two percent of all participants are aware of the educational opportunities offered by social media. The survey results underline the need to increase radiologists' skills in using social media efficiently and safely. There is also a need to create clear guidelines regarding the online and social media presence of radiologists to maximize the potential benefits of engaging with social media.

  19. Surgical loupe usage among oculoplastic surgeons in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Wu, Albert Y

    2018-04-01

    To study the patterns of usage and perception among U.S. oculoplastic surgeons regarding surgical loupes. An anonymous 20-question survey was emailed out to the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery listserv. Data were compiled in Google Forms. SPSS was used for statistical analyses. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Of the 609 members contacted, 239 (39%) completed the survey; 95% of respondents owned loupes and 78% regularly used them. No association was observed between frequency of loupe usage and sex or years in practice. The most common magnification and brand were 2.5× and Designs for Vision, respectively. The most common problems associated with loupes were limited vision (33%) and lack of comfort (24%), with 11% citing neck and cervical spinal disorders. The most common benefits were magnification (93%) and increased visual accuracy (68%). Of the respondents, 56% believed improved patient care to be a benefit and 76% believed that loupes enhance surgical outcome. With regard to training, 67% supported incorporating loupes into residency, 35% believed in mandating loupe purchase, and 25% wanted residencies to provide loupes at no cost. Respondent support for the use of loupes in practice and training was directly correlated with how frequently they used loupes. The vast majority of respondents owned loupes. Although most loupe owners used loupes regularly, a sizable proportion operated with limited vision and lack of comfort. Overall, just over half of respondents believed that loupes improve patient care and should be integrated into residency. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. TEACHERS’ PREPARATION TO THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES USAGE WITHIN POSTGRADUATE PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan P. Labudko

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the question about teachers’ preparation to the information and communication technologies usage during the postgraduate period is actual. Some aspects of academic teachers’ preparation to the information and communication technologies usage during the postgraduate period in the teaching and educational activity are examined in the article, as well as some peculiarities of teachers’ preparation to the effective usage of modern tutorials and information and communication technologies ...

  1. Cash usage in the Netherlands: How much, where, when, who and whenever one wants?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Jonker; Anneke Kosse; Lola Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Having accurate information on cash usage is essential for monitoring the substitution process of cash by cards and for assessing the cost efficiency of the payment system. Moreover, estimates on cash usage reflect the transaction demand for cash. This is useful for central banks which are responsible for producing and issuing banknotes. The latest estimates of the number and value of cash payments made in the Netherlands date from 2007. How has cash usage developed since then? In what branch...

  2. USAGE OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES IN GENERAL AVIATION: CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analyzing the current and future trends in usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV in gen- eral aviation (branches of economy. The main goal of the analysis is to determine the branches of economy, in which the usage of UAVs would be the most beneficial in the near- to mid-term future. The main requirements and restrictions of usage of the aircraft in general aviation were used as a basis for determining the types of operations, in which the usage of UAVs will be the most rational and effective. The effectiveness evaluation was based on the developed method, involving evaluation of the following factors such as: advantages of usage of manned aircraft, advantages of usage of unmanned air- craft, problems associated with the usage of manned aircraft, problems associated with the usage of unmanned aircraft. After evaluation of the mentioned aspects above the safety, operational productivity and ecological indicators were evaluat- ed. These qualitative assessments allowed identifying the branches of economy, where the usage of UAVs could potentially be the most advantageous. The article also discusses the possible strategies of UAVs development for general aviation. The so-called “mixed” strategy of UAV development is identified as the best in the current situation. This strategy combines the conversion of the existing military UAVs with the purpose of fitting them in to civilian use with the parallel development of brand new UAVs, which would be designed for operation in branches of economy right from the beginning (from scratch.

  3. Updating ARI Educational Benefits Usage Data Bases for Army Regular, Reserve, and Guard: 2005 - 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Winnie

    2007-01-01

    .... For the Regular component, the report includes tabulations of program participation and benefit usage, type of educational program entered, and time between separation and start of education benefits...

  4. Regulatory applications of the relationships between natural gas usage and weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.A.; Patterson, D.L.; Proctor, M.S.; Warren, H.E.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides the basics required for analysis and forecasting of natural gas usage for determining the revenues and revision of rates. The focus is on the Local Distribution Company and its customers. Analysis of gas usage is required in a rate case in order to properly estimate the volumes and revenues that would be recovered from current rate under conditions of normal weather. Normal volumes are also required to evaluate proposed rates. In the context of the Local Distribution Company's procurement of gas supply, forecasting of gas usage is required to determine both the daily usage profile and the peak day requirement

  5. Evaluation of usage and fuel savings of solar ovens in Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Solar cooking technology has been promoted as a solution to both global poverty and environmental degradation, but relatively little research exists on the impact of solar oven usage on biomass fuel consumption. This study evaluates solar oven usage and wood consumption in northern Nicaragua during both the rainy and dry seasons, using surveys, temperature dataloggers, and direct measurements of fuelwood use. Solar oven owners reported usage on 79% of days during the dry season, and 41% of days during the rainy season. Comparison with oven temperature records confirmed usage on 50% of days during the dry season, and 16% of days during the rainy season. However, wood consumption measurements showed no statistically significant difference between days with solar oven usage and days without, suggesting that frequency of usage alone is not an appropriate proxy for fuel savings. Survey results suggest that a large part of solar oven usage came in addition to biomass cooking, as opposed to replacing it. These results suggest a need for further study of wood consumption in situ and more focus on the specific kinds of foods prepared in solar cookers, as well as local cultural and climatic conditions. - Highlights: • Solar oven usage reported on most days during dry season. • No statistically significant fuelwood savings can be attributed to solar oven use. • Usage reported on surveys differs substantially from solar oven temperature data. • Possible causes of lack of wood savings range from weather to diet and gender norms.

  6. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  7. Intelligent Prediction of Ship Maneuvering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Lacki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents an idea of the intelligent ship maneuvering prediction system with the usage of neuroevolution. This may be also be seen as the ship handling system that simulates a learning process of an autonomous control unit, created with artificial neural network. The control unit observes input signals and calculates the values of required parameters of the vessel maneuvering in confined waters. In neuroevolution such units are treated as individuals in population of artificial neural networks, which through environmental sensing and evolutionary algorithms learn to perform given task efficiently. The main task of the system is to learn continuously and predict the values of a navigational parameters of the vessel after certain amount of time, regarding an influence of its environment. The result of a prediction may occur as a warning to navigator to aware him about incoming threat.

  8. Failure Prediction And Detection In Cloud Datacenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvil Bambharolia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a novel technology in the field of distributed computing. Usage of Cloud computing is increasing rapidly day by day. In order to serve the customers and businesses satisfactorily fault occurring in datacenters and servers must be detected and predicted efficiently in order to launch mechanisms to tolerate the failures occurred. Failure in one of the hosted datacenters may propagate to other datacenters and make the situation worse. In order to prevent such situations one can predict a failure proliferating throughout the cloud computing system and launch mechanisms to deal with it proactively. One of the ways to predict failures is to train a machine to predict failure on the basis of messages or logs passed between various components of the cloud. In the training session the machine can identify certain message patterns relating to failure of data centers. Later on the machine can be used to check whether a certain group of message logs follow such patterns or not. Moreover each cloud server can be defined by a state which indicates whether the cloud is running properly or is facing some failure. Parameters such as CPU usage memory usage etc. can be maintained for each of the servers. Using this parameters we can add a layer of detection where in we develop a decision tree based on these parameters which can classify whether the passed in parameters to the decision tree indicate failure state or proper state.

  9. Optimization of maintenance for power system equipment using a predictive health model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, G.; Koltunowicz, T.; Negenborn, R.R.; Papp, Z.; Djairam, D.; Schutter, B.D. de; Smit, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a model-predictive control based framework is proposed for modeling and optimization of the health state of power system equipment. In the framework, a predictive health model is proposed that predicts the health state of the equipment based on its usage and maintenance actions. Based

  10. Optimization of condition-based asset management using a predictive health model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, G.; Koltunowicz, T.; Negenborn, R.R.; Papp, Z.; Djairam, D.; De Schutter, B.; Smit, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a model predictive framework is used to optimize the operation and maintenance actions of power system equipment based on the predicted health sate of this equipment. In particular, this framework is used to predict the health state of transformers based on their usage. The health

  11. Health insurance, neighborhood income, and emergency department usage by Utah children 1996–1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Stacey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that approximately half of emergency department (ED usage in the U.S. and other developed countries is for non-urgent conditions and that this usage is related to availability, social, and economic factors. We examined pediatric ED usage in a U.S. state with respect to income, health insurance status, types of medical conditions, and whether introduction of managed care affected utilization by Medicaid children. Methods Emergency department usage rates were calculated from 1996 through 1998 using Utah ED data for children with commercial health insurance, Medicaid, for uninsured children, and by income group estimating neighborhood household income from Zip code of residence. We analyzed usage following the July 1996 transition of Utah Medicaid to managed care. Results Children with Medicaid had approximately 50% greater ED utilization rates than children with commercial health insurance or uninsured children. The majority of usage for Medicaid and uninsured children was for non-traumatic conditions. Only 35% of total ED usage was for non-emergent or non-urgent conditions and this was related to both Medicaid and low household income. Children lacking health insurance were more likely to be discharged against medical advice (OR = 2.36, 95% C.I. 1.88–2.96. There was no reduction in Medicaid ED usage following the transition to managed care. Conclusion Usage of ED services is related to both health insurance status and income. Children lacking health insurance and Medicaid children have excessive usage for conditions which could be treated in a primary care setting. That managed care does not reduce Medicaid ED usage is consistent with findings of other studies.

  12. Mine or Theirs, Where Do Users Go? A Comparison of E-Journal Usage at the OhioLINK Electronic Journal Center Platform versus the Elsevier ScienceDirect Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Juleah

    2015-01-01

    This research provides librarians with a model for assessing and predicting which platforms patrons will use to access the same content, specifically comparing usage at the Ohio Library and Information Network (OhioLINK) Electronic Journal Center (EJC) and at Elsevier's ScienceDirect from 2007 to 2013. Findings show that in the earlier years, the…

  13. Climate prediction and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Myles

    2010-05-01

    Climate prediction is generally accepted to be one of the grand challenges of the Geophysical Sciences. What is less widely acknowledged is that fundamental issues have yet to be resolved concerning the nature of the challenge, even after decades of research in this area. How do we verify or falsify a probabilistic forecast of a singular event such as anthropogenic warming over the 21st century? How do we determine the information content of a climate forecast? What does it mean for a modelling system to be "good enough" to forecast a particular variable? How will we know when models and forecasting systems are "good enough" to provide detailed forecasts of weather at specific locations or, for example, the risks associated with global geo-engineering schemes. This talk will provide an overview of these questions in the light of recent developments in multi-decade climate forecasting, drawing on concepts from information theory, machine learning and statistics. I will draw extensively but not exclusively from the experience of the climateprediction.net project, running multiple versions of climate models on personal computers.

  14. Characterizing the Development and Usage of Diagrams in Embedded Software Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdur, Deniz; Demirörs, Onur; Garousi, V.

    2017-01-01

    To cope with growing complexity of embedded software, modeling has become popular. The usage of models in embedded software industry and the relevant practices usually vary since the purposes of diagram development and usage differ. Since a large variety of software modeling practices used in

  15. Effect of an evidence-based website on healthcare usage: an interrupted time-series study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, W.A.; Bonten, T.N.; Waal, M.W.M. de; Drenthen, T.; Smeele, I.J.M.; Nielen, M.M.; Chavannes, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Healthcare costs and usage are rising. Evidence-based online health information may reduce healthcare usage, but the evidence is scarce. The objective of this study was to determine whether the release of a nationwide evidence-based health website was associated with a reduction in

  16. An X-Ray of the Level of Electronic Purse Usage in Nigeria | Ogbuji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sets out to examine the level of e-purse usage in Nigeria. Despite the invasion of e-purse as electronic banking channels that has the potential of disempowering the cash systems of exchange and granting firms competitive edge, it is interesting to note that the rate of cash usage still dominates in the Nigeria ...

  17. ECONOMIC QUESTIONS OF LAND USAGE – SCARCITY, SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Magda, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic importance of land usage. This topic is important because land is the basis of industrial and agricultural production, as well as energy and environmental security. The focus of the analysis is the relationship between land usage and scarcity and sustainability.

  18. Student Media Usage Patterns and Non-Traditional Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Müskens, Wolfgang; Krause, Ulrike; Alturki, Uthman; Aldraiweesh, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A total of 2,338 students at German universities participated in a survey, which investigated media usage patterns of so-called traditional and non-traditional students (Schuetze & Wolter, 2003). The students provided information on the digital devices that they own or have access to, and on their usage of media and e-learning tools and…

  19. School Nutrition Professionals' Usage and Perceptions of USDA Recipes and the Impact of Student Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Keith; Johnson, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the frequency of usage of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Recipes for Schools and investigate factors influencing their usage. The relationship between these variables and school district size (student enrollment) was also investigated. Methods: An expert panel…

  20. Investment and Usage of New Technologies : Evidence from a Shared ATM Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, S.; Verboven, F.L.; Degryse, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    When new technologies become available, it is not only essential that firms have the correct investment incentives, but often also that consumers make the proper usage decisions. This paper studies investment and usage in a shared ATM network. Be- cause all banks coordinate their ATM investment