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Sample records for predadores agistemus floridanus

  1. Oviposição dos ácaros predadores Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker (Acari em resposta a diferentes tipos de alimento

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    Ferla Noeli Juarez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoseiidae and Sigmaeidae are the most common predatory mites on rubber tree leaves in the State of Mato Grosso, associated with phytophagous mites of the families Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of different kinds of food, including different species of mites commonly found on the rubber tree in Mato Grosso, and one kind of pollen, on the oviposition of the predators Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, 1965 (Stigmaeidae, Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959 and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965, both Phytoseiidae. Those predators are common on rubber tree leaves in Mato Grosso. For the tests with A. floridanus, discs of 2 cm in diameter of rubber tree leaves were used as substrate. Food provided to the predators were the mites Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992, Oligonychus gossypii (Zacher, 1921, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 and Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor, 1950, and pollen of Typha angustifolia L. Agistemus floridanus accepted a larger variety of foodthan other predators. This was the only predator with high oviposition rate when fed C. heveae and T. heveae, the phytophagous mites considered most important on rubber trees. Euseius concordis and A. floridanus had nearly the same oviposition rates when fed pollen of T. angustifolia (ca. one egg per female per day. Neoseiulus anonymus had the highest oviposition rate than other predators when fed O. gossypii and T. mexicanus. Polyphagotarsonemus latus was the least suitable food for the predators studied.

  2. Biology of three species of Agistemus (Acari: Stigmaeidae): life table parameters using eggs of Panonychus citri or pollen of Malephora crocea as food.

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    Goldarazena, Arturo; Aguilar, Hugo; Kutuk, Halil; Childers, Carl C

    2004-01-01

    The biology and life table parameters of Agistemus industani Gonzalez, A. cyprius Gonzalez, and A. floridanus Gonzalez (Acari: Stigmaeidae) were studied under laboratory conditions using two food sources: Panonychus citri (McGregor) eggs or ice plant, Malephora crocea (Jacquin) Schwantes pollen at 25 degrees C. The larval, protonymph, deutonymph, and adult stages of A. industani fed on citrus red mite eggs. All active stages of A. industani, except the larva, fed on all P. citri stages and the larval stage could not feed on P. citri adults. All immature stages of A. industani fed on M. crocea pollen. Agistemus cyprius larvae fed on P. citri eggs and larvae or ice plant pollen. The nymphal stages fed on P. citri eggs, larvae, and protonymphs but not deutonymphs or adults while A. cyprius deutonymphs and adults fed on all P. citri stages. Adult and nymphal stages of A. cyprius fed on ice plant pollen and successfully completed their development while A. floridanus did not. Agistemus floridanus larvae fed only on P. citri eggs, while the other stages fed on P. citri eggs, larvae, and protonymphs. The developmental times from egg to adult for A. industani and A. cyprius when fed M. crocea pollen were 11.3 and 13.4 days, respectively. Agistemus floridanus was unable to complete its life cycle on a diet of only M. crocea pollen. Agistemus industani, A. cyprius, and A. floridanus completed development from egg to adult in 11.7, 13.8, and 10.8 days, respectively, when fed P. citri eggs. The intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)) values for A. cyprius and A. industani were 0.0311 and 0.1201 per day on the pollen diet. The net reproductive rate (Ro) was 3.58 for A. cyprius and 10.07 for A. industani with generation times (T) of 45.2 and 35.1 days, respectively, on the ice plant pollen diet. The r(m) values for A. cyprius, A. floridanus, and A. industani on the P. citri egg only diet were: 0.0562, 0.1001, and 0.1031 per day, respectively. The Ro values for each species fed P

  3. Neuropeptidomics of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

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    Schmitt, Franziska; Vanselow, Jens T; Schlosser, Andreas; Kahnt, Jörg; Rössler, Wolfgang; Wegener, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Ants show a rich behavioral repertoire and a highly complex organization, which have been attracting behavioral and sociobiological researchers for a long time. The neuronal underpinnings of ant behavior and social organization are, however, much less understood. Neuropeptides are key signals that orchestrate animal behavior and physiology, and it is thus feasible to assume that they play an important role also for the social constitution of ants. Despite the availability of different ant genomes and in silico prediction of ant neuropeptides, a comprehensive biochemical survey of the neuropeptidergic communication possibilities of ants is missing. We therefore combined different mass spectrometric methods to characterize the neuropeptidome of the adult carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. We also characterized the local neuropeptide complement in different parts of the nervous and neuroendocrine system, including the antennal and optic lobes. Our analysis identifies 39 neuropeptides encoded by different prepropeptide genes, and in silico predicts new prepropeptide genes encoding CAPA peptides, CNMamide as well as homologues of the honey bee IDLSRFYGHFNT- and ITGQGNRIF-containing peptides. Our data provides basic information about the identity and localization of neuropeptides that is required to anatomically and functionally address the role and significance of neuropeptides in ant behavior and physiology. PMID:25641051

  4. Neuropeptidomics of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

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    Schmitt, Franziska; Vanselow, Jens T; Schlosser, Andreas; Kahnt, Jörg; Rössler, Wolfgang; Wegener, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Ants show a rich behavioral repertoire and a highly complex organization, which have been attracting behavioral and sociobiological researchers for a long time. The neuronal underpinnings of ant behavior and social organization are, however, much less understood. Neuropeptides are key signals that orchestrate animal behavior and physiology, and it is thus feasible to assume that they play an important role also for the social constitution of ants. Despite the availability of different ant genomes and in silico prediction of ant neuropeptides, a comprehensive biochemical survey of the neuropeptidergic communication possibilities of ants is missing. We therefore combined different mass spectrometric methods to characterize the neuropeptidome of the adult carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. We also characterized the local neuropeptide complement in different parts of the nervous and neuroendocrine system, including the antennal and optic lobes. Our analysis identifies 39 neuropeptides encoded by different prepropeptide genes, and in silico predicts new prepropeptide genes encoding CAPA peptides, CNMamide as well as homologues of the honey bee IDLSRFYGHFNT- and ITGQGNRIF-containing peptides. Our data provides basic information about the identity and localization of neuropeptides that is required to anatomically and functionally address the role and significance of neuropeptides in ant behavior and physiology.

  5. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Vicosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

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    Matioli, Andre L. [Instituto Biologico, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia Economica], e-mail: almatioli@biologico.sp.gov.br; Pallini, Angelo [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal], e-mail: pallini@ufv.br; Tavares, Mara G. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral], e-mail: mtavares@ufv.br

    2009-03-15

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifications were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute ({+-} 360 {mu}m long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the fi rst molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. (author)

  6. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Vicosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Vicosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifications were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute (± 360 μm long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the fi rst molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. (author)

  7. Population and colony structure of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

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    Gadau, J; Heinze, J; Hölldobler, B; Schmid, M

    1996-12-01

    The colony and population structure of the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, were investigated by multilocus DNA fingerprinting using simple repeat motifs as probes [e.g. (GATA)4]. The mating frequency of 15 queens was determined by comparing the fingerprint patterns of the queen and 17-33 of her progeny workers. C. floridanus queens are most probably singly mated, i.e. this species is monandrous and monogynous (one queen per colony). C. floridanus occurs in all counties of mainland Florida and also inhabits most of the Key islands in the southern part of Florida. We tested whether the two mainland populations and the island populations are genetically isolated. Wright's FST and Nei's D-value of genetic distance were calculated from intercolonial bandsharing-coefficients. The population of C. floridanus is substructured (FST = 0.19 +/- 0.09) and the highest degree of genetic distance was found between one of the mainland populations and the island populations (D = 0.35). Our fingerprinting technique could successfully be transferred to 12 other Camponotus species and here also revealed sufficient variability to analyse the genetic structure. In three of these species (C. ligniperdus, C. herculeanus and C. gigas) we could determine the mating frequency of the queen in one or two colonies, respectively. PMID:8981768

  8. Population and colony structure of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

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    Gadau, J; Heinze, J; Hölldobler, B; Schmid, M

    1996-12-01

    The colony and population structure of the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, were investigated by multilocus DNA fingerprinting using simple repeat motifs as probes [e.g. (GATA)4]. The mating frequency of 15 queens was determined by comparing the fingerprint patterns of the queen and 17-33 of her progeny workers. C. floridanus queens are most probably singly mated, i.e. this species is monandrous and monogynous (one queen per colony). C. floridanus occurs in all counties of mainland Florida and also inhabits most of the Key islands in the southern part of Florida. We tested whether the two mainland populations and the island populations are genetically isolated. Wright's FST and Nei's D-value of genetic distance were calculated from intercolonial bandsharing-coefficients. The population of C. floridanus is substructured (FST = 0.19 +/- 0.09) and the highest degree of genetic distance was found between one of the mainland populations and the island populations (D = 0.35). Our fingerprinting technique could successfully be transferred to 12 other Camponotus species and here also revealed sufficient variability to analyse the genetic structure. In three of these species (C. ligniperdus, C. herculeanus and C. gigas) we could determine the mating frequency of the queen in one or two colonies, respectively.

  9. Social isolation and brain development in the ant Camponotus floridanus

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    Seid, Marc A.; Junge, Erich

    2016-06-01

    Social interactions play a key role in the healthy development of social animals and are most pronounced in species with complex social networks. When developing offspring do not receive proper social interaction, they show developmental impairments. This effect is well documented in mammalian species but controversial in social insects. It has been hypothesized that the enlargement of the mushroom bodies, responsible for learning and memory, observed in social insects is needed for maintaining the large social networks and/or task allocation. This study examines the impact of social isolation on the development of mushroom bodies of the ant Camponotus floridanus. Ants raised in isolation were shown to exhibit impairment in the growth of the mushroom bodies as well as behavioral differences when compared to ants raised in social groups. These results indicate that social interaction is necessary for the proper development of C. floridanus mushroom bodies.

  10. Sarcocystis sp. in the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus).

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    Cosgrove, M; Wiggins, J P; Rothenbacher, H

    1982-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was observed in 100 of 185 (54.1%) Eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) examined in Pennsylvania over a three year period. Gross and histologic examination commonly revealed cysts in skeletal muscle of the fore and hind legs, flanks and loins. Two rabbits had cysts in esophageal skeletal muscle. Host response to Sarcocystis sp. is described. Adult rabbits had a significantly greater rate of infection (69.3%) than juveniles (20.7%) (P less than 0.01). PMID:6808158

  11. Apuntes de José Antonio Valverde sobre predadores del hombre

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    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Apuntes sobre predadores del hombre, que el autor utilizó para elaborar su conferencia "L'Evolution Humaine Apercue Generale", impartida en el Musèe de l'Homme de París, y patrocinada por la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, el 21 de marzo de 1963.

  12. Two renal tumors in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus).

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    Carlton, W W; Dietz, J M

    1977-01-01

    Renal tumors were found in two cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) about 1 year old. One tumor was intimately associated with the kidney and consisted of isolated ductular and tubular structures within an abundant connective tissue stroma and was diagnosed as a hamartoma of urogenital origin. The second was composed of epithelial cells arrange as alveolar structures with papillary projections, epithelium that was less differentiated into tubules and ducts, and neoplastic epithelial cells in solid sheets. The diagnosis of renal adenocarcinoma was based on the histologic features as metastasis had not occurred. PMID:850992

  13. Probable herpesvirus infection in an eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus).

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    Schmidt, S P; Bates, G N; Lewandoski, P J

    1992-10-01

    One wild eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) from Milwaukee County, Wisconsin was necropsied. The lungs contained numerous multifocal, circumscribed, tan foci; the spleen was markedly enlarged and had a mottled reddish tan color; and the brain had a red to tan friable tract in the left hemisphere. Microscopically, the lung had a severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The bronchiolitis was characterized by epithelial cells containing eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The encephalomalacia of the left cerebral cortex featured tissue disruption and astrocytes or neurons containing intranuclear inclusion bodies. Herpesvirus particles were found within the bronchiolar epithelial cells. Based on histopathological and ultrastructural findings, a herpesvirus seemed the most likely etiologic agent. PMID:1335521

  14. Tissue localization of the endosymbiotic bacterium "Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus" in adults and larvae of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

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    Sauer, Christina; Dudaczek, Dieter; Hölldobler, Bert; Gross, Roy

    2002-09-01

    The distribution of endosymbiotic bacteria in different tissues of queens, males, and workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus was investigated by light and electron microscopy and by in situ hybridization. A large number of bacteria could be detected in bacteriocytes within the midguts of workers, young virgin queens, and males. Large amounts of bacteria were also found in the oocytes of workers and queens. In contrast, bacteria were not present in oocyte-associated cells or in the spermathecae of mature queens, although occasionally a small number of bacteria could be detected in the testis follicles of males. Interestingly, the number of bacteriocytes in mature queens was strongly reduced and the bacteriocytes contained only very few or no bacteria at all, although the endosymbionts were present in huge amounts in the ovaries of the same animals. During embryogenesis of the deposited egg, the bacteria were concentrated in a ring of endodermal tissue destined to become the midgut in later developmental stages. However, during larval development, bacteria could also be detected in other tissues although to a lesser extent. Only in the last-instar larvae were bacteria found exclusively in the midgut tissue within typical bacteriocytes. Tetracycline and rifampin efficiently cleansed C. floridanus workers of their symbionts and the bacteriocytes of these animals still remained empty several months after treatment had ceased. Despite the lack of their endosymbionts, these adult animals were able to survive without any obvious negative effect under normal cultivation conditions. PMID:12200264

  15. Tissue localization of the endosymbiotic bacterium "Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus" in adults and larvae of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

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    Sauer, Christina; Dudaczek, Dieter; Hölldobler, Bert; Gross, Roy

    2002-09-01

    The distribution of endosymbiotic bacteria in different tissues of queens, males, and workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus was investigated by light and electron microscopy and by in situ hybridization. A large number of bacteria could be detected in bacteriocytes within the midguts of workers, young virgin queens, and males. Large amounts of bacteria were also found in the oocytes of workers and queens. In contrast, bacteria were not present in oocyte-associated cells or in the spermathecae of mature queens, although occasionally a small number of bacteria could be detected in the testis follicles of males. Interestingly, the number of bacteriocytes in mature queens was strongly reduced and the bacteriocytes contained only very few or no bacteria at all, although the endosymbionts were present in huge amounts in the ovaries of the same animals. During embryogenesis of the deposited egg, the bacteria were concentrated in a ring of endodermal tissue destined to become the midgut in later developmental stages. However, during larval development, bacteria could also be detected in other tissues although to a lesser extent. Only in the last-instar larvae were bacteria found exclusively in the midgut tissue within typical bacteriocytes. Tetracycline and rifampin efficiently cleansed C. floridanus workers of their symbionts and the bacteriocytes of these animals still remained empty several months after treatment had ceased. Despite the lack of their endosymbionts, these adult animals were able to survive without any obvious negative effect under normal cultivation conditions.

  16. Genetic similarity among Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al (Acari: Stigmaeidae) found in citrus orchards in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matioli, André L; Pallini, Angelo; Tavares, Mara G

    2009-01-01

    Stigmaeidae are very important predators of mite and insect pests on several crops in Brazil. It is considered the second most important family of predatory mites in citrus orchards in Brazil. However, their identification, especially that of the members of the genus Agistemus, is rather difficult based only on morphology. Hence, this study describes the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) markers to determine the genetic similarity of an Agistemus pallinii Matioli et al population found in 2004 in a citrus orchard in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, preying on Panonychus citri (McGregor). Amplifi cations were performed with 12 random primers (OPAA8, OPAA19, OPAB1, OPAB5, OPAB18, OPAC9, OPAC17, OPAC19, OPAD10, OPAE9, OPAE12 and OPAE17), which generated 119 bands, with 53.8% polymorphism. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.68 to 0.99, indicating a high genetic similarity among them. The 3D projection analysis clustered the majority of individuals confirming their high similarity. Though individuals of A. pallinii are minute (+/- 360 microm long), the PCR-RAPD technique can still be used for their identification, complementing morphological analyses or for comparison of populations collected in different geographic regions. This is the first molecular study carried out with stigmaeid mites. PMID:19488517

  17. Eastern cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus) as carrier of dermatophyte fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, M G; Tizzani, P; Peano, A; Rambozzi, L; Meneguz, P G

    2005-09-01

    Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus, fam. Leporidae), introduced into Piedmont (Italy) in the 1960s, was studied as carrier of dermatophyte fungi. Of 216 hair samples collected from animals culled between September 1999 and July 2000 in the Province of Alessandria (Piedmont, Italy) during a pest control project, 57 (26.4%) yielded dermatophyte colonies. As two different species of dermatophytes grew from two samples, a total of 59 fungal isolates (26.5%) were obtained. Six dermatophyte species both geophilic (M. gypseum, M. cookei, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. terrestre) and zoophilic (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes) were identified. No sex-related differences were found but season-related differences were observed. The highest prevalence of dermatophyte-positive samples was recorded in May-September, due to the geophilic fungi whose prevalence decreased during colder and increased during warmer months (p < 0.001). The presence of zoophilic dermatophytes, T. mentagrophytes, commonly associated with rodents, small mammals and lagomorphs and M. canis, usually correlated with domestic environment, did not change the whole year round. As Eastern cottontail has been showed to be a carrier of dermatophytes transmissible to man (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum), it may represent a source of infection for gamekeepers, hunters and veterinarians. PMID:16170613

  18. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

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    Bruce Veronez; Mário Eidi Sato; Roberto Lomba Nicastro

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%); e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Anno...

  19. Ácaros predadores associados ao ácaro-da-erinose da lichia

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    Pedro Renan Ferreira Picoli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar ácaros predadores em plantas de lichia e correlacionar o desenvolvimento populacional dessas espécies com o do ácaro-da-erinose da lichia, Aceria litchii. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Município de Casa Branca, SP, com árvores adultas, de 12 anos de idade, da variedade Bengal. Mensalmente, de agosto de 2008 a setembro de 2009, foram coletadas folhas para avaliação dos níveis populacionais de A. litchii e de ácaros predadores. Foram registrados 6.557 indivíduos da família Phytoseiidae. A espécie mais abundante foi Amblyseius compositus (42,6%, seguida por Phytoseius intermedius (31,2%, Euseius concordis (14,1%, Amblyseius herbicolus (8,8% e Iphiseiodes zuluagai (3,3%. O desenvolvimento populacional de A. compositus, E. concordis e I. zuluagai correlacionou-se positivamente com o de Aceria litchii, o que indica relação de predação.

  20. Serologic evidence for rabbit syncytium virus in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, K W; McCloskey, C M; Scott, D P

    1993-07-01

    Thirteen of 20 eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) sera collected near Delaware, Ohio (USA) in 1991 were positive by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for antibody to rabbit syncytium virus (RSV), a Kemerovo serogroup orbivirus. In addition, two of 10 domestic bovine sera and three of 30 sheep sera collected in southeastern Ohio gave weak positive IFAT reactions to RSV. PMID:8394944

  1. Immune response of the ant Camponotus floridanus against pathogens and its obligate mutualistic endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzka, Carolin; Liang, Chunguang; Dandekar, Thomas; Gross, Roy; Feldhaar, Heike

    2011-08-01

    Numerous insect species harbor mutualistic endosymbionts that play a role in nutrient cycling or confer other fitness benefits to their hosts. Insect hosts face the problem of having to maintain such mutualistic bacteria while staging an immune response towards pathogens upon infection. In addition, hosts may regulate the number of endosymbionts present in their tissues via the innate immune system. Camponotus floridanus ants harbor the obligate endosymbiont Blochmannia floridanus in specialized midgut cells and ovaries. We identified genes transcriptionally induced in response to septic injury by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Among these were genes involved in pathogen recognition (e.g. GNBP), signal transduction (e.g. MAPK-kinase), antimicrobial activity (e.g. defensin and hymenoptaecin), or general stress response (e.g. heat shock protein). A quantitative analysis of immune-gene expression revealed different expression kinetics of individual factors and also characteristic expression profiles after injection of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Likewise, B. floridanus injected into the hemocoel elicited a comparable immune response of its host C. floridanus. Thus, the host immune system may contribute to controlling the endosymbiont population. PMID:21440063

  2. The genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus: Comparative analysis of reduced genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, R.; Silva, F.J.; Zientz, E.; Delmotte, F.; Gonzalez-Candelas, F.; Latorre, A.; Rausell, C.; Kamerbeek, J.; Gadau, J.; Hölldobler, B.; Ham, van R.C.H.J.; Gross, R.; Moya, A.

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial symbioses are widespread among insects, probably being one of the key factors of their evolutionary success. We present the complete genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the primary endosymbiont of carpenter ants. Although these ants feed on a complex diet, this symbiosis very likely

  3. The genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus: comparative analysis of reduced genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Rosario; Silva, Francisco J; Zientz, Evelyn; Delmotte, François; González-Candelas, Fernando; Latorre, Amparo; Rausell, Carolina; Kamerbeek, Judith; Gadau, Jürgen; Hölldobler, Bert; van Ham, Roeland C H J; Gross, Roy; Moya, Andrés

    2003-08-01

    Bacterial symbioses are widespread among insects, probably being one of the key factors of their evolutionary success. We present the complete genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the primary endosymbiont of carpenter ants. Although these ants feed on a complex diet, this symbiosis very likely has a nutritional basis: Blochmannia is able to supply nitrogen and sulfur compounds to the host while it takes advantage of the host metabolic machinery. Remarkably, these bacteria lack all known genes involved in replication initiation (dnaA, priA, and recA). The phylogenetic analysis of a set of conserved protein-coding genes shows that Bl. floridanus is phylogenetically related to Buchnera aphidicola and Wigglesworthia glossinidia, the other endosymbiotic bacteria whose complete genomes have been sequenced so far. Comparative analysis of the five known genomes from insect endosymbiotic bacteria reveals they share only 313 genes, a number that may be close to the minimum gene set necessary to sustain endosymbiotic life. PMID:12886019

  4. The genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus: Comparative analysis of reduced genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Rosario; Silva, Francisco J.; Zientz, Evelyn; Delmotte, François; González-Candelas, Fernando; Latorre, Amparo; Rausell, Carolina; Kamerbeek, Judith; Gadau, Jürgen; Hölldobler, Bert; van Ham, Roeland C. H. J.; Gross, Roy; Moya, Andrés

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial symbioses are widespread among insects, probably being one of the key factors of their evolutionary success. We present the complete genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the primary endosymbiont of carpenter ants. Although these ants feed on a complex diet, this symbiosis very likely has a nutritional basis: Blochmannia is able to supply nitrogen and sulfur compounds to the host while it takes advantage of the host metabolic machinery. Remarkably, these bacteria lack all known genes involved in replication initiation (dnaA, priA, and recA). The phylogenetic analysis of a set of conserved protein-coding genes shows that Bl. floridanus is phylogenetically related to Buchnera aphidicola and Wigglesworthia glossinidia, the other endosymbiotic bacteria whose complete genomes have been sequenced so far. Comparative analysis of the five known genomes from insect endosymbiotic bacteria reveals they share only 313 genes, a number that may be close to the minimum gene set necessary to sustain endosymbiotic life. PMID:12886019

  5. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  6. Analysis of and function predictions for previously conserved hypothetical or putative proteins in Blochmannia floridanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Andres

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest to better understand endosymbiont capabilities in insects both from an ecological point of view and for pest control. Blochmannia floridanus provides important nutrients for its host, the ant Camponotus, while the bacterium in return is provided with a niche to proliferate. Blochmannia floridanus proteins and metabolites are difficult to study due to its endosymbiontic life style; however, its complete genome sequence became recently available. Results Improved sequence analysis algorithms, databanks and gene and pathway context methods allowed us to reveal new information on various enzyme and pathways from the Blochmannia floridanus genome sequence [EMBL-ID BX248583]. Furthermore, these predictions are supported and linked to experimental data for instance from structural genomics projects (e.g. Bfl341, Bfl 499 or available biochemical data on proteins from other species which we show here to be related. We were able to assign a confirmed or at least a putative molecular function for 21 from 27 previously conserved hypothetical proteins. For 48 proteins of 66 with a previous putative assignment the function was further clarified. Several of these proteins occur in many proteobacteria and are found to be conserved even in the compact genome of this endosymbiont. To extend and re-test predictions and links to experimentally verified protein functions, functional clusters and interactions were assembled. These included septum initiation and cell division (Bfl165, Bfl303, Bfl248 et al.; translation; transport; the ubiquinone (Bfl547 et al., the inositol and nitrogen pathways. Conclusion Taken together, our data allow a better and more complete description of the pathway capabilities and life style of this typical endosymbiont.

  7. Eimeria azul sp. n. (protozoa: Eimeriidae) from the eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus, in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, J P; Rothenbacher, H

    1979-06-01

    Eimeria azul sp. n. is described from the cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus, in central Pennsylvania. The oval oocysts are 19.5--27.0 micrometer by 15.0--19.0 (mean - 22.9 X 16.7 micrometer). The fusiform sporocysts are 7.8--14.0 micrometer by 3.3--6.5 micrometer (mean = 11.8 X 5.8 micrometer). A Stieda Body is present. There is no micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule. The sporocyst has a residuum which is variable in appearance. The oocysts are characterized by a blue tint when viewed with an apochromatic objective lens. PMID:480068

  8. Gastrointestinal parasites of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) in central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, J P; Cosgrove, M; Rothenbacher, H

    1980-10-01

    During a 3 year period, 186 eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) were trapped from two areas and examined for helminth and protozoan parasites. Fecal samples from 139 were evaluated for coccidia and helminth ova. Nine species of coccictia were identified: Eimera audubonii, E. azul, E. environ, E. honessi, E. maior, E.minima, E. neoirresidua, E. neoleporis, and E. sylvilagi. Ova from 5 helminth species were found: Cittotaenia sp., Hastilesia tricolor, Passalurus sp., a trichostrongyle-type nematode species, and Trichuris sp. Five helminths were recovered from stomachs and small intestines: Cittotaenia sp. H. tricolor, Obeliscoides cuniculi,, Passalurus ambiguus, and Trichostrongylus calcaratus. PMID:7463607

  9. Brugia lepori sp. n. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) from rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus, S. floridanus) in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, M L

    1984-08-01

    Brugia lepori sp. n., a filarial nematode from the abdominal lymphatics and subcutaneous tissues of rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus, S. floridanus), from St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, is described. Brugia lepori is of moderate size (males 12 to 19 mm, females 39 to 45 mm) and within the genus most closely resembles Brugia beaveri of the raccoon, from which it can be distinguished by its larger size, smaller spicules, and smaller microfilaria which has a shorter cephalic space. Brugia lepori is only the second species of Brugia described from North America and the third species reported from the Western Hemisphere. PMID:6502360

  10. Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infection in invasive Eastern Cottontail Rabbits Sylvilagus floridanus in Northwestern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanet, S; Palese, V; Trisciuoglio, A; Cantón Alonso, C; Ferroglio, E

    2013-11-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus is a lagomorph introduced for hunting purposes from North America to Europe where, in certain areas like Northern Italy, its population reached high densities. Brain, kidney and skeletal muscle of 144 Eastern Cottontail Rabbits S. floridanus were examined by PCR for Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. DNA of E. cuniculi was found with a prevalence of 9.72% (CI 95% 0.058-0.156). T. gondii and N. caninum DNA was detected in 2.08% (CI 95% 0.0071-0.0595) and 2.78% (CI 95% 0.0109-0.0692) of the samples examined, respectively. This is the first report of E. cuniculi infection in a lagomorph species other than in its natural host Oryctolagus cuniculus, and this is also the first time N. caninum is found to naturally infect S. floridanus. E. cuniculi, T. gondii and N. caninum infect S. floridanus at low but relevant prevalences, considered the important role that these pathogens could play in both animal and human health. PMID:23747104

  11. Gene expression analysis of the endosymbiont-bearing midgut tissue during ontogeny of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzka, Carolin; Gross, Roy; Feldhaar, Heike

    2013-06-01

    Insects have frequently evolved mutualistic relationships with extracellular and/or intracellular bacterial endosymbionts. Infection with endosymbionts seems to affect several cellular functions of the host such as immune pathways, oxidative stress regulation and autophagy. Our current knowledge about specific host factors leading to endosymbiont tolerance and/or control is still scarce and is based on very few associations between insect hosts and bacteria only. Camponotus floridanus ants harbour the obligate intracellular bacterium Blochmannia floridanus within specialized midgut cells called bacteriocytes. The number of Blochmannia endosymbionts within the midgut tissue increases strongly during host development and reaches a maximum at the late pupal stage, where the entire midgut is transformed into a symbiotic organ. After eclosion of workers the number of Blochmannia strongly decreases again. We chose 15 candidate genes from C. floridanus likely to be involved in host-symbiont interactions based on their significant homology to previously investigated symbiosis-relevant genes from other insects. We determined the expression of these genes in the endosymbiont-bearing midgut tissue in comparison to the residual body tissue at different developmental stages of C. floridanus in order to reveal changes in gene expression correlating with changes in endosymbiont number per host. Strikingly, two pattern recognition receptors (amidase PGRP-LB and PGRP-SC2) were highly expressed in the midgut tissue at the pupal stage, potentially down-modulating the IMD pathway to enable endosymbiont tolerance. Moreover, we investigated the immune gene expression in response to bacterial challenge at the pupal stage. Results showed that the midgut tissue differs in expression pattern in contrast to the residual body. Our results support a key role for amidase PGRPs, especially PGRP-LB, in regulation of the immune response towards endosymbionts in C. floridanus and suggest an

  12. Gene expression analysis of the endosymbiont-bearing midgut tissue during ontogeny of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzka, Carolin; Gross, Roy; Feldhaar, Heike

    2013-06-01

    Insects have frequently evolved mutualistic relationships with extracellular and/or intracellular bacterial endosymbionts. Infection with endosymbionts seems to affect several cellular functions of the host such as immune pathways, oxidative stress regulation and autophagy. Our current knowledge about specific host factors leading to endosymbiont tolerance and/or control is still scarce and is based on very few associations between insect hosts and bacteria only. Camponotus floridanus ants harbour the obligate intracellular bacterium Blochmannia floridanus within specialized midgut cells called bacteriocytes. The number of Blochmannia endosymbionts within the midgut tissue increases strongly during host development and reaches a maximum at the late pupal stage, where the entire midgut is transformed into a symbiotic organ. After eclosion of workers the number of Blochmannia strongly decreases again. We chose 15 candidate genes from C. floridanus likely to be involved in host-symbiont interactions based on their significant homology to previously investigated symbiosis-relevant genes from other insects. We determined the expression of these genes in the endosymbiont-bearing midgut tissue in comparison to the residual body tissue at different developmental stages of C. floridanus in order to reveal changes in gene expression correlating with changes in endosymbiont number per host. Strikingly, two pattern recognition receptors (amidase PGRP-LB and PGRP-SC2) were highly expressed in the midgut tissue at the pupal stage, potentially down-modulating the IMD pathway to enable endosymbiont tolerance. Moreover, we investigated the immune gene expression in response to bacterial challenge at the pupal stage. Results showed that the midgut tissue differs in expression pattern in contrast to the residual body. Our results support a key role for amidase PGRPs, especially PGRP-LB, in regulation of the immune response towards endosymbionts in C. floridanus and suggest an

  13. Bacteriocyte dynamics during development of a holometabolous insect, the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraunholz Martin J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus harbors obligate intracellular mutualistic bacteria (Blochmannia floridanus in specialized cells, the bacteriocytes, intercalated in their midgut tissue. The diffuse distribution of bacteriocytes over the midgut tissue is in contrast to many other insects carrying endosymbionts in specialized tissues which are often connected to the midgut but form a distinct organ, the bacteriome. C. floridanus is a holometabolous insect which undergoes a complete metamorphosis. During pupal stages a complete restructuring of the inner organs including the digestive tract takes place. So far, nothing was known about maintenance of endosymbionts during this life stage of a holometabolous insect. It was shown previously that the number of Blochmannia increases strongly during metamorphosis. This implicates an important function of Blochmannia in this developmental phase during which the animals are metabolically very active but do not have access to external food resources. Previous experiments have shown a nutritional contribution of the bacteria to host metabolism by production of essential amino acids and urease-mediated nitrogen recycling. In adult hosts the symbiosis appears to degenerate with increasing age of the animals. Results We investigated the distribution and dynamics of endosymbiotic bacteria and bacteriocytes at different stages during development of the animals from larva to imago by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The number of bacteriocytes in relation to symbiont-free midgut cells varied strongly over different developmental stages. Especially during metamorphosis the relative number of bacteria-filled bacteriocytes increased strongly when the larval midgut epithelium is shed. During this developmental stage the midgut itself became a huge symbiotic organ consisting almost exclusively of cells harboring bacteria. In fact, during this phase some bacteria were also found in midgut

  14. Epigenetic (re)programming of caste-specific behavior in the ant Camponotus floridanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Cristina M.; Enzmann, Brittany L.; Desplan, Claude; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Bonasio, Roberto; Reinberg, Danny; Liebig, Jürgen; Berger, Shelley L.

    2016-01-01

    Eusocial insects organize themselves into behavioral castes whose regulation has been proposed to involve epigenetic processes, including histone modification. In the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, morphologically distinct worker castes called minors and majors exhibit pronounced differences in foraging and scouting behaviors. We found that these behaviors are regulated by histone acetylation likely catalyzed by the conserved acetyltransferase CBP. Transcriptome and chromatin analysis in brains of scouting minors fed pharmacological inhibitors of CBP and histone deacetylases (HDACs) revealed hundreds of genes linked to hyperacetylated regions targeted by CBP. Majors rarely forage, but injection of a HDAC inhibitor or small interfering RNAs against the HDAC Rpd3 into young major brains induced and sustained foraging in a CBP-dependent manner. Our results suggest that behavioral plasticity in animals may be regulated in an epigenetic manner via histone modification. PMID:26722000

  15. Epigenetic (re)programming of caste-specific behavior in the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, Daniel F; Graham, Riley J; Brady, Cristina M; Enzmann, Brittany L; Desplan, Claude; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Bonasio, Roberto; Reinberg, Danny; Liebig, Jürgen; Berger, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Eusocial insects organize themselves into behavioral castes whose regulation has been proposed to involve epigenetic processes, including histone modification. In the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, morphologically distinct worker castes called minors and majors exhibit pronounced differences in foraging and scouting behaviors. We found that these behaviors are regulated by histone acetylation likely catalyzed by the conserved acetyltransferase CBP. Transcriptome and chromatin analysis in brains of scouting minors fed pharmacological inhibitors of CBP and histone deacetylases (HDACs) revealed hundreds of genes linked to hyperacetylated regions targeted by CBP. Majors rarely forage, but injection of a HDAC inhibitor or small interfering RNAs against the HDAC Rpd3 into young major brains induced and sustained foraging in a CBP-dependent manner. Our results suggest that behavioral plasticity in animals may be regulated in an epigenetic manner via histone modification. PMID:26722000

  16. Endoparasites of selected populations of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, C L; Davidson, W R

    1980-07-01

    During the fall of 1966 and spring of 1967, 260 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were collected from 13 sites in 8 southeastern states and examined for endoparasites. In order of prevalence, the endoparasites found were: Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Taenia pisiformis (cysticerci), Raillietina salmoni, Eimeria spp., Longistriata noviberiae, Cittotaenia variabilis, Hasstilesia tricolor, Trichuris leporis, Dermatoxys veligera, Passalurus ambiguus, Dirofilaria scapiceps, Sarcocystis sp., Linguatula serrata, Nematodirus leporis, and Gongylonema pulchrum. Data are presented on prevalance and intensity of infection with each parasite along with information on geographic distribution. Cottontail rabbits in the southeastern United States show a higher level of parasitism than has been reported from other regions, although these higher parasite burdens were not necessarily associated with increased host morbidity. PMID:7411746

  17. Tyzzer's disease in free-living cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaway, J R; McReynolds, R S; Allen, A M

    1976-10-01

    Complement-fixing (CF) antibody to Bacillus piliformis antigen was found in 9 of 14 (64%) serum samples obtained from cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) killed in the wild. CF antibody was not present in the serum of 8 cottontail rabbits trapped as juveniles in the same geographic areas and held in captivity for 4 years. Sero-negative cottontail rabbits died acutely with lesions typical of Tyzzer's disease following the intragastric administration of 10(3.8) ELD50 of B. piliformis spores. The possible influence of Tyzzer's disease upon the cyclic population pattern of cottontail rabbits in the wild is discussed. A hypothesis is presented that B. piliformis spores passed in the feces of diseased wild animals could contaminate pastures, hay and grain, and thereby serve as sources of infection to other animals. PMID:16502694

  18. Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, H W; Reed, D E

    1979-09-01

    Experimental infection of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus caused acute keratoconjunctivitis and a fatal systemic infection. The clinical syndrome was characterized initially by blepharospasm and ocular discharge. The rabbits were markedly depressed on post-exposure day (PED) 5 and were dead or moribund on PED 6. The virus was readily recovered from liver and adrenal gland tissue on PED 6 and from conjunctival swabs on PED 1 to 6. Histopathologic studies revealed a few necrotic foci in the liver and multiple focal to diffuse necrosis of the adrenal glands. Viral isolation and immunofluorescence tests were used to demonstrate a direct association between infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral antigens and the lesions. PMID:230773

  19. Epigenetic (re)programming of caste-specific behavior in the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, Daniel F; Graham, Riley J; Brady, Cristina M; Enzmann, Brittany L; Desplan, Claude; Ray, Anandasankar; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Bonasio, Roberto; Reinberg, Danny; Liebig, Jürgen; Berger, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Eusocial insects organize themselves into behavioral castes whose regulation has been proposed to involve epigenetic processes, including histone modification. In the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, morphologically distinct worker castes called minors and majors exhibit pronounced differences in foraging and scouting behaviors. We found that these behaviors are regulated by histone acetylation likely catalyzed by the conserved acetyltransferase CBP. Transcriptome and chromatin analysis in brains of scouting minors fed pharmacological inhibitors of CBP and histone deacetylases (HDACs) revealed hundreds of genes linked to hyperacetylated regions targeted by CBP. Majors rarely forage, but injection of a HDAC inhibitor or small interfering RNAs against the HDAC Rpd3 into young major brains induced and sustained foraging in a CBP-dependent manner. Our results suggest that behavioral plasticity in animals may be regulated in an epigenetic manner via histone modification.

  20. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial peptide genes of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzka, Carolin; Förster, Frank; Liang, Chunguang; Kupper, Maria; Dandekar, Thomas; Feldhaar, Heike; Gross, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is a major defense mechanism against pathogen infestation and of particular importance for insects relying exclusively on an innate immune system. Here, we report on the characterization of three AMPs from the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. Due to sequence similarities and amino acid composition these peptides can be classified into the cysteine-rich (e.g. defensin) and glycine-rich (e.g. hymenoptaecin) AMP groups, respectively. The gene and cDNA sequences of these AMPs were established and their expression was shown to be induced by microbial challenge. We characterized two different defensin genes. The defensin-2 gene has a single intron, whereas the defensin-1 gene has two introns. The deduced amino acid sequence of the C. floridanus defensins is very similar to other known ant defensins with the exception of a short C-terminal extension of defensin-1. The hymenoptaecin gene has a single intron and a very peculiar domain structure. The corresponding precursor protein consists of a signal- and a pro-sequence followed by a hymenoptaecin-like domain and six directly repeated hymenoptaecin domains. Each of the hymenoptaecin domains is flanked by an EAEP-spacer sequence and a RR-site known to be a proteolytic processing site. Thus, proteolytic processing of the multipeptide precursor may generate several mature AMPs leading to an amplification of the immune response. Bioinformatical analyses revealed the presence of hymenoptaecin genes with similar multipeptide precursor structure in genomes of other ant species suggesting an evolutionary conserved important role of this gene in ant immunity. PMID:22912782

  1. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial peptide genes of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzka, Carolin; Förster, Frank; Liang, Chunguang; Kupper, Maria; Dandekar, Thomas; Feldhaar, Heike; Gross, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is a major defense mechanism against pathogen infestation and of particular importance for insects relying exclusively on an innate immune system. Here, we report on the characterization of three AMPs from the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. Due to sequence similarities and amino acid composition these peptides can be classified into the cysteine-rich (e.g. defensin) and glycine-rich (e.g. hymenoptaecin) AMP groups, respectively. The gene and cDNA sequences of these AMPs were established and their expression was shown to be induced by microbial challenge. We characterized two different defensin genes. The defensin-2 gene has a single intron, whereas the defensin-1 gene has two introns. The deduced amino acid sequence of the C. floridanus defensins is very similar to other known ant defensins with the exception of a short C-terminal extension of defensin-1. The hymenoptaecin gene has a single intron and a very peculiar domain structure. The corresponding precursor protein consists of a signal- and a pro-sequence followed by a hymenoptaecin-like domain and six directly repeated hymenoptaecin domains. Each of the hymenoptaecin domains is flanked by an EAEP-spacer sequence and a RR-site known to be a proteolytic processing site. Thus, proteolytic processing of the multipeptide precursor may generate several mature AMPs leading to an amplification of the immune response. Bioinformatical analyses revealed the presence of hymenoptaecin genes with similar multipeptide precursor structure in genomes of other ant species suggesting an evolutionary conserved important role of this gene in ant immunity.

  2. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial peptide genes of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Ratzka

    Full Text Available The production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs is a major defense mechanism against pathogen infestation and of particular importance for insects relying exclusively on an innate immune system. Here, we report on the characterization of three AMPs from the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. Due to sequence similarities and amino acid composition these peptides can be classified into the cysteine-rich (e.g. defensin and glycine-rich (e.g. hymenoptaecin AMP groups, respectively. The gene and cDNA sequences of these AMPs were established and their expression was shown to be induced by microbial challenge. We characterized two different defensin genes. The defensin-2 gene has a single intron, whereas the defensin-1 gene has two introns. The deduced amino acid sequence of the C. floridanus defensins is very similar to other known ant defensins with the exception of a short C-terminal extension of defensin-1. The hymenoptaecin gene has a single intron and a very peculiar domain structure. The corresponding precursor protein consists of a signal- and a pro-sequence followed by a hymenoptaecin-like domain and six directly repeated hymenoptaecin domains. Each of the hymenoptaecin domains is flanked by an EAEP-spacer sequence and a RR-site known to be a proteolytic processing site. Thus, proteolytic processing of the multipeptide precursor may generate several mature AMPs leading to an amplification of the immune response. Bioinformatical analyses revealed the presence of hymenoptaecin genes with similar multipeptide precursor structure in genomes of other ant species suggesting an evolutionary conserved important role of this gene in ant immunity.

  3. Diversidade de pulgões e de seus parasitóides e predadores na cultura da alfafa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENDES SIMONE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a diversidade de pulgões, seus predadores e parasitóides, e a influência de fatores climáticos nas suas populações. Foram realizadas coletas semanais no período de abril/1995 a março/1996, no campo de alfafa da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, em Lavras, MG. As espécies de pulgões coletadas foram Therioaphis trifolii (Monel f. maculata, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, A. kondoi Shinji e Aphis craccivora Kock, presentes na cultura durante todo o período de estudo, com picos populacionais em novembro/1995, julho/1995, dezembro/1995 e abril/1996, respectivamente. Foram amostrados insetos predadores das famílias Coccinellidae, Syrphidae, Anthocoridae, Geocoridae e Chrysopidae, tendo as duas últimas ocorrência esporádica. Espécies da família Coccinellidae ocorreram durante todo o período amostral, apresentando o pico populacional no final de dezembro/1995, com precipitação de 20 mm e temperatura de 22,6ºC. A família Syrphidae alcançou maiores números em abril, à precipitação de 53 mm e temperatura de 21ºC. A família Anthocoridae não se manteve por todo o período amostral, porém um pico populacional ocorreu no final de dezembro nas mesmas condições que aquele apresentado pela família Coccinellidae. Os parasitóides da família Aphididae alcançaram pico em junho/1995, à temperatura de 16ºC.

  4. A new species of Paraheligmonella (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae), parasite of Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae) from Costa Rica Una especie nueva de Paraheligmonella (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae), parásita de Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    María Celina Digiani; Ramón A. Carreño; Marie-Claude Durette-Desset

    2008-01-01

    Paraheligmonella lamothei n. sp. (Heligmonellidae: Heligmonellinae) is described from the small intestine of a cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen, 1890) (Leporidae), from Costa Rica. New morphological data on the synlophe and caudal bursa of Paraheligmonella romerolagi (Gibbons and Kumar, 1980), the most similar species, are also provided. The new species differs from P. romerolagi, parasitic of Romerolagus diazi (Ferrari-Pérez, 1893) from Mexico, mainly by the characters of the caudal ...

  5. In Vitro Cultivation of a Zoonotic Babesia sp. Isolated from Eastern Cottontail Rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts

    OpenAIRE

    Holman, Patricia J.; Spencer, Angela M.; Droleskey, Robert E.; Goethert, Heidi K; Telford, Samuel R.

    2005-01-01

    A Babesia sp. found in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, is the same organism that caused human babesiosis in Missouri and Kentucky, on the basis of morphology and identical small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences. Continuous cultures of the rabbit parasite were established from infected blood samples collected from two cottontail rabbits livetrapped on Nantucket Island. HL-1 medium or minimal essential medium alpha medium supplemented...

  6. Genome-wide and caste-specific DNA methylomes of the ants Camponotus floridanus and Harpegnathos saltator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonasio, Roberto; Li, Qiye; Lian, Jinmin;

    2012-01-01

    methyltransferases and their genomes contain methylcytosine. To determine the relationship between DNA methylation and phenotypic plasticity in ants, we obtained and compared the genome-wide methylomes of different castes and developmental stages of Camponotus floridanus and Harpegnathos saltator.......Ant societies comprise individuals belonging to different castes characterized by specialized morphologies and behaviors. Because ant embryos can follow different developmental trajectories, epigenetic mechanisms must play a role in caste determination. Ants have a full set of DNA...

  7. Relevance of the endosymbiosis of Blochmannia floridanus and carpenter ants at different stages of the life cycle of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientz, Evelyn; Beyaert, Ivo; Gross, Roy; Feldhaar, Heike

    2006-09-01

    Expression of several genes possibly involved in the symbiotic relationship between the obligate intracellular endosymbiont Blochmannia floridanus and its ant host Camponotus floridanus was investigated at different developmental stages of the host by real-time quantitative PCR. These included a set of genes related to nitrogen metabolism (ureC, ureF, glnA, and speB) as well as genes involved in the synthesis of the aromatic amino acid tyrosine (tyrA, aspC, and hisC). The overall transcriptional activity of Blochmannia was found to be quite low during early developmental stages and to increase steadily with host age. However, a concerted peak of gene expression related to nitrogen recycling could be detected around the entire process of pupation, while expression of biosynthesis pathways for aromatic amino acids was elevated only during a short phase in pupation. These data suggest an important role of certain metabolic functions for the symbiotic interactions of the bacteria and an individual host organism in early phases of development. General relevance of Blochmannia for its ant host was tested in fostering experiments with worker groups of Camponotus floridanus, and their success in raising pupae from first-instar larvae was used as a fitness measure. Groups treated with antibiotics had a significantly reduced success in raising the brood in comparison to untreated control groups, indicating that the symbiosis is relevant for the development of the entire colony. PMID:16957225

  8. Relevance of the endosymbiosis of Blochmannia floridanus and carpenter ants at different stages of the life cycle of the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientz, Evelyn; Beyaert, Ivo; Gross, Roy; Feldhaar, Heike

    2006-09-01

    Expression of several genes possibly involved in the symbiotic relationship between the obligate intracellular endosymbiont Blochmannia floridanus and its ant host Camponotus floridanus was investigated at different developmental stages of the host by real-time quantitative PCR. These included a set of genes related to nitrogen metabolism (ureC, ureF, glnA, and speB) as well as genes involved in the synthesis of the aromatic amino acid tyrosine (tyrA, aspC, and hisC). The overall transcriptional activity of Blochmannia was found to be quite low during early developmental stages and to increase steadily with host age. However, a concerted peak of gene expression related to nitrogen recycling could be detected around the entire process of pupation, while expression of biosynthesis pathways for aromatic amino acids was elevated only during a short phase in pupation. These data suggest an important role of certain metabolic functions for the symbiotic interactions of the bacteria and an individual host organism in early phases of development. General relevance of Blochmannia for its ant host was tested in fostering experiments with worker groups of Camponotus floridanus, and their success in raising pupae from first-instar larvae was used as a fitness measure. Groups treated with antibiotics had a significantly reduced success in raising the brood in comparison to untreated control groups, indicating that the symbiosis is relevant for the development of the entire colony.

  9. SELETIVIDADE DE CHLORFENAPYR E FENBUTATIN-OXIDE SOBRE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE ÁCAROS PREDADORES (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM CITROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIS PAULO REBELLES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o uso de bioensaios, verificaram-se os efeitos residual de contato, ovicida e de persistência dos produtos chlorfenapyr e fenbutatin-oxide sobre duas espécies de ácaros predadores, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma e Euseius alatus DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae, associados ao ácaro da leprose-dos-citros Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. O efeito total sobre os adultos foi estudado por meio do método residual de contato com pulverização em superfície de vidro, conforme metodologia da IOBC. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado por meio de pulverização direta sobre os ovos dos ácaros predadores, também em superfície de vidro. A persistência dos produtos foi avaliada em laboratório, em arenas confeccionadas com folhas de laranjeira pulverizadas no campo, aos 0; 5; 15 e 30 dias após a aplicação. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que chlorfenapyr foi nocivo ao I. zuluagai e E. alatus e o fenbutatin-oxide foi levemente nocivo a E. alatus e inócuo a I. zuluagai. Nenhum dos produtos apresentou efeito ovicida. Fenbutatin-oxide apresentou baixa persistência para ambas as espécies de ácaros predadores, e chlorfenapyr, na dosagem de 31,3 ml, foi de baixa persistência, enquanto, na dosagem de 62,5 ml, foi moderadamente persistente. O fenbutatin-oxide apresentou-se inócuo e levemente nocivo aos ácaros predadores I. zuluagai e E. alatus, respectivamente, e de baixa persistência para ambas as espécies

  10. A chromatin link to caste identity in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, Daniel F; Ye, Chaoyang; Mutti, Navdeep S; Dolezal, Kelly; Bonasio, Roberto; Liebig, Jürgen; Reinberg, Danny; Berger, Shelley L

    2013-03-01

    In many ant species, sibling larvae follow alternative ontogenetic trajectories that generate striking variation in morphology and behavior among adults. These organism-level outcomes are often determined by environmental rather than genetic factors. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms may mediate the expression of adult polyphenisms. We produced the first genome-wide maps of chromatin structure in a eusocial insect and found that gene-proximal changes in histone modifications, notably H3K27 acetylation, discriminate two female worker and male castes in Camponotus floridanus ants and partially explain differential gene expression between castes. Genes showing coordinated changes in H3K27ac and RNA implicate muscle development, neuronal regulation, and sensory responses in modulating caste identity. Binding sites of the acetyltransferase CBP harbor the greatest caste variation in H3K27ac, are enriched with motifs for conserved transcription factors, and show evolutionary expansion near developmental and neuronal genes. These results suggest that environmental effects on caste identity may be mediated by differential recruitment of CBP to chromatin. We propose that epigenetic mechanisms that modify chromatin structure may help orchestrate the generation and maintenance of polyphenic caste morphology and social behavior in ants. PMID:23212948

  11. A chromatin link to caste identity in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simola, Daniel F; Ye, Chaoyang; Mutti, Navdeep S; Dolezal, Kelly; Bonasio, Roberto; Liebig, Jürgen; Reinberg, Danny; Berger, Shelley L

    2013-03-01

    In many ant species, sibling larvae follow alternative ontogenetic trajectories that generate striking variation in morphology and behavior among adults. These organism-level outcomes are often determined by environmental rather than genetic factors. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms may mediate the expression of adult polyphenisms. We produced the first genome-wide maps of chromatin structure in a eusocial insect and found that gene-proximal changes in histone modifications, notably H3K27 acetylation, discriminate two female worker and male castes in Camponotus floridanus ants and partially explain differential gene expression between castes. Genes showing coordinated changes in H3K27ac and RNA implicate muscle development, neuronal regulation, and sensory responses in modulating caste identity. Binding sites of the acetyltransferase CBP harbor the greatest caste variation in H3K27ac, are enriched with motifs for conserved transcription factors, and show evolutionary expansion near developmental and neuronal genes. These results suggest that environmental effects on caste identity may be mediated by differential recruitment of CBP to chromatin. We propose that epigenetic mechanisms that modify chromatin structure may help orchestrate the generation and maintenance of polyphenic caste morphology and social behavior in ants.

  12. [Characterization of the behavioral and vibrational signals in Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) during courtship and copulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a neotropical species belonging to the family Pentatomidae with over 4 000 species described, and is distributed from Florida to Brazil. This study describes the sexual behavior and reported for the first time the production of substrate vibrations by males and females during copulatory behavior and mating. Courtship and copulatory behavior, as well as the diverse signals, were recorded with a phonographic cartridge connected to a video camera. Female vibrations were reproduced in the absence of females and the responses by males were recorded. At least three types of substrate vibrations were distinguished in males and one in females, and these signals were characterized by their low frequency, varying from 127 to 180Hz. The sounds of E. floridianus males were significantly different in frequency, duration and number of pulses, both in courtship and in copulation, for the purring and drumming sounds. The production of sounds in this species is associated principally with mechanical, stimulatory behavior during courtship and copulation. Patterns of behavior and their relation to substrate vibrations suggest that these signals are important for the males in the context of mate location and sexual selection. PMID:24912346

  13. The niches of Agistemus exsertus and its primary preys in the citrus ecosystem%橘园中重要天敌具瘤神蕊螨与其主要猎物的生态位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季洁; 张艳璇; 康玉妹; 陈霞; 林坚贞

    2006-01-01

    研究了柑橘园中具瘤神蕊螨(Agistemus exsertus)与其主要猎物柑橘皱叶刺瘿螨(Phyllocoptruta oleivora)、柑橘全爪螨(Panonychus citri)、柑橘粉虱(Dialeurodes citri)、黑刺粉虱(Aleurocanthus spiniferus)的生态位宽度、重叠和比例相似性.具瘤神蕊螨与其主要猎物相比,其时间和空间生态位宽度均最大,而其猎物中则以柑橘皱叶刺瘿螨的时间和空间生态位宽度最大,这表明具瘤神蕊螨和柑橘皱叶刺瘿螨的发生期较长,空间分布较广.具瘤神蕊螨与其猎物的生态位重叠在空间上与柑橘全爪螨的重叠值最大,在时间上与柑橘粉虱的重叠值最大.与其猎物相比,具瘤神蕊螨的时-空二维生态位宽度最大,在时空上占有明显的优势.

  14. Invasive species and their parasites: eastern cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus and Trichostrongylus affinis (Graybill, 1924) from Northwestern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzani, P; Catalano, S; Rossi, L; Duignan, P J; Meneguz, P G

    2014-04-01

    The eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus is a native American lagomorph. Within the genus Sylvilagus, the eastern cottontail is the species with the widest distribution. From 1950s, the species was introduced to several European countries. A rapid territorial expansion of the introduced eastern cottontails has been observed in many areas of Italy. The eastern cottontail has been demonstrated to play a main role as carrier of exotic parasites. To date, three nematode species, exotic in Italian ecosystems, have been reported from introduced S. floridanus. However, its parasite fauna biodiversity is richer in native populations of the American continent. The aim of this work was to further investigate the gastrointestinal parasites of S. floridanus, to evaluate the potential presence of other exotic species. During 2010, 101 hosts were examined, and three nematodes were collected from their digestive tract. Two parasite species (Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus) were already reported in Italy; the isolation of Trichostrongylus affinis is instead the first report of this nematode in Italy and in Europe as a whole. This study wants to highlight the great risks related to the introduction of allochthonous species. The impact of the invasion by alien animal species may be particularly severe for public and animal health, due to the potential introduction of new pathogens. The good number of exotic parasites found in introduced eastern cottontails, together with the few sanitary surveys carried out, suggests that an epidemiological survey, with specimens from multiple localities on a wider geographic range, could lead to interesting findings on parasites of native and alien lagomorphs in Europe. PMID:24481904

  15. Eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop West Nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Platt, Kenneth B; Tucker, Brad J; Rowley, Wayne A

    2005-01-01

    The potential of the eastern cottontail rabbit (CTR; Sylvilagus floridanus) to contribute to an enzootic West Nile virus (WNV) cycle was demonstrated by characterizing the WNV viremia profile of 15 CTRs and demonstrating that mosquitoes could become infected by feeding on these CTRs. Eight CTRs were infected with a titer of 10(5.0) cell-infectious dose 50% endpoints (CID50s) of WNV (NY99-Crow) by needle and seven CTRs by bite of one or more WNV-infected mosquitoes. There were no marked differences between the WNV viremia profiles of CTRs infected by either method. West Nile virus was detected in serums of all CTRs by 24 h p.i. The daily mean titers of all 15 CTRs on days 1-4 p.i. were 10(4.1+/-0.4), 10(4.7+/-0.3), 10(4.1+/-0.6), and 10(3.7+/-0.6) respectively, declining to 10(1.2+/-0.1) CID50s/ml of serum by day 6 p.i. No virus was detected in the blood of any CTR on day 7 p.i. The average duration of WNV titers of >or=10(4.3) and or=10(4.3) and >10(5.0) were 11.5 +/- 5.5 and 21 +/- 6.0%, respectively. These rates increased to 20.5 +/- 6.4% and 25.0 +/- 3.0% when CTR serum titers were >10(5.0) CID50s/mL. Neither Aedes aegypti (L.) nor Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were infected by feeding on CTRs with titers of 10(5.0) CID50s/ml. None of the CTRs infected by mosquito bite or by needle showed any symptoms of WNV disease. PMID:16417430

  16. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener; Adriane Fonseca Duarte; Milton Fernando Cabezas Guerrero; Uemerson Silva da Cunha; Dori Edson Nava

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L) e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L) sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se...

  17. Efeito de espécies vegetais em bordadura em cebola sobre a densidade populacional de tripes e sirfídeos predadores.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Paulo Antonio de Souza; Sousa e Silva Carlos Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Analisou-se a relação entre o efeito do plantio de diferentes espécies vegetais, em bordadura, na cultura da cebola, Allium cepa L, na incidência de Thrips tabaci Lind. e sirfídeos predadores, Toxomerus spp. O experimento foi conduzido na Epagri, EE de Ituporanga, de agosto a dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram cebola em monocultivo; cebola + trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); cebola + nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.); cebola + cenoura (Daucus carota L...

  18. SELECTIVITY OF INSECTICIDES TO PREDATORS OF PESTS COTTON PLANT SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS AOS PREDADORES DAS PRAGAS DO ALGODOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cezar Silveira Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The selectivity of insecticides for the complex of predators of the pests of cotton plant was evaluated in field experiment, in Goiânia- Goiás (Brazil, during the crop 1998/99. The experimental design was the randomized blocks with seven treatments and four repetitions (check, clorfluazuron, Bacillus thuringiensis, alanycarb, endosulfan and acephate in two amounts. The samplings were accomplished in beforeapplication, two days, seven and fourteen days after the treatment. For the obtained results (Henderson & Tilton, the products, in the decreasing order of selectivity, were: alanycarb, clorfluazuron, B. thuringiensis, endosulfan e acephate.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; insecticides; cotton plant; predators.

    A seletividade de inseticidas para o complexo das pragas do algodoeiro foi avaliada em experimento de campo, em Goiânia (GO, durante a safra 1998/99. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com sete tratamentos testemunha, clorfluazuron, B. thuringiensis, alanycarb, endosulfan e acephate em duas dosagens, em quatro repetições. As amostragens foram realizadas em pré-aplicação; aos dois, sete e quatorze dias após as pulverizações. Pelos resultados obtidos (fórmula de Herderson & Tilton, os produtos, na ordem decrescente de seletividade, foram: alanycarb, clorfluazuron, B. thuringiensis, endosulfan e acephate.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; inseticidas; algodão; predadores.

  19. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pessegueiro sobre ovos e pupas do predador Chrysoperla externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a seletividade de dezenove agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura do pessegueiro sobre ovos e pupas do predador Chrysoperla externa em condições laboratoriais (temperatura 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas. Os agrotóxicos foram pulverizados diretamente sobre ovos e pupas por meio de uma torre de Potter, utilizando a máxima dosagem recomendada para a cultura do pessegueiro. Foi avaliada a viabilidade de ovos e pupas, além da fecundidade e fertilidade de adultos emergidos de pupas tratadas. Os agrotóxicos foram classificados para ovos em função da redução na eclosão e, para pupas, em função do efeito total, conforme a escala de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC. A maioria dos agrotóxicos avaliados (8 inseticidas, 8 fungicidas e 2 herbicidas se mostrou inócua (classe 1 a ovos e pupas, com redução na eclosão de larvas e efeito total em pupas inferiores a 30%. A exceção se deu para o inseticida óleo mineral, que reduziu a eclosão de larvas em 69,55% quando pulverizado em ovos e proporcionou efeito total em pupas de 36,22%, sendo classificado como levemente nocivo (classe 2 a ovos e pupas de C. externa

  20. Evolution of chromosomal variation in cottontails, genus Sylvilagus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha): S. aquaticus, S. floridanus, and S. transitionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T J; Elder, F F; Chapman, J A

    1983-01-01

    The banding patterns of mitotic chromosome from three cottontail species, Sylvilagus aquaticus (2n = 38), S. floridanus (2n = 42), and S. transitionalis (2n = 46), are presented and compared with those of the proposed leporid ancestral karyotype, the latter being reflected in a species of hare, Lepus saxatilis (2n = 48). The differences in the diploid numbers of the cottontail species are primarily due to the fixation of Robertsonian fusions which have occurred during the evolution of their respective genomes. Of the eight fusion products identified, seven were species specific, while one, which is thought to reflect their more recent common ancestory, is shared by both S. aquaticus and S. floridanus. Other karyotypic differences include interspecific variation in the amount and distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, as well as the presence of two autosomal pairs in S. transitionalis which do not have apparent banding homologies either with the chromosomes of other cottontails or with those of the Lepus genome. The tendency for certain chromosomes in the ancestral karyotype to show a predisposition to undergo fusion events within the Leporidae is discussed. PMID:6861527

  1. Efeito de espécies vegetais em bordadura em cebola sobre a densidade populacional de tripes e sirfídeos predadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Paulo Antonio de Souza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a relação entre o efeito do plantio de diferentes espécies vegetais, em bordadura, na cultura da cebola, Allium cepa L, na incidência de Thrips tabaci Lind. e sirfídeos predadores, Toxomerus spp. O experimento foi conduzido na Epagri, EE de Ituporanga, de agosto a dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram cebola em monocultivo; cebola + trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench; cebola + nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg.; cebola + cenoura (Daucus carota L., cv. Nantes e cv. Brasília; cebola + milho (Zea mays L.; cebola + rúcula (Eruca sativa L. + vegetação espontânea. O plantio de diferentes espécies vegetais em bordadura não provocou diferenças significativas na incidência de tripes e sirfídeos predadores. A produtividade comercial de bulbos de cebola foi similar em sistema de monocultivo e diversificado, sugerindo ser possível adotar tais sistemas sem perdas em rendimento.

  2. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in response to eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) introduction (NW Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Balestrieri; Luigi Remonti; Claudio Prigioni

    2006-01-01

    Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115) in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989). Comparison included also the diet of badgers (...

  3. Densità di Lepre (Lepus europaeus) e Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus) in ambienti planiziali

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Bertolino; Perrone, A.; Laura Gola

    2003-01-01

    Il silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus) è un leporide d?origine nordamericana, introdotto in Italia a partire dal 1966 a scopo venatorio. Attualmente la specie è diffusa soprattutto in Piemonte e nella parte occidentale della Lombardia. Il silvilago potrebbe interferire con l?autoctona lepre comune (Lepus europaeus), anche se i dati al riguardo sono limitati. Nell?autunno-inverno 2002-2003 abbiamo condotto dei censimenti notturni con faro in alcune aree ...

  4. Plantas transgênicas resistentes a insetos e organismos não-alvo: predadores, parasitóides e polinizadores - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v4i1.23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Regina Frizzas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Plantas geneticamente modificadas resistentes aos insetos oferecem benefícios à agricultura moderna. No entanto, esta tecnologia pode afetar o controle biológico natural e a biodiversidade por meio de efeitos diretos e indiretos das plantas transgênicas sobre o valor adaptativo e comportamental de predadores, parasitóides, polinizadores e outros artrópodes não-alvo. Neste artigo, são discutidos os impactos ou os efeitos potenciais de plantas transgênicas resistentes a insetos sobre organismos não-alvo, com ênfase em artrópodes predadores, parasitóides e polinizadores, e os principais estudos com plantas transgênicas resistentes a insetos, publicados nos últimos dez anos.

  5. Insetos predadores em copas de Citrus deliciosa (Rutaceae sob manejo orgânico no sul do Brasil Predatory insects in canopies of Citrus deliciosa (Rutaceae under organic management in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana M. de Morais

    Full Text Available A fauna de insetos predadores em copas de Citrus deliciosa Tenore var. Montenegrina, em Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi avaliada quanto à sua composição, abundância e diversidade, entre março de 2004 e março de 2005. Foram coletados, no total, 658 insetos predadores, representados por 51 espécies de dez famílias e cinco ordens, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Thysanoptera e Hemiptera. As espécies mais abundantes foram Camponotus sp. 1 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae (16,87% e Coccidophilus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae (11,85%. A maior abundância, riqueza e eqüitabilidade de insetos predadores foi registrada na primavera, embora não tenha sido constatada diferença significativa entre as estações.The composition, abundance and diversity of predatory insects occurring on canopies of Citrus sinensis Tenore var. Montenegrina, in Montenegro, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied from March 2004 to March 2005. A total of 658 predaceous insects were collected, representing 51 species from ten families and five orders, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera. The most abundant species were Camponotus sp. 1 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae (16.87% and Coccidophilus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae (11.85%. The highest abundance, richness and evenness of predatory insects were recorded in spring, although no significant difference among seasons has been found.

  6. Reformation process of the neuronal template for nestmate-recognition cues in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2007-09-01

    Ants use cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC-profiles) as multicomponent recognition cues to identify colony members (nestmates). Recognition cues (label) are thought to be perceived during ant-ant encounters and compared to a neuronal template that represents the colony label. Over time, the CHC-profile may change, and the template is adjusted accordingly. A phenotype mismatch between label and template, as happens with CHC-profiles of foreign workers (non-nestmates), frequently leads to aggressive behavior. We investigated the template reformation in workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus by masking their antennae with postpharyngeal gland (PPG) extracts from nestmates or non-nestmates. The behavioral response of manipulated workers encountering unmanipulated workers was measured independently after 2 and after 15 h. After 2 h of incubation, workers treated with either of the two PPG-extracts showed low aggression towards nestmates and high aggression towards non-nestmates. In contrast, after 15 h of incubation, workers treated with non-nestmate PPG-extract showed low aggression towards both nestmates and non-nestmates. The slow (>2 h) adjustment of the template indicates a reformation localized in the central nervous system rather than in chemosensory neurons. In addition, our data show that template adjustment to a new CHC-profile does not impair the assessment of the old CHC-profile as nestmate label. PMID:17639411

  7. Caste- and sex-specific adaptations within the olfactory pathway in the brain of the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Christina; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Olfaction plays a key role in mediating ant behavior, and ant societies are characterized by caste- and sex-specific division of labor. We propose that caste- and sex-specific adaptations in the olfactory pathway promote differences in olfactory behavior. This study compares olfactory centers in the brain of large (major) workers, small (minor) workers, virgin queens, and males of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. The number of glomeruli in the antennal lobe was similar in the female castes, although the glomerular volumes differed. Males had approximately 45% fewer glomeruli compared to females (approximately 258 and approximately 434) and one antennal sensory tract was absent. A dual output pathway to the mushroom bodies was present in males. In contrast to females, however, the number of glomeruli connected to the medial antennocerebral tract was substantially smaller than those associated with the lateral tract. All glomeruli in the male antennal lobe contained serotonergic processes, whereas in the female castes glomeruli in the large tract six cluster lacked serotonergic innervations. We conclude that differences in general glomerular organization are subtle among the female castes, but sex-specific differences in the number, connectivity and neuromodulatory innervation of glomeruli are substantial and likely to underlie differences in olfactory processing and learning. PMID:18621145

  8. Richness, origin and structure of an Eimeria community in a population of Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) introduced into Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, S; Hofmannová, L; Girardello, M; Modry, D

    2010-07-01

    The composition and structure of a community of Eimeria was investigated in a population of Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) introduced into Italy. Eight Eimeria species were found, of which all but 1 had North American origins and were presumably introduced into Italy together with imported cottontails. The success of cottontails in spreading microparasites is probably related to their massive release for hunting purposes. Nearly all cottontails were infected with at least 1 Eimeria species, with bimonthly prevalence ranging from 0-6.3% (E. leporis) to 42.9-89.3% (E. environ). Bayesian model averaging and multivariate techniques were used to investigate the relationships between the occurrence of each parasite and the structure of the relative community. Among the host parameters, only sex was found to be associated with the prevalence of E. honessi, while the rest of the parameters were only weakly correlated with prevalence and species richness. This indicates that individual phenotypic host characteristics are probably less important than environmental factors in determining levels of parasite prevalence and diversity. The community of Eimeria species was probably structured by competition, with less species co-occurrence than expected under a null hypothesis. This was made evident by the low co-occurrence of E. environ and E. neoirresidua with E. poudrei, E. honessi, and E. maior. PMID:20233489

  9. In vitro cultivation of a zoonotic Babesia sp. isolated from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Patricia J; Spencer, Angela M; Droleskey, Robert E; Goethert, Heidi K; Telford, Samuel R

    2005-08-01

    A Babesia sp. found in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, is the same organism that caused human babesiosis in Missouri and Kentucky, on the basis of morphology and identical small-subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences. Continuous cultures of the rabbit parasite were established from infected blood samples collected from two cottontail rabbits livetrapped on Nantucket Island. HL-1 medium or minimal essential medium alpha medium supplemented with 20% human serum best supported in vitro propagation of the parasite in human or cottontail erythrocytes, respectively. Parasite growth was not sustained in domestic-rabbit erythrocytes or in medium supplemented with domestic-rabbit serum. The cultured parasites were morphologically indistinguishable from the Kentucky human isolate. Transmission electron microscopy revealed similar fine structures of the parasite regardless of the host erythrocyte utilized in the cultures. Two continuous lines of the zoonotic Babesia sp. were established and confirmed to share identical SSU rRNA gene sequences with each other and with the Missouri and Kentucky human Babesia isolates. PMID:16081941

  10. Daytime habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus and native european hare Lepus europaeus in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Sandro; Montezemolo, Nicola Cordero di; Perrone, Aurelio

    2011-06-01

    We used radiotelemetry to investigate resting sites habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and native European hare (Lepus europaeus) under sympatric conditions. We tracked 24 hares and 34 cottontails in a protected area of northwestern Italy. Hares were found in different sites every week, while cottontails used the same site for two weeks, and occasionally for longer. It is supposed that this periodic nest switching reduces the risk of predation and parasitism. Hares and cottontails forms were located in different habitats and characterized by dense vegetation cover near the ground. This cover increased from winter to summer in both species, while in autumn it continued to increase in cottontails only, and decreased in hares. Cottontails selected shrubby habitats near the river, and avoided crop fields in all seasons. Hares were more adaptive in their search, using high herbs and shrubs all year round, wheat fields in spring, maize in spring and summer, and stubbles in winter. Arguably, partial niche differentiation is necessary to allow the coexistence of similar species. In our study area, hares and cottontails differentiated in the use of resting sites habitats, presumably so as not to compete in this part of their ecological niche. PMID:21627451

  11. Evaluation of the eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus as an amplifying vertebrate host for Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae) in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Carina G M; Grimstad, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) as amplifying hosts for Cache Valley virus (CVV), we tested hunter-provided blood samples from northern Indiana for specific neutralizing (N) antibodies against this mosquito-borne bunya-virus. Samples were collected during the winter of 1994-95. Two seronegative eastern cottontails, captured in July 1995, were also infected with CVV by subcutaneous inoculation, and two others were infected by allowing CVV-infected mosquitoes to feed on them. The results indicate that eastern cottontails probably are not important amplifying hosts for CVV. The prevalence of N antibodies against CVV was low (6.0%, n=82) among the hunter-killed animals. Low viremia (<1.8 log10 plaque-forming units/ml) of short duration (1-3 days) were seen in three of four experimentally infected eastern cottontails. The viremias were insufficient for infecting Coquillettidia perturbans, a mosquito species commonly found naturally infected with CVV. PMID:18263839

  12. Bot fly myiasis of the cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus mallurus in Virginia with some biology of the parasite, Cuterebra buccata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, H A; McGinnes, B S; Catts, E P

    1978-01-01

    Twenty four percent of 2,643 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) collected in Virginia from 1949-1975 showed evidence of Cuterebra parasitism. Occurrence was seasonal with greatest prevalence from July to November. Some Oryctolagus cuniculus, S. palustris and one S. transitionalis also showed Cuterebra myiasis. Juvenile rabbits had higher infection rates (28%) than did adult rabbits 14.5%, P less than .001). Juveniles had greater numbers of larvae per host than adults, with means of 2.14 and 1.62, respectively. Larval development sites were in the genital region of most hosts. Twenty flies reared from wild cottontails were identified as C. buccata. Duration of induced infections in Oryctalagus was 30-33 days. Minimal generation time for C. buccata is concluded to be 11 weeks, allowing up to four generations of flies to occur annually in the southern and one generation to occur in the northern distributional limits of this bot fly. Peromyscus hosts were refractory to C. buccata infections. C. buccata fecundity averaged 1316 eggs. Field observations of adult flies are described. PMID:633518

  13. Daytime habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus and native european hare Lepus europaeus in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Sandro; Montezemolo, Nicola Cordero di; Perrone, Aurelio

    2011-06-01

    We used radiotelemetry to investigate resting sites habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and native European hare (Lepus europaeus) under sympatric conditions. We tracked 24 hares and 34 cottontails in a protected area of northwestern Italy. Hares were found in different sites every week, while cottontails used the same site for two weeks, and occasionally for longer. It is supposed that this periodic nest switching reduces the risk of predation and parasitism. Hares and cottontails forms were located in different habitats and characterized by dense vegetation cover near the ground. This cover increased from winter to summer in both species, while in autumn it continued to increase in cottontails only, and decreased in hares. Cottontails selected shrubby habitats near the river, and avoided crop fields in all seasons. Hares were more adaptive in their search, using high herbs and shrubs all year round, wheat fields in spring, maize in spring and summer, and stubbles in winter. Arguably, partial niche differentiation is necessary to allow the coexistence of similar species. In our study area, hares and cottontails differentiated in the use of resting sites habitats, presumably so as not to compete in this part of their ecological niche.

  14. Caste- and sex-specific adaptations within the olfactory pathway in the brain of the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Christina; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Olfaction plays a key role in mediating ant behavior, and ant societies are characterized by caste- and sex-specific division of labor. We propose that caste- and sex-specific adaptations in the olfactory pathway promote differences in olfactory behavior. This study compares olfactory centers in the brain of large (major) workers, small (minor) workers, virgin queens, and males of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. The number of glomeruli in the antennal lobe was similar in the female castes, although the glomerular volumes differed. Males had approximately 45% fewer glomeruli compared to females (approximately 258 and approximately 434) and one antennal sensory tract was absent. A dual output pathway to the mushroom bodies was present in males. In contrast to females, however, the number of glomeruli connected to the medial antennocerebral tract was substantially smaller than those associated with the lateral tract. All glomeruli in the male antennal lobe contained serotonergic processes, whereas in the female castes glomeruli in the large tract six cluster lacked serotonergic innervations. We conclude that differences in general glomerular organization are subtle among the female castes, but sex-specific differences in the number, connectivity and neuromodulatory innervation of glomeruli are substantial and likely to underlie differences in olfactory processing and learning.

  15. Reformation process of the neuronal template for nestmate-recognition cues in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2007-09-01

    Ants use cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC-profiles) as multicomponent recognition cues to identify colony members (nestmates). Recognition cues (label) are thought to be perceived during ant-ant encounters and compared to a neuronal template that represents the colony label. Over time, the CHC-profile may change, and the template is adjusted accordingly. A phenotype mismatch between label and template, as happens with CHC-profiles of foreign workers (non-nestmates), frequently leads to aggressive behavior. We investigated the template reformation in workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus by masking their antennae with postpharyngeal gland (PPG) extracts from nestmates or non-nestmates. The behavioral response of manipulated workers encountering unmanipulated workers was measured independently after 2 and after 15 h. After 2 h of incubation, workers treated with either of the two PPG-extracts showed low aggression towards nestmates and high aggression towards non-nestmates. In contrast, after 15 h of incubation, workers treated with non-nestmate PPG-extract showed low aggression towards both nestmates and non-nestmates. The slow (>2 h) adjustment of the template indicates a reformation localized in the central nervous system rather than in chemosensory neurons. In addition, our data show that template adjustment to a new CHC-profile does not impair the assessment of the old CHC-profile as nestmate label.

  16. Seletividade fisiológica de inseticidas a Vespidae predadores de Ascia monuste orseis Insecticide physiological selectivity to Vespidae predators of Ascia monuste orseis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Barreto Crespo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a seletividade dos inseticidas carbaril, deltametrina, paratiom metílico, permetrina e triclorfom em relação a Ascia monuste orseis (Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae e a seus predadores Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille e Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Por meio de curvas de concentração-mortalidade e das concentrações letais para 90% da população (CL90, calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial (ISD90, de toxicidade relativa, e de tolerância relativa (ITRe90. O paratiom metílico e triclorfom apresentaram seletividade em favor de B. lecheguana (ISD90 = 2,83 e 1,75 e P. sylveirae (ISD90 = 2,95 e 3,59 em relação a A. monuste orseis. Deltametrina e permetrina apresentaram seletividade em favor de P. sylveirae (ISD90 = 1,98 e 2,70 em relação a A. monuste orseis, mas não apresentaram seletividade em favor de B. lecheguana (ISD90 = 0,21 e 0,64. B. lecheguana foi menos tolerante a deltametrina, permetrina e triclorfom do que P. sylveirae (ITRe90 = 9,36, 4,23 e 2,05, e mais tolerante ao carbaril (ITRe90 = 0,14. Os predadores apresentaram tolerância semelhante ao paratiom metílico (ITRe90 = 1,04. As curvas de concentração-mortalidade do carbaril, permetrina e triclorfom em ambos os predadores, de deltametrina em B. lecheguana, e de paratiom metílico em P. sylveirae, apresentaram maiores inclinações do que as curvas em A. monuste orseis.This work aimed to study the selectivity of the insecticides carbaryl, deltamethrin, methyl parathion, permethrin and trichlorfon in relation to Ascia monuste orseis (Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae and to their predators Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille and Protonectarina sylveirae (Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Based on concentration-response curves and lethal concentrations for 90% of the population (LC90, the differential selectivity index (DSI90, relative toxicity index and relative tolerance index (ReTI90 were calculated

  17. Efeito de inseticidas em insetos predadores em culturas de algodão Effect of insecticides on predator insects associated with cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ JANDUI SOARES

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de inseticidas em insetos predadores em cultura de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L., instalaram-se, em 1993-1994, dois experimentos, um no campo, e outro, em laboratório. No experimento realizado no campo, os tratamentos foram: Fipronil 200 SC (75 g/ha de i.a.; Fipronil 800 WDG (64, 80 e 100 g/ha de i.a.; Endosulfan 350 CE (700 g/ha de i.a.; e testemunha. Em laboratório, além das formulações à base de Fipronil foi utilizado o Paration metílico 600 CE (480 g/ha de i.a.. Fipronil foi seletivo para os artrópodes predadores (Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis, Cycloneda sanguinea e Doru lineare no campo, e a Cycloneda sanguinea (L., em laboratório, e pode ser recomendado em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do algodoeiro para o controle de Alabama argillacea (Rueb., e Anthonomus grandis Boh. Endosulfan foi seletivo em relação a Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis Thomazini e Doru lineare (Eschs no campo, com uma redução dos insetos inferior a 30%, e o Paration metílico não foi seletivo para C. sanguinea em laboratório.To assess the selectivity of insecticides to predator insects in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. crops two, trials, 1993-1994, under field and laboratory conditions were conducted. Under field conditions, the following treatments were compared: Fipronil 200 CS (75 g/ha of a.i.; Fipronil 800 WDG (64, 80 and 100 g/ha of a.i.; Endosulfan 350 EC (700 g/ha of a.i.; and control. Under laboratory conditions, in addition to Friponil, Methyl parathion 600 EC 480 g/ha of a.i. was also tested. Fipronil was selective to predators (Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis, Cycloneda sanguinea and Doru lineare under field condition and to Cycloneda sanguinea (L. under laboratory conditions. This product can be used in integrated pest management programs in cotton crops to control Alabama argillacea (Rueb., and Anthonomus grandis Boh. Endosulfan was selective to Scymnus sp., Geocoris ventralis

  18. A new species of Paraheligmonella (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae, parasite of Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae from Costa Rica Una especie nueva de Paraheligmonella (Nematoda, Heligmonellidae, parásita de Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celina Digiani

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Paraheligmonella lamothei n. sp. (Heligmonellidae: Heligmonellinae is described from the small intestine of a cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen, 1890 (Leporidae, from Costa Rica. New morphological data on the synlophe and caudal bursa of Paraheligmonella romerolagi (Gibbons and Kumar, 1980, the most similar species, are also provided. The new species differs from P. romerolagi, parasitic of Romerolagus diazi (Ferrari-Pérez, 1893 from Mexico, mainly by the characters of the caudal bursa and the synlophe of the female within the posterior region of body. Males of P. lamothei n. sp. possess a caudal bursa not bell-shaped, with a pattern of type 2-2-1 for right lobe and 2-3 with a tendency to type 2-2-1 for left lobe, whereas males of P. romerolagi possess a bell-shaped caudal bursa, with a pattern of type 2-2-1 with a tendency to type 4-1 for both lobes. In P. lamothei n. sp. rays 3 are slightly longer than rays 2 and the genital cone is poorly developed, whereas in P. romerolagi rays 3 are much longer than rays 2 and the genital cone is large and bulbous. Females of P. lamothei n. sp. possess, at ovejector level, ventral and latero-ventral ridges hypertrophied and dorsal ridges reduced, whereas at the same level, females of P. romerolagi possess lateral ridges hypertrophied and dorsal and ventral ridges reduced. Additionally, hypertrophied cuticular ridges posterior to the vulva are present in P. lamothei n. sp., but absent in P. romerolagi.Se describe Paraheligmonella lamothei n. sp., parásita del intestino delgado de Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen, 1890 (Leporidae de Costa Rica. Se aportan además datos nuevos morfológicos sobre el synlophe y la bolsa caudal de Paraheligmonella romerolagi (Gibbons y Kumar, 1980, la especie morfológicamente más parecida. La especie nueva se diferencia de P. romerolagi, parásita de Romerolagus diazi (Ferrari-Pérez, 1893 de México, principalmente por caracteres de la bursa caudal y el synlophe de la

  19. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.

  20. Organization of the olfactory pathway and odor processing in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Christina; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes; Kirschner, Sebastian; Neef, Jakob; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2008-01-20

    Ants rely heavily on olfaction for communication and orientation. Here we provide the first detailed structure-function analyses within an ant's central olfactory system asking whether in the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, the olfactory pathway exhibits adaptations to processing many pheromonal and general odors. Using fluorescent tracing, confocal microscopy, and 3D-analyses we demonstrate that the antennal lobe (AL) contains up to approximately 460 olfactory glomeruli organized in seven distinct clusters innervated via seven antennal sensory tracts. The AL is divided into two hemispheres regarding innervation of glomeruli by either projection neurons (PNs) with axons leaving via the medial (m) or lateral (l) antennocerebral tract (ACT). M- and l-ACT PNs differ in their target areas in the mushroom-body calyx and lateral horn. Three additional ACTs project to the lateral protocerebrum only. We analyzed odor processing in AL glomeruli by retrograde loading of PNs with Fura-2 dextran and fluorimetric calcium imaging. Odor responses were reproducible and comparable across individuals. Calcium responses to pheromonal and nonpheromonal odors were very sensitive (10(-11) dilution) and patterns were partly overlapping, indicating that processing of both odor classes is not spatially segregated within the AL. Response patterns to the main trail-pheromone component nerolic acid remained stable over a wide range of intensities (7-8 log units), while response durations increased indicating that odor quality is maintained by a stable pattern and intensity is mainly encoded in response durations. The structure-function analyses contribute new insights into important aspects of odor processing in a highly advanced insect olfactory system. PMID:18041786

  1. Organization of the olfactory pathway and odor processing in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Christina; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes; Kirschner, Sebastian; Neef, Jakob; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2008-01-20

    Ants rely heavily on olfaction for communication and orientation. Here we provide the first detailed structure-function analyses within an ant's central olfactory system asking whether in the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, the olfactory pathway exhibits adaptations to processing many pheromonal and general odors. Using fluorescent tracing, confocal microscopy, and 3D-analyses we demonstrate that the antennal lobe (AL) contains up to approximately 460 olfactory glomeruli organized in seven distinct clusters innervated via seven antennal sensory tracts. The AL is divided into two hemispheres regarding innervation of glomeruli by either projection neurons (PNs) with axons leaving via the medial (m) or lateral (l) antennocerebral tract (ACT). M- and l-ACT PNs differ in their target areas in the mushroom-body calyx and lateral horn. Three additional ACTs project to the lateral protocerebrum only. We analyzed odor processing in AL glomeruli by retrograde loading of PNs with Fura-2 dextran and fluorimetric calcium imaging. Odor responses were reproducible and comparable across individuals. Calcium responses to pheromonal and nonpheromonal odors were very sensitive (10(-11) dilution) and patterns were partly overlapping, indicating that processing of both odor classes is not spatially segregated within the AL. Response patterns to the main trail-pheromone component nerolic acid remained stable over a wide range of intensities (7-8 log units), while response durations increased indicating that odor quality is maintained by a stable pattern and intensity is mainly encoded in response durations. The structure-function analyses contribute new insights into important aspects of odor processing in a highly advanced insect olfactory system.

  2. Toxicidade de natuneem sobre Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) e ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae Toxicity of the natuneem over the Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and mites predators from the family Phytoseiidae

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda Maria Brito; Manoel Guedes Corrêa Gondim Junior; José Vargas de Oliveira; Cláudio Augusto Gomes da Câmara

    2006-01-01

    A toxicidade de diferentes concentrações de Natuneem a Tetranychus urticae Koch e a dois ácaros predadores, Euseius alatus De Leon e Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks), foi estudada. Foi avaliada a toxicidade sobre ovos, e o efeito residual e repelente, sobre adultos. O tratamento dos ovos consistiu na imersão em diluições de Natuneem por cinco segundos, e o efeito residual e repelente sobre adultos consistiu na imersão de discos de folhas de Canavalia ensiformes (L.) DC. também em diluições por...

  3. Toxicidade de natuneem sobre Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae Toxicity of the natuneem over the Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and mites predators from the family Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Maria Brito

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade de diferentes concentrações de Natuneem a Tetranychus urticae Koch e a dois ácaros predadores, Euseius alatus De Leon e Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, foi estudada. Foi avaliada a toxicidade sobre ovos, e o efeito residual e repelente, sobre adultos. O tratamento dos ovos consistiu na imersão em diluições de Natuneem por cinco segundos, e o efeito residual e repelente sobre adultos consistiu na imersão de discos de folhas de Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC. também em diluições por cinco segundos. Natuneem foi repelente para T. urticae e E. alatus, quando testado nas concentrações de 0,25; 0,50 e 1,00%, e exibiu efeito neutro para P. macropilis. A toxicidade de Natuneem a ovos e adultos foi maior para T. urticae comparada à toxicidade observada para os ácaros predadores. A fecundidade de T. urticae foi reduzida significativamente por Natuneem em todas as concentrações, enquanto para os ácaros predadores a redução foi significante apenas nas maiores concentrações. Natuneem, nas concentrações testadas, apresentou melhor ação sobre o ácaro-rajado e menor impacto para os ácaros predadores.The toxicity of the Natuneem at different concentrations for both Tetranychus urticae Koch and two predatory mites Euseius alatus De Leon and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks were studied. The toxicity on eggs, and the residual and repellent effects on adults was evaluated. Egg treatment consisted on dipping eggs into Natuneem dilutions for five seconds; and residual and repellent effects for adults consisted on dipping leaf discs of Canavalia ensiformes (L. DC. into the dilutions for five seconds. Natuneem was repellent for T. urticae and E. alatus at the concentrations 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0%, and exhibited neutral effect on P. macropilis. The toxicity of Natuneem on eggs and adults was greater for T. urticae compared to the toxicity on predatory mites. The fecundity of T. urticae was reduced significantly by Natuneem in all

  4. Ácaros predadores e o fungo Neozygites floridana associados a tetraniquídeos em soja no Rio Grande do Sul Predatory mites and the fungus Neozygites floridana associated with spider mites on soybean, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Roggia; Jerson Vanderei Carús Guedes; Rejane Cristina Roppa Kuss Roggia; Geraldo José Nascimento de Vasconcelos; Denise Navia; Italo Delalibera Junior

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de ácaros predadores e do fungo Neozygites floridana, associados a ácaros tetraniquídeos, em soja (Glycine max L.), no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Entre 2003 e 2005, foram avaliadas amostras de folhas de soja das principais regiões produtoras do Estado. Essas amostras foram coletadas de diferentes posições da planta e aleatoriamente na lavoura. As espécies de ácaros predadores encontradas foram: Neoseiulus anonymus, N. californicus, Phytos...

  5. Ácaros predadores (Acari em plantas nativas e cultivadas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Predators mites (Acari in native and cultivated plants of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in twenty counties of the following regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul: Plain, Central Depression, Plateau and Coast Plain to find out the diversity of mite predators in these places. Forty-six vegetable species were sampled, thirty species of miles of the families Anystidae, Ascidae, Cheyletidae, Cunaxidae, Phyloseiidae and Stigmaeidae were mel. The Phytoseiidae were the mite that presented the greatest diversity, being present in the majority of the sample plants. Most of the Phytoseiidae that were met belong to five species of the Euseius Wainstein, 1962 genus, the second genus of this family was Iphiseiodes DeLeon, 1966, with just one species. The Stigmaeidae come up as second family in number but fewer than Phytoseiidae. In this family, the most common mite belong to the Agistemus Sumers, 1960 genus. The biggest of the mites species (13 species, was met in Morus spp. (Moraceae and Tabebuia spp. (Bignoniaceae; Phaseolus vulgaris (Papilionaceae; only one species of the mite was met in Campomanesia spp. (Myrtaceae, Phaseolus vulgaris (Papilionaceae and Rosa spp. (Rosaceae. In Alamanda spp.(Apocinaceae, Ficus spp. (Moraceae, Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae and Solanum spp. (Solanaceae were met mites predators. A dichotomic key is presented to separate the families, genus and species of the mites.

  6. A new heligmonellid (Nematoda) from Sylvilagus floridanus (Leporidae) in Costa Rica, with some comments on species of Paraheligmonella Durette-Desset, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiani, María Celina; Carreño, Ramón A; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude

    2009-06-01

    Paraheligmonella kinsellai n. sp. (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae: Heligmonellinae) is described from the small intestine of a cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen, 1890) (Leporidae) from Costa Rica. The new species is similar to P. romerolagi (Gibbons and Kumar, 1980), parasitic in Romerolagus diazi from Mexico and to P. lamothei Digiani, Carreño, and Durette-Desset, 2008, parasitic in Sylvilagus floridanus from Costa Rica, by the characters of the synlophe at mid-body, i.e., 14 cuticular ridges and a single axis of orientation inclined at 30 degrees to the sagittal axis in both sexes. The males of the new species are distinguished from those of P. romerolagi by a caudal bursa that is not bell-shaped, a bursal pattern of type 2-3 with a tendency to 2-2-1, and a genital cone that is not hypertrophied. They are also distinguished from the males of P. lamothei by having the same bursal pattern in both lobes (in P. lamothei the pattern is 2-2-1 on the right lobe and 2-3, with a tendency to 2-2-1, on the left lobe), rays 3 are much longer than rays 2, rays 2 and 3 diverging more proximally, and rays 8 are longer than the dorsal ray. The females of the new species also differ from those of P. lamothei by the shape of the posterior extremity (long and strongly curved vs. short and nearly straight) and by the synlophe at the ovejector level (ridge no. 1' hypertrophied and remaining ridges reduced vs. ventral ridges hypertrophied and dorso-lateral ridges reduced). PMID:19071967

  7. Field and experimental data indicate that the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is susceptible to infection with European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) virus and not with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lavazza, A.; P. Cavadini; I. Barbieri; P. Tizzani; A.C. Pinheiro; Abrantes, J.; Esteves, P.J.; G. Grilli; E. Gioia; Zanoni, M.; P. Meneguz; Guitton, J.; S. Merchandeau; M. Chiari; Capucci, L

    2015-01-01

    International audience The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is an American lagomorph. In 1966, it was introduced to Italy, where it is currently widespread. Its ecological niche is similar to those of native rabbits and hares and increasing overlap in distribution brings these species into ever closer contact. Therefore, cottontails are at risk of infection with the two lagoviruses endemically present in Italy: Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus (RHDV) and European Brown Hare Synd...

  8. SELECTIVITY OF PESTICIDES OVER PREDATORS OF COTTON PLANT PESTS SELETIVIDADE DE INSETICIDAS SOBRE O COMPLEXO DE PREDADORES DAS PRAGAS DO ALGODOEIRO

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    Izidro dos Santos de Lima Júnior

    2010-08-01

    similar to the control, until 8 days after spraying. Among the pesticides evaluated, only Flonicamid 500 WG was considered selective, according to the IOBC classification, because it showed the lowest mortality percentage for the complex of predators identified.

    KEY-WORDS: Gossypium hirsutum L.; insecta; pesticides; cotton plant; predators.

    O algodoeiro é hospedeiro de um complexo de pragas, que podem ocasionar danos às estruturas das plantas. Para o desenvolvimento sustentado, neste agroecossistema, há necessidade da implementação do Manejo Integrado das Pragas (MIP. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a seletividade de inseticidas aos predadores das pragas do algodoeiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram aplicados aos 84 dias após a emergência. As amostragens foram feitas através do método de batida de pano, com cinco batidas ao acaso, por parcela

  9. Toxoplasmosis Silvestre: relación presa-predador y papel funcional de pequeños felinos silvestres neotropicales en la transmisión -resumen-

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    William A Cañón-Franco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pequeños felinos neotropicales se ubican en el tope de la cadena alimenticia y‚ aunque críticamente amenazados‚ ocho especies de felinos son relativamente abundantes en el continente americano‚ sin embargo‚ pocos estudios biológicos sobre la circulación de agentes infecciosos han sido realizados. Para determinar el papel epidemiológico que cumplen las poblaciones de felinos silvestres en la transmisión de la Toxoplasmosis en la región sur de Brasil (estado de Rio Grande do Sul‚ fue determinada la frecuencia molecular de Toxoplasma gondii. La amplificación del marcador ITS1 fue posible en 31 de los 90 felinos analizados (34‚4%‚ de las especies Puma yagouaroundi (9/22‚ Leopardus geoffroyi (6/22‚ Leopardus tigrinus (8/28‚ Leopardus wiedii (6/10‚ Leopardus pardalis (1/1 y Leopardus colocolo (1/7. Dos nuevos genotipos de T. gondii fueron caracterizados por PCR-RFLP (Lw#31Tn - Py#21Sm y el genotipo Py#56Br previamente descrito en gatos domésticos‚ perros y chigüiros del Brasil. Adicionalmente‚ fue parcialmente caracterizado el genotipo I (Py#36Sm‚ evidenciando la circulación ambiental y su posible relación en la presentación de toxoplasmosis ocular en humanos. Los resultados demuestran que pequeños felinos silvestres tienen un papel importante en la transmisión de la toxoplasmosis en la interfase animales domésticos-silvestres‚ por lo que no se descarta la posible hibridación con genotipos urbanos. La carnivoría y las relaciones presa-predador son fundamentales en la transmisión horizontal de Toxoplasma. Aunque existan variaciones biogeográficas y estacionales en la dieta de los felinos silvestres‚ aproximadamente 40% a 80%‚ corresponde a pequeños mamíferos no voladores (marsupiales y roedores. El estudio de la dinámica de transmisión en diferentes niveles tróficos es de gran interés para la comprensión ecológica del ciclo silvestre de este parásito. Esta propuesta se fundamenta en evaluar

  10. Local feeding specialization of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes in response to eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus introduction (NW Italy

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    Alessandro Balestrieri

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To appreciate the influence of the introduction of the Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus on the food habits of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, between June 1998 and February 2000 fox diet was investigated by means of scat analysis (N=115 in a 250 ha wide Natural Reserve of NW Italy, and compared with data collected in the same area prior to cottontail colonization (1988-1989. Comparison included also the diet of badgers (Meles meles, considered as potential competitors for food resources. Alien lagomorphs (mean percent volume, Vm% = 68% represented by far the most exploited resource, only three other food items reaching values of mean percent volume barely higher than 5%. Cottontails frequency of occurrence did not vary according either to season or to their reproductive cycle (II-IX vs. X-I, whilst diet niche breadth varied inversely proportional to the use of this key-resource. Overall fox trophic niche breadth varied from 0.64 in 1988-89 to 0.31 in 1998-00 (B, Levin’s index. These findings led us to consider the feeding habits of the fox in the study area as a result of local specialization of a typical generalist carnivore, according to the predictions of optimal foraging theory. No variation occurred in the badger niche breadth since cottontail introduction, whilst niche overlap between foxes and badgers decreased from 0.59 to 0.13 (O, Pianka’s index, possibly reducing competition for food in summer. Riassunto Specializzazione alimentare a livello locale della Volpe Vulpes vulpes in risposta all’introduzione del Silvilago Sylvilagus floridanus (Italia nord occidentale. Per valutare gli effetti dell’introduzione del Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus sul comportamento alimentare della volpe (Vulpes vulpes, nel periodo giugno 1998-febbraio 2000, la dieta del carnivoro è stata definita tramite l’analisi di 115

  11. REFERENCE AND BASELINE HEMATOCRIT MEASURES FOR THE THREATENED NEW ENGLAND COTTONTAIL (SYLVILAGUS TRANSITIONALIS) AND COMPARISON WITH SYMPATRIC EASTERN COTTONTAIL (SYLVILAGUS FLORIDANUS) RABBITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S J; Gavard, E J; Cheeseman, A E; Cohen, J B; Whipps, C M

    2016-06-01

    From June 2014 to June 2015, capillary tube collections of blood were obtained concurrently with ear clips of trapped free-ranging, globally vulnerable New England cottontails (NEC; Sylvilagus transitionalis) and eastern cottontail rabbits (EC; Sylvilagus floridanus) in the Hudson Valley region of New York, United States. Species identification (NEC, EC) and sex (NEC) were determined genetically using a mitochondrial DNA assay and Y chromosome marker, respectively. Hematocrit values were obtained using a microhematocrit centrifuge. We provide the reference values 35.15-49.55 (2.5 and 97.5 percentiles) and 90% confidence intervals (CI) [lower: 33.00, 36.08; upper: 46.95, 51.00], for hematocrit of NEC. The mean hematocrit for NEC was 42.35% (SE = 0.58, n = 47) and a comparative contemporaneous mean in the same area for EC [39.96 (SE = 0.81, n = 26)], which was significantly different from NEC (P = 0.02). There was a significant sex difference for NEC [male: 43.99 (SE = 1.02, n = 28); female: 39.92 (SE = 0.78, n = 19), P < 0.0001], though not for EC. PMID:27468046

  12. In vitro host erythrocyte specificity and differential morphology of Babesia divergens and a zoonotic Babesia sp. from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Angela M; Goethert, Heidi K; Telford, Samuel R; Holman, Patricia J

    2006-04-01

    A Babesia sp. isolated from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) is morphologically similar and genetically identical, based on SSU rRNA gene comparisons, to 2 agents responsible for human babesiosis in the United States. This zoonotic agent is closely related to the European parasite, Babesia divergens. The 2 organisms were characterized by in vitro comparisons. In vitro growth of the rabbit Babesia sp. was supported in human and cottontail rabbit erythrocytes, but not in bovine cells. Babesia divergens was supported in vitro in bovine and human erythrocytes, but not in cottontail rabbit cells. Morphometric analysis classifies B. divergens as a small babesia in bovine erythrocytes, but the parasite exceeds this size in human erythrocytes. The rabbit Babesia sp. is large, the same size in both human or rabbit erythrocytes, and is significantly larger than B. divergens. Eight or more rabbit Babesia sp. parasites may occur within a single erythrocyte, sometimes in a floret array, unlike B. divergens. The erythrocyte specificity and morphological differences reported in this study agree with previous in vivo results and validate the use of in vitro methods for characterization of Babesia species. PMID:16729690

  13. DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF PREDACEOUS ARTHROPODS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT COTTON CULTIVARS DIVERSIDADE E ABUNDÂNCIA DE ARTRÓPODES PREDADORES ASSOCIADOS A DIFERENTES CULTIVARES DE ALGODOEIRO

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    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2010-10-01

    -style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="JUSTIFY">Com o objetivo de estudar a abundância e a diversidade de artrópodes predadores associados à cultura do algodoeiro e analisar a influência de fatores meteorológicos, interações entre inimigos naturais e a dinâmica populacional de coccinelídeos associados à sua principal presa, o pulgão Aphis gossypii, um experimento foi realizado na região de Ipameri (GO, no Campus da Universidade Estadual de Goiás. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos, constituídos pelas cultivares DeltaOPAL, FMX 966, FMX 993, FMX 910 e NuOPAL, em quatro repetições. Dentre os artrópodes observados na cultura do algodoeiro, os coccinelídeos e as aranhas foram os mais abundantes, nas cultivares avaliadas. As aranhas ocorreram em todo o ciclo do algodoeiro. Já os coccinelídeos aumentaram sua população, gradativamente, até 55 DAE, apresentando pico populacional aos 34 DAE, coincidindo com o pico populacional dos pulgões A. gossypii. Dentre os coccinelídeos observados nas cultivares em estudo, verificou-se que Scymnus spp. foi o gênero mais abundante no algodoeiro. Os pentatomídeos e forficulídeos predominaram dos 99 aos 128 dias após a emergência do algodão, período que corresponde à maior densidade de pragas-alvo destes insetos. Verificou-se que não houve influência dos fatores meteorológicos e nem interaçã

  14. Toxicidade letal e subletal do nim sobre o pulgão-verde e seu predador Eriopis connexa Lethal and sublethal toxicity of neem on green peach aphid and on its predator Eriopis connexa

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    Madelaine Venzon

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em laboratório, os efeitos do extrato de semente de nim sobre uma praga da pimenteira, o pulgão-verde Myzus persicae (Sulzer, e seu predador Eriopis connexa (Germar. Folhas de pimenteira foram imersas em solução aquosa de extrato de semente de nim (1% de azadiractina a 0,5%, 1%, em acefato (0,75 g L-1 e em água. Fêmeas do pulgão foram transferidas para essas folhas e, após seis dias, avaliou-se a população final. Larvas de quarto ínstar do predador foram colocadas em plantas de pimenteira infestadas com pulgões e pulverizadas com solução aquosa de nim a 0,25 e, 0,5%, em acefato (0,75 g L-1 e em água. Após 48 horas, as larvas foram transferidas para tubos de plástico e alimentadas com pulgões. A mortalidade larval, a viabilidade pupal e a emergência de adultos foram avaliadas. A população de pulgões foi significativamente menor em folhas tratadas com nim e com acefato do que nas tratadas com água. A mortalidade de larvas do predador foi maior em plantas tratadas com acefato do que com nim. No entanto, somente 9,1 e 10% das larvas em plantas tratadas com nim a 0,25% e a 0,5%, respectivamente, formaram pupas e não houve emergência de adultos. Apesar do potencial do nim em reduzir a população de M. persicae, o produto apresenta efeitos nocivos a E. connexa.The aim of this work was to assess, in laboratory, the effects of neem seed extract on chilli pepper pest, the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer and on its predator Eriopis connexa (Germar. Chilli pepper leaves were treated with an aqueous solution of neem seed extract (1% of azadiractin at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0%, using acephate (0.75 g L-1 and water. Aphid females were transferred to treated leaves and after six days the aphid population was checked. Fourth-instar larvae of E. connexa were placed on pepper seedlings infested with aphids and sprayed with an aqueous solution of neem at 0.25 and 0.5%, using acephate (0

  15. Pathology and epizootiology of Dirofilaria scapiceps (Leidy, 1886) (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen) and Lepus americanus erxleben.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, C M

    1984-07-01

    Dirofilaria scapiceps was found between the synovial sheath and tendons, i.e., within the tendon sheath, in the ankle region of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). In cottontail rabbits, tendons and sheaths appeared normal and all worms were adults. Only one (4%) of 24 infected rabbits contained dead worms. All female worms were gravid in rabbits killed in late winter or early spring. Microfilaremias in rabbits were high (approximately 30-100 microfilariae/60 microliter blood) and of long duration (at least 8-28 mo), and rabbits were considered normal hosts of D. scapiceps. In some snowshoe hares, tendons and sheaths also appeared normal; however, in other hares a chronic proliferative tenosynovitis, characterized by fibrinous exudate, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the intima and inflammatory cell (predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells) infiltration of the intimal and fibrous layers of the synovial sheath led to encapsulation of worms. Dead subadult, dead adult, and live adult worms were found in the ankles of hares; 86 (46%) of 186 infected hares contained some or only dead worms. Fibrosis commonly occurred around dead worms. Dead subadults were also found in subcutaneous connective tissues over the trunk of the body. Degenerate embryos and amorphous material were observed in uteri of some female worms in hares killed in late winter or early spring. Few (1-5 microfilariae/60 microliter blood) or no microfilariae were observed in the peripheral blood of hares and microfilaremias were of short duration (less than 8 mo). Microfilariae in hares are probably trapped and destroyed in the chronic inflammatory lesions in the tendon sheaths since normal, degenerate, and calcified microfilariae were observed in the capsules around adult worms. Some microfilariae might also be destroyed in lymph nodes. Although D. scapiceps can be maintained within snowshoe hare populations, hares are considered abnormal hosts of D

  16. Densità di Lepre (Lepus europaeus e Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus in ambienti planiziali

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    Sandro Bertolino

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus è un leporide d?origine nordamericana, introdotto in Italia a partire dal 1966 a scopo venatorio. Attualmente la specie è diffusa soprattutto in Piemonte e nella parte occidentale della Lombardia. Il silvilago potrebbe interferire con l?autoctona lepre comune (Lepus europaeus, anche se i dati al riguardo sono limitati. Nell?autunno-inverno 2002-2003 abbiamo condotto dei censimenti notturni con faro in alcune aree protette lungo il fiume Po (Breme, Fontanetto Po, Pobietto e il torrente Orba (Predosa, Monferrino. I censimenti erano effettuati percorrendo con automezzo itinerari prefissati. Il territorio ai lati del percorso era illuminato con faro alogeno (100 W, segnando periodicamente l?ampiezza della fascia illuminata. L?area effettivamente censita è stata in seguito verificata mediante GIS ArcView, usando una cartografia informatizzata d?uso del suolo (1:10.000. L?uso reale del suolo al momento del censimento (esempio: arato, grano o stoppie è stato verificato durante sopralluoghi diurni. Per ogni area sono state condotte tre repliche del censimento. Di seguito sono riportate per ogni località le densità rilevate (individui/Km² rispettivamente di lepre comune e silvilago. Breme (1,7; 32,8, Fontanetto Po (0; 4,4, Pobietto (0,3; 13,9, Predosa (1,1; 19,5, Monferrino (29,6; 110,4. Solo l?area di Monferrino è risultata ospitare una popolazione di lepri con densità corrispondente a territori ad alta vocazionalità. La zona censita si trova a cavallo tra una riserva regionale e una ZRC della Provincia di Alessandria. Nella stessa area il silvilago presenta una densità elevata, ma comunque inferiore ai valori massimi riportati negli Stati Uniti. Nelle altre aree sono state osservate pochissime lepri. Tale scarsità è probabilmente legata alla presenza di popolazioni relitte e habitat non sempre idonei. Il silvilago, per quanto non abbondante come a Monferrino, è presente con popolazioni

  17. An evaluation of biomarkers of reproductive function and potential contaminant effects in Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) sampled from the St. Johns River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Johnson, W.E.; Higman, J.C.; Denslow, N.D.; Schoeb, T.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare several reproductive parameters for Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) inhabiting the St. Johns River and exposed to different types and/or degrees of contamination. Welaka was selected as the reference site in this study because of its low urban and agricultural development, Palatka is in close proximity to a paper mill plant, the Green Cove site is influenced by marine shipping activities and Julington Creek site receives discharges of domestic wastewater and storm water runoff from recreational boating marinas. For this study, bass were sampled both prior to (September 1996) and during the spawning season (February 1997). In order to characterize chemical exposure, bass livers were analyzed for up to 90 trace organics and 11 trace metal contaminants. Reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17??-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). In general, the sum of organic chemicals was highest in livers from Palatka bass and bass from Green Cove and Julington Creek had higher hepatic concentrations of low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls when compared to fish from Welaka. Metals were more variable across sites, with highest mean concentrations found in bass from either Julington Creek (Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Zn) or Welaka (Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Tn). Female bass from Palatka and Green Cove had lower concentrations of E2, VTG and lower GSI in relation to Welaka. Males from Palatka and Green Cove showed comparable declines in 11-KT in relation to males from Julington Creek and GSI were decreased only in Palatka males. These results indicate a geographical trend in reproductive effects, with changes being most pronounced at the site closest to the paper mill (Palatka) and decreasing as the St. Johns River flows downstream. Since reproductive

  18. Does predator benefits prey? Commensalism between Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae and Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae in Southeastern Brazil O predador beneficia sua presa? Comensalismo entre Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae e Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae no Sudeste do Brasil

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    Marcos Callisto

    2006-06-01

    retiradas do material regurgitado por Corydalus. É importante observar que fixados aos predadores de grande tamanho corporal as presas se tornam livres de outros predadores além de serem transportados por eles.

  19. Artrópodes fitófagos e predadores associados em 20 acessos Luffa sp. em sistema orgânico Phytophagous and predators arthropods associated in 20 accesses of Luffa sp in organic system

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram verificar os artrópodes fitófagos e seus predadores em 20 acessos de bucha vegetal Luffa sp. (Cucurbitaceae, a distribuição destes no dossel das plantas em cultivo orgânico e a produção de frutos dos acessos. O experimento foi em blocos casualizados com 20 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram os acessos P159, P304, P466, P03, P570, P569, P467, P30, P446, P495, P125, P263, P644 e P32, provenientes da Embrapa (CENARGEN, DF, e P01, P02, P04, P05, P06 e P07, obtidos em Porteirinha-MG. As parcelas foram compostas por quatro plantas de Luffa sp. A maior abundância de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae foi observada nas folhas do acesso P467 em referência aos demais acessos de Luffa sp. Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae foi mais observada nas flores dos acessos P01, P03, P30, P32, P263 e P569 e menos abundantes nos acessos P05, P125, P159, P304, P446 e P570. Os acessos de Luffa sp. com maior número de frutos/planta foram P01, P03, P05, P06, P07, P30, P32, P125, P263, P446 e P570. Os predadores aranhas e Coccinellidae (Coleoptera bem como o fitófago Cicadellidae (Hemiptera preferiram atacar a face adaxial, sendo que não se detectou diferença estatística entre as faces para os demais artrópodes. T. spinipes esteve mais presente na parte apical do dossel das plantas. Com esses resultados, o acesso P06 é o mais indicado para o cultivo, pois foi um dos que apresentou maiores produtividades e menores taxas de ataque de insetos.The objectives of this research were to verify the phytophagous arthropods and their predators in 20 accesses of vegetable loofah Luffa sp. (Cucurbitaceae, the distribution of the canopy of the plants in organic system and the production of fruits of the accesses. The experiment was in randomized blocks designed with 20 treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the accesses P159, P304, P466, P03, P570, P569, P467, P30, P446

  20. Reproductive characteristics of the predator Podisus nigrispinus fed with an insect resistant soybean variety Características reprodutivas do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com variedade de soja resistente a insetos

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    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2002-07-01

    17, e lagartas de A. gemmatalis, criadas em folhas desta cultivar. Avaliou-se a longevidade das fêmeas, períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição e pós-oviposição, número de ovos e de posturas/fêmea, peso dos ovos, intervalo entre posturas, número de ovos/postura, porcentagem de ovos eclodidos, número de ninfas/fêmea e número total de presas mortas/fêmea de P. nigrispinus. A maioria das características avaliadas mostrou resultados semelhantes entre tratamentos, exceto o período de oviposição, que foi mais longo para fêmeas criadas no genótipo resistente que no susceptível, e a porcentagem de fêmeas que ovipositaram antes de morrer, que foi menor na IAC 17. Além disso, o genótipo IAC 17 causou maior mortalidade de fêmeas de P. nigrispinus no início de sua fase adulta e distribuição mais uniforme da produção de ovos ao longo do período adulto desse predador. Por outro lado, os resultados não sugerem efeito desse genótipo na prole do predador.

  1. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Effects of neem on tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) and Neoseiulus Californicus (Mcgregor) (Acari: phytoseiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener; Adriane Fonseca Duarte; Milton Fernando Cabezas Guerrero; Uemerson Silva da Cunha; Dori Edson Nava

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L) e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L) sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se...

  2. Ácaros predadores e o fungo Neozygites floridana associados a tetraniquídeos em soja no Rio Grande do Sul Predatory mites and the fungus Neozygites floridana associated with spider mites on soybean, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Samuel Roggia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de ácaros predadores e do fungo Neozygites floridana, associados a ácaros tetraniquídeos, em soja (Glycine max L., no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Entre 2003 e 2005, foram avaliadas amostras de folhas de soja das principais regiões produtoras do Estado. Essas amostras foram coletadas de diferentes posições da planta e aleatoriamente na lavoura. As espécies de ácaros predadores encontradas foram: Neoseiulus anonymus, N. californicus, Phytoseiulus fragariae, P. macropilis, Proprioseiopsis cannaensis e Galendromus annectens. O fungo N. floridana apresentou ampla distribuição e ocorreu em todas as espécies de tetraniquídeos encontradas: Mononychellus planki, Tetranychus desertorum, T. gigas, T. ludeni e T. urticae.The objective of this work was to verify the occurrence of predatory mites and the fungus Neozygites floridana, associated with spider mites in soybean (Glycine max L., in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. From 2003 to 2005, samples of soybean leaves from the most important soybean producing regions of the state were evaluated. These samples were collected from different positions of the plant and randomly in the field. The predatory mite species found were Neoseiulus anonymus, N. californicus, Phytoseiulus fragariae, P. macropilis, Proprioseiopsis cannaensis, and Galendromus annectens. The fungus N. floridana was widely distributed and occurred in all the spider mite species found: Mononychellus planki, Tetranychus desertorum, T. gigas, T. ludeni and T. urticae.

  3. Controle biológico do ácaro rajado com ácaros predadores fitoseídeos (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae em culturas de pepino e morango Biological control of the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae in cucumber and strawberry crops

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    M.A. Watanabe

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch, é considerado uma das principais pragas de hortaliças e várias outras culturas no Brasil, em áreas onde um considerável volume de acaricidas é anualmente empregado no seu controle. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a viabilidade técnica do emprego dos fitoseídeos Amblyseius idaeus (Denmark & Muma e Phytoseudus macropilis (Banks, comum ente encontrados no Brasil, no controle de T. urticae em pepino e morangueiro em Jaguaríúna,SP. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições e 4 tratamentos (T1-T4 para o pepino e 5 tratamentos para o morangueiro (T1-T5: T1, testemunha; T2, pulverizações semanais de Malation para a exclusão de predadores nativos; T3, liberações periódicas de A.idaeus; T4, liberações periódicas de P.macropilis; T5, pulverizações semanais de avermectina para a exclusão de ácaros fitófagos e predadores nativos. Apenas A.idaeus se estabeleceu na cultura de pepino, reduzindo significativamente a população de T. urticae. Ambas espécies de predadores se estabeleceram na cultura do morango e reduziram significativamente a população de T.urticae.The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is considered one of the main pests of horticultural and other crops in Brazil, in areas where a considerable volume of acaricides is annually used for its control. The objective of this work was to test the technical viability of using phytoseiids Amblyseius idaeus (Denmark & Muma and Phytoseudus macropilis (Banks, commonly found in Brazil, to control T .urticae in cucumber and strawberry crops in Jaguaríúna,SP. A randomized complete block design was used, with 4 replicates and 4 treatments for cucumber (T1-T4 and 5 treatments for strawberry crops (T1-T5: T1, control; T2, weekly sprays of malathion for exclusion of native predators; T3, periodical releases of A.idaeus; T4, periodical releases of P. macropilis; T5, weekly sprays of

  4. Effect of plant diversification on abundance of South American tomato pinworm and predators in two cropping systems Efeito da diversificação de plantas na abundância da traça-do-tomateiro e predadores em dois sistemas de cultivo

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    Maria A Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    do tomate e de predadores. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de campo, no Distrito Federal, de julho a outubro de 2004. O desenho experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições e no arranjo fatorial 3 x 2 [três níveis de diversificação cultural: tomate em monocultivo, tomate consorciado com coentro, e consórcio tomate com coentro e botão-de-ouro e dois sistemas de cultivo: orgânico e convencional]. Cada parcela experimental tinha 80 plantas de tomateiro, sendo os insetos-praga e artrópodes predadores semanalmente coletados em cinco plantas/parcela. Tuta absoluta (Meyr. foi a espécie-praga mais comum em ambos os sistemas de cultivo. O tomate consorciado como coentro e botão-de-ouro, no sistema de cultivo orgânico, apresentou menor abundância e maior diversidade de pragas, e maior abundância e diversidade de artrópodes predadores, principalmente aos 80 dias após o transplantio do tomate, coincidindo com o pico populacional da T. absoluta (ovos e adultos. Os predadores mais abundantes foram aranhas, joaninhas e formigas. As aranhas foram abundantes e uniformemente distribuídas em ambos os sistemas. As joaninhas apareceram tardiamente no sistema orgânico, no período de florescimento do coentro. As formigas foram mais abundantes no sistema convencional.

  5. Competência de peixes como predadores de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of fish as predators of Aedes aegypti larvae, under laboratory conditions

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    Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a competência de peixes na predação de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em condições de laboratório. MÉTODOS: Foram testados machos e fêmeas de cinco espécies de peixe. Os testes de predação duravam cinco semanas para cada espécie. Cada ensaio compreendia quatro caixas testes e quatro caixas controles. Das caixas controle, duas tinham somente um peixe e as outras duas, apenas larvas. Cada caixa teste continha um peixe e larvas. Na primeira semana foram expostas 100 larvas em cada caixa, e a cada semana acrescentavam-se 100 larvas por caixa/dia, até se obter um máximo de 500 larvas/dia. Comprimento e peso dos peixes foram medidos semanalmente. RESULTADOS: Foram utilizadas 369.000 larvas no total. O Trichogaster trichopteros foi a única espécie em que ambos os sexos predaram 100% das larvas oferecidas. O Betta splendens deixou de predar apenas 15 larvas. Machos do Poecilia reticulata apresentaram baixa capacidade larvófaga quando comparados às fêmeas da mesma espécie. Em relação ao peso e tamanho o Betta splendens mostrou-se capaz de predar 523 larvas/grama/dia. CONCLUSÕES: Fêmeas e machos de Trichogaster trichopteros e de Astyanax fasciatus, e fêmeas de Betta splendens e de Poecillia sphenops foram os peixes que apresentaram maior competência para predar as larvas. Embora com competência menor, machos de Poecillia sphenops e fêmeas de Poecilia reticulata foram capazes de eliminar o número de larvas de Aedes aegypti que possam emergir durante 24 horas num criadouro, em condições naturais. Machos de Poecilia reticulata não foram predadores eficazes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of fish as predators of the Aedes aegypti larvae in laboratory conditions. METHODS: The male and female of five different fish were included in the experiment. The tests to measure their consumption ability lasted five weeks for each species. Each trial involved four test tanks and four control tanks. Two control tanks

  6. Mortalidade do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae em testes de toxicidade residual de inseticidas e acaricidas usuais em pomáceas Mortality of predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae in residual toxicity persistence tests

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    Marcelo Gustavo Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    . Azimphos-methyl foi o produto que menos afetou a sobrevivência do ácaro predador. Os inseticidas testados, usados na região do "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén" para o controle de Cydia pomonella, praga-chave das culturas de pomáceas, apresentaram baixa toxicidade sobre N. californicus.Phytoseiid mites, mainly Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, are important biological control agents of Tetranychidae pest mites in pip fruit crops in the region known as "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén", Argentina. We assessed the mortality of N. californicus when exposed to residues of the insecticides azimphos-methyl, carbaryl and cyfluthrin, as well as the acaricides cyhexatin and propargite. Pear plants were sprayed up to dip-point with pesticides in their recommended label concentrations. One, 3, 6 and 10 days after application (DAA, leaves were collected from treated plants and used to establish experimental arenas. Five adult laboratory-reared N. californicus specimens were transferred into each arena which contained Southern cattail pollen as food source. Experimental arenas were kept at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 14 hours. Mite mortality was assessed 24 hours after the confinement. The completely randomized design was adopted for data statistical analysis, mortality means were compared by Dunnett's test (p < 0.05. Progression of pesticide's effect decline was submitted to regression analysis. On 1 and 3 DAA mean mortality in all of the treatments was significantly different from that of the water-treated control. On the sixth DAA, propargite, cyhexatin and cyfluthrin treatments caused about 30% mortality, while mortality levels in treatments with azimphos-methyl and carbaryl were statistically similar to that of control treatment. On the tenth DAA, mortality in none of the pesticide treatments differed from that of control. All of the pesticide treatments presented progressive decline throughout the experimental period, being significant (p < 0

  7. Field and experimental data indicate that the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is susceptible to infection with European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) virus and not with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavazza, Antonio; Cavadini, Patrizia; Barbieri, Ilaria; Tizzani, Paolo; Pinheiro, Ana; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J; Grilli, Guido; Gioia, Emanuela; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Meneguz, Pier; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Chiari, Mario; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is an American lagomorph. In 1966, it was introduced to Italy, where it is currently widespread. Its ecological niche is similar to those of native rabbits and hares and increasing overlap in distribution brings these species into ever closer contact. Therefore, cottontails are at risk of infection with the two lagoviruses endemically present in Italy: Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus (RHDV) and European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus (EBHSV). To verify the susceptibility of Sylvilagus to these viruses, we analyzed 471 sera and 108 individuals from cottontail populations in 9 provinces of north-central Italy from 1999 to 2012. In total, 15-20% of the cottontails tested seropositive for EBHSV; most titres were low, but some were as high as 1/1280. All the cottontails virologically tested for RHDV and EBHSV were negative with the exception of one individual found dead with hares during a natural EBHS outbreak in December 2009. The cottontail and the hares showed typical EBHS lesions, and the EBHSV strain identified was the same in both species (99.9% identity). To experimentally confirm the diagnosis, we performed two trials in which we infected cottontails with both EBHSV and RHDV. One out of four cottontails infected with EBHSV died of an EBHS-like disease, and the three surviving animals developed high EBHSV antibody titres. In contrast, neither mortality nor seroconversion was detected after infection with RHDV. Taken together, these results suggest that Sylvilagus is susceptible to EBHSV infection, which occasionally evolves to EBHS-like disease; the eastern cottontail could therefore be considered a "spill over" or "dead end" host for EBHSV unless further evidence is found to confirm that it plays an active role in the epidemiology of EBHSV. PMID:25828691

  8. Efeito de doses e de refúgio sobre a seletividade de inseticidas a predadores e parasitóides de pragas de soja Effect of doses and of refuge on the insecticide selectivity to predators and parasitoids of soybean insect pests

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    Ivan Carlos Corso

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o impacto sazonal de alguns inseticidas sobre predadores e parasitóides de pragas da cultura da soja, instalou-se um experimento com delineamento de blocos ao acaso, constando de oito tratamentos e três repetições, no campo experimental da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, em Londrina, PR. Os tratamentos consistiram de aplicações de inseticidas para o controle da lagarta-da-soja (pulverizados em 21/1/93 e percevejos (4/3/93. A técnica empregada para levantamento da população de insetos foi a do método do choque, que consiste na aplicação de um inseticida de alto impacto sobre a comunidade de insetos presente nas plantas, sua coleta sobre panos estendidos no solo, e sua posterior identificação e contagem em laboratório. A análise da variância revelou não haver diferenças significativas entre as populações de predadores, himenópteros e dípteros encontrados, nos diferentes tratamentos estudados. Também n��o foram verificados os fenômenos de ressurgência de pragas ou o aparecimento de elevadas populações de pragas secundárias.A field experiment was conducted to evaluate seasonal effect of insecticides on predators and parasitoids of soybean insect pests. A randomized block design was used, with three replications, and the experiment was set up in the experimental station of the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, located at Londrina, PR, Brazil. Treatments consisted of insecticide application to control the velvetbean caterpillar (1/21/1993 or the stink bug complex (3/4/1993. Insect population was sampled through the shock technique, consisting of an application of a broad spectrum insecticide over the plants to be sampled, being the insects collected on cloths placed on the ground, and transferred to the laboratory to be identified and counted. Statistical analysis revealed no differences on the populations of species of predators, diptera or himenoptera as a group. No

  9. Efeito da utilização de acaricidas em citros, sobre a população de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 e ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae Effect of acaricide utilization in citrus on the population of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and predatory mites (Phytoseiidae

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    M.E. Sato

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido experimento com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de alguns acaricidas sobre Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes,1939 (AcarirTenuipalpidae e ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae, em citros. Os produtos testados e as dosagens em g i.a./100 / de água foram: fenpyroximate (5,0, acrinathrin (0,5; hexythiazox (1,5; amitraz (40,0 e enxofre (225,0. Os acaricidas fenpyroximate, acrinathrin e hexythiazox foram eficientes contra B. phoenicis até 127 dias após a aplicação, enquanto que, o enxofre e o amitraz apresentaram bom controle até 92 e 58 dias após o tratamento, respectivamente. O hexythiazox foi praticamente inócuo aos ácaros predadores mas os demais acaricidas foram significativamente prejudiciais a estes ácaros. Os produtos enxofre, fenpyroximate e acrinathrin induziram reduções na população de fitoseíídeos até 58 dias, porém o amitraz apresentou reduções até 92 dias após a pulverização.The experiment was carried out in order to study the effects of some acaricides on Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes,1939 (Acari,Tenuipalpidae and predatory mites (Phytoseiidae hi citrus. The products tested and dosages in g AI/ 100 / of water were: fenpyroximate (5.0, acrinathrin (0.5, hexythiazox (1.5, amitraz (40.0 and sulphur (225.0. The acaricides fenpyroximate, acrinathrin and hexythiazox were efficient against B. phoenicis up to 127 days from the application date, whereas sulphur and amitraz presented good control up to 92 days and 58 days after treatment, respectively. Hexythiazox was fairly innocuous to predatory mites but, the remaining acaricides caused significant mortality to these mites. The pesticides sulphur, fenpyroximate and acrinathrin induced reductions of the population of phytoseid mites up to 58 days, but amitraz showed reductions up to 92 days after application.

  10. Efeitos do nim sobre tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks e Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Effects of neem on tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks and Neoseiulus Californicus (Mcgregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

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    Daniele Cristine Hoffmann Schlesener

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de controle e os efeitos adversos de dois produtos à base de nim Azamax® (Azadiractina A/B 12g/L e Neemseto® (Azadiractina A/B, Nimbina e Salanina 2,389 g/L sobre o ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae e os predadores Phytoseiulus macropilis e Neoseiulus californicus em laboratório. Para o ácaro-rajado, foram consideradas as variáveis mortalidade, fecundidade, efeito ovicida e persistência biológica, enquanto para os fitoseídeos consideraram-se mortalidade e fecundidade. A mortalidade máxima observada para o ácaro-rajado foi de 89,7% e 91,5% para Azamax® e Neemseto®, respectivamente, na concentração de 0,5% após a reaplicação do produto no sétimo dia. Também foram observados efeitos adversos sobre a fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos quando tratados com os produtos comerciais (p.c.. A persistência biológica dos produtos foi de aproximadamente três dias após a pulverização. As formulações apresentaram seletividade em relação aos fitoseídeos, porém causaram redução da fecundidade dos mesmos.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of control and adverse effects of two neem based products: Azamax TM (Azadirachtin A/B 12g/L and Neemseto TM (Azadirachtin A/B, Nimbin and Salanin 2,389 g/L over two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predators Phytoseiulus macropilis and Neoseiulus californicus in laboratory. Effects over the mortality, fecundity, eggs and biological persistence of the two-spotted spider mite when treated with neem based products were evaluated. For the phytoseiids the effects on mortality and fecundity were evaluated. The maximum mortality of two-spotted spider mites rates observed were 89.7% and 91.5% for Azamax TM and Neemseto TM respectively, on the 0.5% concentration after reapplying the product on the seventh day. Adverse effects were also observed over the fecundity and viability of the eggs when treated with

  11. Funktionelle Analyse von Blochmannia floridanus, dem primären Endosymbionten der Rossameise Camponotus floridanus

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Sascha

    2009-01-01

    Ameisen der Gattung Camponotus beherbergen bakterielle Symbionten der Gattung Blochmannia in spezialisierten Zellen des Mitteldarms (Blochmann, 1882; Buchner, 1965; Sauer, 2000; Schröder et al., 1996). Die Genomsequenzierung dieser Symbionten zeigte, dass Blochmannia, ähnlich den Symbionten von Blattläusen, hauptsächlich Gene der Aminosäurebiosynthese beibehalten hat (Degnan et al., 2005; Gil et al., 2003). Die Relevanz dieser nahrungsaufwertenden Funktion konnte experimentell bestätigt werde...

  12. Ocorrência de Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan (Hemiptera, Diaspididae e do predador Pentilia egena (Mulsant (Coleoptera, Coccinelidae em Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae, em Pinheiral, RJ Occurrence of Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan (Hemiptera, Diaspididae and of the predator Pentilia egena (Mulsant (Coleoptera, Coccinelidae on Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae, in Pinheiral County, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As avaliações foram realizadas, semanalmente, durante os estádios vegetativo e de floração/frutificação em quatro quadrantes (N, S, L, O da planta. Foram coletadas 2.230 espécimes de S. articulatus, sendo 1.224 no estágio vegetativo e 1.006 no florescimento/frutificação, sendo 59,8% adultos. De um total de 965 P. egena, 416 foram imaturos e 549 adultos. As principais conclusões deste trabalho são: (1 M. communis pode ser indicada como planta isca; (2 esta planta pode ser cultivada ou não próxima às culturas de importância econômica, pois funciona como um repositório da praga ou de seu inimigo natural; (3 a relação predador/presa/quadrante da planta/estágio fenológico foi, respectivamente, 1,14:1,0 e 1,0:1,08 nos quadrantes norte e leste; enquanto, à sul e oeste da planta M. communis foi de 1,0:2,26 e 1,0:2,80; (4 a predação de S. articulatus por P. egena ocorreu, em média, de 1,0 a 2,8 ninfas e 1,66 a 4,44 adultos (no estágio vegetativo e de 1,0-3,76 a 1,0-3,98 (no estágio de florescimento/frutificação, com diferenças significativas em PThe evaluations were conducted weekly in the vegetative and blooming/fructification phases in four quadrants (N, S, E, W of the plant. It was collected 2,230 specimens of S. articulatus, 1,224 in the vegetative phase and 1,006 in the blooming/fructification, being 59,8% adults. From the total of 965 of P. egena, 416 were immatures and 549 adults. The main conclusions are: (1 M. communis may be indicated as plant bait; (2 this plant, may be cultivated or not around the crops of economic importance, because it may function as a reservoir of the pest or of its natural enemies; (3 the relation predator/prey/plant quadrant/phenology phases was, respectivelly, 1.14:1.0 and 1.0:1,08 in north and east quadrant; while in south and west quadrant was 1.0:2.26 and 1.0:2.80; and, (4 the predaction of S. articulatus by P. egena was, in average, 1.02.8 nymphs and 1.664.44 adults (in vegetative

  13. Seletividade de acaricidas e inseticidas a ácaros predadores (Acari: Phytoseiidae encontrados em seringueira no centro-oeste do Brasil Side-effect of acaricides and insecticides to predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae found in rubber-trees in mid-west Brazil

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    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker são ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae comumente encontrados em seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. em Mato Grosso, região centro-oeste do Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado para verificar o efeito de acaricidas e inseticidas-acaricidas empregados em plantações de seringueira, e outros que teriam potencial para serem empregados contra insetos e ácaros considerados pragas dessa cultura, sobre E. concordis e N. anonymus. Utilizou-se o método residual de pulverização em superfície, recomendado como padrão pelo Grupo de Trabalho "Pesticidas e Artrópodes Benéficos", da Organização Internacional de Controle Biológico e Integrado de Plantas e Animais Nocivos/Seção Regional do Paleártico Oeste. Duas concentrações de cada um dos seguintes ingredientes ativos foram utilizadas: acefato, dicofol, endosulfan, formetanate, metomil, monocrotofós, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite. Uma das concentrações utilizadas foi uma média daquelas sugeridas pelos fabricantes para o controle de ácaros e insetos fitófagos presentes em outras culturas, uma vez que nenhum dos produtos testados tem registro para o uso em seringueira e a outra correspondeu à cerca de um terço da primeira. Endosulfan a 320ppm, dicofol a 100ppm e óxido de fenbutatin a 100 e 320ppm foram inócuos a E. concordis, enquanto que endosulfan a 320ppm e dicofol a 100ppm foram inócuos a N. anonymus. Acefato, formetanate e monocrotofós, nas concentrações testadas, foram nocivos às duas espécies.Euseius concordis (Chant and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker are predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae commonly found on rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in the State of Mato Grosso, in the mid-west Brazil. This work was conducted to verify the effect of acaricides and insecticides-acaricides occasionally used in rubber tree plantations, and other products that could be used against

  14. Efeito da idade das fêmeas e de fatores ambientais sobre a reprodução do predador Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2014 Effect of female age and environmental factors on reproduction of the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2014

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    Cesar Freire Carvalho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores bióticos e abióticos afetam o potencial reprodutivo dos insetos. Portanto, estudou-se o efeito da idade das fêmeas e de fatores ambientais sobre a reprodução de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Adultos do predador foram criados em gaiolas de PVC, fechadas na parte superior com tecido de malha fina (organza, colocadas sobre plantas de algodão em casa-de-vegetação. A maior produção de ovos por fêmea (87,7 ovos ocorreu aos 49 dias, e a menor (32,2 ovos, aos 63 dias de idade. O reacasalamento ocorreu após o esgotamento das reservas espermáticas, a partir do 28o dia. A fecundidade de fêmeas de C. externa aumentou com a elevação da umidade relativa do ar. Verificou-se, também, um rápido desenvolvimento embrionário com a elevação da temperatura e com fêmeas longevas. Esses resultados fornecem subsídios para o conhecimento da reprodução de C. externa em algodoeiroThe biotic and abiotic factors affect the reproductive potential of insects. Thus, the effects of female age and environmental factors on reproduction of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae were studied. Adults of the predator were reared in "PVC" cages, closed in the upper portion with a thin mesh, organdie, placed on cotton plants at a greenhouse. The largest production of eggs by female (87.7 eggs occurred with 49 days and the smallest (32.2 eggs with 63 days of female age. The remating occurred after the exhaustion of spermatic reservations, starting on 28th day. The fecundity of C. externa females increased with elevation of the relative humidity of air. It was also verified a fast embryonic development with increase of temperature and female age. All these results supply subsidies for knowledge of the reproduction of C. externa in cotton system

  15. Composição faunística de insetos predadores em fragmento florestal e em área de hortaliças na região de Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2015 Faunal composition of predator insects in forest fragment and area of vegetables in Jaboticabal region, state of São Paulo, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2015

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    Luciano Kenji Sakemi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Efetuou-se um levantamento populacional em área de fragmento florestal e em área de hortaliças, entre novembro de 1996 a fevereiro/1998, visando determinar as espécies de insetos predadores e a influência de fatores abióticos. A amostragem foi efetuada semanalmente por meio de armadilha luminosa, aplicando-se aos resultados análise faunística e correlação simples com temperatura, umidade relativa e precipitação. No fragmento florestal foi observado maior semelhança na abundância de espécies do que na área de hortaliças, mas neste hábitat capturou-se maior número de indivíduos (95%. As espécies Metius sp., Polpochila impressifrons (Dej., Eulissus sp. e Doru sp. foram predominantes nas duas áreas, evidenciando a importância dessas espécies como predadoras de pragas de hortaliças. Arthrostictus speciosus (Dej. e Leptotrachelus sp. predominaram no fragmento florestal, o mesmo ocorrendo com Paederus sp. na área de hortaliças. Esta espécie deve preferir locais abertos e quentes, enquanto A. speciosus e Leptotrachelus sp. podem estar melhor adaptadas para locais escuros e úmidos de florestasA population survey was carried out in a forest fragment and in an area of vegetables, from November/1996 to February/1998, aiming to determine the predator insect species and the influence of abiotic factors. The samples were taken weekly by light traps. The results were evaluated using faunistic analysis and simple correlation with temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. In the forest fragment higher similarity in the abundance of species was observed comparing to the area of vegetables, but the largest number of captured individuals (95% occurred in this last habitat. Metius sp., Polpochila impressifrons (Dej., Eulissus sp. and Doru sp. were predominant species in both areas, evidencing they may play an important role as pest predators in areas of vegetables. Arthrostictus speciosus (Dej. and Leptotrachelus sp. predominated in

  16. Seletividade fisiológica de inseticidas a vespidae predadores do bicho-mineiro-do-cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSMÃO MARCOS RAFAEL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, em laboratório, a seletividade dos inseticidas clorpirifós, deltametrina, dimetoato, ethion, monocrotofós e permetrina às vespas predadoras Apoica pallens Fab., Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille e Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae em concentrações que correspondem a 50% e 100% da dosagem recomendada para o controle do bicho-mineiro-do-cafeeiro, Perileucoptera coffeella Guérin-Meneville (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae. Deltametrina foi seletivo em favor de P. versicolor versicolor e A. pallens. O ethion foi medianamente seletivo a A. pallens e P. versicolor versicolor, e seletivo em favor de B. lecheguana. Os demais inseticidas não foram seletivos às vespas predadoras. A ordem crescente de tolerância das vespas a deltametrina foi: P. versicolor versicolor > A. pallens > B. lecheguana. Para o ethion esta ordem foi: B. lecheguana > P. versicolor versicolor > A. pallens. O clorpirifós, deltametrina, dimetoato, monocrotofós e permetrina apresentaram semelhante toxicidade às vespas nas duas dosagens utilizadas. O ethion, por sua vez, reduziu seu impacto sobre A. pallens e P. versicolor versicolor quando aplicado em subdosagem.

  17. Distribution of the Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus in the province of Alessandria

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Silvano; Camilla Acquarone; Marco Cucco

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The Eastern cottontail, a lagomorph native to the American continent, was introduced to N-Italy in the mid-1960s. In subsequent years a rapid territorial expansion and a remarkable demographic increase has been observed in many areas. In the province of Alessandria, NW Italy, we used night-time censuses with spotlights and road mortality assessment to evaluate the diffusion of the species and its trend. Night-time censuses were performed each year in spr...

  18. Distribution of the Eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus in the province of Alessandria

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    Fabrizio Silvano

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Eastern cottontail, a lagomorph native to the American continent, was introduced to N-Italy in the mid-1960s. In subsequent years a rapid territorial expansion and a remarkable demographic increase has been observed in many areas. In the province of Alessandria, NW Italy, we used night-time censuses with spotlights and road mortality assessment to evaluate the diffusion of the species and its trend. Night-time censuses were performed each year in spring and in autumn along 51 transects which were 10 km long on average. Road deaths were extracted from our 6715 records regarding 85 species of mammals, birds and reptiles found dead along the roads. The distribution area expanded markedly from the 1980s, and the expansion persisted between 1996 and 1997, while in 1998 the area failed to increase further, settling at around 620-660 km². The species is not present, at the moment, in the entire Apennine sector nor in the eastern and southern plains. The densities reach maximum values of 2.5-2.75 individuals/10 ha. From the road-death data we found a progressive increase of the Eastern cottontail, its proportion of the total mammals rising from 2.2% in 1995 to 3.7% in 1996 and 6.0% in 1997.

  19. Observações sobre a ocorrência de Pilumnus floridanus Stimpson (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pilumnidae na costa do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Remarks about the Pilumnus floridanus Stimpson (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pilumnidae occurrence in Rio de Janeiro coast, Brazil

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    Lydia M. S. Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os espécimes foram coletados na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro no inverno. Sua distribuição era conhecida para Off Cape Lookout, Carolina do Norte até a Flórida, Golfo do México, Canal de Yucatan, Honduras, Antilhas, Venezuela e Brasil (Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia.The specimens were collected in Sepetiba Bay during the winter. Their distribution was formerly known from Off Cape Lookout, North Carolina until Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan Channel, Honduras, Antilles, Venezuela and Brazil (Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia.

  20. Tick infestations of the eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) and small rodentia in northwest Alabama and implications for disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Joseph C; Burgdorfer, Willy; Painter, Martin K; Russell, Cynthia L

    2005-12-01

    Studies were conducted over a four-county area of northwest Alabama to determine the association of eastern cottontail rabbits with Dermacentor variabilis, the eastern United States vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. A secondary objective was to compare infestations of this tick on rabbits with infestations on commonly encountered rodent species as a means of determining the relative importance of each in the disease transmission cycle. These epidemiologic surveys were conducted in response to reported fatal cases of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in two counties of the study area. From 202 eastern cottontail rabbits, 3,956 ticks were collected. Of this total, 79.87% were Haemphysalis leporispalustris, 9.15% Amblyomma americanum, 8.22% Ixodes dentatus, and 2.76% D. variabilis. Only immature stages of D. variabilis were collected from cottontail rabbits. Ticks were collected on rabbits in all months except November, and only one specimen was taken in January. Based on the average number of ticks per host collected in each month, April was the peak month for D. variabilis and I. dentatus. High values for H. leporispalustris also occurred at this time, but even higher values occurred in October and December. The heaviest infestation of A. americanum occurred during the month ofAugust and coincides with the activity period for the larvae of this species. Two hundred sixty-nine of the smaller Rodentia, comprising 13 species, yielded 264 ticks, all D. variabilis, and all but two were immature stages. Five rodent species, Microtus ochragaster Orozomys palustris, Peromyscus gossypinus, Peromyscus leucopus, and Sigmodon hispidus accounted for 95.83% of the ticks collected, and appeared to be preferred hosts for D. variabilis; all five had higher infestation levels per host than did the eastern cottontail rabbit. Data on host relationships in association with seasonal activity are presented. PMID:16599149

  1. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pomares de pêssego a adultos do predador Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de dezesseis agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada e convencional de pêssego foi avaliada sobre a fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa através de bioensaios de exposição residual conduzidos em laboratório (temperatura de 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas, utilizando-se de metodologia prescrita pela "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC. Os agrotóxicos (% de ingrediente ativo na calda azoxystrobina (0,016, captana (0,192, dodina (0,126, folpete (0,200, mancozebe (0,256, mancozebe + oxicloreto de cobre (0,140 + 0,096, tebuconazole (0,320, abamectina (0,002, óleo mineral 1 (2,420, óleo mineral 2 (1,920, dicloreto de paraquate (0,300 e glifosato (1,440 foram inócuos; deltametrina (0,002 foi levemente nocivo e dimetoato (0,160, fosmete (0,160 e malationa (0,240 foram nocivos a adultos de C. externa.

  2. BIOLOGIA E TABELA DE VIDA DO ÁCARO PREDADOR Euseius concordis (CHANT, 1959 (ACARI: PHYTOSEIIDAE EM PINHÃO-MANSO

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    CLECIA DE CARVALHO MARQUES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and the intrinsic growth rate (rm of Euseius concordis on Tetranychus bastosi on physic nut (Jatropha curcas. The experiment was conducted in incubator BOD at 25 ° C and 70 % RH, with 12h photoperiod environment. The evaluations were performed twice daily for the biology of the mite, and once to the reproductive parameters. The average life cycle of fe-males was 6.3 ± 0.14 days and the males of 6.22 ± 0.14 days. The sex ratio was 0.64, and the average longevi-ty of females was 22.6 ± 2.22 days with an average production of 7,42 eggs per female. The parameters of the life table were obtained : net reproductive rate (Ro, 54,9 individuals ; average length of generations (T , 7,77 days; intrinsic growth rate (rm, 0,22 female per female per day; finite rate of increase (λ, 1,24 female per fe-male; and in population doubling time (TD, 3,16 days. The E. concordis mite has developed satisfactorily when created with T. diet bastosi, with the short development cycle.

  3. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

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    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all three species of predatory wasps. Malathion was selectivite to P. sylveirae and showed intermediate selectivity to P. fastidiosuscula. The predatory wasps P. sylveirae and P. fastidiosuscula were more tolerant to cartap than P. scutellaris and P. sylveirae was more tolerant to malathion than P. fastidiosuscula and P. scutellaris.

  4. Estudio comparado de la alimentación entre algunos predadores de alto nivel trófico de la comunidad marina del norte y centro de patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Alonso, M.

    1999-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the food habits between top predator allows the evaluation of how these species use the trophic resources. They also make possible the study of potentially competitive relationships and the role of these predators in the regulation and structure of the community. The marine community of northern and central Patagonia is structured on the tri-trophic system composed by the Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita), the Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argent...

  5. Biología y comportamiento de polistes erythrocephalus ltr. (hyrnenoptera: vespidae), predador del "gusano cachón" de la yuca erinnyis ello l. (lepidoptera: sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin P., Carlos A.; Bellotti, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    El ciclo de vida de Polistes erythrocephalus (latitud 3° 3D' N, longitud 76° 22' 21" W; 965 m.s.n.m.; 23.7°) tiene una duración de 110 días, oscilando entre 91 y 131 días. La capacidad de predación en jaulas de malla (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m) depende del número de larvas. El consumo diario máximo fue de 1.3, el mínimo de 0.08 y el promedio de O.5larvasde E. ello (11 y 111 instar). No se encontraron machos en nidos menores de 50 celdas y en mayores de 50 celdas el número de machos incrementa con e...

  6. Biología y comportamiento de Polistes erythrocephalus Ltr. (Hyrnenoptera: vespidae), predador del "Gusano cachón" de la yuca Erinnyis ello L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bellotti Anthony C.; Martin P. Carlos A.

    1986-01-01

    El ciclo de vida de Polistes erythrocephalus (latitud 3° 3D' N, longitud 76° 22' 21" W; 965 m.s.n.m.; 23.7°) tiene una duración de 110 días, oscilando entre 91 y 131 días. La capacidad de predación en jaulas de malla (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m) depende del número de larvas. El consumo diario máximo fue de 1.3, el mínimo de 0.08 y el promedio de O.5larvasde E. ello (11 y 111 instar). No se encontraron machos en nidos menores de 50 celdas y en mayores de 50 celdas el número de machos incrementa con el ...

  7. Biología y comportamiento de Polistes erythrocephalus Ltr. (Hyrnenoptera: vespidae, predador del "Gusano cachón" de la yuca Erinnyis ello L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae

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    Bellotti Anthony C.

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available El ciclo de vida de Polistes erythrocephalus (latitud 3° 3D' N, longitud 76° 22' 21" W; 965 m.s.n.m.; 23.7° tiene una duración de 110 días, oscilando entre 91 y 131 días. La capacidad de predación en jaulas de malla (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m depende del número de larvas. El consumo diario máximo fue de 1.3, el mínimo de 0.08 y el promedio de O.5larvasde E. ello (11 y 111 instar. No se encontraron machos en nidos menores de 50 celdas y en mayores de 50 celdas el número de machos incrementa con el crecimiento del nido llegando a ser casi igual al de las hembras. De 412 nidos el17 % estaban parasitados por Oxysarcodexia sp., (Diptera: Sacophagidae siendo el enemigo natural más frecuente de larvas y pupas de Polistes. Este insecto es a su vez parasitado por los himenópteros Pachyneuron sp. (Pteromalidae y Brachymeria conica Ashmead (Chalcididae.The duration average of the cycle life of P. erythrocephalus (Iatitude 3°30'N, longitude 76°22'21"W; 965 altitude; 23.7°C was 110 days and ranged between91 and 131 days. Predatory capacity depends on the number of larva. The maximum number of larva consumed by one Polistes larva per day was 1.3 and the minimum was 0.08 with a mean of 0.5 hornworm larva (11 y III instar. Males were not found in nests with less than 50 cells. In nests with more than 50 cells the number of males increase with increasing number of cells until they equal the number of female. Of the 412 nests examined, 17 % were attached by Oxysarcodexia sp [(Diptera: sarcophaqidae. This insect is in turn parasitized by several hymenoptera such as Pachyneuron sp (Pteromalidae y Brachymeria conica (Chalcididea.

  8. Toxoplasmosis Silvestre: relación presa-predador y papel funcional de pequeños felinos silvestres neotropicales en la transmisión -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    William A Cañón-Franco; N López-Orozco; A F Malheiros; M Santos-Filho; Gennari, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Pequeños felinos neotropicales se ubican en el tope de la cadena alimenticia y‚ aunque críticamente amenazados‚ ocho especies de felinos son relativamente abundantes en el continente americano‚ sin embargo‚ pocos estudios biológicos sobre la circulación de agentes infecciosos han sido realizados. Para determinar el papel epidemiológico que cumplen las poblaciones de felinos silvestres en la transmisión de la Toxoplasmosis en la región sur de Brasil (estado de Rio Grande do Sul)‚ fue determina...

  9. Field study of the relationship between skin-sensitizing antibody production in the cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus, and infestation by the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Acri: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, M J; Camin, J H; McNew, R W

    1979-10-01

    The resistance of cottontail rabbits to tick feeding appears correlated with the rabbits' development of skin-sensitizing antibodies. Resistance appeared to be greatest in adult rabbits which had been repeatedly infested with ticks. Rabbits with little exposure to ticks, usually the young cottontails, showed little or no skin-sensitizing antibody present in their blood and usually had relatively high tick loads when compared with adult rabbits. Models used to interpret the data show promise as tools for predicting tick population fluctuations and, perhaps, incidence of vector borne disease outbreaks. The existence of resistance to tick attachment has important implications for the host-parasite relationship. The research lends support to the hypothesis that the resistance may function as a homeostatic regulatory mechanism capable of maintaining the size of the tick population in equilibrium with the size of the rabbit population. In this way, host resistance may be advantageous to the parasite as well as to the host. PMID:512764

  10. Aplicação de formulação do fungo predador de nematóides Monacrosporium thaumasium (Drechsler, 1937 no controle de nematóides de bovinos

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    Alves P.H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A viabilidade de uma formulação do fungo Monacrosporium thaumasium (Drechsler, 1937 foi avaliada no controle biológico de nematóides parasitos gastrintestinais de bovinos. Dois grupos de sete bezerras cada, mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu, de quatro a seis meses de idade, foram colocados em pastagens de Cynodon dactilon. No grupo A, cada animal recebeu 20g de pellets (formulação granulada de M. thaumasium via oral, duas vezes por semana, durante quatro meses, com início na estação chuvosa (outubro, 2001. No grupo B (controle, as bezerras não receberam nenhum tratamento. As contagens de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG e das larvas infectantes encontradas na pastagem do grupo B foram significativamente maiores (P<0,05 do que as do grupo A e a diferença entre o OPG dos animais dos grupos A e B, no final do experimento, foi de 88,8%. O gênero Cooperia foi o mais prevalente em ambas as pastagens. Conclui-se que a aplicação de pellets de M. thaumasium na dosagem e periodicidade de aplicação usadas foi eficiente no controle de nematóides parasitos gastrintestinais de bovinos.

  11. Control of bovine gastrointestinal nematode parasites using pellets of the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium Controle de nematóides parasitos gastrintestinais de bovinos com pellets do fungo predador de nematóides Monacrosporium thaumasium

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    Jackson Victor de Araújo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The viability of a formulation of the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium associated with ivermectin was evaluated for the biological control of bovine gastrointestinal nematode parasites. Four groups of five calves each were placed in pastures with a stocking rate of 1.6 animal/hectare. In group 1 (control, the calves did not receive any treatment. In group 2, each animal received 20g of pellets of M. thaumasium orally twice a week during a six-month period that began with the onset of the rainy season (October 23, 2000. In group 3, each animal received 20g of pellets of M. thaumasium orally twice a week during the same period as 2, as well as two strategic treatments with ivermectin (200 mcg/kg on May 10, 2001 and July 5, 2001. In group 4, the animals were treated with ivermectin alone as described for group 3. EPG counts for group 1 were significantly greater (PA viabilidade de uma formulação do fungo Monacrosporium thaumasium associada com ivermectina foi avaliada no controle biológico de nematóides parasitos gastrintestinais de bovinos. Quatro grupos de cinco bezerros foram colocados em pastagens com uma taxa de lotação de 1,6 animal/hectare. No grupo 1 (controle, os bezerros não receberam nenhum tratamento. No grupo 2, cada animal recebeu 20 g de pellets de M. thaumasium, via oral, duas vezes por semana e durante um período de seis meses que começou na estação chuvosa (23 de outubro, 2000. No grupo 3, cada animal recebeu 20g de pellets de M. thaumasium, via oral, duas vezes por semana e durante o mesmo período do grupo 2, assim como dois tratamentos estratégicos com ivermectina (200 mcg/kg em 10 de maio de 2001 e em 5 de julho de 2001. No grupo 4, os animais foram tratados somente com ivermectina como descrito no grupo 3. As contagens de OPG dos animais do grupo 1 foram significativamente maiores (P< 0,01 do que os animais dos grupos 2 e 3 e a diferença no final do experimento foi próxima de 100%. Os OPGs dos animais do grupo 4 permaneceram altos até o primeiro tratamento estratégico com ivermectina. Os resultados do grupo 1 e 4 diferiram significativamente (P< 0,05 daqueles dos grupos 2 e 3 a partir de dezembro de 2000. Concluiu-se que a aplicação de pellets de M. thaumasium nesta dosagem e periodicidade de aplicação tornaram os tratamentos anti-helmínticos desnecessários.

  12. Seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados em pomares de pêssego a adultos do predador Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Selectivity of pesticides used in peach orchard on adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Vargas Castilhos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A seletividade de dezesseis agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada e convencional de pêssego foi avaliada sobre a fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa através de bioensaios de exposição residual conduzidos em laboratório (temperatura de 25±1ºC, umidade relativa 70±10% e fotofase 14 horas, utilizando-se de metodologia prescrita pela "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC. Os agrotóxicos (% de ingrediente ativo na calda azoxystrobina (0,016, captana (0,192, dodina (0,126, folpete (0,200, mancozebe (0,256, mancozebe + oxicloreto de cobre (0,140 + 0,096, tebuconazole (0,320, abamectina (0,002, óleo mineral 1 (2,420, óleo mineral 2 (1,920, dicloreto de paraquate (0,300 e glifosato (1,440 foram inócuos; deltametrina (0,002 foi levemente nocivo e dimetoato (0,160, fosmete (0,160 e malationa (0,240 foram nocivos a adultos de C. externa.The selectivity of sixteen pesticides used in integrated and conventional peach production was evaluated on adults of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen,1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae under bioassays in laboratory conditions (temperature of 25±1ºC, relative humidity 70±10% and 14 hours photophase, using the "International Organization for Biological Control" (IOBC methodology. The pesticides (% active ingredient azoxystrobin (0.016, captan (0.192, dodine (0.126, pholpet (0.200, mancozeb (0.256, mancozeb + cooper oxichloride (0.140 + 0.096, tebuconazole (0.320, abamectin (0.002, mineral oil 1 (2.420, mineral oil 2 (1.920, paraquat dichloride (0.300 and gliphosate (1.440 were harmless; deltametrin (0.002 was slightly harmful and dimetoate (0.160, phosmet (0.160 and malathion (0.240, were harmful to C. externa adults.

  13. Competência de peixes como predadores de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em condições de laboratório Efficacy of fish as predators of Aedes aegypti larvae, under laboratory conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti; Ricardo José Soares Pontes; Ana Cláudia Ferreira Regazzi; Francisco José de Paula Júnior; Rodrigo Lins Frutuoso; Emanuel Primos Sousa; Fábio Fernandes Dantas Filho; José Wellington de Oliveira Lima

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a competência de peixes na predação de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em condições de laboratório. MÉTODOS: Foram testados machos e fêmeas de cinco espécies de peixe. Os testes de predação duravam cinco semanas para cada espécie. Cada ensaio compreendia quatro caixas testes e quatro caixas controles. Das caixas controle, duas tinham somente um peixe e as outras duas, apenas larvas. Cada caixa teste continha um peixe e larvas. Na primeira semana foram expostas 100 larvas em cada ca...

  14. In vitro evaluation of nematophagous fungi patogenicity against nematode of domestic animals/
    Avaliação in vitro da patogenicidade de fungos predadores de nematóides parasitos de animais domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Alvimar José da Costa; Giane Serafim da Silva; Regina Célia Cândido; Jaime Maia dos Santos; Arlete Silveira Maia; Érika Barbosa Neves Graminha

    2001-01-01

    Biological control is a promising alternative for the control of pre-parasitic stages through the action of nematophagous fungi’s. The present study evaluated in vitro the patogenicity of both Arthrobotrys musiformis and A. conoides fungi on “infective larvae (or L3 state larvae)” of Haemonchus contortus, L3 larvae of Ancylostoma spp. And larvated eggs of the nematode Ascaridia galli. Nine groups were formed: six treated groups (G1A and G2A: L3 of H. contortus; G1B and G2B: L3 of Ancylostoma ...

  15. In vitro evaluation of nematophagous fungi patogenicity against nematode of domestic animals/ Avaliação in vitro da patogenicidade de fungos predadores de nematóides parasitos de animais domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar José da Costa

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is a promising alternative for the control of pre-parasitic stages through the action of nematophagous fungi’s. The present study evaluated in vitro the patogenicity of both Arthrobotrys musiformis and A. conoides fungi on “infective larvae (or L3 state larvae” of Haemonchus contortus, L3 larvae of Ancylostoma spp. And larvated eggs of the nematode Ascaridia galli. Nine groups were formed: six treated groups (G1A and G2A: L3 of H. contortus; G1B and G2B: L3 of Ancylostoma spp.; G1C and G2C: larvated eggs of A. galli, being that G1 with A. musiformis and G2 with A. conoides and three untreated groups (G3A, G3B and G3C: larvae of H. contortus, Ancylostoma spp. And eggs of A. galli, respectively, without fungi. Each treatment had ten repetitions (ten Petri dishes with an average of 120 larvae of H. contortus and 200 larvae of Ancylostoma spp. and, approximately, 100 larvated A. galli eggs. The results showed A. musiformis plundered 66% and 94% of Ancylostoma spp. L3 larvae and H. contortus L3 larvae, respectively. While that A. conoides plundered 51,7% and 89,4% at the same larvae. The nematophagous fungi evaluated have not presented any predation type on A. galli larvated eggs. Afterwards, both are promising fungi as to their use for biological control of parasitic helminths of animal hosts.O controle biológico é uma alternativa promissora no controle dos estágios pré-parasitários de helmintos, por meio da ação de fungos nematófagos. Com este propósito, o presente estudo avaliou in vitro a patogenicidade dos fungos Arthrobotrys musiformis e A. conoides sobre larvas infectantes de Haemonchus contortus, Ancylostoma spp. e ovos larvados de Ascaridia galli. Foram utilizados nove grupos: seis tratamentos (G1A e G2A: L3 de H. contortus; G1B e G2B: L3 de Ancylostoma spp.; G1C e G2C: ovos larvados de A. galli, com A. musiformis (G1 e A. conoides (G2, respectivamente e três testemunhos (G3A, G3B e G3C: larvas de H. contortus, Ancylostoma spp. e ovos de A. galli, respectivamente, na ausência do fungo. Cada tratamento constou de dez repetições (placas de Petri, de 90mm de diâmetro, com média de 120 larvas de H. contortus, 200 larvas de Ancylostoma spp. e média de 100 ovos de A. galli. Os resultados demostraram que A. musiformis predou 66,33% e 94,44% das larvas infectantes de Ancylostoma spp. e H. contortus, respectivamente. Enquanto que A. conoides predou 51,76% e 89,39% das mesmas larvas. Os fungos nematófagos avaliados não apresentaram predação sobre ovos larvados de A. galli. Portanto, ambos os fungos mostraram-se promissores quanto a sua utilização no biocontrole desses helmintos parasitos de animais domésticos.

  16. Does predator benefits prey? Commensalism between Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae) and Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) in Southeastern Brazil O predador beneficia sua presa? Comensalismo entre Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae) e Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) no Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Callisto; Michael D.C. Goulart; Pablo Moreno; Martins, Rogério P.

    2006-01-01

    Commensalism between Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) and Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) larvae was recorded in Indaiá stream, at 1,380 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, 19º-20ºS, 43º-44ºW) and in the headwaters of São Francisco river, at 1,300-1,700 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, 20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W), in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Seventy eight Corydalus larvae (range 22-88 mm) were sampled: 61 in ...

  17. Seletividade de alguns agrotóxicos em uso na citricultura ao ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Residual toxicity of the main pesticides recommended in citrus orchards on predaceous mite Neoseiulus californicus (Mcgregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Zatti da Silva; Carlos Amadeu Leite de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), em condições de laboratório, por tratar-se de um fitoseídeo com grande potencialidade para ser utilizado no controle dos ácaros fitófagos na cultura. O método de bioensaio adotado foi o de contato direto e residual. Folhas de citros da variedade Pêra, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de N. californicus procedentes de uma criação-estoque, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Aval...

  18. Controle biológico do ácaro rajado com ácaros predadores fitoseídeos (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) em culturas de pepino e morango Biological control of the two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae) in cucumber and strawberry crops

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, M. A.; G.J. de Moraes; I. Gastaldo Jr.; Nicolella, G

    1994-01-01

    O ácaro rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch, é considerado uma das principais pragas de hortaliças e várias outras culturas no Brasil, em áreas onde um considerável volume de acaricidas é anualmente empregado no seu controle. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a viabilidade técnica do emprego dos fitoseídeos Amblyseius idaeus (Denmark & Muma) e Phytoseudus macropilis (Banks), comum ente encontrados no Brasil, no controle de T. urticae em pepino e morangueiro em Jaguaríúna,SP. Utilizou-se o del...

  19. Morfologia dos imaturos e do adulto de Coccidophilus citricola Brèthes (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Sticholotidinae, predador de cochonilhas-de-carapaça (Hemiptera, Diaspididae de citros Morphology of immatures and adult of Coccidophilus citricola Brèthes (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Sticholotidinae, predator of citrus armored scales (Hemiptera, Diaspididae

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    Ricardo Adaime da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Imaturos e adultos de Coccidophilus citricola Brèthes, 1905 são descritos e ilustrados com auxílio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A larva é comparada com as de Microweisea Cockerel e outras espécies de Coccinellidae, e o adulto com duas espécies norte-americanas de Coccidophilus Brèthes.Immatures and adults of Coccidophilus citricola Brèthes, 1905 are described and illustrated, using scanning electron microscopy. The larva is compared to those of Microweisea Cockerel and other species of Coccinellidae, and the adults with two North American species of the Genus Coccidophilus Brèthes.

  20. Redescription, synonymy, and new records of Vexillata noviberiae (Dikmans, 1935) (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina), a parasite of rabbits Sylvilagus spp. (Leporidae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiani, María Celina; Kinsella, John M; Kass, Thomas B; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude

    2007-08-01

    Vexillata noviberiae (Dikmans, 1935) (Trichostrongylina: Heligmosomoidea), originally described as a parasite of Sylvilagus floridanus from Louisiana, is redescribed from material collected from Sylvilagus palustris in Florida and from S. floridanus in Kansas. New morphometric and morphological data are provided. Stunkardionema halla Arnold, 1941, described from S. floridanus from Kansas and New York, is proposed as a junior synonym of V. noviberiae. These findings confirm the occurrence of V. noviberiae as a parasite of rabbits and its wide distribution range in North America. PMID:17918368

  1. Attack behavior of Podisus rostralis (Heteroptera: Pentatomidade adults on caterpillars of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    Walkymário Paulo Lemos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Attack behavior of the predator Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae adults on fourth instar Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae caterpillars was studied in laboratory conditions. Ten 24 hours old adults of this predator were observed during two hours with the following attack behavior: (1 Predator: prey finding; prey observation; touching prey with antenna; attack behavior; prey paralysis; predator retreat after attack; attack cessation; successive attacks; and (2 Prey: defense. The predator P. rostralis found its prey before attacking and it approached it with slow circular movements. The attack was usually made in the posterior part of the prey to reduce defense reaction. Larger size of prey in relation to the predator resulted difficult prey paralysis but it occurred in less than two hours.Estudou-se, em laboratório, o comportamento de ataque de adultos do predador Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae tendo como presa lagartas de quarto estádio de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae. Dez adultos do predador, com 24 horas de idade, foram observados durante duas horas acompanhando-se os seguintes comportamentos de ataque: (1 Predador: localização da presa; observação da presa; toque das presas com as antenas; comportamento de ataque; paralisação da presa; fuga do predador após ataque; finalização do ataque; ataques sucessivos; e (2 Presa: defesa. O predador P. rostralis localizou sua presa antes do ataque, aproximando-se dela através de lentos movimentos circulares. O ataque é, usualmente, realizado na parte posterior da presa para reduzir reação de defesa. O maior tamanho da presa em relação ao predador pode dificultar a paralisação, porém o predador consegue paralisá-la em menos de duas horas.

  2. Nutritional upgrading for omnivorous carpenter ants by the endosymbiont Blochmannia

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller Martin J; Stoll Sascha; Berthold Kristina; Krischke Markus; Straka Josef; Feldhaar Heike; Gross Roy

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus) are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function in nutritional upgrading of host resources by the bacterium. Thus, the strongly reduced genome of the endosymbiont retains genes for all subunits of a functional urease, as well as those for biosynthetic pathways for all but one (arginine) of the amino acids essent...

  3. Avaliação de risco e plasticidade comportamental limitada em girinos de Rhinella ornata (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Renan N. Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os girinos de anuros são elementos importantes das redes tróficas de ambientes aquáticos, sendo recurso alimentar de diversos tipos de predadores. Desta maneira, os girinos apresentam uma grande variedade de mecanismos de defesa que podem ser morfológicos, comportamentais e/ou fisiológicos. A impalatabilidade, produzida pelo acúmulo de substâncias tóxicas na pele, é um mecanismo comum em muitas linhagens de anfíbios. No entanto, alguns predadores não são afetados por estas substâncias tóxicas, o que pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de mecanismos alternativos de defesa contra predação. Neste contexto, nosso objetivo foi avaliar se girinos impalatáveis de Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824, podem apresentar mecanismos comportamentais de defesa contra predação na presença de predadores que não são afetados pelas substâncias tóxicas em sua pele. Para testar nossa hipótese, utilizamos dois tipos de predadores aquáticos: um heteróptero aquático do gênero Belostoma e uma larva de libélula do gênero Aeshna. Os girinos foram colocados em aquários com pistas visuais e químicas dos predadores (experimento de risco direto, somente pistas químicas (experimento de risco indireto e ausência completa de sinais de predadores (controle. Em ambos os casos, o comportamento de natação foi observado durante 5 minutos. Durante os experimentos não houve alteração no comportamento de natação dos girinos.

  4. Selección del lugar de nidificación por el Alimoche (Neophron percnopterus en Navarra.

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    CEBALLOS, O., DONAZAR, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    los rigores climáticos y a los mamíferos predadores. Se seleccionan activamente roquedos y emplazamientos de nidos orientados hacia el sur, evitando la incidencia de los vientos húmedos y fríos que provienen del norte y noroeste.

  5. Varroose

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Sância

    2006-01-01

    A abelha melífera ocidental, como todos os seres vivos, em todas as fases do seu desenvolvimento, está sujeita ao ataque de vários inimigos (predadores, parasitas e agentes patogénicos vários) que agem, directa ou indirectamente, perturbando a vida da colónia de várias formas.

  6. Sarcocystis leporum in cottontail rabbits and its transmission to carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, R; Kradel, D

    1977-04-01

    Muscle from Sarcocystis-infected cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was fed to coccidia-free cats (Felis domestica) and dogs (Canis familiaris). Only cats became infected and shed sporocysts in their feces. The prepatent period ranged from 10 to 25 days and the patent period from 3 to 46 days. Sporocysts were fully sporulated when shed. They contained 4 sporozoites and a coarse granular residuum and averaged 9.4 by 13.6 micron (N=55). Doses of 200-75,000 sporocysts were orally administered to 5 domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Domestic rabbits did not become infected, suggesting a strict host specificity for the intermediate host S. floridanus. PMID:405509

  7. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Escudero Duch; Williams, Richard A. J.; Timm, Robert M.; Javier Perez-Tris; Laura Benitez

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, an...

  8. Transmission of Sarcocystis leporum from a cottontail rabbit to domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, J M; Prestwood, A K

    1977-04-01

    Muscle tissue containing grossly visible cysts of Sarcocystis leporum from a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) was fed to laboratory cats. Sporocysts averaging 13.2 x 9.7 micron were detected in the feces 14 days post-infection and were found until 69 days post-infection. PMID:405510

  9. Predation risk versus pesticide exposure: effects of fear and loathing on aquatic invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, João Luís Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    Os organismos aquáticos apresentam respostas plásticas à presença de predadores que são induzidas por pistas químicas presentes na água. Estas respostas além de minimizar os efeitos de predação, têm também custos associados que podem incluir alterações na tolerância às variações ambientais tais como contaminação por pesticidas. Os efeitos dos pesticidas em sistemas naturais resultam assim da toxicidade mas também do efeito nas interacções predador-presa. Apesar de extremamente relevante...

  10. Períodos de ausência de presas e estabilidade do controle biológico do ácaro-rajado Periods of prey absence and stability of the spider mite biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton Oliveira; Vanessa Duarte; Daniela Rezende; Marcos Antônio Matiello Fadini; Angelo Pallini

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os parâmetros biológicos do ácaro predador Phytoseiulus macropilis na ausência de alimento por períodos de um a seis dias. Foram avaliados: o número de ovos por fêmea ao dia; o número total de ovos; a longevidade de fêmeas; e a razão sexual dos descendentes. Fêmeas que ficaram por mais de três dias sem alimento apresentaram queda em todas variáveis biológicas avaliadas. O predador P. macropilis somente se estabelecerá em campo se as manchas ocupadas pelo ...

  11. Fatores que afetam artrópodes associados a cinco acessos de ginseng-brasileiro (Pfaffia glomerata) em Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais = Factors affecting arthropods associated with five accessions of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata) in Montes Claros, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite; Mayra Pimenta; Péricles Leonardo Fernandes; Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Ernane Ronnie Martins

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar artrópodes associados a cinco acessos ('NDS', 'COVB', 'NAT', 'ROST' e 'GSD1') de Pfaffia glomerata, bem como o efeito de clima, dossel, face foliar, tricomas e inimigos naturais sobre a entomofauna. Dos artrópodes observados, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) apresentaram maior densidade populacional. Dos inimigos naturais observados, ácaros predadores est...

  12. Diet and feeding ecology of the Antarctic skua in New Island, Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Tatiana de Mendonça

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Ecologia Marinha, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Os moleiros são aves marinhas filogeneticamente relacionadas com as gaivotas (ordem: Charadriiformes), pertencentes à família Stercorariidae. Estas aves passam a maior parte do tempo no oceano, vindo a terra apenas com o intuito de se reproduzirem. Apresentam dimorfismo sexual invertido, sendo as fêmeas geralmente maiores que os machos. Estes animais são predadores generalistas, alimentando-se oportunis...

  13. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana M.; Marques, Andreia T.; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S.; Almeida, André M.

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  14. Identification of a bitter-taste receptor gene repertoire in different Lagomorphs species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The repertoires of bitter taste receptor (T2R gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, Lepus europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi and Sylvilagus floridanus, using Oryctolagus cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of Oryctolagus cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in Romerolagus diazi and Sylvilagus floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification.

  15. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana M; Marques, Andreia T; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S; Almeida, André M

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  16. Discovery of Defense- and Neuropeptides in Social Ants by Genome-Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Christian W.; Markus Muttenthaler

    2012-01-01

    Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant), Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant) and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus). Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulato...

  17. Hematologic comparisons of shot and live trapped cottontail rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, H A; Kirkpatrick, R L; Burkhart, H E; Davis, J W

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons were made between hematologic measurements of shot and box-trapped cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Trapped rabbits had significantly (P less than 0.001) higher serum corticoid levels and segmented neutrophil percentages and significantly (P less than 0.001) lower lymphocyte percentages than did shot rabbits. Trapped rabbits also had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher packed cell volumes and blood urea nitrogen values than did shot rabbits. PMID:633520

  18. Density and habitat requirements of sympatric hares and cottontails in northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Vidus Rosin; Alessandro Montagna; Alberto Meriggi; Sara Serrano Perez

    2010-01-01

    Abstract From 2005 to 2009, densities and habitat selection by the European hare (Lepus europaeus) and Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) were assessed during feeding activity in an intensively cultivated area in northern Italy. Hare average density (74 ind./km2) was comparable to the highest values reported for European farming areas. Preand post-breeding density fluctuated widely across the...

  19. [Presence in France of a selvatic Xenopsylla: X. cunicularis Smit, 1957 (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae), a parasite of wild rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucournu, J C; Launay, H

    1977-01-01

    The authors point out, for the first time in France, a selvatic Xenopsylla: X. cunicularis Smit, 1957, parasite on the European rabbit, well-known in Morocco and Spain until today. The paleogeographical, ecological, and epidemiological interest of this parasite is laid stress on. The other fleas linked to the European rabbit are evoked, and the acclimatization of Euphoplopsyllus glacialis affinis (Baker, 1904), in France and Italy, introduced with its host Sylvilagus? floridanus is related. PMID:580913

  20. Genome structure of cottontail rabbit herpesvirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Cebrian, J; Berthelot, N; Laithier, M

    1989-01-01

    The genome structure of a herpesvirus isolated from primary cultures of kidney cells from the cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus was elucidated by using electron microscopy and restriction enzyme analysis. The genome, which was about 150 kilobase pairs long and which had an average G + C composition of 45%, consisted of two regions with unique base sequences (54 and 47 kilobase pairs) enclosed by reiterations of a 925-base-pair sequence with a variable copy number. The internal repeats w...

  1. Cortisol and aldosterone comparisons of cottontail rabbits collected by shooting, trapping, and falconry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G D; Weeks, H P

    1985-01-01

    Cortisol and aldosterone levels were measured in plasma of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) collected by three different methods, i.e., shooting, live-trapping and falconry. Cortisol levels ranged from near 0 to 27.5 micrograms/100 ml and aldosterone from near 0 to 220 ng/100 ml. Shot animals had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than those taken by either of the other methods. Trapped cottontails also had significantly lower aldosterone levels. PMID:3981742

  2. Circular Herpesvirus sylvilagus DNA in spleen cells of experimentally infected cottontail rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Medveczky, P; Kramp, W J; Sullivan, J L

    1984-01-01

    Cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were infected with Herpesvirus sylvilagus, and spleen cells were analyzed for the presence of virus-specific, covalently closed circular, and linear DNA molecules by a simple electrophoretic technique, followed by transfer to nitrocellulose filters and hybridization with cloned viral DNA (Gardella et al., J. Virol. 50:248-254, 1984). Approximately 0.2 copies per cell of circular DNA and 0.2 copies per cell of linear DNA were detected by hybridization...

  3. Identification of a bitter-taste receptor gene repertoire in different Lagomorphs species

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M Ferreira; Marques, Andreia T.; Luca eFontanesi; Carl-Gustaf eThulin; Elvira eSales-Baptista; Susana S. Araújo; Almeida, André M.

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, Lepus europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi and Sylvilagus floridanus, using Oryctolagus cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and D...

  4. Modelling the habitat requirements of invasive Eastern Cottontail () introduced to Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolino, Sandro; Ingegno, Barbara; Girardello, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We analysed the spatial distribution of Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and its relationship with the habitat attributes of the agro-ecosystems in north-western Italy. We used generalised linear models to analyse the relationship between the occurrence of the cottontail and a series of landscape-level variables. Hierarchical partitioning was used to estimate the independent contribution of these variables. Our analysis showed that cottontail is typically a lowla...

  5. SERUM ANTIBODIES TO WHOLE-CELL AND RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS OF BORRELIA BURGDORFERI IN COTTONTAIL RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Magnarelli, Louis A.; Norris, Steven J; Fikrig, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Archived serum samples, from 95 eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) captured in New York, New York, USA and Millbrook, New York, USA, during 1985–86, were analyzed in solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for total and class-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Using a polyvalent conjugate, rabbit sera contained antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens (protein [p]35, p37...

  6. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infects both B and T lymphocytes in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Kramp, W J; Medveczky, P; Mulder, C; Hinze, H C; Sullivan, J L

    1985-01-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied as a model of herpesvirus-induced lymphoproliferative disorders. Leukocytosis, splenomegaly, proliferation of T cells and virus production by lymphocytes characterized this infectious mononucleosis-like disease. Approximately two copies of circular herpesvirus sylvilagus genomes per cell were detected in spleen cells at 2 weeks postinfection, and circular genomes could still be observed after 4 months. ...

  7. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Wild Cottontail Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, R; Glantz, P J; Anthony, R G

    1977-03-01

    Free-ranging cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from two areas in central Pennsylvania were sampled over a 4-year period. Large numbers of coliforms were isolated from the intestinal tracts of these animals; in 136 of the 141 rabbits sampled, Escherichia coli was found to be a major component of the alimentary flora. Four serogroups (O7, O77, O73, and O103) were predominant among the isolates and were considered resistant coliflora of this species of cottontail rabbit. PMID:16345208

  8. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M Ferreira; Marques, Andreia T.; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Susana S. Araújo; Almeida, André M.

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequenci...

  9. Pathogenesis of Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection in cottontail rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselton, R. M.; Yang, W.C.; Medveczky, P; Sullivan, J L

    1988-01-01

    Experimental infection with Herpesvirus sylvilagus produces clinical and histopathologic changes in its natural host, the cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), similar to those observed in humans acutely infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Twenty-seven seronegative cottontail rabbits were infected with Herpesvirus sylvilagus and all developed antibodies within 10 days. Neutralizing antibody was detected as early as 7 days after infection. Virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cel...

  10. First Isolation and Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato from Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, J H; Kollars, T. M.; Chandler, F W; James, A. M.; Masters, E. J.; Lane, R S; Huey, L. O.

    1998-01-01

    Five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Missouri are described. This represents the first report and characterization of such isolates from that state. The isolates were obtained from either Ixodes dentatus or Amblyomma americanum ticks that had been feeding on cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from a farm in Bollinger County, Mo., where a human case of Lyme disease had been reported. All isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence by using monocl...

  11. Serological prevalence of tularemia in cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Cooper, M

    1990-04-01

    Sera of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) collected in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984 were screened for the presence of antibodies against Francisella tularensis by rapid slide agglutination and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay techniques; 6% of 118 and 16% of 119 samples were positive by these methods, respectively. Rabbits gained, lost and maintained titers over at least an 8 mo period. Francisella tularensis tularensis was isolated from one serologically negative, clinically healthy rabbit. PMID:2338733

  12. Associations of passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamer Sarah A; Hickling Graham J; Keith Rich; Sidge Jennifer L; Walker Edward D; Tsao Jean I

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Wild birds contribute to maintenance and dissemination of vectors and microbes, including those that impact human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Here we elucidate roles of wild passerine birds, eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), and Ixodes dentatus ticks in enzootic cycles of two spirochetes, Borrelia miyamotoi and B. andersonii in a region of Michigan where the zoonotic pathogen B. burgdorferi co-circulates. Methods Over a four-year period, wild b...

  13. Unprecedented loss of ammonia assimilation capability in a urease-encoding bacterial mutualist

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    Wernegreen Jennifer J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blochmannia are obligately intracellular bacterial mutualists of ants of the tribe Camponotini. Blochmannia perform key nutritional functions for the host, including synthesis of several essential amino acids. We used Illumina technology to sequence the genome of Blochmannia associated with Camponotus vafer. Results Although Blochmannia vafer retains many nutritional functions, it is missing glutamine synthetase (glnA, a component of the nitrogen recycling pathway encoded by the previously sequenced B. floridanus and B. pennsylvanicus. With the exception of Ureaplasma, B. vafer is the only sequenced bacterium to date that encodes urease but lacks the ability to assimilate ammonia into glutamine or glutamate. Loss of glnA occurred in a deletion hotspot near the putative replication origin. Overall, compared to the likely gene set of their common ancestor, 31 genes are missing or eroded in B. vafer, compared to 28 in B. floridanus and four in B. pennsylvanicus. Three genes (queA, visC and yggS show convergent loss or erosion, suggesting relaxed selection for their functions. Eight B. vafer genes contain frameshifts in homopolymeric tracts that may be corrected by transcriptional slippage. Two of these encode DNA replication proteins: dnaX, which we infer is also frameshifted in B. floridanus, and dnaG. Conclusions Comparing the B. vafer genome with B. pennsylvanicus and B. floridanus refines the core genes shared within the mutualist group, thereby clarifying functions required across ant host species. This third genome also allows us to track gene loss and erosion in a phylogenetic context to more fully understand processes of genome reduction.

  14. Arrangement of repetitive sequences in the genome of herpesvirus Sylvilagus.

    OpenAIRE

    Medveczky, M M; Geck, P; Clarke, C; Byrnes, J; Sullivan, J L; Medveczky, P G

    1989-01-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus is a lymphotropic (type gamma) herpesvirus of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Analysis of virion DNA of herpesvirus sylvilagus has revealed that the genome consists of one stretch of about 120 kilobase pairs of internal, unique DNA flanked by a variable number of 553-base-pair tandem repeats. The G + C content of the repetitive DNA is extremely high (83%), as determined by sequencing. The organization of the herpesvirus sylvilagus genome is, therefore, simil...

  15. Neuronal representation and processing of chemosensory communication signals in the ant brain

    OpenAIRE

    Zube, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Ants heavily rely on olfaction for communication and orientation and ant societies are characterized by caste- and sex-specific division of labor. Olfaction plays a key role in mediating caste-specific behaviours. I investigated whether caste- and sex-specific differences in odor driven behavior are reflected in specific differences and/or adaptations in the ant olfactory system. In particular, I asked the question whether in the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, the olfactory pathway exh...

  16. Avaliação da infestação e diversidade de Teredinidae (Mollusca - Bivalvia) ao longo da costa do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Evaluation of the infestation and diversity of Teredinidae (Mollusca - Bivalvia) along the coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Junqueira, Andrea O. R.; Sergio Henrique G. da Silva; Maria Júlia M. Silva

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diversity and infestation level of Teredinidae wood-boring molluscs, ten satations were chosen along the coast of Rio de Janeiro State. Using five pine-wood panels in each station, it was possible to distinguish five areas according to species dominance. Ilha Grande Bay is characterized by the dominance of Lyrodus floridanus (Bartsch, 1922); Sepetiba Bay, by Bankia fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Tijuca Lagoon by Teredo navalis Linnaeus, 1758; Guanabara Bay by Notoredo...

  17. Clinal variation of some mammals during the Holocene in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, James R.

    1980-03-01

    Eastern cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus), fox squirrel ( Sciurus niger), and gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis) were examined for clinal variation during the Holocene. Modern samples of all three species displayed strong east-west patterns along the western edge of the eastern deciduous forest: S. floridanus and S. niger decrease and S. carolinensis increases in size. Archeological samples of S. carolinensis from Rodgers Shelter (23BE125), Benton County, Missouri, and Graham Cave (23MT2), Montgomery County, Missouri, indicated an increase in size from early to middle Holocene. Sylvilagus floridanus from Rodgers Shelter decreased in size from early to middle Holocene and then increased during the late Holocene to modern proportions. A literature survey reveals that clinal variation is a common phenomenon among modern homeotherms. In introduced species, clinal variation has developed after relatively few generations, indicating rapid adaptations to environmental conditions; often winter climatic variables are implicated. Morphological variation in the study species during the Holocene is interpreted as a response to changing climates. Studies of morphological clines may lead to another valuable data source for reconstructing past ecologies.

  18. Behavioural responses of captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submitted to antipredator training Respostas comportamentais de emas cativas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submetidas a treinamentoanti-predação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have been diminishing greater rhea Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 populations throughout their natural distribution. The reintroductions of captive-born greater rheas have been tried but without success; since the individuals reintroduced were killed by predators. Captive-born animals that have been isolated from predators for many generations can lose their predator recognition abilities. To enhance the survival rates of the reintroduced animals, researchers are now using antipredator training techniques. We studied the response of 15 zoo-borne greater rheas to antipredator training. The animals were divided into three groups: two test groups and one control group. We ran 15 antipredator tests and four control testes with each group. Antipredator tests consisted of pairing a taxidermized predator model or a real predator (domestic dog with a simulation of a capture procedure. Control tests consisted of presenting the predator model (jaguar to the birds, after training but not associating it with an aversive event and recording behavioural responses. All tests were video-recorded and analysed a posteriori. Results showed that the trained rheas responded appropriately to the predators, becoming more vigilant and that there was considerable individual differences in response to antipredator training. The results demonstrated that antipredator training is effective and therefore an invaluable tool for reintroduction projects involving greater rheas. Furthermore, the methods employed in this research project should be applicable to other species of flightless birds.As atividades humanas têm diminuído as populações de emas Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 por toda sua área de distribuição. Reintroduções de emas nascidas em cativeiro têm sido tentadas, mas sem sucesso, uma vez que os indivíduos reintroduzidos são mortos por predadores. Animais nascidos em cativeiro que foram isolados de seus predadores por várias gera

  19. Manejo integrado de pragas em macieira no Rio Grande do Sul II: uso de Neoseiulus californicus para o controle de Panonychus ulmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONTEIRO LINO B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de implementar o controle biológico de ácaro-vermelho Panonychus ulmi em macieira foi proposta uma estratégia de controle baseada na criação de Neoseiulus californicus em estufa, em liberações inundativas e no uso de acaricidas, em um pomar comercial de macieira da Rincão das Flores Agropastoril (Agriflor, em Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, entre 1992 e 1996. A amostragem do ácaro-vermelho orientou as liberações e as transferências de ácaros predadores, das estufas de criação e dos ramos provenientes da poda verde, para parcelas de alta incidência de ácaro-vermelho. A eficiência da estratégia de controle do ácaro-vermelho foi avaliada com o levantamento de ovos de inverno. No primeiro ano, a associação de acaricidas com ácaros predadores permitiu um reduzido número de ovos de inverno do ácaro-vermelho, em torno de 1,3 ovo por unidade de amostragem contra 59,8 ovos na testemunha. No segundo ano, 58% das macieiras não foram pulverizadas com acaricidas. Nos dois anos subseqüentes, o controle do ácaro-vermelho foi realizado exclusivamente com ácaros predadores. N. californicus passou o inverno nas ervas daninhas do pomar e migrou espontaneamente para a copa das macieiras nos anos subseqüentes a sua introdução.

  20. Efeitos da aplicação de agrotóxicos utilizados na produção integrada de maçã sobre pupas de Chrysoperla externa Effects of pesticides application used in integrated apple production on Chrysoperla externa pupae

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Pinho de Moura; Geraldo Andrade Carvalho; Olinto Lasmar; Valéria Fonseca Moscardini; Denise Tourino Rezende

    2009-01-01

    Devido à grande importância de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) como agente de controle biológico de artrópodes-praga na cultura da macieira no Brasil, avaliaram-se os efeitos dos agrotóxicos (g i.a. L-1) abamectina (0,02), carbaril (1,73), enxofre (4,80), fenitrotiona (0,75), metidationa (0,40) e triclorfom (1,50) em pupas desse predador, oriundas de Bento Gonçalves e Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, bem como sobre o desenvolvimento dos adultos obtidos e sua reprodução. A aplicação d...

  1. Atividade de fungos sobre ovos, larvas e oocistos de parasitas de ungulados silvestres e do cão

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Rita Magalhães da

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Nas últimas décadas, surgiram novos problemas tais como o agravamento de resistências a anti-helmínticos e os consequentes efeitos adversos que o seu uso abusivo pode trazer para o ambiente e para os produtos alimentares. Recorrer a um método de controlo biológico dos parasitas com a utilização de fungos telúricos nematófagos surge como uma alternativa muito promissora. Neste trabalho, foi investigada a eficácia do fungo predador...

  2. Efeito do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae) em pomar de macieira Effect of weed management on Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae) in apple orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro; Luiz Belli; Alexander Souza; André Luiz Werner

    2002-01-01

    Avaliou-se a influência do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre o deslocamento de ácaros tetraniquídeos (Panonychus ulmi e Tetranychus urticae) e do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus em um pomar de macieira 'Gala', onde foi implantado o controle biológico do ácaro vermelho, P. ulmi, por meio de liberações massais de N. californicus. As parcelas tiveram as plantas daninhas manejadas de três formas: sem manejo, com roçadas manuais e com herbicidas. As populações de ácaros foram avaliadas sobre...

  3. Condições atuais da esquistossomose no "Dique do Tororó" em Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B. Amorim

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados de observações realizadas entre os anos de 1971 a 1974 sobre a incidência humana da esquistosomose no Dique do Tororó, em Salvador, Bahia, após alí terem sido realizadas melhorias pela engenhària sanitária e medidas de combate biológico ao caramujo vetor pelo uso de peixes predadores. Comparando com os resultados obtidos por outros Autores em 1960, concluem que o Dique do Tororó não mais representa uma importante fonte de propagação da esquistosomose.

  4. Respuestas fenotípicas en larvas de anuros a situaciones cambiantes en los factores bióticos y abióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Valeria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Las respuestas fenotípicas son, comúnmente, respuestas adaptativas de los organismos que por lo general se mantienen por selección natural. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento de la estructura de una población exige saber cómo influyen los diferentes factores bióticos y abióticos -grado de cambio ambiental, presencia de predadores y competidores- sobre los organismos, teniendo en cuenta sus ciclos de vida y las estrategias evolutivas involucradas. Las larvas de anfibios son organismos muy intere...

  5. Uso de biomarcadores na avaliaçao dos efeitos do metilmercúrio em Hoplias malabaricus (Block, 1794) (Traíra)

    OpenAIRE

    Mela, Maritana

    2013-01-01

    O mercúrio está entre os poucos poluentes que se acumula em organismos topo de cadeia, através dos níveis tróficos inferiores, e sendo assim os organismos predadores são os mais expostos aos efeitos tóxicos deste metal. Neste trabalho a espécie Hoplias malabaricus (traíra) foi utilizada para avaliar experimentalmente o efeito subcrônico do metilmercúrio (MeHg) por via trófica. Nove exemplares foram utilizados como controles e nove foram expostos ao organometal através de doses consecutivas de...

  6. Lesiones post mortales por fauna cadavérica: La acción de las hormigas sobre el cadáver Post-mortal injuries by cadaveric fauna: The action of the ants on human corpses

    OpenAIRE

    P.M. Garamendi; M. López-Alcaraz; A. Mazón; Rodríguez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Los animales pueden actuar como predadores de los restos humanos y las lesiones postmortales que infligen en los cadáveres pueden dar lugar a errores de interpretación de los hallazgos en las autopsias forenses. Entre la fauna cadavérica, las hormigas constituyen un caso excepcional al ser los únicos insectos que pueden iniciar su actividad predadora antes de instaurarse la putrefacción. Las hormigas suelen producir lesiones que por su asiento y morfología resultan típicas. Se presenta un cas...

  7. A influência da larva de Chaoborus brasiliensis (Theobald, 1901 (Diptera, Chaoboridae na distribuição vertical da comunidade zooplanctônica da lagoa do Nado, Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais The influence of the Chaoborus brasiliensis (Theobald, 1901 (Diptera, Chaoboridae larvae in the zooplankton vertical distribution at Nado Lagoon, Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    José Fernandes Bezerra Neto

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisado o efeito do predador invertebrado, Chaoborus brasiliensis (Diptera, Chaoboridae, sobre a distribuição espacial dos táxons predominantes da comunidade zooplanctônica de um reservatório tropical raso, lagoa do Nado, explorando as mudanças na sobreposição espacial entre predador e presas durante a migração vertical diária. A comunidade zooplanctônica apresentou uma variada gama de respostas à pressão de predação exercida pelas larvas de Chaoborus. Diversos táxons exibiram MVD (Brachionus falcatus, B. caudatus, B. angularis, Moina micrura, Thermocyclops minutus e outros em que esse comportamento não foi tão nítido ou não foi detectado (K. cochlearis, K. tropica, K. bostoniensis e náuplios de T. minutus. A maioria dos táxons estudados tiveram a sua distribuição vertical associada à presença desse predador invertebrado, e a migração vertical diária dessas espécies foi importante na redução da sobreposição espacial com o predador. Além disso, o estudo demonstrou que esses padrões experimentam consideráveis mudanças ao longo do ciclo sazonal.The effects of Chaoborus brasiliensis (Diptera, Chaoboridae, an invertebrate predator, on the zooplankton spatial distribution in a shallow tropical reservoir, Nado Lagoon, were investigated in this work. The habitat overlap degree, i.e., the overlap in the vertical distribution of predator and potential preys was measured during diel vertical migration (DVM. The study focused the reservoir predominant taxa (defined as the most frequent and abundant species. Several organisms showed DVM (Brachionus falcatus, B. caudatus, B. angularis, Moina micrura and Thermocyclops minutus, while in others this behavior was not clear, or even not detected (Keratella cochlearis, K. tropica, K. bostoniensis and T minutus nauplii. The conclusion was that C. brasiliensis influenced directly most zooplankters spatial distribution in this reservoir, and DVM was important to reduce

  8. Fitofagia de Podisus nigrispinus em algodoeiro e plantas daninhas Phytophagy by Podisus nigrispinus on cotton plants and weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Santos Evangelista Júnior; Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim Junior; Jorge Braz Torres; Edmilson Jacinto Marques

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis plantas daninhas e do algodoeiro no desenvolvimento, reprodução e sobrevivência do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) sob escassez parcial de presas, alimentação em intervalos de três dias, e ausência total de presas. Com escassez parcial de presas, o desenvolvimento ninfal foi maior em Ricinus communis e menor em Bidens pilosa. Viabilidade dos ínstares, peso de fêmeas, período de pré-oviposição e ...

  9. CURVA DOSE-RESPOSTA DE COMPOSTOS QUÍMICOS EM ENSAIOS ECOTOXICOLÓGICOS COM NEMATOIDES

    OpenAIRE

    COUTINHO, H.S.; BATISTA, J.R.; IMBELONI, T.G.P; SILVA, V.M.; FREIRE, M.G.M.; V Mussi-Dias

    2015-01-01

    Os nematoides são organismos amplamente distribuídos nos ecossistemas terrestres e aquáticos, possuindo abundante diversidade de espécies parasitas de animais, de plantas, ou simplesmente compondo a biota com consumidores de bactérias e nutrientes no meio onde se encontram. Algumas espécies de nematoides de “vida livre” que não são predadores nem parasitas podem ser facilmente mantidos ou cultivados em laboratório, possibilitando seu uso e manipulação em pesquisa. Comumente, os en...

  10. Fatores de mortalidade na fase de ovo de Tuta absoluta em sistemas de produção orgânica e convencional de tomate

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    Maria Alice de Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A traça-do-tomateiro Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lep.: Gelechiidae está sujeita a fatores de mortalidade bióticos como predadores e parasitoides e fatores abióticos como água da irrigação e da chuva que influenciam sua dinâmica populacional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a importância desses fatores na sobrevivência de ovos da traça-do-tomateiro. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Embrapa Hortaliças, de 1/8/2004 a 7/11/2005, em plantio de tomate e tomate consorciado em sistema orgânico e tomate em sistema convencional. As avaliações consistiram em: 1 coleta de ovos no campo em diferentes épocas do ciclo da cultura e sua incubação em laboratório até a emergência do parasitoide ou eclosão da lagarta; 2 exposição de ovos sentinelas no campo por 72 horas; 3 ovos marcados e acompanhados a cada 24 horas até eclosão das lagartas em campo. Ovos coletados no campo e incubados em laboratório mostraram que a mortalidade por Trichogramma sp. foi de 32%. A mortalidade dos ovos que permaneceram no campo (metodologia 2 e 3, evidenciaram que o parasitismo por Trichogramma sp. foi de 12% e que os predadores e o efeito mecânico da água produziram 36% de mortalidade dos ovos. Essa diferença revela que a permanência dos ovos no campo os expõe à competição com predadores e a mortalidade causada pelo efeito mecânico da água reduzindo o recrutamento de Trichogramma sp. Parasitoides de ovos, predadores generalistas associados à ação da água acarretaram maior mortalidade de T. absoluta em sistemas de produção orgânica de tomate.

  11. Las arañas en agroecosistemas: bioindicadores terrestres de calidad ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Simó; Álvaro Laborda; Carolina Jorge; Manuel Castro

    2011-01-01

    Las arañas son predadores generalistas en ecosistemas terrestres, ampliamente utilizadas en estudios de biodiversidad. En el último siglo, el paisaje de Uruguay se transformó en un mosaico de áreas formadas por ambientes naturales y agroecosistemas. ¿Qué nivel de cambio se espera hallar en la comunidad de arañas si las áreas de estudio están próximas? ¿Qué porcentaje de especies nativas serán reemplazadas con la plantación? ¿Cómo afecta esto a la biodiversidad local? Se realizó un estudio en ...

  12. Períodos de ausência de presas e estabilidade do controle biológico do ácaro-rajado Periods of prey absence and stability of the spider mite biological control

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    Hamilton Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os parâmetros biológicos do ácaro predador Phytoseiulus macropilis na ausência de alimento por períodos de um a seis dias. Foram avaliados: o número de ovos por fêmea ao dia; o número total de ovos; a longevidade de fêmeas; e a razão sexual dos descendentes. Fêmeas que ficaram por mais de três dias sem alimento apresentaram queda em todas variáveis biológicas avaliadas. O predador P. macropilis somente se estabelecerá em campo se as manchas ocupadas pelo ácaro-rajado não estiverem muito distantes umas das outras.The objective of this work was to access the biological parameters of the predator mite Phytoseiulus macropilis in the food absence for periods of one or more days. Data evaluated were: egg number per female per day; total number of eggs; longevity of females; and the offspring sex rate. Female in starvation for three or more days showed decrease in all biological variables. P. macropilis only will settle in the field if patch populations occupied by spider mite are not very distant from each other.

  13. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae Uma nova espécie de Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae de uma área de Caatinga e novos registros de ocorrência de outros Heimbrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.Os limites geográficos de Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 e H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 são estendidos com base no material examinado das coleções entomológicas do Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brasil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae é descrita, ilustrada e comparada com a única espécie conhecida desse gênero, S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986. Uma chave para os gêneros de Heimbrinae e para as espécies de Symbra é fornecida.

  14. Acarofauna em cultivo de pinhão-manso e plantas espontâneas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Pires da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar ácaros na cultura de pinhão-manso e em espécies de plantas espontâneas associadas. Para isso, foram avaliadas a riqueza e a abundância de ácaros em plantas de pinhão-manso e em 14 espécies de plantas espontâneas associadas. As amostragens foram realizadas por meio de coletas mensais de folhas de plantas de pinhão-manso e de plantas espontâneas, nas entrelinhas do cultivo. Foram encontradas quatro espécies de ácaros predadores - Amblyseius tamatavensis, Paraphytoseius multidentatus, Typhlodromalus aripo e Typhlodromalus clavicus -, com potencial para uso no controle biológico de ácaros-praga na cultura do pinhão-manso, e duas importantes espécies de ácaros fitófagos - Brevipalpus phoenicis e Tarsonemus confusus - desconhecidas como praga da cultura. Entre as plantas espontâneas avaliadas, quatro espécies - Hyptis suaveolens, Peltaea riedelii, Urochloa mutica e Andropogon gayanus - abrigam grande riqueza e abundância de ácaros predadores, enquanto oito destacaram-se pela diversidade de ácaros fitófagos.

  15. Phylogenetic and transcriptomic analysis of chemosensory receptors in a pair of divergent ant species reveals sex-specific signatures of odor coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Slone, Jesse D; Rokas, Antonis; Berger, Shelley L; Liebig, Jürgen; Ray, Anandasankar; Reinberg, Danny; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2012-01-01

    Ants are a highly successful family of insects that thrive in a variety of habitats across the world. Perhaps their best-known features are complex social organization and strict division of labor, separating reproduction from the day-to-day maintenance and care of the colony, as well as strict discrimination against foreign individuals. Since these social characteristics in ants are thought to be mediated by semiochemicals, a thorough analysis of these signals, and the receptors that detect them, is critical in revealing mechanisms that lead to stereotypic behaviors. To address these questions, we have defined and characterized the major chemoreceptor families in a pair of behaviorally and evolutionarily distinct ant species, Camponotus floridanus and Harpegnathos saltator. Through comprehensive re-annotation, we show that these ant species harbor some of the largest yet known repertoires of odorant receptors (Ors) among insects, as well as a more modest number of gustatory receptors (Grs) and variant ionotropic glutamate receptors (Irs). Our phylogenetic analyses further demonstrate remarkably rapid gains and losses of ant Ors, while Grs and Irs have also experienced birth-and-death evolution to different degrees. In addition, comparisons of antennal transcriptomes between sexes identify many chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed between males and females and between species. We have also revealed an agonist for a worker-enriched OR from C. floridanus, representing the first case of a heterologously characterized ant tuning Or. Collectively, our analysis reveals a large number of ant chemoreceptors exhibiting patterns of differential expression and evolution consistent with sex/species-specific functions. These differentially expressed genes are likely associated with sex-based differences, as well as the radically different social lifestyles observed between C. floridanus and H. saltator, and thus are targets for further functional characterization

  16. Phylogenetic and transcriptomic analysis of chemosensory receptors in a pair of divergent ant species reveals sex-specific signatures of odor coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Zhou

    Full Text Available Ants are a highly successful family of insects that thrive in a variety of habitats across the world. Perhaps their best-known features are complex social organization and strict division of labor, separating reproduction from the day-to-day maintenance and care of the colony, as well as strict discrimination against foreign individuals. Since these social characteristics in ants are thought to be mediated by semiochemicals, a thorough analysis of these signals, and the receptors that detect them, is critical in revealing mechanisms that lead to stereotypic behaviors. To address these questions, we have defined and characterized the major chemoreceptor families in a pair of behaviorally and evolutionarily distinct ant species, Camponotus floridanus and Harpegnathos saltator. Through comprehensive re-annotation, we show that these ant species harbor some of the largest yet known repertoires of odorant receptors (Ors among insects, as well as a more modest number of gustatory receptors (Grs and variant ionotropic glutamate receptors (Irs. Our phylogenetic analyses further demonstrate remarkably rapid gains and losses of ant Ors, while Grs and Irs have also experienced birth-and-death evolution to different degrees. In addition, comparisons of antennal transcriptomes between sexes identify many chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed between males and females and between species. We have also revealed an agonist for a worker-enriched OR from C. floridanus, representing the first case of a heterologously characterized ant tuning Or. Collectively, our analysis reveals a large number of ant chemoreceptors exhibiting patterns of differential expression and evolution consistent with sex/species-specific functions. These differentially expressed genes are likely associated with sex-based differences, as well as the radically different social lifestyles observed between C. floridanus and H. saltator, and thus are targets for further functional

  17. Do captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae remember antipredator training? Emas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae se lembram do treinamento anti-predação?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The antipredator training is a powerful tool now being used to help the reintroduced animals to recognise and escape from their predators. Testing the memory capacity of the animals after antipredator training is important to evaluate if the application of the training is worthwhile. A group of 15 captive-born greater rheas was studied at Belo Horizonte Zoo. Eight birds were antipredator trained and seven birds were not. After the end of the antipredator training sessions, we run four memory tests at 40, 55, 70 and 88 days after training was completed. The memory tests consisted of showing a predator model to the rheas and recording their behavioural responses. It was measured the capacity of antipredator information storage, the influence of the group size on the behaviour of the birds and the influence of the antipredator training on the elicitation of the correct behavioural responses of the birds when confronted by a predator. The results showed that the rheas retained predator recognition for almost three months, that the group size affected the responses of the birds (more defence behaviours expressed when tested alone and that the antipredator training is essential to elicit the adequate antipredatory responses, since untrained birds behaved in a tranquil manner when confronted by a predator model. We concluded that antipredator training is worthwhile for future reintroduction programs for greater rheas, since their memory capacity is considerable.O treinamento anti-predação é uma ferramenta poderosa usada atualmente para ajudar os animais reintroduzidos a reconhecer e escapar de seus predadores. Testar a capacidade de memória dos animais após o treinamento é importante para se avaliar a validade de sua aplicação. Um grupo de 15 emas nascidas em cativeiro foi estudado no zoológico de Belo Horizonte. Oito aves foram treinadas contra predadores e sete não. Após o término dos treinamentos, foram realizados quatro testes de mem

  18. Food habits of bobcats in eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Story, J.D.; Galbraith, W.J.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in eastern Tennessee were determined from analyzing 176 cat samples collected on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Remains of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were the most frequently occurring food item. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) remains also were found frequently in samples. Data obtained from this study indicated that food preferences for bobcats in eastern Tennessee are similar to those in other southeastern states where the habitat is similar to the Oak Ridge area and somewhat different from those with significantly different habitat.

  19. Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

  20. Epizootiology of an outbreak of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in cottontail rabbits and woodchucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, H A; Scanlon, P F; Nettles, V F; Davidson, W R

    1976-07-01

    An epizootic of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and woodchucks (Marmota monax) caused by Baylisascaris procyonis larvae followed the establishment of an ascarid-infected raccoon (Procyon lotor) population in a woodlot. Five of seven raccoons examined from the woodlot harbored ascarids, with one heavily infected animal shedding approximately 27,500 eggs per gram of feces. A laboratory-reared cottontail rabbit developed neurologic disease due to larval migration 80 days after infection with B. procyonis eggs from the raccoons. PMID:16498877

  1. Arrangement of repetitive sequences in the genome of herpesvirus Sylvilagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medveczky, M M; Geck, P; Clarke, C; Byrnes, J; Sullivan, J L; Medveczky, P G

    1989-02-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus is a lymphotropic (type gamma) herpesvirus of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Analysis of virion DNA of herpesvirus sylvilagus has revealed that the genome consists of one stretch of about 120 kilobase pairs of internal, unique DNA flanked by a variable number of 553-base-pair tandem repeats. The G + C content of the repetitive DNA is extremely high (83%), as determined by sequencing. The organization of the herpesvirus sylvilagus genome is, therefore, similar to that of the primate lymphotropic viruses herpesvirus saimiri and herpesvirus ateles. PMID:2911114

  2. Serum antibody prevalence for Herpesvirus sylvilagus, Bacillus piliformis and California serogroup arboviruses in cottontail rabbits from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, R L; Ganaway, J R; Storm, G L; Tzilkowski, W M

    1988-04-01

    A serologic survey of 60 eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from three counties in Pennsylvania was conducted in March 1983. Serum antibody prevalences for Herpesvirus sylvilagus and La Crosse virus (California serogroup) were less than 4%. There was no evidence of previous exposure to either Jamestown Canyon or snowshoe hare viruses (California serogroup). Antibody to trivittatus virus (California serogroup) was found in 60% of the 20 cottontails from York County. No cottontails had antibodies to Bacillus piliformis, the etiologic agent of Tyzzer's disease. PMID:3373643

  3. Genetic differentiation among cottontails from isolated playa basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bussche, R A; Hamilton, M J; Chesser, R K; Scribner, K T

    1987-11-30

    Protein variation in 182 Sylvilagus floridanus from 19 playa basins in Castro Co., Texas was examined using starch-gel electrophoresis. Heterozygote deficiencies were noted for all populations. This heterozygote deficiency may be due to differential selection against heterozygous individuals over the winter months. Results of F-statistics indicated a significant degree of population differentiation at six loci. Nei's genetic distance between populations ranged from 0.20 to 0.388 and a significant association between genetic distance and linear geographic distance among playas was found. These results suggest that genetic exchange and long-distance dispersal may be hindered by expanses of unsuitable habitat. PMID:3504804

  4. Circular Herpesvirus sylvilagus DNA in spleen cells of experimentally infected cottontail rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medveczky, P; Kramp, W J; Sullivan, J L

    1984-11-01

    Cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were infected with Herpesvirus sylvilagus, and spleen cells were analyzed for the presence of virus-specific, covalently closed circular, and linear DNA molecules by a simple electrophoretic technique, followed by transfer to nitrocellulose filters and hybridization with cloned viral DNA (Gardella et al., J. Virol. 50:248-254, 1984). Approximately 0.2 copies per cell of circular DNA and 0.2 copies per cell of linear DNA were detected by hybridization with a cloned viral DNA fragment. The size of the viral DNA was estimated at ca. 158 kilobase pairs. Restriction endonuclease patterns suggested structural similarities to cottontail herpesvirus DNA. PMID:6092696

  5. Descubrimiento de mamíferos fósiles de edad lujanense (pleistoceno tardío) en el "desierto" de la tatacoa (huila, colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Villaroel A., Carlos; Brieva B., Jorge; Cadena, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Se da a conocer el descubrimiento de una pequeña cuenca sedimentaria con mamíferos fósiles, en el lugar denominado Los Hoyos, dentro del ámbito del "desierto" de La Tatacoa. Aunque los estudios taxonómicos de los fósiles no están aún completos, no cabe duda de que se trata, de dos formas afines a especies vivientes, identificadas como Sylvilagus aff. floridanus y Tayassu aff. tajacu , y una tercera forma, referida a la familia Gomphotheriidae. Con base en esta pequeña fauna, se data el yacimi...

  6. Hematology and serum chemistry of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A

    1991-10-01

    In 1983 and 1984 blood was collected from 79 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to an outdoor enclosure in southern Illinois to establish reference values for hematology and serum chemistry. Packed cell volume, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, calcium, carbon dioxide, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and osmolality were measured. Sex and age (adult versus juvenile) of rabbit as well as season (June to September versus October to May) and method of capture (trap versus shot) variously affected most hematology and serum chemistry variables. PMID:1758030

  7. Sarcocystis and related organisms in Australian Wildlife: IV. Studies on Sarcocystis cuniculi in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, B L; Smith, D D; Frenkel, J K

    1980-04-01

    The role of the cat (Felis domestica) as a definitive host for Sarcocystis cuniculi of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was confirmed. It was shown that after dosing with sporocysts from cats, rabbits developed sarcocysts and these became infective for cats at not less than 93 days post-infection (p.i.). The earliest infection detected was at 142 days p.i. Infected muscle from an experimental rabbit did not transmit Sarcocystis when fed to other rabbits. Microscopically, sarcocysts in European rabbits (O. cuniculus) were morphologically indistinguishable from those in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). PMID:6776293

  8. Dummies versus air puffs: efficient stimulus delivery for low-volatile odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Aiming to unravel how animals perceive odors, a variety of neurophysiological techniques are used today. For olfactory stimulation, odors are commonly incorporated into a constant airstream that carries odor molecules to the receptor organ (air-delivered stimulation). Such odor delivery works well for odors of high volatility (naturally effective over long distances) but less or not at all for low-volatile odors (usually only received at short range). We developed a new odor stimulation technique especially suited for low-volatile odors and compared it with conventional air-delivered stimulation using 2 neurophysiological approaches. Odor-loaded dummies were moved into close vicinity of the receptor organs on the antenna of the Florida carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus (dummy-delivered stimulation). Neuronal activity was monitored either at receptor neuron level using electroantennography or in the first olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobes, using calcium imaging. We tested 3 odors of different volatility: C. floridanus' highly volatile alarm pheromone undecane, its low-volatile trail pheromone nerolic acid, and an even less volatile, behaviorally active C23 alkene, cis-9-tricosene. For low-volatile odors, dummy-delivered stimulation was particularly efficient. We conclude that dummy-delivered stimulation is advantageous compared to the commonly used air-delivered stimulation when studying an animal's detection and processing of low-volatile odors. PMID:20212009

  9. Systematic position of some nearctic Heligmosomoidea (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) from the U.S. National Parasite collection and their description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Digiani, Maria Celina

    2005-08-01

    The systematic position of some heligmosomoid nematodes from rodents, deposited in the U.S. National Parasite Collection (USNPC), is revised, mainly through the study of their synlophe, which in all cases was unknown or insufficiently described. The material was registered as different species of Longistriata Schulz, 1926, a genus whose representatives are only parasitic in Holarctic insectivores. Longistriata norvegica Dikmans, 1935, parasitic in Rattus sp. becomes a synonym of Hassalstrongylus aduncus (Chandler, 1932). Specimens registered as Longistriata dalrymplei Dikmans, 1935, from Ondatra zibethicus, are confirmed to belong to Carolinensis (Travassos, 1937). Specimens registered as Longistriata noviberiae Dikmans, 1935, parasitic in Sylvilagus floridanus alacer, were found to belong to Vexillata, and Vexillata noviberiae n. comb. is here proposed. This is the first record of a species of Vexillata in a lagomorph. Other specimens registered as Longistriata norvegica, parasitic in Geomys floridanus austrinus, were also found to be an undescribed species of Vexillata (Hall, 1916), which is named Vexillata chitwoodi n. sp. This is similar to Vexillata chabaudi Yoyotte-Vado, 1972, Vexillata petteri Durette-Desset, 1970, Vexillata scorzai Guerrero, 1984 and Vexillata tejerai Guerrero, 1984, all having the same number of cuticular ridges (4 dorsal, 5 ventral) and the division of the dorsal ray at its apex. The most related species is V. chabaudi, which is differentiated from the new species by rays 4 not curved distally, by thick rays 8, and by a dorsal ray enlarged at the level of the arising of rays 8. PMID:17089761

  10. Systematic position of some nearctic Heligmosomoidea (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) from the U.S. National Parasite collection and their description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Digiani, Maria Celina

    2005-08-01

    The systematic position of some heligmosomoid nematodes from rodents, deposited in the U.S. National Parasite Collection (USNPC), is revised, mainly through the study of their synlophe, which in all cases was unknown or insufficiently described. The material was registered as different species of Longistriata Schulz, 1926, a genus whose representatives are only parasitic in Holarctic insectivores. Longistriata norvegica Dikmans, 1935, parasitic in Rattus sp. becomes a synonym of Hassalstrongylus aduncus (Chandler, 1932). Specimens registered as Longistriata dalrymplei Dikmans, 1935, from Ondatra zibethicus, are confirmed to belong to Carolinensis (Travassos, 1937). Specimens registered as Longistriata noviberiae Dikmans, 1935, parasitic in Sylvilagus floridanus alacer, were found to belong to Vexillata, and Vexillata noviberiae n. comb. is here proposed. This is the first record of a species of Vexillata in a lagomorph. Other specimens registered as Longistriata norvegica, parasitic in Geomys floridanus austrinus, were also found to be an undescribed species of Vexillata (Hall, 1916), which is named Vexillata chitwoodi n. sp. This is similar to Vexillata chabaudi Yoyotte-Vado, 1972, Vexillata petteri Durette-Desset, 1970, Vexillata scorzai Guerrero, 1984 and Vexillata tejerai Guerrero, 1984, all having the same number of cuticular ridges (4 dorsal, 5 ventral) and the division of the dorsal ray at its apex. The most related species is V. chabaudi, which is differentiated from the new species by rays 4 not curved distally, by thick rays 8, and by a dorsal ray enlarged at the level of the arising of rays 8.

  11. Dummies versus air puffs: efficient stimulus delivery for low-volatile odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Aiming to unravel how animals perceive odors, a variety of neurophysiological techniques are used today. For olfactory stimulation, odors are commonly incorporated into a constant airstream that carries odor molecules to the receptor organ (air-delivered stimulation). Such odor delivery works well for odors of high volatility (naturally effective over long distances) but less or not at all for low-volatile odors (usually only received at short range). We developed a new odor stimulation technique especially suited for low-volatile odors and compared it with conventional air-delivered stimulation using 2 neurophysiological approaches. Odor-loaded dummies were moved into close vicinity of the receptor organs on the antenna of the Florida carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus (dummy-delivered stimulation). Neuronal activity was monitored either at receptor neuron level using electroantennography or in the first olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobes, using calcium imaging. We tested 3 odors of different volatility: C. floridanus' highly volatile alarm pheromone undecane, its low-volatile trail pheromone nerolic acid, and an even less volatile, behaviorally active C23 alkene, cis-9-tricosene. For low-volatile odors, dummy-delivered stimulation was particularly efficient. We conclude that dummy-delivered stimulation is advantageous compared to the commonly used air-delivered stimulation when studying an animal's detection and processing of low-volatile odors.

  12. Ocorrência e flutuação populacional de tripes, pulgões e inimigos naturais em crisântemo de corte em casa de vegetação Occurrence and population fluctuation of thrips, aphids and natural enemies in cut chrysanthemum in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Mendes Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os pulgões e os tripes são importantes pragas em cultivo de crisântemo em casas de vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência e flutuação populacional de tripes, pulgões e inimigos naturais em cultivares de crisântemo de corte ('White Reagan', 'Yellow Snowdon' e 'Sunny Reagan' em casa de vegetação comercial. A amostragem de tripes foi realizada através de batidas nas plantas ("tapping method" e a de pulgões a partir de coletas diretas nas plantas. Das espécies de tripes amostradas, mais de 90% foram identificadas como Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, e o restante incluíram F. gemina (Bagnall, Frankliniella sp., Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin. Foi observado maior número de tripes/planta no cultivar White Reagan se comparado com 'Yellow Snowdon'. Aphis gossypii Glover foi a espécie de pulgão mais comum (> 80%, sendo também coletados Myzus persicae (Sulzer e Dysaphis sp. Maior número de pulgões foi verificado na cultivar White Reagan, quando comparada com 'Sunny Reagan'. Orius insidiosus (Say foi o único predador encontrado associado aos tripes, sendo verificada uma correlação positiva significativa entre a população de tripes e a desse predador. Dentre os inimigos naturais relacionados aos pulgões, foram observados parasitóides (Aphidius colemani Viereck e Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson e predadores (Chrysoperla sp., Cycloneda sanguinea Linnaeus e Scymnus sp.. Houve uma correlação positiva significativa entre o crescimento populacional de pulgões e desses predadores e parasitóides nas cultivares White Reagan e Sunny Reagan. Inimigos naturais podem ocorrer naturalmente em casas de vegetação e influenciar as populações de pragas.Aphids and thrips play an important role on chrysanthemum crops in greenhouses. The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence and population densities of thrips, aphids and natural enemies in cut chrysanthemum cultivars

  13. Selección natural sobre a cor das flores de Gentiana lutea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga Blanco, Tania

    2015-01-01

    A variación floral dentro dunha de especie pode resultar da variación espacial nos axentes de selección. A cor floral podería variar pola selección dos animais que se alimentan das plantas. Os polinizadores poderían exercer selección natural sobre a cor, si a cor inflúe na eficacia do consumo. Outros axentes de selección, como os predadores de sementes, poderían seleccionar sobre a cor, si a cor indica recursos alimentarios (sementes) ou si a cor está relacionada con defensas químicas. Así, a...

  14. Ecological Roles of Coleoptera Associated with Carcasses in Caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Santos

    2013-12-01

    Resumo. O papel ecológico da coleopterofauna associada a carcaças de porcos em uma área de Caatinga foi examinado. Para captura desses insetos foram utilizadas armadilhas do tipo bandeja, pitfall e Shannon modificada, durante duas estações (seca e chuvosa. 4.851 coleópteros foram coletados, pertencentes a 19 famílias e 88 espécies. A categoria ecológica mais abundante foi predador/parasita (72,7%, seguida por onívoro (15,1%, necrófago (10,9% e incidental (1,3%. Futuros estudos sobre biologia das espécies predadoras/parasitas são necessários para se determinar sua possível utilidade forense na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte.

  15. Presencia de Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853 en un humedal boscoso del Sur de Chile. Posibles implicancias sobre la fauna local de invertebrados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Parra-Coloma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Las especies invasoras son la principal causa de pérdida debiodiversidad del planeta, producto de la depredación que afecta a la faunalocal mediante competencia, hibridación, alteración del hábitat y transmisiónde enfermedades. En este estudio se describe la posible implicancia del pezmosquito sobre la fauna de invertebrados en un humedal boscoso presente en laregión de la Araucanía, Chile. Los resultados nos indican la presencia de Gambusia affinis en todos los sitios demuestreo, destacándose su gran adaptabilidad a la temperatura y pH. El roldepredador de Gambusia affinis sobremosquitos, puede favorecer al desarrollo de sus larvas, al consumirinvertebrados predadores de éstas, influyendo en la estructura trófica de lascomunidades.

  16. Monitorização do coelho-bravo na Reserva Natural da Serra da Malcata : 1998-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Anabela Salvado

    2007-01-01

    O Coelho-bravo, Oryctolagus cuniculus, é uma espécie chave nos ecossistemas mediterrâneos ibéricos, desempenhando uma multiplicidade de papéis na dinâmica dos mesmos, dos quais de destaca o facto de ser principal “espécie presa” de um largo espectro de predadores, como por exemplo o Lince-ibérico e a Águia-imperial, e ser uma das principais espécies cinegéticas em Portugal. Na Reserva Natural da Serra da Malcata – RNSM, as suas populações têm sofrido um acentuado declínio, r...

  17. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.

  18. The almost invisible league: crypsis and association between minute fishes and shrimps as a possible defence against visually hunting predators

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    Lucélia Nobre Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Camouflage is one of the most widespread defence modes used by substrate-dwelling animals, whereas transparency is generally found in open-water organisms. Both these defence types are regarded as effective against visually guided predators. We present here three assemblages of similarly-sized freshwater fish and shrimp species which apparently rely on camouflage and transparency to evade some of their potential predators. In one of the associations, there is a transition from cryptic colours and translucency to transparency of the component species according to the position each of them occupies in the habitat. The likeness between the fishes and the shrimps is here regarded as a type of protective association similar to numerical or social mimicry. Additionally, we suggest that the assemblage may contain Batesian-like mimicry components.Camuflagem é um dos tipos de defesa mais bem distribuídos entre os animais que vivem no substrato, sendo a transparência geralmente encontrada em organismos pelágicos. Ambos os tipos de defesa são considerados como eficientes contra predadores visualmente orientados. Apresentamos três conjuntos de espécies de peixes e camarões de tamanhos similares, que aparentemente dependem da camuflagem e transparência para escapar de potenciais predadores. Em uma das associações, há uma transição de coloração críptica ou translúcida para transparente, de acordo com a posição que cada espécie ocupa no habitat. A semelhança entre peixes e camarões é aqui considerada como um tipo de associação protetiva, similar a mimetismo numérico ou social. Além disso, sugerimos que o conjunto pode conter elementos similares ao mimetismo Batesiano.

  19. Caracterização da microfauna em estação de tratamento de esgotos do tipo lodos ativados: um instrumento de avaliação e controle do processo Microfauna characterization in activated sludge wastewater treatment plant: an instrument of assessment and control of process

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    Alessandra Pellizzaro Bento

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A microfauna presente em uma ETE por lodos ativados foi caracterizada, correlacionada com parâmetros físico-químicos e utilizada em modelos existentes de avaliação de sistemas. Durante 351 dias o lodo ativado manteve-se estável com flocos compactos, pequenos e com poucos filamentos. Os protozoários predominantes no lodo foram as tecamebas e os ciliados predadores de flocos, indicando estabilidade do sistema. Os métodos propostos em literatura, baseados no IBL, na densidade total da microfauna e na relação entre ciliados predadores de flocos e ciliados fixos, mostraram-se eficientes para o diagnóstico das condições depurativas do sistema. A análise qualitativa do lodo, englobando o tamanho, quantidade de filamentos, compactação e a identificação das espécies dominantes, foi suficiente para uma caracterização imediata das condições depurativas do sistema de tratamento.Microfauna found in an activated sludge WTP was characterized, correlated to the physical-chemical parameters and used in existing assessment models. During 351 days, the activated sludge remained stable with compacted and small poorly filamentous flocs. It was composed mainly by testate amoebas and crawling ciliates that indicated the stability of the system. The application of the existent system evaluation models to microfauna (SBI, crawling ciliate/attached ciliate relation and total density was found to be efficient for the assessment of the system depurative conditions. The sludge qualitative analysis, which included the flocs size, amount of filaments, compacting and the identification of the dominant microfauna species, was enough to an immediate diagnosis of the treatment system depurative conditions.

  20. A non-digging zoobenthivorous fish attracts two opportunistic predatory fish associates

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    Cristina Sazima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Following behaviour among reef fishes involves mostly a digging nuclear species while foraging, which attracts opportunistic followers preying on the exposed organisms. The flying gurnard Dactylopterus volitans preys on benthic animals, mostly crustaceans and small fishes, scratching and probing the bottom with the inner rays of its pectoral fins. We recorded the flying gurnard being followed by two opportunistic predators, the yellow jack Caranx bartholomaei and the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Fernando de Noronha, off northeast Brazil. Albeit not actually digging the substrate, the flying gurnard acts as a nuclear species by exploring algae tufts and by its wandering near the boulders and ledges, disturbing and flushing out hidden animals which thus become available to predation.Entre os peixes recifais, uma espécie fossadora nuclear em atividade de forrageamento pode atrair seguidores oportunistas que se alimentam de organismos expostos pela atividade do nuclear. O coió-voador Dactylopterus volitans alimenta-se de animais bentônicos, principalmente crustáceos e pequenos peixes, explorando o substrato com os primeiros raios externos de suas nadadeiras peitorais. Registramos o coió sendo seguido por dois predadores oportunistas, a guarajuba Caranx bartholomaei e a piraúna Cephalopholis fulva, em Fernando de Noronha, ao largo da costa Nordeste do Brasil. Apesar de não agir como uma espécie fossadora do substrato, o coió atua como uma espécie nuclear por explorar os tufos de algas e também pela sua passagem próxima às rochas e lajes, espantando e desentocando animais escondidos que, assim, tornam-se vulneráveis aos predadores.

  1. Luta biológica clássica com Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae no combate à Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae em jacarandá Biological control with Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae to control Orthezia insignis Browne (Homoptera: Ortheziidae on blue jacaranda

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    Ana Paula Félix

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os jacarandás e várias plantas ornamentais que ornamentam passeios e áreas ajardinadas da cidade do Funchal encontram-se infestados pela cochonilha Orthezia insignis Browne. Para combater esta praga foi importada do Quénia, uma joaninha, Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch. Este predador é específico de O. insignis e tem sido utilizado, com sucesso em programas de luta biológica, em vários países de África, no Peru, Hawai e na Ilha de Santa Helena. Na Ilha da Madeira, desde Julho de 2002, H. pantherina está a ser criado em laboratório e largado em jacarandás infestados com o objectivo de combater a cochonilha-dojacarandá através da luta biológica clássica. Referem-se as largadas de H. pantherina e o sistema de monitorização adoptado para verificar a aclimatação do predador.The Jacaranda trees and other ornamental plants used in sidewalks and gardenlike areas of sidewalks and other gardened areas of the downton Capital city of Madeira Island (Funchal, are infested by the Jacaranda or Lantana Bug, Orthezia insignis Browne. A ladybird, Hyperaspis pantherina Fürsch, was imported from Kenya to control this pest. This ladybird is a specific predator of O. insignis and it has been used, successfully in biological control programs, in several countries of Africa, in Peru, Hawaii and in Santa Helena Island. In Madeira Island, H. pantherina is being reared in laboratory and released into infested jacarandas since July 2002, in a classical biological control way. The releasing of H. pantherina is described in detail as well as the adopted monitoring system to verify its acclimation.

  2. Feeding of Pellona flavipinnis (Clupeiformes, Pristigasteridaein a Central Amazonian floodplain Dieta de Pellona flavipinnis (Clupeiformes, Pristigasteridae em planície alagada da Amazônia Central

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    Sandra S. Moreira-Hara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of Pellona flavipinnis (Valenciennes, 1836 at Catalão, a floodplain area on the Brazilian Central Amazon was studied. Data was obtained during three hydrological cycles, between September 1999 and September 2003. Diet composition, daily and seasonal variation in the feeding activity and the relationship between predator's size and its prey were analyzed. Almost 80% of the food consumed has autochthonous origin and diet was composed basically by insects and fish. Juvenile fish predominated in the stomach contents of all size classes but there was no significant relationship between predator's size and its prey. Pellona flavipinnis may be considered a carnivorous species which feeds mainly on juvenile (young-of-the-year specimens of other fish. More intense feeding activity occurred at night and in the high water period.Os hábitos alimentares de Pellona flavipinnis (Valenciennes, 1836 de uma área de várzea na Amazônia Central, Catalão, foram estudados. Foram utilizados dados referentes a três ciclos hidrológicos, entre setembro de 1999 e setembro de 2003. Foram analisados a dieta, a atividade alimentar diária e sazonal e a relação entre o comprimento da presa e o do predador. Cerca de 80% dos alimentos consumidos eram de origem autóctone e a dieta composta basicamente de insetos e peixes. Peixes juvenis predominaram nos conteúdos estomacais de exemplares de todas as classes de tamanho, mas não houve relação significativa entre o tamanho do predador e o das presas consumidas. Pellona flavipinnis pode ser considerada uma espécie carnívora que se alimenta principalmente de indivíduos juvenis de outras espécies de peixes. A atividade alimentar foi maior durante a noite e no período da cheia.

  3. Consumo alimentar de Chrysoperla externa sobre as diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de Dysmicoccus brevipes, em laboratório Food consumption of Chrysoperla externa in different developmental phases of Dysmicoccus brevipes, under laboratory conditions

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    Rita de Cássia Rodrigues Gonçalves-Gervásio

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o consumo e preferência alimentar de larvas de Chrysoperla externa Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em laboratório à temperatura de 25±2°C, 70±10% UR e 12 horas de fotofase, utilizando como presa a cochonilha-do-abacaxi (Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell, 1893, Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Durante a fase larval do predador foram consumidas, em média, 70, 50 e 15,8 cochonilhas do primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstar, respectivamente, e 10 fêmeas adultas, num total de 145,8 indivíduos. Do número total de cochonilhas, 51% foram consumidos durante o terceiro ínstar do predador. O alto número de cochonilhas consumido demonstra que a C. externa apresenta potencial para ser utilizada no controle biológico da cochonilha D. brevipes.The food consumption and preference of larvae of Chrysoperla externa Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larval were studied in laboratory under 25±2°C, 70±10% RH and 12 hours photophase, utilizing the pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell, 1893, Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a prey. The results showed that the predator's larval phases consumed on average of 70, 50 and 15,8 mealybugs of the first, second and third instar, respectively, and 10 adult females amounting to 145,8 individuals. It was noticed that 51% of the total number of mealybugs were consumed during the predator third instar. The high number of mealybugs consumed shows that C. externa presents a potential to be utilized in biological control of the mealybug D. brevipes.

  4. The glassy sweepers' way: seeking a versatile wrasse to be cleaned

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    Cristina Sazima

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal reef fishes compose the bulk of clients that seek cleaner fishes' services, but some nocturnal species that shelter at daytime also seek the cleaners. While doing so the nocturnal clients must leave their hiding places and thus they get exposed to potential diurnal predators. We report here on the cleaning interactions between a daytime cleaner wrasse (Thalassoma noronhanum and a night time active client (Pempheris schomburgki that usually remains sheltered at daytime. We recorded P. schomburgki leaving their shelter at daytime and heading towards T. noronhanum, whenever the cleaner swam by the shelter. Since T. noronhanum is able to tend temporary cleaning station near the safety of the shelters of its clients, P. schomburgki lessens a possible risk of predation by seeking this versatile cleaner.Peixes recifais diurnos compõem a maioria dos clientes nas estações de peixes limpadores. Entretanto, algumas espécies com hábitos noturnos também procuram os peixes limpadores, ficando expostas a potenciais predadores diurnos quando precisam deixar seus abrigos. Registramos aqui as interações de limpeza entre um labrídeo diurno (Thalassoma noronhanum e um cliente com hábitos noturnos (Pempheris schomburgki, que permanece abrigado durante o dia. Esta espécie de cliente deixa seu abrigo durante o dia e nada em direção a T. noronhanum quando este limpador desloca-se próximo aos esconderijos. Uma vez que T. noronhanum é capaz de manter estações de limpeza temporárias, próximas aos abrigos dos clientes, P. schomburgki diminui uma possível exposição aos predadores quando procura esta espécie versátil de limpador.

  5. Estudio del comportamiento de una jauría de perros ferales presente en el humedal de La Conejera (Compartir-Suba, Bogotá, Colombia

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    Zerda Ordóñez Enrique

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los perros ferales son un problema en la actualidad para las instituciones encargadas en el cuidado de los diferentes humedales presentes en la ciudad de Bogotá, debido a la constante amenaza que estos animales representan para la fauna residente en estos espacios en recuperación. Se utilizaron técnicas de observación directa y registro indirecto para obtener una descripción morfológica de cada uno de los animales y realizar un catálogo comportamental de los perros tanto a nivel individual como social. Los muestreos se realizaron entre agosto y septiembre de 2005 en el humedal de La Conejera (Compartir-Suba, Bogotá, Colombia. Se registraron diez individuos pertenecientes a un mismo grupo social, conformado por siete machos y tres hembras. La organización social de los perros mostró semejanzas con la de sus antecesores los lobos, presentando básicamente dos líneas jerárquicas siendo una para los machos y una para las  hembras, cada una con un macho y hembra alpha respectivamente. Los perros encuentran al interior del humedal los recursos necesarios como es abrigo,agua y alimento suficiente para su supervivencia y la de sus crías, debido a la ausencia de otros predadores que luchan por los mismos recursos, teniendo mejor acceso y menor competencia. Se realizan observaciones y recomendaciones para implementar en contra de la supervivencia y permanencia de estos animales en lugares donde se tenga fauna silvestre amenazada por este tipo de predadores.

  6. Dieta de Leopardus colocolo (Carnivora: Felidae en la Reserva Nacional de Junín, Junín, Perú

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    Ursula Fajardo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio caracteriza la dieta de Leopardus colocolo en los alrededores del lago Junín, en el centro del Perú, a partir de los restos de las presas presentes en 43 heces. El origen de las heces del predador se determinó a partir del ADN mitocondrial de las células epiteliales intestinales adheridas a la superficie de las heces, utilizando como marcador la región de control. Los restos de las presas fueron identificados utilizando literatura especializada y la comparación con especímenes de colección, identificando un total of 14 ítems alimenticios pertenecientes a mamíferos de las familias Cricetidae (6, Chinchillidae (1 y Caviidae (1 y aves de las familias Anatidae (3 y Rallidae (2, y un grupo de aves no identificadas (1. Los roedores fueron el principal componente de la dieta de L. colocolo, en frecuencia y biomasa, seguido por las aves. Entre los ítems alimenticios consumidos, el roedor cricétido pequeño Calomys sp. fue el más frecuente; sin embargo, el mayor aporte de biomasa relativa fue proporcionado por el roedor mediano Cavia tschudii. La amplitud de nicho obtenida fue baja (Bsta= 0.17, indicando una dieta especializada. Nuestros resultados confirman que, como ocurre con la mayoría de felinos pequeños neotropicales, L. colocolo es un predador especializado en la captura de vertebrados, principalmente mamíferos pequeños. No se registró variación estacional en la dieta y el análisis de las clases de edad de los roedores cricétidos mostró que los adultos fueron los más consumidos. Se infiere que L. colocolo tiene un patrón de actividad diurno y nocturno.

  7. First report of interaction of nematophagous fungi on Libyostrongylus douglassii (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae Primeiro relato da interação de fungos nematófagos sobre Libyostrongylus douglassii (Nematoda: Trichostrongilidae

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    Fabio Ribeiro Braga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Libyostrongylus douglassii is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of ostriches that can cause up to 50% mortality in young birds. The objective of this study was to compare the predatory capacity of two isolates of the predatory fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 and CG722 isolates and one of Arthrobotrys cladodes (CG719 on infective larvae (L3 of L. douglassii under laboratory conditions, in 2% water-agar medium. The results showed that the fungi tested were effective in preying upon the L3 of L. douglassii (P 0.05 during the seven days of experimental testing. In comparison with the control, without fungus, there were significant decreases (P Libyostrongylus douglassii é um nematóide parasito gastrintestinal de avestruzes que pode causar até 50% de mortalidade em aves jovens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a capacidade predatória de dois isolados de fungos predadores Duddingtonia flagrans (isolados AC001 e CG722 e um Arthrobotrys cladodes (CG719 sobre larvas infectantes (L3 de L. douglassii em condições laboratoriais, em meio ágar–água 2%. Os resultados demonstraram que os fungos testados foram eficientes em predar as L3 de L. douglassii (P 0,05 durante os sete dias do ensaio experimental. Em comparação ao controle, sem fungo, houve uma redução significativa (P < 0,05 de 85,2% (AC001; 81,2% (CG722 e 89,2% (C719 na média de L3 recuperadas nas placas do grupo tratado com os isolados testados. No presente trabalho, os três isolados de fungos predadores D. flagrans (AC001 e CG722 e A. cladodes (CG719 foram eficientes na destruição in vitro das L3 de L. douglassii.

  8. Incidência de ácaros em cafeeiro cv. Catuaí Amarelo Mite fauna on coffee plants cv. Catuaí Amarelo

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    Jeferson Luiz de Carvalho Mineiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a diversidade de ácaros presentes em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., no município de Atibaia, Estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado em cafeeiro cultivar Catuaí Amarelo com aproximadamente 15 anos de idade. Foram demarcadas 60 plantas na cultura, das quais se coletaram folhas, ramos e frutos para a avaliação das espécies de ácaros existentes. Vinte e uma espécies de ácaros pertencentes a 14 famílias foram encontradas, sendo a maior diversidade observada nos ramos. As duas principais espécies fitófagas foram Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Tenuipalpidae e Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Tetranychidae. Dentre os predadores, os ácaros da família Phytoseiidae e Bdellidae foram os mais abundantes. Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma foi o predador mais abundante, tanto em folhas como em ramos. Bdella sp. (Bdellidae foi outra espécie muito abundante observada nos ramos.The objective of this work was to study the diversity of mites found on a coffee (Coffea arabica L. plantation located in Atibaia County, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study was carried out on a near 15 year old plantation of 'Catuaí Amarelo'. From 60 marked coffee plants, leaves, branches and berries were collected to evaluate the species of mites present on the plants. Twenty one species of mites belonging to 14 families were found. The highest diversity was observed on branches. The most abundant phytophagous species were Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Tenuipalpidae and Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor (Tetranychidae. Among the predators, the mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Bdellidae were the most abundant. The phytoseiid Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark and Muma predominated on leaves as well as on branches. Bdella sp. (Bdellidae was also mostly present on branches.

  9. Nutritional upgrading for omnivorous carpenter ants by the endosymbiont Blochmannia

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    Mueller Martin J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpenter ants (genus Camponotus are considered to be omnivores. Nonetheless, the genome sequence of Blochmannia floridanus, the obligate intracellular endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus, suggests a function in nutritional upgrading of host resources by the bacterium. Thus, the strongly reduced genome of the endosymbiont retains genes for all subunits of a functional urease, as well as those for biosynthetic pathways for all but one (arginine of the amino acids essential to the host. Results Nutritional upgrading by Blochmannia was tested in 90-day feeding experiments with brood-raising in worker-groups on chemically defined diets with and without essential amino acids and treated or not with antibiotics. Control groups were fed with cockroaches, honey water and Bhatkar agar. Worker-groups were provided with brood collected from the queenright mother-colonies (45 eggs and 45 first instar larvae each. Brood production did not differ significantly between groups of symbiotic workers on diets with and without essential amino acids. However, aposymbiotic worker groups raised significantly less brood on a diet lacking essential amino acids. Reduced brood production by aposymbiotic workers was compensated when those groups were provided with essential amino acids in their diet. Decrease of endosymbionts due to treatment with antibiotic was monitored by qRT-PCR and FISH after the 90-day experimental period. Urease function was confirmed by feeding experiments using 15N-labelled urea. GC-MS analysis of 15N-enrichment of free amino acids in workers revealed significant labelling of the non-essential amino acids alanine, glycine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, as well as of the essential amino acids methionine and phenylalanine. Conclusion Our results show that endosymbiotic Blochmannia nutritionally upgrade the diet of C. floridanus hosts to provide essential amino acids, and that it may also play a role in nitrogen recycling

  10. When can ants discriminate the sex of brood? A new aspect of queen-worker conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonacs, P; Carlin, N F

    1990-12-15

    The stage in preimaginal ontogeny at which the sexes can first be distinguished has important implications for queen-worker conflict in social insects. If workers are unable to sex larvae at an early instar, their opportunity to control colony reproductive strategies may be limited. In addition, by concealing the sex of her sons for some portion of development, the queen could protect them from the workers' attempts to substitute their own sons or to skew the numerical sex ratio. In a series of choice experiments, workers of the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, failed to discriminate the sex of several stages of larvae but did retrieve female pupae significantly more rapidly than male pupae. Our results suggest that in this species, sex may not become detectable until pupation, which is consistent with sexual deception as an aspect of queen control. PMID:11607136

  11. Comparative infectivity of Babesia divergens and a zoonotic Babesia divergens-like parasite in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Patricia J; Spencer, Angela M; Telford, Sam R; Goethert, Heidi K; Allen, Andrew J; Knowles, Donald P; Goff, Will L

    2005-11-01

    Babesia divergens-like parasites identified in human babesiosis cases in Missouri and Kentucky and in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, share identical small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This sequence is 99.8% identical to that of Babesia divergens, suggesting that the U.S. parasite may be B. divergens, a causative agent of human and bovine babesiosis in Europe. Holstein-Friesian calves were inoculated with cultured Nantucket Island Babesia sp. (NR831) and B. divergens parasites and monitored by clinical signs, Giemsa-stained blood films, PCR, and culture. The NR831 recipients did not exhibit clinical signs of infection and remained negative for all assays. The B. divergens recipients developed clinical infections and became positive by all assays. NR831 recipients were fully susceptible upon challenge inoculation with B. divergens. This study confirms that the Nantucket Island Babesia sp. is not conspecific with B. divergens based on host specificity for cattle. PMID:16282295

  12. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infects both B and T lymphocytes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, W J; Medveczky, P; Mulder, C; Hinze, H C; Sullivan, J L

    1985-10-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied as a model of herpesvirus-induced lymphoproliferative disorders. Leukocytosis, splenomegaly, proliferation of T cells and virus production by lymphocytes characterized this infectious mononucleosis-like disease. Approximately two copies of circular herpesvirus sylvilagus genomes per cell were detected in spleen cells at 2 weeks postinfection, and circular genomes could still be observed after 4 months. Circular viral genomes were found in both B and T lymphocytes. Small amounts of linear viral DNA (0.1 to 0.3 copies per cell) were also detected in both B and T cells. These results indicated that the virus did not replicate in the majority of lymphocytes in vivo. Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection in cottontail rabbits could be useful as a model for studying the complex virus-host relationships of lymphotropic herpesviruses and perhaps as an animal model for Epstein-Barr virus infection in humans. PMID:2993667

  13. First report of Obeliscoides cuniculi in European brown hare (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzani, Paolo; Menzano, Arianna; Catalano, Stefano; Rossi, Luca; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    Obeliscoides cuniculi is a New World nematode parasite of the Trichostrongilidae family infecting the gastric tract of different domestic and wild Lagomorph species. This parasite is reported for the first time from a European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). The nematodes isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract were identified using the primary characteristics used to differentiate the species of this genus as adults morphology (length and thickness) and other characteristics of spicules, cervical papillae, cuticular ridges and striations. In the Italian study area, the European brown hare lives in sympatry with the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), species in which the nematode was previously isolated; therefore, the possibility of a cross-infestation must be considered. PMID:21484345

  14. Herpesvirus sylvilagus in cottontail rabbits: attempted laboratory transmission by two insect species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, J O; Yuill, T M

    1977-01-01

    The vector potential of the rabbit flea (Cediopsylla simplex) and a mosquito (Aedes triseriatus) was investigated for Herpesvirus sylvilagus transmission among cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Twelve groups of 12-50 fleas were fed on three viremic cottontails for 2-21 days before transfer to 12 susceptible rabbits. Standard interrupted feeding trials employed five groups of 6-12 mosquitoes, two viremic donor cottontails anf five healthy recipients. No evidence of virus was detected from recipients' blood nor did they develop specific antibody. Virus acquisition and persistence in the insects was evaluated by attempting to recover the virus from 19 pools of mosquitoes engorged on viremic blood and 36 pools of engorged fleas or those living on viremic hosts for 1-21 days. Results were negative. PMID:190425

  15. Metazoan parasites of the eastern cottontail rabbit in western Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohlein, D A; Christensen, B M

    1983-01-01

    Forty-five eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus Allen), collected over a 15 mo period from two areas of western Kentucky, were examined for disease conditions, helminth and arthropod parasites. A single lymphosarcoma, two cutaneous papillomas and the following parasites were identified: Hasstilesia tricolor, Taenia pisiformis, Cittotaenia variabilis, Raillietina stilesiella, Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichuris leporis, Longistriata noviberiae, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Dermatoxys veligera, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cediopsylla simplex, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, and Dermacentor variabilis. Simpson's Indices indicated that parasite communities were fairly diverse, with some degree of dominance exhibited by O. cuniculi, T. pisiformis and H. leporispalustris. The parasite faunas of rabbits from the two areas were similar. Hasstilesia tricolor was associated with the absence of kidney fat. PMID:6842731

  16. A homologue of the rabbit kappa-chain allotype b9 ON IgG from a cottontail rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, S L; Mage, R G; Tosi, R M

    1976-08-01

    Eight out of 12 anti-b9 antisera tested strongly bound 125IgG of only one of four individual cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). In addition to this apparent polymorphism of a b9 homologue in cottontail rabbits, a polymorphism defined by some anti-b5 antisera was found. Three of 15 anti-b5 antisera reacted with IgG from only two of the four cottontail rabbits. Reactions with anti-b4 and anti-b6 were similar to those with hare IgG. Most anti-b4 and anti-b6 antisera bound the IgG from each animal. The cottontails we tested also resembled the hare with respect to their weak reactivity with some anti-a2 antisera (Vh allotype) and strong reactivity with anti-15 (an allotype localized in the Fc portion of rabbit gamma-chains). PMID:820806

  17. Genome structure of cottontail rabbit herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian, J; Berthelot, N; Laithier, M

    1989-02-01

    The genome structure of a herpesvirus isolated from primary cultures of kidney cells from the cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus was elucidated by using electron microscopy and restriction enzyme analysis. The genome, which was about 150 kilobase pairs long and which had an average G + C composition of 45%, consisted of two regions with unique base sequences (54 and 47 kilobase pairs) enclosed by reiterations of a 925-base-pair sequence with a variable copy number. The internal repeats were in opposite polarity with respect to the terminal repeats, and both unique regions underwent inversion. The nucleotide sequence of the repeat unit was determined, and virion DNA termini were precisely localized within this sequence. Elements showing homology with the cleavage-packaging signals common to other herpesviruses were detected. The data indicate that this virus is different from the previously described herpesvirus sylvilagus. PMID:2911115

  18. Aversive responses of white-tailed deer,Odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swihart, R K; Pignatello, J J; Mattina, M J

    1991-04-01

    We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or occasional predators with which they lack a long evolutionary association. Bobcat and coyote urine were more effective in tests conducted with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), which is less palatable to white-tailed deer than Japanese yew. A dichloromethane extract of bobcat urine was as effective as unextracted urine in reducing damage to hemlocks. Testing of the organic components of bobcat urine, particularly the volatile components, may enable identification of the compounds responsible for the repellency we observed. PMID:24258921

  19. Ascorbic acid and L-gulonolactone oxidase in lagomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, R; Birney, E C; Ayaz, K L

    1978-01-01

    1. The activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase (EC 1.1.3.8) in the liver of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) is about 10-fold greater in winter than in summer. 2. L-gulonolactone oxidase activity is low and tissue ascorbate high during all seasons in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). 3. Liver contents of ascorbate fall to low levels in L. americanus fed on rabbit chow in the laboratory. 4. The activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase in liver of Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus is depressed by feeding high levels of L-ascorbic acid. 5. The New Zealand White breed of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has considerably higher levels of L-gulonolactone oxidase and liver ascorbate than does the Dutch breed. 6. In a wild population of Oryctolagus sampled in Australia L-gulonolactone oxidase levels were intermediate between those of the two domestic breeds and more variable than either. PMID:318384

  20. A review of Gongylonema spp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) in North American rodents with description of a new species from the cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus (Mammalia: Cricetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, John M; Robles, Maria Del Rosario; Preisser, Whitney C

    2016-01-01

    Gongylonema archboldi n. sp. (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) is described from tunnels in the gastric mucosa of the stomach of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) from Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A. Measurements are also given for specimens from cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus), oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), Florida mice (Podomys floridanus), and golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) from the same locality. Additional specimens were collected from the cotton rat and the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) from Berry Island, San Patricio County, Texas. The new species is differentiated from congeners by a combination of the following characters: length of the left spicule, length and shape of the gubernaculum, distribution of cuticular bosses, length of esophagus, and distance of the vulva from the posterior end. The status of the genus Gongylonema in North American rodents is reviewed. PMID:27394819

  1. When can ants discriminate the sex of brood? A new aspect of queen-worker conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonacs, P; Carlin, N F

    1990-12-15

    The stage in preimaginal ontogeny at which the sexes can first be distinguished has important implications for queen-worker conflict in social insects. If workers are unable to sex larvae at an early instar, their opportunity to control colony reproductive strategies may be limited. In addition, by concealing the sex of her sons for some portion of development, the queen could protect them from the workers' attempts to substitute their own sons or to skew the numerical sex ratio. In a series of choice experiments, workers of the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, failed to discriminate the sex of several stages of larvae but did retrieve female pupae significantly more rapidly than male pupae. Our results suggest that in this species, sex may not become detectable until pupation, which is consistent with sexual deception as an aspect of queen control.

  2. Avaliação da infestação e diversidade de Teredinidae (Mollusca - Bivalvia ao longo da costa do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Evaluation of the infestation and diversity of Teredinidae (Mollusca - Bivalvia along the coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Andrea de O. R. Junqueira

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the diversity and infestation level of Teredinidae wood-boring molluscs, ten satations were chosen along the coast of Rio de Janeiro State. Using five pine-wood panels in each station, it was possible to distinguish five areas according to species dominance. Ilha Grande Bay is characterized by the dominance of Lyrodus floridanus (Bartsch, 1922; Sepetiba Bay, by Bankia fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Tijuca Lagoon by Teredo navalis Linnaeus, 1758; Guanabara Bay by Notoredo knoxi (Bartsch, 1917 and Araruama Lagoon by Teredo furcifera Martens, 1894. Specific composition and dominance of these species were due mainly to abiotic factors such as salinity whereas infestation level was associated not only to salinity but also to other factors such as the quantity and quality of fouling, the presence of larval dispersion focus and the wood supply in each area.

  3. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero Duch, Clara; Williams, Richard A J; Timm, Robert M; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though

  4. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

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    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2012-10-01

    predation.Passagens para peixes têm sido consideradas como estratégias para conservação da biodiversidade, visando além de assegurar os deslocamentos entre habitats fragmentados, atenuar a mortalidade por predação dos estratos populacionais que se concentram nos trechos imediatamente abaixo de barragens. Embora a mortalidade por predação no trecho a jusante de reservatórios tenha sido bem investigada, especialmente sobre os juvenis de salmonídeos em movimentos descendentes, nada se sabe acerca da predação de peixes neotropicais em áreas de atração e confinamento de peixes, eventos comuns a essas facilidades de transposição. Nesse estudo são analisados aspectos da predaç��o em um sistema de transposição de peixes (barragem de Lajeado, rio Tocantins, Brasil, buscando avaliar a abundância, a distribuição e o tempo de permanência de grandes peixes predadores na escada, as injúrias impostas por piranhas durante a passagem e a ocorrência de outros vertebrados predadores. Para isso foram realizadas amostragens a jusante, ao longo da escada, no trecho imediatamente acima da barragem e a montante do reservatório, utilizando redes de espera, tarrafas e contagens ou registros visuais durante o período de um ano (Novembro de 2002 a Outubro de 2003. Marcações com linha e missanga e registro de mutilações foram também realizados em concomitância. Peixes, aves, quelônios e cetáceos foram os principais grupos de predadores observados, com predomínio dos dois primeiros. A área nas imediações da entrada da escada, a jusante, foi a região com maior número de grandes predadores, sendo a única de relevância para vertebrados não peixes. Indivíduos marcados permaneceram na escada exercendo a piscivoria por até 90 dias. Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus e Serrasalmus rhombeus foram os principais peixes predadores. Mutilações por ataques de Serrasalmus atingiram 36% das espécies e alcançaram 4% dos indivíduos no topo da escada. Os

  5. Variação espaço-temporal na distribuição e abundância de Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Characiformes: Characidae em lagoas da planície de inundação do rio Cuiabá, Pantanal, Brasil=Spatial-temporal variation of the distribution and abundance of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae at lagoons of the Cuiaba river floodplain, Pantanal, Brazil

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    Jerry Penha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identificar os fatores bióticos e abióticos que determinam a variação na distribuição e abundância das populações, tornou-se nos últimos anos um grande desafio para os ecologistas. Assim neste estudo foram avaliados o efeito das variáveis abióticas e a abundância de predadores sobre a abundância de Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae, a variação no comprimento médio dos indivíduos entre lagoas e períodos e o efeito das variáveis abióticas e da abundância de predadores sobre a estrutura em comprimento. Foram amostradas 16 lagoas da planície de inundação do rio Cuiabá, no período de junho (vazante, setembro (seca e dezembro (enchente de 2005 e março (cheia de 2006. Para M. sanctaefilomenae, a distribuição é mais ampla e a abundância é maior no final da vazante, início da seca, reduzindo-se gradualmente ao longo dos períodos de seca, enchente e cheia. Adicionalmente, o período afeta a estrutura em tamanho das populações, que são espacialmente homogêneas. Indivíduos menores foram capturados no final do período de vazante e os maiores ao início da enchente. Durante o final da vazante/início da seca, a variação espacial na abundância da população foi relacionada positivamente com o pH, o oxigênio dissolvido e cobertura de macrófitas e área da lagoa, mas, não com a abundância local de predadores na zona litorânea das lagoas.Identifying the biotic and abiotic factors that determine the variation in the distribution and abundance of populations has become a great challenge for the field of ecology in recent years. Thus, in this study we evaluated the effect of abiotic variables and the abundance of predators on the abundance of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae, the variation in the average length of the individuals between lakes and periods, and the effect of the abiotic variables and abundance of predators on the structure in length of that species. Sixteen lakes of the Cuiabá river flood plain were sampled

  6. Alterations on piscivorous diet following change in abundance of prey after impoundment in a Neotropical river

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    Geuza Cantanhêde

    2008-12-01

    . pantaneiro consumiu 41 presas, enquanto que no período II foram registradas 14 presas, sendo que M. dichroura foi a presa mais consumida, passando a representar 95% da dieta, enquanto no período I representava apenas 15%. A relação entre o tamanho do predador e da presa foi positiva em ambos os períodos, porém significativamente diferente. No período II pequenos e grandes predadores consumiram principalmente pequenas presas (M. dichroura. Os resultados mostraram que A. pantaneiro consumiu, no período II, a presa mais abundante e disponível, alterando a composição de sua dieta, amplitude do nicho alimentar e tamanho da presa. Estas alterações provavelmente causaram um decréscimo nos custos energéticos associados à procura da presa, maximizando o ganho de energia do predador.

  7. Efeito da presa alternativa no desenvolvimento e consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae e comportamento de oviposição em cultivares de crisântemo Effect of alternative prey on development and consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae and oviposition behavior on chrysantemum cultivars

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    Maria da Conceição M. Soglia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e o consumo de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 tendo Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 como presa, bem como seu comportamento de oviposição em duas cultivares de crisântemo. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climática a 25 ± 1ºC, UR 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Ninfas do predador com até 24 horas de idade foram colocadas individualmente em placas de petri (5 cm contendo 20 ninfas de A. gossypii (1º, 2º e 3º ínstares, as quais estavam posicionadas sobre disco foliar (4 cm de cada cultivar ('White Reagan' e'Yellow Snowdon' em camada de ágar-água . Na avaliação da oviposição foram utilizados pecíolos de cada cultivar como substrato de oviposição e ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 como alimento. O predador completou seu desenvolvimento alimentando-se somente de A. gossypii presente em ambas as cultivares. A duração da fase ninfal de O. insidiosus foi de 21,1 e 18,3 dias, em 'White Reagan' e 'Yellow Snowdon', respectivamente. O consumo de A. gossypii por fêmeas foi maior (PThis work aimed to evaluate the development time and the consumption of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 feeding on Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 as weel as its oviposition behavior on two crysanthemum cut cultivars. The trials were conducted in climatic chamber at 25±1ºC, RH 70±10% and 12h photophase. Nymphs of the predator, less than 24h old, were kept individualy in petri dishes (5cm with 20 nymphs of A. gossypii (1st, 2nd and 3rt instars on leaf disc (4cm of each cultivar ("White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon" in a layer of agar-water (1%. Petiole of each crysanthemum cultivar as oviposition substrate was evaluated and the females were feeding on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879. The predador complete its development feeding on A. gossypii kept in both cultivars. The duration of nymphal phase of O. insidiosus were 21.1 and 18.3 days on "White Reagan" and "Yellow Snowdon", respectively

  8. Diet of four annual killifishes: an intra and interspecific comparison

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    Gabriel Laufer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the diet of 4 annual fishes, Austrolebias viarius, Austrolebias cheradophilus, Austrolebias luteoflammulatus and Cynopoecilus melanotaenia inhabiting temporal ponds of southeastern Uruguay, by analysis of stomach contents. Fishes were captured from fifty ephemeral ponds of Castillos Lagoon basin, in the region of the Humedales del Este. We identified 13099 individual prey items extracted from 669 stomachs of the four captured species. In the studied system, annual killifishes represents the most abundant and conspicuous top predators. Killifishes are generalist key predators at the ephemeral ponds of the studied system, consuming mostly aquatic items. Zooplancton represented the bulk of the diet in the four analyzed species, followed by eggs, algae and diatoms. Insects are the next group in prey number, as follows: Diptera larvae (especially Chironomidae and Cullicidae, Ephemeroptera (especially Betidae, and coleopteran larvae (especially Dytiscidae. Acari are also important prey in number. The four fish species differ in diet composition and in diet richness. A general pattern of differences in diet richness among killifish species and demographic groups could be related to variations in body sizes. As top predators annual killifishes are an important component of the temporal pond ecosystems. Understanding the natural history of this species and their communities is necessary in order to conserve them.Nós examinamos a dieta de 4 peixes anuais, Austrolebias viarius, Austrolebias cheradophilus, Austrolebias luteoflammulatus e Cynopoecilus melanotaenia, que habitam poças temporárias do sudeste do Uruguai, através da análise de conteúdo estomacal. Os peixes foram capturados em cinco poças temporárias da bacia da lagoa Castillos, na região de Humedales del Este. Nós identificamos 13099 itens de presas estraídos de 669 estômagos das quatro espécies. No sistema estudado, peixes anuais representam os predadores de topo mais

  9. Impact and Selectivity of Insecticides to Predators and Parasitoids

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    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Problems with the use of insecticides has brought losses, such as, negative impact on natural enemies. When these beneficial insects reduce cause the eruption of pests and resurgence it’s more common. Thus principles of conservation these arthropods are extremely important in the biological natural control of pests, so that these enemies may present a high performance. Because of the negative impacts caused by insecticides on agriculture and their harmful effects on natural enemies, the objective of this article is to approach two important subjects, divided into three parts. Part I relates to the description of the main crop pests and their natural enemies; Part II involves the impact of insecticides on predators and parasitoids and Part III focuses on the selectivity of several groups of insecticides to natural enemies. Before spraying insecticides, it is necessary to choose a product that is efficient to pests and selective to natural enemies. So, it is indispensable to identify correctly the groups and species of natural enemies, since insecticides have an impact on their survival, growth, development, reproduction (sexual ratio, fecundity, longevity and fertility, and behavior (motility, orientation, feeding, oviposition and learning of insects. The mechanisms of toxicity and selectivity of insecticides are related to the properties of higher or lower solubility and molecular weight. Besides, characteristics of the cuticular composition of the integument of natural enemies are extremely important in the selectivity of a product or the tolerance of a certain predator or parasitoid to this molecules.Impacto e Seletividade de Inseticidas para Predadores e ParasitóidesResumo.Dentre os problemas advindos do uso de inseticidas, a destruição de inimigos naturais é fator importante. Estes insetos benéficos podem reduzir problemas de erupção de pragas secundárias, ressurgência de pragas e manter a praga abaixo do nível de dano econ

  10. Aspectos biológicos da fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae oriunda de larvas alimentadas com Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Biological aspects of the adult stage of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae originating from the larvae fed Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Gerane Celly Dias Bezerra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar alguns aspectos biológicos da fase adulta de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen quando as larvas desse predador foram alimentadas com ninfas e fêmeas adultas de Planococcus citri (Risso. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada regulada a 25 ± 1 ºC, 70 ± 10% de UR e fotofase de 12 horas. Os adultos de C. externa cujas larvas foram alimentadas com ninfas nos três ínstares e fêmeas adultas da cochonilha, foram separados por sexo e 25 casais foram individualizados em gaiolas determinando-se a razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição, capacidade de oviposição diária e total durante 40 dias consecutivos, longevidade, período embrionário e viabilidade de ovos. Constatou-se que as ninfas nos três ínstares e fêmeas adultas fornecidas como alimento, não afetaram a razão sexual, período de pré-oviposição, período embrionário e longevidade dos adultos de C. externa. A produção diária e total de ovos por C. externa foi afetada pelo tipo de alimento fornecido ao predador durante a fase de larva, observando-se uma maior produção quando os casais foram alimentados na fase de larva com fêmeas adultas da cochonilha. Analisando-se a produção de ovos, observou-se uma maior concentração de oviposição nos primeiros dez dias do período reprodutivo, decrescendo nas avaliações seguintes. Foram obtidas porcentagens maiores de ovos viáveis e menores de inviáveis e inférteis, porém, não diferiram em função do alimento fornecido ao predador na fase de larva.It was aimed to study some biological aspects in the adult stage of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen when the larvae of predator were fed both nymphs and adult females of Planococcus citri (Risso. The experiment was conducted in climate chamber at 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% of RH and 12-h photophase. The adults of C. externa whose larvae were fed nymphs at the three instars and adult females of mealybug were separated by sex and 25 couples were individualized

  11. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861(Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae e Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, 1907 (Hemiptera: Aphididae Bipogical aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, 1907 (Hemiptera: Aphididae (Hemiptera: Aphididae

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    Jean Patrick Bonani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O ecossistema citrícola abriga muitas espécies de inimigos naturais, entre eles Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 que apresenta um grande potencial como agente de controle biológico de pragas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avapar o efeito das presas Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 e Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, 1907 sobre o desenvolvimento das fases de larva e pupa de C. externa. O ensaio foi conduzido em sala cpmatizada a uma temperatura de 25±1ºC, 70±10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pelo fornecimento contínuo e alternado dessas duas presas em cada ínstar do predador, além de ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879, utilizados para fins de comparação. Foram avaliados o tempo de vida e a viabilidade das fases de larva, pupa e do período larva-adulto de C. externa. Constatou-se que T. citricida fornecido isoladamente ao longo do desenvolvimento larval ou em dois ínstares consecutivos do predador, não foi uma presa adequada, constatando-se 100% de mortalidade no período larva-adulto. Quando as larvas alimentaram-se de P. citri fornecida em dois ínstares do predador, a viabilidade no período larva-adulto foi semelhante à dieta constituída por apenas ovos de A. kuehniella, exceto quando se alimentaram de T. citricida no primeiro ínstar.The citrus-growing ecosystem houses a great deal of species of natural enemies, among them Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861, which presents a great potential for use in the bipogical contrp of pests. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the preys Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 and Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy, 1907 on the development of larva and pupa of C. externa. The trial was carried out in an accpmatized room at 25±1ºC, 70±10% RH and 12-hour photophase, the treatments consisting of the continuous and alternate supply of those two preys in each instar of the predator, in apition to eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 utilized for

  12. Fitoseídeos (Acari: Phytoseiidae associados a cafezais e fragmentos florestais vizinhos Phytoseiids (Acari: Phytoseiidae associated to coffee plantations and adjacent forest fragments

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    Ester Azevedo Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Existem poucas informações sobre a fauna de ácaros predadores (Phytoseiidae em ambientes naturais brasileiros adjacentes a agroecossistemas cafeeiros (Coffea spp. ou sobre a influência que essa vegetação exerce como reservatório de ácaros predadores. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar a diversidade destes organismos em cafeeiros e fragmentos florestais adjacentes. Coletaram-se amostras das espécies Calyptranthes clusiifolia (Miq. O. Berg (Myrtaceae, Esenbeckia febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. A. Juss. ex Mart. (Rutaceae, Metrodorea stipularis Mart. (Rutaceae e Allophylus semidentatus (Miq. Radlk. (Sapindaceae, em oito fragmentos florestais, de 5 a 51 ha, e cafezais adjacentes, nos meses de junho (final período chuvoso e outubro (final período seco nos anos 2004 e 2005, na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais. Ácaros foram extraídos das folhas, utilizando o método de lavagem e, em seguida, montados em lâminas de microscopia em meio de Hoyer, para identificação específica. No total foram identificados 2.348 fitoseídeos, sendo 2.090 nos fragmentos florestais e 258 espécimes nos cafezais adjacentes, pertencentes a 38 espécies. Servindo-se de análise faunística, a espécie Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972 apresentou os melhores índices no agroecossistema cafeeiro, sendo muito frequente e constante nas épocas estudadas. Nos fragmentos florestais Amblyseius herbicolus Chant, 1959, Iphiseiodes affs. neonobilis Denmark & Muma, 1978, Leonseius regularis DeLeon, 1965 e Euseius alatus DeLeon, 1966 foram dominantes, muito abundantes, muito frequentes e constantes nas épocas estudadas. Podemos concluir que a vegetação nativa abriga ácaros predadores, inimigos naturais de ácaros-praga, que ocorrem na cultura cafeeira, possibilitando o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo ecológico com áreas de vegetação natural e agroecossistemas cafeeiros adjacentes.There is little information about the fauna of predatory mites

  13. Análise crítica dos sistemas neurais envolvidos nas respostas de medo inato Critical analysis of the neural systems organizing innate fear responses

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    Newton Sabino Canteras

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O nosso entendimento das bases neurofisiológicas da reação emocional do medo baseia-se em grande parte nos estudos que envolvem respostas condicionadas a estímulos fisicamente aversivos, como, por exemplo, o choque elétrico nas patas. Enquanto este paradigma parece ser útil para avaliarmos os sistemas neurais envolvidos na resposta do, assim chamado, medo condicionado (que tipicamente tem se limitado à observação da resposta de congelamento, este paradigma parece ter sérias limitações para investigarmos as bases neurais das respostas de medo em circunstancias naturais. Trabalhos recentes utilizando técnicas de lesões neurais bem como de mapeamento funcional em animais expostos a predadores naturais, ou somente ao odor destes predadores, revelam uma série de estruturas neurais como responsáveis pelas respostas de medo inato, bastante distintas daquelas previamente implicadas nas respostas de condicionamento aversivo. Como revisto no presente trabalho, entre estas estruturas temos distritos diferenciados da zona medial do hipotálamo; setores específicos da amídala e do sistema septo-hipocampal, envolvidos, respectivamente no processamento de pistas relacionadas à presença do predador e na análise contextual do ambiente; e setores da matéria cinzenta periaquedutal, já classicamente envolvidos na expressão de respostas de defesa. Estas informações podem ser potencialmente importantes para a análise e terapêutica de psicopatologias relacionadas aos distúrbios da reação emocional de medo.Unconditioned emotional responses elicited by exposure to a predator have served as the prototypical exemplar for analyses of the behavioral biology of fear-related emotionality. However, the primary research model for the study of fear has involved shock-based cue and context conditioning. While these shock-based models have provided a good understanding of neural systems regulating specific conditioned fear-related behaviors

  14. Fitofagia de Podisus nigrispinus em algodoeiro e plantas daninhas Phytophagy by Podisus nigrispinus on cotton plants and weeds

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    Walter Santos Evangelista Júnior

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis plantas daninhas e do algodoeiro no desenvolvimento, reprodução e sobrevivência do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae sob escassez parcial de presas, alimentação em intervalos de três dias, e ausência total de presas. Com escassez parcial de presas, o desenvolvimento ninfal foi maior em Ricinus communis e menor em Bidens pilosa. Viabilidade dos ínstares, peso de fêmeas, período de pré-oviposição e fecundidade foram similares entre as plantas, porém o peso de machos e longevidade de fêmeas foram reduzidos em Desmodium tortuosum e R. communis, respectivamente. Com base nos parâmetros de tabela de vida foi estimada melhor performance do predador em Amaranthus hybridus, D. tortuosum e R. communis. Ninfas submetidas à escassez total de presas viveram mais em Ageratum conyzoides, B. pilosa, D. tortuosum e Euphorbia heterophylla; porém não viveram além do terceiro ínstar. A longevidade de fêmeas do predador foi favorecida pela presença de A. conyzoides em relação a Gossypium hirsutum, vivendo em média 15,7 e 29,8 dias, respectivamente. No entanto, a disponibilidade de plantas não foi suficiente para as fêmeas atingirem maturação sexual e produção de ovos, quando submetidas à escassez total de presas.This work evaluated the effect of six weeds and cotton plants on predatory stinkbug Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae development, reproduction and survival under partial prey scarcity, three days feeding intervals, and total absence of prey. Nymphal developmental periods under partial prey scarceness with three days of feeding intervals were higher on Ricinus communis and lower on Bidens pilosa. Partial prey scarcity did not affect nymphal viability, adult female weight and reproductive characteristics, but male weight and female longevity were reduced in Desmodium tortuosum and R. communis, respectively

  15. Pragas e inimigos naturais na soja e no milho cultivados em sistemas diversificados Pests and their natural enemies on soybean and corn grown in diversified systems

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    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A consorciação de culturas e o plantio direto podem influenciar a dinâmica populacional de insetos, aumentando ou diminuindo a densidade populacional de pragas e de inimigos naturais. Deste modo, avaliaram-se os efeitos de sistemas de plantio direto e da consorciação soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] e milho (Zea mays L. sobre as populações de insetos-pragas e inimigos naturais. Os tratamentos constituíram um fatorial 3x2 (monocultura de soja, monocultura de milho, consorciação soja-milho em plantio direto e plantio convencional. Os insetos foram amostrados pelo método do pano, rede entomológica e procura visual. No milho, a ocorrência de insetos-pragas da parte aérea e insetos predadores não foi influenciada pelo manejo do solo. Lagartas de Helicoverpa zea ocorreram em maior número (5,1 no milho em consorciação. Na soja, adultos de Anticarsia gemmatalis e do predador Cycloneda sanguinea foram mais abundantes em plantio direto, respectivamente, 0,4 e 2,4 insetos. Observou-se maior número do sirfídeo Toxomerus sp. em plantio convencional (1,3. Nas condições de consorciação, verificou-se baixo número de Diabrotica gracilenta (11,5 na soja, enquanto que Maecolaspis sp. (5,0 e Megascelis sp. (17,0 e os predadores C. sanguinea (2,3, Doru sp. (0,8, Geocoris sp. (1,5 e Toxomerus sp. (1,4 ocorreram em alta densidade.Intercropping and no-tillage systems can affect the population dynamics of insects, increasing or decreasing the population density of pests and natural enemies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of no-tillage and strip intercropping of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] and corn (Zea mays L. on the abundance of insect pests and their natural enemies. Plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design in a 3 x 2 factorial experiment (soybean monoculture, corn monoculture, strip intercropping of soybean-corn under no-tillage and conventional tillage. Insects were sampled using sweep net

  16. Activity, habitat use, feeding behavior, and diet of four sympatric species of Serranidae (Actinopterygii: Perciformes in southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    2007-09-01

    serranídeos são predadores oportunistas que utilizam um total de nove táticas diferentes para capturar suas presas, alimentando-se principalmente de crustáceos durante o dia e crepúsculo, e permanecendo estacionários e inativos durante a noite. Um estudo ecomorfológico foi empregado para testar seu valor preditivo. Foi verificado que tal abordagem deve ser utilizada com cautela e sempre complementada com observações diretas no ambiente. Apesar de morfologicamente e comportamentalmente muito semelhantes, D. formosum e D. radiale mostraram divergências com relação ao tipo de substrato preferido pelos maiores indivíduos, que são exclusivamente predadores de espreita. Por outro lado, E. marginatus mostrou possuir hábitos de vida mais sedentários do que M. acutirostris, o mais versátil predador dentre as espécies estudadas. As espécies de Diplectrum estudadas, assim como E. marginatus, podem ser classificadas como serranídeos bentônicos, enquanto que M. acutirostris pode ser classificada como uma espécie nectobentônica.

  17. Influência de sistemas de produção sobre a ocorrência de inimigos naturais de afídeos em pomares de pessegueiros em Araucária-PR Influence of systems of production on the occurrence of natural enemies of aphids on orchards of peach trees in Araucaria-PR

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    Joselia Maria Schuber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pressão da sociedade tem forçado a adoção de sistemas de produção de frutas mais sustentáveis e de menor impacto ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos sistemas de produção de Boas Práticas Agrícolas (BPA e Convencional (PC sobre a diversidade de inimigos naturais de afídeos presentes em seis pomares de pessegueiros no município de Araucária-PR, de julho de 2005 a setembro de 2006. O levantamento do número de inimigos naturais foi realizado por meio de cinco métodos de amostragens: visual em plantas de pessegueiros e em plantas invasoras; armadilhas Möericke; funil e adesivas. No sistema BPA, foram coletados mais espécimes de inimigos naturais (53%, em relação aos pomares PCs (46%, havendo a ocorrência, em ambos, de predadores das famílias Syrphidae, Coccinellidae e Chrysopidae e parasitóides da ordem Hymenoptera. Do total de inimigos naturais coletados, verificou-se a ocorrência de maior quantidade de predadores de afídeos.The pressure of the society has forced the adoption of more sustainable fruit production systems and with less environmental impact. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of production systems of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP and Conventional Production (CP, about the diversity of natural enemies of aphids present on six orchards of peach trees in the city of Araucaria, PR, from July 2005 to September 2006. The evaluation of the number of natural enemies of aphid's species was made by means of five sampling methods: visual in plants of peach trees; visual in invading plants; yellow water traps of Möericke type; funnel and adhesive traps. In the system GPA, more specimens of natural enemies had been collected (53% in relation to orchards CP (46%, having the occurrence, in both orchards, of predators of the Syrphidae, Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae family and parasitoids of Hymenoptera order. Concerning the total of collected natural enemies, it was

  18. Dinâmica populacional de bruquíneos (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae em Senna multijuga (Rich. H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Caesalpinaceae Population dynamics of bruchines (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae in Senna multijuga (Rich. H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Caesalpinaceae

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    Lisiane Taiatella Sari

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Senna multijuga (Rich. H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Caesalpinaceae é uma planta ornamental comum no sudeste do Brasil, suscetível ao dano por bruquíneos predadores de sementes. Com o objetivo de identificar os predadores de suas sementes e determinar seus ciclos populacionais, frutos de cinco árvores foram coletados em 2000 e 2001 e acondicionados em casa de vegetação até a emergência de adultos. Os bruquíneos foram identificados como Sennius crudelis Ribeiro-Costa & Reynaud, 1998, S. puncticollis (Fåhraeus, 1839 e S. nappi Ribeiro-Costa & Reynaud, 1998. Sennius crudelis foi a espécie mais abundante em 2000, seguida por S. puncticollis e S. nappi. Em 2001, Sennius crudelis foi seguida por S. nappi e S. puncticollis. Diferenças foram observadas entre as árvores com relação ao período de frutificação, refletindo na oviposição. O período de emergência dos adultos se inicia em julho tanto em casa de vegetação quan-to no campo. Os resultados demonstraram que as dinâmicas populacionais dos bruquíneos são complexas e a compreensão desses processos contribui para responder a muitas outras questões ecológicas do grupo.Senna multijuga (Rich. H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Caesalpinaceae is a native ornamental tree common in southeastern Brazil and susceptible to seed damage due to bruchines. To identify seed predators and determine their population cycles, fruits from five trees were collected in 2000 and 2001 and stored in a green house until adult emerged. Seed beetles were then identified as Sennius crudelis Ribeiro-Costa & Reynaud, 1998, S. puncticollis (Fåhraeus, 1839 and S. nappi Ribeiro-Costa & Reynaud, 1998. Sennius crudelis was the most abundant species in 2000 followed by S. puncticollis and S. nappi. In 2001, Sennius crudelis was followed by S. nappi and S. puncticollis. Differences were observed among trees relating to fruiting period which reflected in the oviposition. Adult emergence begins in July in the green house and in

  19. Ecological aspects of a Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae population in São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR./ Aspectos ecológicos da população de Cosmopolites sordidus, (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR

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    Cristiane Rohde

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar was studied in banana crops (cultivar Nanicão at São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR, using roof-tile-like baits, between June/2003 and May/2004. Adults infected by entomopathogenic fungi were recorded, and predators were also found on the baits. A comparative bioassay was carried out between the Beauveria bassiana isolate obtained from the experiment area and from other regions in Brazil against C. sordidus adults. The population peaks of C. sordidus adults occurred in June and July, a period with mild temperatures and low precipitation. The population of C. sordidus larvae, however, was concentrated in December. The insect predators found in the area were insects of the following orders: Coleoptera (Carabidae, Dermaptera (Forficulidae, Hemiptera (Reduviidae, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and spiders of the families Ctenidae, Clubionidae, and Lycosidae, with a population peak two months after the pest population peak. A low number of C. sordidus adults infected by B. bassiana was found, with an annual mean of 0.44%. In the laboratory, the B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic to the insects.Estudou-se a dinâmica populacional de Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar em cultivo de banana(cultivar Nanicão, em São Miguel do Iguaçu, PR, através de iscas do tipo telha, entre junho/2003 a maio/2004. Atribuiu-se conceito ao estado de conservação da isca, visando observar sua durabilidade e atratividade. Registraram-se adultos infectados por fungos entomopatogênicos, sendo também encontrados predadores nas iscas. Realizou-se um bioensaio com isolados de Beauveria bassiana da área experimental e de Centros de Pesquisa do Brasil, para avaliar a patogenicidade em C. sordidus. Verificou-se que os picos populacionais de adultos de C. sordidus ocorreram em junho e julho, período de temperaturas amenas e baixas precipitações, enquanto que as larvas foram mais abundantes em dezembro. Os insetos predadores

  20. Impact and Selectivity of Insecticides to Predators and Parasitoids

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    Flávio Fernandes

    2010-04-01

    Resumo.Dentre os problemas advindos do uso de inseticidas, a destruição de inimigos naturais é fator importante. Estes insetos benéficos podem reduzir problemas de erupção de pragas secundárias, ressurgência de pragas e manter a praga abaixo do nível de dano econômico. Dessa forma a conservação de inimigos naturais, para que os mesmos exerçam alta performance frente às pragas, é de extrema importância em controle biológico de pragas. Método de controle essencial utilizados nos programas de manejo integrado de pragas. Tendo em vista os impactos negativos dos inseticidas na agricultura e os seus efeitos adversos sobre os inimigos naturais, este artigo visa abordar dois assuntos importantes, que para isso é dividido em três partes. A parte I relacionada com o reconhecimento das principais pragas agrícolas e seus inimigos naturais; a parte II envolve o impacto dos inseticidas sobre os predadores e parasitóides e a parte III abordará sobre a seletividade dos diversos grupos de inseticidas aos inimigos naturais. Antes de se pulverizar inseticida é necessário a escolha de um produto que seja seletivo e eficiente, assim torna-se imprescindível identificar de forma correta os grupos e espécies de inimigos naturais. Uma vez que os inseticidas apresentam impacto sobre a sobrevivência, o crescimento e desenvolvimento, na reprodução (razão sexual, fecundidade, longevidade e fertilidade, no comportamento (mobilidade, orientação, alimentação, oviposição e aprendizado. Os mecanismos de toxicidade e seletividade dos inseticidas estão relacionados às propriedades de maior ou menor solubilidade e peso molecular. Além disso, características da composição cuticular do integumento dos inimigos naturais são de extrema importância na seletividade de um produto ou a tolerância de determinado predador ou parasitóide.

  1. Diel density variation of amphipods associated with Sargassum beds from two shores of Ubatuba, Southeastern, Brazil Variação ao longo do dia na densidade de anfípodos associados a bancos de Sargassum em duas praias de Ubatuba, SP, Brasil

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    Fosca P. P. Leite

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Densities of mobile epifaunal assemblages associated with macrophytes are very variable during the day and the activity of visually-oriented predators is thought to have an important influence on this pattern. Here we compared densities of amphipods associated with a common brown alga, Sargassum stenophyllum (Phaeophyceae, at sites contrasting in water turbidity. We expected that diel variation of amphipods would occur in a shore with clear waters (Perequê, whereas no variation was expected in a shore with turbid waters (Lamberto. Amphipod density varied during the day at both shores, with no indication of a larger variation at Perequê. Most species showed two density peaks, one at night and the other in the afternoon. These peaks occurred close the times of high tide, suggesting that tidal rhythms could influence more amphipod densities than the activity of predators. Thus, more studies are necessary to understand factors that influence short-term variation of epifaunal assemblages.As densidades da epifauna móvel associada a macrófitas variam muito ao longo do dia, sendo a atividade de predadores visualmente orientados um dos principais fatores apontados para explicar este padrão. Neste estudo, comparamos as densidades de anfípodos associados a uma alga parda comum, Sargassum stenophyllum (Phaeophyceae, em praias contrastando em turbidez da água. Era esperada a ocorrência de variação ao longo do dia numa praia com águas claras (Perequê e nenhuma variação na praia com águas turvas (Lamberto. A densidade de anfípodos variou ao longo do dia em ambas as praias, sem indicação de maior variação em Perequê. A maioria das espécies apresentou dois picos de densidade: um à noite e outro à tarde. Estes ocorreram próximos aos períodos de maré alta, sugerindo que o ritmo de maré poderia influenciar mais as densidades de anfípodos que a atividade de predadores. Assim, mais estudos são necessários para se compreender os fatores

  2. Comparação econômica entre controle biológico e químico para o manejo de ácaro-vermelho em macieira Economic comparison of biological and chemical control in the management of red spider mites in apple orchard

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    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro-vermelho da macieira, Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae, é uma importante praga na cultura da macieira em Fraiburgo - SC, e o controle biológico aplicado foi implantado em meados dos anos 90. O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar os benefícios econômicos da utilização do controle biológico no manejo do ácaro-vermelho. A avaliação foi realizada em dois pomares comerciais de macieiras. Em um deles, foi implantado o controle biológico aplicado de ácaros, baseado na liberação do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae, seleção de inseticidas e manejo de ervas invasoras, e o outro pomar seguiu o manejo convencional de artrópodes, baseado na aplicação de produtos químicos para o controle de insetos, ácaros fitófagos e ervas invasoras. A análise econômica mostrou que os custos com mão-de-obra e máquinas foram semelhantes em ambos os pomares, entretanto os custos com acaricidas foram significativamente inferiores no pomar onde o manejo foi o controle biológico, demonstrando que, apesar da necessidade de investimentos em instalações para a criação do ácaro predador e custos de manutenção das mesmas, a estratégia biológica foi economicamente viável.Red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae is a significant pest in apple tree in Fraiburgo, Santa Catarina (SC and applied biological control was implemented in the mid-nineties. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the economic benefits of biological control in the management of red spider mite. The assessment was carried out in two commercial orchards, one of which was subjected to biological control of spider mite by releasing the predator Neoseiulus californicus, insecticide selection and weed management, and the other to conventional arthropod management, based on the application of chemicals to control insects, phytofagous mites and weed. Economic analysis showed that the costs for labor and machines were

  3. Efeito do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae em pomar de macieira Effect of weed management on Neoseiulus californicus (Acari:Phytoseiidae in apple orchard

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    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do manejo de plantas daninhas sobre o deslocamento de ácaros tetraniquídeos (Panonychus ulmi e Tetranychus urticae e do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus em um pomar de macieira 'Gala', onde foi implantado o controle biológico do ácaro vermelho, P. ulmi, por meio de liberações massais de N. californicus. As parcelas tiveram as plantas daninhas manejadas de três formas: sem manejo, com roçadas manuais e com herbicidas. As populações de ácaros foram avaliadas sobre as plantas daninhas, Plantago tormentosa e Erigeron sp, e sobre as folhas de macieira. As maiores populações de N. californicus foram observadas nas parcelas onde os manejos proporcionaram desenvolvimento de plantas daninhas na linha de plantio. Na parcela manejada com herbicida, houve maior população de ácaros tetraniquídeos sobre as macieiras, provavelmente, devido ao reduzido número de N. californicus. P. tormentosa foi o hospedeiro preferencial do ácaro predador. Concluiu-se que o manejo de plantas daninhas, na linha de plantio das macieiras, assume um importante papel no equilíbrio entre as populações de ácaros.The influence of weed management on tetranychid mites (Panonychus ulmi and Tetranychus urticae and phytoseids movement was evaluated. Neoseiulus californicus populations were released in an apple orchard for biological control of tetranychid mites. Three kinds of weed management were used: no weed control at all, manual control and control with herbicide. The mites were evaluated in Plantago tormentosa, Erigeron sp, and apple tree leaves. The highest population of N. californicus was observed where weed was not controlled. Tetranychid mites populations were abundant on apple trees when herbicide was used, probably due to the low population of N. californicus. P. tormentosa was the preferred host of phytoseids. The conclusion was that weed management plays an important role in the regulation of mite species in apple

  4. (Una visión del medioambiente en los siglos XV al XVIII

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    José Ojeda Nieto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los siglos XV y XVIII los oriolanos persiguieron a lobos y pájaros. Buscaban el exterminio del predador para acabar con los desmanes en los rebaños de ganado y con el temor ancestral, revivido constantemente en cuentos y leyendas. Mataban pájaros porque su proliferación reducía las cosechas. Se trataba de controlar, cuando no eliminar, unos competidores desleales. A la historia del medioambiente le corresponde señalar no solo los fenómenos de transformación y degradación del espacio, también la relación antrópica con las demás especies. La relación hombre-lobos y pájaros, y aún las ratas, en la Orihuela de los siglos señalados, constituye un modelo de análisis que compete también al campo de las ciencias humanas.

  5. Fatores que influenciam o ataque de mosca-branca em jiloeiro Factors affecting attack rate of the whitefly on Solanum gilo

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar os efeitos de pluviosidade e temperatura, predadores e parasitóides, dossel e idade das plantas, tipos e densidades de tricomas foliares, compostos químicos foliares, níveis de N e de K foliares, sobre a intensidade de ataque de mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em jiloeiro Solanum gilo var. 'Gigante Portuguesa'. As densidades de ninfas e de adultos de B. tabaci foram maiores nas folhas baixeiras do que nas apicais das plantas de jiloeiro. Com o aumento da temperatura do ar, observou-se incremento na densidade de adultos de B. tabaci nas folhas de jiloeiro.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rainfall and temperature, predators and parasitoids, height within the canopy and plant age, chemical composition of leaves, levels of nitrogen and potassium in leaves and density of trichomes in leaves, on attack intensity of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on Solanum gilo var. 'Portuguese giant'. Densities of nymphs and of adults of B. tabaci were higher on leaves of the lower part than on those of the apical parts of plants of S. gilo. The number of adults of B. tabaci on leaves of S. gilo increased with temperature.

  6. Genética de comunidades

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    M. Verdú

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre los procesos responsables del ensamblaje de las especies en comunidades ecológicas tradicionalmente han considerado a las especies como unidades de estudio. Sin embargo, dentro de las especies existe gran cantidad de variación genotípica y fenotípica que puede finalmente ser decisiva en el resultado de las interacciones con el resto de especies en la comunidad (competencia, mutualismo, etc. Recientemente se ha propuesto una nueva regla de ensamblaje de las comunidades que sugiere que la composición genética de una población afecta a la estructura y composición de la comunidad (es decir alfenotipo de la comunidad. Apoyando esta regla, varios estudios han demostrado que los cambios en la diversidad genética de poblaciones de plantas conllevan cambios predecibles en sus comunidades asociadas de herbívoros y predadores. Más allá de la visión poblacional, la nueva genética de comunidades pretende demostrar 1 que el genotipo particular de ciertos individuos es responsable del fenotipo de la comunidad, 2 que el fenotipo de la comunidad es heredable, y por lo tanto 3 que las comunidades evolucionan. Tras explicar estos tres conceptos, se discute el valor que esta aproximación puede tener desde el punto de vista de la biología de la conservación.

  7. Faunistic survey of sandstone caves from Altinópolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Douglas Zeppelini Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of eight sandstone caves of the region of Altinópolis, (Serra Geral Arenitic Speleological province, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil was surveyed. Our results improve the previous faunistic knowledge of the region, recording 15 new occurrences for Brazilian caves and 26 for Brazilian sandstone caves. The fauna is characterized by a large number of detritivores/omnivores such as crickets and cockroaches, and several predators like spiders and heteropterans in bat guano.A fauna de oito cavernas areníticas da região de Altinópolis (província espeleológica arenítica da Serra Geral, Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil foi amostrada. Nossos resultados aumentaram o conhecimento faunístico prévio da região, com o registro de 15 novas ocorrências para cavernas brasileiras e 26 para cavernas brasileiras em arenito. A fauna é caracterizada por um grande número de detritívoros/carnívoros tais como grilos e baratas, diversos predadores tais como aranhas e heterópteros no guano de morcego.

  8. Efeitos do sistema de plantio e da consorciação soja-milho sobre artrópodes capturados no solo

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    Cividanes Francisco Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do plantio direto e da consorciação soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] e milho (Zea mays L. sobre artrópodes que vivem no solo. Os tratamentos constituíram um fatorial 3 x 2 (monocultura de soja, monocultura de milho, consorciação soja-milho x plantio direto, plantio convencional em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições; as amostragens foram efetuadas com armadilhas de solo, durante 1996 a 1998. Resultados estatisticamente significativos em pelo menos uma safra indicaram que o plantio direto foi favorável a predadores, como formigas (Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus spp. e Ectatomma sp., carabídeos (Metius sp. e aranhas (Lycosidae. A consorciação soja-milho aumentou o número de Acrididae, enquanto a presença do milho favoreceu a ocorrência de Dermaptera em sistemas de consorciação soja-milho.

  9. Lesiones post mortales por fauna cadavérica: La acción de las hormigas sobre el cadáver Post-mortal injuries by cadaveric fauna: The action of the ants on human corpses

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    P.M. Garamendi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Los animales pueden actuar como predadores de los restos humanos y las lesiones postmortales que infligen en los cadáveres pueden dar lugar a errores de interpretación de los hallazgos en las autopsias forenses. Entre la fauna cadavérica, las hormigas constituyen un caso excepcional al ser los únicos insectos que pueden iniciar su actividad predadora antes de instaurarse la putrefacción. Las hormigas suelen producir lesiones que por su asiento y morfología resultan típicas. Se presenta un caso en el que se evidencia la presencia de lesiones de morfología típica por la acción lesiva postmortal de hormigas, pero con una extensión y localización inhabituales.Post-mortem animal predation can lead to errors when interpreting forensic autopsy findings. Ants are the only insects that can attack human corpses after death and before decomposition process starts. Ants produce post mortal injuries in the skin that have a distinct location and morphology. We present a forensic case in which post mortal injuries produced by ants in a human corpse had a typical morphology; however their location and extension were unusual.

  10. Colonização de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em detritos foliares em um riacho de primeira ordem na Floresta Atlântica do nordeste brasileiro

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    Iris Gabrielly Arruda dos Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a colonização de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em detritos foliares de Inga ingoides (Leguminosae em experimentos de campo em um riacho de primeira ordem da Mata Atlântica do Estado de Pernambuco no nordeste do Brasil. Um total de 270 bolsas de folhiço, distribuídas em três trechos do riacho com características similares em relação à morfologia e parâmetros físicos e químicos da água foram submersas, entre fevereiro a julho de 2013 e retiradas após 7, 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias. Dois tratamentos foram utilizados: colonização e exclusão da macrofauna. O percentual de biomassa remanescente final (%R foi maior para bolsas de colonização do que para as de exclusão, evidenciando a efetiva participação dos macroinvertebrados no processo de decomposição. Os fragmentadores apresentaram menor participação no processo de decomposição foliar de I. ingoides, sendo Tripletides (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae, Polypedillum e Stenochironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae os táxons predominantes na macrofauna. Filtrador foi o grupo trófico funcional predominante (45,6%, seguido por predador (31,2%, coletor (11,8%, raspador (6,7% e fragmentador (4,8%.

  11. INSETOS AQUÁTICOS EM UM LAGO ARTIFICIAL NO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Mario Arthur Favretto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a entomofauna aquática em um lago artificial no perímetro urbano no município de Joaçaba, estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de agosto, outubro, novembro e dezembro de 2013, durante o período matutino com auxílio de rede entomológica. No total foram coletados 300 exemplares divididos em cinco ordens. Odonata foi a ordem mais abundante, tendo sido representada por Coenagrionidae, Lestidae e Aeshnidae. Ainda Hemiptera foi representada por Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Gerridae, Mesovellidae e Corixidae e Ephemeroptera com Baetidae. Quanto aos grupos tróficos funcionais, 85% das espécies foram de predadores, 10% de fragmentadores/coletores e 5% de coletores. Palavras-chave: Entomofauna aquática. Hemiptera. Odonata. Sul do Brasil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p113-116

  12. A resistência aos inseticidas e sua medida em mosquitos

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    Mario B. Aragão

    1972-04-01

    Full Text Available Depois de um ligeiro histórico scbre a evolução dos inseticidas, o autor chama a atenção para a mudança radical sofrida pela tática de combate a insetos, cem o aparecimento dos inseticidas orgânicos persistentes. Antes o que se visava era o inseto ou o seu alimento, depois passou-se a envenenar todo o espaço frequentado por esses animais. Lembra que existem, em alguns lugares, ambientes naturalmente envenenados onde prosperam seres vivos, perfeitamente adaptados a essas condições. Isso permitia prever o aparecimento de resistência aos inseticidas na escala hoje observada. Cita alguns çens e enzimas responsáveis pela resistência a alguns grupos de inseticidas e salienta a importância desses estudos para a descoberta de substâncias sinergentes. Descreve a técnica adotada pela Organização Mundial da Saúde para medir a susceptibilidade de mosquitos adultos. Menciona os processos de controle biológico por machos esterilizados, parasitas e predadores, e lembra que as duas campanhas contra insetos de importância sanitária que tiveram maior êxito no Brasil, a do Aedes aegypti e a do Anopheles gambiae, utilizaram táticas ecléticas, como é hoje preconizado pelos cntomologistas de vanguarda, no que se convencionou chamar de luta integrada.

  13. Toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos recomendado na agricultura sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Residual toxicity of some pesticides recommended for citrus orchards on the predaceous mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

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    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor em condições de laboratório. O método de bioensaio adotado foi o de contato residual. Folhas de citros da variedade Pêra, acondicionadas em arenas, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. A toxicidade residual dos produtos foi avaliada duas horas e 1; 3; 5; 7; 10; 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação. Em cada arena, foram transferidas dez fêmeas adultas de N. californicus, juntamente com uma quantidade suficiente de Tetranychus urticae, como fonte de alimento. As avaliações de mortalidade foram realizadas 72 horas após a transferência dos ácaros para as arenas. Os agrotóxicos acrinathrin, deltamethrin, dinocap, enxofre, fenpropathrin, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite não causaram mortalidades significativas em adultos de N. californicus. Foram registradas mortalidades de 29,8; 24,0 e 34,1% para ácaros N. californicus expostos a resíduos de duas horas de idade de abamectim, azocyclotin e cyhexatin, respectivamente. Dicofol, pyridaben e chlorfenapyr causaram 100% de mortalidade aos ácaros predadores expostos aos resíduos tóxicos dos acaricidas, com duas horas de idade. Abamectin provocou mortalidade significativa por um período inferior a um dia. Resíduos dos acaricidas azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dicofol, pyridaben e chlorfenapyr provocaram mortalidades significativas por períodos de 1; 1; 10; 10 e 21dias, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos no presente experimento servem de subsídio para a escolha adequada dos agrotóxicos a serem utilizados em pomares de citros nos quais N. californicus esteja presente ou naqueles em que o predador venha a ser liberado. Esses resultados também servem para a escolha do momento mais favorável para a liberação dos ácaros predadores dessa espécie no campo, após a aplicação de agrotóxicos nos pomares. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda s

  14. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

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    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  15. DINÁMICA DE LA BIFURCACIÓN DE HOPF EN UNA CLASE DE MODELOS DE COMPETENCIA QUE EXHIBEN LA BIFURCACIÓN ZIP Hopf Bifurcation Dynamic in a Class of Competence Model Exhibiting Zip Bifurcation

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    Carlos Mario Escobar Callejas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo de investigación se caracteriza el tipo de bifurcación de Hopf que se presenta en el fenómeno de la bifurcación de zip para un sistema tridimensional no lineal de ecuaciones diferenciales que satisface las condiciones planteadas por Butler y Farkas, las cuales modelan la competición de dos especies predadoras por una presa singular que se regenera. Se demuestra que en todas las variedades bidimensionales invariantes del sistema considerado se desarrolla una bifurcación de Hopf supercrítica lo cual es una extensión de algunos resultados sobre el tipo de bifurcación de Hopf que se forma en el fenómeno de la bifurcación de zip en sistema con respuesta funcional del predador del tipo Holling II, [1].This research article characterizes the type of Hopf bifurcation occurring in the Zip bifurcation phenomenon for a non-linear 3D system of differential equations which meets the conditions stated by Butler and Farkas to model competition of two predators struggling for a prey. It is shown that a supercritical Hopf bifurcation is developed in all invariant two-dimensional varieties of the system considered, which is an extension of some results about the kind of Hopf bifurcation which is formed in the Zip bifurcation phenomenon in a system with functional response of the Holling-type predator.

  16. Density and habitat requirements of sympatric hares and cottontails in northern Italy

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    Anna Vidus Rosin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 2005 to 2009, densities and habitat selection by the European hare (Lepus europaeus and Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus were assessed during feeding activity in an intensively cultivated area in northern Italy. Hare average density (74 ind./km2 was comparable to the highest values reported for European farming areas. Preand post-breeding density fluctuated widely across the study years, probably as a consequence of changes in the carrying capacity of the study area. Cottontail population size progressively increased, as expected for a recently introduced species supported by high reproductive performances. Hares used both crops and spontaneous vegetation during their feeding activity. Conversely, cottontails avoided winter cereals and preferred to feed on alfalfa. Our results suggest that simplified agro-ecosystems cannot maintain high density hare populations even at a short time scale. Landscape heterogeneity could enhance the chances of coexistence between the two lagomorphs.
    Riassunto Densità ed esigenze ecologiche della lepre e del silvilago in condizioni di simpatria in Italia settentrionale Tra il 2005 e il 2009, la densità e l’uso del habitat durante l’attività di alimentazione da parte della Lepre europea (Lepus europaeus e del Silvilago (Sylvilagus floridanus sono stati indagati in un’area intensamente coltivata nell’Italia settentrionale. La densità media della lepre nell’area di studio (74 ind./km2 corrisponde ai valori maggiori riportati per le aree agricole europee. Le densità pre- e post riproduttive della lepre hanno mostrato sensibili fluttuazioni durante il periodo di studio, probabilmente dovute ai cambiamenti stagionali della capacità portante dell’area di studio. L’abbondanza del silvilago è aumentata durante gli ultimi tre anni di studio, come prevedibile per una

  17. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

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    Clara Escudero Duch

    Full Text Available Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8% than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915, pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species

  18. Structural Changes of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB after Fungal and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatment

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    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB’s cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively.

  19. Structural changes of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) after fungal and phosphoric acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isroi; Ishola, Mofoluwake M; Millati, Ria; Syamsiah, Siti; Cahyanto, Muhammad N; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using white-rot fungus Pleurotus floridanus, phosphoric acid or their combination, and the results were evaluated based on the biomass components, and its structural and morphological changes. The carbohydrate losses after fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 7.89%, 35.65%, and 33.77%, respectively. The pretreatments changed the hydrogen bonds of cellulose and linkages between lignin and carbohydrate, which is associated with crystallinity of cellulose of OPEFB. Lateral Order Index (LOI) of OPEFB with no pretreatment, with fungal, phosphoric acid, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments were 2.77, 1.42, 0.67, and 0.60, respectively. Phosphoric acid pretreatment showed morphological changes of OPEFB, indicated by the damage of fibre structure into smaller particle size. The fungal-, phosphoric acid-, and fungal followed by phosphoric acid pretreatments have improved the digestibility of OPEFB's cellulose by 4, 6.3, and 7.4 folds, respectively. PMID:23247371

  20. Ant-Related Oviposition and Larval Performance in a Myrmecophilous Lycaenid

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    Matthew D. Trager

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally assessed ant-related oviposition and larval performance in the Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri. Ant tending had sex-dependent effects on most measures of larval growth: female larvae generally benefitted from increased tending frequency whereas male larvae were usually unaffected. The larger size of female larvae tended by ants resulted in a substantial predicted increase in lifetime egg production. Oviposition by adult females that were tended by C. floridanus ants as larvae was similar between host plants with or without ants. However, they laid relatively more eggs on plants with ants than did females raised without ants, which laid less than a third of their eggs on plants with ants present. In summary, we found conditional benefits for larvae tended by ants that were not accompanied by oviposition preference for plants with ants present, which is a reasonable result for a system in which ant presence at the time of oviposition is not a reliable indicator of future ant presence. More broadly, our results emphasize the importance of considering the consequences of variation in interspecific interactions, life history traits, and multiple measures of performance when evaluating the costs and benefits of mutualistic relationships.

  1. Systematic relationships and cospeciation of bacterial endosymbionts and their carpenter ant host species: proposal of the new taxon Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov.

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    Sauer, C; Stackebrandt, E; Gadau, J; Hölldobler, B; Gross, R

    2000-09-01

    The systematic relationships of intracellular bacteria of 13 Camponotus species (carpenter ants) from America and Europe were compared to those of their hosts. Phylogenetic trees of the bacteria and the ants were based on 16S rDNA (rrs) gene sequences and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences, respectively. The bacterial endosymbionts of Camponotus spp. form a distinct lineage in the y-subclass of the Proteobacteria. The taxa most closely related to these bacteria are endosymbionts of aphids and the tsetse fly. The bacterial and host phylogenies deduced from the sequence data show a high degree of congruence, providing significant evidence for cospeciation of the bacteria and the ants and a maternal transmission route of the symbionts. The cloned rrs genes of the endosymbionts contain putative intervening sequences (IVSs) with a much lower G+C content than the mean of the respective rrs genes. By in situ hybridization specific 16S rDNA oligonucleotide probes verified the presence of the bacteria within tissues of three of the eukaryotic hosts. It is proposed that the endosymbionts of these three carpenter ants be assigned to a new taxon 'Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov.' with the symbionts of the individual ants being species named according to their host, 'Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus sp. nov.', 'Candidatus Blochmannia herculeanus sp. nov.' and 'Candidatus Blochmannia rufipes sp. nov.'. PMID:11034499

  2. Ability of canine termite detectors to locate live termites and discriminate them from non-termite material.

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    Brooks, Shawn E; Oi, Faith M; Koehler, Philip G

    2003-08-01

    Dogs were trained to detect Eastern subterranean termites, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), using the United States Customs method of scent detection dog training modified with a food reward. Dogs were tested with various numbers of Eastern subterranean termites placed in vented PVC containers. Trained dogs were 95.93% accurate in finding > or = 40 Eastern subterranean termite workers (positive indications) and incorrectly indicated the presence of termites in 2.69% of the containers without termites. Multiple species of termites [dark southern subterranean, R. virginicus (Banks); Formosan subterranean, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki; powderpost, Cryptotermes cavifrons Banks; and southeastern drywood termites, Incisitermes snyderi (Light)], were similarly evaluated. Dogs trained to locate Eastern subterranean termites were also 100% accurate in finding dark southern subterranean termites, 98.89% accurate in finding Formosan subterranean termites, 97.33% accurate in finding powderpost termites, and 88.89% accurate in finding southeastern drywood termites. Dogs were able to discriminate live termites from non-termite material. Trained dogs' false response rate was 25.33% to Eastern subterranean termite-damaged wood, 6.67% to American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), and 2.67% to Florida carpenter ants, Camponotus floridanus Buckley. PMID:14503599

  3. Epigenetic variation in the Egfr gene generates quantitative variation in a complex trait in ants.

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    Alvarado, Sebastian; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Abouheif, Ehab; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Complex quantitative traits, like size and behaviour, are a pervasive feature of natural populations. Quantitative trait variation is the product of both genetic and environmental factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms through which their interaction generates this variation. Epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene-by-environment interactions during development to generate discrete phenotypic variation. We therefore investigated the developmental role of DNA methylation in generating continuous size variation of workers in an ant colony, a key trait associated with division of labour. Here we show that, in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, global (genome-wide) DNA methylation indirectly regulates quantitative methylation of the conserved cell-signalling gene Epidermal growth factor receptor to generate continuous size variation of workers. DNA methylation can therefore generate quantitative variation in a complex trait by quantitatively regulating the transcription of a gene. This mechanism, alongside genetic variation, may determine the phenotypic possibilities of loci for generating quantitative trait variation in natural populations. PMID:25758336

  4. Dual olfactory pathway in Hymenoptera: evolutionary insights from comparative studies.

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    Rössler, Wolfgang; Zube, Christina

    2011-07-01

    In the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and carpenter ant (Camponotus floridanus) the antennal lobe output is connected to higher brain centers by a dual olfactory pathway. Two major sets of uniglomerular projection neurons innervate glomeruli from two antennal-lobe hemispheres and project via a medial and a lateral antennal-lobe protocerebral tract in opposite sequence to the mushroom bodies and lateral horn. Comparison across insects suggests that the lateral projection neuron tract represents a special feature of Hymenoptera. We hypothesize that this promotes advanced olfactory processing associated with chemical communication, orientation and social interactions. To test whether a dual olfactory pathway is restricted to social Hymenoptera, we labeled the antennal lobe output tracts in selected species using fluorescent tracing and confocal imaging. Our results show that a dual pathway from the antennal lobe to the mushroom bodies is present in social bees, basal and advanced ants, solitary wasps, and in one of two investigated species of sawflies. This indicates that a dual olfactory pathway is not restricted to social species and may have evolved in basal Hymenoptera. We suggest that associated advances in olfactory processing represent a preadaptation for life styles with high demands on olfactory discrimination like parasitoism, central place foraging, and sociality. PMID:21167312

  5. Discovery of defense- and neuropeptides in social ants by genome-mining.

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    Gruber, Christian W; Muttenthaler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant), Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant) and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus). Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulatory peptide hormones, such as allatostatins and tachykinins, were identified and analyzed. Most interestingly we annotated genes that encode oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (inotocins) and their putative receptors. This is the first piece of evidence for the existence of this nonapeptide hormone system in ants (Formicidae) and supports recent findings in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) and Nasonia vitripennis (parasitoid wasp), and therefore its confinement to some basal holometabolous insects. By contrast, the absence of the inotocin hormone system in Apis mellifera (honeybee), another closely-related member of the eusocial Hymenoptera clade, establishes the basis for future studies on the molecular evolution and physiological function of oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (vasotocin nonapeptide family) and their receptors in social insects. Particularly the identification of ant inotocin and defensin peptide sequences will provide a basis for future pharmacological characterization in the quest for potent and selective lead compounds of therapeutic value. PMID:22448224

  6. Distributed representation of social odors indicates parallel processing in the antennal lobe of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2011-11-01

    In colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera cooperation is organized through social odors, and particularly ants rely on a sophisticated odor communication system. Neuronal information about odors is represented in spatial activity patterns in the primary olfactory neuropile of the insect brain, the antennal lobe (AL), which is analog to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. The olfactory system is characterized by neuroanatomical compartmentalization, yet the functional significance of this organization is unclear. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we investigated the neuronal representation of multicomponent colony odors, which the ants assess to discriminate friends (nestmates) from foes (nonnestmates). In the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, colony odors elicited spatial activity patterns distributed across different AL compartments. Activity patterns in response to nestmate and nonnestmate colony odors were overlapping. This was expected since both consist of the same components at differing ratios. Colony odors change over time and the nervous system has to constantly adjust for this (template reformation). Measured activity patterns were variable, and variability was higher in response to repeated nestmate than to repeated nonnestmate colony odor stimulation. Variable activity patterns may indicate neuronal plasticity within the olfactory system, which is necessary for template reformation. Our results indicate that information about colony odors is processed in parallel in different neuroanatomical compartments, using the computational power of the whole AL network. Parallel processing might be advantageous, allowing reliable discrimination of highly complex social odors. PMID:21849606

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in wild mammals of Missouri and east central Kansas: biologic and ecologic considerations of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D D; Frenkel, J K

    1995-01-01

    Sera from 273 wild mammals from Missouri and Kansas (USA), collected between December 1974 and December 1987, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Sixty-five (24%) had antibodies at titers of > or = 1:8, including 38 (66%) of 58 carnivores, 14 (15%) of 94 omnivores, 13 (11%) of 117 herbivores, and none of four insectivores. The prevalence of antibodies in mice (Mus musculus and Peromyscus spp.) and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Sigmodon hispidus) was low (3%), while medium sized herbivores such as squirrels (Sciurus spp.), rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) had prevalences of about 18%. Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and mink (Mustela vison) had the highest prevalence of antibodies with frequencies of 90 and 66%, respectively. In 32 attempts to isolate Toxoplasma gondii from wild mammals with positive (> or = 1:4) titers, only six (19%) were successful: a gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), a beaver (Castor canadensis), an opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), a red fox and two mink. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the probability of infection with Toxoplasma gondii, and therefore prevalence of antibodies in wildlife, is greatest in carnivores. PMID:7563419

  8. Analyses of mammalian sera in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Johnson, R C

    1995-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) between 1977 and 1991 in southern Connecticut and New York State (USA) and were tested for antibodies against eight strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Among these spirochetes were six strains of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, one strain of B. garinii (=IP90) and a strain (IPF) in group VS461. Sera from each study group reacted positively to all strains having origins in North America and Eurasia. Assay sensitivities normally ranged between 85% and 100% for all study groups. The lowest sensitivity (66%) was noted when mouse sera were tested with B. garinii, an isolate from Ixodes persulcatus in the former Soviet Union. Differences in serum reactivity to various strains were noted for all study groups, but because of multiple shared antigens among the closely related spirochetes tested, the selection of a particular North American strain of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto did not appear to be a critical factor for optimal assay performance. Locally obtained strains of this bacterium are preferred as coating antigens for serologic testing because of their availability. PMID:8583632

  9. First isolation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J H; Kollars, T M; Chandler, F W; James, A M; Masters, E J; Lane, R S; Huey, L O

    1998-01-01

    Five Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from Missouri are described. This represents the first report and characterization of such isolates from that state. The isolates were obtained from either Ixodes dentatus or Amblyomma americanum ticks that had been feeding on cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) from a farm in Bollinger County, Mo., where a human case of Lyme disease had been reported. All isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence by using monoclonal antibodies to B. burgdorferi-specific outer surface protein A (OspA) (antibodies H3TS and H5332), B. burgdorferi-specific OspB (antibody H6831), Borrelia (genus)-specific antiflagellin (antibody H9724), and Borrelia hermsii-specific antibody (antibody H9826). Analysis of the isolates also involved a comparison of their protein profiles by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Finally, the isolates were analyzed by PCR with six pairs of primers known to amplify selected DNA target sequences specifically found in the reference strain B. burgdorferi B-31. Although some genetic variability was detected among the five isolates as well as between them and the B-31 strain, enough similarities were found to classify them as B. burgdorferi sensu lato. PMID:9431909

  10. Lead bioaccessibility in food web intermediates and the influence on ecological risk characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Claire A; Bennett, Joseph R; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2007-08-15

    Models simulating gastric conditions of mammalian (eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus; short-tailed shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and avian (American robin, Turdus migratorius) receptors were used to investigate the proportion of lead (Pb) mobilized into the digestive juices (the bioaccessible fraction) from soil, earthworms, and vegetation collected at a rifle and pistol (RP) range in eastern Ontario, Canada. Pb concentrations averaged 5044 mg kg(-1) in RP range surface soils, 727 mg kg(-1) in earthworm tissue, and 2945 mg kg(-1) in unwashed vegetation. For mammalian gastric models, the bioaccessible fraction of Pb in soils was 66 +/- 22%, in earthworm tissue was 77 +/- 14%, and in unwashed vegetation was 50 +/- 37%. For the avian gastric model, the bioaccessible fraction of Pb in soil was 53 +/- 43% and in earthworm tissue was 73 +/- 13%. The incorporation of soil and food web intermediate bioaccessibility data into standard risk calculations resulted in predicted risk being reduced for all receptors. The inclusion of bioaccessibility during ecological risk assessment affords a more realistic estimate of contaminant exposure, and is a valuable tool for use in contaminated sites management. PMID:17874804

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J

    1994-05-01

    Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say). PMID:8057327

  12. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in central Iowa wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardyn, Shylo E; Kauffman, Lin K; Smith, Tara C

    2012-10-01

    Livestock and pets have been identified as carriers of Staphylococcus aureus; however, the role of wild animals as a reservoir of S. aureus strains has not yet been examined. We conducted a pilot study to determine the prevalence of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 37 species of wild animals rehabilitated at a university clinic. Nasal, wing, wound, and cloacal swabs were collected. Of 114 animals, seven (6.1%) were MSSA-positive and three (2.6%) were MRSA-positive. The MRSA isolates were obtained from two eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and a Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes), a migratory shorebird. Antibiotic resistance testing of the MRSA isolates revealed that two were additionally resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, and the third isolate was also resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, and levofloxacin. All three isolates were positive for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene. Sequence typing of the staphylococcal protein A (spa) region revealed one MRSA isolate to be t002, whereas the other two MRSA isolates were found to be t008. Our results suggest that S. aureus, including MRSA, is being carried by wild animals, although at a low prevalence with the limited number of animals tested. Additional studies are needed to determine how this may impact human health. PMID:23060511

  14. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns. PMID:21516657

  15. Bird-feeding ticks transstadially transmit Borrelia burgdorferi that infect Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J F; Magnarelli, L A; Stafford, K C

    1990-01-01

    Bird-feeding Ixodes dammini ticks were documented for the first time to successfully molt and transstadially pass Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes that were indistinguishable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the type B31 strain. Forty-six of 73 blood-engorged larvae and 50 of 66 fully-fed nymphs, removed from wild-caught birds, successfully molted. Borreliae were isolated from 21 of 78 partially- and fully-fed larvae off birds, including six specimens that molted. Spirochete-positive cultures also were obtained from 35 of 60 partially- and fully-fed nymphs that had fed from birds, including 20 nymphs that molted into adult ticks. Transstadially passed borreliae by bird-feeding larval and nymphal I. dammini were infectious to hamsters, leading us to suggest that these ticks are capable of subsequently transmitting infectious spirochetes to mammals, including humans. An isolated of B. burgdorferi, recovered from a bird-feeding larval Ixodes dentatus, was indistinguishable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the B31 strain. This isolate, unlike another from I. dentatus off a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), had a protein band with a molecular weight of approximately 31,000 that reacted with murine monoclonal antibodies H3TS and H5332 in western blot analysis. Thus, closely related borreliae are present in both I. dentatus and I. dammini. PMID:2304189

  16. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with Map-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R

    2005-07-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation. PMID:16244077

  17. Humoral immune response of cottontail rabbits naturally infected with Francisella tularensis in southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, D; Woolf, A; Kirkpatrick, R; Cooper, M

    1997-10-01

    Cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) usually are thought to succumb to infection with Francisella tularensis. Reports of a rabbit population from southern Illinois (USA) with a high prevalence of F. tularensis antibodies suggested that some cottontails survived infection with this typically fatal bacterium. Our goal was to examine the humoral response of cottontails from a study area in southern Illinois for which multiple serum samples existed. Multiple sera were collected from 79 cottontails from 1986 to 1990 and 63% gained, lost, or maintained ELISA titers of IgM and IgG isotype antibodies. The typical pattern of antibody response appeared to be IgM isotype antibodies first, followed by IgG isotype antibodies, with both generally increasing to high titers. Negative culture attempts of liver tissue from 51 cottontails with varying antibody responses suggested that chronic infection did not occur in rabbits that developed antibody. The significance of the cottontail antibody response in resolution or prevention of tularemia infection remains unclear. PMID:9391956

  18. Pathogenesis of Herpesvirus sylvilagus infection in cottontail rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselton, R M; Yang, W C; Medveczky, P; Sullivan, J L

    1988-12-01

    Experimental infection with Herpesvirus sylvilagus produces clinical and histopathologic changes in its natural host, the cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), similar to those observed in humans acutely infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Twenty-seven seronegative cottontail rabbits were infected with Herpesvirus sylvilagus and all developed antibodies within 10 days. Neutralizing antibody was detected as early as 7 days after infection. Virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cells, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, kidneys, lung, and liver as early as 3 days after infection. Infected animals showed leucocytosis, monocytosis, and lymphocytosis with the appearance of atypical lymphocytes. Peripheral blood abnormalities peaked at 10-14 days after infection, and returned to normal by 28 days after infection, with the exception of atypical lymphocytosis that persisted in some animals for more than 2 years after experimental infection. More severe histopathologic changes were seen in virus-infected juvenile rabbits than adult rabbits; these changes included viral myocarditis, interstitial pneumonia, and lymphocytic myositis. Reactive hyperplasia and subsequent lymphocytic depletion of spleen and lymph nodes were reminiscent of that seen in virus-associated hemophagocytosis syndrome. Prominent lymphoid hyperplasia of many nonlymphoid organs, most notably the kidney and lungs, was observed. The development of these lymphoproliferative lesions and other lymphoid changes during H. sylvilagus infection suggest that this system may be a model to study similar lesions induced by EBV infection in humans. PMID:2849303

  19. Enzootic transmission of the agent of Lyme disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, S R; Spielman, A

    1989-10-01

    To determine whether cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) maintain an enzootic cycle of transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), we examined the prevalence of infection in ticks and rabbits in a location in which rabbits were abundant. Of 72 unfed nymphal Ixodes dentatus swept from vegetation, 32% were infected by this spirochete, as determined by darkfield microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibody H5332. Infected ticks were reared from larvae feeding on each of 11 rabbits taken from the same site. Of 50 rabbits sampled there over a period of 2 years, sera of greater than 90% reacted with B. burgdorferi antigen by ELISA and by immunoblotting. Deer ticks (I. dammini) comprised less than 10% of ticks found on rabbits. We conclude that rabbits perpetuate the agent of Lyme disease in an enzootic cycle where rabbit-feeding Ixodes are abundant, that intensity of transmission is independent of the zoonotic cycle in mice, but that infection may occasionally be exchanged between these cycles. PMID:2802026

  20. The definitive and intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in the natural watercress beds in central France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Abrous, M; Dreyfuss, G

    2001-06-01

    Field investigations were carried out over a two-year period in 52 natural watercress beds located in the Limousin region of central France to list the mammal and bird species that frequented these sites. This enabled detection of the definitive hosts of Fasciola hepatica and determination of the prevalence of natural infection in snails. A total of 13 mammal and five bird species were listed in these watercress beds. Adult flukes were found in Lepus capensis (39.2%), Oryctolagus cuniculus (42.0%), and Sylvilagus floridanus (25.0%). No infection with F. hepatica was noted in the five species of rodents studied. Snails infected with F. hepatica were found in 14 watercress beds. The global prevalence of natural infection was 1.1% in Lymnaea truncatula and 0.3% in L. glabra. Among the other trematode larval forms detected, the most frequent was Haplometra cylindracea (0.5%). In the Limousin region, the presence of hares and rabbits in watercress beds ensured the continuation of the F. hepatica life cycle and permitted the subsequent infection of humans when this wild watercress was eaten. PMID:11411948

  1. Nonneutral evolution of tandem repeats in the mitochondrial DNA control region of lagomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casane, D; Dennebouy, N; de Rochambeau, H; Mounolou, J C; Monnerot, M

    1997-08-01

    The mitochondrial DNA of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) contains a tandem array of 153-bp repeats in the vicinity of the replication origin of the H-stand. Variation among molecules in the number of these repeats results in inter- and intraindividual length polymorphism (heteroplasmy). Generally, in an individual, one predominant molecular type is observed, the others representing a low percentage of the mtDNA content. At the tissue level, we observe a particular distribution of this polymorphism in the gonads compared with liver, kidneys, or brain, implying a relationship between the differentiation status of the cells and the types of new mtDNA molecules which appear and accumulate during lifetime. Similar tandem repeats were also found in the mtDNA noncoding region of European hares (Lepus europaeus), a cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), and a pika (Ochotona rufescens). The lengths and the sequences of these units evolve rapidly and in a concerted way, but the number of repeats is maintained in a narrow range, and an internal 20-bp segment is highly conserved. Constraints restrict the evolution of the primary sequence of these repeated units, the number of which is probably controlled by a stabilizing selection. PMID:9254915

  2. Host utilization and seasonal occurrence of Dermacentor species (Acari:Ixodidae) in Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Masters, E J; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    2000-08-01

    A total of 3,235 Dermacentor variabilis (Say) specimens were collected from birds, mammals, and by dragging vegetation, and 2,683 D. albipictus (Packard) ticks were collected from deer from 1993 to 1996. Peak seasonal occurrence of adult D. variabilis was from May through July with a precipitous decrease in August. Nymphal D. variabilis populations peaked in June. Peak activity of larvae was bimodal, with one activity peak during late summer (September) and a second peak in winter or early spring. The raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.), was the principal host of adults followed by the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Rodents and the eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), were the primary hosts of nymphs. The marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan), was the principal host of larvae followed by the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte), and white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque). All stages of D. albipictus were found only on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Numbers of adult and nymphal D. albipictus peaked in November, whereas larvae peaked in September. PMID:11201355

  3. Heavy metals in cottontail rabbits on mined lands treated with sewage sludge. [Sylvilagus floridanua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, R.L.; Storm, G.L.; Tzilkowski, W.M.; Sopper, W.E.

    Levels of heavy metals in soils, vegetation, and tissues of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) on a Pennsylvania strip-mined site treated with sewage sludge were compared with those from a non-treated mine site to determine increases due to treatment effect. Concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn were higher in vegetation on the sludge-treated site. Zinc was higher in femurs of cottontails from the treated site, but levels of most metals in the tissues of cottontail rabbits from the treated site were comparable to those from a non-treated mine site and a nonmined area. Baseline values for the uptake of Cd were documented with captive cottontail rabbits fed diets supplemented with 0, 5, or 25 mg Cd kg/sup -1/. Captive rabbits fed diets supplemented with a Cd salt accumulated increasing levels of Cd in their tissues, except for muscle, as the dietary intake of Cd increased. Liver and muscle tissue of rabbits collected on treated mine sites contained higher Cd levels than laboratory controls, but overall, cottontail rabbits did not accumulate metals on the sludge-treated site at hazardous levels.

  4. The role of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.) in the ecology of Rickettsia rickettsii in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorfer, W; Cooney, J C; Mavros, A J; Jellison, W L; Maser, C

    1980-07-01

    Rocky Mountain (Sylvilagus nuttallii) and eastern (S. floridanus) cottontails were examined for their susceptibility to virulent and avirulent strains of the spotted fever agent, Rickettsia rickettsii. Both species of rabbits responded to inoculation of yolk sac suspensions containing 500 egg LD50 of either virulent or avirulent rickettsiae, with rickettsemias detectable as early as 3 days after inoculation and lasting up to 7 days. When fed upon by infected ticks, only one of three Rocky Mountain and one of four eastern cottontails developed rickettsemias detectable in embryonated hens' eggs. Rickettsial concentrations in the peripheral blood fo Rocky Mountain cottontails, infected either by syringe or by bites of one or more Dermacentor andersoni ticks harboring virulent R. rickettsii, were sufficient to infect simultaneously feeding normal larvae of this tick species. However, infection rates wre low and did not exceed 11.7%. In a single experiment, the bites of D. variabilis, infected with an avirulent strain of R. rickettsii, did not produce rickettsemias sufficient to infect normal D. variabilis larvae. These laboratory findings suggest that cottontail rabbits, although susceptible to R. rickettsii, do not serve as efficient reservoirs for infecting ticks. PMID:7406116

  5. Development of the stomach worm, Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill), in lagomorphs, woodchucks and small rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, L N; Anderson, R C

    1983-07-01

    The parasitic development of Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus Measures and Anderson, 1983 was studied in New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Third-stage larvae exsheathed within 24 hr. The third molt occurred 3 days and the fourth 8-11 days post-infection. All worms were fifth stage 14 days post-infection. Males were mature at 16 days and copulation occurred in 15-16 days. Females were gravid at 18 days. The prepatent period was 16-22 days. The patent period was 61-118 days and males lived longer than females. All stages were found in the mucosa except the fifth which was found lying on the mucosal surface within a layer of mucus. Petechiae were the only lesions seen in experimentally infected rabbits. Patent infections of O. c. multistriatus were established experimentally in infected woodchucks (Marmota monax), snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Patent infections of O. c. cuniculi were established experimentally in snowshoe hares. Patent infections of O. c. multistriatus did not appear in experimentally infected HPB white (Swiss Webster) mice (Mus musculus). Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), H.O.R.F1 Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), H.O.R.F1 smooth-haired guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and H.O.R.F1 gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). PMID:6644921

  6. Environmental investigation following the first human case of babesiosis in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Charissa; Mosites, Emily; Applegate, Roger D; Telford, Sam R; Huang, Junjun; Yabsley, Michael J; Carpenter, L Rand; Dunn, John R; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2014-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease in the United States caused by Babesia parasites. In 2009, the first case of babesiosis was documented in Tennessee. Environmental investigation at the reported site of tick exposure included collection of ticks and specimens from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) that were tested for piroplasms by molecular and serologic methods. One hundred and sixty-six Ixodes scapularis ticks and biological samples from 8 rabbits and 5 deer were collected. Ixodes scapularis were PCR positive for Babesia odocoilei (n = 7, 4%) and Theileria cervi (n = 24, 14%). Deer were seropositive for B. odocoilei and PCR positive for T. cervi. Rabbits were seropositive for B. odocoilei and Babesia sp. MO1, and 1 rabbit was PCR positive for Babesia sp. MO1. In summary, zoonotic Babesia sp. MO1 infection in rabbits is reported here for the first time in Tennessee as well as infection of deer and I. scapularis ticks with 2 other piroplasms of veterinary importance. PMID:23971411

  7. Characteristics of natural infections of the stomach worm, Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill), in lagomorphs and woodchucks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, L N; Anderson, R C

    1983-07-01

    Wild lagomorphs and woodchucks collected predominantly in southern Ontario, Canada were examined for subspecies of Obeliscoides cuniculi (Graybill). Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus was found in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Obeliscoides cuniculi cuniculi was found in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), European hares (Lepus capensis) and woodchucks (Marmota monax). Prevalence of Obeliscoides cuniculi multistriatus in snowshoe hares was 100% and mean intensity (and range of intensity) was 760 (9-4, 198) in Lindsay, Ontario in 1980. Mean intensity in hares varied trimonthly. The highest mean intensity of worms occurred in spring when most worms were adult. Transmission occurred mainly in spring. Most worms present in fall (70%) and winter (54%) were fourth stage. Immature fifth-stage and gravid females were present in hares during fall and winter. Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in cottontails was 15% and 29 (1-118). Prevalence and mean intensity of O. c. cuniculi in woodchucks was 6% and 56 (16-118). European hares were infected with O. c. cuniculi, prevalence was 10% and mean intensity was 60 (36-83). In Ontario woodchucks and European hares were common in areas frequented by cottontail rabbits and probably acquired sporadic infections of O. c. cuniculi from infected cottontails. PMID:6644920

  8. Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) dietary exposure to PCDD/DF in the Tittabawassee River floodplain in Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coefield, Sarah J; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Nadeau, Michael W; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Moore, Jeremy N; Kay, Denise P; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2010-10-01

    Soils and sediments in the floodplain of the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA contain elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD). As a long-lived, resident top predator, the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; GHO) has the potential to be exposed to bioaccumulative compounds such as PCDD/DF. Site-specific components of the GHO diet were collected along 115 km of the Tittabawassee, Pine, Chippewa, and Saginaw Rivers during 2005 and 2006. The site-specific GHO biomass-based diet was dominated by cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus). Incidental soil ingestion and cottontail rabbits were the primary contributors of PCDD/DF to the GHO diet. The great horned owl daily dietary exposure estimates were greater in the study area (SA) (3.3 to 5.0 ng 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQ(WHO-avian))/kg body wt/d) than the reference area (RA) (0.07 ng TEQ(WHO-Avian)/kg body wt/d). Hazard quotients (HQs) based on central tendency estimates of the average daily dose and no-observable-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for the screech owl and uncertainty factors were <1.0 for both the RA and the SA. Hazard quotients based on upper end estimates of the average daily dose and NOAEL were <1.0 in the RA and up to 3.4 in the SA. PMID:20872700

  9. West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Root, J

    2013-04-01

    Exposures to West Nile virus (WNV) have been documented in a variety of wild mammals in both the New and Old Worlds. This review tabulates at least 100 mammal species with evidence of WNV exposure. Many of these exposures were detected in free-ranging mammals, while several were noted in captive individuals. In addition to exposures, this review discusses experimental infections in terms of the potential for reservoir competence of select wild mammal species. Overall, few experimental infections have been conducted on wild mammals. As such, the role of most wild mammals as potential amplifying hosts for WNV is, to date, uncertain. In most instances, experimental infections of wild mammals with WNV have resulted in no or low-level viremia. Some recent studies have indicated that certain species of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop viremia sufficient for infecting some mosquito species. Certain mammalian species, such as tree squirrels, mesopredators, and deer have been suggested as useful species for WNV surveillance. In this review article, the information pertaining to wild mammal associations with WNV is synthesized. PMID:23212739

  10. Host associations of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing medium-sized mammals in a Lyme disease endemic area of southern New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, D; Dowler, R C

    1989-05-01

    Ticks of eight medium-sized mammal species were studied in an area of endemic Lyme disease in Westchester County, N.Y., from 1 April 1984 to 31 March 1985. Most (81%) of the 266 total mammal captures were raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.) (47%), opossum, Didelphis virginiana (Kerr) (19%), and striped skunk, Mephitis mephitis Schreber (15%); these host species accounted for 91% of the 1,519 ticks collected. Although the total number of ticks was rather evenly distributed among these mammals, species composition of ticks on each host species differed markedly. Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman, and Corwin was the most abundant tick species and accounted for 45% (690) of the total ticks collected. Immatures were most prevalent (56%) on opossum, and nearly all (86%) adults were found on this host species. I. cookei Marx was second in abundance (34%) and was most prevalent (60%) on skunk. I. texanus Banks and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) were less abundant (less than 20% collectively) and were most prevalent on raccoon. I. dentatus Marx on eastern cottontail, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), and I. marxi Banks on gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, were least abundant (less than 2% collectively). The prevalence of I. dammini on medium-sized mammals in southern New York may influence the epizoötiology of Lyme disease. PMID:2724317

  11. A new rabbit species (Sylvilagus, Mammalia: Leporidae) from the lowlands of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, P; Guevara, M A

    2001-03-01

    A new species of Venezuelan rabbit of the genus Sylvilagus from Fundo Millano (08 degrees 46'N and 69 degrees 56'W) and Chorrosco Bajo (08 degrees 05'N and 69 degrees 18'W), between 190 and 120 masl, state of Barinas, is described based on: 1. Body and skull measurements. 2. Coloration patterns of the pelage. 3. Arrangement and length of the color hair bands of dorsal, lateral, ventral nuchal, and gular patches. Body and cranial measurements, and some color patterns of the new species, Sylvilagus varynaensis, were compared with those of the closest relative groups such as S. brasiliensis (from Venezuela and Brazil), S. b. meridensis from the Venezuelan paramos, and three of the most representative groups of S. floridanus (S. f. continentis, S. f. orinoci, and S. f. valenciae). Most of the values recorded for these parameters were significantly higher for the new species (P < 0.005; Student "t" test). Cluster and principal components analysis of the data recorded for cranial characteristics indicated that S. varynaensis is the largest and darkest of the known Venezuelan rabbits, with a broader elongated skull and a different arrangement of the color hair bands. PMID:11795167

  12. Seasonal activity and host associations of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southeastern Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    1999-11-01

    Based on tick collections recovered from wild vertebrates and by dragging, the seasonal occurrence of adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, extended from October through May in southeastern Missouri. Adult activity was bimodal with the higher peak occurring in November followed by a lower peak in February. The activity of immature I. scapularis had the general pattern of that found in the Northeast where Lyme disease is hyperendemic, with larval activity (July) peaking after that of nymphs (May and June). Vertebrates varied in their importance as hosts of I. scapularis. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginanus (Zimmerman), and coyotes, Canis latrans Say, were the primary hosts of adult I. scapularis. Broad-headed skinks, Eumeces laticeps (Schneider), and eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Latreille), were the primary hosts of nymphal I. scapularis. The broad-headed skink, 5-lined skink, Eumeces fasciatus (L.), and Carolina wren, Thryothorus ludovicianus (Latham), were the primary hosts of larval I. scapularis. Homeotherms were important hosts of immature I. scapularis, accounting for 30% of nymphs and 39% of larvae collected. The eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (Allen), may play an important role in the epidemiology of Lyme disease in Missouri. Isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner were made from ticks recovered from rabbits, making the cottontail rabbit a key species for further study of the epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis in Missouri. PMID:10593072

  13. Detection of L1, infectious virions and anti-L1 antibody in domestic rabbits infected with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiafen; Budgeon, Lynn R; Cladel, Nancy M; Culp, Timothy D; Balogh, Karla K; Christensen, Neil D

    2007-12-01

    Shope papillomavirus or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) is one of the first small DNA tumour viruses to be characterized. Although the natural host for CRPV is the cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), CRPV can infect domestic laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and induce tumour outgrowth and cancer development. In previous studies, investigators attempted to passage CRPV in domestic rabbits, but achieved very limited success, leading to the suggestion that CRPV infection in domestic rabbits was abortive. The persistence of specific anti-L1 antibody in sera from rabbits infected with either virus or viral DNA led us to revisit the questions as to whether L1 and infectious CRPV can be produced in domestic rabbit tissues. We detected various levels of L1 protein in most papillomas from CRPV-infected rabbits using recently developed monoclonal antibodies. Sensitive in vitro infectivity assays additionally confirmed that extracts from these papillomas were infectious. These studies demonstrated that the CRPV/New Zealand White rabbit model could be used as an in vivo model to study natural virus infection and viral life cycle of CRPV and not be limited to studies on abortive infections. PMID:18024897

  14. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on plant chemistry: nutritional consequences for a specialist and generalist lagomorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thines, Nicole J; Shipley, Lisa A; Bassman, John H; Fellman, John K; Mattison, D Scott; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been increasing in temperate latitudes in recent decades and is expected to continue rising for some time. Enhanced UV-B radiation can change plant chemistry, yet the effects of these changes on mammalian herbivores are unknown. To examine the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation on nutrition of a specialist and generalist hindgut fermenter, we measured nutritional and chemical constituents of three common North American range plants, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoregneria spicata), and how these changes influenced in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vivo digestibility by pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) and eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus). Forages were irradiated for 3 mo with ambient (1x) or supplemental (1.6x) UV-B radiation representing a 15% ozone depletion for Pullman, WA, USA. Enhanced UV-B radiation had minimal effects on the nutritional content and the tannin-binding capacity of forages. Similarly, the terpene concentration in sagebrush and yarrow was not affected by higher UV-B irradiances. Flavonoid compounds increased in sagebrush but decreased in yarrow. Rabbit preference and intake was not affected by treatment levels for any forage species and no differences were found between treatments for dry matter, fiber, protein digestibility, and apparent digestible energy. PMID:17406969

  15. Herpesvirus sylvilagus in cottontail rabbits: evidence of shedding but not transplacental transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, J O; Yuill, T M

    1977-01-01

    Herpesvirus sylvilagus was inoculated into five cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) at various stages of pregnancy; they subsequently had litters in the laboratory. Three other cottontails chronically infected with the virus were bred and bore young in large outdoor pens. Thirty-four living neonates and dead fetuses were weighed, measured and aseptically necropsied. A total of 31 liver, spleen and kidney samples, 16 lymph node, 28 heart and 10 brain samples were collected and processed for inoculation into rabbit kidney cell cultures to attempt virus isolation. Virus was not detected in the 147 tissue samples tested. Pre-conception viremias ranged from 10-21 plaque-forming units per 0.5 ml. Virus isolation was attempted from 26 oral and lacrymal, 23 genital, nine urine and fecal, and four milk and male ejaculate samples from eight infected rabbits. Virus was recovered from two salivary samples from the same rabbit. Triamcinolone acetonide administered daily for four days to five rabbits did not stimulate excretion of virus. PMID:190423

  16. Influence of habitat modification on the intestinal helminth community ecology of cottontail rabbit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, J F; McMurry, S T; Leslie, D M; Engle, D M; Lochmiller, R L

    1990-04-01

    The influence of five brush management treatments using the herbicides tebuthiuron and triclopyr, with or without prescribed burning, on the intestinal helminth community of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was studied in 1987 on the Cross Timbers Experimental Range in Payne County, Oklahoma (USA). Six helminth species were found (Dermatoxys veligera, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonanulatus, Wellcomia longejector, Taenia pisiformis cystercercus, and Mosgovoyia pectinata americana) in 102 rabbits (88 adult and 14 juveniles) collected over two seasons (winter and summer). Prevalence of M. pectinata americana in cottontail rabbits was significantly greater in untreated control pastures than herbicide treated pastures in winter, while prevalence of T. pisiformis was significantly greater in burned than unburned pastures. Abundances of helminth species in the intestinal tract of cottontail rabbits were unaffected by brush treatments. Mosgovoyia pectinata americana abundance demonstrated a highly significant increase from winter to summer; conversely, abundance of all oxyurid pinworms combined (D. veligera, P. nonanulatus, W. longejector) was significantly higher in winter than summer. Helminth community dynamics were significantly influenced by season, but were unaffected by brush treatments. Habitat modification could have influenced cestode transmission by altering the ecology of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. PMID:2338720

  17. Experimental infection of vertebrates of the Pocomoke Cypress Swamp, Maryland with Keystone and Jamestown Canyon viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D M; Tammariello, R F; Dalrymple, J M; Eldridge, B F; Russell, P K; Top, F H

    1979-03-01

    Experimental studies were conducted to assess the susceptibility of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) to Jamestown Canyon (JC) and/or Keystone (KEY) virus infection. Viremia occurred in 5 of 6 deer inoculated with JC virus; however, all deer developed KEY virus neutralizing antibody. Based on the observation that antibody elicited by primary infection of deer with either KEY or JC virus exhibited partial heterologous neutralization in vitro, cross-challenge experiments were performed in these animals. Keystone virus failed to infect deer 30 days post primary JC virus infection; however, deer became infected when challenged with KEY virus 80 days after the initial JC virus infection as indicated by a substantial increase in antibody titer. Similarly, JC virus failed to produce viremia in immune animals infected with KEY virus 80 days previously, although 2 of the 3 animals challenged had serological evidence of infection. Three field-collected cottontail rabbits with no evidence of KEY antibody were readily susceptible to KEY virus infection and developed viremias of 1-4 days' duration; rabbits with KEY virus antibody did not develop viremia upon KEY virus challenge. Eight antibody-negative field-collected gray squirrels became viremic following injection with KEY virus; however, a comparable group of squirrels did not become viremic when injected with JC virus. PMID:453437

  18. Interactive effects of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and methoxychlor on hormone synthesis in largemouth bass ovarian cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgert, Christopher J; Gross, Timothy S; Guiney, Patrick D; Osimitz, Tomas G; Price, Bertram; Wells, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and methoxychlor were tested alone and in combination to assess the similarity of their actions on hormone synthesis in gonadal tissue from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus), a species whose reproductive fitness has relevance to ecosystem health in Florida (USA). Gonads were harvested from adult female bass (age, two to three years) during the peak reproductive season (January-May), minced, and incubated in culture medium with or without test agents for 48 h. Duplicates of each treatment were performed in each of three experiments using tissue from a different female. Both 17beta-estradiol and testosterone were measured in aliquots of culture medium by validated radioimmunoassay procedures. Dose-response relationships of individual agents were characterized over a 6-log concentration range (1 X 10(-2) to 1 X 10(4) ppb). Both DDE and methoxychlor, tested individually, produced a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. 17beta-Estradiol levels were unaffected. Mixtures of the agents were tested at all concentration combinations of 0.01, 1, 100, and 10,000 ppb in culture medium. Statistical tests indicated that of 16 dose combinations tested, 15 were antagonistic, and only 1 was additive based on the Loewe additivity model of no interaction. These results imply that methoxychlor and DDE inhibit testosterone production by different mechanisms in bass ovaries.

  19. Biological and physical contributions to the accumulation of strombid gastropods in a Pliocene shell bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geary, D.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Allmon, W.D. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Before the evolutionary and ecological information contained in shell beds can be interpreted, the conditions of shell bed formation must be understood. Here the authors investigate the mode and time scale of accumulation of a dense layer of Strombus floridanus in the Pliocene Pinecrest Beds of Florida. They utilize a variety of comparative taphonomic data, including the extent of encrustation and boring on strombid shells of different ontogenetic ages, and on accompanying pelecypods of different ecological types. The taphonomic comparisons enable them to reconstruct more accurately the events of shell bed formation. The formation of the strombid shell layer involved both biological and physical components. The characteristically gregarious behavior of Strombus is reflected in the large number of individuals preserved in this layer. Based on average densities of individuals in strombid colonies today, the authors estimate that a time period of tens to hundreds of years was required to accumulate these fossils. Repeated sediment winnowing by storms, followed by rapid reburial in a regime of at least episodically high sedimentation rates, is the most likely mechanism of accumulation, and accounts for the observed patterns of encrustation and boring on the shells of Strombus and various associated pelecypods. The origin of Florida's Plio-Pleistocene shelly sands is poorly understood; analysis of this bed may provide a working model for future taphonomic studies.

  20. Discovery of defense- and neuropeptides in social ants by genome-mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W Gruber

    Full Text Available Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant, Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus. Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulatory peptide hormones, such as allatostatins and tachykinins, were identified and analyzed. Most interestingly we annotated genes that encode oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (inotocins and their putative receptors. This is the first piece of evidence for the existence of this nonapeptide hormone system in ants (Formicidae and supports recent findings in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle and Nasonia vitripennis (parasitoid wasp, and therefore its confinement to some basal holometabolous insects. By contrast, the absence of the inotocin hormone system in Apis mellifera (honeybee, another closely-related member of the eusocial Hymenoptera clade, establishes the basis for future studies on the molecular evolution and physiological function of oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (vasotocin nonapeptide family and their receptors in social insects. Particularly the identification of ant inotocin and defensin peptide sequences will provide a basis for future pharmacological characterization in the quest for potent and selective lead compounds of therapeutic value.

  1. Systematic relationships and cospeciation of bacterial endosymbionts and their carpenter ant host species: proposal of the new taxon Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C; Stackebrandt, E; Gadau, J; Hölldobler, B; Gross, R

    2000-09-01

    The systematic relationships of intracellular bacteria of 13 Camponotus species (carpenter ants) from America and Europe were compared to those of their hosts. Phylogenetic trees of the bacteria and the ants were based on 16S rDNA (rrs) gene sequences and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences, respectively. The bacterial endosymbionts of Camponotus spp. form a distinct lineage in the y-subclass of the Proteobacteria. The taxa most closely related to these bacteria are endosymbionts of aphids and the tsetse fly. The bacterial and host phylogenies deduced from the sequence data show a high degree of congruence, providing significant evidence for cospeciation of the bacteria and the ants and a maternal transmission route of the symbionts. The cloned rrs genes of the endosymbionts contain putative intervening sequences (IVSs) with a much lower G+C content than the mean of the respective rrs genes. By in situ hybridization specific 16S rDNA oligonucleotide probes verified the presence of the bacteria within tissues of three of the eukaryotic hosts. It is proposed that the endosymbionts of these three carpenter ants be assigned to a new taxon 'Candidatus Blochmannia gen. nov.' with the symbionts of the individual ants being species named according to their host, 'Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus sp. nov.', 'Candidatus Blochmannia herculeanus sp. nov.' and 'Candidatus Blochmannia rufipes sp. nov.'.

  2. EGFR gene methylation is not involved in Royalactin controlled phenotypic polymorphism in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, R.; Foret, S.; Maleszka, R.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 highly publicised Nature paper by Kamakura on honeybee phenotypic dimorphism, (also using Drosophila as an experimental surrogate), claims that a single protein in royal jelly, Royalactin, essentially acts as a master “on-off” switch in development via the epidermal growth factor receptor (AmEGFR), to seal the fate of queen or worker. One mechanism proposed in that study as important for the action of Royalactin is differential amegfr methylation in alternate organismal outcomes. According to the author differential methylation of amegfr was experimentally confirmed and shown in a supportive figure. Here we have conducted an extensive analysis of the honeybee egfr locus and show that this gene is never methylated. We discuss several lines of evidence casting serious doubts on the amegfr methylation result in the 2011 paper and consider possible origins of the author’s statement. In a broader context, we discuss the implication of our findings for contrasting context-dependent regulation of EGFR in three insect species, Apis mellifera, D. melanogaster and the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, and argue that more adequate methylation data scrutiny measures are needed to avoid unwarranted conclusions. PMID:26358539

  3. Epigenetic variation in the Egfr gene generates quantitative variation in a complex trait in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Sebastian; Rajakumar, Rajendhran; Abouheif, Ehab; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-03-11

    Complex quantitative traits, like size and behaviour, are a pervasive feature of natural populations. Quantitative trait variation is the product of both genetic and environmental factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms through which their interaction generates this variation. Epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, can mediate gene-by-environment interactions during development to generate discrete phenotypic variation. We therefore investigated the developmental role of DNA methylation in generating continuous size variation of workers in an ant colony, a key trait associated with division of labour. Here we show that, in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, global (genome-wide) DNA methylation indirectly regulates quantitative methylation of the conserved cell-signalling gene Epidermal growth factor receptor to generate continuous size variation of workers. DNA methylation can therefore generate quantitative variation in a complex trait by quantitatively regulating the transcription of a gene. This mechanism, alongside genetic variation, may determine the phenotypic possibilities of loci for generating quantitative trait variation in natural populations.

  4. Discovery of defense- and neuropeptides in social ants by genome-mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Christian W; Muttenthaler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Natural peptides of great number and diversity occur in all organisms, but analyzing their peptidome is often difficult. With natural product drug discovery in mind, we devised a genome-mining approach to identify defense- and neuropeptides in the genomes of social ants from Atta cephalotes (leaf-cutter ant), Camponotus floridanus (carpenter ant) and Harpegnathos saltator (basal genus). Numerous peptide-encoding genes of defense peptides, in particular defensins, and neuropeptides or regulatory peptide hormones, such as allatostatins and tachykinins, were identified and analyzed. Most interestingly we annotated genes that encode oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (inotocins) and their putative receptors. This is the first piece of evidence for the existence of this nonapeptide hormone system in ants (Formicidae) and supports recent findings in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) and Nasonia vitripennis (parasitoid wasp), and therefore its confinement to some basal holometabolous insects. By contrast, the absence of the inotocin hormone system in Apis mellifera (honeybee), another closely-related member of the eusocial Hymenoptera clade, establishes the basis for future studies on the molecular evolution and physiological function of oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides (vasotocin nonapeptide family) and their receptors in social insects. Particularly the identification of ant inotocin and defensin peptide sequences will provide a basis for future pharmacological characterization in the quest for potent and selective lead compounds of therapeutic value.

  5. Distributed representation of social odors indicates parallel processing in the antennal lobe of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2011-11-01

    In colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera cooperation is organized through social odors, and particularly ants rely on a sophisticated odor communication system. Neuronal information about odors is represented in spatial activity patterns in the primary olfactory neuropile of the insect brain, the antennal lobe (AL), which is analog to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. The olfactory system is characterized by neuroanatomical compartmentalization, yet the functional significance of this organization is unclear. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we investigated the neuronal representation of multicomponent colony odors, which the ants assess to discriminate friends (nestmates) from foes (nonnestmates). In the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, colony odors elicited spatial activity patterns distributed across different AL compartments. Activity patterns in response to nestmate and nonnestmate colony odors were overlapping. This was expected since both consist of the same components at differing ratios. Colony odors change over time and the nervous system has to constantly adjust for this (template reformation). Measured activity patterns were variable, and variability was higher in response to repeated nestmate than to repeated nonnestmate colony odor stimulation. Variable activity patterns may indicate neuronal plasticity within the olfactory system, which is necessary for template reformation. Our results indicate that information about colony odors is processed in parallel in different neuroanatomical compartments, using the computational power of the whole AL network. Parallel processing might be advantageous, allowing reliable discrimination of highly complex social odors.

  6. Bemisia tabaci, Brevicoryne brassicae and Thrips tabaci abundance on Brassica oleracea var. acephala Abundância de Bemisia tabaci, Brevicoryne brassicae e Thrips tabaci em Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Kale Brassica oleracea var. acephala is attacked by whitefly Bemisia tabaci, aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and Thrips tabaci. One of the main reasons for extensive insecticide application is the lack of information about factors that control insect population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, organic compound leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, sunlight and median temperature on the abundance of whitefly, aphid, and thrips in kale genotype "Talo Roxo". The beating tray method, direct counting and magnifying lens were used to estimate the number of these pests, predators and parasitoids. Median temperature, sunlight and relative humidity correlated to the amount of leaf nonacosane, which in turn was associated with aphids population increase. A tendency in the reduction of aphids and thrips populations with increase in total rainfall was observed. The whitefly can be a harmful pest in kale producing regions of higher temperature and smaller rainfall. In regions which present moderate temperature, where there is a high incidence of aphids, genotype with low leaf wax content should be chosen. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp., can control agents of the aphids population in kale.A couve, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, é atacada por mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci, pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae e tripes Thrips tabaci. Uma das principais razões para o uso intensivo de inseticidas é a falta de informação sobre os fatores que controlam a população de insetos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as relações entre predadores e parasitóides, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, pluviosidade total, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na abundância da mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em couve genótipo Talo Roxo. Foi usado o método da batida em bandeja

  7. Diel variation of fish community in sandy beaches of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo Gaelzer

    2008-03-01

    registrados. Na Praia dos Anjos, o número de espécies foi superior no período noturno. Já o número médio de espécies, CPUE, riqueza de Margalef e diversidade de Shannon foram, em geral, superiores no período diurno. Este padrão de comportamento foi causado pelo deslocamento noturno de algumas espécies, tais como Harengula clupeola,Trachinotus carolinus e Umbrina coroides para áreas mais profundas a procura de alimento ou para evitar predadores. Na Praia Grande e na Prainha, o número médio de espécies, CPUE e os índices de riqueza e diversidade foram, em geral, superiores no período noturno, com a dominância das espécies H. clupeola, Pomatomus saltatrix e Sardinella brasiliensis. Sugere-se que o principal fator para esta variação nictemeral seja a proteção contra predadores devido à escuridão, tornando a visualização da presa mais difícil, além da presença de bancos sazonais de macroalgas na Prainha, que pode funcionar como uma área de alimentação para peixes piscívoros devido ao encontro de uma grande quantidade de indivíduos em águas rasas especialmente à noite.

  8. Plantas de ocorrência espontânea como substratos alternativos para fitoseídeos (Acari, Phytoseiidae em cultivos de seringueira Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae Weeds as alternative substrates to phytoseiids (Acari, Phytoseiidae in rubber tree Hevea brasilienis, Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae cultivation

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    Marcos Roberto Bellini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de plantas espontâneas em áreas de cultivo de seringueira que poderiam servir com reservatório de ácaros predadores. O trabalho foi conduzido em Olímpia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em dois cultivos de seringueira. A cada três meses, cerca de 1.000 cm³ de folhas de cada uma das cinco espécies de plantas espontâneas dominantes em cada cultivo foi tomada para determinar os fitoseídeos. Como as plantas espontâneas dominantes variaram durante o estudo, um total de 20 espécies foi verificado. Somente Cecropia sp. foi dominante em todo estudo, em ambos os cultivos. Um total de 336 fitoseídeos pertencentes às seguintes espécies foi encontrado: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 e N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 espécimes e N. tunus (138 espécimes foram os mais abundantes. A maior abundância (231espécimes e diversidade (5 espécies foram observadas sobre Cecropia sp. Sobre esta planta foi encontrado o maior número de ácaros por amostra (29 espécimes, seguida por Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 e Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius tem sido determinado como um dos ácaros predadores mais abundantes sobre seringueiras cultivadas na região onde este trabalho foi conduzido. Cecropia sp. parece ser uma das plantas espontâneas mais importantes consideradas como reservatório de E. citrifolius porque está continuamente presente nos cultivos. Estudos complementares poderiam indicar a viabilidade de se manejar esta planta nas áreas de cultivo de seringueira para permitir o controle biológico dos ácaros-praga desta cultura.The objective of this study was to determine weed species of rubber tree cultivation areas that could serve as reservoirs of predatory mites. The work was conducted in Ol

  9. Susceptibility of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidea to gamma-cyhalothrin under laboratory conditions Suscetibilidade de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae a gamma-cyhalothrin sob condições de laboratório

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    Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is an important biological control agent of the cotton leafworm [Alabama argillacea (Hübner] in the cotton crops in Brazil. The use of selective products such as pyrethroids has been emphasized in this agroecosystem. Then, the susceptibility of the predatory stinkbug P. nigrispinus to the pyrethroid insecticide gamma-cyhalothrin was studied in the laboratory. Nymphs and adults of the predator were exposed to seven concentrations of the gamma-cyhalothrin via topical contact and ingestion through treated water. The concentrations studied of this insecticide via topical application were relatively harmless for adults of P. nigrispinus (females: LC50 = 143.5 ppm a.i., and males: LC50 = 145.1 ppm a.i. and 5th-instar nymphs (LC50 = 103.9 ppm as compared to via ingestion (females: LC50 = 1.98 ppm a.i., males: LC50 = 1.91 ppm a.i., and 5th-instar nymphs: LC50 = 2.05 ppm a.i.. The use of pyrethroids and beneficial insects in IPM programs should be better evaluated.Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae é um importante agente de controle biológico do curuquerê [Alabama argillacea (Hübner] na cultura do algodão no Brasil. O uso de produtos seletivos tais como piretróides tem sido enfatizado no agroecosistema do algodoeiro. Portanto, estudou-se em laboratório a suscetibilidade do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas ao inseticida piretróide gamma-cyhalothrin. As exposições via ingestão e aplicação tópica de ninfas de 5º ínstar, fêmeas e machos de P. nigrispinus a gamma-cyhalothrin foram feitas, usando-se sete concentrações do inseticida. Gamma-cyhalothrin via aplicação tópica foi relativamente menos tóxico às formas adultas de P. nigrispinus (fêmeas: CL50 = 143,5 ppm i.a. e machos: CL50 = 145,1 ppm i.a. e às ninfas de 5º ínstar (CL50 = 103,9 ppm desse predador, quando comparado a sua utilização por ingestão (fêmeas: LC50 = 1,98 ppm i.a., machos

  10. Avaliação da predação de Podocnemis expansa e Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae no rio Javaés, Tocantins Evaluation of predation in Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis (Testudines, Podocnemididae in the Javaés River, Tocantins

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    Giovanni Salera Junior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Podocnemis expansa e P. unifilis são animais de vida longa, com uma demorada maturação sexual, o que influencia uma baixa taxa de substituição de indivíduos. Suas populações são caracterizadas por uma pequena mortalidade dos animais adultos, mas alta taxa de mortalidade de filhotes e embriões. Sendo a predação natural de ninhos e filhotes um dos fatores mais importantes do baixo sucesso de eclosão dessas espécies. No rio Javaés, os ovos e recém-eclodidos podem ser predados por uma grande diversidade de animais: dentre as aves, urubus (Coragyps atratus e Cathartes aura, carcará (Polyborus plancus, jaburu (Jabiru mycteria; lagartos (Tupinambis teguixin e mamíferos de pequeno porte, coati (Nasua nasua e cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous. Do total anual de desovas de P. unifilis em média 65,98% são predadas, sendo 41,68% de forma total e 24,30% parcialmente. Enquanto que apenas 5,31% das ninhadas de P. expansa são sempre parcialmente predadas. Dentre os predadores aquáticos existem diversos peixes, principalmente piranhas (Serrasalmus nattereri e jacarés (Melanosuchus niger e Caimam crocodilus. Os predadores das fêmeas de P. unifilis são: jacaré-açu (Melanosuchus niger, onça-pintada (Panthera onca e onça-parda (Puma concolor. Enquanto que as fêmeas de P. expansa em postura, somente são predadas por P. onca. As fêmeas de P. unifilis em postura são predadas num total médio de 3,93% anualmente, enquanto que para P. expansa a média anual é 5,66% das fêmeas.Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis long lived with late sexual maturation, which influences a low replacement rate of individuals. Their populations are characterized by low adults mortality, but high mortality of embryos and hatchlings. The natural nest predation is an important factor for hatchling success. In Javaés River, the eggs and hatchlings can be predated by a large number of animals such as birds, vultures (Coragyps atratus and Cathartes aura, carcar

  11. Efeitos de Fatores Ambientais na Reprodução de Tartarugas Environmental factors effects in turtles reproduction

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    Paulo Dias Ferreira Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para as espécies de tartaruga que apresentam a determinação sexual dependente da temperatura da incubação o local e o momento da desova, exercem influências que vão além da definição do sexo dos embriões. A influência do local da desova se estende a todo o desenvolvimento embrionário afetando o comportamento e o tamanho dos filhotes. O momento em que ocorre a desova trará conseqüências ao ambiente térmico dos ninhos à medida que a temperatura e a umidade variam ao longo do ano. A umidade será decisiva nas trocas hídricas e gasosas entre os ovos e o meio afetando a absorção do vitelo e o crescimento dos embriões. As cheias e os alagamentos são importantes fatores de perda de ninhos nas espécies de tartaruga de água doce. A desova no momento adequado possibilita uma incubação segura, sem a interferência de alagamentos dos ninhos e conseqüente morte dos embriões. A predação dos ninhos varia de acordo com o local da desova, o tipo e a abundância de predadores e a profundidade da câmara de ovos. A escolha de pontos de desova no interior da vegetação, onde a taxa de predação é geralmente menor, nem sempre é a estratégia mais frequentemente adotada pelas tartarugas, uma vez que esse procedimento pode levar a uma maior exposição das fêmeas aos predadores, à diminuição do sucesso da eclosão ou a alterações na razão sexual provocadas por diferenças na temperatura da incubação.Turtle species in which the sex determination is dependent of incubation temperature, the nest site and the laying moment will affect more than embryo sex determination. The influence of the laying site extends all over the embryonic development, affecting hatching weight and size. The time of the egg-laying will bring consequences to the nest thermal environment, as the temperature and humidity change throughout the year. The humidity will be decisive in gaseous and hydric exchanges between eggs and the environment, affecting

  12. Seletividade de agrotóxicos usados na cultura da macieira a Neoseiulus Californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae1 Pesticide selectivity used in apple crops Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae

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    Geraldine de Andrade Meyer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos secundários dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em macieira sobre adultos e imaturos de Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Os testes foram conduzidos em laboratório, utilizando as doses dos produtos recomendadas para a cultura e o método de contato e residual com pulverização em superfície de folha. Foram testados tebufenozida, fosmete, metidationa, clorpirifós, abamectina, fenpiroximato, piridabem, captana, mancozebe (duas dosagens e ditianona. Para o cálculo do efeito total (E% sobre os adultos, avaliaram-se a mortalidade, a oviposição e a viabilidade dos ovos, e para os imaturos, somente a mortalidade. Os resultados do E% foram avaliados 96 horas após a pulverização. Os produtos foram classificados quanto ao efeito total (E% de toxicidade proposta pela IOBC/WPRS. Fosmete, tebufenozida e metidationa foram inócuos; abamectina, fenpiroximato, clorpirifós, captana, mancozebe (nas duas dosagens testadas e ditianona foram levemente nocivos, e piridabem foi moderadamente nocivo aos adultos de N. californicus. O fungicida mancozebe, na maior dosagem (320g,i.a./100L, foi o que mais afetou o ácaro predador. Quanto à seletividade dos agrotóxicos aos imaturos, constatouse que abamectina e piridabem foram moderadamente nocivos, e os demais foram inócuos. Nenhum produto foi classificado como nocivo, evidenciando a tolerância de N. californicus a estes agrotóxicos. Estes resultados permitem uma escolha e manejo mais adequado para os agrotóxicos utilizados nos pomares comerciais de macieira, de forma que a presença deste ácaro predador exerça pressão de controle do ácaro-vermelho.The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of the main pesticides used in adult and immature Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae. The tests were carried out in the laboratory by using the contact and residual spraying method on the leaf surface. It was tested

  13. Efeitos do plantio direto e da consorciação soja-milho sobre inimigos naturais e pragas Effects of no-tillage and of soybean-corn intercropping on natural enemies and pests

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    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se avaliar os efeitos do plantio direto e da consorciação soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill e milho (Zea mays L. sobre pragas e inimigos naturais. Os tratamentos constituíram um fatorial 3 x 2 (monocultura de soja, monocultura de milho, consorciação soja-milho x plantio direto, plantio convencional, em blocos casualizados. Os insetos foram amostrados pelo método do pano, rede entomológica, procura visual e armadilha de sucção. Entre os insetos-pragas do milho, Maecolaspis assimilis ocorreu em maior número no sistema de plantio convencional; o mesmo ocorreu com os predadores Cycloneda sanguinea e Doru sp. Por outro lado, M. assimilis e o predador Toxomerus sp. foram mais numerosos na monocultura de milho em relação à cultura do milho consorciado com soja. Dos insetos-pragas da soja, destacaram-se pelo maior número Anticarsia gemmatalis e Diabrotica gracilenta, no sistema de plantio convencional, e o mesmo aconteceu com a espécie da família Trichogrammatidae, enquanto as espécies da família Eulophidae foram mais numerosas na soja sob sistema de plantio direto. Na soja consorciada com milho foi maior o número de insetos-pragas Megalotomus sp. e Maecolaspis sp. e dos inimigos naturais Geocoris sp., Lebia concina, Orius sp., Braconidae e Scelionidae.This study evaluated the effects of no-tillage and of strip intercropping of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill and corn (Zea mays L. on the abundance of pests and natural enemies. The plots were arranged in a randomized complete block design for a 3 x 2 factorial experiment (soybean monoculture, corn monoculture, strip intercropping of soybean-corn x no-tillage and conventional tillage. Insects were sampled by sweep net, ground cloth, visual search and suction net. Among the corn insect pests, Maecolaspis assimilis occurred in highest number in the no-tillage system, the same being observed with the predators Cycloneda sanguinea and Doru sp. On the other hand, M. assimilis and the

  14. Aspectos biológicos de Harmonia axyridis alimentada com duas espécies de presas e predação intraguilda com Eriopis connexa Biological aspects of Harmonia axyridis fed on two prey species and intraguild predation with Eriopis connexa

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    Natália Ribeiro Pereira dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os aspectos biológicos de Harmonia axyridis, alimentada com duas espécies de presas, e a ocorrência de predação intraguilda com Eriopis connexa. Larvas de H. axyridis foram alimentadas diariamente com ovos de Anagasta kuehniella ou com o pulgão Schizaphis graminum. Adultos da joaninha foram separados em dez casais que receberam o mesmo tipo de alimento da fase larval. Na avaliação da predação, uma larva de quarto instar de cada espécie foi mantida na presença ou ausência de abrigo e de ovos de A. kuehniella. A fase larval de H. axyridis durou 10,2 e 8,9 dias, quando alimentada com A. kuehniella e S. graminum, respectivamente. A sobrevivência do predador, em fase imatura, variou de 70 a 100%. A joaninha apresentou período de oviposição de 47,3 e 51,7 dias, com 887,6 e 822,5 ovos, ao se alimentar de A. kuehniella e S. graminum, respectivamente. A longevidade das fêmeas foi de 74,1 e 76,2 dias e a dos machos de 67,3 e 70,3 dias, em A. kuehniella e S. graminum, respectivamente. H. axyridis atuou como predador intraguilda e foi a espécie dominante na competição com E. connexa.The objective of this work was to determine the biological aspects Harmonia axyridis, fed on two prey species, and the occurrence of intraguild predation with Eriopis connexa. Larvae of H. axyridis were fed daily with Anagasta kuehniella eggs or Schizaphis graminum aphid. Adults of H. axyridis were separated in ten couples which received the same food type of the larval stage. For the estimation of predation, a fourth instar larva of each species was maintained in the presence or absence of shelter and eggs of A. kuehniella. The larval stage lasted 10.2 days, when H. axyridis fed on A. kuehniella eggs, and 8.9 days when reared with S. graminum. The survival of predator during immature stages ranged from 70 to 100%. H. axyridis had an oviposition period of 47.3 and 51.7 days, laying a total of 887.6 and 822.5 eggs

  15. Toxicidade de acaricidas a ovos e adultos de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae Toxicity of acaricides to eggs and adults of Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Geraldo Andrade Carvalho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito de treze acaricidas sobre ovos e adultos de Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861. Os acaricidas foram pulverizados por meio de torre de Potter, nas concentrações recomendadas para o controle de ácaros na cultura dos citros. Os ensaios foram conduzidos sob condições controladas de 25 ± 2º C, umidade relativa de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Os acaricidas não foram tóxicos ao predador em sua fase de ovo. Em relação aos adultos, o carbosulfan e o triazophos foram altamente tóxicos (100% de mortalidade, enquanto que os piretróides bifenthrin e fenpropathrin causaram mortalidade aproximadamente de 60%. Os acaricidas dicofol, bromopropylate, tetradifon, clofentezine, abamectin, hexythiazox, cyhexatin e óxido de fenbutatin não provocaram mortalidade dos adultos de C. cubana. Flufenoxuron inibiu a capacidade de oviposição e provocou a inviabilização dos ovos. Baseando-se na escala da IOBC, os acaricidas carbosulfan, triazophos e flufenoxuron foram enquadrados na classe 4 = nocivos; bifenthrin e fenpropathrin na classe 2 = levemente nocivos, e dicofol, bromopropylate, tetradifon, clofentezine, abamectin, hexythiazox, cyhexatin e óxido de fenbutatin na classe 1 = inócuos a C. cubana. Os compostos enquadrados na classe 1 podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas de citros objetivando a integração entre os métodos químico e biológico por meio dessa espécie de predador.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of thirteen acaricides on eggs and adults of the lacewing Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861. The acaricides were sprayed using a Potter's tower at the rate recommended for mite control in citrus orchard. The trials were performed in climatic chamber at 25 ± 2º C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase of 12 hours. The egg stage showed high tolerance to the tested acaricides. Carbosulfan and triazophos caused 100% adult mortality, whereas bifenthrin and

  16. Utilização da serologia na identificação de Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae = Using the serological technique to identify Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae

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    Fabiano de Mello Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo obter antissoro específico para Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 com a finalidade de identificar seus predadores. Para a obtenção do antissoro, um coelho foi imunizado, via linfonódulo, com uma injeção de antígeno obtido pela maceração de lagartas do 4o e 5o instares de A. monuste orseis. Reações serológicas homólogas, realizadas por meio do método de dupla difusão em ágar, foram positivas após 21 dias da 1a inoculação do antígeno. Ovos, lagartas do 1o, 2o e 3o instares, pupas e adultos de A. monuste orseis também reagiram positivamente ao antissoro obtido.This study aimed to obtain specific antiserum for Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819, with the aim of identifying the predators associated with this insect. The preparation of specific antiserum was performed by immunizing a rabbit via a lymph nodule injection containing antigen obtained from the maceration of 4th and 5th instars of A. monuste orseis caterpillars. Serological homologous tests performed using double diffusion in agar gel were positive 21 days after the first antigen inoculation. Eggs, 1th, 2th and 3th instar caterpillars, pupae and adults of A. monuste orseis also reacted positively to the obtained antiserum.

  17. Utilização da serologia na identificação de Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.515 Using the serological technique to identify Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.515

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    Carlos Roberto Sousa-Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo obter antissoro específico paraAscia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819 com a finalidade de identificar seus predadores. Para a obtenção do antissoro, um coelho foi imunizado, via linfonódulo, com uma injeção de antígeno obtido pela maceração de lagartas do 4o e 5o instares de A. monuste orseis. Reações serológicas homólogas, realizadas por meio do método de dupla difusão em ágar, foram positivas após 21 dias da 1a inoculação do antígeno. Ovos, lagartas do 1o, 2o e 3o instares, pupas e adultos de A. monuste orseis também reagiram positivamente ao antissoro obtido.This study aimed to obtain specific antiserum for Ascia monuste orseis (Latreille, 1819, with the aim of identifying the predators associated with this insect. The preparation of specific antiserum was performed by immunizing a rabbit via a lymph nodule injection containing antigen obtained from the maceration of 4th and 5th instars of A. monuste orseis caterpillars. Serological homologous tests performed using double diffusion in agar gel were positive 21 days after the first antigen inoculation. Eggs, 1th, 2th and 3th instar caterpillars, pupae and adults of A. monuste orseis also reacted positively to the obtained antiserum.

  18. First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera

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    Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera as prey of Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, an ectosymbiont on larvae of Corydalidae (Megaloptera. This study constitutes the first record of Temnocephala Blanchard, an ectosymbiont on Corydalidae, as a possible predator of chironomid larvae. Twenty-eight Corydalidae larvae (Corydalus and Protochauliodes were examined under stereomicroscopic in search for Temnocephala and Chironomidae larvae, of which five megalopteran larvae had 24 Temnocephala sp. associated. Furthermore, eight of these Temnocephala worms had chironomid larvae in their gut contents, an interaction previously unknown. Gut content analyses revealed Corynoneura as the commonest chironomid, but larvae of Larsia, Rheotanytarsus and Tanytarsus were recorded as well. This study included Corydalus and Protochauliodes as hosts for Temnocephala, which might be important for this worm dispersion and population dynamics.Primeiro registro de larvas de Chironomidae como presas de Temnocephala sp. (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte de larvas de Corydalidae (Maegaloptera. Este estudo constitui o primeiro registro de Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalidae, um ectosimbionte em larvas de Megaloptera, como um possível predador de larvas de Chironomidae. Vinte e oito larvas de Corydalidae (Corydalus e Protochauliodes foram examinadas sobre estereomicroscópio na busca por Temnocephala e larvas de Chironomidae, das quais cinco larvas de Megaloptera continham 24 Temnocephala sp. associadas. Além disso, oito Temnocephala possuíam em seu conteúdo estomacal larvas de Chironomidae, uma interação desconhecida anteriormente. A análise do conteúdo estomacal revelou Corynoneura como o quironomídeo mais abundante, e também algumas larvas de Larsia, Rheotanytarsus e Tanytarsus. Este estudo inclui Corydalus e Protochauliodes como hospedeiros de Temnocephala, os quais podem ser importantes

  19. Ação de produtos fitossanitários utilizados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae

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    Silva Rogério Antônio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ação de produtos fitossanitários usados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos no Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brasil. Os tratamentos avaliados, em g i.a.L-1 de água, foram: 1- endosulfan (Thiodan 350 CE - 1,75, 2- chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 CE -1,2, 3- betacyfluthrin (Turbo 50 CE - 0,013, 4- enxofre (Kumulus 800 PM - 4,0, 5- azocyclotin (Peropal 250 PM - 0,31, 6- oxicloreto de cobre (Cuprogarb 500 PM - 5,0 e 7- Testemunha (água. As pulverizações foram realizadas diretamente sobre pupas e adultos do crisopídeo por meio de torre de Potter. As pupas foram colocadas em tubos de vidro e os adultos em gaiolas de PVC, e mantidos em sala climatizada a 25 ? 2degreesC, UR de 70 ? 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela formada por quatro pupas ou um casal de C. externa. Os produtos foram distribuídos nas quatro classes de toxicidade conforme escala estabelecida pela IOBC. O chlorpyrifos mostrou-se levemente nocivo para pupas (classe 2, 30?E?79%, e os demais produtos foram inócuos (classe 1, E99%. Os produtos testados à base de endosulfan, enxofre, azocyclotin e oxicloreto de cobre podem ser recomendados em programas de manejo de pragas do cafeeiro em associação com C. externa, em função da baixa toxidade apresentada por esses compostos ao predador.

  20. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de una población de Puya trianae Baker, en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Bonilla Gómez María Argenis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se trataron algunos aspectos sobre la biología reproductiva de una población de Puya trianae, una bromelia terrestre de los páramos colombianos. Se observó una separación espacio-temporal de los órganos
    reproductivos que determina la condición de protoginia en las flores a partir del inicio de la antesis, fase de la
    flor cuyo estigma se torna receptivo y la producción de néctar es significativa. Se encontró en P. trianae un sistema reproductivo auto compatible, lo que permitió a las inflorescencias auto polinizarse y ser fecundadas con polen foráneo; la fructificación de la población bajo condiciones naturales (éxito reproductivo estuvo limitada por la predación y los polinizadores. Las rosetas solo asignaron el 13% de su biomasa en su esfuerzo reproductivo, el porcentaje restante fue invertido en su crecimiento vegetativo. Se registró la floración de la población hacia la época húmeda (junio-agosto de 2003, el clima fue poco favorable para los polinizadores, pero adecuado para evitar la deshidratación de las flores y la evaporación del néctar. La fructificación ocurrió en la época seca (diciembre-febrero de 2004, tiempo propicio para la dehiscencia de los frutos y la dispersión eólica de las semillas. Se observaron y determinaron los colibríes Aglaeactis cupripennis y Pterophanes cyanopterus como polinizadores eficientes, además de los insectos residentes de las familias Nitidulidae (Coleoptera y Phoridae (Diptera, cuyas larvas fueron predadores importantes de la inflorescencia.

  1. Primeiro registro de Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae em plantas de Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Nota Científica. First record of Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: geometridae in Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Scientific Note.

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    Claubert Wagner Guimarães de MENEZES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a oviposição e o desenvolvimento de uma nova espécie de lepidóptera associada à Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Ovos, imaturos e adultos de Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram encontrados em plantas de E. cloeziana no município de Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Este trabalho é o primeiro registro desse desfolhador em plantas de eucalipto. Ninfas de Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae foram também observadas predando as lagartas de F. sartinaria, isto indica que este predador poderá ser um potencial agente de controle biológico da espécie. A ocorrência de F. sartinaria ovipositando e se desenvolvendo em plantas de E. cloeziana mostra que este lepidóptero pode se tornar um desfolhador importante da espécie, sendo recomendável sua inclusão em monitoramentos de pragas do eucalipto visando seu manejo integrado.The aim of this study was to record the oviposition and development of a new species of lepidopteran pests of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Eggs, immatures and adults of Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were found in plants of E. cloeziana in Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This work is the first record of this defoliator in eucalyptus plants. Nymphs of the Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have also been observed preying on the larvae of F. sartinaria, this indicates that this predator is a probable potential biological control agent of the species. The occurrence of F. sartinaria developing and laying eggs on plants of E. cloeziana shows that this insect can become an important defoliator and it is recommended its inclusion in monitoring pest of eucalyptus for integrated pest management.

  2. Preliminary assessment of the potential for mangrove oyster cultivation in Piraquê-açu river estuary (Aracruz, ES

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    Luciana Alvarenga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available At Piraquê-açu river estuary, Aracruz, ES, the technical viability of Crassostrea rhizophorae cultivation was determined through monthly measures in shell length and weight. Seeds of C. rhizophorae were put in cages and suspended in rafts. Increase in height and weight (flesh and dry of the oysters was measured. During ten months (July/98 to May/99, oyster shell reached an average of 37.6 mm in shell height and 3.0 g in flesh weight (the whole animal. High mortality rates were registered and could be related to the high salinity water and to high predation observed, especially by flatworms Stylochophana divae and snails Cymatium parthenopeum, as well as fouling organisms such as barnacles, Serpulidae polychaetes and seed of the same species.No estuário do Rio Piraquê-açu, município de Aracruz, ES, foi avaliada a viabilidade técnica da implantação do cultivo de ostras Crassostrea rhizophorae em lanternas suspensas numa balsa de cultivo, através da estimativa de crescimento e ganho de peso fresco e seco das ostras. Verificou-se que, durante os dez meses de cultivo (junho/98 a maio/99, as ostras atingiram, em média, 37,6 mm de altura e 3,0 g no peso total. Foi registrada uma alta taxa de mortalidade, que poderia ser atribuída aos altos valores de salinidade na água e também aos predadores observados como planárias Stylochoplana divae e gastrópodos Cymatium parthenopeum, além de incrustantes como cracas, poliquetos Serpulidae e principalmente sementes da própria ostra.

  3. Feeding strategy of the night shark (Carcharhinus signatus and scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini near seamounts off northeastern Brazil

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    Teodoro Vaske Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 425 stomachs of night shark (Carcharhinus signatus, and 98 stomachs of scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini, from longline and surface gillneters near seamounts off northeastern Brazil, were analysed between 1992 and 1999. Both predators prey upon reef and benthopelagic fishes, migrant cephalopods and deep water crustaceans, showing similar feeding niches (Schoener Index T=0.75. The great prey richness of the diets may reflect the fact that the marine food web for these species is very extensive in this region. Due to the concentration for feeding of both predators in the seamounts, intense fisheries should be monitored to avoid localised depletions.Um total de 425 estômagos de tubarão-toninha (Carcharhinus signatus e 98 estômagos de tubarão-martelo-entalhado (Sphyrna lewini, oriundos da pesca de espinhel e pesca com rede de emalhe nas adjacências dos bancos oceânicos do nordeste do Brasil, foi analisado entre 1992 e 1999. Ambas as espécies predam sobre peixes bento-pelágicos e recifais, cefalópodes migradores, e crustáceos de águas profundas, apresentando nichos alimentares similares (Índice de Schoener T=0.75. A alta riqueza de presas nas dietas deve ser um reflexo de que as teias alimentares para estas espécies são consideravelmente longas nessa região. Devido à concentração alimentar de ambos predadores nos bancos oceânicos, a pescaria intensa deve ser monitorada para evitar depleções locais.

  4. Populations analysis of the Brazilian Sharpnose Shark Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae on the São Paulo coast, Southern Brazil: inferences from mt DNA sequences

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    Fernando Fernandes Mendonça

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sharks of the genus Rhizoprionodon can be considered some of the most important predators along the trophic coastal marine ecosystems and represent an important economic resource for the small-scale fisheries, especially on the Brazilian coastline. In order to analyze the population structure of the shark Rhizoprionodon lalandii of São Paulo, Southeastern coast of Brazil, levels of genetic diversity were identified by nucleotide sequence analyses of the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results obtained from this study present moderate values of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity. Although the AMOVA tests (ΦST = 0.08394, P Tubarões do gênero Rhizoprionodon são considerados predadores de grande importância ao longo da cadeia trófica nos ecossistemas costeiros e marinhos, também representando um importante recurso econômico para a pesca, especialmente no litoral brasileiro. A fim de analisar a estrutura populacional do tubarão Rhizoprionodon lalandii no litoral de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil, foram identificados os níveis de diversidade genética a partir da análise de sequências nucleotídicas da região controladora do DNA mitocondrial. Os dados obtidos neste estudo apresentam valores moderados de diversidade haplotípica e baixos índices de diversidade nucleotídica. Embora os testes de AMOVA (ΦST = 0,08394, P < 0,01 tenham revelado uma pequena diferença entre as amostras estudadas, evidências sobre a ocorrência de estruturação populacional não foram encontradas o que pode representar uma característica geral para tubarões vivendo em áreas costeiras.

  5. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

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    M. Cristina HERNÁNDEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae, minando cerca de la epidermis y abriendo varios orificios al exterior. La larva de T. romus Bickel & Hernández crece en E. azurea (Sw. Kunth, formando una mina curva, corta en comparación con las otras especies. La larva de T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández se desarrolla en Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, excavando la mina entre la epidermis y la gran celda central de los pecíolos. Por último, la larva de T. taragui Bickel & Hernández se cría en tallos sumergidos de P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, formando una mina subepidérmica con ramificaciones hacia la estela central del tallo. No se pudieron asociar las minas correspondientes a las especies T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus y T. azuricola. No se encontraron predadores ni parásitos de larvas o pupas, se observaron casos de canibalismo entre larvas cuando el trazado de dos minas confluye. Las especies del grupo truncatus poseen un modo de alimentación sumamente específico, confinadas al aerénquima, se alimentan de la savia extraída de los orificios roídos en los haces vasculares de los pecíolos y tallos, posiblemente con levaduras simbiontes como suplemento para la nutrición. Numerosas colecciones en el campo y pruebas en el laboratorio, indican que estos insectos están asociados con plantas hospedadoras específicas dentro de la misma familia. Esta especialización sugiere una larga asociación insecto-hospedadora.

  6. Diversidade e dinâmica populacional de ácaros em pomar cítrico

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    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de citros hospedam diversas espécies de ácaros que causam sérios prejuízos à produção e qualidade de frutos no Brasil. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo estudar a diversidade de ácaros e a dinâmica populacional das principais espécies de ácaros em pomar de citros, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, localizado no município de Descalvado, Estado de São Paulo. Foram realizadas 14 avaliações em um período de 12 meses, de fevereiro de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008. Em cada avaliação, foram coletadas dez folhas e cinco frutos na parte interna de cada uma das 40 plantas demarcadas no pomar. Foram encontradas 34 espécies de ácaros, distribuídas em 17 famílias. As espécies mais abundantes foram: Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmed (Eriophyidae, Panonychus citri (McGregor (Tetranychidae, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Tenuipalpidae e Fungitarsonemus sp. (Tarsonemidae. Entre os ácaros predadores, a família Phytoseiidae foi a de maior riqueza (oito espécies e abundância (1.072 indivíduos. A espécie predominante foi Euseius concordis (Chant, correspondendo a 98,3% dos ácaros desta família. Foram observadas correlações significativas entre densidades populacionais de E. concordis e dos ácaros fitófagos P. citri, B. phoenicis e P. oleivora. Também foram observadas correlações significativas entre densidades populacionais desses ácaros e fatores meteorológicos como temperatura e precipitação pluvial. Os resultados indicam que E. concordis atua como inimigo natural de P. citri, B. phoenicis e P. oleivora no pomar cítrico estudado.

  7. Las arañas en agroecosistemas: bioindicadores terrestres de calidad ambiental

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    Miguel Simó

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las arañas son predadores generalistas en ecosistemas terrestres, ampliamente utilizadas en estudios de biodiversidad. En el último siglo, el paisaje de Uruguay se transformó en un mosaico de áreas formadas por ambientes naturales y agroecosistemas. ¿Qué nivel de cambio se espera hallar en la comunidad de arañas si las áreas de estudio están próximas? ¿Qué porcentaje de especies nativas serán reemplazadas con la plantación? ¿Cómo afecta esto a la biodiversidad local? Se realizó un estudio en cuatro áreas vecinas en INIA Las Brujas, Canelones: un bosque ribereño, un bosque de “Espinillo”, una plantación de Eucalyptus globulus y una pradera artificial de Trifolium pratense y Avena sativa. Las arañas fueron capturadas con trampas de caída, trampas de tronco, segado, batido de follaje y colecta manual nocturna. Un total de 3.023 adultos fueron colectados. La mayor abundancia y riqueza de especies se observó en el bosque ribereño. A pesar de la proximidad de los sitios estudiados, se observó un alto reemplazo de especies, especialmente entre áreas naturales y agroecosistemas. Los protocolos de colecta utilizados podrían ser útiles para evaluar el impacto de agroecosistemas con diferentes tipos de manejos sobre la biodiversidad local y su aplicación en la certificación de calidad ambiental.

  8. Fatores naturais que influenciam o ataque da mosca-branca em pimentão Natural factors influencing whitefly attack in sweet pepper

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar os efeitos da pluviosidade, da temperatura, da umidade relativa, dos predadores e parasitóides, da idade das plantas, dos compostos químicos foliares (cromatógrafo a gás acoplado a espectrômetro de massa - CG/EM, dos níveis de N e de K foliares sobre a intensidade do ataque de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae em pimentão (Capsicum annuum var. Myr-10. As correntes totais de íons dos picos 28,178 min. (tempo de retenção e 42,755 min. (tempo de retenção correlacionaram-se positivamente com as ninfas e adultos da mosca-branca, respectivamente, e a corrente total de íons do pico 36,352 min. (tempo de retenção correlacionou-se negativamente com ninfas deste inseto.The objective of this work was to determine the effect of rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, predators, parasitoids, plant age, leaf chemical composition (GC/MS-gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of hexane extract and levels of N and K on the intensity of attack by Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae on sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum var. Myr-10. Out of the four peaks detected in the hexane extract on GC/MS analysis, areas of the peak eluting at 28.178 and 42.755 min correlated positively to the nymph and adult population, respectively. The peak eluting at 36.352 min correlated negatively with the nymph population.

  9. Fatores climáticos na dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. (diptera: tephritidae e de Scymnus spp. (coleoptera: coccinellidae em um pomar experimental de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.

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    Ricardo Aparecido Calore

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. e de Scymnus spp. em pomar experimental semiorgânico de goiaba (Psidium guajava L., em Pindorama-SP, na Agência Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios (APTA e correlacioná-la com fatores meteorológicos. Para o levantamento da dinâmica populacional, os espécimes foram monitorados com armadilhas adesivas amarelas (25 cm x 9,5 cm, trocadas a cada 15 dias, no período de um ano (entre junho de 2009 e junho de 2010. Os insetos foram avaliados e quantificados no Laboratório de Seletividade Ecológica da UNESP-FCAV em Jaboticabal-SP. Observou-se a ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. e Scymnus spp. durante todo o período de amostragem. Com base nos resultados obtidos e nas condições de desenvolvimento do presente trabalho, foram possíveis as seguintes conclusões: a Ocorre aumento na densidade populacional de Anastrepha spp. com o aumento das temperaturas mínima, média e máxima; b Os picos populacionais de Anastrepha spp. ocorrem de janeiro a março e coincidem com o período de disponibilidade de frutos maduros no pomar de goiaba; c Constatam-se as maiores ocorrências do predador Scymnus spp. no período de setembro a dezembro, e as menores ocorrências, em fevereiro e março; d As precipitações não interferem na dinâmica populacional de Anastrepha spp. e de Scymnus spp..

  10. Consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae por larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em casa-de-vegetação Consumption of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera: Aphididae BY Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae in greenhouse

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    Alexander M. Auad

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com esta pesquisa objetivou-se verificar o consumo de Uroleucon ambrosiae em diferentes densidades, por larvas de Chrysoperla externa provenientes de diferentes regimes alimentares, em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas de 3º e 4º ínstares do afídeo foram separadas nas densidades 30, 40 e 50, e colocadas nas plantas de alface (35 dias de idade, as quais, foram envolvidas por gaiola de armação de ferro de 27x27x26 cm cobertas com tecido “voil” e acoplada nos tubos de PVC do cultivo hidropônico. Quatro horas após, uma larva de C. externa, de diferentes ínstares e previamente alimentadas com U. ambrosiae ou ovos de Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819, foi liberada próximo à colônia de afídeos, sendo a gaiola fechada imediatamente; o mesmo procedimento foi adotado sem que a larva fosse confinada. Após quarenta e oito horas, realizou-se a contagem do número de afídeos consumidos em cada densidade de presa disponível. A eficiência do predador, confinado em gaiola, foi de 12,46%, 13,63% e 25,76% para larvas de 1º, 2º e 3º ínstares previamente alimentadas com ovos de S. cerealella; 9,59% e 17,63% para aquelas de 2º e 3º ínstares alimentadas anteriormente com ninfas de U. ambrosiae, respectivamente e de 18,62% para larvas de 3º ínstar previamente alimentadas com ovos do lepidóptero no 1º ínstar e ninfas dos afídeos no 2º instar; no entanto, para larvas não confinadas, não foram verificadas diferenças significativas na eficiência. Nas densidades de 40 e 50 afídeos, as porcentagens de predação (18,30 e 18,72, respectivamente foram significativamente superiores quando comparada à densidade 30 (11,79; para testes sem confinamento, não houve influência da densidade da presa na resposta do predador. Assim, o alimento fornecido às larvas de C. externa antes de serem liberadas em casa-de-vegetação, o confinamento das mesmas e a densidade de U. ambrosiae disponível influenciaram o potencial de consumo do predador

  11. Velocidade da água e a distribuição de larvas e pupas de Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar (Diptera, Simuliidae e macroinvertebrados associados Water velocity and the distribution of larvae and pupae of Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar (Diptera, Simuliidae and associated macroinvertebrates

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    José Eloy dos Santos Jr

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a relação entre a velocidade da água e a distribuição dos estágios imaturos de Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar, 1832 e os macroinvertebrados bentônicos associados. As coletas foram realizadas em cinco pontos, no trecho superior do Rio dos Sinos, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A fauna bentônica foi amostrada com substratos artificiais, que permaneceram instalados nos locais de maior corenteza d'água por períodos de 14 dias. Antes do recolhimento dos substratos foram realizadas medidas de velocidade d'água no local da sua instalação. Essas medidas foram agrupadas em três classes: baixa (0,20 a 0,63 m/s, média (0,64 a 1,07 m/s e alta (1,08 a 1,50 m/s para posterior relação com a distribuição da fauna coletada. Para avaliar a influência da velocidade de água sobre a distribuição dos macroinvertebrados e a abundância de C. pertinax foi realizada uma regressão múltipla. As coletas resultaram em 39.598 indivíduos, sendo 33.418 simulídeos e 6.180 macroinvertebrados associados. Entre os simulídeos 5.704 espécimes correspondem a larvas do último ínstar e pupas, dos quais 828 são de C. pertinax. Quanto à distribuição dessa espécie, 30,8% ocorreram na classe de baixa velocidade d'água, 24,9% na velocidade média e 44,3% na alta velocidade. Foi observado que a abundância de C. petinax aumenta à medida que os macroinvertebrados predadores diminuem e os organismos não predadores aumentam (GLM, R² = 0,207; F 2,50 = 6,536; P = 0,003. Esses resultados revelam que os imaturos de C. pertinax têm uma tendência em ocupar um microhábitat com menor ocorrência de predadores.The objective of the current study was to evaluate the distribution of the immature stages of Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar, 1832 and associated bentic macroinvertebrates in relation to water velocity. This study was carried out on the upper course of Sinos river, in Rio Grande do Sul. Seasonal collections of larvae

  12. Educação ambiental e a conservação da onça parda: potenciais das unidades de conservação do nordeste paulista. Environmental education and puma conservation: potentials of the protected areas of northeastern São Paulo state (Brazil.

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    Mayla Willk VALENTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No nordeste do Estado de São Paulo as unidades de conservação abrigam importante parcela da biodiversidade brasileira. Espécies predadoras de topo de cadeia, como a onça parda (Puma concolor, ainda estão presentes nessa região e dependem dessas unidades para sobreviverem. Nesse contexto, a educação ambiental pode contribuir com a conservação das espécies, embora existam desafios a serem superados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar potencialidades e limites da educação ambiental para a conservação da biodiversidade nas unidades de conservação do nordeste paulista, tendo como tema a conservação de predadores, em especial a onça parda. A área de estudo foi definida com base na população dessa espécie na região. Realizamos levantamento das unidades de conservação na área de estudo e consulta para identificar aquelas com programas de educação ambiental ativos. Visitamos sete áreas protegidas, sendo que em cada uma realizamos entrevista estruturada com pessoas envolvidas em ações de educação ambiental e/ou gestores das unidades, totalizando sete entrevistas. Os dados indicaram que essas unidades estão em contextos relevantes para a realização de ações educativas voltadas à conservação de predadores. Contudo, as/os entrevistadas/os relataram dificuldades em se aproximar da população do entorno fora do ambiente escolar, especialmente o público adulto. Apesar disso, identificamos uma preocupação em envolver a comunidade do entorno, percebida nos próprios objetivos das atividades realizadas pelas unidades de conservação. A partir dos resultados obtidos, consideramos que, embora o tema dos predadores não seja especificamente trabalhado, existe um potencial grande para atuação nesse sentido. Ainda, destacamos que as unidades de conservação são espaços privilegiados para a integração dos conhecimentos científicos e educação ambiental. In northeastearn São Paulo state (Brazil, the

  13. Roadkills of vertebrates in Venezuela Vertebrados mortos em estradas na Venezuela

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    Jan Pinowski

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of vertebrate roadkills in five different habitats of tropical South America. Observations of vertebrate roadkills were conducted in 1978, on a 572 km road between Caracas and Mantecal/Apure in Venezuela, during the rainy season (June-October. During five passages on this route, which includes five distinct habitats, 79 vertebrate carcasses - mammals and reptiles - were found. If we assume that the carcasses remain for two days on the road, vehicles can be expected to strike 350 spectacled caimans Caiman crocodilus Linnaeus, 1758 (Alligatoridae during the rainy season alone. Similar calculations for other species yield 313 snakes and lizards, 294 opossums Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphidae, 220 crab-eating foxes Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1776 (Canidae, 129 tamanduas Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae, 55 capybaras Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 (Hydrochaeridae and 37 eastern cottontails Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, 1890 (Leporidae. Numerous papers have been published on vertebrates killed by vehicles on roads in Europe, North America, and Australia, and several papers are available regarding vertebrate roadkills in Africa and Asia. From South America there are several papers on vertebrates, birds, and mammals, whereas from Venezuela only one and it deals with iguanas (Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758, Iguanidae.Este trabalho apresenta uma análise de vertebrados mortos em estrada em cinco habitats tropicais diferentes na América do Sul. As observações dos vertebrados mortos em estrada foram feitas em 1978, a 572 km da rodovia entre Caracas e Mantecal/Apure na Venezuela, durante a estação das chuvas (junho-outubro. Durante cinco passagens nesta rota, a qual inclui cinco habitats diferentes, foram encontradas 79 carcaças de vertebrados - répteis e mamíferos. Assumindo que as carcaças permaneçam por dois dias na estrada, é esperado que veículos matem 350

  14. Evidence for and geomorphologic consequences of a reptilian ecosystem engineer: The burrowing cascade initiated by the Gopher Tortoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinlaw, A.; Grasmueck, M.

    2012-07-01

    Physical ecosystem engineers often make major, durable physical constructs that can provide living space for other species and can structure local animal communities over evolutionary time. In Florida, a medium sized chelonian, the Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) will excavate extensive subterranean chambers that can endure for long periods of time. The tortoise starts a 'burrowing cascade', by first excavating a larger burrow that may extend 10 m, which is then re-engineered by Florida Mice (Podomys floridanus) and other rodents that dig smaller side-burrows and pockets. This sequence is often followed by an invertebrate, the camel cricket (Ceuthophilus labibuli) which is reported to excavate even smaller chambers. Our first aim was to quantify the zoogeomorphic impact of this burrowing cascade by measuring the amount of soil excavated in a large sample of burrows in two communities. Secondly, we hypothesized that the high biodiversity reported for these structures might be related to the quasi-fractal nature of the geometry, following the work of Frontier (1987). To visualize this underground geometry, we used high-resolution 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), which provided images and insights previously unobtainable using excavations or 2D GPR. Our images verified that the active tortoise burrow had a spiraling shape, but also showed splits in the larger burrow apparently dug by tortoises. For the first time, the smaller Florida Mouse burrows were imaged, showing side loops that exit and re-renter the tortoise burrow. This study also presents new information by making the discovery of numerous remnants of past tortoise burrows underground in the sampling grid surrounding the active burrow. Our third aim was to interpret our field results with previous ecological field studies to evaluate the strength of evidence that this species ranks as an ecosystem engineer.

  15. High contaminant loads in Lake Apopka's riparian wetland disrupt gene networks involved in reproduction and immune function in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Prucha, Melinda S; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Kroll, Kevin J; Conrow, Roxanne; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-09-01

    Lake Apopka (FL, USA) has elevated levels of some organochlorine pesticides in its sediments and a portion of its watershed has been designated a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site. This study assessed reproductive endpoints in Florida largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) after placement into experimental ponds adjacent to Lake Apopka. LMB collected from a clean reference site (DeLeon Springs) were stocked at two periods of time into ponds constructed in former farm fields on the north shore of the lake. LMB were stocked during early and late oogenesis to determine if there were different effects of contamination on LMB that may be attributed to their reproductive stage. LMB inhabiting the ponds for ~4months had anywhere from 2 to 800 times higher contaminant load for a number of organochlorine pesticides (e.g. p, p'-DDE, methoxychlor) compared to control animals. Gonadosomatic index and plasma vitellogenin were not different between reproductively-stage matched LMB collected at reference sites compared to those inhabiting the ponds. However, plasma 17β-estradiol was lower in LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds compared to ovary stage-matched LMB from the St. Johns River, a site used as a reference site. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that genes related to reproduction (granulosa function, oocyte development), endocrine function (steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis), and immune function (T cell suppression, leukocyte accumulation) were differentially expressed in the ovaries of LMB placed into the ponds. These data suggest that (1) LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds showed disrupted reproduction and immune responses and that (2) gene expression profiles provided site-specific information by discriminating LMB from different macro-habitats. PMID:27397556

  16. Intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria of Camponotus species (carpenter ants): systematics, evolution and ultrastructural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, D; Deppisch, H; Obermayer, M; Krohne, G; Stackebrandt, E; Hôlldobler, B; Goebel, W; Gross, R

    1996-08-01

    Intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria inherent to ants of the genus Camponotus were characterized. The bacteria were localized in bacteriocytes, which are specialized cells of both workers and queen ants; these cells are intercalated between epithelial cells of the midgut. The bacteriocytes show a different morphology from the normal epithelial cells and carry a large number of the rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria free in the cytoplasm. The bacteria were never observed in the neighbouring epithelial cells, but they were found intracellularly in oocytes, strongly indicating a maternal transmission of the bacteria. The 16S DNA encoding rrs loci of the endosymbionts of four species of the genus Camponotus derived either from Germany (C. herculeanus and C. ligniperdus), North America (C. floridanus) or South America (C. rufipes) were cloned after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using oligonucleotides complementary to all so far known eubacterial rrs sequences. The DNA sequences of the rrs loci of the four endosymbionts were determined, and, using various genus- and species-specific oligonucleotides derived from variable regions in the rrs sequences, the identity of the bacteria present in the bacteriocytes and the ovarian cells was confirmed by PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. Comparison of the 16S DNA sequences with the available database showed the endosymbiotic bacteria to be members of the gamma-subclass of Proteobacteria. They formed a distinct taxonomic group, a sister taxon of the taxons defined by the tsetse fly and aphid endosymbionts. Within the gamma-subclass, the cluster of the ant, tsetse fly and aphid endosymbionts are placed adjacent to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. The evolutionary tree of the ant endosymbionts reflects the systematic classification and geographical distribution of their host insects, indicating an early co-evolution of the symbiotic partners and a vertical transmission of the bacteria. PMID:8866472

  17. From phylogenetics to phylogenomics: the evolutionary relationships of insect endosymbiotic gamma-Proteobacteria as a test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Iñaki; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2007-02-01

    The increasing availability of complete genome sequences and the development of new, faster methods for phylogenetic reconstruction allow the exploration of the set of evolutionary trees for each gene in the genome of any species. This has led to the development of new phylogenomic methods. Here, we have compared different phylogenetic and phylogenomic methods in the analysis of the monophyletic origin of insect endosymbionts from the gamma-Proteobacteria, a hotly debated issue with several recent, conflicting reports. We have obtained the phylogenetic tree for each of the 579 identified protein-coding genes in the genome of the primary endosymbiont of carpenter ants, Blochmannia floridanus, after determining their presumed orthologs in 20 additional Proteobacteria genomes. A reference phylogeny reflecting the monophyletic origin of insect endosymbionts was further confirmed with different approaches, which led us to consider it as the presumed species tree. Remarkably, only 43 individual genes produced exactly the same topology as this presumed species tree. Most discrepancies between this tree and those obtained from individual genes or by concatenation of different genes were due to the grouping of Xanthomonadales with beta-Proteobacteria and not to uncertainties over the monophyly of insect endosymbionts. As previously noted, operational genes were more prone to reject the presumed species tree than those included in information-processing categories, but caution should be exerted when selecting genes for phylogenetic inference on the basis of their functional category assignment. We have obtained strong evidence in support of the monophyletic origin of gamma-Proteobacteria insect endosymbionts by a combination of phylogenetic and phylogenomic methods. In our analysis, the use of concatenated genes has shown to be a valuable tool for analyzing primary phylogenetic signals coded in the genomes. Nevertheless, other phylogenomic methods such as supertree

  18. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized. PMID:21506825

  19. Nutritional requirements and diet choices of the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis): a sagebrush specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Lisa A; Davila, Tara B; Thines, Nicole J; Elias, Becky A

    2006-11-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) comprises up to 99% of the winter and 50% of the summer diets of pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis). Few animals specialize on such plants as sagebrush, which contain high levels of plant chemicals that can be toxic. We investigated the nutritional requirements of pygmy rabbits and their ability and propensity to consume sagebrush alone and as part of a mixed diet. We compared diet choices of pygmy rabbits with that of a generalist forager, the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus). Pygmy rabbits had a moderately low nitrogen requirement (306.5 mg N/kg(0.75)/d), but a relatively high energy requirement, needing 750.8 kJ digestible energy/kg(0.75)/d to maintain their body mass while residing in small cages. They digested fiber in pelleted diets similarly to other small hindgut fermenters, but both cottontails and pygmy rabbits digested the fiber in sagebrush better than expected based on its indigestible acid detergent lignin content. Pygmy rabbits consumed more sagebrush than cottontails, regardless of the amount and nutritional quality of supplemental pellets provided. When consuming sagebrush alone, they ate barely enough to meet their energy requirements, whereas cottontails ate only enough sagebrush to meet 67% of theirs. Both rabbit species ate more sagebrush as the quality and quantity of supplemental pellets declined, and more greenhouse-grown sagebrush than sagebrush grown outside. Urine was more acidic when consuming sagebrush than when consuming pellets, indicating detoxification by the liver. Pygmy rabbits do not require sagebrush to survive, but seem to tolerate terpenes and other plant chemicals in sagebrush better than cottontails do. PMID:17082988

  20. An Analysis of Overstory Tree Canopy Cover in Sites Occupied by Native and Introduced Cottontails in the Northeastern United States with Recommendations for Habitat Management for New England Cottontail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Buffum

    Full Text Available The New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis is a high conservation priority in the Northeastern United States and has been listed as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act. Loss of early successional habitat is the most common explanation for the decline of the species, which is considered to require habitat with dense low vegetation and limited overstory tree canopy. Federal and state wildlife agencies actively encourage landowners to create this habitat type by clearcutting blocks of forest. However, there are recent indications that the species also occupies sites with moderate overstory tree canopy cover. This is important because many landowners have negative views about clearcutting and are more willing to adopt silvicultural approaches that retain some overstory trees. Furthermore, it is possible that clearcuts with no overstory canopy cover may attract the eastern cottontail (S. floridanus, an introduced species with an expanding range. The objective of our study was to provide guidance for future efforts to create habitat that would be more favorable for New England cottontail than eastern cottontail in areas where the two species are sympatric. We analyzed canopy cover at 336 cottontail locations in five states using maximum entropy modelling and other statistical methods. We found that New England cottontail occupied sites with a mean overstory tree canopy cover of 58% (SE±1.36, and was less likely than eastern cottontail to occupy sites with lower overstory canopy cover and more likely to occupy sites with higher overstory canopy cover. Our findings suggest that silvicultural approaches that retain some overstory canopy cover may be appropriate for creating habitat for New England cottontail. We believe that our results will help inform critical management decisions for the conservation of New England cottontail, and that our methodology can be applied to analyses of habitat use of other critical wildlife

  1. The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Tricia L; Vandalen, Kaci K; Duncan, Colleen; Vercauteren, Kurt

    2013-08-20

    ONRAB(®) is a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (HAd5) with the rabies glycoprotein gene incorporated into its genome. ONRAB(®) has been used in Canada as an oral rabies vaccine in target wildlife species such as: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and striped skunk (Mepthis mephitis). We evaluated the safety of ONRAB(®) in non-target wildlife species likely to contact the vaccine baits during oral rabies vaccine campaigns in the United States. We investigated the effects of oral inoculation of high titer ONRAB(®), approximately ten times the dose given to target species, in wood rats (Neotoma spp.), eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestri), and fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on fecal swabs, oral swabs, and tissues, including lung, liver, kidney, small intestine, large intestine, and when appropriate nasal turbinates, to detect ONRAB(®) DNA from inoculated animals. By seven days post-inoculation, turkeys, opossums, and cottontails had all stopped shedding ONRAB(®) DNA. One wood rat and one fox squirrel still had detectable levels of ONRAB(®) DNA in fecal swabs 14 days post-inoculation. Real-time PCR analysis of the tissues revealed some ONRAB(®) DNA persisting in certain tissues; however, there were no significant gross or histologic lesions associated with ONRAB(®) in any of the species studied. Our results suggest that many non-target species are not likely to be impacted by the distribution of ONRAB(®) as part of oral rabies vaccination programs in the United States. PMID:23831321

  2. Detection of Babesia and Anaplasma species in rabbits from Texas and Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Romines, Janean; Nettles, Victor F

    2006-01-01

    Rabbits have been shown to harbor a suite of zoonotic organisms, including a Babesia species, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In this study, we conducted a molecular survey for various tick-borne pathogens in three species of rabbits from Texas and Georgia. Of 18 black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) tested from Texas, six (28%) were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Babesia, and nucleotide sequencing revealed two distinct species or strains. Two jackrabbits were infected with a Babesia species or strain (Babesia sp. A) that was nearly identical (99.9%) to a piroplasm previously detected in humans from Washington state, and the remaining four jackrabbits were infected with a Babesia species (Babesia sp. B) that was most similar (99.7%) to a Babesia species detected in cottontail rabbits from Massachusetts and humans from Kentucky and Missouri. Eleven (61%) black-tailed jackrabbits were positive for A. bovis, and one was positive for A. phagocytophilum. Two of four desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) from Texas were positive for the Babesia sp. B, and one desert cottontail each was positive for A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum. One of these desert cottontails was coinfected with the Babesia sp. B and A. phagocytophilum, and five jackrabbits were coinfected with Babesia species and A. bovis. Of 19 eastern cottontails (S. floridanus) from Georgia, only one (5.3%) was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (15.8%) were positive for A. bovis. No rabbits from Texas or Georgia were positive for Borrelia species. The only tick species detected on the Texas and Georgia rabbits was the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris. These data extend the geographic and host range of these pathogens, and because both the Babesia species and A. phagocytophilum are potential zoonotic pathogens, it is important to be aware that these organisms are enzootic in parts of the southern United States. PMID:16584322

  3. Evolution of viral sensing RIG-I-like receptor genes in Leporidae genera Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus, and Lepus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos de Matos, Ana; McFadden, Grant; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pathogens is myxoma virus (MYXV), a rabbit-specific leporipoxvirus that causes the highly lethal disease myxomatosis. Other leporid genera, Sylvilagus and Lepus, encompass species with variable susceptibilities to MYXV, but these do not develop the lethal form of the disease. The protective role of the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I/DDX58) in sensing MYXV in nonpermissive human myeloid cells prompted the study of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family evolution in the three leporid genera. This viral-sensor family also includes the melanoma differentiation-associated factor 5 (MDA5/IFIH1), and the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2/DHX58). Considering specifically the MYXV susceptible host (European rabbit) and one of the virus natural long-term hosts (Sylvilagus bachmani, brush rabbit), the amino acid differences of positively selected sites in RIG-I between the two species were located in the protein region responsible for viral RNA recognition and binding, the repressor domain. Such differences might play a determinant role in how MYXV is sensed. When looking for episodic selection on MDA5 and LGP2 of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), we also uncovered evidence of selective pressures that might be exerted by a species-specific leporipoxvirus, the Shope fibroma virus. Finally, a putative alternative splicing case was identified in Oryctolagus and Lepus MDA5 isoforms, corresponding to the deletion of one specific exon. This study provided the first insights into the evolution of the leporid RLR gene family that helps illuminate the origins of the species-specific innate responses to pathogens and more specifically to MYXV. PMID:24220721

  4. An Analysis of Overstory Tree Canopy Cover in Sites Occupied by Native and Introduced Cottontails in the Northeastern United States with Recommendations for Habitat Management for New England Cottontail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffum, Bill; McGreevy, Thomas J; Gottfried, Amy E; Sullivan, Mary E; Husband, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    The New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis) is a high conservation priority in the Northeastern United States and has been listed as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act. Loss of early successional habitat is the most common explanation for the decline of the species, which is considered to require habitat with dense low vegetation and limited overstory tree canopy. Federal and state wildlife agencies actively encourage landowners to create this habitat type by clearcutting blocks of forest. However, there are recent indications that the species also occupies sites with moderate overstory tree canopy cover. This is important because many landowners have negative views about clearcutting and are more willing to adopt silvicultural approaches that retain some overstory trees. Furthermore, it is possible that clearcuts with no overstory canopy cover may attract the eastern cottontail (S. floridanus), an introduced species with an expanding range. The objective of our study was to provide guidance for future efforts to create habitat that would be more favorable for New England cottontail than eastern cottontail in areas where the two species are sympatric. We analyzed canopy cover at 336 cottontail locations in five states using maximum entropy modelling and other statistical methods. We found that New England cottontail occupied sites with a mean overstory tree canopy cover of 58% (SE±1.36), and was less likely than eastern cottontail to occupy sites with lower overstory canopy cover and more likely to occupy sites with higher overstory canopy cover. Our findings suggest that silvicultural approaches that retain some overstory canopy cover may be appropriate for creating habitat for New England cottontail. We believe that our results will help inform critical management decisions for the conservation of New England cottontail, and that our methodology can be applied to analyses of habitat use of other critical wildlife species. PMID

  5. Small mammal survival and trapability in mark-recapture monitoring programs for hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenter, C A; Yates, T L; Parmenter, R R; Mills, J N; Childs, J E; Campbell, M L; Dunnum, J L; Milner, J

    1998-01-01

    Following the 1993 hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) epidemic in the south-western United States, mammalogists and epidemiologists instituted long-term studies to monitor population density and prevalence of infection in rodents which constitute the reservoir for Sin Nombre virus (SNV). In this study, field techniques used in sampling small mammals for SNV infection were evaluated to determine if trapping and handling protocols were having significant effects on future trapability or mortality of animals. We compared rodent mark-recapture control plots, on which all rodents were simply measured, marked, and released on site, with experimental plots on which all animals were anesthetized with methoxyflurane, sampled for blood and saliva, measured, marked, and released. Blood samples were obtained from anesthetized animals on the experimental plots via a retro-orbital sinus puncture using a heparinized capillary tube. Dacron tipped oral swabs were used to collect buccal cells and saliva from the rodent's oral cavity. Field data were collected monthly from August 1994 to August 1996 at two sites in New Mexico (USA). Analyses were based on 3,661 captures of 1,513 individuals representing 21 species from three rodent families (Rodentia: Muridae, Heteromyidae, Sciuridae) and two species of rabbits (Lagomorpha: Leporidae). Overall, for most murid rodents (including five Peromyscus spp., Neotoma albigula, and Onychomys leucogaster) and one rabbit species (Sylvilagus floridanus), the handling/bleeding procedures had no significant effects on recapture rates or mortality. In contrast, several species of heteromyids (Dipodomys ordii and Perognathus flavus), one murid (Reithrodontomys megalotis) and one leporid (S. auduboni) suffered higher mortality rates, and heteromyid kangaroo rats (D. ordii and D. merriami) exhibited lower trapability as a result of the anesthesia and sampling procedures. In view of the overall non-significant influence of the sampling procedures on

  6. Serum antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi in cottontail rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarelli, Louis A; Norris, Steven J; Fikrig, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Archived serum samples, from 95 eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) captured in New York, New York, USA and Millbrook, New York, USA, during 1985-86, were analyzed in solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for total and class-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies to whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Using a polyvalent conjugate, rabbit sera contained antibodies to whole-cell and recombinant antigens (protein [p]35, p37, or VlsE) during different seasons, but there was no reactivity to outer surface protein (Osp)A or OspB. Seventy-six of the 102 sera (75%) analyzed were reactive with one or more of the antigens; 61 of the positive samples (80%) reacted to whole-cell antigens, followed by results for the p35 (58%, 44/76), VlsE (43%, 33/76), and p37 (29%, 22/ 76) antigens. Fifty-eight sera (76%) contained antibodies to the VlsE or p35 antigens with or without reactivity to whole-cell antigens. High antibody titers (≥1:2,560) recorded for 52 sera indicate robust antibody production. In analyses for IgM antibodies in an ELISA containing whole-cell antigens, there were 30 positive sera; titers ranged from 1:160 to 1:640. There was minimal cross-reactivity when rabbit antisera to Treponema pallidum or four serovars of Leptospira interrogans were screened against B. burgdorferi antigens. Based on more-specific results, VlsE and p35 antigens appear to be useful markers for detecting possible B. burgdorferi infections. PMID:22247369

  7. The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Tricia L; Vandalen, Kaci K; Duncan, Colleen; Vercauteren, Kurt

    2013-08-20

    ONRAB(®) is a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (HAd5) with the rabies glycoprotein gene incorporated into its genome. ONRAB(®) has been used in Canada as an oral rabies vaccine in target wildlife species such as: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and striped skunk (Mepthis mephitis). We evaluated the safety of ONRAB(®) in non-target wildlife species likely to contact the vaccine baits during oral rabies vaccine campaigns in the United States. We investigated the effects of oral inoculation of high titer ONRAB(®), approximately ten times the dose given to target species, in wood rats (Neotoma spp.), eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestri), and fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on fecal swabs, oral swabs, and tissues, including lung, liver, kidney, small intestine, large intestine, and when appropriate nasal turbinates, to detect ONRAB(®) DNA from inoculated animals. By seven days post-inoculation, turkeys, opossums, and cottontails had all stopped shedding ONRAB(®) DNA. One wood rat and one fox squirrel still had detectable levels of ONRAB(®) DNA in fecal swabs 14 days post-inoculation. Real-time PCR analysis of the tissues revealed some ONRAB(®) DNA persisting in certain tissues; however, there were no significant gross or histologic lesions associated with ONRAB(®) in any of the species studied. Our results suggest that many non-target species are not likely to be impacted by the distribution of ONRAB(®) as part of oral rabies vaccination programs in the United States.

  8. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and thiamine in eggs of largemouth bass and American alligators and their relationship with early life-stage mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Wiebe, J.J.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Johnson, W.E.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency has been linked to early mortality syndrome in salmonids in the Great Lakes. This study was conducted to compare thiamine concentrations in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) eggs from sites with high embryo mortality and high exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (Lakes Apopka and Griffin, and Emeralda Marsh, Florida, USA) to those from sites that have historically exhibited low embryo mortality and low OCPs (Lakes Woodruff and Orange, Florida). During June-July 2000, 20 alligator clutches were collected from these sites, artificially incubated, and monitored for embryo mortality. Thiamine and OCPs were measured in one egg/clutch. During February 2002, 10 adult female bass were collected from Emeralda Marsh and Lake Woodruff and mature ovaries analyzed for thiamine and OCP concentrations. Although ovaries from the Emeralda Marsh bass contained almost 1,000-fold more OCPs compared with the reference site, Lake Woodruff, there were no differences in thiamine concentrations between sites (11,710 vs. 11,857 pmol/g). In contrast, alligator eggs from the reference site had five times the amount of thiamine compared with the contaminated sites (3,123 vs. 617 pmol/g). Similarly, clutches with > 55% hatch rates had significantly higher concentrations of thiamine compared with clutches with alligator embryo survival but not in reproductive failure and recruitment of largemouth bass. The cause(s) of this thiamine deficiency are unknown but might be related to differences in the nutritional value of prey items across the sites studied and/or to the presence of high concentration of contaminants in eggs. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  10. Phylogeographic Analyses of American Black Bears (Ursus americanus) Suggest Four Glacial Refugia and Complex Patterns of Postglacial Admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E; Etter, Paul D; Johnson, Eric A; Eggert, Lori S

    2015-09-01

    Studies of species with continental distributions continue to identify intraspecific lineages despite continuous habitat. Lineages may form due to isolation by distance, adaptation, divergence across barriers, or genetic drift following range expansion. We investigated lineage diversification and admixture within American black bears (Ursus americanus) across their range using 22 k single nucleotide polymorphisms and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified three subcontinental nuclear clusters which we further divided into nine geographic regions: Alaskan (Alaska-East), eastern (Central Interior Highlands, Great Lakes, Northeast, Southeast), and western (Alaska-West, West, Pacific Coast, Southwest). We estimated that the western cluster diverged 67 ka, before eastern and Alaskan divergence 31 ka; these divergence dates contrasted with those from the mitochondrial genome where clades A and B diverged 1.07 Ma, and clades A-east and A-west diverged 169 ka. We combined estimates of divergence timing with hindcast species distribution models to infer glacial refugia for the species in Beringia, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast. Our results show a complex arrangement of admixture due to expansion out of multiple refugia. The delineation of the genomic population clusters was inconsistent with the ranges for 16 previously described subspecies. Ranges for U. a. pugnax and U. a. cinnamomum were concordant with admixed clusters, calling into question how to order taxa below the species level. Additionally, our finding that U. a. floridanus has not diverged from U. a. americanus also suggests that morphology and genetics should be reanalyzed to assess taxonomic designations relevant to the conservation management of the species. PMID:25989983

  11. Intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria of Camponotus species (carpenter ants): systematics, evolution and ultrastructural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, D; Deppisch, H; Obermayer, M; Krohne, G; Stackebrandt, E; Hôlldobler, B; Goebel, W; Gross, R

    1996-08-01

    Intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria inherent to ants of the genus Camponotus were characterized. The bacteria were localized in bacteriocytes, which are specialized cells of both workers and queen ants; these cells are intercalated between epithelial cells of the midgut. The bacteriocytes show a different morphology from the normal epithelial cells and carry a large number of the rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria free in the cytoplasm. The bacteria were never observed in the neighbouring epithelial cells, but they were found intracellularly in oocytes, strongly indicating a maternal transmission of the bacteria. The 16S DNA encoding rrs loci of the endosymbionts of four species of the genus Camponotus derived either from Germany (C. herculeanus and C. ligniperdus), North America (C. floridanus) or South America (C. rufipes) were cloned after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using oligonucleotides complementary to all so far known eubacterial rrs sequences. The DNA sequences of the rrs loci of the four endosymbionts were determined, and, using various genus- and species-specific oligonucleotides derived from variable regions in the rrs sequences, the identity of the bacteria present in the bacteriocytes and the ovarian cells was confirmed by PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. Comparison of the 16S DNA sequences with the available database showed the endosymbiotic bacteria to be members of the gamma-subclass of Proteobacteria. They formed a distinct taxonomic group, a sister taxon of the taxons defined by the tsetse fly and aphid endosymbionts. Within the gamma-subclass, the cluster of the ant, tsetse fly and aphid endosymbionts are placed adjacent to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. The evolutionary tree of the ant endosymbionts reflects the systematic classification and geographical distribution of their host insects, indicating an early co-evolution of the symbiotic partners and a vertical transmission of the bacteria.

  12. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  13. 大口黑鲈微卫星DNA指纹图谱的构建和遗传结构分析%ESTABLISHMENT OF DNA FINGERPRINTING AND ANALYSIS ON GENETIC STRUCTURE OF LARGEMOUTH BASS WITH MICROSATELLITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊佳佳; 白俊杰; 李胜杰; 任坤; 叶星

    2012-01-01

    allozymes in recent years as the genetic markers of choice for many biological problems including parentage assessment, genomic mapping and establishment DNA fingerprinting. Largemouth bass (Micropterus sal-moides) was introduced from Taiwan to Guangdong province of China in 1983, because of delicious taste, fast growth, and wide temperature tolerance, it has been bred in many region of China as a main cultured fish species with annual production of 100,000 tons. The largemouth bass consists of two subspecies, the Florida largemouth bass (M. s. floridanus), which is native to peninsular Florida, and the northern largemouth bass (M. s. salmoides), whose native range extends throughout the central and eastern U.S. as well as northeastern Mexico and southeastern Canada. Research shows that largemouth bass cultured in china attribute to the northern largemouth bass (M .s. salmoides). In this paper, the microsatellite DNA fingerprinting of four largemouth bass populations was established, including cultured stock of M. salmoides in China (CH), M. s. floridanus was introduced in 2009 (FL-09), M. s. floridanus was introduced in 2010 (FL-10) and M. s. salmoides was introduced in 2010 (NT-10), and the genetic structure of them was analyzed by 43 microsatellite markers. The results showed that a total of 246 alleles were obtained from the four largemouth bass populations, and the alleles ranged from 2-13 in each locus. The mean value of number on alleles (A) and the mean value of expected heterozygosity (He) were calculated by popgene 3.2 software. The result was that the mean value of number on alleles {A) of CH, FL-09, FL-10 and NT-10 was 2.58, 3.74, 3.70 and 4.21, the mean value of expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.4549, 0.4896, 0.5010 and 0.6138, and the mean value of polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.3786, 0.4443, 0.4566 and 0.5546, respectively. It indicated that the genetic diversity of cultured stock on largemouth bass in China was lower than that of introduced

  14. Fallen leaves on the water-bed: diurnal camouflage of three night active fish species in an Amazonian streamlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    2006-03-01

    cores crípticas e os movimentos de fuga, como uma convergência de respostas defensivas a vertebrados aquáticos que caçam visualmente orientados, provavelmente peixes predadores de hábitos diurnos.

  15. Aproximaciones teóricas a la relación naturaleza - cultura: algunas contribuciones entre 1980 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gómez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es mostrar algunas de las críticas más importantes dadas en el debate actual entre naturaleza y cultura. Busca reivindicar nuevos paradigmas de las ciencias dentro de la problemática del agotamiento de los recursos naturales del hogar que habitamos, la tierra, y el papel que juegan las comunidades locales contra el discurso predador del capitalismo global, a partir de su existencia cultural y social. Este trabajo se divide en tres partes que proponen por analogía, un símil entre los momentos de cambio de la noche al amanecer de un nuevo día; de la misma forma en que podríamos pasar de paradigmas “clásicos”, a procesos sociales recientes que incluyen los conocimientos locales. La primera, llamada “la noche”, expone brevísimamente los planteamientos más comunes que el capitalismo y las corrientes positivistas de la ciencia, mantienen frente a la naturaleza. La segunda, “el amanecer”, es una de las partes más importantes del presente escrito, ya que realiza una crítica a la oscuridad de la noche, a los planteamientos del capitalismo global desde el marxismo, el post-estructuralismo y el género. La tercera, “nuevo día”, concluye que a la luz de estas nuevas perspectivas de análisis podemos comprender mejor la relación entre los seres humanos y la tierra. Estos nuevos conocimientos políticos, culturales, ambientales y globales, desde el centro y la periferia, están atravesados por vínculos de poder que proponen una posición integradora entre conceptos aparentemente contradictorios y suponen susuperación a partir de la conciencia que autogeneran buscando orientar el tema político hacia estos nuevos conocimientos dentro de una agenda global.

  16. Feeding and decoration preferences of the epialtidae crab Acanthonyx scutiforms

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    Marcelo Augusto Vasconcelos

    2009-06-01

    menstrualis, oferecidas simultaneamente a esta espécie de caranguejo. Em ambos ensaios, a macroalga mais consumida foi O. obtusiloba, seguida por P. brasiliense e Sargassum sp., enquanto D. menstrualis foi menos consumida. É sugerido que A. scutiformis é um consumidor generalista, mas com alguma preferência pela macroalga vermelha perenial O. obtusiloba e a macroalga quimicamente defendida P. brasiliense. Observações sobre o comportamento decorador revelaram a preferência de A. scutiformis por P. brasiliense. Este comportamento decorador pode ser interpretado como um mecanismo para evitar predadores generalistas, uma vez que as preferências por consumo e decoração não foram relacionadas e o caranguejo usou somente pequenos pedaços de algas quimicamente defendidas.

  17. Hydroacoustic assessment of fish and Chaoborus (Diptera-Chaoboridae distribution in three Neotropical lakes Avaliação hidroacústica da distribuição de peixes e Chaoborus sp. (Diptera-Chaoboridae em três lagos neotropicais

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    José Fernandes Bezerra-Neto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aims to demonstrate the potential of hydroacoustics in the study of behavior of the invertebrate Chaoborus and fish in neotropical water environments; METHODS: Synoptic campaigns were conducted in May and June-2008 in Dom Helvécio and Carioca lakes, at the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce (MG, and Nado reservoir, Belo Horizonte (MG. The acoustic scattering of targets was studied using a downward-oriented split-beam 200 kHz echosounder; RESULTS: We detected clear echo signals from fish and Chaoborus larvae, which can be viewed in high density in all environments studied. The normal migratory behavior of the larvae of Chaoborus could be easily monitored in the Dom Helvécio Lake and the Nado reservoir. However, this behavior was not seen in Carioca Lake; CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the potential application of acoustic approaches to study the behavior of fish and zooplankton organisms in freshwater aquatic systems.OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo tem como objetivo demonstrar as potencialidades da hidroacústica no estudo do comportamento do predador invertebrado Chaoborus e de peixes em ambientes aquáticos tropicais; MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas campanhas diurnas e noturnas em maio e junho/2008 nas lagoas Dom Helvécio e Carioca, no Parque Estadual do Rio Doce e no reservatório do Nado em Belo Horizonte (MG. O espalhamento acústico dos alvos foi estudado utilizando-se uma ecossonda com transdutor digital "split-beam" de 200 kHz direcionado verticalmente para o fundo do lago; RESULTADOS: A ecossondagem nos permitiu detectar eco-sinais claros provenientes de peixes e das larvas de Chaoborus, que estavam presentes grande densidade em todos os ambientes estudados. O comportamento migratório normal das larvas de Chaoborus pôde ser acompanhado facilmente na Lagoa Dom Helvécio e no reservatório do Nado. Entretanto, tal comportamento não foi visualizado na Lagoa Carioca. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostrados neste estudo revelaram o

  18. La formación de las acumulaciones óseas de macrofauna: revisión de los criterios de discernimiento de los agentes biológicos no antrópicos desde un enfoque ecológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel DOMÍNGUEZ-RODRIGO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La Tafonomía o la interpretación de los conjuntos óseos fósiles es un área de investigación utilizada para lograr una comprensión sobre la formación de los suelos de ocupación arqueológicos y de los yacimientos paleontológicos. Para elaborar interpretaciones tafonómicas válidas, paulatinamente se ha ido poniendo de relieve la necesidad de incrementar nuestro conocimiento sobre el comportamiento trófico de los agentes biológicos, con el fin de ser capaces de entender el modo en que se generan este tipo de acumulaciones. Por consiguiente, en este artículo se discuten los principales aspectos de la acción de los carnívoros sobre el transporte de animales bajo el prisma de una consideración ecológica. Se concluye que, aunque la mayor parte de los predadores desplazan carcasas a lugares próximos del paisaje según los puntos de obtención de las presas, sólo unos pocos realizan realmente una acumulación ósea relevante. Esta conducta está relacionada con las condiciones ecológicas y las caracterísricas biológicas de cada tipo de carnívoro, al igual que con la organización social del mismo.ABSTRACT: Taphonomy or the interpretation of fossil bone assemblages is a research framework used to achieve a comprehension of the formation of both archaeological living floors and paleontological sites. In order to make right taphonomic interpretations it has increasingly become necessary to improve our knowledge on the trophic behavior of diverse biological agents, so as to be able to understand the way that bone accumulations are originated. Therefore, in this work the main aspects of carnivore behavior on carcass transport are discussed under the light of an ecological consideration. It is concluded that, although most predators shift carcasses to different spots of the landscape, nearby the place where they were obtained, only very few indeed are involved in bone accumulations. This behavior is related to the ecological

  19. Manejo de la primera alimentación del bocachico ( Prochilodus magdalenae.

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    Víctor Atencio-García

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigación Piscícola de la Universidad de Córdoba se realizaron dos experimentos; en elprimero, el objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes presas en el manejo de la primera alimentación delbocachico Prochilodus magdalenae y en el segundo, con la mejor presa del ensayo anterior, determinar eltiempo mínimo de manejo de la primera alimentación. En ambos casos las post-larvas fueron sembradas a 50/L en acuario de 5 L. En el primer experimento se evaluaron las siguientes presas: nauplios de Artemia (NA,cistos descapsulados de Artemia (CA, zooplancton silvestre tamizado entre 125-160 µm (Z125-160 y zooplanctonsilvestre tamizado entre 250-400 µm (Z250-400, ofrecidas durante cinco días a razón de 5 Presa/mL. Además,un grupo de post-larvas fue sometida a ayuno. Las mayores ganancias de peso y longitud total la registraron laspost-larvas alimentadas con NA (2.0±1.8 mg, 1.8±0.9 mm y Z250-400 (2.0±1.1 mg, 1.6±0.5 mm. Lasobrevivencia de las post-larvas alimentadas con NA (73.2±10.7% fue mayor a las registradas en los demástratamientos (P0.05. Mientras que latasa de crecimiento específico (G osciló entre 17.1 (5 días y 22.3 %/día (3 días, sin observarse diferenciasestadísticas significativas (P>0.05. Las post-larvas alimentadas durante 3, 5 y 7 días presentaron las mejoressobrevivencias (92.2±6.2, 93.3±4.3, 95.6±3.9% respectivamente cuando fueron sometidas a la prueba deresistencia al estrés. Las post-larvas alimentadas por un solo día mostraron la menor sobrevivencia al sersometidas a esta prueba (87±1%. Los resultados del estudio sugieren que nauplios de Artemia o zooplanctonsilvestre en le rango de 250-400 mm, libre de predadores, son presas adecuada para el manejo de la primeraalimentación al menos durante 3 días antes de ser sembradas en estanques en tierra.

  20. Community structure of the ichthyofauna associated with seagrass beds ( Halodule wrightii in Formoso River estuary - Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Pedro H.C. Pereira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds are used by juvenile fishes in different ways, generally as nursery sites, shelter from predators, reducing competition and increasing availability of food resources, thus establishing a relationship of connectivity with other ecosystems. In the present study, the community structure of the ichthyofauna associated with seagrass beds on the Formoso River (Pernambuco - Brazil was evaluated during the winter of 2008. Twenty-seven manual trawls (15 daytime and 12 nighttime were performed, and a total of 358 fishes belonging to 18 families, 21 genus and 25 species were collected. The Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE by trawling average was 13.5 and 4.95 individuals per species per trawl. The most abundant families were Scaridae (n = 111, Tetraodontidae (n = 63, Lutjanidae (n = 56, Mullidae (n = 39 and Engraulidae (n = 19. Ecological indices for dial changes were always higher for the night period, confirming that such areas are used more frequently during this period. The need for measures to conserve these areas is emphasized, by its importance and vulnerability to human impacts.Pradarias de fanerógamas são utilizadas pela ictiofauna, de maneira geral como ambiente de berçário, abrigo contra predadores, diminuição de competição em aior disponibilidade de recursos alimentares, estabelecendo uma relação de conectividade com demais ecossistemas costeiros. No presente estudo foi avaliada a estrutura da ictiofauna associada às pradarias de fanerógamas do estuário do Rio Formoso no litoral de Pernambuco durante o inverno de 2008. Foram realizados no total 27 arrastos manuais (15 diurnos e 12 noturnos, nos quais foram amostrados 358 peixes pertencentes a 18 famílias, 21 gêneros e 25 espécies. A Captura por unidade de esforço (CPUE média por arrasto foi de 13,5 indivíduos e 4,95 espécies por arrasto. As famílias mais abundantes foram Scaridae (n = 111, Tetraodontidae (n = 63, Lutjanidae (n = 56, Mullidae (n = 39 e Engraulidae

  1. Nocturnal and diurnal activity of armored suckermouth catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys associated with wintering Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris

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    Leo G. Nico

    2010-01-01

    entanto, jovens foram principalmente noturnos e somente a noite eles uniram-se aos adultos sobre os peixes-boi. No sistema estudado na Flórida, jovens de Pterygoplichthys geralmente permanecem escondidos durante o dia, provavelmente respondendo a presença de predadores visuais diurnos, principalmente aves. As diferenças observadas na atividade diária entre diferentes classes de tamanho são semelhantes ao descrito para certos loricariídeos que habitam cursos d'água de águas límpidas em suas áreas nativas de ocorrência.

  2. Estrutura da Comunidade de Invertebrados Bentônicos do Rio Piranhas-Assu, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer os invertebrados bentônicos, bem como caracterizar os grupos tróficos funcionais existentes no rio Piranhas-Assu, município de Alto do Rodrigues, Rio Grande do Norte. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de maio (chuva, julho e setembro (seca de 2002, em trechos diferentes do rio. Foi medida a velocidade da correnteza, a largura, profundidade do rio e temperatura da água. Foram coletados 3525 indivíduos de Insecta e outras classes (Malacostraca, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Arachnida, Ostracoda e Copepoda. A maior abundância da classe Insecta ocorreu no mês de setembro (seca. A vazão apresentou correlação com a abundância com na Classe Insecta, já a velocidade superficial da água para outras classes. Entre os Insecta observou-se uma maior abundância de predadores, seguida dos coletores, já para as outras classes os raspadores foram mais abundantes.Structure of benthic invertebrate’s community with focus in the aquatic insects of the Piranhas-Assu river, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast, BrazilAbstract. The aim of this work was to verify the benthonic invertebrates, and to identify the functional trophic groups that exist in the Piranhas-Assu, in Alto do Rodrigues municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State. The samples were carried taken on May (rain season, July and September (dry season from 2002, in different sites in the river. The measurements of water speed, wide, temperature and river deep where made. It was collected 3525 individuals of Insecta and other classes (Malacostraca, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Arachnida, Ostracoda and Copepoda. Insecta showed a higher abundance in September (dry season. The river discharge showed significant correlation with Insecta classe abundance, and the superficial water speed had correlation with other classes. The insects showed a highest abundance of predators, followed by collectors, in the other classes, the scrappers were the most abundant.

  3. Avaliação da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos como ferramenta para o monitoramento de um reservatório na bacia do rio Pitangui, Paraná, Brasil

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    Ivana F Barbola

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os macroinvertebrados bentônicos e nectônicos representam elementos importantes na estrutura e funcionamento dos ecossistemas aquáticos e sua distribuição é influenciada pela natureza química do substrato, composição da vegetação e profundidade da lâmina d'água. O conhecimento desta fauna contribui para a avaliação da qualidade da água e a elaboração de ações visando à conservação da biodiversidade. No presente estudo foram avaliadas diferentes medidas bióticas da comunidade de invertebrados da represa de Alagados, importante manancial da cidade de Ponta Grossa, no Paraná. Em cinco diferentes pontos de amostragem, foram coletados 18.473 exemplares de macroinvertebrados aquáticos ou semi-aquáticos, pertencentes a 46 táxons dos filos Annelida (Hirudinea e Oligochaeta, Mollusca (Gastropoda, Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria, Nematoda e Arthropoda (Arachnida, Crustacea e Insecta. Esta comunidade foi constituída predominantemente por organismos predadores (45,7% dos táxons amostrados, seguidos de coletores e/ou filtradores (23,9%; raspadores (15,2%, fragmentadores (13% e detritívoros (2,2%. De modo geral, os índices de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade (J foram significativamente baixos para os cinco locais investigados, com H' variando de 0,3301 a 1,0396. Quanto à tolerância dos organismos à poluição orgânica, alguns táxons mais sensíveis foram muito raros (Plecoptera ou em baixa frequência (Trichoptera e Ephemeroptera. Entre os grupos mais resistentes a ambientes poluídos estão os Chironomidae e os Hirudinea, ambos bastante comuns nas amostras de Alagados. Este estudo reforça a importância da análise de bioindicadores na avaliação da qualidade de água para consumo humano e também para a conservação de ecossistemas, considerando que um programa de monitoramento ambiental deve integrar medidas físicas, químicas e biológicas.

  4. The food spectrum of the cardinal - tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi, Characidae in its natural habitat Estratégias alimentares do cardinal-tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi, Characidae em seu ambiente natural

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    Ilse Walker

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi is the most intensively commercialized ornamental fish from the Rio Negro Basin (Amazonas State, Brasil. Analysis of the stomach and gut contents of fish caught in their natural habitats show conclusively that the cardinal is essentially a predator, feeding on the mesofauna that adheres to submerged litter, roots and waterplants. Microcrustacea and chironomid larvae (Diptera were the most frequently ingested prey, while algae intake was relatively infrequent. It is argued that the relatively small size of the cardinals captured in their natural habitat is due to the annual migrations imposed by the inundation cycles, rather than to resource limitation, because it is known from earlier investigations of similar habitats, that these plant substrates are densely colonized by the aquatic mesofauna. Cardinals raised in captivity are larger and have higher rates of growth.O cardinal (Paracheirodon axelrodi é o peixe ornamental comercializado com maior intensidade na Bacia do Rio Negro (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Análise do conteúdo estomacal de peixes capturados nos seus habitats naturais mostra, que o cardinal é essencialmente um predador, alimentando-se da mesofauna que está colonizando a liteira submersa, arbustos submersos, raízes flutuantes e plantas aquáticas. As presas principais são microcrustáceos e larvas de quironomídeos (Chironomidae, Diptera, enquanto ingestão de algas é pouco freqüente. Considera-se que o tamanho relativamente pequeno de cardinais capturados nos ambientes naturais é devido as migrações anuais que acompanham os ciclos anuais de enchente e vazante, e não à falta de recursos; já que é conhecido de ambientes parecidos de outros rios da região, que estes substratos aquáticos são densamente colonizados pela mesofauna. Cardinais criados em cativeiros tem taxas de crescimento mais altas e são de tamanho maiores.

  5. Notas sobre o comportamento alimentar do Anu branco, Guira Guira (GMELIN, 1788 (Cuculiformes, Aves

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    José Hernán Fandiño Mariño

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento aumentar de um grupo de anus brancos, Guira guira, foi observado em condições naturais, no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, no Paraná. Foram totalizadas vinte horas diurnas de observação direta em várias sessões, no período pôs-reprodutivo. A alimentação ocorre ao longo do dia com intervalos nos quais atividades de manutenção como tomar o sol e o contato de limpeza mú tua, são freqüentes. As áreas de alimentação são abertas, apresentando baixa densidade em árvores. O tipo de alimento está baseado principalmente em insetos saltadores, mas pequenos vertebrados são também aproveitados. O comportamento alimentar é uma atividade de grupo cujo processo inclui aparentemente as seguintes etapas: lo. - Permanência prévia num ponto alto e próximo ao terreno alimentar. 2o. - Descida progressão no terreno, emitindo freqüentemente um chamado característico dos deslocamentos. 3o. — Em terra a técnica de captura consiste em "caminhar perturbando ". A atividade é realizada em grupo o que facilita e aumenta a captura das presas em fuga. O avanço do grupo no campo não tem formação fixa, mas urna tendência a formar linhas paralelas ao sentido da progressão. Uma característica ressaltante do comportamento alimentar, foi a presença quase invariável de um sentinela num ponto alto que teria como função denunciar a presença de predadores terrestres. Diversos mecanismos de coesão do grupo parecem ter evoluído, como possíveis evidências do valor adaptativo desta estrutura social. Entre esses mecanismos, alguns padrões visuais conspícuos, uma ampla gama de vocalizações e certos padrões de comportamento social nos quais se estabelece um contato íntimo entre os indivíduos, pareceram-me de maior importância.

  6. Toxicidade diferencial de agrotóxicos utilizados em citros para Neoseiulus californicus, Euseius concordis e Brevipalpus phoenicis

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    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae é considerada uma das principais pragas em citros no Brasil, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros e à necessidade de frequentes aplicações de acaricidas para seu controle. Assim, objetivou-se comparar a toxicidade dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros no Brasil, sobre populações de B. phoenicis e de ácaros predadores das espécies Neoseiuluscalifornicus (McGregor e Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae. Foram avaliadas duas populações de E. concordis: uma procedente de Jaboticabal (SP e outra de Descalvado (SP. Arenas de folhas (para fitoseídeos ou frutos (para B. phoenicis de Citrus sinensis Osbeck (L. cv. Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de cada espécie foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. As avaliações de mortalidade foram realizadas 72 horas após a aplicação. Foram utilizadas 4 a 6 concentrações de cada produto (abamectina, acefato, azociclotina, bifentrina, clorfenapir, dicofol, dinocape, óxido de fembutatina, propargito e piridabem para a obtenção das curvas de concentração-resposta. Abamectina, azociclotina, clorfenapir, dicofol, dinocape, óxido de fembutatin, propargito e piridabem foram altamente tóxicos a B. phoenicis, com valores de CL90 iguais ou inferiores aos das concentrações recomendadas desses produtos. N. californicus foi mais tolerante a bifentrina, propargito, óxido de fembutatina e dinocape que B. phoenicis e E. concordis (ambas as populações. Esses acaricidas tiveram baixa toxicidade aos adultos de N. californicus, para o qual as CL50 foram pelo menos seis vezes maiores que suas concentrações recomendadas. Acefato foi extremamente tóxico a E. concordis, mas inócuo a adultos de N. californicus. A população de E. concordis de Jaboticabal foi mais resistente que a de Descalvado a azociclotina, bifentrina, clorfenapir, dicofol e propargito.

  7. Aleochara pseudochrysorrhoa, a new species from southern Brazil (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae, with a complete checklist of Neotropical species of the genus Aleochara pseudochrysorrhoa, nova espécie do sul do Brasil (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae, com uma lista completa das espécies Neotropicais do gênero

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    Edilson Caron

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitoid habit of larvae and the active predatory habit of adults of Aleochara Gravenhorst, 1802 established this group as natural fly regulators and important for ecological studies, biological control programs and forensic entomology. In the current study, a new aleocharine species, Aleochara pseudochrysorrhoa sp. nov., from southern Brazil, is described and its natural history is briefly discussed. The species has a robust body, uniformly dark-brown to black with apex of abdomen rust-brown, median lobe of male with expanded bulbus, sclerites of internal sac forming complex arrangement, and female with spermatheca L-shaped. Aleochara pseudochrysorrhoa sp. nov. may be considered to be closely related to the species belonging to the lustrica group. A complete checklist of Neotropical species of Aleochara is also provided. Nomenclatural problems are also discussed. Aleochara lateralis Erichson, 1839 is a junior primary homonym of A. lateralis Heer, 1839, and is replaced by the available name Aleochara bonariensis Lynch, 1884. A new name, Aleochara newtoni nom. nov., is proposed to replace Maseochara (= Aleochara duplicata Sharp, 1883, which is a junior secondary homonym of A. duplicata Erichson, 1839.Os hábitos ectoparasitóide da larva e predador ativo dos adultos de Aleochara Gravenhorst, 1802 faz deste um grupo regulador natural de moscas e importante para estudos ecológicos, programas de controle biológico e entomologia forense. No presente estudo, uma nova espécie de Aleocharinae, Aleochara pseudochrysorrhoa sp. nov., do sul do Brasil é descrita e notas de sua história-natural são brevemente discutidas. A espécie possui corpo robusto, uniformemente castanho-escuro a preto e ápice do abdome castanho-avermelhado, o macho possui lobo médio com base bulbosa e uma complexa estrutura dos escleritos no saco-interno, e a fêmea possui espermateca em forma de "L". Aleochara pseudochrysorrhoa sp. nov. pode ser considerada

  8. Why do the ithomiines (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae aggregate? Notes on a butterfly pocket in central Brazil Por que os Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae se agregam? Observações sobre um bolsão de borboletas no Brasil central

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    Carlos E. G. Pinheiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the species composition and the number of butterflies in different phases of an ithomiine aggregation during the 2004 dry season in central Brazil, and tests some hypotheses concerning the pocket formation. The results obtained suggest that ithomiine pockets constitute primarily an adaptation of butterflies to the adverse climatic conditions of the dry season, such as high temperatures and low air relative humidity, rather than the occurrence of large concentrations of adult food resources (flowers visited for nectar were not found in the pocket site or defense against visually hunting predators (contrary to the prediction tested, the frequency of butterflies bearing birds beak marks on the wings significantly increased along the period of pocket formation, especially in the case of Mechanitis polymnia, the most abundant species in the pocket. Other hypotheses concerning the pocket formation are also discussed.Este trabalho apresenta dados sobre a composição de espécies e o número de indivíduos encontrados em diferentes fases de formação de um bolsão de Ithomiinae investigado na estação seca de 2004 em uma floresta de galeria do Brasil central, e testa algumas hipóteses relacionadas à formação do bolsão. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o bolsão constitui primariamente uma adaptação das borboletas às condições adversas da estação seca, tais como altas temperaturas e baixa umidade relativa do ar, e não como conseqüência de grande concentração de recursos alimentares dos adultos (flores visitadas para obtenção de néctar não foram encontradas na área do bolsão, ou simples defesa contra predadores visualmente orientados (contrariamente à predição testada, a freqüência de borboletas apresentando marcas de bicadas de aves sobre as asas aumentou significativamente ao longo do período de formação do bolsão, especialmente no caso de Mechanitis polymnia, a borboleta mais

  9. Desaceleração do crescimento, políticas públicas e corte de gastos sociais: arrocho para os trabalhadores e benefícios para o capital?

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    Luiz Antônio Afonso Giani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Algumas variantes da economia política defendem a priorização das políticas públicas voltadas para o atendimento das necessidades básicas dos trabalhadores, desempregados e na miséria. O período em que transcorre o debate é muito expressivo, entre as “jornadas de junho” de 2013-2014, na conjuntura da desaceleração da economia. A crítica econômica defensora da valorização da vida dos trabalhadores encontra respaldo na constatação empírica de que é possível preservar e ampliar as políticas e programas sociais, contra os interesses no crescimento econômico que beneficia o capital e coage a sociedade a submeter-se a corte de gastos sociais, arrochos salariais, desemprego e miséria. Os benefícios ao capital – desonerações fiscais; não tributação do capital rentista e patrimonial; juros da dívida pública, etc. – são as sangrias que desviam as riquezas para ampliar o capital predador e impedem sua canalização para as políticas e programas sociais. Poderosas organizações e minorias sociais servem-se da queda do crescimento para ampliar suas fortunas. Na seleção das fontes deste estudo, as variantes do pensamento são constituídas, fundamentalmente, pela crítica da economia política à economia vulgar, de “monstros” (não homens, mundo das coisas, mercadorias, dinheiro. Entre as variantes mais radicais, está a defesa da ampliação dos gastos sociais, eliminação do superávit primário destinado a pagar juros e a destinação do déficit primário para fins sociais.

  10. Selectivity of phytosanitary products used in organic farming on adult of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae under laboratory conditionsSeletividade de produtos fitossanitários, usados no sistema de produção orgânica, sobre adultos de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, em laboratório

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    Cláudia Bernardes Ourique

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of pesticides with biological control is possible only if they provide some selectivity to natural enemies. In the organic production system the effect of insecticides on beneficial insects has not been extensively studied. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate in laboratory conditions the effect of pesticides used in this system on the adults of the predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae. We used four treatments, which corresponded to four multiple values (0.25x, 0.5x, 2x and 1x of the concentration recommended by manufacturers of the following products: Rotenat CE®, Pironat®, Biopirol 7M®, Organic Neem®, Natuneem® and lime sulfur, which were tested in C. montrouzieri by topical application and residual exposure. None of the products, at any concentrations tested, had a significant effect on the survival of adults of C. montrouzieri, what did not differ from the distilled water control, showing that the products tested are selective to the adults of this species. However, other forms of exposure and evaluation methods must be studied.A associação do controle biológico com produtos fitossanitários só é possível se estes apresentarem alguma seletividade aos inimigos naturais. No sistema de produção orgânica, o efeito de inseticidas sobre insetos benéficos não tem sido extensivamente estudado. Assim, este trabalho objetivou avaliar em laboratório o efeito de produtos fitossanitários utilizados neste sistema, sobre adultos do predador Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos, os quais corresponderam quatro múltiplos (0,25x, 0,5x, 1x e 2x da concentração recomendada pelos fabricantes dos seguintes produtos comerciais: Rotenat CE®, Pironat®, Biopirol 7M®, Organic neem®, Natuneem® e calda sulfocálcica, que foram testados sobre C. montrouzieri por aplicação tópica e exposição a resíduos. Nenhum dos produtos, em qualquer

  11. Total mercury in the night shark, Carcharhinus signatus in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean

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    Alexandre Gomes Ferreira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is the only element capable to biomagnificate along the food chain, and carnivorous fish tend to accumulate high concentrations of this element. Total mercury in muscle tissue of Carcharhinus signatus sampled along the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean was measured by atomic emission spectrophotometry with ICP/AES. The average total mercury concentrations were consistently greater than the maximum limit for human consumption established by the Brazilian Health Ministry for carnivorous fishes (1000 µg. kg-1 w.w.. Therefore, an average consumption of 0.1 kg/day of C. signatus would result in an average daily ingestion of 174.2 µg of Hg, more than five times the 30 µg/day intake established by the World Health Organization. In the range of lengths studied, body length could not be used as an indicator of the Hg contamination degree for C. signatus. Also, sex cannot be considered a determining factor in the total mercury accumulation in C. signatus.O mercúrio (Hg é o único metal que comprovadamente biomagnifica através da cadeia alimentar, e sendo assim, espécies de peixes predadores tendem a apresentar altas concentrações deste metal. Porções de tecido muscular de C. signatus coletados na região oeste equatorial do oceano Atlântico foram submetidas a extração ácida e tiveram a concentração de mercúrio determinada com acessório gerador de vapor a frio acoplado a um ICP-AES. A concentração média de Hg apresentou valores acima do limite máximo permissível para consumo humano estabelecido pela legislação brasileira (1000 µg.kg-1 de peso úmido. Conseqüentemente, um consumo médio de 0,1 kg.dia-1 de C. signatus resultaria numa ingestão media de 174,2 µg de Hg, mais de cinco vezes o consumo máximo de 30 µg.dia-1 estabelecido pela Organizacao Munidal da Saúde. Dentro das classes de tamanho analisadas, o comprimento total não pode ser utilizado como indicador do grau de contaminação por mercúrio em C. signatus

  12. Locomotor activity of Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae exposed to volatile semiochemicals and to direct contact with the odour source Actividad locomotriz de Cycloneda sanguinea (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae expuesta a semioquímicos volátiles y al contacto directo con la fuente de olor

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    Guillermo E. Heit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae is an opportunistic polyphagous predator and when aphids dominate its menu, a complex foraging behaviour can be expected. An active movement characterized by a high locomotor activity plays an important role in the search of this prey. The behaviour of C. sanguinea adults exposed to volatile semiochemicals emitted by Capsicum annuum Linnaeus (Solanaceae substrates, healthy or infested with Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae, or in direct contact with these substrates was here analyzed. The treatments evaluated were: A high aphid-infested pepper leaves, B low aphid-infested pepper leaves, C healthy pepper leaves and D control. Locomotor activity was not significantly different among treatments when C. sanguinea was exposed only to the volatiles. However, when adults were placed in direct contact with the evaluated substrates, statistically significant differences were found among treatments. These preliminary results could indicate that the sole presence of an olfactory stimulus could not be sufficient to modulate a different locomotor pattern in C. sanguinea.Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae es un predador polífago oportunista y cuando su menú está dominado por áfidos, es esperable un comportamiento complejo de forrajeo. Un movimiento activo, caracterizado por alta actividad locomotriz, juega un rol importante en la búsqueda de esta presa. En este trabajo se analizó el comportamiento de adultos de C. sanguinea expuestos a los semioquímicos volátiles, emitidos por sustratos de Capsicum annuum Linnaeus (Solanaceae sanos o infestados con Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae, o simplemente puestos en contacto directo con esos sustratos. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: A hojas de pimiento infestadas con alta densidad de áfidos, B hojas de pimiento infestadas con baja densidad de áfidos, C hojas de pimiento sanas y D control. La actividad

  13. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected by Toxocara canis larvae Alterações de comportamento em Rattus norvegicus experimentalmente infectados por larvas de Toxocara canis

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    Pedro P. Chieffi

    2010-10-01

    levantaram nas patas traseiras e comportamento exploratório nos ratos infectados, principalmente nos pertencentes ao G2, sugerindo a ocorrência de alterações comportamentais que favoreceriam a transmissão de Toxocara canis para canídeos por meio de relação presa-predador.

  14. Chemical defense of Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera: halichondrida against tropical predators

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    Suzi Meneses Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Various benthic organisms have chemical defenses which reduce their predators' consumption. Although their efficiency may be noticed in many organisms, many of their effects are not well- known yet. Multiple ecological roles of secondary metabolites are shown in some sponges, which may represent an adaptative advantage considering the high amount of energy used to produce these chemical compounds. The goal of this work was to investigate the defensive property of the extracts from the sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila against the tropical predators: hermit crabs (Calcinus tibicens, sea urchins (Lytechinus variegatus and generalist fishes. Extracts obtained with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and acetone/methanol were used in assays and all of them were effective in reducing the consumption by C. tibicens; n-hexane extract reduced the consumption by L. variegatus; and medium polarity extracts reduced fish consumption. Either the variation in action or the multiple ecological roles of the extracts indicates that different types of compounds can be associated to the defensive system produced by H. heliophila.Diversos organismos bênticos possuem defesas químicas que ajudam a diminuir a predação. Embora sua eficácia seja comprovada, muitos de seus efeitos são ainda desconhecidos. Múltiplas funções dos metabolitos secundários foram evidenciadas em algumas esponjas e isso pode representar uma vantagem adaptativa, considerando o alto valor energético gasto pelas espécies para produzí-los. O objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar as propriedades defensivas de extratos da esponja Hymeniacidon heliophila contra predadores tropicais: paguros (Calcinus tibicens, ouriços-do-mar (Lytechinus variegatus e peixes generalistas. Extratos em n-hexano, acetato de etila e acetona/metanol foram usados nos ensaios e todos foram eficientes na redução do consumo por C. tibicen; extratos em n-hexano reduziram o consumo por L. variegatus; e extratos de m

  15. Araneofauna captured in the forest and adjacent area, in the north of Paraná, Brazil Araneofauna capturada na mata e área aberta adjacente, no norte do Paraná, Brasil

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    Lizandra Lucy Catelli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Arachnids make up an exclusive predator group. Eating habit makes the arthropods to move around in search for hunting or building traps with silk threads. In order to know the araneofauna of the Godoy’s Forest State Park, pitfall-like traps were installed inside the forest, edge and adjacent area predominantly grassy. Collections were carried out fortnightly, in the period of a year, separating what was collected during the day and during the night. One hundred and twenty-one individuals were collected, belonging to 18 families where Lycosidae and Theridiidae were the most abundant, although Lyniphiidae family has prevailed in the forest area. Young individuals prevailed. It is concluded that the highest frequency and abundance of young individuals may be directly related to its dispersal and spiders belonging to the Lycosidae, Zoridae and Theridiidae families, being able to be used as bioindicators. Os aracnídeos compõem um grupo exclusivamente predador. O hábito alimentar faz com que o artropoda locomova-se em busca da caça ou construa armadilhas com fios de seda. Buscando conhecer a araneofauna do Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, foram instaladas armadilhas tipo ptiffal dentro da mata, borda e área adjacente, com vegetação predominantemente formada por gramíneas. As coletas eram realizadas quinzenalmente, no período de um ano, separando o coletado em diurno e noturno. Foram coletados 121 indivíduos, pertencentes a 18 famílias, das quais as famílias Lycosidae e Theridiidae foram as mais abundantes, embora a família Lyniphiidae tenha predominado na área de mata. Houve maior freqüência de indivíduos jovens. Conclui-se que a maior freqüência e abundância de indivíduos jovens pode estar diretamente relacionada a sua dispersão e, além disso, as aranhas pertencentes as famílias Lycosidae, Zoridae e Theridiidae, podem ser utilizadas como bioindicadores.

  16. Interacciones planta-animal en la regeneración de Quercus pyrenaica: ecología y gestión

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    R. Perea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los rebollares de Quercus pyrenaica son formaciones casi exclusivas de la península ibérica cuya regeneración sexual se encuentra fuertemente comprometida como consecuencia de su estructura dominada por rebrotes de cepa y raíz (monte bajo. El abandono del aprovechamiento histórico de estos rebrotes (leña, carbón, etc. ha provocado que, actualmente, muchos rebollares se hayan convertido en ecosistemas degradados con exceso de espesura, puntisecado y estancamiento del crecimiento. Este trabajo trata de resumir el estado del conocimiento de las principales interacciones planta-animal en la regeneración sexual de los bosques dominados por el rebollo, con el fin de proporcionar bases científicas para una mejor gestión y conservación de estos ecosistemas. Algunas especies animales (arrendajo, ratón de campo, trepador azul juegan un papel importante en la dispersión efectiva de las bellotas, lo que contribuye a un mejor flujo génico y a la colonización de nuevos lugares. Sin embargo, la creciente densidad de ungulados silvestres (ciervo, jabalí, etc. es uno de los factores de mayor amenaza para estos bosques al reducir drásticamente el número de bellotas disponibles para la germinación y limitar el crecimiento y la supervivencia de las nuevas plántulas. Además, existen interacciones multi-tróficas (p. ej. bellota-predador-dispersor y fenómenos de facilitación (plántula-matorral que revelan la importancia de las relaciones múltiples en la regeneración de los rebollares. Finalmente, se exponen posibles medidas de gestión encaminadas a facilitar la regeneración sexual de estos sistemas de manera que pueda revertirse la actual situación de estancamiento y decaimiento de muchos rebollares.

  17. Los lagomorfos como recursos alimenticios en Cueva Ambrosio (Almería, España

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    José YRAVEDRA SAINZ DE LOS TERREROS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Entre los yacimientos del Paleolítico Superior mediterráneos de la Península Ibérica es frecuente que predominen los lagomorfos entre los perfiles taxonómicos, superando en muchas ocasiones más del 90% de los restos. Sin embargo, el aporte de estos animales en yacimientos paleolíticos de la Península Ibérica muchas veces puede responder a orígenes diversos. Así, además de los lepóridos aportados por el ser humano, también pueden serlo por otros predadores, ya que son presas potenciales de linces, zorros, mustélidos y aves como búhos, cárabos y águilas. Junto a los aportes de estos animales podemos añadir otros factores de aporte, como los ocasionados por procesos naturales de mortalidad en el interior de sus madrigueras. Por este motivo es importante conocer bien las características que genera cada agente en sus acumulaciones para distinguirlas entre sí, y poder así interpretarlas adecuadamente. En los últimos años se han desarrollo una gran cantidad de estudios tafonómicos destinados a verificar el origen de estos animales, y las características que deja cada agente. El análisis de los patrones de fracturación, la morfología de las fracturas, las trazas que presentan los huesos, los patrones de edad, la distribución de cuartos delanteros contra traseros y los perfiles esqueléticos son los medios que podemos utilizar para discriminar el origen de estos lepóridos. En este artículo analizamos los lagomorfos de la Cueva de Ambrosio (Almería bajo esa premisa, y concluimos que en sus niveles correspondientes al Solutrense Medio, el Solutrense Superior y el Solutrense Superior Evolucionado se deben principalmente a la intervención humana. A pesar de esto, la evidencia de algunas trazas concretas, como marcas de diente y de pico, reflejan que en ciertas ocasiones algunos animales introdujeron presas al yacimiento. De modo que la cueva, aunque fue ocupada por el ser humano durante todas las estaciones, en

  18. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants Flutuação populacional de ácaros na cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch e em plantas associadas

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    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    January and high predator diversity was observed on associated plants and on peach plants, indicating the existence of species mobility in peach orchard.Apesar da grande importância da cultura do pêssego [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] no Rio Grande do Sul, pouco se conhece sobre a diversidade e a flutuação populacional de ácaros considerados importantes para esta cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi conhecer a flutuação populacional das espécies acarinas associadas às cultivares Premier e Eldorado nos municípios de Roca Sales e Venâncio Aires, Rio Grande do Sul. O estudo foi realizado no período de julho de 2008 a junho de 2009, quando foram amostradas 15 plantas escolhidas ao acaso numa área em cada município. As plantas foram divididas em quadrantes, e de cada quadrante foi escolhido um galho de onde foram retiradas três folhas das regiões apical, mediana e basal, totalizando 180 folhas/área. Foram coletadas, mensalmente, parte de cinco plantas não cultivadas mais abundantes. O período de uma hora sob microscópio estereoscópio foi suficiente para se obter uma amostra representativa. Um total de 1.124 ácaros foi coletado pertencentes a 14 famílias e 28 espécies. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 e Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 foram os ácaros fitófagos mais abundantes, enquanto Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 e Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 os ácaros predadores mais comuns. O esforço amostral foi suficiente. Nos dois pomares avaliados, os índices ecológicos foram baixos, mas um pouco superiores em Premier (H' 0,56; EqJ: 0,43 quando comparados a Eldorado (H' 0,53; EqJ 0,40. Em Premier não foram observadas espécies constantes, apenas acessórias com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni e T. aripo. Maior abundância foi observada em dezembro e janeiro, e maior quantidade em abril. Em Eldorado, T. ludeni e P. ulmi foram constantes. Maior abundância foi observada em novembro e dezembro, e

  19. Seletividade de inseticidas utilizados em cultura cafeeira para larvas de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant Selectivity of insecticides used in the coffee crop to larvae of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Dias Rocha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assim como a maioria dos cultivos, em cafeeiro, a associação de inimigos naturais com produtos fitossanitários seletivos é uma importante estratégia no manejo integrado de pragas (MIP. Dessa forma, este estudo objetivou avaliar a seletividade de agrotóxicos utilizados na cultura cafeeira sobre larvas de Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 1853 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, em laboratório. Os bioensaios foram realizados em condições controladas (25±2°C, UR de 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Cada bioensaio consistiu em seis tratamentos e dez repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por duas larvas. Para as comparações das médias dos tratamentos, empregou-se um esquema fatorial inteiramente ao acaso de produtos x número de instares para os diferentes instares subsequentes à aplicação. Os inseticidas utilizados e suas respectivas dosagens de aplicação, em g de i.a. L-1 foram: tiametoxam (0,5, imidacloprido (0,7, óleo mineral (13,3, endossulfam (2,63 e dimetoato (0,48. A testemunha foi composta apenas por água destilada. A aplicação dos produtos foi realizada por meio de torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se a sobrevivência dos espécimes após serem contaminados com os produtos e os efeitos dos compostos sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos do predador. Tiametoxam (0,5, imidacloprido (0,7 e endossulfam (2,63 foram os mais prejudiciais, tendo sido observados, para os dois primeiros, 100% de mortalidade de larvas de primeiro e de segundo instares um dia após a aplicação e significativa redução na sobrevivência das larvas de terceiro e quarto instares. Dimetoato (0,48 foi nocivo para larvas de primeiro instar e levemente nocivo para larvas de quarto instar. Em função da seletividade apresentada pelo óleo mineral (13,3, este pode ser recomendado em compatibilização com o predador C. montrouzieri em programas de MIP na cultura cafeeira, sem prejuízo ao desempenho do inimigo natural.As well as most of the crops, in coffee crop, the

  20. Controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 e Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae em cafeeiro e o impacto sobre ácaros benéficos: II - Spirodiclofen e Azocyclotin Control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae in coffee plants and the impact on beneficial mites: II - Spirodiclofen and Azocyclotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rebelles Reis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes é importante em cafeeiro (Coffea spp. por ser o vetor do vírus da mancha-anular, doença responsável por queda de folhas e má qualidade da bebida do café, e o ácaro-vermelho Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor por reduzir a área foliar de fotossíntese. Ácaros da família Phytoseiidae, de várias espécies, são eficientes predadores associados aos ácaros-praga. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o controle dos ácaros-praga com spirodiclofen e azocyclotin, e o impacto sobre fitoseídeos. Em laboratório foram estudados os efeitos ovicida, tópico, residual, tópico mais residual e a seletividade fisiológica aos fitoseídeos; em casa-de-vegetação foi avaliada a persistência no controle às duas espécies de ácaros-praga; e em campo foi avaliada a eficiência apenas no controle de B. phoenicis. Os bioensaios foram realizados em arenas de folhas destacadas. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado em ovos no início e final de incubação. Os efeitos residual, tópico e tópico mais residual foram avaliados pela mortalidade de larvas, ninfas e adultos aos oito dias, e a persistência até 30 dias após a aplicação. A seletividade aos fitoseídeos foi avaliada, pelo efeito na mortalidade e reprodução de fêmeas adultas, em teste residual em superfície de vidro. Spirodiclofen e azocyclotin (SC mostraram eficiente ação ovicida, principalmente para ovos de B. phoenicis no início de incubação. Para ovos de O. ilicis, somente o spirodiclofen apresentou efeito ovicida. Em geral, os efeitos tópico e residual associados melhoraram a eficiência dos produtos no controle das fases pós-embrionárias de ambas as espécies. O spirodiclofen apresentou seletividade aos ácaros predadores, já o azocyclotin foi nocivo. Em campo, ambos os acaricidas mostram-se altamente eficientes na redução de todas as fases pós-embrionárias do ácaro B. phoenicis, principalmente nas folhas.The mite Brevipalpus

  1. Associations of passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, U.S.A.

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    Hamer Sarah A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild birds contribute to maintenance and dissemination of vectors and microbes, including those that impact human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Here we elucidate roles of wild passerine birds, eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus, and Ixodes dentatus ticks in enzootic cycles of two spirochetes, Borrelia miyamotoi and B. andersonii in a region of Michigan where the zoonotic pathogen B. burgdorferi co-circulates. Methods Over a four-year period, wild birds (n = 19,631 and rabbits (n = 20 were inspected for tick presence and ear tissue was obtained from rabbits. Samples were tested for Borrelia spirochetes using nested PCR of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGS and bidirectional DNA sequencing. Natural xenodiagnosis was used to implicate wildlife reservoirs. Results Ixodes dentatus, a tick that specializes on birds and rabbits and rarely bites humans, was the most common tick found, comprising 86.5% of the 12,432 ticks collected in the study. The relapsing fever group spirochete B. miyamotoi was documented for the first time in ticks removed from wild birds (0.7% minimum infection prevalence; MIP, in I. dentatus, and included two IGS strains. The majority of B. miyamotoi-positive ticks were removed from Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis. Borrelia andersonii infected ticks removed from birds (1.6% MIP, ticks removed from rabbits (5.3% MIP, and rabbit ear biopsies (5% comprised twelve novel IGS strains. Six species of wild birds were implicated as reservoirs for B. andersonii. Frequency of I. dentatus larval and nymphal co-feeding on birds was ten times greater than expected by chance. The relatively well-studied ecology of I. scapularis and the Lyme disease pathogen provides a context for understanding how the phenology of bird ticks may impact B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii prevalence and host associations. Conclusions Given the current invasion of I. scapularis, a human biting species

  2. Tracking Cats: Problems with Placing Feline Carnivores on δ18O, δD Isoscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stephanie J.; Hobson, Keith A.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Tütken, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Several felids are endangered and threatened by the illegal wildlife trade. Establishing geographic origin of tissues of endangered species is thus crucial for wildlife crime investigations and effective conservation strategies. As shown in other species, stable isotope analysis of hydrogen and oxygen in hair (δDh, δ18Oh) can be used as a tool for provenance determination. However, reliably predicting the spatial distribution of δDh and δ18Oh requires confirmation from animal tissues of known origin and a detailed understanding of the isotopic routing of dietary nutrients into felid hair. Methodology/Findings We used coupled δDh and δ18Oh measurements from the North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) with precipitation-based assignment isoscapes to test the feasibility of isotopic geo-location of felidae. Hairs of felid and rabbit museum specimens from 75 sites across the United States and Canada were analyzed. Bobcat and puma lacked a significant correlation between H/O isotopes in hair and local waters, and also exhibited an isotopic decoupling of δ18Oh and δDh. Conversely, strong δD and δ18O coupling was found for key prey, eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus; hair) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; collagen, bone phosphate). Conclusions/Significance Puma and bobcat hairs do not adhere to expected pattern of H and O isotopic variation predicted by precipitation isoscapes for North America. Thus, using bulk hair, felids cannot be placed on δ18O and δD isoscapes for use in forensic investigations. The effective application of isotopes to trace the provenance of feline carnivores is likely compromised by major controls of their diet, physiology and metabolism on hair δ18O and δD related to body water budgets. Controlled feeding experiments, combined with single amino acid isotope analysis of diets and hair, are needed to reveal mechanisms and physiological traits explaining why felid hair does

  3. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunger, John A.; /Northern Illinois U. /Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus Pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers wer 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in dits. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for P. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on P. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. Pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  4. Tracking cats: problems with placing feline carnivores on δO, δD isoscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Pietsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several felids are endangered and threatened by the illegal wildlife trade. Establishing geographic origin of tissues of endangered species is thus crucial for wildlife crime investigations and effective conservation strategies. As shown in other species, stable isotope analysis of hydrogen and oxygen in hair (δD(h, δ(18O(h can be used as a tool for provenance determination. However, reliably predicting the spatial distribution of δD(h and δ(18O(h requires confirmation from animal tissues of known origin and a detailed understanding of the isotopic routing of dietary nutrients into felid hair. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We used coupled δD(h and δ(18O(h measurements from the North American bobcat (Lynx rufus and puma (Puma concolor with precipitation-based assignment isoscapes to test the feasibility of isotopic geo-location of felidae. Hairs of felid and rabbit museum specimens from 75 sites across the United States and Canada were analyzed. Bobcat and puma lacked a significant correlation between H/O isotopes in hair and local waters, and also exhibited an isotopic decoupling of δ(18O(h and δD(h. Conversely, strong δD and δ(18O coupling was found for key prey, eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus; hair and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; collagen, bone phosphate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Puma and bobcat hairs do not adhere to expected pattern of H and O isotopic variation predicted by precipitation isoscapes for North America. Thus, using bulk hair, felids cannot be placed on δ(18O and δD isoscapes for use in forensic investigations. The effective application of isotopes to trace the provenance of feline carnivores is likely compromised by major controls of their diet, physiology and metabolism on hair δ(18O and δD related to body water budgets. Controlled feeding experiments, combined with single amino acid isotope analysis of diets and hair, are needed to reveal mechanisms and physiological traits

  5. Mechanisms of social regulation change across colony development in an ant

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    Liebig Jürgen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutual policing is an important mechanism for reducing conflict in cooperative groups. In societies of ants, bees, and wasps, mutual policing of worker reproduction can evolve when workers are more closely related to the queen's sons than to the sons of workers or when the costs of worker reproduction lower the inclusive fitness of workers. During colony growth, relatedness within the colony remains the same, but the costs of worker reproduction may change. The costs of worker reproduction are predicted to be greatest in incipient colonies. If the costs associated with worker reproduction outweigh the individual direct benefits to workers, policing mechanisms as found in larger colonies may be absent in incipient colonies. Results We investigated policing behaviour across colony growth in the ant Camponotus floridanus. In large colonies of this species, worker reproduction is policed by the destruction of worker-laid eggs. We found workers from incipient colonies do not exhibit policing behaviour, and instead tolerate all conspecific eggs. The change in policing behaviour is consistent with changes in egg surface hydrocarbons, which provide the informational basis for policing; eggs laid by queens from incipient colonies lack the characteristic hydrocarbons on the surface of eggs laid by queens from large colonies, making them chemically indistinguishable from worker-laid eggs. We also tested the response to fertility information in the context of queen tolerance. Workers from incipient colonies attacked foreign queens from large colonies; whereas workers from large colonies tolerated such queens. Workers from both incipient and large colonies attacked foreign queens from incipient colonies. Conclusions Our results provide novel insights into the regulation of worker reproduction in social insects at both the proximate and ultimate levels. At the proximate level, our results show that mechanisms of social regulation, such as

  6. Growth, dispersal, mortality, and contribution of largemouth bass stocked into Chickamauga Lake, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K.J.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Marked fingerling largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (both northern M. s. salmoides and Florida subspecies M. s. floridanus and their hybrid) were stocked into Chickamauga Lake, Tennessee, to enhance angling and introgress the Florida subspecies into the local gene pool. We evaluated mass marking and stocking success by sampling the stocked fish for 1 year poststocking. More than 128,000 fingerlings (35-64 mm total length) were immersed in a solution of 500 mg/L oxytetracycline (OTC) for 6 h and stocked into four embayments in the lake in spring 2002; two additional embayments served as controls and were not stocked (these embayments contained only wild, indigenous fish). In a blind test, 97% of sagittal otoliths were correctly scored as marked or unmarked. In a subsequent test, the OTC marks were clearly visible on every otolith removed from 240 OTC-treated bass held for 30 d. Age-0 largemouth bass were sampled with DC electrofishing gear at 7-19, 44-61, and 119-139 d after stocking, and sampling was conducted along 100-m transects within 1 km of the stocking sites in each embayment. Of all recaptures in the first sample, 31% occurred more than 600 m from the nearest stocking site, indicating rapid dispersal by some fish. Survival of stocked and wild age-0 largemouth bass was similar and low (4.5-6.9%) in two embayments; in the other two embayments, stocked fish survived at lower rates (0-4.3%) than wild fish (33.7-49.9%). Mean catches of all age-0 largemouth bass in the first sample were positively related to the number of fish stocked. By October 2002, the mean catch of all age-0 largemouth bass was similar among embayments. Contribution of stocked fish declined to approximately 2% (2 of 91 fish) the following spring. Cost per fingerling increased from US$0.35 at stocking to $12.00 at 140 d poststocking. Increasing the abundance of largemouth bass was not the primary objective of this stocking effort, but stocked fish will have to survive much better if

  7. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Handley, C.O.

    1945-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  8. Michigan's commercial fisheries of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John

    1938-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  9. Marine reserve design for conservation and fisheries management: a case study from the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airame, S.J.; Dugan, E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Leslie, H.M.; McArdle, D.A.; Warner, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  10. Contribuição da fauna silvestre em projetos de restauração ecológica no Brasil Contribution of the wildlife in ecological restoration projects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanuza Helena Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso no processo de restauração e manutenção da dinâmica de um ecossistema é extremamente dependente da capacidade das espécies em promover interações interespecíficas entre as diversas formas de vida. Estas interações criam um cenário favorável à restauração ecológica de ecossistemas degradados. Assim, por meio de revisão de literatura, o objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a contribuição e utilização dos diferentes grupos de animais na execução de projetos de restauração ecológica no Brasil. As aves e mamíferos frugívoros e também outros animais, como os répteis, peixes e insetos, têm se destacado como ferramentas de auxílio aos projetos de restauração ecológica. As técnicas para atração de animais e consequente chegada de propágulos em um ecossistema degradado compreende a utilização de poleiros, que servem de pouso e abrigo para a avifauna e morcegos, e a utilização de abrigos artificiais, que servem para fuga de predadores, descanso e reprodução dos animais. De modo geral, estes estudos são excelentes ferramentas para gerir ações de manejo ambiental em ecossistemas degradados, possibilitando a recuperação da biodiversidade destes ambientes. The success in the process of restoration and maintenance of the dynamics of an ecosystem is highly dependent on the capacity of species to promote interspecific interactions among the various life forms. These interactions create a favorable environment for the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems. Thus, by review the literature, the objective of this study is to report the contribution and use of different animal groups in carrying out ecological restoration projects in Brazil. The fruit-eating birds and mammals and also other animals such as reptiles, fish and insects have been highlighted as tools to aid environmental ecological restoration projects. Techniques for attracting animals and consequent arrival of seedlings in a degraded

  11. Bioactivity of the red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Southwestern coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseer Manilal

    2010-06-01

    crustáceos. A fração extraída com eter de petróleo e etil acetato (2:8 apresentou o espectro de bioatividade mais forte e amplo. No ensaio anti-incrustação efetuado com com o molusco pulmonado Limnea truncatula, a fração algal ativa produziu 80% de repelência do pé em 150 mg/l, enquanto que no ensaio anticianobacteria a fração ativa inibiu 100% do crescimento de Trichodesmium sp., em 320 mg/l. A fração algal mostrou o efeito mais intenso contra peixes no nível de 60 mg/l. Em relação aos crustáceos, a toxicidade da fração ativa foi avaliada também visando encontrar compostos não tóxicos para organismos não alvo, tais como Penaeus monodon e Macrobrachium rosembergii. Foi visto que a fração ativa da coluna mostrou menor toxicidade para estas espécies. Os componentes químicos da fração ativa foram identificados por meio dos sistemas cromatográficos, tais como TLC, fase reversa do HPLC e GC-MS. O perfil geral de atividade aponta que a fração ativa da coluna para A. taxiformis pode conter metabolitos bioativos sinérgicos que podem ser utilizados para o controle de organismos incrustantes, explosão algal e peixes herbiboros/predadores em tanques de aquicultura.

  12. Ecology and life history of an Amazon floodplain cichlid: the discus fish Symphysodon (Perciformes: Cichlidae

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    William G. R. Crampton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The discus fishes of the genus Symphysodon are popular ornamental cichlids that occur in floodplain lakes and flooded forests of the lowland Amazon Basin. These habitats are characterized by extreme seasonal fluctuations in the availability of food, shelter and dissolved oxygen, and also the densities of predators and parasites. Most aspects of discus biology are influenced by these fluctuating conditions. This paper reports an autoecological study of the western Amazonian discus S. haraldi (until recently classified as S. aequifasciatus. This species feeds predominantly on algal periphyton, fine organic detritus, plant matter, and small aquatic invertebrates. At high water it forages alone or in small groups in flooded forests. At low water it forms large aggregations in fallen tree crowns along lake margins. Breeding occurs at the beginning of the flood season, ensuring that the progeny are well grown before the next low water period. Symphysodon haraldi is an iteroparous partial spawner, reaches reproductive maturity within a year, and undertakes parental care of its eggs and larvae. The timing of spawning events, and/or the rate of brood survival, may be influenced by fluctuations in the flood level, resulting in a non-unimodal distribution of size classes for the subsequent 1+ cohort.Os acarás-disco do gênero Symphysodon são peixes ornamentais comumente encontrados em lagos e florestas alagadas das planícies inundadas da Amazônia. Estes habitats são caracterizados por uma variação sazonal extrema na disponibilidade de alimento, abrigo e oxigênio dissolvido, e também pela densidade de predadores e parasitas. A maioria dos aspectos da biologia do acará-disco são influenciados por esta variabilidade de condições sazonais. Este artigo apresenta um estudo autoecológico de S. haraldi (até recentemente classificado como S. aequifasciatus da Amazônia Ocidental. Os acarás-disco alimentam-se predominantemente de perifiton, detritos

  13. Datos biológicos de Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae en plantaciones de caña de azúcar y consumo de huevos de Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae en condiciones de laboratorio Biological traits of Doru luteipes (Dermaptera: Forficulidae in sugar-cane crops, and consumption rates against Diatraea saccharalis eggs (Lepidoptera: Crambidae under laboratory conditions

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    Gladys M Romero Sueldo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr. es considerada la principal plaga de la caña de azúcar en el noroeste argentino. El dermáptero Doru luteipes (Scudder desarrolla importantes poblaciones en dicho cultivo y ha sido descrito como predador de plagas en maíz, algodón y coles. El objetivo de este trabajo fue brindar información sobre algunos aspectos biológicos y estimar la capacidad de predación de las ninfas de Doru luteipes, a través de la tasa de consumo de huevos de Diatraea saccharalis. Se realizaron observaciones de campo y ensayos de laboratorio, en estos últimos se colocaron individualmente en tubos de ensayo, 50 ninfas de D. luteipes recién eclosionadas y se les ofrecía diariamente cien huevos de la plaga. La proporción de sexos de D. luteipes en campo fue de aproximadamente 1:1 y sus posturas presentaron una media de 31 huevos, con una tasa de emergencia cercana al 95%. El período de incubación se prolongó entre 6 y 10 días y el desarrollo de los estadios ninfales promedió los 37,6 días. Las ninfas pasaron por cuatro estadios y consumieron una media de 591,3 huevos de D. saccharalis. Estos resultados sugieren que D. luteipes desempeña un papel importante en el control natural de las poblaciones de D. saccharalis, por lo tanto, su presencia debería tenerse en cuenta al diseñar estrategias para controlar esta plaga.Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr. is considered the key pest of sugarcane crops in the Argentine northwest. The earwig Doru luteipes (Scudder develops high populations on sugarcane, and in other regions it was depicted as a significant predator of diverse pest in corn, cotton, and cabbage crops. The aim of this contribution is to inform about different biological parameters of this Dermaptera, and to assess the predatory capacity of its nymphs by means of the estimation of consumption rates using Diatraea saccharalis eggs. Both field and laboratory observations were carried out. In the latter, 50 neonate nymphs were

  14. Dieta e dispersão de sementes por Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnívora, Canidae, em um fragmento florestal no Paraná, Brasil Diet and seed dispersal by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus in a forest fragment in Paraná (Carnivora, Canidae

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    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, seja um Canidae relativamente comum, não há muita informação sobre sua dieta e seu papel como dispersor de sementes nos diferentes habitats onde ocorre. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de reportar a dieta de C. thous e sua importância como dispersor e/ou predador de sementes, e ainda testar a taxa de germinação de sementes após passar pelo trato digestório do animal. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento (680 ha de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, o Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, localizado na cidade de Londrina, Paraná, sul do Brasil. A metodologia consistiu de coletas de fezes de C. thous, as quais foram analisadas em laboratório para identificar os itens consumidos. Nos testes de germinação, as sementes foram dispostas para germinar em placas de Petri com algodão umedecido em água. Noventa e três amostras fecais com 219 itens de origem vegetal e animal foram registradas, sendo 36,52% contendo restos de pequenos roedores, 24,19% de gramíneas, 13,24% de aves, 10,47% de insetos, 6,39% de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm., 4,6% de outros itens de origem animal e 4,54% de outros itens de origem vegetal. Ainda, C. thous dispersou nove espécies de plantas, com relevante importância para a germinação de algumas sementes que passaram pelo trato digestório do animal, exceto para S. romanzoffiana, cujas sementes não germinaram nas condições de laboratório. Conclui-se que, C. thous apresentou uma dieta generalista e oportunista, sobrevivendo em áreas degradadas e antrópicas, e agindo como dispersor de sementes nestes locais.Although the crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, is a relatively common Canidae, there isn't much information about its diet and its role as a seed disperser in the different habitats where it occurs. The aim of this work was to report the diet of the C. thous and its importance as a seed disperser and / or a seed predator and

  15. Programa de controle de surto de escorpião Tityus serrulatus, Lutz e Mello 1922, no município de Aparecida, SP (Scorpiones, Buthidae

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    Elieth Floret Spirandeli Cruz

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propuseram para o município de Aparecida, vale do Rio Paraíba, SP, região endêmica do Tityus serrulatus, um programa de controle do escorpionismo. Foram estudados a presença de focos do escorpião no campo e na cidade, as alterações ambientais periféricas à zona urbana e os novos ambientes de procriação e dispersão destes artrópodes. Além disso, foram avaliados os problemas básicos de infra-estrutura, tais como o acondicionamento e a coleta do lixo urbano público e domiciliar, o saneamento básico (esgotos e galerias pluviais e a situação dos terrenos baldios e as construções da zona urbana. Após estudo epidemiológico, foram propostas medidas educativas, que constaram da confecção e distribuição de folhetos, de mutirões de limpeza, de visitas domiciliares e do engajamento de professores e alunos da rede de ensino pública e privada na campanha. Nos locais onde existiam focos de alto risco, em especial nas pré-escolas, foi proposto o emprego do controle químico. Dentro das normas sanitárias vigentes para a zona urbana, foi proposto ainda, o uso de predadores naturais no combate. Os autores concluem que as ações devem ser integradas e continuadas de forma ininterrupta por vários anos e propõem ação conjunta com a campanha da dengue. A instituição de uma semana por ano dedicada ao estudo do escorpionismo nas escolas dos municípios onde ocorre o problema seria uma medida educativa que viria contribuir sobremaneira para a prevenção dos acidentes e controle do escorpionismo.A scorpion control program was proposed for the town of Aparecida (SP, an endemic region of Tityus serrulatus. Clusters of scorpions in urban and rural areas, environmental degradation of the town's outskirts and new scorpion procreation and dispersal habitats were studied. In addition, infrastructure problems such as the disposal and collection of residential and municipal refuse, sanitation (sewage and storm sewer, condition of

  16. Levantamento da fauna de Coleoptera que habita a carcaça de Sus scrofa L., em Curitiba, Paraná A study of the Coleoptera (Insecta fauna that inhabits Sus scrofa L. carcass in Curitiba, Paraná

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    Kleber Makoto Mise

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou levantar a fauna de Coleoptera associada à carcaça de Sus scrofa L.,1758, espécie utilizada como modelo em Entomologia Forense. O acréscimo ou a substituição seqüencial das espécies de insetos pode ser utilizado para estimar o intervalo post mortem (IPM. O experimento foi realizado no Centro Politécnico (UFPR, de setembro de 2005 a setembro de 2006. A cada estação foi sacrificado um suíno de 15 kg no local, colocado em gaiola. A captura dos insetos foi realizada diariamente em bandeja posicionada abaixo da carcaça e em armadilha tipo Shannon modificada, e a cada 14 dias em cinco armadilhas do tipo pit-fall. Foram coletados 4.360 Coleoptera, pertencentes a 112 espécies de 26 famílias, 12 consideradas de importância forense. A coleta ativa realizada na bandeja foi responsável pela maior captura (2.023 espécimes, seguida pela armadilha Shannon modificada (2.016 espécimes e por último pelas do tipo pit-fall (324 espécimes. Staphylinidae foi mais coletada na bandeja e Shannon modificada, e Silphidae na armadilha pit-fall. Os principais hábitos encontrados foram predador/parasita (55%e onívoro (38,05%, com poucas espécies consideradas necrófagas (1,31%.This paper sought to assess the Coleoptera fauna associated with carcasses of Sus scrofa L., 1758, which is usually used as model in Forensic Entomology. The addition and sequential substitution of insect species could be used to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI. The present study took place in Centro Politécnico (UFPR, between september 2005 to september 2006. A pig weighting 15 kg was sacrificed each season and put inside a cage. Sampling is made daily in a tray placed below the carcass and in a Shannon modified trap, and each 14 days in five pit-fall traps. 4,360 beetles were collected, belonging to 112 species of 26 families, 12 were considered of forensic potential. The active collecting made in the tray was responsible for the largest number of

  17. Relationships between water transparency and abundance of Cynodontidae species in the Bananal floodplain, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Cesar Enrique de Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado in the Central Brazil is currently one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world. As a result, the aquatic habitats in this biome also undergo great impacts. Alterations related to land-use change increase sediment loadings in rivers, streams and lakes, resulting in sedimentation and decrease in water transparency. Water transparency determines underwater visibility conditions, and as a consequence fish assemblages respond to spatial and temporal changes in this variable. This work aimed to examine the influence of transparency on the abundance and distribution of Cynodontidae species, a visually oriented predatory fish group. Fish sampling was conducted in 15 sites located between Mortes and Araguaia rivers in the Bananal floodplain, Mato Grosso State. Regression analysis between relative abundance of Cynodontidae (in number of individuals and biomass and water transparency showed a positive and highly significant correlation, indicating that this group shows species-specific habitat affinities for clearer waters. These results suggest that the increase in water turbidity in this region can affect the patterns of abundance and distribution of the Cynodontidae species, as well as other visually oriented fishes.O cerrado do Brasil Central é atualmente um dos ecossistemas mais ameaçados do mundo. Em consequência, os ambientes aquáticos desse bioma também sofrem grandes impactos. Alterações relacionadas a mudanças no uso da terra aumentam a descarga de sedimentos em rios, córregos e lagos, resultando em processos de assoreamento e diminuição da transparência da água. A transparência da água determina as condições de visibilidade subaquáticas, e em consequência os peixes respondem às variações espaciais e temporais desta variável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da transparência da água na abundância e distribuição de peixes da família Cynodontidae, um grupo de peixes predadores que

  18. Mites (Arachnida, Acari on Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck orange trees in the state of Amazonas, Northern Brazil Ácarofauna de Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Teiamar da Encarnação Bobot

    2011-01-01

    para descrever a abundância e a distribuição das espécies mais importantes. O tamanho e a idade dos pomares variaram de 3.360 a 88.0080 m² e de sete a 25 anos, respectivamente. Nos 14 períodos de coleta, folhas, galhos e frutos foram coletados de uma árvore em cada pomar. No total, 3.360 folhas, 672 galhos e 1.344 frutos foram coletados de 168 árvores. Os ácaros foram extraídos dos frutos manualmente e pelo método de lavagem nas folhas e galhos. Identificamos espécies pragas com potencial de causar danos econômicos. Registramos 14 espécies de fitófagos em quatro famílias (Eriophyidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, and Tetranychidae. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes 1939 (Tenuipalpidae e Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm., 1879 (Eriophyidae, as duas espécies fitófagas mais abundantes em outras regiões, foram dominantes, mostrando que a cultura de citros local é suscetível à infestação. Registramos 11 espécies de predadores das famílias Phytoseiidae e Ascidae, compreendendo 10% da população total. Phytoseiidae foi a família mais diversa, com 10 espécies. Foram discutidos aspectos da variação temporal e utilização de hábitat das espécies mais abundantes. Estudos de longo prazo, envolvendo a aplicação de acaricidas e avaliações da comunidade de ácaros, são necessários para um melhor manejo dos pomares, levando-se em consideração a fenologia das pragas-chave.

  19. Acaricidas utilizados na citricultura convencional e orgânica: manejo da leprose e populações de ácaros fitoseídeos

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    Daniel Júnior de Andrade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle da leprose dos citros no Estado de São Paulo é realizado quase que exclusivamente com aplicações de acaricidas para o controle do ácaro vetor Brevipalpus phoenicis, as quais contribuem para o aumento dos custos de produção e podem afetar negativamente as populações de organismos benéficos. Portanto, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar, durante quatro safras, os efeitos de acaricidas indicados para o controle do ácaro B. phoenicis em citros convencional e orgânico sobre a evolução da leprose dos citros e sobre ácaros fitoseídeos. O experimento foi instalado em outubro de 2003, em pomar de laranja localizado no município de Reginópolis-SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, estabelecendo-se os tratamentos, expressos em mL de p.c./100 L de água: spirodiclofen a 20 mL e cyhexatin a 50 mL (aplicados em rotação, calda sulfocálcica a 4.000 mL e testemunha sem aplicação de acaricidas. Entretanto, a rotação entre spirodiclofen e cyhexatin iniciou-se em setembro de 2006 e, anteriormente a esse período, utilizou-se somente o spirodiclofen. A cada quinze dias, foram realizados levantamentos populacionais do ácaro B. phoenicis e dos ácaros predadores Iphiseiodes zuluagai e os do gênero Euseius. O nível de controle adotado para o B. phoenicis foi de 8,3%, sendo que as aplicações dos produtos foram realizadas com pulverizador de arrasto tratorizado munido com lanças manuais. Na safra de 2007-2008, coletaram-se 10 frutos caídos devido à leprose por parcela e quantificou-se o número de lesões de leprose presentes em cada fruto. Avaliaram-se, ao término da safra de 2007-2008, a produtividade, as perdas devido à leprose, bem como a incidência e a severidade da leprose. Constatou-se que o local das lesões no fruto é mais importante para determinar sua queda do que o número de lesões presentes. Quanto mais intensa a infestação do ácaro B. phoenicis, maior é o número de lesões de

  20. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

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    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    observadas em julho de 2003, e junho de 2005 e 2006, com o sucesso reprodutivo de 50,94%, 35,96 e 53,47%, respectivamente. A ilha dos Cardos tem sido constantemente usada para a nidificação de trinta-réis do bico-vermelho da América do Sul, e a baixa predação pelo principal predador na região, a gaivota (Larus dominicanus, tornam a ilha um importante local para a conservação da espécie.

  1. Ocorrência e biologia do Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 em macaubeiras da periferia de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Occurence and biology of Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 in palm tress of suburban areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

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    Liléia Diotaiuti

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e uma macaubeiras (A. sclerocarpa foram derrubadas e dissecadas na periferia de Belo Horizonte, no período de abril/ 1979 a julho/1980. Foram capturados 463 exemplares de Rhodnius neglectus, com uma taxa de infestação das palmeiras de 60,5% e uma média de 9,45% triatomineos/palmeira positiva. O R. neglectus nesta região parece apresentar uma unica geração anual, com possibilidade de duas, sendo que o periodo de oviposição se relaciona com os meses quentes do ano, coincidindo com a predominância de formas jovens sobre os adultos. A observação sugere que a densidade populacional do R. neglectus no seu ecotopo natural possa estar relacionada com a disponibilidade de alimento e com a presença de predadores como o Telenomus sp., formigas, aranhas, hemipteros, escorpiões e pseudo-escorpiões. O indice global de infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi foi de 15,9%, indicando o R. neglectus como um importante vetor silvestre deste tripanosomatídeo cuja principal fonte e constituída por marsupiais. O R. neglectus na regiao encontra-se estreitamente associado a palmeira de macaúba, e as aves que as frequentam constituem sua principal fonte alimentar. As observações não sugerem o R.neglectus como uma espécie transmissora do T. cruzi ao homem nesta região.Eighty-one "macaubeiras" palm-trees (Acrocomia sclerocarpa from the periophery of Belo Horizonte city were cut down and dissected between April 1979 and July 1980. 60,5% of the trees were positive for R. neglectus and 463 specimens of this insect were collected, providing a mean rate of 9,45 individuals for positive palm-trees. R neglectus seems to present a single annual generation in this region, but evidence was obtained that two generations may occur. Its spawn period is related to the hot months of the year, when younger insects prevail over the adults. This observation suggests that higher population desities are related to better feeding conditions and to minor desities of

  2. Whitefly, aphids and thrips attack on cabbage Ataque de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em repolho

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, leaf chemical composition, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, daylight and median temperature on the intensity of whitefly, aphid, and thrips attack on cabbage. Whitefly, aphids and thrips population tended to proliferate in the final stage of plant or reached a peak population about 40 days after plantation. The whitefly and thrips tended to increase with an increase in the median temperature. A dependence of Cheiracanthium inclusum and Adialytus spp. populations on whitefly and aphids populations, respectively, was observed. No significant effect was detected between K and nonacosane leaf content and aphid population. However, an increase in leaf N content was followed by a decrease of this insect population. No significant relation was observed between leaf N, K and nonacosane and whitefly and thrips populations. Highest nonacosane levels were observed in plants 40 days after transplant, and relative humidity correlated negatively with nonacosane. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp. and the spiders can be useful controlling agents of the whitefly and aphids in cabbage. Median temperature can increase whitefly and thrips populations.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as relações entre predadores, parasitóides, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e de potássio foliar, pluviosidade, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na intensidade de ataque de mosca-branca, pulgão e tripes em repolho. As populações de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes tenderam a aumentar no final do cultivo ou apresentaram pico 40 dias depois do transplantio. As populações de mosca-branca e tripes tenderam a aumentar sob temperaturas mais elevadas. As populações de Cheiracanthium inclusum e Adialytus spp. dependiam das populações de mosca-branca e pulg

  3. Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae sobre Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae cultivada organicamente

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    M.A. Costa

    2012-09-01

    . externa e U. ornatrix sobre cultivo orgânico de C. juncea na EMBRAPA Milho e Sorgo, em Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Chrysoperla externa e U. ornatrix foram mais abundantes nos estádios vegetativo e de florescimento de C. juncea, respectivamente, com lagartas desse desfolhador se alimentando sobre folhas e sementes dessa planta. A duração dos estágios/estádios, sobrevivência, fecundidade de vida e oviposição mostraram que ramos de C. juncea é um alimento adequado para U. ornatrix. A abundância de adultos e larvas de C. externa foi menor nas fases de floração e vagens de C. juncea, respectivamente, quando posturas de U. ornatrix estiveram presentes, provavelmente devido à toxicidade de ovos dessa presa a esse predador. Durante esses estádios, C. externa pode ser criado com hospedeiros alternativos, e, quando cultivos de C. juncea são escassos, uma dieta artificial deve ser usada para criação desse desfolhador em laboratório, para pesquisas biológicas e desenvolvimento de táticas de controle biológico.

  4. Shyness and boldness in greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae: the effects of antipredator training on the personality of the birds Timidez e coragem em emas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae: os efeitos do treinamento anti-predação na personalidade das aves

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    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The shy-bold continuum is an axis of behavioural variation for some species, but the consequences of shyness and boldness in antipredatory behaviour is unknown. Bold animals have the tendency to be predated first after release in comparison to shy animals, who naturally avoid the predators. Antipredatory training has been used to enhance the defence behaviours of naive animals by various researchers around the world. For greater rheas, Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758, this kind of study is pioneer. In this study we have investigated if there are relationships between personality and performance of greater rheas in antipredatory training. We also investigated if the training procedures influenced the behaviour of the birds when presented to novel objects. Fifteen zoo-borne greater rheas were studied and 16 personality tests were run, being eight before the application of antipredator training, and eight after the training. We presented to the birds four novel objects (ball, box, bag and person and recorded their behaviour and the distance of the birds in relation to the objects. Results showed that the birds behave boldly before training and shyly after it. The antipredator training modified significantly the behaviour of the rheas, making them more careful about novel situations. Personalities affected the behaviour of the birds during antipredator training. The study of the animal personalities can be an useful tool in reintroduction programs since it helps to choose the animals with the highest chance of survival to reintroduce.O contínuo timidez-coragem é um eixo de variação comportamental para algumas espécies, mas as conseqüências da timidez e coragem no comportamento anti-predação não são conhecidas. Animais corajosos tendem a ser predados primeiramente após a reintrodução em comparação com os animais tímidos, que naturalmente evitam os predadores. O treinamento anti-predação tem sido usado para aumentar os comportamentos

  5. Importance of the macrofauna for the feeding of young fish species from infralittoral of Arrozal - Cananeia lagoon estuarine region (25º02'S-47º56'W: Brazil

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    Yoko Wakabara

    1993-01-01

    divididos em três grupos, de acordo com os hábitos tróficos: comedores de misidáceos, comedores de copépodes e "generalistas" que refletiu a variação sazonal da macrofauna. Setenta e cinco por cento das espécies de peixes predadores alimentaram-se de organismos bentônicos e bentopelágicos e vinte e cinco por cento de organismos pelágicos. Assim, no infralitoral de Cananéia - Arrozal os organismos bentônicos e bentopelágicos constituem a principal fonte alimentar de peixes jovens.

  6. Behavior of prey links midwater and demersal piscivorous reef fishes

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    Peter J. Auster

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Pelagic and demersal guilds of piscivorous fishes are linked by a variety of biological and physical processes that mediate interactions with common prey species. Understanding the behaviors of predators and prey can provide insight into the conditions that make such linkages possible. Here we report on the behaviors of mid-water piscivorous fishes and the responses of prey that produce feeding opportunities for demersal piscivorous fishes associated with "live bottom" ledge habitats off the coast of Georgia (northwest Atlantic Ocean. Prey taxa reduced nearest neighbor distances and retreated towards the seafloor during predatory attacks by mid-water fishes. Demersal fishes subsequently attacked and consumed prey in these ephemeral high density patches. No predation by demersal fishes was observed when prey species were at background densities. If the predator-prey interactions of demersal piscivorous fishes are commonly mediated by the predatory behavior of midwater piscivorous fishes and their prey, such indirect facilitative behaviors may be important in terms of the population processes (e.g., prey consumption and growth rates of these demersal fishes.As guildas de peixes piscívoros pelágicos são conectadas às de peixes piscívoros demersais através de diversos processos biológicos e físicos que permeiam as interações com suas presas em comum. O conhecimento do comportamento de predadores e presas pode fornecer idéias a respeito das condições que tornam estes elos possíveis. Relatamos aqui os comportamentos de peixes piscívoros de meia-água e as respostas de suas presas que fornecem, assim, oportunidades alimentares para os peixes piscívoros demersais que vivem associados a fundos rochosos ao largo da costa da Geórgia (Oceano Atlântico. As presas reduziram a distância mínima entre os indivíduos e recolheram-se em direção ao fundo durante os ataques dos peixes de meia-água. Em seguida, peixes demersais atacaram e

  7. Feeding ecology of Lutjanus analis (Teleostei: Lutjanidae from Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil

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    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2011-06-01

    é o menor nível taxonômico possível e avaliados através dos métodos de frequência de ocorrência e volumétrico. Variações no consumo das presas foram avaliadas através do método de escalonamento multidimensional não-métrico e métodos de análise de similaridade e percentagem de similaridade. Diferenças significativas na dieta foram observadas entre as classes de tamanho, porém estas não foram detectadas entre as estações do ano. Considerando as classes de tamanho, os itens consumidos apresentaram importantes variações: os juvenis (50,1 cm CT consumiram basicamente peixes, principalmente Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis é um importante predador recifal generalista, que consome um amplo espectro de presas, apresentando mudanças ontogênicas na dieta. Esse lutjanídeo desempenha um importante papel na ecologia trófica dos recifes de corais do Banco dos Abrolhos.

  8. Reprodução de Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus in the Santa Catarina's coast, Brazil

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    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O savacu Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie de hábitos crepusculares e noturnos, com ampla distribuição geográfica. Sua biologia reprodutiva tem sido intensivamente estudada nos países de ocorrência, entretanto, no Brasil, é comumente citada nos levantamentos de ornitólogos, mas não existem informações disponíveis sobre seu ciclo de vida. Esse trabalho objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie no litoral catarinense. As amostragens foram realizadas nos anos de 2000 a 2002 na Ilha dos Pássaros e de 2002 na Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. As maiores abundâncias de exemplares e ninhos com ovos ocorreram em outubro, sendo que o comprimento médio dos ovos variou entre 5,02 ± 0,23 a 5,07 ± 0,21 cm e o volume 31,71 ± 2,64 a 35,92 ± 3,47 cm³ e as maiores freqüências de filhotes em novembro, culminando o abandono da colônia em meados de janeiro. Foram identificados sete itens nos regurgitos dos filhotes, sendo que os peixes marinhos representaram 44,4% da massa total. O principal predador na colônia foi o urubu-comum, que atuou sobre os ovos no início da temporada e os filhotes no final.The black-crowned night heron N. nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 is a aquatic bird with twilight and night habits, with wide geographical distribution. His reproductive biology has been studied intensively at the occurrence countries, however, in Brazil, it is mentioned commonly in the ornithologists' risings, but available information don't exist on his life cycle. This work aims to contribute for the knowledge of the reproductive biology of that species in the Santa Catarina coast. The samplings were accomplished in the years from 2000 to 2002 in the Ilha dos Pássaros and of 2002 in the Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. The largest abundances of individuals and nests with eggs happened in October, and the medium length of the eggs varied between 5.02 ± 0.23 to 5.07 ± 0.21 cm and the volume 31

  9. Biological and behavior aspects of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 on cotton plantsAspectos biológicos e comportamentais de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 em algodoeiro

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    Luciano Pacelli Medeiros Macedo

    2010-02-01

    ção, efetivo de oviposição, pós-oviposição, longevidade de machos e fêmeas, capacidade diária e total de oviposição. O comportamento de pupação foi avaliado liberando-se três larvas de terceiro ínstar por planta de algodão, colocando-as no terço inferior, médio e superior. Os tratamentos foram: solo nu, folhas secas de algodoeiro, brita no 1 e brita no 1 + folhas secas. Para se avaliar o tempo de busca, larvas nos diferentes ínstares, foram liberadas no terço superior de plantas de algodão infestadas com A. gossypii, cronometrando-se o tempo em que a presa ficou exposta ao predador. As larvas de C. externa passaram por todas as fases do seu ciclo biológico e não houve influência significativa do tipo de cobertura do solo utilizada na porcentagem de pupas recuperadas, sendo todas foram significativamente superiores a solo nu. Não houve diferença significativa no tempo de busca da presa pelas larvas de C. externa.

  10. Seletividade de Lecanicillium lecanii e Metarhizium anisopliae para larvas de primeiro ínstar de Ceraeochrysa cincta (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae em laboratório = Selectivicty of Lecanicillium lecanii and Metarhizium anisopliae for Ceraeochrysa cincta first instar larvae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae in laboratory

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    Eliane Ribeiro Cardoso

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a seletividade dos fungos Lecanicillium lecanii e Metarhizium anisopliae para larvas de Ceraeochrysa cincta, utilizando-se a aplicação por imersão e aaplicação em bases de vidro, formando filme seco (IOBC modificado. Nos dois métodos, foram aplicados os tratamentos: 1 - L. lecanii; 2 - M. anisopliae - 2.1x107 conídios viáveis mL-1; 3 - solução de Tween 80® a 0,05% como testemunha. Avaliou-se a mortalidade, duração médiado período larval, fecundidade e a viabilidade dos ovos. Todos os insetos mortos foram submetidos à assepsia, para confirmação da mortalidade causada pelo fungo. Em ambos os bioensaios, as mortalidades confirmadas pelos fungos foram iguais a zero. No filme seco o efeito total dos fungos sobre o predador foi classificado como pouco nocivo de acordo com as categorias propostas pelo método IOBC. L. lecanii e M. anisopliae não afetaram a viabilidade dos ovos de C. cincta, quando aplicados por imersão. Na concentração que foi estabelecida para a realização dos bioensaios, os fungos entomopatogênicos L. lecanii e M. anisopliae foram seletivos para larvas de 1o ínstar de C. cincta.This paper aimed to evaluate the selectivity of the fungi Lecanicillium lecanii and Metarhizium anisopliae for Ceraeochrysa cincta. Two bioassays were developed: 1st application of dry filmproposed by the International Organization for Biological Control IOBC (modified - they were applied in glass bases, forming dry film. 2nd immersion application. In the two methods, the following treatments were applied: 1- watery suspension of L. lecanii; 2- the same for M. anisopliae (both at 2.1x107 viable conidia mL-1; and 3- Tween 80® 0.05% watery solution. The larvae mortality, the average duration of the larvae period, the females fecundity and the eggsviability were evaluated. All the dead insects were submitted to asepsis to confirm the mortality caused by the fungi. In both bioassays, the mortality

  11. Emergência de Haematobia irritans em fezes bovinas no município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro Emergence of Haematobia irritans in cattle dung pats in Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro

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    Douglas Marques de Macedo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a emergência de Haematobia irritans em fezes de bovinos mantidas a campo e em laboratório, além de observar a presença de outros dípteros associados às massas fecais. Foram utilizados dois grupos de fezes bovinas, um à campo e outro em laboratório, sendo cada grupo formado por cinco bolos fecais frescos de tamanho mediano (cerca de 30 cm de diâmetro, aparência opaca, cor esverdeada, presença de fina crosta externa e consistência firme. As fezes foram cobertas com gaiolas de emergência de formato piramidal, apresentando na parte superior um orifício onde foi acoplado um frasco removível; a substituição das fezes foi realizada quinzenalmente. Foram coletados um total de 355 espécimens de H. irritans, sendo 151 provenientes das gaiolas mantidas no campo e 204 em laboratório. Estas diferenças deveram-se provavelmente à menores oscilações de temperatura verificadas no laboratório do que àquelas ocorridas no campo, além da ação de artrópodes predadores, competidores e parasitóides que, provavelmente, interferiram na emergência de H. irritans nas fezes bovinas mantidas no campo. Foi observado maior número de fêmeas em comparação com machos em ambas as condições investigadas. Além de H. irritans, obteve-se outros dípteros associados às fezes bovinas, pertencentes as seguintes famílias: Aulacigastridae, Muscidae, Psychodidae, Sarcophagidae, Sepsidae, Tachinidae e Ulidiidae. Sepsidae foi a mais abundante, com 5.224 exemplares do total de 8.928 dípteros obtidos, seguida por Sarcophagidae com 2.235 espécimens coletados, Muscidae com 1.357, Aulacigastridae com 54, Psychodidae com 46, Ulidiidae com 6 e Tachinidae com 5 exemplares.This study was carried out in order to investigate the emergence of adult flies of Haematobia irritans in cattle dung maintained in the field and in the laboratory, as well as other flies associated with dung pats. Two groups of cattle dung were

  12. Aves de fragmentos florestais em área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar no sudeste do Brasil Birds of forest fragments in area of sugar-cane crops in southeastern Brazil

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    Augusto Piratelli

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a avifauna de quatro fragmentos florestais em uma área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar na região de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A dieta básica e a estrutura das guildas tróficas foi determinada. O estudo foi realizado de outubro de 2000 a julho de 2001, utilizando-se capturas com redes ornitológicas, registros visuais e auditivos e análise de fezes. Quarenta e quatro espécies foram registradas e agrupadas em oito guildas tróficas (insetívoros, granívoros, carnívoros, frugívoros, piscívoros, nectarívoros, onívoros e detritívoros. Estas espécies foram também subdivididas em guildas mais específicas, associadas a seus hábitats. Algumas espécies apenas sobrevoaram os fragmentos, como Egretta thula (Molina, 1782, enquanto outras foram consideradas residentes, como Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766. Algumas, como Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766, somente utilizaram os fragmentos para repouso noturno. Espécies pequenas de sub-bosque provavelmente não se deslocaram entre fragmentos, dada a relativa grande distância entre eles. Predadores como Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1789 utilizaram tanto os fragmentos quando as áreas abertas e canaviais em seu entorno. Estes fragmentos estão em situação crítica, abrigando principalmente espécies generalistas e/ou especialistas de bordas; porém ainda são utilizados de alguma forma por espécies de interesse ecológico, como Rhynchocyclus olivaceus (Temminck, 1820 e A. amazonica.Birds of four forest fragments in areas of extensive sugar-cane plantation were studied in Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from October 2000 to July 2001. The basic diet of sampled species and their trophic guild allocation were determined. The study was carried out by means of capture with mist nets, visual and auditive records and analysis of faeces. Forty-four species were recorded and grouped in eight trophic guilds (insectivores

  13. Effects of liming and development of Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus larvae on the abundance of zooplankton in fish ponds Efeitos da calagem e desenvolvimento do Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus na abundância do zooplâncton em viveiros de piscicultura

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    Thécia Alfenas Silva Valente Paes

    2011-12-01

    correção da alcalinidade e predação tanto por peixes quanto por copépodos predadores que ocorreram a partir da quarta semana até o fim. CONCLUSÃO: O experimento corroborou a hipótese que a correção da alcalinidade da água em viveiros favorece o desenvolvimento do zooplâncton, mas também destacou-se a interação de fatores bióticos e abióticos atuando simultaneamente.

  14. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

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    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to

  15. Predação e canibalismo entre protozoários ciliados (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae no rúmen de ovinos (Ovis aries Predation and cannibalism among ciliate protozoans (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae in the rumen of sheep (Ovis aries

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    Isabel Martinele

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar ocorrências de predação e canibalismo em protozoários ciliados no rúmen de ovinos. Foram analisadas amostras de conteúdo ruminal de cinco ovinos mestiços Santa Inês, fistulados no rúmen, mantidos em pastagem natural de caatinga, no município de Sertânia, Pernambuco. Foram obtidas seis amostras de conteúdo ruminal de cada ovino, totalizando 30 amostras, as quais foram fixadas em formalina 18,5% (v/v. De cada amostra foi retirada uma alíquota de 1 ml de conteúdo ruminal ao qual se adicionaram três gotas de solução de lugol para a coloração e identificação dos protozoários ciliados. Estas alíquotas foram analisadas utilizando-se lâminas e lamínulas, em campos determinados randomicamente. Constatou-se a ocorrência de interações do tipo predador-presa entre ciliados de Ophryoscolecidae Stein, 1859, onde Elytroplastron bubali (Dogiel, 1928 apresentou comportamento predatório sobre Enoploplastron triloricatum (Dogiel, 1925 e sobre outras espécies de Epidinium Crawley, 1923 e de Entodinium Stein, 1859. Foram ainda observados casos de canibalismo entre espécimes de E. bubali, o que consiste no primeiro registro deste tipo de interação nesta espécie. Registra-se, ainda, pela primeira vez a ocorrência de E. bubali no rúmen de ovinos no Brasil.The objective of the present study was to record the occurrence of predation and cannibalism among ciliate protozoans in the rumen of sheep. The analyzed samples consisted of ruminal contents of five fistulated Santa Inez crossbred sheep, maintained in a natural caatinga (scrubland pasture in the municipality of Sertânia, Pernambuco. Six samples of ruminal content were obtained from each sheep (total of 30 samples and fixed in formalin at 18.5% (v/v. One 1 ml aliquot was obtained from each sample of ruminal content and received tree drops of a lugol solution for staining and identification of protozoa ciliates. These aliquots were analyzed in

  16. Effect of Carbon dioxide (CO2 on mortality and reproduction of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879, in mass rearing, aiming at the production of Trichogramma spp.

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    ALOISIO COELHO JUNIOR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller 1879 are widely used for mass rearing of Trichogramma spp. and other parasitoids and predators, largely commercialized in many countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2 originated from larval metabolism on the biological parameters of A. kuehniella. For that purpose, we assess the production of carbon dioxide (CO2 per rearing tray of A. kuehniella and the effect of CO2 on the viability of egg-to-adult period and oviposition of A. kuehniella. Results allow to estimate that a rearing tray, containing 10,000 larvae between the 4th and 5th instars, produces an average of 30.67 mL of CO2 per hour. The highest egg production of A. kuehniella was obtained when the larvae were kept in rooms with lower concentration of CO2 (1,200 parts per million - ppm, producing 23% more eggs than in rooms with higher CO2 concentrations. In rooms with high density of trays (70 trays/room, CO2 concentration exceeded 4,400 ppm. The viability of the egg-to-adult period was not influenced by carbon dioxide.Ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, 1879 são muito utilizados para a criação massal de Trichogramma spp. e de outros parasitóides e predadores, sendo comercializados em muitos países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do dióxido de carbono (CO2, proveniente do metabolismo larval, em parâmetros biológicos de A. kuehniella, principalmente na postura. Para que este objetivo fosse atingido, foram avaliados a produção de dióxido de carbono (CO2 por bandeja de criação de A. kuehniella e o efeito do CO2 na viabilidade do período ovo-adulto e na postura de A. kuehniella. Por meio dos resultados obtidos pôde-se estimar que uma bandeja de criação, com lagartas entre o 4° e 5° ínstares, inoculada com 10.000 lagartas produz, em média, 30,67 ml de CO2 por hora. A maior produção de ovos de A. kuehniella foi obtida quando as lagartas foram mantidas em salas com concentra

  17. Long-term ecological research in the forests of the United States: Key lessons for its application in Chile and around the world Estudios ecológicos de largo plazo en bosques de Estados Unidos: Lecciones claves para su aplicación en Chile y otras regiones

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    JERRY F FRANKLIN

    2010-03-01

    Norteamérica ha incluido estudios de cuencas, ensayos silviculturales, establecimiento de parcelas permanentes para investigar demografía forestal, y el estudio de regímenes de perturbación y sistemas predadores/presa. El inicio de investigación de largo plazo en ecosistemas forestales de otras regiones del mundo, especialmente en latitudes correspondientes a ambos lados del ecuador, ayudará a los científicos a comprender los regímenes de perturbaciones naturales y sucesión, así como los efectos de varias estrategias del manejo forestal, y los impactos de cambio climático. Recomendaciones claves basadas en la experiencia de Norteamérica incluyen: 1 la importancia de la investigación multidisciplinaria, 2 la necesidad de invertir recursos en el manejo de bases de datos, 3 la aplicación tanto de tecnología básica como avanzada (por ejemplo, sistemas de detección de ‘eddy covariance’ para cuantificar el intercambio de carbono entre los bosques y la atmósfera, y 4 colaboración entre regiones, instituciones, y científicos individuales.

  18. Assessment of beneficial role of an insectivorous bird, jungle babbler (Turdoides striatus predation, on Helicoverpa armigera infesting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan crop Evaluación del rol benéfico de Turdoides striatus como predator de Helicoverpa armigera en el cultivo de guandul (Cajanus cajan

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    Bhavna Bharucha

    2010-04-01

    heavy losses. This work investigates the interactions among pigeon pea, its key pest, and their natural enemies. These relationships have implications on the pest status of individual species and on possible control strategies.Turdoides striatus es un pájaro insectívoro muy común en áreas subtropicales altamente predador de Helicoverpa armigera, un insecto perforador del fruto de varios cultivos, entre ellos Cajanus cajan (guandul. Para evaluar el rol de T. striatus en el control del insecto, en Baroda (estado de Gaujarat, India, se hicieron observaciones en campos sobre sus hábitos y frecuencia de aparición. Fueron muestreos al azar en 60 plantas con una frecuencia cada 1 - 2 minutos, durante 2 h en la mañana y un tiempo igual en la tarde. Se encontró una relación positiva entre el ataque de las larvas del perforador y la población de T. striatus. Se observó que el insecto prefiere las semillas de guandul sobre las de sorgo, un cultivo asociado incluido en los tratamientos.

  19. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae Comportamiento alimentario de las larvas del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae que se crían en el aerénquima de Pontederiaceae

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    M. Cristina Hernández

    2007-12-01

    -Laubach (Pontederiaceae, minando cerca de la epidermis y abriendo varios orificios al exterior. La larva de T. romus Bickel & Hernández crece en E. azurea (Sw. Kunth, formando una mina curva, corta en comparación con las otras especies. La larva de T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández se desarrolla en Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, excavando la mina entre la epidermis y la gran celda central de los pecíolos. Por último, la larva de T. taragui Bickel & Hernández se cría en tallos sumergidos de P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, formando una mina subepidérmica con ramificaciones hacia la estela central del tallo. No se pudieron asociar las minas correspondientes a las especies T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus y T. azuricola. No se encontraron predadores ni parásitos de larvas o pupas, se observaron casos de canibalismo entre larvas cuando el trazado de dos minas confluye. Las especies del grupo truncatus poseen un modo de alimentación sumamente específico, confinadas al aerénquima, se alimentan de la savia extraída de los orificios roídos en los haces vasculares de los pecíolos y tallos, posiblemente con levaduras simbiontes como suplemento para la nutrición. Numerosas colecciones en el campo y pruebas en el laboratorio, indican que estos insectos están asociados con plantas hospedadoras específicas dentro de la misma familia. Esta especialización sugiere una larga asociación insecto-hospedadora.

  20. Óleo de copaíba (Copaifera sp.: histórico, extração, aplicações industriais e propriedades medicinais Copaiba oil (Copaifera sp.: history, extraction, industrial applications and medicinal properties

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    F.A. Pieri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão de literatura sobre o gênero Copaifera sp. Foi realizado levantamento bibliográfico do período de 1792 a 2008 utilizando bibliotecas da Universidade de São Paulo, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Universidade Federal de Alfenas e Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, pesquisas às bases de dados SCOPUS e PubMed, além de ferramentas de busca na web. Utilizou-se para a busca palavras chave como "Copaiba", "Copaifera", "Copaíba oil" "Óleo de Copaíba". Como resultado desta pesquisa obteve-se a seleção de 63 referências incluindo livros, artigos, cadernos técnicos, resumos de congressos, teses, dissertações e patentes. Estes dados apontaram o óleo de copaíba como um exsudato produzido pelas copaibeiras como defesa contra seus predadores, que vem sendo utilizado pela medicina tradicional popular e silvícola há mais de 500 anos. Ele é extraído destas árvores através de perfurações realizadas em seus troncos. Além das inúmeras aplicações do óleo em cosméticos e outras indústrias, ainda há uma série de indicações para seu uso na medicina. Existem hoje descritas algumas dezenas de propriedades medicinais diferentes, que vem sendo em alguns casos comprovadas cientificamente, como atividade antimicrobiana, antiinflamatória, anti-neoplásica entre outras. Estudos recentes têm demonstrado também grande potencial de uso do óleo de copaíba na odontologia, na composição de cimentos endodônticos e na prevenção e combate da doença periodontal. As informações contidas neste trabalho demonstram uma grande variabilidade de aplicações do óleo de copaíba. Entretanto uma quantidade limitada de pesquisas sobre suas propriedades medicinais tem sido realizada, apresentando assim a necessidade de novas pesquisas sobre estas.The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review concerning the genus Copaifera sp. The survey involved the period from 1792 to 2008 and

  1. Técnicas de controle de qualidade utilizadas na criação de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4471 Quality control techniques used in the breeding of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v20i0.4471

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    Júlio Hermann Leonhardt

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 240 alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, de 45 dias, sexualmente revertidos com peso médio inicial de 1,25 ± 0,14g, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, durante 180 dias. Foram avaliados os efeitos da substituição de 10%, 20% e 30% da ração por levedura de destilaria alcooleira. Os resultados médios obtidos para os parâmetros limnológicos no controle da qualidade da água através de análises físico-químicas e gráficos de controle foram normais durante todo o período experimental. Os valores da temperatura média mensal revelaram estar “fora de controle estatístico”, e mostraram, através da aplicação dos índices de capacidade (Cp e Cpk, que 35,20% estão abaixo do limite inferior de especificação (LIE. A análise dos resultados obtidos, através da aplicação das técnicas de Pareto e Problema da Mochila, evidenciou a solução ótima para resolver os problemas de predadores, biometrias e doenças com a função objetivo Z* maximizada. A utilização das técnicas de controle de qualidade permite um aumento da taxa de estocagem nos tanques sem redução da taxa de crescimento individual e com obtenção de altas produções de peixes de boa qualidade.Two hundred and forty Nile tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus, 45 days old, sexually reverted, with initial average weight of 1.25 ± 0.14g, distributed in a totally randomized design during 180 days, were used in this experiment. Effects of substitutions of 10%, 20% and 30% of the rations by yeast obtained from alcohol distillery were evaluated. Average results obtained for the limnological parameters in water quality control by means of chemical analyses and control graphs were considered normal during the entire experimental period. Values of monthly average temperature were statistically out of control and by the application of the capacity rates (Cp and Cpk showed that 35.20% were below the lowest specification limit

  2. As pragas das hortaliças: seu controle e o selo verde Vegetable pests: their control and the green-certificate

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    Octávio Nakano

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O plantio de hortaliças no Brasil ocupa uma área aproximada de 326 mil hectares. Todas as hortaliças são exigentes na aplicação de defensivos, o que cria não só riscos de intoxicação de agricultores, mas também de consumidores, devido aos resíduos tóxicos nos alimentos. Isso acontece porque na maioria dos casos há poucas opções de controle de pragas além do controle químico. O controle biológico é pouco explorado porque, em plantas de ciclo curto, as chances de que o predador ou parasitóide atuem com eficiência são reduzidas. O controle físico, por sua vez, tem apresentado uma importância relativa crescente, à medida que é divulgado o uso de armadilhas luminosas, de feromônio e de atração pela cor, sendo a amarela a mais usual. Porém, quando pragas exóticas ou não surgem em surtos, favorecidas por condições propícias, somente a utilização de inseticidas é capaz de prevenir os prejuízos econômicos da lavoura. Por esse motivo e também pela crescente conscientização da população em relação à proteção do ambiente e à sua própria saúde, a existência de um selo verde ou selo de qualidade, que assegure o uso correto de defensivos, é uma tarefa que se impõe nos dias de hoje, cabendo às autoridades o inicio do processo. Em São Paulo, a Secretaria de Agricultura iniciou a implantação do selo de qualidade através de morangos produzidos em Atibaia. Outras hortaliças estão sendo cogitadas para receber o selo verde.Vegetable crops in Brazil cover an area of about 326 thousand hectares. All vegetables require insecticide application, which represents a threat not only to producers due to risks of intoxications, but also to consumers, due to residues in food. This situation has arisen because, in the majority of the instances, there are few alternatives of chemicals for pest control. Biological control is rarely exploited because, in case of short-cycle plants such as most vegetables, there is

  3. Capacidade Predatória de Euborellia annulipes (Lucas, 1847 sobre Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797 = Predatory Capacity of Euborellia annulipes (Lucas, 1847 on Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797

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    Aldeni Barbosa da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a Capacidade Predatória de Euborellia annulipes sobre Spodoptera frugiperda em laboratório. O estudo foi conduzido no Laboratório de Entomologia do Setor de Fitossanidade da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC, umidade relativa de 70 + 10% e fotofase de 12h. Notou-se consumo crescente de ovos,podendo ser observado consumo diário médio de 11,06, 49,02, 122,7, 148,09 e 374,9 ovos, do 1° ao 5° instar, respectivamente. A capacidade predatória sobre lagartas de 1° instar de S. frugiperda aumentou de acordo com o seu desenvolvimento, com aumento de,aproximadamente, 14,3 vezes do 1° ao 5° instar, nos dez dias de consumo, sendo que, o 4° e o 5° instares apresentaram consumo diário médio de 25,5 e 26,6, respectivamente, bem superior em comparação aos demais instares; o maior consumo de lagartas de 2º instar pelopredador, ocorreu no 4º e 5º instar, que apresentaram consumo diário médio de 12,8 e 15,1, respectivamente. Verifica-se que E. annulipes demonstra ser predador potencial de ovos e lagartas de S. frugiperda, chegando um adulto a consumir 1.481,2; 89,20 e 48,6 ovos e lagartasde 1º e 2º instares, respectivamente, nos dez dias de consumo.The predatory capacity of Euborellia annulipes on Spodopterafrugiperda was studied in a laboratory setting. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Entomology of the Division of Plant Protection, Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB at a temperature of 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 70 + 10% and a 12-hour photophase. Thestudy detected growing egg intake, with an average daily consumption of 11.06, 49.02, 122.7, 148.09 and 374.9 eggs, from the first to the fifth instars, respectively. A predatory capacity of fist-instar larvae of S. frugiperda increased in line with its development, with an increase of approximately 14.3 times from the first to the fifth instar, in the 10 days of consumption, whereas the fourth and fifth instars presented an

  4. Aspectos biológicos de Chrysoperla raimundoi Freitas & Penny (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae Biological aspects of Chrysoperla raimundoi Freitas & Penny (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae

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    Taís Carmona Lavagnini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os crisopídeos são importantes predadores e são encontrados em diversos agroecossistemas. A temperatura é um dos fatores determinantes para o desenvolvimento dos insetos, sendo que existe um gradiente de variação aceitável para cada espécie. Portanto, objetivou-se com este estudo verificar a influência de diferentes temperaturas sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário e pós-embrionário de C. raimundoi assim como verificar as conseqüências nas diferentes gerações. As fases jovens foram criadas em três ambientes com temperaturas constantes de 19,0, 25,0 e 31,0ºC e em um ambiente externo sem controle dos fatores abióticos. Foram observados a duração do período embrionário, do primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, a duração do período larval, pupal e ovo-adulto, assim como, a sobrevivência em cada estágio, estádio e a porcentagem de emergência. O desenvolvimento embrionário e pós-embrionário diferiu entre as gerações F2 e F4. Quanto à influência de diferentes temperaturas para a geração F2, os indivíduos criados a 31,0ºC demonstraram redução na taxa de desenvolvimento com relação aos outros dois ambientes. Para a geração F4, observou-se que as diferentes temperaturas influenciaram no desenvolvimento, sendo que a 19,0ºC houve prolongamento do mesmo.The green lacewings are important predators and are found in several agroecosystems. The temperature is one of the decisive factors for the development of insects, and there is an acceptable variation gradient for each species. Therefore, the purpose of this study was not only to check the influence of different temperatures on the embryonic and post-embryonic development of Chrysoperla raimundoi, as well as check the consequences in the different generations. The immature stages were reared at four different environmental conditions, three of them with constant temperatures (19,0, 25,0 e 31,0ºC and the fourth rearing place was external to the laboratory

  5. Sleeping sites of woolly mouse opossum Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae in the Atlantic Forest of south-eastern Brazil Sítios de dormida da cuíca Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidaa na Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil

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    Edsel A. Moraes Junior

    2005-12-01

    . aculeatissimum se deve provavelmente à maior proteção contra predadores exercida pelos numerosos espinhos presentes nesta espécie.

  6. Altitudinal zonation among lizards of the genus Liolaemus: questions answered and unanswered questions Zonación altitudinal en lagartijas del género Liolaemus: preguntas respondidas y pendientes

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    JOHN H. CAROTHERS

    2001-06-01

    temperaturas ambientales frías determinan que sólo las especies vivíparas puedan sobrevivir arriba de los 2.400 m de altura. Tres especies de Liolaemus se especializan en microhábitats de distribución restringida en el gradiente altitudinal. Liolaemus tenuis se encuentra exclusivamente en la base de árboles, los cuales se distribuyen típicamente debajo de los 1.800 m. Liolaemus leopardinus se especializa en rocas grandes que se encuentran sólo en altitudes mayores. Liolaemus monticola usa rocas pequeñas: la oviparidad determina su límite distribucional superior en dos de los tres transectos examinados, y en el tercero esta especie y su habitat rocoso virtualmente desaparecen arriba de los 1.500 m. La competencia interespecífica entre Liolaemus aparentemente no se relaciona con su distribución altitudinal. No encontramos ejemplos de distribuciones parapátricas entre pares de especies de Liolaemus con similares requerimientos de nicho. Otros investigadores han encontrado que la depredación no se correlaciona con la altitud: su papel en determinar las distribuciones altitudinales de especies depende tanto de las densidades de predadores como de las presas. Concluímos que los factores determinantes de los límites de distribución de las especies de Liolaemus varían dependiendo de sus circunstancias individuales en el tiempo y el espacio: si bien la fisiología puede ser relevante en un transecto, la disponibilidad del microhábitat preferido puede ser importante en otro

  7. Níveis de mercúrio total em peixes de água doce de pisciculturas paulistas Mercury levels in freshwater fishes from piscicultures estabilished in São Paulo State

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    Marcelo A. Morgano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os níveis de mercúrio total em amostras de peixes de água doce, procedentes de pesqueiros e pisciculturas de 39 regiões do estado de São Paulo. As espécies de peixes estudadas foram: pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, piauçu (Leoporinum sp, matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum e carpa (Cyprinus carpis. Foram avaliadas três metodologias de digestão de amostras para a determinação de mercúrio total, variando-se o volume de mistura sulfonítrica utilizada e a concentração do permanganato de potássio, sendo que o uso de 10mL de mistura sulfonítrica e solução de permanganato de potássio a 7% (m/v na digestão da amostra foi a que forneceu as recuperações mais altas (96%, precisão de 1% e limite de quantificação de 0,3µg/kg. Após a validação do método, foram realizadas as determinações de teor de mercúrio total em 293 amostras de pescado, usando a técnica de espectrometria de emissão com fonte de plasma acoplado em gerador de hidretos. Os níveis médios de mercúrio encontrados variaram entre: tambaqui (0,0003-0,012mg/kg, carpa (0,063mg/kg, matrinxã (0,0003-0,074mg/kg, pacu (0,0003-0,078mg/kg, piauçu (0,0003-0,183mg/kg e tilápia (0,0003-0,217mg/kg. Os resultados mostraram que nenhuma das amostras procedentes das diferentes regiões e diferentes pesque-pagues, apresentaram níveis de mercúrio total acima do permitido pela legislação brasileira, que é de 0,5mg/kg para pescado não-predador.In this work, the levels of mercury were evaluated in samples of freshwater fish, coming from fishing-grounds and piscicultures of 39 regions of São Paulo State. The species of fish studied were: pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, piauçu (Leoporinum sp, matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and carpa (Cyprinus carpis. Three digestion methodologies of sample were evaluated for the mercury determination, with

  8. Araucaria araucana and the Austral parakeet: pre-dispersal seed predation on a masting species El pehuén y la cachaña: depredación predispersión de una especie "masting"

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    JOHN D SHEPHERD

    2008-09-01

    pero no fue diferente entre sitios. En el año de baja producción de conos, la depredación aumentó durante la temporada, observándose la máxima depredación luego del pico de caída de semillas. La cachaña manipula las semillas con diferente eficiencia en años de alta y baja producción de conos, dejando caer menos semillas parcialmente dañadas en años de baja producción. Se discuten estos resultados en el contexto de la hipótesis sobre saciedad de predadores.

  9. Biophysical interactions in the Cabo Frio upwelling system, southeastern Brazil

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    Sergio Augusto Coelho-Souza

    2012-09-01

    ência são comuns durante os períodos de primavera/verão e a biomassa primária é exportada devido à circulação da água, sendo também controlada pela rápida predação zooplanctônica. Os pequenos peixes pelágicos regulam o crescimento do plâncton e são consumidos pelos peixes predadores, resultando em um importante estoque pesqueiro regional. A irregularidade da costa define as enseadas do Cabo Frio, na Reserva Extrativista Marinha do Arraial do Cabo, apresentando distintas influências das águas ressurgidas e resultando em grande diversidade de espécies. Consequentemente, ambientes com características tropicais e subtropicais são observados dentro de uma pequena escala espacial, o que constitui uma particularidade desse ecossistema.

  10. Tafonomia y ambiente sedimentario del yacimiento de Huelago

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    Alberdi, M. T.

    2002-04-01

    situ. En los niveles detríticos asociados a paleocanales hay un porcentaje mayor de dientes aislados y esquirlas; y las mandíbulas y cuernas están asociadas a niveles limoso-margosos sin removilizar. Los agentes atmosféricos contribuyeron activamente a la fracturación de los huesos. La actividad de carroñeros-predadores en la superficie herbácea y encharcada del borde del lago ha sido reconocida. La gran diversidad de rumiantes, en particular los ramoneadores, indica áreas arboladas o arbustivas en los alrededores de Huélago, aunque no en el área inmediata del borde del lago. Se elaboró una matriz de datos con las variables medidas en cada resto fósil recuperado, que fue la base para el tratamiento gráfico y estadístico utilizado en el estudio del yacimiento.

  11. Functional trophic composition of the ichthyofauna of forest streams in eastern Brazilian Amazon

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    Gabriel Lourenço Brejão

    écies distribuídas em seis ordens, 26 famílias e 63 gêneros, com predomínio de Characiformes, seguidos por Siluriformes. A partir de informações coligidas por observações ad libitum, as espécies foram organizadas em 18 grupos tróficos funcionais (GTFs, de acordo com duas características principais: (1 a tática alimentar observada com maior frequência; e (2 sua distribuição espacial no riacho, considerando suas dimensões lateral (margens e canal central e vertical (coluna d'água. Os GTFs mais frequentes foram Catadores noturnos de invertebrados (9 espécies, Coletores diurnos de canal (8 spp., Catadores diurnos de superfície (7 spp., e Predadores de tocaia e emboscada (6 spp.. Os GTFs aqui definidos possibilitam uma análise comparativa da estrutura e composição da ictiofauna, que representa uma abordagem alternativa ao uso da estrutura taxonômica em estudos ecológicos. A classificação da ictiofauna baseada em GTFs proposta neste trabalho é comparada com outras três classificações, propostas por Sazima (1986, Sabino & Zuanon (1998 e Casatti et al. (2001.

  12. Leaf degradation of Salix humboldtiana Willd: (Salicaceae and invertebrate colonization in a subtropical lake (Brazil Degradação foliar de Salix humboldtiana Willd: (Salicaceae e colonização por invertebrados em um lago subtropical (Brasil

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    Franko Telöken

    2011-03-01

    ção; RESULTADOS: Aos 71 dias foi registrada a degradação de 51% do peso inicial (k = 0,0100 d-1. O tempo estimado para a degradação de 95% do peso inicial dos detritos foi 300 dias. Foram identificados 16.040 organismos, distribuídos em 35 táxons. Caenidae (25,9%, Oligochaeta (19%, Ostracoda (13,8%, Hydracarina (9,8%, Tanypodinae (9,7% e Coenagrionidae (7,7% foram os táxons mais representativos. Foi observado incremento na riqueza, densidade e diversidade dos táxons ao longo do tempo, com tendência à estabilização dos valores de diversidade. Em relação aos grupos tróficos funcionais (GTFs, coletores-catadores representaram 57,6% da comunidade, enquanto predadores (25%, raspadores (15,8%, coletores-filtradores (0,88% e fragmentadores (0,73% também foram representados. A diversidade e homogeneidade dos GTFs apresentaram estabilização a partir do 14º dia; CONCLUSÕES: Os detritos de S. humboldtiana fornecem um habitat favorável por tempo suficiente para suportar alta densidade e diversidade de invertebrados aquáticos. A baixa abundância de fragmentadores indica pouca influência da comunidade de invertebrados na velocidade de degradação dos detritos. A principal contribuição desta comunidade no processamento dos detritos ocorre por meio do consumo de matéria orgânica particulada fina por coletores-catadores.

  13. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  14. Whitefly population dynamics in okra plantations Dinâmica populacional de mosca-branca em quiabo

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consists primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal population dynamics of the whitefly B. tabaci biotype B on two successive A. esculentus var. "Santa Cruz" plantations. Leaf chemical composition, leaf nitrogen and potassium contents, trichome density, canopy height, plant age, predators, parasitoids, total rainfall and median temperature were evaluated and their relationships with whitefly on okra were determined. Monthly number estimates of whitefly adults, nymphs (visual inspection and eggs (magnifying lens occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence and natural enemies, mainly Encarsia sp., Chrysoperla spp. and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to whitefly reduction. The second okra plantation, 50 m apart from the first, was strongly attacked by whitefly, probably because of the insect migration from the first to the second plantation. No significant effects of the plant canopy on whitefly eggs and adults distribution were found. A higher number of whitefly nymphs was found on the medium part than on the bottom part.O controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentus L. consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender a dinâmica populacional, espacial e temporal da mosca-branca em dois cultivos sucessivos de quiabeiro "Santa Cruz". Avaliaram-se a composição química foliar, os níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, a densidade de tricomas, a altura de dossel, a idade de planta, predadores, parasitóides, pluviosidade total

  15. Composição elementar e caracterização da fração lipídica de seis cultivares de caupi Biochemical composition and characterization of lipid fraction of six cowpea cultivars

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    Rolando E. R. Castellón

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A composição bioquímica elementar de sementes de seis cultivares de feijão de corda (Vigna unguiculata foi determinada e a fração lipídica de cada cultivar, caracterizada. Os resultados sugerem que todas as farinhas de semente compartilham composição bioquímica similar, embora as cultivares Br-14 e CE-315 difiram das Br-9 e Br-17 no teor de umidade. As frações lipídicas purificadas foram caracterizadas quanto ao teor e tipos de ácidos graxos presentes. A cultivar Br-17 possui alto conteúdo de ácido palmítico (58,2% e o menor conteúdo de ácido linoléico (6,4% enquanto a Vita 7 apresenta alto conteúdo de ácido linoléico (21,8% e relativamente baixo conteúdo de ácido palmítico (41% em uma base comparativa. Os ácidos graxos pentacosanóico e eicosanóico representam a fração lipídica menor e o primeiro não ocorre em CE-315. Os resultados sugerem que diferentes cultivares obtidas por melhoramento genético podem apresentar diferenças quantitativas e qualitativas na composição bioquímica; assim, diferenças na capacidade germinativa, resistência a predadores no campo de plantio e no armazenamento, poderiam estar relacionadas à inibição ou estímulo da expressão de genes codificadores da síntese de moléculas relevantes, que refletem diferenças de composição, como demonstrado neste trabalho.The biochemical composition of the seeds of six bean - Vigna unguiculata (Walp cultivars was determined and the lipid fraction of each of these cultivars was characterized. The results suggest that all analyzed seed flours share similar biochemical composition, although the cultivars Br-14 and CE-315 differ in relation to Br-9 and Br-17 in water content. The purified fatty acid fractions were characterized according to their lipid content. The cultivar Br-17 possesses high content of palmitic acid (58.2% and low content of linoleic acid (6.4% while Vita 7 possesses high contents of linoleic acid (21.8% and relatively low

  16. Diversidade e dinâmica populacional de ácaros em pomar cítrico Diversity and population dynamics of mites in citrus orchard

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    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de citros hospedam diversas espécies de ácaros que causam sérios prejuízos à produção e qualidade de frutos no Brasil. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo estudar a diversidade de ácaros e a dinâmica populacional das principais espécies de ácaros em pomar de citros, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, localizado no município de Descalvado, Estado de São Paulo. Foram realizadas 14 avaliações em um período de 12 meses, de fevereiro de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008. Em cada avaliação, foram coletadas dez folhas e cinco frutos na parte interna de cada uma das 40 plantas demarcadas no pomar. Foram encontradas 34 espécies de ácaros, distribuídas em 17 famílias. As espécies mais abundantes foram: Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmed (Eriophyidae, Panonychus citri (McGregor (Tetranychidae, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Tenuipalpidae e Fungitarsonemus sp. (Tarsonemidae. Entre os ácaros predadores, a família Phytoseiidae foi a de maior riqueza (oito espécies e abundância (1.072 indivíduos. A espécie predominante foi Euseius concordis (Chant, correspondendo a 98,3% dos ácaros desta família. Foram observadas correlações significativas entre densidades populacionais de E. concordis e dos ácaros fitófagos P. citri, B. phoenicis e P. oleivora. Também foram observadas correlações significativas entre densidades populacionais desses ácaros e fatores meteorológicos como temperatura e precipitação pluvial. Os resultados indicam que E. concordis atua como inimigo natural de P. citri, B. phoenicis e P. oleivora no pomar cítrico estudado.The citrus plants are hosts of several species of mites, which cause severe damage to production and quality of fruits in Brazil. The objective of this research was to study the diversity of mites and population dynamics of the main mite species in a citrus orchard, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, in Descalvado County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Fourteen evaluations were conducted over a period of 12

  17. História natural dos amborés e peixes-macaco (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei do Parque Nacional Marinho do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, sob um enfoque comportamental Natural history focus blennies and gobis behaviour (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago

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    Liana de F. Mendes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os amborês e peixes-macaco, como são popularmente conhecidos gobiídeos e bleniídeos, são elementos dominantes da fauna de pequenos peixes bentônicos e litorâneos que habitam recifes tropicais, compondo grande parte da alta diversidade das espécies de pequeno porte encontrada no Atlântico ocidental. O estudo da distribuição e história natural dos gobióides e blenióides de Fernando de Noronha foi desenvolvido através de observações de campo. Além da descrição dos hábitats preferenciais foram abordados aspectos sociais tais como, habitat preferencial, interações intra- e interespecíficas, comportamento domiciliar e territorial, e comportamento reprodutivo. A maioria das espécies em foco apresenta distribuição principalmente litorânea, são gregárias, com áreas domiciliares relativamente pequenas em torno de 2 x 2 m², pouco agressivas, tendo sido ocasionalmente registradas curtas perseguições intra- e interespecíficas. A baixa agressividade registrada, em comparação com outros peixes é provavelmente associada à adaptação à ocupação de pequenas áreas, como é o caso das poças de marés, pois um grande número de interações agressivas representaria um gasto de energia desnecessário. No geral, as espécies possuem coloração críptica, associada à evitação de predadores. Apenas nestas épocas de reprodução foi observada a intensificação da agressividade, com comportamento territorial - defesa de território incluindo mordidas e perseguições.The gobis and blenis (Gobiidae and Bleniidae are the most important group of small benthic littoral fishes in tropical reefs, representing most of the high number of small fish species found in Western Atlantic. The natural history of gobiid and bleniid fish from Fernando de Noronha was assessed by means observation sessions using both snorkelling and scuba diving. Most of these observations were aimed at social behaviour, such as intra and interespecific

  18. Experimental introduction of Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae in Praia das Neves, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: a descriptive study 18 years later Introdução experimental de Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Iguanidae em Praia das Neves, Espírito Santo, Brasil: um estudo descritivo 18 anos depois

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    Ana Hermínia B. Soares

    2008-12-01

    ísticas com a da população original em Barra de Maricá, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Também comparamos as medidas morfológicas das duas populações. Ambas fazem uso similar do microhabitat, mas há diferenças nas suas dietas. Recomendamos que a população introduzida e seus competidores potenciais, predadores e parasitos, e as características do habitat continuem a ser monitorados, para garantir que essa espécie não se torne uma ameaça à comunidade de Praia das Neves.

  19. Acarofauna da cafeicultura de cerrado em Patrocínio, Minas Gerais Acarofauna of cerrado's coffee crops in Patrocínio, Minas Gerais

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    Sheila Spongoski

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. na região de cerrado do Estado de Minas Gerais, mais especificamente no Alto Paranaíba, está se desenvolvendo com muito sucesso. As doenças e pragas vêm causando redução na produtividade e na qualidade do café produzido. Os ácaros fitófagos fazem parte deste problema, pois causam danos econômicos. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo o levantamento da acarofauna em cafeeiros daquela região. Foram feitas quatro amostragens de folhas, ramos e frutos, sendo duas no período das águas e duas no período de seca em 2002 e 2003. Foram identificadas três famílias de ácaros fitófagos, quatro de ácaros predadores e quatro de ácaros generalistas. As espécies de ácaros encontradas foram: Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Tenuipalpidae; Oligonychus sp. (Tetranychidae; Tarsonemus confusus Ewing, 1939, Fungitarsonemus sp., Daidalotarsonemus sp., Phytonemus sp. (Tarsonemidae; Lorrya formosa Cooreman, 1958, Lorrya sp. (Tydeidae; Parapronematus acaciae Baker, 1965 (Iolinidae; Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959, Euseius citrifolius Denmark e Muma, 1970, Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant, 1959 (Phytoseiidae; Asca sp. (Ascidae; Bdella sp. (Bdellidae; Zetzellia sp. (Stigmaeidae, e espécimes da família Acaridae e da subordem Oribatida não identificadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato da ocorrência da espécie T. confusus em cafeeiro. Da família Tarsonemidae foram encontradas três novas espécies, e da família Iolinidae um novo gênero, para posterior descrição.The coffee (Coffea arabica L. growing in Cerrado areas of Patrocínio, State of Minas Gerais, more specifically in the region of Alto Paranaíba, have been expanding with success. Coffee diseases and pests result in reduction of the productivity and quality. Phytophagous mites are among the pests that cause economic damage. Therefore, this work had as objective the study of the mite fauna on coffee plants in those areas. Four surveys were

  20. Diet of the ichthyofauna associated with marginal vegetation of a mangrove forest in southeastern Brazil Dieta da ictiofauna associada à vegetação marginal de um mangue no sudeste do Brasil

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    Michéle de O. D. A. Corrêa

    2007-12-01

    vegetal e cinco de origem animal. Os crustáceos predominaram na dieta da maioria das espécies, seja na forma de fragmentos não identificados ou discriminados em oito grupos. O predomínio de espécies utilizando essencialmente uma única fonte alimentar (crustáceos, principalmente Ostracoda e Tanaidacea e a existência de variação sazonal na dieta de algumas espécies ficaram bem evidentes na análise de amplitude do nicho alimentar, com um predomínio de espécies especialistas. No mangue do Rio da Fazenda, a vegetação marginal submersa foi utilizada pela ictiofauna como local de forrageamento e, principalmente, como cobertura para espécies que buscavam alimento no substrato do fundo. Estas espécies podem estar utilizando a vegetação como proteção contra predadores aéreos e aquáticos, ou mesmo contra o arraste no período de mudança das marés. Na área de estudo, a grande diversidade de crustáceos constituiu uma importante fonte de alimento para a maioria das espécies, as quais ajustaram sua dieta em função de variações sazonais na oferta e em função das interações com outras espécies.

  1. Vertical distribution of paracalanus crassirostris (copepoda, calanoidea: analysis by the general linear model

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    Ana Milstein

    1979-01-01

    íduos desta especie de qualquer estádio é diferentemente afetada durante o ano pela hora, profundidade, interação hora-profundidade, e fatores ambientais. Esses efeitos seriam mais marcados no verão. A maior ou menor ocorrência de organismos numa dada hora parece depender mais da dinamica do sistema de correntes (mares que do comportamento dos animais. Todos os estádios apresentaram-se distribuídos na coluna de agua e não mostraram migrações verticais marcadas como parte do seu comportamento normal. Os fatores ambientais em conjunto mostraram-se importantes na distribuição deste organismo, especialmente no verão. Bjornberg & Wilbur (1968 e Sameoto (1975 relacionaram o comportamento migrador pouco marcado ou ausente com o nível trofico que os planctontes costeiros ocupam. Os primeiros autores assinalaram a presença de partículas finas em todas as profundidades em aguas rasas, e a migraçao pouco definida de copepodos filtradores provenientes desse tipo de ãgua; o segundo autor distinguiu, em aguas pouco p?ofundas também, uma comunidade formada por predadores e uma comunidade de presas formada por copepodos nao migradores. Os resultados do presente trabalho apoiam essas idéias, mostrando a falta de migraçao em todos os estádios de um copêpodo que e, durante toda a sua vida, filtrador de partículas finas.

  2. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of TATA-binding Protein from the Teratocytes of Cotesia vestalis%菜蛾盘绒茧蜂畸形细胞TATA结合蛋白基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘璟; 谷启娟; 时敏; 陈学新

    2014-01-01

    TATA结合蛋白(TATA-binding protein,TBP)及其相关因子是转录起始复合物TFIID的重要组分,能识别 TATA元件并与之特异性结合,进而指导 RNA聚合酶和其它转录因子有序装配,形成稳定的转录起始复合物。本文采用RT-PCR和RACE技术克隆获得了菜蛾盘绒茧蜂Cotesia vestalis畸形细胞TATA结合蛋白(CvT-TBP)基因的cDNA序列(GenBank No. JX984954),序列全长6105 bp,开放阅读框5784 bp,编码1927个氨基酸,预测分子量213.8 kDa,理论等电点6.82。氨基酸序列分析表明,CvT-TBP与其他膜翅目昆虫的TBP有很高的同源性,其中与切叶蜂Megachile rotundata、小蜜蜂Apis florea和佛罗里达弓背蚁Camponotus floridanus的相似性均为72%。本研究克隆得到的畸形细胞TATA box结合蛋白cDNA序列,为进一步研究该基因功能以及畸形细胞的作用机理提供了基础数据。%The TATA-binding protein (TBP) and other associated factors are the central elements of the transcription factor, TFIID. The TATA-binding protein recognizes the TATA sequence and specifically binds to it, which recruits RNA polymerase and other transcription factors to form a stable transcription initiation complex. Here we cloned a TATA binding protein gene of Cotesia vestalis teratocyte (CvT-TBP) (GenBank No. JX984954) using RT-PCR and RACE methods. The full length of this cDNA fragment is 6105 bp, containing an open reading frame of 5784 bp which encodes 1927 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 213.8 kDa and isoelectric point of 6.82. Homology analysis using BlastP showed that the amino acid sequence of CvT-TBP had a high similarity with those of TBPs from other insects, sharing 72% identity with those of Megachile rotundata, Apis florea and Camponotus floridanus. The results provide a basis for further study of the functional mechanism of teratocytes.

  3. Dieta natural do siri-azul Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Natural diet of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Patos Lagoon estuary area, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Alexandre Oliveir

    Full Text Available Na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, o siri-azul Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1869 é o mais abundante dentre as espécies do gênero. Apesar do siri-azul exercer influência sobre as comunidades bentônicas, por ser considerado um predador do topo da cadeia alimentar, não existem muitos estudos sobre aspectos ecológicos, inclusive sobre a composição e variabilidade sazonal de sua dieta natural, neste estuário. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a composição da dieta do siri-azul, evidenciando possíveis relações com a comunidade bentônica da região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos. O período de estudo foi de março de 2003 a março de 2004, com coletas bimestrais. Os organismos foram coletados com auxílio de rede de arrasto de fundo, com malha de 13 mm entre nós opostos. Ainda em campo os animais foram fixados em formol 10%. Após a coleta os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo, medidos (largura e comprimento da carapaça - cm e pesados (peso - g. Após a triagem, os animais foram dissecados e os intestinos retirados e pesados. As análises dos conteúdos alimentares dos siris demonstraram que os hábitos alimentares são diversificados, constituindo-se principalmente de invertebrados bentônicos. O item encontrado com maior freqüência foi Detrito, seguido pelo molusco filtrador Erodona mactroides Bosc, 1802 (Erodonidae. Crustáceos da classe Ostracoda e grãos de areia foram importantes componentes dos conteúdos dos intestinos anteriores, sendo que areia não foi considerada como item alimentar, propriamente dito. Também foram encontradas cerdas e mandíbulas de poliquetos, além de sementes das macrófitas Ruppia maritima L. (Potamogatonaceae e Zannichellia palustris L. (Potamogatonaceae. Este estudo serve como subsídio para medidas de proteção e conservação da população do siri-azul, bem como caracteriza relações tróficas com comunidades bentônicas do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos.The Southern

  4. Colonização de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 em localidade com esquistossomose mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brasil. (Prosobranchia, Pilidae Colonization of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 at localility with Schistosomiasis mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brazil

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    Roberto Milward-de-Andrade

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Na localidade de Baldim, MG, Brasil, foram introduzidos, em agosto de 1972, 5.421 exemplares de Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae em 5 córregos e 2 valas, nos quais predominavam Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 e, secundariamente, B. straminea (Dunker, 1848. Entre 1968 e 1971, os índices de infecção da espécie B. glabrata por Schistosoma mansoni oscilaram de 2,1% a 11,9%. Em nenhum momento foram capturados B. straminea liberando cercárias daquele trematódeo. Após a introdução do pilídeo, apenas uma única vez detectou-se 2 (0,8% B. glabrata positivas. Observou-se decréscimo populacional de planorbineos e aumento de densidade de pomácea até 20,0 e 121,6 exemplares/m² em córregos e valas, respectivamente. A estimativa da densidade de F. haustrum foi feita através do método dos "quadrats". Foram coletados, de junho de 1968 a julho de 1972, 65,2% (1.526 dos planorbíneos. Porém, após a introdução do predador-competidor, foram registrados os seguintes dados: 1976, 15% (352; em 1977, 16,1% (377 e, em 1978, apenas 3,7% (87 do total dos exemplares capturados. As pomáceas, transferidas do ambiente lenítico (Sete Lagoas, MG, adaptaram-se às coleções lóticas de Baldim e foram capazes de substituir as populações originais de B. glabrata em vários biótopos, ou tornaram-se, pelo menos, dominantes, sem danos visíveis para os novos ecossistemas. Acredita-se que em outras situações análogas, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1956 - e, por extensão, P. lineata (Spix, 1827, P. canaliculata (Lamark, 1822 e outras do mesmo táxon - poderão ser utilizadas, com sucesso, no controle biológico dos hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni.In the region of Baldim, MG (Brazil - a well-known Schistosoma mansoni endemic area where transmission control had already been unsuccessfully attempted through molluscicide, sanitary education and clinical treatment - 5,421 specimens of Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae were

  5. Feeding ecology of stream-dwelling fishes from a coastal stream in the Southeast of Brazil

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    Rosana Mazzoni

    2007-07-01

    ência alimentar ao longo do desenvolvimento ontogenético e alternaram entre onívoros / carnívoros para onívoros / herbívoros e entre onívoros / carnívoros para onívoros, respectivamente; essas alterações foram acompanhadas por alterações ontogenéticas do Coeficiente Intestinal (CI. Não foram registradas diferenças relacionadas à ontogenia tanto para o CI como para as categorias de alimento consumidas por Hoplias malabaricus mas, dentro da categoria animal, foram observadas diferenças significativas para o tamanho das presas consumidas, bem como correlação positiva entre o tamanho do peixe (predador e o tamanho da presa. Foi ainda observado que os itens alimentares (dentro da categoria animal consumidos pelos adultos de Pimelodella lateristriga foram principalmente baseados em artrópodes alóctones, enquanto os jovens consumiram na mesma intensidade artrópodes alóctones e autóctones; tanto os jovens como os adultos de Mimagoniates microlepis se alimentaram principalmente de artrópodes alóctones. Os valores médios do CI de P. lateristriga e M. microlepis não variaram ao longo do crescimento do corpo. Apesar do consumo das diferentes categorias tróficas não ter sido registrado para todas as espécies estudadas, as alterações da estratégia de exploração dos recursos foi a regra entre essas espécies, exceto para M. microlepis. Dessa forma, sugerimos que M. microlepis é uma espécie conservadora, no que se refere a estratégia de forrageamento e que as alterações nas estratégias tróficas das outras quatro espécies podem ser explicadas pelas alterações morfológicas e maturacionais, particularmente pela habilidade na capacidade exploratória e/ou locomotora.

  6. Caracterización de la meso y macrofauna edáfica en sistemas de cultivo del Sudeste Bonaerense Characterization of the meso and macrofauna of a Southeastern Buenos Aires province soil under different cropping systems

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    Antonio H Gizzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: i. determinar la composición taxonómica y la abundancia relativa de la meso y macrofauna y de sus grupos tróficos en suelos del sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, ii. evaluar la densidad de los organismos que integran dichas comunidades y iii. estudiar el efecto de los sistemas de cultivo (combinación entre sistema de labranza y rotación y la fertilización sobre la meso y macrofauna. Se utilizaron cuatro sistemas de cultivo: LC50 [(50% pastura - 50% agricultura bajo labranza convencional (LC], SD50 [(50% pastura - 50% agricultura bajo siembra directa (SD], LC75 (25% pastura - 75% agricultura bajo LC, SD75 (25% pastura - 75% agricultura bajo SD y cuatro dosis de fertilización nitrogenada (0, 60, 120 y 180 kg de N ha-1. En el año 2000, en LC50 y en SD50 se sembró una pastura (P, la que en 2001 tenía un año de implantada. En el 2000, en LC75 y en SD75 se sembró maíz y en el 2001, soja. Dentro de la mesofauna, la mayoría de los individuos fueron enquitreidos, que en el primer año no presentaron diferencias entre LC y SD, mientras que en el segundo, los mayores porcentajes se observaron en P cuando ésta tenía más de un año de implantada. En la macrofauna predominaron oligoquetos megadrilos, isópodos y miriápodos y en P en ambos años los isópodos y miriápodos fueron dominantes. En el primer año, las densidades de la meso y macrofauna no mostraron diferencias significativas (p>0,003 entre sistemas de cultivo, sin embargo, fueron mayores en los cultivos bajo SD. En el segundo año, las densidades fueron significativamente mayores (p0,003 entre los sistemas de cultivo y las dosis de fertilización. A pesar de no haberse observado diferencias significativas (p>0,003 entre los sistemas en el primer año, los cuatro grupos fueron más abundantes en P y SD que en LC. En el segundo año, los detritívoros, los predadores y los omnívoros fueron significativamente más abundantes en P que en

  7. Spatial and temporal dynamics of coffee-leaf-miner and predatory wasps in organic coffee field in formation Dinâmica espacial e temporal do bicho-mineiro do cafeeiro e da vespa predadora em plantação de café orgânico em formação

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    João Domingos Scalon

    2011-04-01

    café são suscetíveis ao ataque de mais de 850 tipos de fungos e insetos. Entre essas pragas, a mais importante em todo Brasil é o bicho mineiro do cafeeiro [Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae]. Estima-se que a perda no rendimento devido à infestação do bicho mineiro pode chegar a 80% em plantações onde não existe controle da praga. Embora o controle químico seja eficaz para combatê-la, ele acarreta um aumento no custo da produção e constitui um risco para o meio ambiente. O conhecimento da dinâmica espacial-temporal do bicho-mineiro e da vespa predadora (Hymenoptera: Vespidae pode fornecer informações valiosas para o controle biológico da praga. Uma maneira de investigar o sincronismo espacial-temporal entre presa e predador é calcular algum índice para análise de completa aleatoriedade espacial e compará-lo ao longo do tempo. Este artigo sugere o uso do índice de Morisita, juntamente com o método bootstrap, em uma sequência temporal para caracterizar a dinâmica espacial-temporal do bicho-mineiro e da vespa predadora em um hectare de uma plantação orgânica de café. Os resultados revelaram que o bicho-mineiro e a vespa predadora apresentaram um comportamento sazonal com um sincronismo temporal. Além disso, observou-se que minas novas e predadas apresentavam agrupamentos durante a estação mais seca do ano. Existem poucas evidências de interação espaço-temporal entre minas predadas e vespas predadoras.

  8. Controle de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 E Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae em cafeeiro e o impacto sobre ácaros benéficos: I - abamectin e emamectin Control of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 and Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae in coffee plants and the impact on beneficial mites: I - Abamectin and emamectin

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    Paulo Rebelles Reis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939 (Acari: Tenuipalpidae é importante em cafeeiro (Coffea spp., por ser o vetor do vírus da mancha-anular, responsável por queda de folhas e má qualidade da bebida do café, e o ácaro-vermelho, Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor, 1917 (Acari: Tetranychidae, por reduzir a área foliar de fotossíntese. Alguns ácaros da família Phytoseiidae são eficientes predadores associados aos ácaros-praga. Com este trabalho teve-se como objetivo estudar o controle dos ácaros-praga e o impacto do abamectin e emamectin sobre fitoseídeos. Em laboratório, foram estudados os efeitos ovicida, tópico, residual, tópico mais residual aos ácaros-praga e a seletividade fisiológica aos fitoseídeos. Em semicampo, foi estudada a persistência dos produtos no controle dos ácaros-praga. O efeito ovicida foi avaliado em ovos no início e fim de incubação; os efeitos residual, tópico e tópico mais residual foram avaliados pela mortalidade de larvas, ninfas e adultos após 48 horas da aplicação, enquanto a persistência foi avaliada pela mortalidade até 30 dias após a pulverização. A seletividade aos ácaros fitoseídeos foi avaliada pelo efeito total às fêmeas adultas, em teste residual em superfície de vidro. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que abamectin e emamectin não possuem ação ovicida, para ambas as espécies de ácaros-praga estudadas. Considerando o efeito tópico mais residual, o abamectin e emamectin foram altamente eficientes no controle de larvas, ninfas e adultos de B. phoenicis; apenas abamectin foi eficiente no controle de O. ilicis. Abamectin foi levemente a moderadamente nocivo e emamectin mostrou-se inócuo a levemente nocivo aos fitoseídeos. Devido à eficiência de controle e seletividade a fitoseídeos, conclui-se que abamectin e emamectin podem ser utilizados em programas de manejo integrado do ácaro B. phoenicis, e abamectin para o manejo de B. phoenicis e O. ilicis em cafeeiro

  9. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele de Faveri Gimenes

    2013-03-01

    éticas. Os peixes foram amostrados de fevereiro/2000 a março/2001 e de fevereiro/2003 a março/2004 nas lagoas Sinhá Mariana e Chacororé, Pantanal Matogrossense. Peixe foi o principal alimento, porém camarões e insetos também foram consumidos. A dieta de P. ternetzi foi significativamente diferente entre as lagoas, mas não diferiu entre os períodos de cheia e seca. Na lagoa Mariana, Psectrogaster curviventris foi a presa mais consumida em ambos os períodos. Na lagoa Chacororé, peixes dominaram a dieta (principalmente Astyanax spp., Leporinus spp. and Schizodon borellii na cheia, e camarão e Eigenmannia spp. na seca. Uma correlação de Spearman mostrou que não existe correlação entre a abundância das espécies de peixes capturadas e suas abundâncias na dieta de P. ternetzi na lagoa Mariana, e que há uma correlação negativa na lagoa Chacororé, embora algumas presas importantes na dieta tenham sido numericamente importantes nas capturas. Embora tenha consumido camarões e insetos, P. ternetzi foi piscívora desde imatura. A correlação entre os itens alimentares e as classes de tamanho de P. ternetzi (Correlação de Pearson evidenciou que as mudanças no uso do alimento durante a ontogenia estiveram associadas ao incremento no consumo de P. curviventris na lagoa Mariana, e de S. borellii na lagoa Chacororé, acompanhando o aumento de tamanho do predador. Assim, os resultados sugerem que vários fatores podem estar envolvidos no uso dos recursos alimentares por P. ternetzi, entre eles, a abundância, o tamanho e as características morfológicas das presas.

  10. Variação de curta escala temporal de bactérias, plcofltoplâncton e nanoheterótrofos na região de Ubatuba - SP, Brasil

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    Hilda de Souza Lima Mesquita

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A variação temporal da comunidade microbiana (bactérias, picofitoplâncton total e nanoheterótrofos nas águas de Ubatuba (23°S 45°W foi estudada durante um período de 7 dias (de 27/02 a 04/03/1988. As amostras foram obtidas na termoclina, duas vezes ao dia (na estôfa da maré baixa e da maré alta durante o período diurno. A densidade de nanoheterótrofos variou de 0,9 a 3,5 x 10³ cels m-1 apresentando valor médio de 2,3 x 10³ cels m-1. Picofitoplâncton total foi representado principalmente por cianobactérias cocóides e sua denside de variocões de 1,0 a 7,6 x 10(6 cels m-1. O número de bactérias variou de 1,0 a 2,7 x 10 cels m-l . A população bacteriana apresentou um padrão de oscilação defasado em relação a variação das concentrações de CI a. O intervalo de tempo entre os valores máximos de Cl a e as densidades máximas de bactéria foi de aproximadamente 24 horas. No início do período de estudo, a interrelação entre nanoheterótrofos e bactérias-picofitoplâncton foi caracterizada por uma oscilação inversa, sugerindo uma interação predador- presa. A partir do dia 02 de março as 3 populações variaram quase que em fase. As influências das condições meteorológicas, do movimento das marés e da predação por microzooplâncton e metazoários são discutidas. A despeito dos vários fatores que podem afetar as interrelações entre nanoheterótrofos e bactérias- picofitoplâncton parece que o padrão observado não é errático e pode estar expressando uma intensa atividade predatória.An investigation on the temporal variation of the planktonic microbial community (bacteria, total picophytoplankton and nanoheterotrophs was undertaken over 7 days period (from February 27 to March 4, 1988 in a coastal region of Ubatuba (23°8, 45°W. Samples were obtained at the thermocline twice daily (at high and low tides during daylight time. Average density of nanoheterotrophs (Nh was 2.3 x 10³ cells m-l, ranging

  11. Populações de aranhas errantes do gênero Ctenus em fragmentos florestais na Amazônia Central Populations of Ctenus wandering spiders in Amazonian forest fragments

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    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ctenus é um gênero de aranhas errantes abundante em florestas tropicais da América do Sul e da África e está se tornando um organismo modelo para compreensão da biologia de predadores na fauna de serapilheira. Avaliamos os efeitos da fragmentação florestal sobre quatro espécies de aranhas errantes do gênero Ctenus (C. amphora, C. crulsi, C. manauara e C. villasboasi, baseado nas variações das densidades e nos tamanhos de adultos em fragmentos de tamanhos diferentes, nas bordas destes e nas florestas secundárias próximas. Este estudo foi realizado de fevereiro a julho de 1999, em floresta tropical úmida de terra firme ao norte de Manaus - AM. As áreas incluíram três locais de mata secundária, quatro fragmentos de 1 ha, três de 10 ha, dois de 100 ha e quatro reservas em floresta contínua (maior que 10.000 ha. As aranhas foram capturadas manualmente, mensuradas e contadas em transectos de 250x5 m ou 500x5 m em áreas de platô, no interior e nas bordas dos fragmentos. Houve predomínio significativo de fêmeas em duas espécies (C. amphora- 74% e C. crulsi- 65%; dimorfismo sexual de tamanho em três espécies (C. amphora, C. crulsi e C. manauara e variação temporal da abundância significativa para as quatro espécies. Estes resultados corroboraram e complementaram tendências de estudos anteriores e permitem uma interpretação mais completa sobre a ecologia destas espécies. Não observamos diferenças de abundância das aranhas entre centro e bordas e entre reservas de diferentes tamanhos. O efeito de borda ou do tamanho do fragmento sobre o tamanho de aranhas Ctenus neste estudo foi bem menor que as variações anteriormente observadas entre habitats diferentes no interior da floresta. Comparações com um estudo posterior a este, mostram que efeito da fragmentação nesta escala sobre estas aranhas diminui com a regeneração da floresta ao redor dos fragmentos, indicando uma rápida resposta do grupo para estas modifica

  12. Hábitos alimenticios del pargo rayado, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano Food habits of the lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean

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    Oscar Doncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hábitos alimenticios de Lutjanus synagris, mediante el análisis de contenido estomacal, considerando el espectro trófico a nivel general, por sexo y talla, los aspectos ecológicos de las presas, su distribución espacial y la relación de la dieta con las condiciones del habitat. Se analizaron 148 estómagos, de los cuales el 45,3% estaba lleno y el 54,7% vacío. Las presas más representativas (%N fueron: Portunus spp. (27,3%; n = 44 y Squilla intermedia (10,6%; n = 17. El análisis gravimétrico (%P mostró que entre las categorías con mayor peso se encontraron: Gastropoda (31,8%; 51,7 g y Farfantepenaeus spp. (17,5%o; 28,5 g. La frecuencia de ocurrencia (%>FO mostró que: Portunus spp. (25,8%>; 17 estómagos y S. intermedia (10,5%>; 7 estómagos fueron las presas más frecuentes. Según el %>IIR, las categorías más representativas en la dieta fueron Portunus spp. (43,0%> y Gastropoda (13,4%>. Se identificaron cuatro categorías como presas principales: Portunidae (837,06, Gastropoda (260,29, Squillidae (234,66 y Penaeidae (218,05, dos como presas secundarias: Sicyoniidae (126,35 y Trichiuridae (75,64 y las demás como presas circunstanciales. La distribución espacial de la amplitud del nicho trófico y de las tallas de L. synagris, permitió identificar dos zonas: la primera entre Riohacha y Dibulla con los valores más altos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,64 a 1,00 denotando predadores generalista y donde se registraron las tallas menores y la segunda, entre Riohacha y Punta Gallinas con los valores más bajos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,00 a 0,23, donde los individuos mostraron alto grado de especialización en la dieta y las tallas mayores.This work describes the food habits of Lutjanus synagris by means of stomach content analysis, considering the trophic spectrum in general as well as by sex and size, the ecological aspeets of the preys, their spatial distribution, and the relationship of the diet with

  13. Indicadores de qualidade de solos de área de mineração e metalurgia de chumbo: II - Mesofauna e plantas Soil quality indicators in lead mining and metalurgy area: II - Mesofauna and plants

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    Yara Jurema Barros

    2010-08-01

    riqueza de grupos de organismos e ocorrência de representantes dos grupos Pseudoscorpiones, Mollusca e Isopoda apenas nesse solo. Os grupos Aracnídeos e Psocoptera também foram considerados bons indicadores ambientais, com incremento de suas populações nos solos com maiores teores de metais pesados (solos 2, 3 e 5, possivelmente devido à menor ocorrência de organismos competidores/predadores desses grupos. Os teores de metais pesados nos indivíduos do grupo Formicidae tiveram relação direta com os teores de Pb extraídos com HNO3 0,5 mol L-1 no solo. Quanto ao acúmulo de metais pesados nas plantas coletadas na área, com exceção do solo 1, todas as espécies encontravam-se sob efeito fitotóxico para Pb e Zn, o que sugere a proibição de pastejo na área.The influence of soil management or the contaminant application to the soil, usually induce to a quicker response in the soil mesofauna than in other pedogenic properties; these organisms are therefore good environmental quality indicators. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the organisms groups of the soil mesofauna and determine Pb and Zn contents in plants in the mining and metallurgy plant in Adrianópolis (PR,to originate biological indicators of the quality of these solis. At the selected locations the following contamination forms were analized: site 1 - reference (native wood; site 2 - residue incorporated in the profile; sites 3 and 6 - close to the chimneys of the plant, with potential import of particulate matter; site 5 - great waste volume covering the soil. Berlese funnels were utilized to collect samples from the 0 to 5 cm layer (20 funnels x 5 sites x 1 layer x 4 times = 400 samples. After the separation of the mesofauna, the organisms were selected and identified. Ants samples were microwave digested with concentrated HNO3 and the Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. Plants from Poaceae family were

  14. Terrestrial arthropods from tree canopies in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Marinêz Isaac Marques

    2006-06-01

    divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae. Três indivíduos foram amostrados durante dois períodos sazonais, um durante a cheia (árvore A: fevereiro utilizando-se o método de pulverização com inseticida e dois durante a seca (árvore B: setembro, C: outubro, empregando-se a termonebulização. Um total de 15744 artrópodes (183,2±38,9 individuos/m² foram obtidos em 86m² de área representando 20 ordens taxonômicas, 87,1% Insecta e 12,9% Arachnida. O grupo dominante foi Hymenoptera (48,5%; 88,9 individuos/m², a maioria Formicidae (44,5%; 81,4 individuos/m², seguido por Coleoptera (14,0%; 25,5 individuos/m² e Araneae (10,2%; 19,5 individuos/m², que representaram 62,5% do total coletado. Com relação a freqüência, 14 de todas as ordens (70% ocorreram nas tres árvores. Dermaptera, Isoptera, Neuroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera e Trichoptera foram coletadas em uma única árvore. Foram obtidos 2197 Coleoptera adultos (25,5±11,3 indivíduos/m², sendo 99% assinalados para 32 famílias e 256 morfoespécies. Nitidulidae (17,9%; 4,6 indivíduos/m², Anobiidae (16,7%; 4,3 indivíduos/m², Curculionidae (13,2%; 3,4 indivíduos/m² e Meloidae (11,4%; 2,9 indivíduos/m² foram dominantes. Os Coleoptera adultos associados à copa de V. divergens indicam dominancia de herbívoros (37,8% do total coletado, 127 spp. e predadores (35,2%, 82 spp., seguidos por saprófagos (16,2%, 32 spp. e fungívoros (10,8%, 15 spp.. A influência do pulso de inundação sobre a comunidade de artrópodes arbóreos associados à V. divergens é indicada pela variação sazonal nos grupos avaliados, gerando mudanças em sua estrutura e composição ao longo dos períodos sazonais.

  15. Evaluación de la actividad entomopatogénica de hongos obtenidos del Páramo de Guerrero (Finca Puente de Tierra Zipaquirá, Colombia

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    Sánchez Nieves Jimena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y conservación de enemigos naturales en agroecosistemas conlleva a largo plazo a la regulación de
    insectos plaga, proporcionando un ambiente apropiado para incrementar la abundancia y eficacia de predadores
    y parásitos. El control biológico constituye una estrategia efectiva dentro de programas de manejo integrado de plagas y enfermedades (MIPE, garantizando control a bajo costo y con un mínimo o inexistente impacto ambiental. El objetivo del presente estudio fue aislar, determinar y evaluar la actividad entomopatógena de hongos obtenidos de suelos (en dos profundidades: 0-20 y 20-40 cm de bosque, cultivos de papa y zonas de descanso, en la finca Puente de Tierra, páramo de Guerrero; utilizando larvas de Galleria mellonella (insecto cebo para su aislamiento y adultos de Tecia solanivora (Povolny para los bioensayos de actividad, calculando tiempos de letalidad 50 y 90. La mayoría de los aislamientos de hongos patógenos y no patógenos se obtuvieron a partir del bosque (no intervenido, en la profundidad de 0-20 cm. En el bioensayo, se observaron resultados positivos para los géneros Fusarium, Paecilomyces y Cordyceps, los cuales son ampliamente reconocidos como entomopatógenos (Lacey, 1997, confirmando su potencial como controladores biológicos de plagas asociadas a cultivos de papa en la zona de estudio. El cultivo de papa involucra prácticas agrícolas y de manejo postcosecha dentro de las cuales, esta involucrado el uso de plaguicidas , el cual representa casi el 20% de los costos totales de la producción del cultivo, siendo por tradición la principal alternativa de control ante los problemas fitosanitarios (Rodríguez, 1996. No obstante, el empleo simultáneo de estrategias de
    control biológico es de gran importancia dentro del contexto de MIPE. Los hongos juegan un papel muy importante en la regulación de poblaciones de insectos, debido a que existen algunos con gran potencial para el control de

  16. Caracterização morfológica e classificação da superfície foliar de pimentas quanto à presença de tricomas e domácias Morphological characterization and surface classification of chili pepper leaves considering trichomes and domatia

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    Cláudia Helena C Matos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das características morfológicas das plantas é de grande relevância para o estudo das interações entre plantas, herbívoros e inimigos naturais. Variações nessas características são determinantes na ocorrência, abundância e diversidade de organismos que exploram esse habitat. Caracterizou-se a superfície foliar de quatro espécies de pimentas do gênero Capsicum e elaborou-se uma proposta de classificação das folhas com base nos critérios de presença ou ausência, densidade e distribuição de tricomas para domácias, visando a utilização dessas informações em estudos de resistência de plantas a artrópodes. A contagem dos tricomas foi feita em uma área de 5 cm²,no terço médio das folhas, sendo contabilizados os tricomas do limbo, das nervuras e das domácias. As espécies de pimenta diferiram significativamente quanto à densidade de domácias e tricomas presentes na nervura e no limbo de suas folhas. Também foi observada diferença significativa na densidade total de tricomas/cm² e no número de tricomas por domácia. Das quatro espécies de pimenta avaliadas, apenas C. baccatum var. pendulum (pimenta com ardume variedade dedo-de-moça não possui domácias nem tricomas em qualquer região de suas folhas. A maior densidade de domácias foi observada em C. baccatum var. praetermissum, espécie em que se observou as maiores densidades de tricomas em todas as regiões da folha e a única com densidade significativa de tricomas no limbo. As variações quanto à presença, distribuição e densidade de tricomas e domácias podem ser determinantes na ocorrência de ácaros predadores e fitófagos nas plantas. Com base na caracterização efetuada foi proposta uma escala de classificação da superfície foliar das plantas, variando de 1 a 5, em função do número e da densidade de tricomas e domácias observados.The knowledge of morphological characteristics of plant leaves is important to study the

  17. CURVA DOSE-RESPOSTA DE COMPOSTOS QUÍMICOS EM ENSAIOS ECOTOXICOLÓGICOS COM NEMATOIDES

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    COUTINHO, H.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Os nematoides são organismos amplamente distribuídos nos ecossistemas terrestres e aquáticos, possuindo abundante diversidade de espécies parasitas de animais, de plantas, ou simplesmente compondo a biota com consumidores de bactérias e nutrientes no meio onde se encontram. Algumas espécies de nematoides de “vida livre” que não são predadores nem parasitas podem ser facilmente mantidos ou cultivados em laboratório, possibilitando seu uso e manipulação em pesquisa. Comumente, os ensaios toxicológicos são produzidos utilizando-se organismos teste que respondam às alterações impostas ao meio, ou seja, expressam o efeito deletério por compostos químicos sintéticos. Algumas espécies utilizadas podem ser aquáticas ou terrestres, como os microcrustáceos, ouriços do mar, peixes, algas e minhocas, etc. Os nematoides de vida livre, apesar de serem organismos aquáticos vivem intimamente ligados às partículas de solo e, não há, até o momento padrões estabelecidos para que esta espécie seja utilizada em rotinas nos testes ecotoxicológicos, uma vez que possuem características essenciais típicas de bioindicadores, como o ciclo de vida curto e respostas rápidas a mudanças no ambiente. Substâncias de referência para testes toxicológicos devem apresentar meia vida longa e estável, estar disponível na forma pura, apresentar uma boa curva dose-resposta para o organismo, ser constante em solução aquosa e mostrar-se com baixo risco a saúde humana. As mais utilizadas são o Sulfato de Zinco, Sulfato de Cobre, Cloreto de Potássio, Cloreto de Cádmio, Cloreto de Sódio, Dodecil/Lauril Sulfato de Sódio e Dicromato de Potássio. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a mortalidade de nematoides para selecionar compostos químicos a serem padronizados para uso como controle positivo em ensaios toxicológicos utilizando nematoides como organismos alvo. Diluições seriadas entre 0,001 e 10.000 ppm foram testadas

  18. Macrofauna edáfica em estádios sucessionais de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e pastagem mista em Pinheiral (RJ: Rio de Janeiro State Soil macrofauna in three succession stages of a seasonal semidecidous forest and a mixed pasture in Pinheiral

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    Carlos Eduardo Gabriel Menezes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre os diferentes tipos de organismos da macrofauna do solo, distribuídos em diversos tipos de habitats, com variados hábitos alimentares e ciclos de vida, alguns são capazes de responder rapidamente às alterações ambientais e, por isso, considerados bons indicadores do funcionamento dos ecossistemas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito dos seguintes estádios sucessionais de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Submontana do domínio ecológico da Mata Atlântica: floresta secundária estádio inicial (FSEI, floresta secundária estádio médio (FSEM, floresta secundária estádio avançado (FSEA e uma área de pasto misto manejado (PMM sobre a densidade, diversidade e composição da comunidade da macrofauna edáfica em duas épocas do ano, no município de Pinheiral (RJ. Para amostragem da macrofauna, foram retiradas oito amostras da serapilheira e da camada superficial (0-10 cm do solo pelo método recomendado pelo programa Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF, com adaptações. Predominaram Isoptera, Formicidae e Oligochaeta em FSEI, FSEM e FSEA e Formicidae e Oligochaeta em PMM. Não houve diferença significativa na densidade da macrofauna edáfica entre as áreas. Os maiores valores dos estimadores de diversidade utilizados (equabilidade de Pielou, riqueza total e média foram encontrados em FSEA. Os valores de riqueza total mostraram aumento gradual de acordo com o estádio de sucessão, desde PMM até FSEI. Constatou-se maior número de indivíduos no solo do que na serapilheira em todas as áreas de floresta, nas duas épocas. Pela análise de componentes principais (ACP realizada para os períodos seco e chuvoso, foi possível identificar maiores diferenças na composição das comunidades entre os estádios sucessionais para o período chuvoso. Nesta época, os estádios FSEM e FSEA estiveram associados a uma maior diversidade de invertebrados saprófagos e predadores do que PMM e FSEI, demonstrando

  19. Testing the ecomorphological hypothesis in a headwater riffles fish assemblage of the rio São Francisco, southeastern Brazil

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    Lilian Casatti

    2006-06-01

    ecological data about the analyzed fish species in their natural environment seems to be strong evidence in favor of the proposed predictive capabilities of the ecomorphological hypothesis.A ecomorfologia de 14 espécies de peixes residentes em um trecho de corredeiras do curso superior do rio São Francisco, sudeste do Brasil, foi analisada e combinada com dados de comportamento alimentar e dieta, previamente obtidos por nós. Os três principais agrupamentos ecomorfológicos de espécies identificados refletem a ocupação espacial de micro-hábitats da seguinte forma: a caracídeos nectônicos com corpos comprimidos, olhos laterais e nadadeiras peitorais laterais, com hábitos noturnos e oportunistas alimentares (Astyanax rivularis, Bryconamericus stramineus e Bryconamericus sp.; b nectobentônicos com corpos fusiformes e nadadeiras peitorais expandidas, que incluem os caracidiíneos predadores de espreita que se alimentam principalmente de larvas aquáticas bentônicas de insetos (Characidium fasciatum e Characidium zebra, parodontídeos pastadores de epilíton (Apareiodon ibitiensis e Parodon hilarii e bagres especuladores de substratos que se alimentam principalmente de larvas aquáticas de insetos (Cetopsorhamdia iheringi, Imparfinis minutus, Rhamdia quelen e Trichomycterus sp.; c bentônicos com corpos deprimidos, lábios modificados em discos orais suctorias, olhos dorsais e nadadeiras peitorais amplas, representados pelos cascudos perifitívoros (Hisonotus sp., Harttia sp. e Hypostomus garmani. Correlação entre dieta e morfologia geral não foi significative em nossa análise, a não ser quando o conjunto analisado incluiu apenas as espécies nectônicas e bentônicas, indicando que a ausência de correlação entre esses fatores é mais pronunciada no grupo de espécies nectobentônicas. A constatação do caso ineqüívoco de convergência morfológica entre os Characidiinae e Parodontidae nectobentônicos é um claro exemplo de como a integração da informa

  20. 家蚕乳糖酶-根皮苷水解酶基因BmLPH014192的表达和序列选择性剪接分析%Expression and Sequence Alternative Splicing Analysis of the Lactase-phlorizin Hydrolase Gene BmLPH014192 in Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞飞; 赵小靓; 鲁成

    2013-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a giycoprotein in microvillus membrane of the intestinal epithelial cell. It has hydrolytic activity to lactose and phlorizin. We identified one of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) LPH genes and named it as BmLPH014192. CDS (coding sequence) of this gene is 1 305 bp long and encodes 434 amino acids, with predicted molecular weight of 50. 8 kD and isoelectric point of 5. 35. An alignment of the cDNA sequence with silkworm genom-ic sequence revealed that there are 7 exons in BmLPH 014192 and all of the exon/intron boundaries conformed to the GT-AG rule. Sequence comparison between BmLPH 014192 and LPH genes from other species including Homo sapiens, Rattus norvegicus and Oryctolagus cuniculus of mammal and Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, Chilo suppressalis, Camponotus floridanus and Danaus plexippus of insect revealed that their amino acids all shared about 60% similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BmLPH014192 was clustered with other insect LPH genes. Microarray analyzing results indicated that BmLPHO14192 was expressed only in midgut among 9 tissues of day 3 silkworm larvae of the 5th instar, and the expression level was very high. Fragments amplified from midgut cDNAs of Dazao, a variety spinning green cocoons, and of 19-710, a variety spinning white cocoons, were 1 000 and 750 bp long respectively, indicating their origination from alternative splicing. No specific band was amplified from midgut of other white cocoon species. It is suggested that the special expression pattern of BmLPH 014192 is related to the specific function of this gene in midgut tissues of different silkworm varieties.%乳糖酶-根皮苷水解酶(lactase-phlorizin hydrolase,LPH)是肠组织上皮细胞微绒膜上的一种糖蛋白,对乳糖和根皮苷有水解活性.鉴定了家蚕基因组中的一个LPH基因,命名为BmLPH014192.该基因CDS长1 305 bp,编码434个氨基酸,预测蛋白质分子质量为50.8 kD,等电点(pI)为5.35.

  1. Micromamíferos del Pleistoceno Superior del yacimiento de PRERESA en el valle del Manzanares y su contribución a la reconstrucción paleoambiental de la cuenca de Madrid durante el Pleistoceno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesé, C.

    2011-12-01

    ubica el yacimiento, excepto Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae que se extinguió en la Península Ibérica al final del Pleistoceno Superior. Las observaciones realizadas sobre el material indican que la acumulación de restos de micromamíferos en el yacimiento es debida, en su mayor parte, a la acción de predadores, muy posiblemente a egagrópilas de aves rapaces. La asociación de micromamíferos de PRERESA indica unas condiciones de clima templado con cierta humedad y un desarrollo de la vegetación con algunas zonas boscosas y fundamentalmente áreas abiertas pero con vegetación arbustiva, herbácea, praderas secas y húmedas, y ribereña. En una comparación de los micromamíferos del yacimiento de PRERESA con los de los yacimientos del Pleistoceno Medio de Áridos 1 y Valdocarros, los datos indican que en los tramos bajos de los ríos Manzanares y Jarama hubo unas condiciones climáticas y paisajísticas similares en los momentos que representan estos yacimientos (Pleistoceno Medio avanzado y primer tercio del Pleistoceno Superior. Sin embargo, y al igual que sucede en la actualidad, estas condiciones fueron algo diferentes en el valle del Lozoya en la Sierra de Guadarrama durante el primer tercio del Pleistoceno Superior, según indica la asociación de micromamíferos de la Cueva del Camino (Pinilla del Valle, Madrid, que sugiere un clima relativamente más húmedo y un medio con una mayor variedad de biotopos. La asociación de micromamíferos del Pleistoceno Superior de PRERESA, en el tramo bajo del Manzanares, comparada con la de la Cueva del Camino que tiene una cronología similar, y con otras del Norte de Madrid del Pleistoceno Superior, pone de manifiesto según nuestras observaciones una diferenciación biogeográfica y paleoclimática ya durante este periodo entre unas y otras, de las que la zona limitante serían más o menos las estribaciones meridionales y centro-orientales del Sistema Central.

  2. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - 2003 - Teses Defendidas - Doutorado - Instituto de Geociências, UFRJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-01-01

    Marchesini Santos Título: Paleontologia da Formação Jandaíra, cretáceo superior da Bacia Potiguar, com ênfase na paleobiologia dos gastrópodos - 184 p. Resumo O Cretáceo foi um período de grandes transformações na história da Terra: novos oceanos se formaram, ocorreram variações do nível do mar, modificações climáticas e uma redistribuição das áreas marinhas e continentais, propiciando uma intensa evolução biológica. A Bacia Potiguar, situada na costa Nordeste do Brasil, foi formada sob essas condições, e os fósseis preservados nos sedimentos da Formação Jandaíra registraram essas transformações que ocorreram na biosfera. O estudo da paleobiologia dos gastrópodos mostrou que durante a transgressão ocorrida no Turoniano inferior, houve a instalação da fauna pertencente ao Domínio Tetiano. A fauna de gastrópodos é característica do Cretáceo, destacando-se os representantes das famílias Nerineidae, Naticidae e Aporrhaidae, bem como do gênero Trochactaeon. Os animais carnívoros predadores estavam em desenvolvimento neste período, entre eles os gastrópodos, que estão representados na formação pelos naticídeos, destacando-se entre eles o gênero Tylostoma, pela abundância de exemplares. O conhecimento dos processos tafonômicos foi fundamental para a identificação das espécies. Os fósseis que ocorrem na fácies de planície de maré apresentam-se muito deformados, dificultando a identificação das espécies, enquanto que os da fácies de laguna sofreram destruição dos caracteres internos. O estudo da paleobiologia dos gastrópodos e da fauna associada permitiu identificar duas seqüências deposicionais durante o Turoniano inferior. A primeira, transgressiva, pertencente à um trato de mar alto e a segunda, regressiva, correspondente a um trato de mar mais baixo, culminando com sedimentos indicadores de exposição subaérea. A seqüência transgressiva foi datada no Turoniano inferior pela presença do inoceram