WorldWideScience

Sample records for precrash restraint sensor

  1. Anticipatory precrash restraint sensor feasibility study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This report explores feasibility of an anticipatory precrash restraint sensor. The foundation principle is the anticipation mechanism found at a primitive level of biological intelligence and originally formalized by the mathematical biologist Robert Rosen. A system based on formal anticipatory principles should significantly outperform conventional technologies. It offers the prospect of high payoff in prevention of death and injury. Sensors and processes are available to provide a good, fast, and inexpensive description of the present dynamical state of the vehicle to the embedded system model in the anticipation engine. The experimental part of this study found that inexpensive radar in a real-world setting does return useful data on target dynamics. The data produced by a radar system can be converted to target dynamical information by good, fast and inexpensive signal-processing techniques. Not only is the anticipatory sensor feasible, but further development under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is necessary and desirable. There are a number of possible lines of follow-on investigation. The level of effort and expected benefits of various alternatives are discussed.

  2. The effect of precrash velocity reduction on occupant response using a human body finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleyupoglu, B; Schap, J; Kusano, K D; Gayzik, F S

    2017-07-04

    The objective of this study is to use a validated finite element model of the human body and a certified model of an anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) to evaluate the effect of simulated precrash braking on driver kinematics, restraint loads, body loads, and computed injury criteria in 4 commonly injured body regions. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant (M50-O) and the Humanetics Hybrid III 50th percentile models were gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced 3-point belt and driver airbag. Fifteen simulations per model (30 total) were conducted, including 4 scenarios at 3 severity levels: median, severe, and the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (U.S.-NCAP) and 3 extra per model with high-intensity braking. The 4 scenarios were no precollision system (no PCS), forward collision warning (FCW), FCW with prebraking assist (FCW+PBA), and FCW and PBA with autonomous precrash braking (FCW + PBA + PB). The baseline ΔV was 17, 34, and 56.4 kph for median, severe, and U.S.-NCAP scenarios, respectively, and were based on crash reconstructions from NASS/CDS. Pulses were then developed based on the assumed precrash systems equipped. Restraint properties and the generic pulse used were based on literature. In median crash severity cases, little to no risk (braking cases (1.0-1.4 g), head injury criterion (HIC), brain injury criterion (BrIC), and chest deflection injury measures increased with increased braking intensity. All other measures for these cases tended to decrease. The ATD also predicted and trended similar to the human body models predictions for both the median, severe, and NCAP cases. Forward excursion for both models decreased across median, severe, and NCAP cases and diverged from each other in cases above 1.0 g of braking intensity. The addition of precrash systems simulated through reduced precrash speeds caused reductions in some injury criteria, whereas others (chest

  3. Potential of a precrash lateral occupant movement in side collisions of (electric) minicars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierlinger, T; Lienkamp, M; Unger, J; Unselt, T

    2015-01-01

    In minicars, the survival space between the side structure and occupant is smaller than in conventional cars. This is an issue in side collisions. Therefore, in this article a solution is studied in which a lateral seat movement is imposed in the precrash phase. It generates a pre-acceleration and an initial velocity of the occupant, thus reducing the loads due to the side impact. The assessment of the potential is done by numerical simulations and a full-vehicle crash test. The optimal parameters of the restraint system including the precrash movement, time-to-fire of head and side airbag, etc., are found using metamodel-based optimization methods by minimizing occupant loads according to European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP). The metamodel-based optimization approach is able to tune the restraint system parameters. The numerical simulations show a significant averaged reduction of 22.3% in occupant loads. The results show that the lateral precrash occupant movement offers better occupant protection in side collisions.

  4. Pre-crash system validation with PRESCAN and VEHIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Verburg, D.J.; Labibes, K.; Oostendorp, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the tools for design and validation of Pre-Crash Systems: the software tool PRE-crash SCenario ANalyzer (PRESCAN) and the VEhicle-Hardware-In-the-Loop (VEHIL) facility. PRESCAN allows to investigate a pre-crash scenario in simulation. This scenario can then be compared with tests

  5. Influences of pre-crash braking induced dummy - forward displacements on dummy behaviour during EuroNCAP frontal crashtest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitsch, Gernot; Sinz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Combination of active and passive safety systems is a future key to further improvement in vehicle safety. Autonomous braking systems are able to reduce collision speeds, and therefore severity levels significantly. Passengers change their position due to pre-impact vehicle motion, a fact, which has not yet been considered in common crash tests. For this paper, finite elements simulations of crash tests were performed to show that forward displacements due to pre-crash braking do not necessarily increase dummy load levels. So the influence of different pre-crash scenarios, all leading to equal closing speeds in the crash phase, are considered in terms of vehicle motion (pitching, deceleration) and restraint system configurations (belt load limiter, pretensioner). The influence is evaluated by dummy loads as well as contact risk between the dummy and the interior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Perception and biodynamics in unalerted precrash response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGehee, Daniel V; Carsten, Oliver M J

    2010-01-01

    This research seeks to better understand unalerted driver response just prior to a serious vehicle crash. Few studies have been able to view a crash from the inside-with a camera focused on the driver and occupants. Four studies are examined: 1) a high-fidelity simulator study with an unalerted intersection incursion crash among 107 drivers; 2) four crashes from the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) 100 car study; 3) 58 crashes from vehicles equipped with an event triggered video recorder; and 4) a custom-designed high-fidelity simulator experiment that examined unalerted driver response to a head-on crash with a heavy truck. Analyses concentrate on decomposing driver perception, action, facial and postural changes with a focus on describing the neurophysiologic mechanisms designed to respond to danger. Results indicate that drivers involved in severe crashes generally have preview that an impact is about to occur. They respond first with vehicle control inputs (accelerator pedal release) along with facial state changes and withdrawal of the head back towards the head restraint. These responses frequently occur almost simultaneously, providing safety system designers with a number of reliable driver performance measures to monitor. Understanding such mechanisms may assist future advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), advanced restraints, model development of advanced anthropomorphic test dummies (ATDs), injury prediction and the integration of active and passive safety systems.

  7. Effect of various pre-crash braking strategies on simulated human kinematic response with varying levels of driver attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van

    2011-01-01

    In this study, human kinematic response resulting from various pre-crash braking scenarios is quantified. The underlying question is what kind of effect do pre-crash braking systems have on the driver or the front seat passenger.

  8. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in simulated precrash events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Fice, Jason B; Mang, Daniel W H; Brolin, Karin; Davidsson, Johan; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2018-02-28

    To quantify trunk muscle activation levels during whole body accelerations that simulate precrash events in multiple directions and to identify recruitment patterns for the development of active human body models. Four subjects (1 female, 3 males) were accelerated at 0.55 g (net Δv = 4.0 m/s) in 8 directions while seated on a sled-mounted car seat to simulate a precrash pulse. Electromyographic (EMG) activity in 4 trunk muscles was measured using wire electrodes inserted into the left rectus abdominis, internal oblique, iliocostalis, and multifidus muscles at the L2-L3 level. Muscle activity evoked by the perturbations was normalized by each muscle's isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) activity. Spatial tuning curves were plotted at 150, 300, and 600 ms after acceleration onset. EMG activity remained below 40% MVC for the three time points for most directions. At the 150- and 300 ms time points, the highest EMG amplitudes were observed during perturbations to the left (-90°) and left rearward (-135°). EMG activity diminished by 600 ms for the anterior muscles, but not for the posterior muscles. These preliminary results suggest that trunk muscle activity may be directionally tuned at the acceleration level tested here. Although data from more subjects are needed, these preliminary data support the development of modeled trunk muscle recruitment strategies in active human body models that predict occupant responses in precrash scenarios.

  9. Mechanical restraint in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sestoft, Dorte Maria

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine how potential mechanical restraint preventive factors in hospitals are associated with the frequency of mechanical restraint episodes. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed a retrospective association design, and linear regression was used to assess the associations. FINDINGS......: Three mechanical restraint preventive factors were significantly associated with low rates of mechanical restraint use: mandatory review (exp[B] = .36, p mechanical...

  10. A test-based method for the assessment of pre-crash warning and braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, András; Fagerlind, Helen; Kullgren, Anders

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a test-based assessment method for pre-crash warning and braking systems is presented where the effectiveness of a system is measured by its ability to reduce the number of injuries of a given type or severity in car-to-car rear-end collisions. Injuries with whiplash symptoms lasting longer than 1 month and MAIS2+ injuries in both vehicles involved in the crash are considered in the assessment. The injury reduction resulting from the impact speed reduction due to a pre-crash system is estimated using a method which has its roots in the dose-response model. Human-machine interaction is also taken into account in the assessment. The results reflect the self-protection as well as the partner-protection performance of a pre-crash system in the striking vehicle in rear-end collisions and enable a comparison between two or more systems. It is also shown how the method may be used to assess the importance of warning as part of a pre-crash system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Depiction of priority light-vehicle pre-crash scenarios for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    A template of pre-crash scenarios is presented to depict national crash statistics and kinematic information of time-to-collision for the design of appropriate crash countermeasures based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. This template serv...

  12. Description of light-vehicle pre-crash scenarios for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report describes pre-crash scenarios that might be addressed by vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The focus is on crashes involving at least 1 light vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less. The 2004-2008 General Esti...

  13. Failed rib region prediction in a human body model during crash events with precrash braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleyupoglu, B; Koya, B; Barnard, R; Gayzik, F S

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study is 2-fold. We used a validated human body finite element model to study the predicted chest injury (focusing on rib fracture as a function of element strain) based on varying levels of simulated precrash braking. Furthermore, we compare deterministic and probabilistic methods of rib injury prediction in the computational model. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) M50-O model was gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced 3-point belt and airbag. Twelve cases were investigated with permutations for failure, precrash braking system, and crash severity. The severities used were median (17 kph), severe (34 kph), and New Car Assessment Program (NCAP; 56.4 kph). Cases with failure enabled removed rib cortical bone elements once 1.8% effective plastic strain was exceeded. Alternatively, a probabilistic framework found in the literature was used to predict rib failure. Both the probabilistic and deterministic methods take into consideration location (anterior, lateral, and posterior). The deterministic method is based on a rubric that defines failed rib regions dependent on a threshold for contiguous failed elements. The probabilistic method depends on age-based strain and failure functions. Kinematics between both methods were similar (peak max deviation: ΔX head = 17 mm; ΔZ head = 4 mm; ΔX thorax = 5 mm; ΔZ thorax = 1 mm). Seat belt forces at the time of probabilistic failed region initiation were lower than those at deterministic failed region initiation. The probabilistic method for rib fracture predicted more failed regions in the rib (an analog for fracture) than the deterministic method in all but 1 case where they were equal. The failed region patterns between models are similar; however, there are differences that arise due to stress reduced from element elimination that cause probabilistic failed regions to continue to rise after no deterministic failed region would be

  14. Pre-crash scenarios at road junctions: A clustering method for car crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Philippe; Thomas, Pete; Stuetz, Rainer; Welsh, Ruth

    2017-10-01

    Given the recent advancements in autonomous driving functions, one of the main challenges is safe and efficient operation in complex traffic situations such as road junctions. There is a need for comprehensive testing, either in virtual simulation environments or on real-world test tracks. This paper presents a novel data analysis method including the preparation, analysis and visualization of car crash data, to identify the critical pre-crash scenarios at T- and four-legged junctions as a basis for testing the safety of automated driving systems. The presented method employs k-medoids to cluster historical junction crash data into distinct partitions and then applies the association rules algorithm to each cluster to specify the driving scenarios in more detail. The dataset used consists of 1056 junction crashes in the UK, which were exported from the in-depth "On-the-Spot" database. The study resulted in thirteen crash clusters for T-junctions, and six crash clusters for crossroads. Association rules revealed common crash characteristics, which were the basis for the scenario descriptions. The results support existing findings on road junction accidents and provide benchmark situations for safety performance tests in order to reduce the possible number parameter combinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential Occupant Injury Reduction in Pre-Crash System Equipped Vehicles in the Striking Vehicle of Rear-end Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate the severity of rear-end and other collisions, Pre-Crash Systems (PCS) are being developed. These active safety systems utilize radar and/or video cameras to determine when a frontal crash, such as a front-to-back rear-end collisions, is imminent and can brake autonomously, even with no driver input. Of these PCS features, the effects of autonomous pre-crash braking are estimated. To estimate the maximum potential for injury reduction due to autonomous pre-crash braking in the striking vehicle of rear-end crashes, a methodology is presented for determining 1) the reduction in vehicle crash change in velocity (ΔV) due to PCS braking and 2) the number of injuries that could be prevented due to the reduction in collision severity. Injury reduction was only performed for belted drivers, as unbelted drivers have an unknown risk of being thrown out of position. The study was based on 1,406 rear-end striking vehicles from NASS / CDS years 1993 to 2008. PCS parameters were selected from realistic values and varied to examine the effect on system performance. PCS braking authority was varied from 0.5 G's to 0.8 G's while time to collision (TTC) was held at 0.45 seconds. TTC was then varied from 0.3 second to 0.6 seconds while braking authority was held constant at 0.6 G's. A constant braking pulse (step function) and ramp-up braking pulse were used. The study found that automated PCS braking could reduce the crash ΔV in rear-end striking vehicles by an average of 12% - 50% and avoid 0% - 14% of collisions, depending on PCS parameters. Autonomous PCS braking could potentially reduce the number of injured drivers who are belted by 19% to 57%.

  16. Key risk indicators for accident assessment conditioned on pre-crash vehicle trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Wong, Y D; Li, M Z F; Chai, C

    2018-08-01

    Accident events are generally unexpected and occur rarely. Pre-accident risk assessment by surrogate indicators is an effective way to identify risk levels and thus boost accident prediction. Herein, the concept of Key Risk Indicator (KRI) is proposed, which assesses risk exposures using hybrid indicators. Seven metrics are shortlisted as the basic indicators in KRI, with evaluation in terms of risk behaviour, risk avoidance, and risk margin. A typical real-world chain-collision accident and its antecedent (pre-crash) road traffic movements are retrieved from surveillance video footage, and a grid remapping method is proposed for data extraction and coordinates transformation. To investigate the feasibility of each indicator in risk assessment, a temporal-spatial case-control is designed. By comparison, Time Integrated Time-to-collision (TIT) performs better in identifying pre-accident risk conditions; while Crash Potential Index (CPI) is helpful in further picking out the severest ones (the near-accident). Based on TIT and CPI, the expressions of KRIs are developed, which enable us to evaluate risk severity with three levels, as well as the likelihood. KRI-based risk assessment also reveals predictive insights about a potential accident, including at-risk vehicles, locations and time. Furthermore, straightforward thresholds are defined flexibly in KRIs, since the impact of different threshold values is found not to be very critical. For better validation, another independent real-world accident sample is examined, and the two results are in close agreement. Hierarchical indicators such as KRIs offer new insights about pre-accident risk exposures, which is helpful for accident assessment and prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Status of voluntary restraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, W. [SWOKA Institute for Strategic Consumer Behaviour, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    Do people enjoying a higher status, especially those with a higher education, constrain their consumption more than others? In general, higher status and high levels of consumption go hand in hand. But the greater availability of luxury goods has led to a decline in their exclusivity. Since environmental awareness has increased, a countercurrent may be possible. It is possible that certain high status groups, the environmentally aware trendsetters, can now be distinguished by their voluntary restraint rather than by their conspicuous consumption. This hypothesis formed the basis for a sociological doctoral project at the University of Amsterdam. The research was conducted under the umbrella of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change.

  18. 32 CFR 636.34 - Restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Restraint systems. 636.34 Section 636.34 National... Restraint systems. (a) Restraint systems (seat belts) will be worn by all operators and passengers of U.S. Government vehicles on or off the installations. (b) Restraint systems will be worn by all civilian personnel...

  19. A week of Israeli restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    In Israeli discourse, Israel is always the side exercising restraint in its conflict with the Palestinians. This was true again for the events of the past week: As the Qassam rockets were falling on the Southern Israeli town of Sderot, it was “leaked” that the Israeli Minister of Defense had

  20. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel, a reactor guard vessel, a thermal insulation shell and a horizontal seismic restraint, a restraint is described comprising: a. a first ring on the wall of the reactor vessel; b. a second ring on the wall of the reactor guard vessel in alignment with the first ring; c. a first block attached to the second ring proximate the first ring so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the first block and the first ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion; d. motion limit means extending through an aperture in the thermal insulation shell in alignment with the second ring and the first block; the e. a second block attached to the motion limit means proximate the second ring and in alignment the first block so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the second block and the second ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion

  1. Predictors of restraint use among child occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Marco; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A

    2017-11-17

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that predict restraint use and optimal restraint use among children aged 0 to 13 years. The data set is a national sample of police-reported crashes for years 2010-2014 in which type of child restraint is recorded. The data set was supplemented with demographic census data linked by driver ZIP code, as well as a score for the state child restraint law during the year of the crash relative to best practice recommendations for protecting child occupants. Analysis used linear regression techniques. The main predictor of unrestrained child occupants was the presence of an unrestrained driver. Among restrained children, children had 1.66 (95% confidence interval, 1.27, 2.17) times higher odds of using the recommended type of restraint system if the state law at the time of the crash included requirements based on best practice recommendations. Children are more likely to ride in the recommended type of child restraint when their state's child restraint law includes wording that follows best practice recommendations for child occupant protection. However, state child restraint law requirements do not influence when caregivers fail to use an occupant restraint for their child passengers.

  2. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  3. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  4. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  5. Seismic restraint means for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, R.H.; Todt, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic restraint means are provided for mounting an elongated, generally cylindrical nuclear radiation detector within a tubular thimble in a nuclear reactor monitor system. The restraint means permits longitudinal movement of the radiation detector into and out of the thimble. Each restraint means comprises a split clamp ring and a plurality of symmetrically spaced support arms pivotally mounted on the clamp ring. Each support arm has spring bias means and thimble contact means eg insulating rollers whereby the contact means engage the thimble with a constant predetermined force which minimizes seismic vibration action on the radiation detector. (author)

  6. Mechanical Restraint - Which Interventions Prevent Episodes of Mechanical Restraint? - A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Sestoft, Dorte Maria

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE:  To identify interventions preventing mechanical restraints. DESIGN AND METHODS:  Systematic review of international research papers dealing with mechanical restraint. The review combines qualitative and quantitative research in a new way, describing the quality of evidence and the effect...... of intervention. FINDINGS:  Implementation of cognitive milieu therapy, combined interventions, and patient-centered care were the three interventions most likely to reduce the number of mechanical restraints. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:  There is a lack of high-quality and effective intervention studies. This leaves...... patients and metal health professionals with uncertainty when choosing interventions in an attempt to prevent mechanical restraints....

  7. Effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce physical restraints in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczy, Petra; Becker, Clemens; Rapp, Kilian; Klie, Thomas; Beische, Denis; Büchele, Gisela; Kleiner, Andrea; Guerra, Virginia; Rissmann, Ulrich; Kurrle, Susan; Bredthauer, Doris

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce the use of physical restraints in residents of nursing homes. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Forty-five nursing homes in Germany. Three hundred thirty-three residents who were being restrained at the start of the intervention. Persons responsible for the intervention in the nursing homes attended a 6-hour training course that included education about the reasons restraints are used, the adverse effects, and alternatives to their use. Technical aids, such as hip protectors and sensor mats, were provided. The training was designed to give the change agents tools for problem-solving to prevent behavioral symptoms and injuries from falls without using physical restraints. The main outcome was the complete cessation of physical restraint use on 3 consecutive days 3 months after the start of the intervention. Secondary outcomes were partial reductions in restraint use, percentage of fallers, number of psychoactive drugs, and occurrence of behavioral symptoms. The probability of being unrestrained in the intervention group (IG) was more than twice that in the control group (CG) at the end of the study (odds ratio=2.16, 95% confidence interval=1.05-4.46). A partial reduction of restraint use was also about twice as often achieved in the IG as in the CG. No negative effect was observed regarding medication or behavioral symptoms. The percentage of fallers was higher in the IG. The intervention reduced restraint use without a significant increase in falling, behavioral symptoms, or medication. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  9. AT89S52 Microcontroller Based A Speed Restraint Equipment for Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan hidayat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Security riding is very important in the aspects of traffic. One of the main factors of traffic accidents is high speed. Therefore, it is required a speed restraint equipment for pressing the number of accidents. The car speed restraint system is available in the market, but on a motorcycle is not available yet. This paper presents a design of speed restraint equipment for motorcycle that safe for users, and is expected to reduce traffic accident. The Main idea this speed restriction is cutting off the flow of electrical signals from the pulser (the time ignition trigger sensor to the CDI for 1 second. The cutting Signal with mechanical relays controlled by microcontroller AT89S52 using the on-off algorithm. Speed sensor use optocoupler is used to detect the number of rounds wheel motorcycle. If a result of measurement is more than the speed setpoint, microcontroler make a decission to cut motorcycle ignition signal. Results of this research is a prototype speed restraint shown that it able to process data from the measurement of the speed limit on the speed of a motorcycle. This prototype safe for all users and accordance with the set value and the level of success is above 90% for speed of 10 km/hr to 40 km/hr.

  10. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  11. Roadside observation of child passenger restraint use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Bruce

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite legislation and research evidence supporting the use of childhood vehicle restraints, motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of injury, death and disability among Canadian children. Methods: Working in collaboration with trained car seat specialists and police officers, roadside checks were conducted to observe correct use of child restraints. Results: Of the 1323 child vehicle restraints inspected, 99.6% of the children were restrained, 91% were in the correct seat, and 48% of restraints were correctly installed. The seat/restraint types most used incorrectly used were booster seats (31% and seat belts (53%. The majority of incorrectly installed or fitted seats (55% were forward facing. Common errors in installation and fit included the seat not being secured tightly enough to the vehicle, incorrect tether strap use, the harness not being tight enough, and/or the chest clip being in the wrong place. Conclusions: The greatest proportion of incorrect seat use was among those children who transitioned to a seat belt too soon. The greatest proportion of installation and fit errors were among forward facing seats. Researchers recommend: 1 targeting parents with older children (ages 3 and above regarding transitioning too soon from forward facing seats to booster seats, and from booster seats to seat belts; 2 targeting parents with younger children regarding correct installation of rear facing and forward facing seats; 3 collaborating with police officers to review the most common errors and encourage observation at roadside checks; and 4 creating community awareness by way of roadside checks.

  12. Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  13. Driver kinematic and muscle responses in braking events with standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints: validation data for human models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Jonas; Olafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Davidsson, Johan; Brolin, Karin

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to generate validation data for human models intended for simulation of occupant kinematics in a pre-crash phase, and to evaluate the effect of an integrated safety system on driver kinematics and muscle responses. Eleven male and nine female volunteers, driving a passenger car on ordinary roads, performed maximum voluntary braking; they were also subjected to autonomous braking events with both standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints. Kinematic data was acquired through film analysis, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally for muscles in the neck, the upper extremities, and lumbar region. Maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) were carried out in a driving posture for normalization of the EMG. Seat belt positions, interaction forces, and seat indentions were measured. During normal driving, all muscle activity was below 5% of MVC for females and 9% for males. The range of activity during steady state braking for males and females was 13-44% in the cervical and lumbar extensors, while antagonistic muscles showed a co-contraction of 2.3-19%. Seat belt pre-tension affects both the kinematic and muscle responses of drivers. In autonomous braking with standard restraints, muscle activation occurred in response to the inertial load. With pre-tensioned seat belts, EMG onset occurred earlier; between 71 ms and 176 ms after belt pre-tension. The EMG onset times decreased with repeated trials and were shorter for females than for males. With the results from this study, further improvement and validation of human models that incorporate active musculature will be made possible.

  14. Striving for balance between caring and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Julie Y; Larsen, Dorte; Brødsgaard, Anne

    2017-01-01

    with 14 young adults were conducted. RESULTS: The essence of the phenomenon of having a parent with multiple sclerosis was synthesized into 'Striving for balance between caring and restraint' from two themes 'caring' and 'restraint' and eight subthemes. Participants' experiences of caring for parents...... that one of the greatest challenges of having a parent with multiple sclerosis is achieving a balance between caring for others and asserting one's own desires. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Health care professionals can support the family by encouraging family members to participate in consultations...

  15. Astronaut Anna Fisher demonstrates sleep restraints on shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Anna L. Fisher demonstrates the versatility of shuttle sleep restraints to accommodate the preference of crewmembers as she appears to have configured hers in a horizontal hammock mode. Stowage lockers, one of the middeck walls, another sleep restraint, a jury-rigged foot and hand restraint are among other items in the frame.

  16. Physical Restraint Initiation in Nursing Homes and Subsequent Resident Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas G.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely believed that physical restraint use causes mental and physical health decline in nursing home residents. Yet few studies exist showing an association between restraint initiation and health decline. In this research, we examined whether physical restraint initiation is associated with subsequent lower physical or mental…

  17. Restraint, tendency toward overeating and ice cream consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, T; Cleven, A.H.G.; Schippers, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The examination of the prediction of grams of ice cream eaten by preload, restraint, susceptibility toward overeating, and interaction terms. METHOD: A milkshake-ice cream study on 200 females using the Restraint Scale (RS) and the restraint and disinhibition scales from the Three-Factor

  18. Lateral restraint assembly in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Gorholt, W.

    1977-01-01

    A lateral restraint assembly is described for a reactor of, for example, the high temperature gas-cooled type which commonly includes a reactor core of relatively complex construction supported within a shell or vessel providing a shielded cavity for containing the reactor core. (U.K.)

  19. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    serum level of adiponectin was significantly (p< 0.05) lower compared with ... were significantly (p< 0.05) decreased in the skeletal muscle of restraint stress exposed rats. ... controlled conditions for the light/dark cycle, ..... increase the production of catecholamines. ... specific protein that has been suggested to play a role.

  20. The use of restraints in psychiatric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-17

    Sep 17, 2009 ... In South Africa, according to the Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002 .... and staff composition, type of ward and ward atmosphere. The type of ... (e.g. psychiatric diagnosis, strengths, family history), and restraint should be ...

  1. Sensors for advanced driver assistance systems; Sensoren fuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschel, W.; Wixforth, T. [Hella KGaA Hueck und Co., Lippstadt (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Essential safety applications and those aimed at driver convenience (blind spot surveillance, stop and go, pre-crash, parking assistant) can be effected in vehicles with the aid of radar sensors. The radar sensors used can be differentiated in terms of the bandwidth required (narrow band or ultra-wide band) and in terms of the modulation of the transmission signal (pulse modulation or CW). Ultra-wide band systems at the moment are not eligible for admission and do not conform with the present regulations in the European Union. The sensors currently being developed at hella for production use are characterized by the fact that they cover the primary applications in motor vehicles. In these cases the transmission signals radiated lie within the valid limits currently approved within the European Union. (orig.)

  2. PDBStat: a universal restraint converter and restraint analysis software package for protein NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero, Roberto; Snyder, David; Mao, Binchen; Aramini, James M.; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneous array of software tools used in the process of protein NMR structure determination presents organizational challenges in the structure determination and validation processes, and creates a learning curve that limits the broader use of protein NMR in biology. These challenges, including accurate use of data in different data formats required by software carrying out similar tasks, continue to confound the efforts of novices and experts alike. These important issues need to be addressed robustly in order to standardize protein NMR structure determination and validation. PDBStat is a C/C++ computer program originally developed as a universal coordinate and protein NMR restraint converter. Its primary function is to provide a user-friendly tool for interconverting between protein coordinate and protein NMR restraint data formats. It also provides an integrated set of computational methods for protein NMR restraint analysis and structure quality assessment, relabeling of prochiral atoms with correct IUPAC names, as well as multiple methods for analysis of the consistency of atomic positions indicated by their convergence across a protein NMR ensemble. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the PDBStat software, and highlight some of its valuable computational capabilities. As an example, we demonstrate the use of the PDBStat restraint converter for restrained CS-Rosetta structure generation calculations, and compare the resulting protein NMR structure models with those generated from the same NMR restraint data using more traditional structure determination methods. These results demonstrate the value of a universal restraint converter in allowing the use of multiple structure generation methods with the same restraint data for consensus analysis of protein NMR structures and the underlying restraint data

  3. PDBStat: a universal restraint converter and restraint analysis software package for protein NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero, Roberto [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Snyder, David [William Paterson University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Mao, Binchen; Aramini, James M.; Montelione, Gaetano T., E-mail: guy@cabm.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The heterogeneous array of software tools used in the process of protein NMR structure determination presents organizational challenges in the structure determination and validation processes, and creates a learning curve that limits the broader use of protein NMR in biology. These challenges, including accurate use of data in different data formats required by software carrying out similar tasks, continue to confound the efforts of novices and experts alike. These important issues need to be addressed robustly in order to standardize protein NMR structure determination and validation. PDBStat is a C/C++ computer program originally developed as a universal coordinate and protein NMR restraint converter. Its primary function is to provide a user-friendly tool for interconverting between protein coordinate and protein NMR restraint data formats. It also provides an integrated set of computational methods for protein NMR restraint analysis and structure quality assessment, relabeling of prochiral atoms with correct IUPAC names, as well as multiple methods for analysis of the consistency of atomic positions indicated by their convergence across a protein NMR ensemble. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the PDBStat software, and highlight some of its valuable computational capabilities. As an example, we demonstrate the use of the PDBStat restraint converter for restrained CS-Rosetta structure generation calculations, and compare the resulting protein NMR structure models with those generated from the same NMR restraint data using more traditional structure determination methods. These results demonstrate the value of a universal restraint converter in allowing the use of multiple structure generation methods with the same restraint data for consensus analysis of protein NMR structures and the underlying restraint data.

  4. 'Mechanical restraint-confounders, risk, alliance score'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deichmann Nielsen, Lea; Bech, Per; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2017-01-01

    . AIM: To clinically validate a new, structured short-term risk assessment instrument called the Mechanical Restraint-Confounders, Risk, Alliance Score (MR-CRAS), with the intended purpose of supporting the clinicians' observation and assessment of the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical...... restraint. METHODS: The content and layout of MR-CRAS and its user manual were evaluated using face validation by forensic mental health clinicians, content validation by an expert panel, and pilot testing within two, closed forensic mental health inpatient units. RESULTS: The three sub-scales (Confounders......, Risk, and a parameter of Alliance) showed excellent content validity. The clinical validations also showed that MR-CRAS was perceived and experienced as a comprehensible, relevant, comprehensive, and useable risk assessment instrument. CONCLUSIONS: MR-CRAS contains 18 clinically valid items...

  5. Pipe restraints for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keever, R.E.; Broman, R.; Shevekov, S.

    1976-01-01

    A pipe restraint for nuclear power plants in which a support member is anchored on supporting surface is described. Formed in the support member is a semicylindrical wall. Seated on the semicylindrical wall is a ring-shaped pipe restrainer that has an inner cylindrical wall. The inner cylindrical wall of the pipe restrainer encircles the pressurized pipe. In a modification of the pipe restraint, an arched-shaped pipe restrainer is disposed to overlie a pressurized pipe. The ends of the arch-shaped pipe restrainer are fixed to support members, which are anchored in concrete or to a supporting surface. A strap depends from the arch-shaped pipe restrainer. The pressurized pipe is supported by the depending strap

  6. Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1980-12-01

    The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author) [pt

  7. Financial Restraints in the South Korean Miracle

    OpenAIRE

    Panicos O Demetriades; Kul B Luintel

    2000-01-01

    We provide novel empirical evidence on the effects of financial restraints on South Korean financial development. The evidence is linked to a simple model of the Korean banking system that encapsulates its cartelised nature, which predicts a positive association between financial development and (i) the degree of state control over the banking system, (ii) mild repression of lending rates. The model also predicts that in the presence of lending rate controls, increases in the level of the adm...

  8. Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt

  9. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  10. Measurement of Dietary Restraint: Validity Tests of Four Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; Martin, Corby K.; York-Crowe, Emily; Anton, Stephen D.; Redman, Leanne M.; Han, Hongmei; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the validity of four measures of dietary restraint: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Inventory (EI), Revised Restraint Scale (RS), and the Current Dieting Questionnaire. Dietary restraint has been implicated as a determinant of overeating and binge eating. Conflicting findings have been attributed to different methods for measuring dietary restraint. The validity of four self-report measures of dietary restraint and dieting behavior was tested using: 1) factor analysis, 2) changes in dietary restraint in a randomized controlled trial of different methods to achieve calorie restriction, and 3) correlation of changes in dietary restraint with an objective measure of energy balance, calculated from the changes in fat mass and fat-free mass over a six-month dietary intervention. Scores from all four questionnaires, measured at baseline, formed a dietary restraint factor, but the RS also loaded on a binge eating factor. Based on change scores, the EI Restraint scale was the only measure that correlated significantly with energy balance expressed as a percentage of energy require d for weight maintenance. These findings suggest that that, of the four questionnaires tested, the EI Restraint scale was the most valid measure of the intent to diet and actual caloric restriction. PMID:17101191

  11. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  12. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  13. Restraint methods for radiography in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, P.V.; Bednarski, R.M.; Myer, C.W.; Dykes, N.L.

    1996-01-01

    Excellent patient restraint techniques are necessary to produce high-quality diagnostic images during survey and contrast radiography and ultrasonography. Use of non manual physical restraint (i.e., devices to hold the patient in position) helps reduce the exposure of veterinary personnel to radiation. Exposure of personnel to radiation should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. Usually, this involves taking the radiograph when no personnel are present in the room. Some procedures, however, require the presence of the veterinarian. No personnel should ever put any part of their bodies in the path of the x-ray beam. Protective gear must be worn. Physical restraint can be facilitated by chemical restraint, which varies from minimal sedation to general anesthesia. Appropriate chemical restraint for radiography is the minimum amount of sedation required for the efficient and safe completion of the radiographic examination. Chemical restraint techniques vary according to the patient's physical status, the type of examination, and the skill of the examiner in non manual restraint techniques. This article describes techniques for non manual restraint and protocols for chemical restraint for dogs and cats

  14. CETA truck and EVA restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, David C.; Merson, Wayne R.

    1991-01-01

    The Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment is an extravehicular activity (EVA) Space Transportation System (STS) based flight experiment which will explore various modes of transporting astronauts and light equipment for Space Station Freedom (SSF). The basic elements of CETA are: (1) two 25 foot long sections of monorail, which will be EVA assembled in the STS cargo bay to become a single 50 ft. rail called the track; (2) a wheeled baseplate called the truck which rolls along the track and can accept three cart concepts; and (3) the three carts which are designated manual, electric, and mechanical. The three carts serve as the astronaut restraint and locomotive interfaces with the track. The manual cart is powered by the astronaut grasping the track's handrail and pulling himself along. The electric cart is operated by an astronaut turning a generator which powers the electric motor and drives the cart. The mechanical cart is driven by a Bendix type transmission and is similar in concept to a man-propelled railroad cart. During launch and landing, the truck is attached to the deployable track by means of EVA removable restraint bolts and held in position by a system of retractable shims. These shims are positioned on the exterior of the rail for launch and landing and rotate out of the way for the duration of the experiment. The shims are held in position by strips of Velcro nap, which rub against the sides of the shim and exert a tailored force. The amount of force required to rotate the shims was a major EVA concern, along with operational repeatability and extreme temperature effects. The restraint system was tested in a thermal-vac and vibration environment and was shown to meet all of the initial design requirements. Using design inputs from the astronauts who will perform the EVA, CETA evolved through an iterative design process and represented a cooperative effort.

  15. The restraint bias: how the illusion of self-restraint promotes impulsive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordgren, L.F.; van Harreveld, F.; van der Pligt, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four studies examined how impulse-control beliefs—beliefs regarding one's ability to regulate visceral impulses, such as hunger, drug craving, and sexual arousal—influence the self-control process. The findings provide evidence for a restraint bias: a tendency for people to overestimate their

  16. Restraint Use in Older Adults Receiving Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Van Gansbeke, Hendrik; Milisen, Koen

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence, types, frequency, and duration of restraint use in older adults receiving home nursing care and to determine factors involved in the decision-making process for restraint use and application. Cross-sectional survey of restraint use in older adults receiving home care completed by primary care nurses. Homes of older adults receiving care from a home nursing organization in Belgium. Randomized sample of older adults receiving home care (N = 6,397; mean age 80.6; 66.8% female). For each participant, nurses completed an investigator-constructed and -validated questionnaire collecting information demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics and aspects of restraint use. A broad definition of restraint was used that includes a range of restrictive actions. Restraints were used in 24.7% of the participants, mostly on a daily basis (85%) and often for a long period (54.5%, 24 h/d). The most common reason for restraint use was safety (50.2%). Other reasons were that the individual wanted to remain at home longer, which necessitated the use of restraints (18.2%) and to provide respite for the informal caregiver (8.6%). The latter played an important role in the decision and application process. The physician was less involved in the process. In 64.5% of cases, there was no evaluation after restraint use was initiated. Use of restraints is common in older adults receiving home care nursing in Belgium. These results contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of use of restraints in home care, a situation that may be even more complex than in nursing homes and acute hospital settings. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  18. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1512] Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice and Certification Program...

  19. Acute restraint stress induces hyperalgesia via non-adrenergic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesia or hyperalgesia has been reported to occur in animals under different stress conditions. This study examined the effect of acute restraint stress on nociception in rats. Acute restraint stress produced a time-dependant decrease in pain threshold; this hyperalgesia was not affected by prior administration of ...

  20. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  1. Continuous restraint control systems: safety improvement for various occupants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E. van der; Jager, B. de; Veldpaus, F.; Steinbuch, M.; Nunen, E. van; Willemsen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Occupant safety can be significantly improved by continuous restraint control systems. These restraint systems adjust their configuration during the impact according to the actual operating conditions, such as occupant size, weight, occupant position, belt usage and crash severity. In this study,

  2. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following physical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Jensen, T N; Bolwig, T

    2005-01-01

    . The literature on physical restraint, DVT, and PE was reviewed using a search of Medline and Psychinfo from 1966 to the present. RESULTS: Four other reported cases of DVT and PE were found in association with physically restrained patients. CONCLUSION: Risk of DVT and PE in association with immobilization during......OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following the use of physical restraint in a patient with a diagnosis of acute delusional psychotic disorder. METHOD: A new case report of DVT and PE associated with prolonged physical restraint is presented...... physical restraint may occur in spite of no pre-existing risk factors. Medical guidelines for the prevention of thrombosis following physical restraint are presented. Despite the absence of controlled trials of treatment effectiveness, the catastrophic outcome of DVT and PE warrants early and vigorous...

  3. Designing and evaluating a persuasive child restraint television commercial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni; Ho, Bonnie; Lennon, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high rates of child restraint inappropriate use and misuse and faults in the installation of restraints have suggested a crucial need for public education messages to raise parental awareness of the need to use restraints correctly. This project involved the devising and pilot testing of message concepts, filming of a television advertisement (the TVC), and the evaluation of the TVC. This article focuses specifically upon the evaluation of the TVC. The development and evaluation of the TVC were guided by an extended theory of planned behavior that included the standard constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control as well as the additional constructs of group norms and descriptive norms. The study also explored the extent to which parents with low and high intentions to self-check restraints differed on salient beliefs regarding the behavior. An online survey of parents (N = 384) was conducted where parents were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 161), and therefore viewed the advertisement within the survey, or the control group (n = 223), and therefore did not view the advertisement. Following a one-off exposure to the TVC, the results indicated that, although not a significant difference, parents in the intervention group reported stronger intentions (M = 4.43, SD = 0.74) to self-check restraints than parents in the control group (M = 4.18, SD = 0.86). In addition, parents in the intervention group (M = 4.59, SD = 0.47) reported significantly higher levels of perceived behavioral control than parents in the control group (M = 4.40, SD = 0.73). The regression results revealed that, for parents in the intervention group, attitudes and group norms were significant predictors of parental intentions to self-check their child restraint. Finally, the exploratory analyses of parental beliefs suggested that those parents with low intentions to self-check child restraints were significantly more likely than

  4. Metabolic immune restraints: implications for anticancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic immune restraints belong to a highly complex network of molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of naturally occurring and therapeutically induced immune responses against cancer. In the light of the disappointing results yielded so far with anticancer vaccines in the clinical setting, the dissection of the cascade of molecular events leading to tumor immune escape appears the most promising way to develop more effective immunotherapeutic strategies. Here we review the significant advances recently made in the understanding of the tumor-specific metabolic features that contribute to keep malignant cells from being recognized and destroyed by immune effectors. These mechanistic insights are fostering the development of rationally designed therapeutics aimed to revert the immunosuppressive circuits and thus to enhance the effectiveness of anticancer vaccines.

  5. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  6. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control systemm for a nuclear reactor core provides an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit is composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased by an amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  7. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  8. An editor for the generation and customization of geometry restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Nigel W; Draizen, Eli J; Adams, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    Chemical restraints for use in macromolecular structure refinement are produced by a variety of methods, including a number of programs that use chemical information to generate the required bond, angle, dihedral, chiral and planar restraints. These programs help to automate the process and therefore minimize the errors that could otherwise occur if it were performed manually. Furthermore, restraint-dictionary generation programs can incorporate chemical and other prior knowledge to provide reasonable choices of types and values. However, the use of restraints to define the geometry of a molecule is an approximation introduced with efficiency in mind. The representation of a bond as a parabolic function is a convenience and does not reflect the true variability in even the simplest of molecules. Another complicating factor is the interplay of the molecule with other parts of the macromolecular model. Finally, difficult situations arise from molecules with rare or unusual moieties that may not have their conformational space fully explored. These factors give rise to the need for an interactive editor for WYSIWYG interactions with the restraints and molecule. Restraints Editor, Especially Ligands (REEL) is a graphical user interface for simple and error-free editing along with additional features to provide greater control of the restraint dictionaries in macromolecular refinement.

  9. Environmental restraints and life strategies: a habitat templet matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, E

    1988-02-01

    Four basic environmental restraints on life are deduced from the requirements of life's inherent order laws. Possible life strategies to contend with these restraints are listed. The various combinations of the restraints are subsequently investigated, and appropriate combinations of life strategies are fitted. This model is finally tested against insect case histories in various environments, and is demonstrated to explain some combinations of characteristics of insects in ecosystems not covered by the r-K or r-K-A continua. The role of heterochrony in achieving appropriate life strategies is briefly discussed.

  10. Overview of the design of core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinecke, J.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization of the core restraint system is an important condition for the safe and reliable operation of a fast breeder reactor. For KNK II which is under successful operation and SNR 300 all requirements for safety and operation have been met with help of a ring type system. For SNR 2 the decision between the ring type system and the free standing core has to be done in the near future. Within these considerations the advantages of a ring type restraint system of limiting deflections during operation and limiting of possible movements under seismic conditions have to be balanced against the somewhat more complicated structure of the ring type restraint system

  11. Do head-restraints protect the neck from whiplash injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, F

    1989-01-01

    Over an 11-month period a study was made of all patients presenting to an accident and emergency department who had sustained whiplash as a result of rear-bumper impacts. The patients were analysed with respect to the presence of head-restraints in their vehicles. A significant increase in the incidence of whiplash was found in patients whose vehicles did not have head-restraints fitted. Legislation requiring all passenger cars to have head-restraints fitted as standard would have a major impact in reducing the number of whiplash injuries sustained in rear bumper impacts. PMID:2712983

  12. The Relationship between Restraints of Trade and Garden Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, in view of the decision in Vodacom (Pty Ltd v Motsa 2016 3 SA 116 (LC. The Labour Court grappled with the question of whether the enforcement of the garden leave provision impacts on the enforcement of a post-termination restraint of trade clause. Enforcement of both these types of clauses may be problematic. It can result in unfairness if an employee ends up being commercially inactive for a long period. The author argues that garden leave has a direct effect on the enforcement of a post- termination restraint of trade clause. Accordingly, a restraint of trade will be enforced only if the employer's proprietary interest requires additional protection beyond what is achieved under the garden leave clause.

  13. Restraint use law enforcement intervention in Latino communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Judy; Uhlhorn, Susan B

    2011-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for U.S. Latinos aged 1 to 35 years. Restraint use is an effective means of prevention of motor vehicle crash injury. Effective interventions to raise restraint use include the following: legislation, law enforcement, education, and equipment distribution. The effects of law enforcement interventions in Latino immigrant communities are understudied. We measured the community-level effect of a combined intervention that included warnings and citations phase enforcement in Latino communities. We designed and implemented in two of three Latino-majority communities a multicomponent intervention consisting of a community awareness campaign, restraint use education with equipment distribution, and a two-staged law enforcement intervention. Restraint use observations were conducted in all three communities at baseline, after the warnings phase and again after the citations phase of the intervention were completed. The combined intervention of community awareness, education, child passenger restraint distribution, and law enforcement focused on educational traffic stops with incentives and warnings was associated with a significant increase in both driver and child passenger restraint use in one intervention community, but only driver restraint increased to a level of significance in the other intervention community; significant increase was also noted among nonintervention drivers. The citations phase of the intervention did not result in a significant increase in restraint use and was complicated by interruptions due to unlicensed drivers. The combined effort of community awareness, education, equipment distribution and law enforcement intervention that included incentives and warnings may be effective at increasing seat belt use in Latino communities without the need for citations.

  14. Ergonomic Evaluation of the Foot Restraint Equipment Device (FRED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cindy; Qazi, A. S.; Mount, Francis

    1999-01-01

    Within the scope of the Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluation project, funded by the NASA Headquarters Life Sciences Division, evaluations were proposed to be conducted in ground, KC-135, and/or Shuttle environments to investigate the human factors engineering (HFE) issues concerning confined/unique workstations, including crew restraint requirements. As part of these evaluations, KC-135 flights were conducted to investigate user/ workstation/ restraint integration for microgravity use of the FRED with the RMS workstation. This evaluation was a pre-cursor to Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) - 904 on STS-88. On that mission, a small-statured astronaut will be using the FRED restraint while working at the Aft RMS workstation. The DSO will collect video for later posture analyses, as well as subjective data in the form of an electronic questionnaire. This report describes the current FRED KC-135 evaluations. The primary objectives were to evaluate the usability of the FRED and to verify the DSO in-flight setup. The restraint interface evaluation consisted of four basic areas of restraint use: 1) adjustability; 2) general usability and comfort; 3) usability at the RMS workstation; and 4) assembly and disassembly.

  15. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures

  16. [Medical-legal issues of physical and pharmacological restraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Guija, Julio A; Ortega-Monasterio, Leopoldo

    2014-03-01

    The use of physical and pharmacological restraint is controversial but is currently accepted as inevitable. It is indicated for controlling behavioral disorders and psychomotor agitation that put patients and third parties at risk. Its indication should be medical, and we should opt for the least restrictive measure. Restraints represent a possible infringement of patients' fundamental rights and require understanding and strict respect for the medical-legal precepts by physicians and other practitioners involved in its application. This article reviews the current legal framework, as well as the medical-legal premises and aspects of applying restraints, with the objective of ensuring maximum respect for patients' rights and the appropriate legal safety in the activity of practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and testing of restraints for nuclear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.M.; Skinner, M.S.

    1980-06-01

    As an alternative to current practice of pipe restraint within nuclear power plants it has been proposed to adopt restraints capable of dissipating energy in the piping system. The specific mode of energy dissipation focused upon in these studies is the plastic yielding of steels utilizing relative movement between the pipe and the base of the restraint, a general mechanism which has been proven as reliable in several allied studies. This report discusses the testing of examples of two energy-absorbing devices, the results of this testing and the conclusions drawn. This study concentrated on the specific relevant performance characteristics of hysteretic behavior and degradation with use. The testing consisted of repetitive continuous loadings well into the plastic ranges of the devices in a sinusoidal or random displacement controlled mode

  18. Fast Flux Test Facility core restraint system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, S.L.; Trenchard, R.G.

    1990-02-01

    Characterizing Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) core restraint system performance has been ongoing since the first operating cycle. Characterization consists of prerun analysis for each core load, in-reactor and postirradiation measurements of subassembly withdrawal loads and deformations, and using measurement data to fine tune predictive models. Monitoring FFTF operations and performing trend analysis has made it possible to gain insight into core restraint system performance and head off refueling difficulties while maximizing component lifetimes. Additionally, valuable information for improved designs and operating methods has been obtained. Focus is on past operating experience, emphasizing performance improvements and avoidance of potential problems. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  19. 32 CFR 884.3 - Placing member under restraint pending delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Placing member under restraint pending delivery. 884.3 Section 884.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... member under restraint pending delivery. Continue restraint only as long as is reasonably necessary to...

  20. Food Intake and Success or Failure of Dietary Restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of success and failure of dietary restraint in relation to food intake in 510 females. Methods: Food intake as measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was assessed in low vs. high restrained eaters and overeaters, as measured with the DEBQ (Dutch Eating

  1. 49 CFR 213.110 - Gage restraint measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127. (5) If the PTLF becomes non-functional or is missing, the... and fastener requirements specified in §§ 213.109 and 213.127 provided that— (1) The track owner... the minimum design requirements of a GRMS vehicle which specify that— (1) Gage restraint shall be...

  2. Restraint stress impairs glucose homeostasis through altered insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were ...

  3. Restraint stress and social defeat: What they have in common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Simone Cristina; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2015-07-01

    Bob Blanchard was a great inspiration for our studies on the neural basis of social defense. In the present study, we compared the hypothalamic pattern of activation between social defeat and restraint stress. As important stress situations, both defeated and immobilized animals displayed a substantial increase in Fos in the parvicellular part of the paraventricular nucleus,mostly in the region that contains the CRH neurons. In addition, socially defeated animals, but not restrained animals, recruited elements of the medial hypothalamic conspecific-responsive circuit, a region also engaged in other forms of social behavior. Of particular interest, both defeated and immobilized animals presented a robust increase in Fos expression in specific regions of the lateral hypothalamic area (i.e., juxtaparaventricular and juxtadorsomedial regions) likely to convey septo-hippocampal information encoding the environmental boundary restriction observed in both forms of stress, and in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus which seems to work as a key player for the expression of, at least, part of the behavioral responses during both restraint and social defeat. These results indicate interesting commonalities between social defeat and restraint stress, suggesting, for the first time, a septo-hippocampal–hypothalamic path likely to respond to the environmental boundary restriction that may act as common stressor component for both types of stress. Moreover, the comparison of the neural circuits mediating physical restraint and social defense revealed a possible path for encoding the entrapment component during social confrontation.

  4. Conceptual design of pipe whip restraints using interactive computer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigamonti, G.; Dainora, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protection against pipe break effects necessitates a complex interaction between failure mode analysis, piping layout, and structural design. Many iterations are required to finalize structural designs and equipment arrangements. The magnitude of the pipe break loads transmitted by the pipe whip restraints to structural embedments precludes the application of conservative design margins. A simplified analytical formulation of the nonlinear dynamic problems associated with pipe whip has been developed and applied using interactive computer analysis techniques. In the dynamic analysis, the restraint and the associated portion of the piping system, are modeled using the finite element lumped mass approach to properly reflect the dynamic characteristics of the piping/restraint system. The analysis is performed as a series of piecewise linear increments. Each of these linear increments is terminated by either formation of plastic conditions or closing/opening of gaps. The stiffness matrix is modified to reflect the changed stiffness characteristics of the system and re-started using the previous boundary conditions. The formation of yield hinges are related to the plastic moment of the section and unloading paths are automatically considered. The conceptual design of the piping/restraint system is performed using interactive computer analysis. The application of the simplified analytical approach with interactive computer analysis results in an order of magnitude reduction in engineering time and computer cost. (Auth.)

  5. The Cost of Prior Restraint: "U. S. v. The Progressive."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloski, John; Dyer, Carolyn Stewart

    Increased litigation and rising litigation costs threaten the future of newspapers and magazines. A case study was conducted to determine the costs and effects of "United States v. 'The Progressive,'" a prior restraint case over the publication in 1979 of an article on the hydrogen bomb. "The Progressive," which operates at a…

  6. Core mechanics and configuration behavior of advanced LMFBR core restraint concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Wei, B.C.

    1978-02-01

    Core restraint systems in LMFBRs maintain control of core mechanics and configuration behavior. Core restraint design is complex due to the close spacing between adjacent components, flux and temperature gradients, and irradiation-induced material property effects. Since the core assemblies interact with each other and transmit loads directly to the core restraint structural members, the core assemblies themselves are an integral part of the core restraint system. This paper presents an assessment of several advanced core restraint system and core assembly concepts relative to the expected performance of currently accepted designs. A recommended order for the development of the advanced concepts is also presented

  7. Choosing Staff Members Reduces Time in Mechanical Restraint Due to Self-Injurious Behaviour and Requesting Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig C.; Lydersen, Tore; Johnson, Paul R.; Weiss, Shannon R.; Marconi, Michael R.; Cleave, Mary L.; Weber, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Using mechanical restraints to protect a person who engaged in dangerous self-injury was decreased by manipulation of an establishing operation involving the client choosing the staff person who would work with her. Materials and Methods: The client was a 28-year-old woman diagnosed with autism, bipolar disorder, static cerebral…

  8. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E.; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3) baseline levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in PVN and AG; and 4) 5-HT-like immunoreactivity (5-HT-LI) in AG and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein in PVN and AG. On day 15, animals were subdivided into Treatment and No treatment groups. Treatment animals received an i.p. injection of vehicle or SB-656104; No Treatment animals received no injection. Sixty min later, Treatment animals were either decapitated with no further stress (0 min) or submitted to acute restraint (10, 30, 60 or 120 min); hormone serum levels were measured. No Treatment animals were employed for the rest of measurements. CRS decreased body weight gain and increased adrenal weight. In CTRL animals, acute restraint increased ACTH and CORT secretion in a time of restraint-dependent manner; both responses were inhibited by SB-656104. Exposure to CRS abolished ACTH but magnified CORT responses to restraint as compared to CTRL conditions; SB-656104 had no effect on ACTH levels but significantly inhibited sensitized CORT responses. In CTRL animals, 5-HT7-LI was detected in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of PVN and sparsely in adrenal cortex. Exposure to CRS decreased 5-HT7-LI and protein in the PVN, but increased 5-HT7-LI in the adrenal cortex and protein in whole AG. Higher 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were detected in PVN and AG from CRS animals but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased in AG only. Finally, whereas 5-HT-LI was sparsely observed in the adrenal cortex

  9. Moderation: an alternative to restraint as a mode of weight self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, S

    2012-12-01

    This study considered two types of eating and weight self-regulation, in five groups, including four types of weight controllers and one non-dieting group. New scales were developed to measure eating moderation and restraint. Moderation was largely uncorrelated with restraint in 4 groups and had a fairly strong positive relation in 1 group. The moderation scale was unrelated to the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) restraint scale and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) rigid restraint subscale and weakly positively related to TFEQ flexible restraint. The restraint scale was strongly correlated to the DEBQ restraint scale, and to both flexible and rigid restraint subscales of the TFEQ. Across the five groups, moderation had exclusively positive relationships with attitude, behavior and emotion variables, while restraint had primarily negative relationships. The study supports moderation as a new dimension of weight self-regulation, independent of restraint. The new measures of moderation and restraint can be used together in research on the processes of change in weight management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Real-time adjustment of ventricular restraint therapy in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Lee, Lawrence S; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Bolman, Ralph Morton; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2008-12-01

    Current ventricular restraint devices do not allow for either the measurement or adjustment of ventricular restraint level. Periodic adjustment of restraint level post-device implantation may improve therapeutic efficacy. We evaluated the feasibility of an adjustable quantitative ventricular restraint (QVR) technique utilizing a fluid-filled polyurethane epicardial balloon to measure and adjust restraint level post-implantation guided by physiologic parameters. QVR balloons were implanted in nine ovine with post-infarction dilated heart failure. Restraint level was defined by the maximum restraint pressure applied by the balloon to the epicardium at end-diastole. An access line connected the balloon lumen to a subcutaneous portacath to allow percutaneous access. Restraint level was adjusted while left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (EDV) and cardiac output was assessed with simultaneous transthoracic echocardiography. All nine ovine successfully underwent QVR balloon implantation. Post-implantation, restraint level could be measured percutaneously in real-time and dynamically adjusted by instillation and withdrawal of fluid from the balloon lumen. Using simultaneous echocardiography, restraint level could be adjusted based on LV EDV and cardiac output. After QVR therapy for 21 days, LV EDV decreased from 133+/-15 ml to 113+/-17 ml (p<0.05). QVR permits real-time measurement and physiologic adjustment of ventricular restraint therapy after device implantation.

  11. Restraint use in older adults in home care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Milisen, Koen

    2018-03-01

    To get insight into restraint use in older adults receiving home care and, more specifically, into the definition, prevalence and types of restraint, as well as the reasons for restraint use and the people involved in the decision-making process. Systematic review. Four databases (i.e. Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Library) were systematically searched from inception to end of April 2017. The study encompassed qualitative and quantitative research on restraint use in older adults receiving home care that reported definitions of restraint, prevalence of use, types of restraint, reasons for use or the people involved. We considered publications written in English, French, Dutch and German. One reviewer performed the search and made the initial selection based on titles and abstracts. The final selection was made by two reviewers working independently; they also assessed study quality. We used an integrated design to synthesise the findings. Eight studies were reviewed (one qualitative, seven quantitative) ranging in quality from moderate to high. The review indicated there was no single, clear definition of restraint. The prevalence of restraint use ranged from 5% to 24.7%, with various types of restraint being used. Families played an important role in the decision-making process and application of restraints; general practitioners were less involved. Specific reasons, other than safety for using restraints in home care were noted (e.g. delay to nursing home admission; to provide respite for an informal caregiver). Contrary to the current socio demographical evolutions resulting in an increasing demand of restraint use in home care, research on this subject is still scarce and recent. The limited evidence however points to the challenging complexity and specificity of home care regarding restraint use. Given these serious challenges for clinical practice, more research about restraint use in home care is urgently needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  12. Poor compliance with child safety restraint use while travelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fallon, R

    2011-02-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of death of children. It is the law that all children should be appropriately secured when traveling in vehicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental conformity with these regulations and to test if advice given at a Paediatric outpatient clinic could improve compliance. Two groups were assigned, an intervention group (parents given an information leaflet and a clear explanation about appropriate restraints for their children) and a non-intervention group (received no information). They were contacted again after 2 months and asked regarding compliance. A total of 394 children from 186 families were initially given the questionnaire. Nearly one third of children (29.2%) were not using any restraint while travelling rising to 35.3% on follow up. This study concluded that once off parental education made negligible difference to an already inconsistent and haphazard approach to compliance with safety regulations.

  13. Coping with budget restraint in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different types of households react to experiences of food budget restraint in Denmark. The study applied a mixed method design, based on survey data and on qualitative interviews. The qualitative data source consisted of interviews with 30...... institute GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia. Using both data sources the study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed as a consequence of experienced restraints on the food budget. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms of application of various types...... of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, such as compromising the tastiness of food and giving up social ties involved...

  14. Supporting system for the core restraint of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, A.

    1973-01-01

    The core restraint of water cooled nuclear reactors which is needed to direct the flow of the coolant through the core can be manufactured only in a moderate wall thickness. Thus, the majority of the loads have to be transmitted to the core barrel which is more rigid. The patent refers to a system of circumferential and vertical support members most of which are free to move relatively to each other, thus reducing thermal stresses during operation. (P.K.)

  15. Construct Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Restraint Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe main purpose of this study was to adapt the Restraint Scale (RS to Portuguese and examine its psychometric properties, specifically its construct validity.MethodIn this study, 238 normal-weight adults (82% women; Mean age = 36.6, SD = 15.0 participated in an online survey containing measures of Restraint Scale, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, and Body Dissatisfaction and Drive for Thinness scales.ResultsExploratory factor analyses corroborated the two-factors structure found in previous studies, in particular when three items without clear factorial assignment and low correlation were excluded. A final two-factors version of the RS containing seven items presented a very good fit to the measurement model and good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 7-items RS in relation to a three-factor model of overeating, dieting and body dissatisfaction measures revealed that the RS was the only restraint measure loading in all three factors.ConclusionThis suggests that the 7-items Portuguese version of the RS has good psychometric properties and unique features that lend it appropriate to identify and study unsuccessful chronic dieters.

  16. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. Laboratory hatch and behind Astronaut James D. Weatherbee, mission specialist. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  17. Restraint reduction in a nursing home and its impact on employee attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundel, M; Garrett, R M; Horn, R D

    1994-04-01

    To reduce physical restraint use in a nursing home and increase employee support for the restraint-reduction program. A one-group pretest-posttest design with repeated measures was used to determine changes in restraint use with participants over a 14-month interval. All individuals employed at the nursing home were surveyed at two time periods to determine their opinions on restraint use. A 265-bed private, non-profit nursing home in Dallas, Texas. A restrained cohort of 170 residents with a mean age of 84 years; 84% were female. A total of 182 employees participated in the first survey and 209 in the second. Formation of a project team that planned and supervised restraint removal. Inservice training on restraint use was conducted for all employees. Type and frequency of restraint use among the restrained cohort at four evaluation points within a 14-month interval. The frequency of restraint use in the nursing home population was also recorded. Survey measures included employee responses to a 16-item closed-end questionnaire before and after training. The mean number of restraints used with each resident in the restrained cohort decreased from 1.56 to 0.67. The number of residents on restraints in the nursing home was reduced during the course of the study (67.5% vs. 36.7%, P reduction program in a nursing home can produce positive results in terms of decreased restraint use and supportive employee attitudes. More practical alternatives to restraints need to be developed for application in the training of nursing home employees. Future studies on resident, employee, and family attitudes about restraint use are suggested.

  18. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-09-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System are presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented

  20. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of the influence of seismic restraint characteristics on breeder reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, R.M.; Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    For the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) heat transport system piping within the reactor containment building, dynamic analyses of the piping loops have been performed to study the effect of restraint stiffness on the dynamic behavior of the piping. In addition, analysis and testing of typical CRBRP restraint system components have been performed for the purpose of quantifying and verifying the basic characteristics of the restraints used in the piping system dynamic analysis

  2. The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, S K; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Functional analyses produced inconclusive results regarding variables that maintained problem behavior for 2 students with developmental disabilities. Procedures were modified to include a contingent physical restraint condition based on in-class observations. Results indicated that tinder conditions in which physical restraint (i.e., basket-hold timeout) was applied contingent on problem behavior, rates of these behaviors increased across sessions for both subjects. Implications for the use of physical restraint in the classroom are discussed.

  3. Use of physical restraint: Nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Fatemeh; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Wong, Li Ping

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice of nurses towards physical restraint and factors influencing these variables. A literature review showed a lack of studies focused on the intention of nurses regarding physical restraint throughout the world. Considering that very little research on physical restraint use has been carried out in Malaysia, assessment of nurses' knowledge, attitude, intention and practice is necessary before developing a minimising programme in hospitals. A cross-sectional study was used. A questionnaire to assess the knowledge, attitude, intention and practice was completed by all nurses (n = 309) in twelve wards of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Moderate knowledge and attitude with strong intention to use physical restraint were found among the nurses. Less than half of nurses considered alternatives to physical restraint and most of them did not understand the reasons for the physical restraint. Nurses' academic qualification, read any information source during past year and nurses' work unit showed a significant association with nurses' knowledge. Multiple linear regression analysis found knowledge, attitude and intention were significantly associated with nurses' practice to use physical restraint. This study showed some important misunderstandings of nurses about using physical restraint and strong intention regarding using physical restraint. Findings of this study serve as a supporting reason for importance of educating nurses about the use of physical restraint. Exploring the knowledge, attitude, intention and current practice of nurses towards physical restraint is important so that an effective strategy can be formulated to minimise the use of physical restraints in hospitals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Legislating child restraint usage -Its effect on self-reported child restraint use rates in a central city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixey, Suzanne; Ravindran, Karthik; Guse, Clare E

    2010-02-01

    To assess the effect of the newly enacted child passenger safety law, Wisconsin Act 106, on self-report of proper restraint usage of children in Milwaukee's central city population. A prospective, non-randomized study design was used. The settings used were (a) a pediatric urban health center, and (b) two Women, Infants and Children offices in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Participants included 11,566 surveys collected over 18 months that spanned the pre-legislation and post-legislation time periods from February 2006 through August 2008. The study set out to assess appropriate child passenger restraint. The results showed that the changes in adjusted proper restraint usage rates for infants between the pre-law, grace period, and post-fine periods were 94%, 94%, and 94% respectively. For children 1-3years old, the adjusted proper usage rates were 65%, 63%, and 59%, respectively. And for children 4-7years old, the rates were 43%, 44% and 42%, respectively. There was a significant increase in premature booster seat use in children who should have been restrained in a rear- or forward-facing car seat (10% pre-law, 12% grace period, 20% post-fine; padvertising and marketing to the correct age group, ease of installation, and mechanisms to prevent incorrect safety strap and harness placement. To ensure accurate and consistent use on every trip, car seat manufacturers must ensure that best practice recommendations for use as well as age, weight, and height be clearly specified on each child restraint. The authors support the United States Department of Transportation's new consumer program that will assist caregivers in identifying the child seat that will fit in their vehicle. In addition, due to the increase in premature graduation of children into belt-positioning booster seats noted as a result of legislation, promoting and marketing booster seat use for children less than 40 pounds should not be accepted. Child passenger safety technicians must continue to promote best

  5. Increase in best practice child car restraint use for children aged 2-5 years in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of mandatory child restraint laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Ivers, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    To examine changes in child car restraint practices in low socioeconomic areas following the introduction of mandatory child car restraint legislation in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data from two cross-sectional studies of child car restraint use at pre-schools, early childhood centres and primary schools before and after the introduction of legislating mandatory age-appropriate car restraint use for children up to the age of seven years was used in this analysis. All included observations were from local government areas with socioeconomic status in the lowest 30% of urban Sydney. Children aged 2-5 years were observed in their vehicles as they arrived at observation sites (107 pre-legislation, 360 post-legislation). Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine changes in observed age-appropriate and correct use of car restraints. Age-appropriate car restraint use was higher post-legislation than pre-legislation. After controlling for child's age, parental income, language spoken at home and adjusting for clustering, the odds of children being appropriately restrained post-legislation were 2.3 times higher than in the pre-legislation sample, and the odds of them being correctly restrained were 1.6 times greater. Results indicate an improvement in car restraint practices among children aged 2-5 in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of child restraint laws. Implications : Despite improvements observed with enhanced legislation, further efforts are required to increase optimal child car restraint use. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. An alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen Lin; Yang, Shu Hui; Li, Bing; Xu, Yan Chun; Ma, Jian Hua; Xu, Jian Feng; Zhang, Xian Guang

    2011-01-01

    Flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. Currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. Surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. Non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stiffness. We observed microstructure of primary feathers of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and found that the width of barbs is a determinative factor influencing vane stiffness and geometric parameters. We hypothesized that partial longitudinal excision of barbs on the ventral surface of the primary feathers would reduce the stiffness of the vane and render the feathers unable to support the crane's body weight during flight. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this modification of barbs would also change the aerodynamic performance of feathers such that they could not generate sufficient lift and thrust during flapping to enable the bird to fly. We tested this hypothesis on a red-crowned crane that had normal flight capability by excising the ventral margin of barbs on all 10 primaries on the left wing. The bird was unable to take off until the modified feathers were replaced by new ones. Removal of barbs proved to be a simple, non-invasive, low-cost and reversible method for flight restraint. It is potentially applicable to other large birds with similar structural characteristics of primary feathers. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Therapeutic restraint and freedom of movement, changing practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin-Niquet, Annick

    From confinement to the philosophy of care in the community, the history of psychiatry testifies to the evolution of practices in the matter of the restriction of freedom. The French National Health Authority still too often recommends practices based on restraint. Caregivers, in relation to the clinical aspect of the patients, need clearly identified therapeutic projects. While training can be vital for them, risk management policies can prove to be a hindrance to patients' freedom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2006-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  10. Restraint behavior of concrete under extreme thermal and hygral conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwesinger, P.; Dommnich, F.

    1989-01-01

    Stresses due to temperature may be a considerable part of the whole loading of the structure especially in reactor vessels, chimneys and other structures. During using of this structures the heating cycle consisting of heating and cooling may be repeated for several times. On the other hand the initial load, the preloading time, the heating rate and the moisture of concrete can differ in respect of the design or utilization of the structure. The effect of this environmental factors on the restraint behavior of concrete is presented in this paper

  11. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  12. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

  13. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  14. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Frost

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD" passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82% and manual WhMDs (80% compared to scooters (39%, and this difference was significant (p< 0.01. Nonuse or misuse of the occupant restraint system occurred during 88% of WhMD trips, and was most frequently due to vehicle operator neglect in applying the shoulder belt. Despite the absence of incidents or injuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.

  15. 28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. 552.26 Section 552.26 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS... § 552.26 Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents. (a) In immediate use...

  16. Clinical decision making on the use of physical restraint in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqian Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical restraint is a common nursing intervention in intensive care units and nurses often use it to ensure patients' safety and to prevent unexpected accidents. However, existing literature indicated that the use of physical restraint is a complex one because of inadequate rationales, the negative physical and emotional effects on patients, but the lack of perceived alternatives. This paper is aimed to interpret the clinical decision-making theories related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units in order to facilitate our understanding on the use of physical restraint and to evaluate the quality of decisions made by nurses. By reviewing the literature, intuition and heuristics are the main decision-making strategies related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units because the rapid and reflexive nature of intuition and heuristics allow nurses to have a rapid response to urgent and emergent cases. However, it is problematic if nurses simply count their decision-making on experience rather than incorporate research evidence into clinical practice because of inadequate evidence to support the use of physical restraint. Besides that, such a rapid response may lead nurses to make decisions without adequate assessment and thinking and therefore biases and errors may be generated. Therefore, despite the importance of intuition and heuristics in decision-making in acute settings on the use of physical restraint, it is recommended that nurses should incorporate research evidence with their experience to make decisions and adequate assessment before implementing physical restraint is also necessary.

  17. [Vision on and use of physical restraints and 'smart technology' in nursing homes in Flanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlassara, V; Lampo, E; Degryse, B; Van Audenhove, C; Spruytte, N

    2017-04-01

    The STAFF-project investigates in what way 'smart technology' can offer an alternative for physical restraints in nursing homes. A survey is realized aimed at gaining more insight into the vision on and the use of physical restraints and 'smart technology'. Two partly overlapping structured questionnaires were developed and sent to nursing home staff in Flanders (Belgium). One hundred fifty six administrators (managers or assistant-managers) and 238 caregiving staff (nurses, nursing aids, paramedical staff and other) completed the online questionnaire. In general there is a low acceptability of physical restraint use, however, a more nuanced picture of acceptability is present depending on the specific motivation for using physical restraints and on the specific means of physical restraints. About half of the administrators say they use smart technology in the nursing home. The two main reasons for not applying (yet) smart technology are 'too high price for smart technology' and 'inadequate infrastructure of the nursing home'. All respondents underscore the importance of multiple strategies to diminish the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. Physical restraint use is a complex theme and needs a nuanced analysis and management. This study shows that there is still room for improvement in diminishing the use of physical restraints and that nursing homes in Flanders are open to use smart technology.

  18. Growth and Predictors of Growth Restraint in Moderately Preterm Children Aged 0 to 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; Bos, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in moderately preterm-born children, determine the prevalence of growth restraint at the age of 4, and identify predictors of growth restraint. We hypothesized that growth in moderately preterm-born children differs from growth in term-born children and that growth

  19. 76 FR 55825 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0139] RIN 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems..., amends a provision in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213, ``Child restraint systems,'' that... provision: When a motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political...

  20. Adjustable, physiological ventricular restraint improves left ventricular mechanics and reduces dilatation in an ovine model of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Rangaraj, Aravind; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Lee, Lawrence; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Bolman, R Morton; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2007-03-13

    Ventricular restraint is a nontransplantation surgical treatment for heart failure. The effect of varying restraint level on left ventricular (LV) mechanics and remodeling is not known. We hypothesized that restraint level may affect therapy efficacy. We studied the immediate effect of varying restraint levels in an ovine heart failure model. We then studied the long-term effect of restraint applied over a 2-month period. Restraint level was quantified by use of fluid-filled epicardial balloons placed around the ventricles and measurement of balloon luminal pressure at end diastole. At 4 different restraint levels (0, 3, 5, and 8 mm Hg), transmural myocardial pressure (P(tm)) and indices of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) were determined in control (n=5) and ovine heart failure (n=5). Ventricular restraint therapy decreased P(tm) and MVO2, and improved mechanical efficiency. An optimal physiological restraint level of 3 mm Hg was identified to maximize improvement without an adverse affect on systemic hemodynamics. At this optimal level, end-diastolic P(tm) and MVO2 indices decreased by 27% and 20%, respectively. The serial longitudinal effects of optimized ventricular restraint were then evaluated in ovine heart failure with (n=3) and without (n=3) restraint over 2 months. Optimized ventricular restraint prevented and reversed pathological LV dilatation (130+/-22 mL to 91+/-18 mL) and improved LV ejection fraction (27+/-3% to 43+/-5%). Measured restraint level decreased over time as the LV became smaller, and reverse remodeling slowed. Ventricular restraint level affects the degree of decrease in P(tm), the degree of decrease in MVO2, and the rate of LV reverse remodeling. Periodic physiological adjustments of restraint level may be required for optimal restraint therapy efficacy.

  1. Torsional Restraint Problem of Steel Cold-Formed Beams Restrained By Planar Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Ivan; Melcher, Jindřich; Pešek, Ondřej

    2017-10-01

    The effect of continuous or discrete lateral and torsional restraints of metal thinwalled members along their spans can positively influence their buckling resistance and thus contribute to more economical structural design. The prevention of displacement and rotation of the cross-section results in stabilization of the member. The restraints can practically be provided e.g. by planar members of cladding supported by metal members (purlins, girts). The rate of stabilization of a member can be quantified using values of shear and rotational stiffness provided by the adjacent planar members. While the lateral restraint effected by certain shear stiffness can be often considered as sufficient, the complete torsional restraint can be safely considered in some practical cases only. Otherwise the values of the appropriate rotational stiffness provided by adjacent planar members may not be satisfactory to ensure full torsional restraint and only incomplete restraint is available. Its verification should be performed using theoretical and experimental analyses. The paper focuses on problem of steel thin-walled coldformed beams stabilized by planar members and investigates the effect of the magnitude of the rotational stiffness provided by the planar members on the resistance of the steel members. Cold-formed steel beams supporting planar members of cladding are considered. Full lateral restraint and incomplete torsional restraint are assumed. Numerical analyses performed using a finite element method software indicate considerable influence of the torsional restraint on the buckling resistance of a steel thin-walled member. Utilization of the torsional restraint in the frame of sizing of a stabilized beam can result in more efficient structural design. The paper quantifies this effect for some selected cases and summarizes results of numerical analysis.

  2. Mental health inpatients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Rouse, L; Rae, S; Kar Ray, M

    2018-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Restraint has negative psychological, physical and relational consequences for mental health patients and staff. Restraint reduction interventions have been developed (e.g., "Safewards"). Limited qualitative research has explored suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementing interventions) from those directly involved. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper explores mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint, whilst addressing barriers to implementing these. Findings centred on four themes: improving communication and relationships; staffing factors; environment and space; and activities and distraction. Not all suggestions are addressed by currently available interventions. Barriers to implementation were identified, centring on a lack of time and/or resources; with the provision of more time for staff to spend with patients and implement interventions seen as essential to reducing physical restraint. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Improving communication and relationships between staff/patients, making staffing-related changes, improving ward environments and providing patient activities are central to restraint reduction in mental healthcare. Fundamental issues related to understaffing, high staff turnover, and lack of time and resources need addressing in order for suggestions to be successfully implemented. Introduction Physical restraint has negative consequences for all involved, and international calls for its reduction have emerged. Some restraint reduction interventions have been developed, but limited qualitative research explores suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementation) from those directly involved. Aims To explore mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint. Methods Interviews were conducted with 13 inpatients

  3. Do organisational constraints explain the use of restraint? A comparative ethnographic study from three nursing homes in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øye, Christine; Jacobsen, Frode Fadnes; Mekki, Tone Elin

    2017-07-01

    To investigate (1) what kind of restraint is used in three nursing homes in Norway and (2) how staff use restraint under what organisational conditions. Restraint use in residents living with dementia in nursing homes is controversial, and at odds with fundamental human rights. Restraint is a matter of hindering residents' free movement and will by applying either interactional, physical, medical, surveillance or environmental restraint. Previous research has identified use of restraint related to individual resident characteristics such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. This model is embedded in an overall mixed-method education intervention design study called Modelling and evaluating evidence-based continuing education program in dementia care (MEDCED), applying ethnography postintervention to examine the use of restraint in 24 nursing homes in Norway. Based on restraint diversity measured in the trial, ethnographic investigation was carried out in three different nursing homes in Norway over a 10-month period to examine restraint use in relation to organisational constraints. Several forms of restraint were observed; among them, interactional restraint was used most frequently. We identified that use of restraint relates to the characteristics of individual residents, such as agitation, aggressiveness and wandering. However, restraint use should also be explained in relation to organisational conditions such as resident mix, staff culture and available human resources. A fluctuating and dynamic interplay between different individual and contextual factors determines whether restraint is used - or not in particular situations with residents living with dementia. Educational initiatives targeting staff to reduce restraint must be sensitive towards fluctuating organisational constraints. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The application of viscous dampers as pipe restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keowen, R.S.; Hueffmann, G.; Mays, B.; Rencher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic loading of power generation piping systems may result in nonpermissable deflections and stresses. Fatigue failure translate to increased maintenance costs and possible lost revenue. Undesirable loading can occur due to external events such as earthquakes and internal events such as water and steam hammer, two-phase flow and cavitation. Sway braces and snubbers have been employed to reduce the negative effects of piping motion in emergency cases, however, repetitive loading due to internal events has caused premature wear and failure. Visco elastic dampers, however, have proven to be piping response due to slugging, steam hammer and other repetitive loads. Functional and modeling aspects of visco elastic dampers are discussed, experimental evidence of their effectiveness in a steam hammer application is presented and examples of primary coolant loop restraint applications are illustrated

  6. Mental Health Nursing, Mechanical Restraint Measures and Patients’ Legal Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Coercive mechanical restraint (MR) in psychiatry constitute the perhaps most important exception from the common health law requirement for involving patients in health care decisions and achieving their informed consent prior to treatment. Coercive measures and particularly MR constitute...... a serious collision with patient autonomy principles, pose a particular challenge to psychiatric patients’ legal rights, and put intensified demands on health professional performance. Legal rights principles require rationale for coercive measure use be thoroughly considered and rigorously documented....... This article presents an in-principle Danish Psychiatric Complaint Board decision concerning MR use initiated by untrained staff. The case illustrates that, judicially, weight must be put on the patient perspective on course of happenings and especially when health professional documentation is scant, patients...

  7. Wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint practices in paratransit vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Karen; Bertocci, Gina; Smalley, Craig

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) usage in paratransit vehicles based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility devices, collectively, "WhMD") passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video monitoring recordings of WhMD trips was conducted. Four hundred seventy-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis. The use of all four tiedowns to secure the WhMD was observed more frequently for power WhMDs (82%) and manual WhMDs (80%) compared to scooters (39%), and this difference was significant (pinjuries in this study, misuse and nonuse of WTORS potentially place WhMD seated passengers at higher risk of injury during transit. These findings support the need for improved vehicle operator training and passenger education on the proper use of WTORS and development of WTORS with improved usability and/or alternative technologies that can be automated or used independently.

  8. Can child restraint product information developed using consumer testing sustain correct use 6 months after child restraint purchase? Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Elkington, Jane; Hall, Alexandra; Keay, Lisa; Charlton, Judith L; Hunter, Kate; Koppel, Sjaan; Hayen, Andrew; Bilston, Lynne E

    2018-03-07

    With long-standing and widespread high rates of errors in child restraint use, there is a need to identify effective methods to address this problem. Information supplied with products at the point of sale may be a potentially efficient delivery point for such a countermeasure. The aim of this study is to establish whether product materials developed using a consumer-driven approach reduce errors in restraint use among purchasers of new child restraint systems. A cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) will be conducted. Retail stores (n=22) in the greater Sydney area will be randomised into intervention sites (n=11) and control sites (n=11), stratified by geographical and socioeconomic indicators. Participants (n=836) will enter the study on purchase of a restraint. Outcome measures are errors in installation of the restraint as observed by a trained researcher during a 6-month follow-up home assessment, and adjustment checks made by the parent when the child is placed into the restraint (observed using naturalistic methods). Process evaluation measures will also be collected during the home visit. An intention-to-treat approach will be used for all analyses. Correct use and adjustment checks made by the parent will be compared between control and intervention groups using a logistic regression model. The number of installation errors between groups will be compared using Poisson regression. This cRCT will determine the effectiveness of targeted, consumer-driven information on actual error rates in use of restraints. More broadly, it may provide a best practice model for developing safety product information. ACTRN12617001252303p; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Effect of head restraint backset on head-neck kinematics in whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2006-03-01

    Although head restraints were introduced in the 1960s as a countermeasure for whiplash, their limited effectiveness has been attributed to incorrect positioning. The effect of backset on cervical segmental angulations, which were previously correlated with spinal injury, has not been delineated. Therefore, the practical restraint position to minimize injury remains unclear. A parametric study of increasing head restraint backset between 0 and 140mm was conducted using a comprehensively validated computational model. Head retraction values increased with increasing backset, reaching a maximum value of 53.5mm for backsets greater than 60mm. Segmental angulation magnitudes, greatest at levels C5-C6 and C6-C7, reached maximum values during the retraction phase and increased with increasing backset. Results were compared to a previously published head restraint rating system, wherein lower cervical extension magnitudes from this study exceeded mean physiologic limits for restraint positions rated good, acceptable, marginal, and poor. As head restraint contact was the limiting factor in head retraction and segmental angulations, the present study indicates that minimizing whiplash injury may be accomplished by limiting head restraint backset to less than 60mm either passively or actively after impact.

  10. Exogenous agmatine has neuroprotective effects against restraint-induced structural changes in the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Yang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Cai, Zheng-Wei; Regunathan, Soundar; Ordway, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous amine derived from decarboxylation of arginine catalysed by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is considered a novel neuromodulator and possesses neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system. The present study examined whether agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint stress-induced morphological changes in rat medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 6 h of restraint stress daily for 21 days. Immunohistochemical staining with β-tubulin III showed that repeated restraint stress caused marked morphological alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Stress-induced alterations were prevented by simultaneous treatment with agmatine (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Interestingly, endogenous agmatine levels, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus as well as in the striatum and hypothalamus of repeated restraint rats were significantly reduced as compared with the controls. Reduced endogenous agmatine levels in repeated restraint animals were accompanied by a significant increase of arginine decarboxylase protein levels in the same regions. Moreover, administration of exogenous agmatine to restrained rats abolished increases of arginine decarboxylase protein levels. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exogenously administered agmatine has neuroprotective effects against repeated restraint-induced structural changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. These findings indicate that stress-induced reductions in endogenous agmatine levels in the rat brain may play a permissive role in neuronal pathology induced by repeated restraint stress. PMID:18364017

  11. Physical and mechanical restraint in psychiatric units: Perceptions and experiences of nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; da Silva, Danielle Maria; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Giacon, Bianca Cristina Ciccone; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2018-06-01

    Physical restraint in psychiatric units is a common practice but extremely controversial and poorly evaluated by methodologically appropriate investigations. The cultural issues and professionals' perceptions and attitudes are substantial contributors to the frequency of restraint that tend to be elevated. Aim In this qualitative study, we aimed to understand the experiences and perceptions of nursing staff regarding physical restraint in psychiatric units. Through theoretical sampling, 29 nurses from two Brazilian psychiatric units participated in the study. Data were collected from 2014 to 2016 from individual interviews and analyzed through thematic analysis, employing theoretical presuppositions of symbolic interactionism. Physical restraint was considered unpleasant, challenging, risky, and associated with dilemmas and conflicts. The nursing staff was often exposed to the risks and injuries related to restraint. Professionals sought strategies to reduce restraint-related damages, but still considered it necessary due to the lack of effective options to control aggressive behavior. This study provides additional perspectives about physical restraint and reveals the need for safer, humanized and appropriate methods for the care of aggressive patients that consider the real needs and rights of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A daily diary study of perceived social isolation, dietary restraint, and negative affect in binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E; Braitman, Abby L; Lewis, Robin J

    2016-02-01

    Negative affect and dietary restraint are key predictors of binge eating, yet less is known about the impact of social factors on binge eating. The study sought to replicate and extend research on the relationships between negative affect, dietary restraint, perceived social isolation and binge eating using a daily diary methodology. College women (N = 54) completed measures of dietary restraint, negative affect, perceived social isolation, and binge eating daily for 14 days. Participants completed the measures nightly each day. A series of generalized estimating equations showed that dietary restraint was associated with less binge eating while controlling for negative affect and for perceived social isolation separately. Negative affect and perceived social isolation were associated with greater binge eating while controlling for restraint in separate analyses, but only perceived social isolation was significant when modeled simultaneously. All two-way interactions between negative affect, dietary restraint, and perceived social isolation predicting binge eating were nonsignificant. This study furthers our understanding of predictors of binge eating in a nonclinical sample. Specifically, these data suggest perceived social isolation, negative affect, and dietary restraint are important variables associated with binge eating in daily life and warrant further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Therapeutic restraint management in Intensive Care Units: Phenomenological approach to nursing reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Nuevo, M; González-Gil, M T; Solís-Muñoz, M; Láiz-Díez, N; Toraño-Olivera, M J; Carrasco-Rodríguez-Rey, L F; García-González, S; Velasco-Sanz, T R; Martínez-Álvarez, A; Martin-Rivera, B E

    2016-01-01

    To identify nursing experience on physical restraint management in Critical Care Units. To analyse similarities and differences in nursing experience on physical restraint management according to the clinical context that they are involved in. A multicentre phenomenological study was carried out including 14 Critical Care Units in Madrid, classified according to physical restraint use: Common/systematic use, lacking/personalised use, and mixed use. Five focus groups (23 participants were selected following purposeful sampling) were convened, concluding in data saturation. Data analysis was focused on thematic content analysis following Colaizzi's method. Six main themes: Physical restraint meaning in Critical Care Units, safety (self-retreat vital devices), contribution factors, feelings, alternatives, and pending issues. Although some themes are common to the 3 Critical Care Unit types, discourse differences are found as regards to indication, feelings, systematic use of pain and sedation measurement tools. In order to achieve real physical restraint reduction in Critical Care Units, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of restraints use in the specific clinical context. As self-retreat vital devices emerge as central concept, some interventions proposed in other settings could not be effective, requiring alternatives for critical care patients. Discourse variations laid out in the different Critical Care Unit types could highlight key items that determine the use and different attitudes towards physical restraint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimizing Restraint and Seclusion in Schools: A Response to Beaudoin and Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Virginia L; Pinkelman, Sarah E

    2018-06-01

    Increasing efforts have been made in the field of special education to identify positive, evidence-based practices (EBPs) to meet the needs of students who engage in problem behavior, with a major goal being to eliminate or limit the use of reactive measures such as restraint and seclusion ( Snell & Walker, 2014 ). Various stakeholders, including families and self-advocates, have voiced concerns about the dangers of restraint and seclusion and the lack of protection afforded to students who engage in severe problem behavior. In the previous article in this issue of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Beaudoin and Moore (2018) echo these concerns in their account of a family's experience with restraint as told from the perspective of a father whose son was subjected to restraint, resulting in a number of adverse short- and long-term consequences that affected the entire family. In response to Beaudoin and Moore, we provide readers with a brief review of the current status of restraint and seclusion in school settings and evidence-based strategies that can be used to address severe problem behavior and reduce the need for restraint and seclusion. For readers interested in exploring restraint and seclusion in greater depth, we suggest recent work by Trader and colleagues (2017) . We also have outlined guidelines for behavior support planning that should be considered by various stakeholders as educators work toward establishing safe and supportive school environments that address a wide range of student behavioral needs.

  15. Stress analysis of two-dimensional C/C composite components for HTGR's core restraint techanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoshi Hanawa; Taiju Shibata; Jyunya Sumita; Masahiro Ishihara; Tatsuo Iyoku; Kazuhiro Sawa

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (C/C composite) is one of the most promising materials for HTGRs core components due to their high strength as well as high temperature resistibility. One of the most attractive applications of C/C composite is the core restraint mechanism. The core restraint mechanism is located around the reflector block and it works to tighten reactor core blocks so as to restrict un-supposition flow pass of coolant gas (bypass flow) in the core. The restriction of bypass flow reads to the high efficiency of coolant flow rate inside of the reactor core. For the future HTGRs and VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), it is important to develop the core restraint mechanism with C/C composite substitute for metallic materials as used for HTTR. For the application of C/C composite to core restraint mechanism, it is important to investigate the applicability of C/C composite in viewpoint of structural integrity. In the present study, supposing the application of 2D-C/C composite to core restraint mechanism, thermal stress behavior was analyzed by considering the thickness of the C/C composite and the gap between reflector block and core restraint. It was shown from the thermal stress analysis that the circumferential stress decreases with increasing the gap and that the restraint force increases with increasing the thickness. By optimizing the thickness of C/C composite and gap between reflector block and core restraint, the C/C composite is applicable to the core restraint mechanism. (authors)

  16. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System is presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented. (author)

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF RESTRAINTS IN THE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM OF A COLD-FORMED PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Łukowicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the restraints in the optimization problem. This is an important and complicated issue because it requires taking into account a vast range of information related to the design and production. In order to describe the relations of a specific optimization problem, it is essential to adopt appropriate criteria and to collect information on all kinds of restraints, i.e. boundary conditions. The following paper verifies the various restraints and defines three subsets: design assumptions, technological limitations and standard conditions. The provided classification was made with reference to the analysis of the construction applicability of the newly patented cold-formed profile.

  18. [Physical and pharmacological restraints in geriatric and gerontology services and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; López Trigo, José Antonio; Maíllo Pedraz, Herminio; Paz Rubio, José María

    2015-01-01

    Physical and pharmacological restraints are a controversial issue in the context of geriatric care due to their moral, ethical, social and legal repercussions and, despite this fact, no specific legislation exists at a national level. The use of restraints is being questioned with growing frequency, as there are studies that demonstrate that restraints do not reduce the number of falls or their consequences, but rather can increase them, cause complications, injuries and potentially fatal accidents. Restraints are not always used rationally, despite compromising a fundamental human right, that is, freedom, protected in the Constitution, as well as values and principles, such as dignity and personal self-esteem. There are centers where restraints are applied to more than 50% of patients, and in some cases without the consent of their legal representatives. On some occasions, restraints are used for attaining organizational or environmental objectives, such as complying with tight schedules, and for reducing or avoiding the supervision of patients who walk erratically and, at times, are used indefinitely. Even greater confusion exists with respect to the emerging concept of chemical or pharmacological restraints, since no conceptual framework exists based on scientific evidence, and with sufficient consensus for guiding healthcare workers. In this context, the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG--Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society), aware of the significance and transcendence of the issue, and in an attempt to preserve and guarantee maximum freedom, dignity and self-esteem, on the one hand, and to ensure the maximum integrity and legal certainty of the persons cared for in geriatric and gerontology services and centers, on the other, decided to create an "Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraints" made up by members from different disciplines and members of SEGG Working Groups or Committees, external health care workers, groups

  19. Dietary restraint partially mediates the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating only in lean individuals: The importance of accounting for body mass in studies of restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ashley Coffino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data that suggests impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI. Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333 or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173 and completed the restrained eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the difficulties with impulse control subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but dietary restraint was not. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors.

  20. Applying sensory modulation to mental health inpatient care to reduce seclusion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Kolmos, Anne; Andersen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint in mental healthcare, but there is need for more research in this area. AIMS: Using SM to reduce restraint and seclusion in inpatient mental health care. METHODS: The study included two similar psychiatric units where one unit implemented SM and one...... unit served as the control group. In the very beginning of the study, a staff-training program in the use of SM including assessment tools and intervention strategies was established. Data on restraint and forced medicine were sampled post the course of the year of implementation and compared...... with the control group. RESULTS: The use of belts decreased with 38% compared to the control group. The use of forced medication decreased with 46% compared to the control group. Altogether the use of physical restraint and forced medication decreased significantly with 42% (p 

  1. Prehospital chemical restraint of a noncommunicative autistic minor by law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeffrey D; Nystrom, Paul C; Calvo, Darryl V; Berris, Marc S; Norlin, Jeffrey F; Clinton, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    When responders are dealing with an agitated patient in the field, safety for all involved may sometimes only be accomplished with physical or chemical restraints. While experiences using chemical restraint in the prehospital setting are found in the medical literature, the use of this by law enforcement as a first-response restraint has not previously been described. We report a case of successful law enforcement-administered sedation of a noncommunicative, autistic, and violent minor using intramuscular droperidol and diphenhydramine. Although this case has some unique characteristics that allowed chemical restraint to be given by the law enforcement agency, it calls attention to some specific prehospital issues that need to be addressed when dealing with autistic patients with extreme agitation.

  2. Fabrication of a small animal restraint for synchrotron biomedical imaging using a rapid prototyper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Zhang Honglin; McCrea, Richard; Bewer, Brian; Wiebe, Sheldon; Nichol, Helen; Ryan, Christopher; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical research at synchrotron facilities may involve imaging live animals that must remain motionless for extended periods of time to obtain quality images. Even breathing movements reduce image quality but on the other hand excessive restraint of animals increases morbidity and mortality. We describe a humane animal restraint designed to eliminate head movements while promoting animal survival. This paper describes how an animal restraint that conforms to the shape of an animal's head was fabricated by a 3D prototyper. The method used to translate medical computed tomography (CT) data to a 3D stereolithography format is described and images of its use at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) are shown. This type of restraint holds great promise in improving image quality and repeatability while reducing stress on experimental animals

  3. Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümüş, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application.

  4. National roadside survey of child restraint system use in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Roynard; Peter, Silverans; Yvan, Casteels; Philippe, Lesire

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011 the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI) conducted its first roadside survey of child restraint system (CRS) use and misuse. The aim of this study was to obtain population-bases estimates of the prevalence of use and misuse of CRS and to identify predictors of misuse on the basis of observations in real traffic conditions. The survey was conducted on randomly selected sites across the country, stratified across various types of journeys. The principal parameters analysed were: the characteristics of the children and the car drivers, type of journey, types of CRS and types of misuse. The sample consisted of 1461 children (under 135cm) for whom the conditions of restraint were observed in detail and the driver was interviewed. At least 50% of the children were not correctly restrained and 10% were not restrained at all. The most significant factors associated with CRS use were the use of a seatbelt by the driver (31% of unrestrained children for unbelted drivers, compared to 7% for belted drivers - only 32% of correctly restrained children for unbelted drivers compared to 54% for belted drivers), whether the CRS was bought in a specialized shop (only 27% of misuse compared to 45% of misuse for CRS both in supermarkets) and the age of the children. The proportion of correctly restrained children (appropriate without misuse, the bottom category in the figure) has a roughly curvilinear relation with age; decreasing from 75% at age 0 to 24% at age 8 and going back up to 63% at age 10. Although the sample of ISOFIX users was small (n=76), it appears that the ISOFIX system reduced misuse significantly. Most of the drivers were ignorant of their own errors concerning the inappropriateness and/or misuse of the CRS or they were remiss and underestimated the risk. The three main reasons given by the drivers to explain or justify the misuse noticed were: low attention level to safety (inattention, time pressure, and short distance), the child's resistance to

  5. Comparative Assessment of Torso and Seat Mounted Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical Deceleration Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2017-0044 Comparative Assessment of Torso and Seat Mounted Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical ...Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical Deceleration Tower 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6500-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...experimental effort involving a series of +z-axis impact tests was conducted on the 711th Human Performance Wing’s Vertical Deceleration Tower (VDT

  6. How the architect-engineer manages design objectives and restraints for optimizing sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, K.A.; Roe, K.K.

    1978-01-01

    The design objectives of low capital and operating costs and high reliability are best attained by carefully defining criteria early in the development stage. Throughout the design development, unusual attention to constructibility, reliability and availability requirements, and the early resolution of licensing issues by designated engineering specialists are some of the approaches used to minimize design restraints. Effective management of these design objectives and restraints can assure that, on balance, LMFBR costs can be improved, reliability increased, and maintenance can be effective. (author)

  7. The evolution of the doctrine of restraint of trade in Australia: a law reform perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, John Wei-Ting

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the present state of the common law doctrine of restraint of trade from a law reform perspective. The doctrine was developed in England between the 1600s and mid-1800s and its evolution over the centuries has been a slow and ongoing process. The present state of the doctrine and its application in the Australian jurisdiction presents a challenging set of circumstances due to the difficulties faced by contracting parties when they wish to engage in restraint of trade. ...

  8. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Restraint status improves the predictive value of motor vehicle crash criteria for pediatric trauma team activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Andrew P; Dassinger, Melvin S; Recicar, John F; Smith, Samuel D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna R; Nick, Todd G; Maxson, Robert T

    2012-12-01

    Most trauma centers incorporate mechanistic criteria (MC) into their algorithm for trauma team activation (TTA). We hypothesized that characteristics of the crash are less reliable than restraint status in predicting significant injury and the need for TTA. We identified 271 patients (age, <15 y) admitted with a diagnosis of motor vehicle crash. Mechanistic criteria and restraint status of each patient were recorded. Both MC and MC plus restraint status were evaluated as separate measures for appropriately predicting TTA based on treatment outcomes and injury scores. Improper restraint alone predicted a need for TTA with an odds ratios of 2.69 (P = .002). MC plus improper restraint predicted the need for TTA with an odds ratio of 2.52 (P = .002). In contrast, the odds ratio when using MC alone was 1.65 (P = .16). When the 5 MC were evaluated individually as predictive of TTA, ejection, death of occupant, and intrusion more than 18 inches were statistically significant. Improper restraint is an independent predictor of necessitating TTA in this single-institution study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects and costs of requiring child-restraint systems for young children traveling on commercial airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Thomas B; Johnston, Brian D; Grossman, David C

    2003-10-01

    The US Federal Aviation Administration is planning a new regulation requiring children younger than 2 years to ride in approved child-restraint seats on airplanes. To estimate the annual number of child air crash deaths that might be prevented by the proposed regulation, the threshold proportion of families switching from air to car travel above which the risks of the policy would exceed its benefits, and the cost per death prevented. Risk and economic analyses. Child-restraint seat use could prevent about 0.4 child air crash deaths per year in the United States. Increased deaths as a result of car travel could exceed deaths prevented by restraint seat use if the proportion of families switching from air to car travel exceeded about 5% to 10%. The estimate for this proportion varied with assumptions about trip distance, driver characteristics, and the effectiveness of child-restraint seats but is unlikely to exceed 15%. Assuming no increase in car travel, for each dollar increase in the cost of implementing the regulation per round trip per family, the cost per death prevented would increase by about $6.4 million. Unless space for young children in restraint seats can be provided at low cost to families, with little or no diversion to automobile travel, a policy requiring restraint seat use could cause a net increase in deaths. Even excluding this possibility, the cost of the proposed policy per death prevented is high.

  11. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  12. Bupleurum falcatum prevents depression and anxiety-like behaviors in rats exposed to repeated restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bombi; Yun, Hye-Yeon; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated restraint stress in rodents produces increases in depression and anxietylike behaviors and alters the expression of corticotrophinreleasing factor (CRF) in the hypothalamus. The current study focused on the impact of Bupleurum falcatum (BF) extract administration on repeated restraint stress-induced behavioral responses using the forced swimming test (FST) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Immunohistochemical examinations of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in rat brain were also conducted. Male rats received daily doses of 20, 50, or 100 mg/kg (i.p.) BF extract for 15 days, 30 min prior to restraint stress (4 h/day). Hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal axis activation in response to repeated restraint stress was confirmed base on serum corticosterone levels and CRF expression in the hypothalamus. Animals that were pre-treated with BF extract displayed significantly reduced immobility in the FST and increased open-arm exploration in the EPM test in comparison with controls. BF also blocked the increase in TH expression in the locus coeruleus of treated rats that experienced restraint stress. Together, these results demonstrate that BF extract administration prior to restraint stress significantly reduces depression and anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through central adrenergic mechanisms, and they suggest a role for BF extract in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders.

  13. Taste sensor; Mikaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-03-05

    This paper introduces a taste sensor having a lipid/polymer membrane to work as a receptor of taste substances. The paper describes the following matters: this sensor uses a hollow polyvinyl chloride rod filled with KCl aqueous solution, and placed with silver and silver chloride wires, whose cross section is affixed with a lipid/polymer membrane as a lipid membrane electrode to identify taste from seven or eight kinds of response patterns of electric potential output from the lipid/polymer membrane; measurements of different substances presenting acidic taste, salty taste, bitter taste, sweet taste and flavor by using this sensor identified clearly each taste (similar response is shown to a similar taste even if the substances are different); different responses are indicated on different brands of beers; from the result of measuring a great variety of mineral waters, a possibility was suggested that this taste sensor could be used for water quality monitoring sensors; and application of this taste sensor may be expected as a maturation control sensor for Japanese sake (wine) and miso (bean paste) manufacturing. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N; Lambiase, Maya J; Lobarinas, Christina L; Balantekin, Katherine N

    2011-12-01

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy intake and food choices. A total of 40 boys and girls, age 8-12 years, with wide ranges of dietary restraint, adiposity, and stress reactivity were measured for total energy intake and choice of energy dense 'comfort' and lower density 'healthy' foods following reading and speech stressor manipulations. When exploring the interaction of dietary restraint and stress reactivity, lower restraint/lower reactivity and lower restraint/higher reactivity were associated with reductions in energy intake (37-62 kcal) and comfort food (33-89 kcal). Higher restraint/lower reactivity was associated with consuming 86 fewer total kcal and 45 fewer kcal of comfort food. Only higher restraint/higher reactivity predicted increased energy intake (104 kcal) and comfort food (131 kcal). The interaction of dietary restraint and percentage body fat revealed that lower restraint/lower adiposity was associated with consuming 123 fewer kcal after being stressed with the entire reduction due to a decrease in comfort food. Lower restraint/higher adiposity was associated with consuming 116 kcal more after being stressed with 70% (81 kcal) of the increase in the form of comfort foods. Higher restraint/lower adiposity and higher restraint/higher adiposity were associated with smaller changes in total energy intake of 22 kcal and 1 kcal; respectively. Both restraint and adiposity moderated the effect of stress on energy intake and food choice. Children with greater adiposity may be at risk for stress-induced eating to contribute to their obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of PCMI restraint on bubble size distribution in the rim structure of UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Je-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Lee, Byung-Ho; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2005-01-01

    Generally, the bubble size in the rim structure of UO 2 is not dependent on the fuel burnup and the bubble pressure is higher than that in the equilibrium condition. However it was also observed that if the fuel pellet is not restrained, the size of the bubbles in the rim structure could be larger than that in the restraint condition. Although the wide variety of rim bubble sizes and porosities possibly result from an external restrain effect, the quantitative method to analyze the effect of PCMI restraint on bubble distribution in the rim is not available at the moment. In this paper, a method is developed which can be used to analyze the effect of PCMI restraint on the bubble distribution in the rim structure of UO 2 fuel based on the data in the literatures. The total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles per unit rim volume could be derived by a summation of the number of Xe atoms of each rim bubble in a unit rim volume. The number of Xe atoms of each rim bubble could be calculated by the Van der Waals equation of state and the pressure expressed by p=σ+C/r, where C is an unknown constant to be determined as a function of the temperature and the burnup. On the other hand, the total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles per unit rim volume can also be calculated by Xe depression data. If the fuel pellet is not restrained, the uniform hydrostatic stress, σ is zero. Hence if the data of the fuel disk without a restraint is used, a constant C can be obtained at 823K and a local burnup of 90 GWd/t. Although the local burnup of PCMI restraint case is slightly different from that without PCMI restraint, the value derived above is used for the analysis of PCMI restraint case. The calculated bubble distribution with PCMI restraint was similar to the measured one. Because the effect of PCMI restraint on bubble size increased with the bubble size, the development of a large bubble was suppressed. Hence, the PCMI restraint caused a typical bubble size in the rim and

  16. Dietary restraint in college women: fear of an imperfect fat self is stronger than hope of a perfect thin self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalley, Simon E; Toffanin, Paolo; Pollet, Thomas V

    2012-09-01

    We predicted that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a feared fat self would mediate perfectionistic concerns on dietary restraint. We also predicted that the mediation pathway from perfectionistic concerns to dietary restraint would have a greater impact than that from perfectionistic strivings. Participants were 222 female college students who reported their height and weight and completed measures of perfectionism, the likelihood of acquiring the feared fat and hoped-for thin selves, and dietary restraint. Statistical analyses revealed that the perceived likelihood of acquiring the feared fat self mediated both perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the mediating pathway from perfectionistic concerns to dietary restraint was greater than that from perfectionistic strivings. Implications for future research and eating pathology interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Algorithm for selection of optimized EPR distance restraints for de novo protein structure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmier, Kelli; Alexander, Nathan S.; Meiler, Jens; Mchaourab, Hassane S.

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid protein structure determination approach combining sparse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) distance restraints and Rosetta de novo protein folding has been previously demonstrated to yield high quality models (Alexander et al., 2008). However, widespread application of this methodology to proteins of unknown structures is hindered by the lack of a general strategy to place spin label pairs in the primary sequence. In this work, we report the development of an algorithm that optimally selects spin labeling positions for the purpose of distance measurements by EPR. For the α-helical subdomain of T4 lysozyme (T4L), simulated restraints that maximize sequence separation between the two spin labels while simultaneously ensuring pairwise connectivity of secondary structure elements yielded vastly improved models by Rosetta folding. 50% of all these models have the correct fold compared to only 21% and 8% correctly folded models when randomly placed restraints or no restraints are used, respectively. Moreover, the improvements in model quality require a limited number of optimized restraints, the number of which is determined by the pairwise connectivities of T4L α-helices. The predicted improvement in Rosetta model quality was verified by experimental determination of distances between spin labels pairs selected by the algorithm. Overall, our results reinforce the rationale for the combined use of sparse EPR distance restraints and de novo folding. By alleviating the experimental bottleneck associated with restraint selection, this algorithm sets the stage for extending computational structure determination to larger, traditionally elusive protein topologies of critical structural and biochemical importance. PMID:21074624

  18. Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voyer Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a reported by nursing staff and b reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation. Methods We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills. Results Compared to direct observation (gold standard, reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84. When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54. Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints. Conclusions The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing

  19. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Use of top tethers with forward-facing child restraints: observations and driver interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Angela H; Decina, Lawrence E; Jermakian, Jessica S; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-02-01

    Despite the safety benefits, many parents do not use top tethers with forward-facing child restraints. Detailed information was collected about why parents are not using tethers. The sample included 479 drivers who had forward-facing child restraints installed in passenger vehicles equipped with tether anchors. The survey was conducted primarily at shopping centers, recreation facilities, child care facilities, car seat check events, and health care facilities in mostly suburban areas surrounding Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Fredericksburg (VA), and Seattle. Drivers were surveyed about their knowledge and use of tethers and experience with child restraints. Tether use was observed to verify whether tethers were being used correctly. Fifty-six percent of forward-facing child restraints were installed with the tether; 39% were installed with the tether used correctly. The tether was used with 71% of LATCH lower anchor installations and 33% of seat belt installations. Drivers who installed child restraints without tethers most often said they did not know about the tether or how to use it. Although the tether use rate was slightly higher in the current research than in previous studies, many parents and caregivers still use forward-facing child restraints without attaching the tether. Because the main problem is lack of awareness of the tether or how to use it, public education should focus specifically on the safety benefits of tethers and how to use them. Information about why caregivers fail to use top tethers is potentially useful to child restraint manufacturers, child passenger safety technicians, and others who work with parents to improve motor vehicle safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardiovascular and hormonal responses of conscious pigs during physical restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.E.; Bossone, C.A.; Hannon, J.P.; Hunt, M.M.; Rodkey, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of physical restraint on cardiovascular function and plasma hormone levels in 20 to 25 kg conscious Duroc pigs. Pigs were placed in a Pavlov sling or remained in a portable holding cage. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and blood samples taken at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min. Placement into the sling increased heart rate from 106 ''+ or -'' 3 to 151 ''+ or -'' 13 beats/min and mean arterial pressure rose from 95 ''+ or -'' 2 to 115 ''+ or -'' 2 mm Hg. Both heart rate and blood pressure returned to basal values within 10 min. Hematocrit was increased from 26 ''+ or -'' 1 to 32 ''+ or -'' 1%. Heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit were not changed in caged animals. Plasma norepinephrine increased from 179 ''+ or -'' 32 to 461 ''+ or -'' 52 pg/ml returning to basal values within 10 min. Epinephrine showed a similar trend rising from 69 ''+ or -'' 10 to 337 ''+ or -'' 53 pg/ml. Plasma renin activity increased after 5 min in the sling and remained increased from a basal level of 1.0 ''+ or -'' 0.2 to 2.8 ''+ or -'' 0.5 ng AI/ml/hr at four hr. Plasma cortisol (4.5 ''+ or -'' 0.6 to 8.2 ''+ or -'' 1.5 microg/dl), ACTH (45 ''+ or -'' 9 to 169 ''+ or -'' pg/ml) and aldosterone (3.5 ''+ or -'' 0.4 to 11.2 ''+ or -'' 1.1 ng/dl) rose over the four hr period. Pigs in cages showed no change in plasma hormones. Placement of an untrained pig into a sling raises heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit and produces increases in plasma concentrations of epinephrine, ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone

  2. Women, sex and marriage. Restraint as a feminine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishwar, M

    1997-01-01

    The expression of sexuality varies in different cultures, and most societies attempt to control sexuality through the institution of marriage. In the West, the availability of cheap, effective contraceptives separated sex from reproduction and promoted the sexual liberation of women. Today, while divorce is common, sexually liberated people nevertheless engage in a form of serial monogamy. Sexual liberation in the West causes women to be exploited by men and creates instability in nuclear families. In India, feminism is tempered by a belief that familial rights have precedence over individual rights. India women practice sexual self-denial after being widowed to protect their children and to gain power and respect in the community. The power of chastity was illustrated by Mahatma Gandhi who marshalled his spiritual forces to fight for independence. The stories of many individual women illustrate how they attain status and prestige through chastity. Other women maintain absolute marital faithfulness as a marital strategy to control wayward husbands. These women deemphasize their roles as wives and emphasize their roles as mothers. The children of such women often recognize their sacrifices and become their strongest allies. On the other hand, examples of women who have chosen sexual freedom show that such a choice places them at the mercy of men, makes them social outcasts, and causes other women to distrust them as competitors for their husbands. In patriarchal societies, women can not win if they try to mimic men's capacity for irresponsible sex. Sexual freedom can only work for women in matrilineal communities that shun marriage in favor of strong ties within a woman's natal family. Indian women rooted in the extended family enjoy the resilience and flexibility attendant upon playing a larger role than simply pleasing men. Opting for sexual restraint can be an effective though costly strategy to achieve the sympathy and support of an extended family when a man is

  3. Restraint stress intensifies interstitial K+ accumulation during severe hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSchnell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for three weeks (6 h/day. In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current (DC potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain.

  4. Optimising product advice based on age when design criteria are based on weight: child restraints in vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2009-03-01

    The motivation for this paper is the high rate of inappropriate child restraint selection in cars that is apparent in published surveys of child restraint use and how the public health messages promoting child restraints might respond. Advice has increasingly been given solely according to the child's weight, while many parents do not know the weight of their children. A common objection to promoting restraint use based on the age of the child is the imprecision of such advice, given the variation in the size of children, but the magnitude of the misclassification such advice would produce has never been estimated. This paper presents a method for estimating the misclassification of children by weight, when advice is posed in terms of age, and applies it to detailed child growth data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In Australia, guidelines instructing all parents to promote their children from an infant restraint to a forward-facing child seat at 6 months, and then to a belt-positioning booster at 4 years, would mean that 5% of all children under the age of 6 years would be using a restraint not suited to their weight. Coordination of aged-based advice and the weight ranges chosen for the Australian Standard on child restraints could reduce this level of misclassification to less than 1%. The general method developed may also be applied to other aspects of restraint design that are more directly relevant to good restraint fit.

  5. Real time control of restraint systems in frontal crashes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griotto, G.; Lemmen, P.P.M.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den; Leijsen, A.C.P. van; Schie, C. van; Cooper, J.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the targets for fatality reduction in car accidents set by Governments in Europe, USA and Japan can only be met by using advanced technologies that will include a broad range of sensors to monitor the crash likelihood and severity, vehicle condition, occupant type and

  6. Real-world adjustments of driver seat and head restraint in Saab 9-3 vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anna; Pipkorn, Linda; Kullgren, Anders; Svensson, Mats

    2017-05-19

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), commonly denoted whiplash injury, is a worldwide problem. These injuries occur at relatively low changes of velocity (typically whiplash injury than males.  Improved seat design is the prevailing means of increasing the protection of whiplash injury for occupants in rear impacts. Since 1997, more advanced whiplash protection systems have been introduced on the market, the Saab Active Head Restraint (SAHR) being one of the most prominent. The SAHR-which is height adjustable-is mounted to a pressure plate in the seatback by means of a spring-resisted link mechanism.  Nevertheless, studies have shown that seats equipped with reactive head restraints (such as the SAHR) have a very high injury-reducing effect for males (∼60-70%) but very low or no reduction effect for females. One influencing factor could be the position of the head restraint relative to the head, because a number of studies have reported that adjustable head restraints often are incorrectly positioned by drivers.  The aim was to investigate how female and male Saab drivers adjust the seat in the car they drive the most. The seated positions of drivers in stationary conditions have been investigated in a total of 76 volunteers (34 females, 42 males) who participated in the study. Inclusion criteria incorporated driving a Saab 9-3 on a regularly basis. The majority of the volunteers (89%) adjusted the head restraint to any of the 3 uppermost positions and as many as 59% in the top position.  The average vertical distance between the top of the head and the top of the head restraint (offset) increase linearly with increasing statures, from an average of -26 mm (head below the head restraint) for small females to an average of 82 mm (head above the head restraint) for large males. On average, the offset was 23 mm for females, which is within a satisfactory range and in accordance with recommendations; the corresponding value for males was 72 mm.

  7. Pasireotide treatment does not modify hyperglycemic and corticosterone acute restraint stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Schweizer, Junia R O L; Amaral, Pedro H S; Bizzi, Mariana F; Silveira, Warley Cezar da; Espirito-Santo, Daniel T A; Zille, Giancarlo; Soares, Beatriz S; Schmid, Herbert A; Yuen, Kevin C J

    2018-04-17

    Pasireotide is a new-generation somatostatin analog that acts through binding to multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes. Studies have shown that pasireotide induces hyperglycemia, reduces glucocorticoid secretion, alters neurotransmission, and potentially affects stress responses typically manifested as hyperglycemia and increased corticosterone secretion. This study specifically aimed to evaluate whether pasireotide treatment modifies glucose and costicosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress. Male Holtzman rats of 150-200 g were treated with pasireotide (10 µg/kg/day) twice-daily for two weeks or vehicle for the same period. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 30, and 60 min of restraint stress. The three experimental groups comprised of vehicle + restraint (VEHR), pasireotide + restraint (PASR), and pasireotide + saline (PASNR). Following pasireotide treatment, no significant differences in baseline glucose and corticosterone levels were observed among the three groups. During restraint, hyperglycemia was observed at 10 min (p stressed groups when compared to the non-stressed PASNR group (p stressed groups at 5 min (p stressed PASNR group (p stress responses, thus preserving acute stress regulation.

  8. Chemical restraint in routine clinical practice: a report from a general hospital psychiatric ward in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamichael Georgios

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of studies regarding chemical restraint in routine clinical psychiatric practice. There may be wide variations between different settings and countries. Methods A retrospective study on chemical restraint was performed in the 11-bed psychiatric ward of the General Hospital of Arta, in northwestern Greece. All admissions over a 2-year-period (from March 2008 to March 2010 were examined. Results Chemical restraint was applied in 33 cases (10.5% of total admissions. From a total of 82 injections, 22 involved a benzodiazepine and/or levomepromazine, whereas 60 injections involved an antipsychotic agent, almost exclusively haloperidol (96.7% of cases, usually in combination with a benzodiazepine (61.7% of cases. In 36.4% of cases the patient was further subjected to restraint or seclusion. Conclusions In our unit, clinicians prefer the combined antipsychotic/benzodiazepine regimen for the management of patients' acute agitation and violent behaviour. Conventional antipsychotics are administrated almost exclusively and in a significant proportion of cases further coercive measures are applied. Studies on the practice of chemical restraint should be regularly performed in clinical settings.

  9. Psychological assessment of acute schizophrenia patients who experienced seclusion either alone or in combination with restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Rika; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kouji; Kuroda, Kenji; Ieiri, Ichiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-05-01

    Objective Numerous studies on the effects of seclusion and/or restraint in acute psychiatric treatment have reported both positive and negative effects. However, no studies to date have evaluated the effects of seclusion and/or restraint on schizophrenia patients using a rating scale. Thus, to examine the effects of seclusion and/or restraint on schizophrenia patients, we used the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and assessed the psychological condition of patients. Methods Factor analysis was conducted to create subscales of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and psychiatric changes were assessed with respect to each subscale using multiple logistic regression analyses. Analyses were performed on three groups (i.e. entire, higher functioning, and lower functioning groups) involving a total of 1559 schizophrenia patients aged 18 to 65 years. Results In the entire and lower functioning groups, seclusion was a significant predictor of improvements related to the "hostility/suspiciousness" subscale. Seclusion combined with restraint was associated with improvements related to the "psychosis/thinking disorder" subscale. In the higher functioning group, there were no significant predictors. Conclusions It is implied that seclusion and/or restraint is related to improved psychiatric symptoms only among patients whose functioning is impaired. To verify the present findings, further studies involving multiple sites and additional psychiatric measures are necessary.

  10. M.E.366-J embodiment design project: Portable foot restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Randall; Meyer, Eikar; Schmidt, Davey; Enders, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    During space shuttle operations, astronauts require support to carry out tasks in the weightless environment. In the past, portable foot restraints (PFR) with orientations adjustable in pitch, roll, and yaw provided this support for payload bay operations. These foot restraints, however, were designed for specific tasks with a load limit of 111.2 Newtons. Since the original design, new applications for foot restraints have been identified. New designs for the foot restraints have been created to boost the operational work load to 444.8 Newtons and decrease setup times. What remains to be designed is an interface between the restraint system and the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots. NASA provided a proposed locking device involving a spring-loaded mechanism. This locking mechanism must withstand loads of 1334.4 Newtons in any direction and weigh less than 222.4 Newtons. This paper develops an embodiment design for the interface between the PFR and the EMU boots. This involves design of the locking mechanism and a removable cleat that allows the boot to interface with this mechanism. The design team used the Paul Beitz engineering methodology to present the systematic development, structural analysis, and production considerations of the embodiment design. This methodology provides a basis for understanding the justification behind the decisions made in the design.

  11. Dietary restraint and impulsivity modulate neural responses to food in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth; Paulmichl, Katharina; Weghuber, Daniel; Blechert, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Despite alarming prevalence rates, surprisingly little is known about neural mechanisms underlying eating behavior in juveniles with obesity. To simulate reactivity to modern food environments, event-related potentials (ERP) to appetizing food images (relative to control images) were recorded in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents with obesity (patients) and 24 matched healthy control adolescents watched and rated standardized food and object images during ERP recording. Personality (impulsivity) and eating styles (trait craving and dietary restraint) were assessed as potential moderators. Food relative to object images triggered larger early (P100) and late (P300) ERPs. More impulsive individuals had considerably larger food-specific P100 amplitudes in both groups. Controls with higher restraint scores showed reduced food-specific P300 amplitudes and subjective palatability ratings whereas patients with higher restraint scores showed increased P300 and palatability ratings. This first ERP study in adolescents with obesity and controls revealed impulsivity as a general risk factor in the current obesogenic environment by increasing food-cue salience. Dietary restraint showed paradoxical effects in patients, making them more vulnerable to visual food-cues. Salutogenic therapeutic approaches that deemphasize strict dietary restraint and foster healthy food choice might reduce such paradoxical effects. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  13. Physical restraint and the protection of the human rights of immigration detainees in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Hilary; Norton, Emma; Ginn, Emma; Schleicher, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Immigration detainees, like prisoners, are entitled to the same standard of healthcare as non-detained patients. When hospital attendance or admission is required, the priority for custodial staff (who for purposes of this article we refer to as 'escorts') is to prevent absconding. For that reason, they may wish to use physical restraints, such as handcuffs, and remain with the detainee at all times. This can be degrading for the patient and breach their human rights. Clinicians have professional obligations to all their patients and must object to any restraint methods that risk damaging the patient's right to confidentiality, treatment, health or the therapeutic relationship itself. The starting presumption is that restraints ought not to be used during treatment and only in the most exceptional cases ought escorts to be present during clinical examination or treatment. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  14. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth A; Mcnair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. It was hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs. hunger (P = 0.017), desire to eat (P =0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P = 0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (P = 0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  15. Geometrically Nonlinear Transient Response of Laminated Plates with Nonlinear Elastic Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic behavior of laminated plates with nonlinear elastic restraints, a varied constraint force model and a systematic numerical procedure are presented in this work. Several kinds of typical relationships of force-displacement for spring are established to simulate the nonlinear elastic restraints. In addition, considering the restraining moments of flexible pads, the pads are modeled by translational and rotational springs. The displacement- dependent constraint forces are added to the right-hand side of equations of motion and treated as additional applied loads. These loads can be explicitly defined, via an independent set of nonlinear load functions. The time histories of transverse displacements at typical points of the laminated plate are obtained through the transient analysis. Numerical examples show that the present method can effectively treat the geometrically nonlinear transient response of plates with nonlinear elastic restraints.

  16. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple Grandin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship.

  17. Use of physical restraints and antipsychotic medications in nursing homes: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhanlian; Hirdes, John P; Smith, Trevor F; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Chi, Iris; Du Pasquier, Jean-Noel; Gilgen, Ruedi; Ikegami, Naoki; Mor, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    This study compares inter- and intra-country differences in the prevalence of physical restraints and antipsychotic medications in nursing homes, and examines aggregated resident conditions and organizational characteristics correlated with these treatments. Population-based, cross-sectional data were collected using a standardized Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) from 14,504 long-term care facilities providing nursing home level services in five countries participating in the interRAI consortium, including Canada, Finland, Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region, China), Switzerland, and the United States. Facility-level prevalence rates of physical restraints and antipsychotic use were examined both between and within the study countries. The prevalence of physical restraint use varied more than five-fold across the study countries, from an average 6% in Switzerland, 9% in the US, 20% in Hong Kong, 28% in Finland, and over 31% in Canada. The prevalence of antipsychotic use ranged from 11% in Hong Kong, between 26-27% in Canada and the US, 34% in Switzerland, and nearly 38% in Finland. Within each country, substantial variations existed across facilities in both physical restraint and antipsychotic use rates. In all countries, neither facility case mix nor organizational characteristics were particularly predictive of the prevalence of either treatment. There exists large, unexplained variability in the prevalence of physical restraint and antipsychotic use in nursing home facilities both between and within countries. Since restraints and antipsychotics are associated with adverse outcomes, it is important to understand the idiosyncratic factors specific to each country that contribute to variation in use rates. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Exploiting structure similarity in refinement: automated NCS and target-structure restraints in BUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Oliver S., E-mail: osmart@globalphasing.com; Womack, Thomas O.; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Paciorek, Włodek; Sharff, Andrew; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard [Global Phasing Ltd, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-01

    Local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) provide a novel method for exploiting NCS or structural similarity to an external target structure. Two examples are given where BUSTER re-refinement of PDB entries with LSSR produces marked improvements, enabling further structural features to be modelled. Maximum-likelihood X-ray macromolecular structure refinement in BUSTER has been extended with restraints facilitating the exploitation of structural similarity. The similarity can be between two or more chains within the structure being refined, thus favouring NCS, or to a distinct ‘target’ structure that remains fixed during refinement. The local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) approach considers all distances less than 5.5 Å between pairs of atoms in the chain to be restrained. For each, the difference from the distance between the corresponding atoms in the related chain is found. LSSR applies a restraint penalty on each difference. A functional form that reaches a plateau for large differences is used to avoid the restraints distorting parts of the structure that are not similar. Because LSSR are local, there is no need to separate out domains. Some restraint pruning is still necessary, but this has been automated. LSSR have been available to academic users of BUSTER since 2009 with the easy-to-use -autoncs and @@target target.pdb options. The use of LSSR is illustrated in the re-refinement of PDB entries http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -target enables the correct ligand-binding structure to be found, and http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -autoncs contributes to the location of an additional copy of the cyclic peptide ligand.

  19. Improving Working Conditions for Astronauts: An Electronic Personal Restraint System for Use in Microgravity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tait

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While in microgravity, astronauts are preoccupied with physical restraint, which takes attention away from the maintenance task or scientific experiment at hand. This may directly lead to safety concerns and increased time for extravehicular activity, as well as potentially inhibit or corrupt data collection. A primary concern is the time it takes to manipulate the current restraint system. The portable foot restraint currently in use by NASA employs a series of pins in order to engage the system or release in an emergency. This requires considerable time for the user to detach, and there is an increased risk of entanglement. If restraint operating time could be reduced by 50%, the astronaut’s assigned experiment time could be increased an average of 100 minutes per mission. Another problem identified by NASA included the inability of the current system to release the user upon failure. Research and design was conducted following the Six-Sigma DMEDI project architecture, and a new form of restraint to replace the existing system was proposed. The research team first studied the customer requirements and relevant standards set by NASA, and with this information they began drafting designs for a solution. This project utilized electromagnetism to restrain a user in microgravity. The proposed system was capable of being manipulated quickly, failing in a manner that released the user, and being electronically controlled. This active electronic control was a new concept in restraint systems, as it enabled an astronaut to effectively “walk” along a surface while remaining restrained to it. With the design prototype and a limited budget, a rudimentary test assembly was built by the team, and most of NASA’s specifications were met. With recommendations from NASA, the research team concluded by developing potential material and design solutions that can be explored in the future by Purdue University or other parties.

  20. A new approach for applying residual dipolar couplings as restraints in structure elucidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiler, Jens; Blomberg, Niklas; Nilges, Michael; Griesinger, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Residual dipolar couplings are useful global structural restraints. The dipolar couplings define the orientation of a vector with respect to the alignment tensor. Although the size of the alignment tensor can be derived from the distribution of the experimental dipolar couplings, its orientation with respect to the coordinate system of the molecule is unknown at the beginning of structure determination. This causes convergence problems in the simulated annealing process. We therefore propose a protocol that translates dipolar couplings into intervector projection angles, which are independent of the orientation of the alignment tensor with respect to the molecule. These restraints can be used during the whole simulated annealing protocol

  1. Forensic mental health clinician's experiences with and assessment of alliance regarding the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lea Deichmann; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bech, Per

    2018-01-01

    One of the main reasons for prolonged duration of mechanical restraint is patient behaviour in relation to the clinician-patient alliance. This article reports on the forensic mental health clinicians experiences of the clinician-patient alliance during mechanical restraint, and their assessment...

  2. The concept of restraints in nursing home practice: a mixed method study in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Francke, A.L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although in most developed countries the use of restraints is regulated and restricted by law, the concept of restraint in nursing home care remains ambiguous. This study aims to explore how care professionals and family members of nursing home residents with dementia in the

  3. The concurrent validity of a classification of dieters with low versus high susceptibility toward failure of restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T

    1997-01-01

    It has been experimentally shown that the population of high restrained eaters consists of two subpopulations, i.e., those with a low and those with a high susceptibility toward failure of restraint. Only those who combined high restraint with high scores on the disinhibition scale of the TFEQ

  4. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject ot surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Boekhorst, S.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Francke, A.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Zwijsen, S.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had better

  5. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject to surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, S. te; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Francke, A.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Zwijsen, S.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had

  6. Reducing and Eliminating Restraint of People with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Behavior Disorders: An Overview of Recent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the most recent research (1999-2009) on restraint reduction and elimination efforts in the literature and also examines the characteristics of restraint along with the risks and benefits. Some earlier papers were included in this review because of their importance to the topic. The results of this literature…

  7. Educational intervention on physical restraint use in long-term care facilities - Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shao-Huan; Lu, Li-Chin; Lan, Shou-Jen; Chen, Jong-Chen; Wu, Wen-Jun; Chang, Shen-Peng; Lin, Long-Yau

    2017-08-01

    "Physical restraint" formerly used as a measure of protection for psychiatric patients is now widely used. However, existing studies showed that physical restraint not only has inadequate effect of protection but also has negative effects on residents. To analyzes the impact of educational program on the physical restraint use in long-term care facilities. A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. Eight databases, including Cochrane Library, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, Ovid Medline and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), were searched up to January 2017. Eligible studies were classified by intervention and accessed for quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies. Sixteen research articles were eligible in the final review; 10 randomize control trail studies were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the use of physical restraint was significantly less often in the experimental (education) group (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.78, p education would have decreased the effect of the restraint educational program (β: 0.08, p = 0.002); instead, the longer education period and more times of education would have a stronger effect of reducing the use of physical restraint (β: -0.07, p educational program had an effect on the reduced use of physical restraint. The results of meta-regression suggest that long-term care facilities should provide a continuous education program of physical restraint for caregivers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Exploring perspectives on restraint during medical procedures in paediatric care: a qualitative interview study with nurses and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Edel Jannecke; Pedersen, Reidar; Moen, Anne; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' and physicians' perspectives on and reasoning about the use of restraint during medical procedures on newly admitted preschoolers in somatic hospital care. We analysed qualitative data from individual interviews with a video recall session at the end with seven physicians and eight nurses. They had earlier participated in video recorded peripheral vein cannulations on preschool children. The data were collected between May 2012 and May 2013 at a paediatric hospital unit in Norway. The analysis resulted in three main themes: (1) disparate views on the concept of restraint and restraint use (2), ways to limit the use of physical restraint and its negative consequences, and (3) experience with the role of parents and their influence on restraint. Perspectives from both healthcare professions were represented in all the main themes and had many similarities. The results of this study may facilitate more informed and reflective discussions of restraint and contribute to higher awareness of restraint in clinical practice. Lack of guidance and scientific attention to restraint combined with conflicting interests and values among healthcare providers may result in insecurity, individual dogmatism, and a lack of shared discussions, language, and terminology.

  9. Dietary restraint in college women : Fear of an imperfect fat self is stronger than hope of a perfect thin self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Toffanin, Paolo; Pollet, Thomas V.

    We predicted that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a feared fat self would mediate perfectionistic concerns on dietary restraint. We also predicted that the

  10. Dietary restraint in college women: Fear of an imperfect fat self is stronger than hope of a perfect thin self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, S.E.; Toffanin, P.; Pollet, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    We predicted that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a feared fat self would mediate perfectionistic concerns on dietary restraint. We also predicted that the

  11. "A Very Fine Line": Parents' Experiences of Using Restraint with Their Adult Son/Daughter with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Helen; Beail, Nigel; Clarke, Zara

    2010-01-01

    Background: Restraint is sometimes used on people with intellectual disabilities who display challenging behaviours, and may be justifiable as a last resort to prevent harm. A substantial proportion of such people are cared for within the family home. The aim of this paper is to explore parents' experiences of using restraint with their…

  12. Knowledge and application of correct car seat head restraint usage among chiropractic college interns: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John Am; Burke, Jeanmarie; Gavencak, John; Panwar, Pervinder

    2005-03-01

    Cervical spine injuries sustained in rear-end crashes cost at least $7 billion in insurance claims annually in the United States alone. When positioned correctly, head restraint systems have been proven effective in reducing the risk of whiplash associated disorders. Chiropractors should be knowledgeable about the correct use of head restraint systems to educate their patients and thereby prevent or minimize such injuries. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of correct positioning of car seat head restraints among the interns at our institution. The secondary objective was to determine the same chiropractic interns' knowledge of the correct positioning of car seat head restraints. It was hypothesized that 100 percent of interns would have their head restraint correctly positioned within an acceptable range and that all interns would possess the knowledge to instruct patients in the correct positioning of head restraints. Cross-sectional study of a convenient sample of 30 chiropractic interns from one institution. Interns driving into the parking lot of our health center were asked to volunteer to have measurements taken and to complete a survey. Vertical and horizontal positions of the head restraint were measured using a beam compass. A survey was administered to determine knowledge of correct head restraint position. The results were recorded, entered into a spreadsheet, and analyzed. 13.3 percent of subjects knew the recommended vertical distance and only 20 percent of subjects knew the recommended horizontal distance. Chi Square analyses substantiated that the majority of subjects were unaware of guidelines set forth by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the correct positioning of the head restraint (chi(2) (vertical) = 16.13, chi(2) (horizontal) = 10.80, p .05). Interestingly, the 13.3 percent of the subjects who were aware of the vertical plane recommendations did not correctly position their own

  13. Seclusion and restraint in psychiatry: patients' experiences and practical suggestions on how to improve practices and use alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Raija; Joffe, Grigori; Putkonen, Hanna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Hane, Kimmo; Holi, Matti; Välimäki, Maritta

    2012-01-01

    This study explored psychiatric inpatients' experiences of, and their suggestions for, improvement of seclusion/restraint, and alternatives to their use in Finland. The data were collected by focused interviews (n= 30) and were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Patients' perspectives received insufficient attention during seclusion/restraint processes. Improvements (e.g., humane treatment) and alternatives (e.g., empathetic patient-staff interaction) to seclusion/restraint, as suggested by the patients, focused on essential parts of nursing practice but have not been largely adopted. Patients' basic needs have to be met, and patient-staff interaction has to also continue during seclusion/restraint. Providing patients with meaningful activities, planning beforehand, documenting the patients' wishes, and making patient-staff agreements reduce the need for restrictions and offer alternatives for seclusion/restraint. Service users must be involved in all practical development. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. All tied up: the fine art of balancing regulatory restraint compliance and excellent patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybel, Barbara-Ann

    2016-10-01

    This article presents examples of different resources that can be implemented to help manage a patient in crisis. It discusses challenges and solutions in regard to the ED boarding of behavioral health patients and reviews various restraint types and definitions (violent, non-violent, forensic). It stresses the importance of teamwork between security police and clinicians.

  15. [Injuries caused by traffic accidents: passive safety and restraint systems in automobiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppichini, F; Orlandi, E; Genna, M; Rodella, L; Ricci, G; Arienzo, A; Dorrucci, V; Inaspettato, G

    1986-10-01

    In this article are considered the multiple instruments today employed in cars, in order to prevent or ameliorate the lesions caused to the occupants in case of road accident. The acquisitions in the differentiated structure of the car, in the windshield, in the components of the passenger cell are described, and the peculiar importance of the restraint systems is evidenced.

  16. Reducing Seclusion Timeout and Restraint Procedures with At-Risk Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Peterson, Reece; Tetreault, George; Hagen, Emily Vander

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to review the effects of professional staff training in crisis management and de-escalation techniques on the use of seclusion timeout and restraint procedures with at-risk students in a K-12 special day school. An exploratory pre-post study was conducted over a two-year period, comparing the use of these…

  17. Nuclear reactor support and seismic restraint with in-vessel core retention cooling features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Tyler A.; Edwards, Michael J.

    2018-01-23

    A nuclear reactor including a lateral seismic restraint with a vertically oriented pin attached to the lower vessel head and a mating pin socket attached to the floor. Thermally insulating materials are disposed alongside the exterior surface of a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel including at least the lower vessel head.

  18. Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the influence of passive restraint on postural activity and motion sickness in individuals who actively controlled a potentially nauseogenic visual motion stimulus (a driving video game). Twenty-four adults (20.09 ± 1.56 years; 167.80 ± 7.94 cm; 59.02 ± 9.18 kg) were recruited as participants. Using elastic bands, standing participants were passively restrained at the head, shoulders, hips, and knees. During restraint, participants played (i.e., controlled) a driving video game (a motorcycle race), for 50 min. During game play, we recorded the movement of the head and torso, using a magnetic tracking system. Following game play, participants answered a forced choice, yes/no question about whether they were motion sick, and were assigned to sick and well groups on this basis. In addition, before and after game play, participants completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, which provided numerical ratings of the severity of individual symptoms. Five of 24 participants (20.83 %) reported motion sickness. Participants moved despite being passively restrained. Both the magnitude and the temporal dynamics of movement differed between the sick and well groups. The results show that passive restraint of the body can reduce motion sickness when the nauseogenic visual stimulus is under participants' active control and confirm that motion sickness is preceded by distinct patterns of postural activity even during passive restraint.

  19. Dietary restraint and subjective well-being in university students in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Horacio, Miranda; Sepúlveda, José

    2014-01-01

    with a significant variation in PD, WF, SWLS and SWFL scoring, number of days with mental health problems, frequency of alcoholic drinks consumption, restraint on the consumption of certain foods, drinks and spices, consumption frequency of fruit out of the main meals and types. Typologies did not differ...

  20. 28 CFR 552.24 - Use of four-point restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beyond eight hours requires the supervision of qualified health personnel. Mental health and qualified... Section 552.24 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT...-point restraints, qualified health personnel shall initially assess the inmate to ensure appropriate...

  1. Use of psychotropic medication among inpatients during focused efforts in prevention of coercion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Høgh, Lene; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    Objective: Department of Psychiatry in Aabenraa participates in a national Danish project supporting efforts to reduce coercion and restraint in psychiatry. Antipsychotic and anxiolytic medicine is widely used among agitated patients, but is also known to contribute to cardio-vascular disease...

  2. Changing the Definition of Education. On Kant's Educational Paradox between Freedom and Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffar, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Ever since Kant asked: "How am I to develop the sense of freedom in spite of the restraint?" in his lecture on education, the tension between necessary educational influence and unacceptable restriction of the child's individual development and freedom has been considered an educational paradox. Many have suggested solutions to the…

  3. Reduction of Restraint of People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don E.; Grossett, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    We used an organizational behavior management (OBM) approach to increase behavior intervention plans and decrease the use of mechanical restraint. First, recipients were tracked as a member of the priority group if they engaged in frequent self-injurious behavior or physical aggression toward others and/or if they had been placed in mechanical…

  4. Restraint Procedures and Challenging Behaviours in Intellectual Disability: An Analysis of Causative Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disability often evince challenging behaviours. Efforts have been underway for some time to develop prosocial or positive skill acquisition treatments to address challenging behaviours. However, physical/mechanical and chemical restraint is still commonly used in many clinical and community settings. Such…

  5. Self-Injurious Behavior, Self-Restraint, and Compulsive Behaviors in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Philippa; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires completed by caregivers of 77 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome in the United Kingdom found a significant association between self-injurious behaviors and self-restraint, and those displaying both behaviors displayed significantly more compulsions than did those not exhibiting them. Findings extend the…

  6. Pasung: Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diatri Hervita

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical restraint and confinement (pasung by families of people with mental illness is known to occur in many parts of the world but has attracted limited investigation. This preliminary observational study was carried out on Samosir Island in Sumatra, Indonesia, to investigate the nature of such restraint and confinement, the clinical characteristics of people restrained, and the reasons given by families and communities for applying such restraint. Methods The research method was cross-sectional observational research in a natural setting, carried out during a six-month period of working as the only psychiatrist in a remote district. Results Fifteen cases of pasung, approximately even numbers of males and females and almost all with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. Duration of restraint ranged from two to 21 years. Discussion and Conclusion The provision of basic community mental health services, where there were none before, enabled the majority of the people who had been restrained to receive psychiatric treatment and to be released from pasung.

  7. Design of the core support and restraint structures for FFTF and CRBRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, H.G.; Rylatt, J.A.

    1977-12-01

    This paper presents and compares the design and fabrication of the FFTF and CRBRP reactor structures which support and restrain the reactor core assemblies. The fabrication of the core support structure (CSS) for the FFTF reactor was completed October 1972 and this paper discusses how the fabrication problems encountered with the FFTF were avoided in the subsequent design of the CRBR CSS. The radial core restraint structure of the FFTF was designed and fabricated such that an active system could replace the present passive system which is segmented and relies on the CSS core barrel for total structure integrity to maintain core geometry. The CRBR core restraint structure is designed for passive restraint only, and this paper discusses how the combined strengths of the restraint structure former rings and the CSS core barrel are utilized to maintain core geometry. Whereas the CSS for the FFTF interfaces directly with the reactor core assemblies, the CRBR CSS does not. A comparison is made on how intermediate structures in CRBR (inlet modules) provide the necessary design interfaces for supporting and providing flow distribution to the reactor core assemblies. A discussion is given on how the CRBR CSS satisfied the design requirements of the Equipment Specification, including thermal transient, dynamic and seismic loadings, and results of flow distribution testing that supported the CRBR design effort. The approach taken to simplify fabrication of the CRBR components, and a novel 20 inch deep narrow gap weld joint in the CSS are described

  8. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. The Pattern of Physical Restraints applied to the Mentally-ill in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic groups found among the patients included Bipolar Affective Disorder current episode manic with psychotic symptoms (30%), Delirium (25%), Schizophrenia (20%), Acute polymorphic psychotic disorder without symptoms of schizophrenia (20%) and Dementia (5%). The reason for the use of restraints was ...

  10. Protecting children: a survey of caregivers’ knowledge of Georgia’s child restraint laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Strasser

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl Strasser1, Laurie Whorton2, Amanda J Walpole3, Sarah Beddington11Institute of Public Health, Partnership for Urban Health Research, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2WellStar Corporate and Community Health, Marietta, GA, USA; 3Cobb and Douglas Public Health, Marietta, GA, USAIntroduction: The leading cause of injury and death among children in the United States is motor vehicle crashes. Even though restraint laws are in place and public awareness campaigns and educational interventions have increased, many children are still improperly restrained or not restrained at all. When correctly used, child restraints significantly reduce risk of injury or death.Methods: The purpose of the study was to elicit caregiver baseline knowledge of car seat installation and regulation before receiving car seat education from certified technicians at Inspection Station events. Inspection Station is a program whereby staff assists parents in correctly positioning car seats in participants’ vehicles. Over an 8-week period, Safe Kids Cobb County Car Seat Technicians distributed a 16-item survey, with 10 knowledge-based questions and six demographic questions to Inspection Station participants. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted to assess relationships between participant age, ethnicity, and gender with overall knowledge scores. Regression analysis was run to determine the association between participant education level and total child restraint knowledge.Results: One hundred sixty-nine surveys were completed. Participant knowledge of vehicular child restraint ranged from 0% to 90% on all items. Only 29.6% of caregivers understood the proper tightness of the harness system. Less than half of the caregivers (43.8% were aware of the Georgia law requiring children aged 6 years and younger to be in some type of child restraint. Only 43.2% of caregivers surveyed knew that children need to ride in a rear-facing child restraint until 1

  11. Attention Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketch was used in the context of an experiment for the PhD project “Ambient Learning Displays”. The sketch comprises a custom-built attention sensor. The sensor measured (during the experiment) whether a participant looked at and thus attended a public display. The sensor was built

  12. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  13. Pine needle extract prevents hippocampal memory impairment in acute restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Kim, Won-Yong; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2017-07-31

    The Pinus densiflora leaf has been traditionally used to treat mental health disorders as a traditional Chinese medicine. Here we examined the ethnopharmacological relevance of pine needle on memory impairment caused by stress. To elucidate the possible modulatory actions of 30% ethanolic pine needle extract (PNE) on stress-induced hippocampal excitotoxicity, we adopted an acute restraint stress mouse model. Mice were orally administered with PNE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) for 9 days, and were then subjected to restraint stress (6h/day) for 3 days (from experimental day 7-9). To evaluate spatial cognitive and memory function, the Morris water maze was performed during experimental days 5-9. Restraint stress induced the memory impairment (the prolonged escape latency and cumulative path-length, and reduced time spent in the target quadrant), and these effects were significantly prevented by PNE treatment. The levels of corticosterone and its receptor in the sera/hippocampus were increased by restraint stress, which was normalized by PNE treatment. Restraint stress elicited the hippocampal excitotoxicity, the inflammatory response and oxidative injury as demonstrated by the increased glutamate levels, altered levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and imbalanced oxidant-antioxidant balance biomarkers. Two immunohistochemistry activities against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive neurons supported the finding of excitotoxicity especially in the cornu ammonis (CA)3 region of the hippocampus. Those alterations were notably attenuated by administration of PNE. The above findings showed that PNE has pharmacological properties that modulate the hippocampal excitotoxicity-derived memory impairment under severe stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject to surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Boekhorst, S; Depla, M F I A; Francke, A L; Twisk, J W R; Zwijsen, S A; Hertogh, C M P M

    2013-04-01

    As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had better quality of life scores for mood, behavioral and societal dimensions than residents with physical restraints. Quality of life was assessed longitudinally, with three measurements in six psychogeriatric nursing homes of residents with surveillance technology (n = 170) and residents with physical restraints (n = 22). QUALIDEM subscales were used to measure five dimensions of quality of life. Multilevel longitudinal univariate and multivariate regression techniques were used to analyze the data. Because physical restraints were almost exclusively used in residents with low activities of daily living (ADL) independency (18 of the 22), we restricted the regression analyses to residents with a Barthel Index score ≤ 5 (overall n = 53). Univariate results showed that highly ADL-dependent residents with surveillance technology had significantly more positive affect than highly ADL-dependent residents with physical restraints. However, this difference proved to be no longer significant after adjustment for the confounders: age, sex and stage of dementia. Quality of life of highly ADL-dependent nursing-home residents with dementia seems to be unrelated to the use of surveillance technology as opposed to physical restraints. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Contributions of mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint to BMI, disordered eating, and meal consumption in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Schaumberg, Katherine; Dmochowski, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A

    2016-03-01

    Mindful eating and intuitive eating are promoted as means to circumvent potentially maladaptive dietary restraint while maintaining a healthy weight. Although theoretically related, no studies have examined the correlations between intuitive eating, mindful eating, and restraint in the same sample. This study sought to examine these constructs and their correlations with body mass index (BMI), eating-disordered behaviors, and meal consumption in a college sample. Participants (N = 125) completed a laboratory taste-test meal and measures of each eating-related construct using the EDDS, IES, MEQ, and TFEQ-Restraint Subscale. Mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint were not strongly correlated. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that restraint and intuitive eating accounted for significant variance in disordered eating and BMI. Elevated restraint was associated with increased BMI and disordered eating; elevated intuitive eating was associated with decreased BMI and disordered eating. Mindful eating did not correlate with any outcome variables. Follow-up analyses suggested that specific intuitive eating subscales accounted for unique variance in the relation between intuitive eating and disordered eating. Intuitive eating was the only construct that was significantly associated with meal consumption. Intuitive eating and restraint appear to be only weakly correlated, and each is differentially associated with meal consumption. Mindful eating does not appear to relate to outcome variables.

  16. Child restraint use in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney during transition to new legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2013-01-01

    Child restraints protect a young child against injury in crashes but best practice child restraint use is low in Australia, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. We investigated factors associated with restraint use to inform the development of education and distribution programmes to support new Australian legislation on child passengers among families in low socio-economic areas of metropolitan Sydney. We interviewed a parent or carer of 1160 children aged 2-5 years enrolled at one of 28 early childhood centres in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney. Appropriate child restraint use was defined as a forward facing child restraint (FFCR) for 2-3 year olds and a FFCR or booster seat for children aged 4 years or more. Predictors of self-reported appropriate use were explored using logistic regression. Analysis was conducted on one child from each family in the target age range (2-5 years): 586 (51%) were male and the mean age was 3.5 (Standard Deviation 0.8) years. There were 432 (45%) families with annual income below $60,000, 248 (22%) spoke a language other than English at home and 360 (33%) had 3 or more children. Fifty-four percent of carers indicated that their 2-3 year old children travelled in a FFCR. Inappropriate use among children in this age group was more likely when the carer was law and poorer knowledge of safety benefits of child restraints. They also had lower household incomes and more concerns about cost of child restraints and booster seats. These findings can inform development of interventions to promote best practice child restraint use, which will reach non-English speaking families in this region. They also confirm the importance of economic and logistic barriers to best practice child restraint use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  18. Oxysterol Restraint of Cholesterol Synthesis Prevents AIM2 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Eric V; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Russell, David W; Cyster, Jason G

    2017-11-16

    Type I interferon restrains interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-driven inflammation in macrophages by upregulating cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) and repressing SREBP transcription factors. However, the molecular links between lipid metabolism and IL-1β production remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) by macrophages is required to prevent inflammasome activation by the DNA sensor protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). We find that in response to bacterial infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages upregulate Ch25h to maintain repression of SREBP2 activation and cholesterol synthesis. Increasing macrophage cholesterol content is sufficient to trigger IL-1β release in a crystal-independent but AIM2-dependent manner. Ch25h deficiency results in cholesterol-dependent reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and release of mitochondrial DNA into the cytosol. AIM2 deficiency rescues the increased inflammasome activity observed in Ch25h -/- . Therefore, activated macrophages utilize 25-HC in an anti-inflammatory circuit that maintains mitochondrial integrity and prevents spurious AIM2 inflammasome activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Belt restraint reduction in nursing homes: design of a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rossum Erik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of physical restraints still is common practice in the nursing home care. Since physical restraints have been shown to be an ineffective and sometimes even hazardous measure, interventions are needed to reduce their usage. Several attempts have been made to reduce the use of physical restraints. Most studies used educational approaches and introduced a nurse specialist as a consultant. However, the success rate of these interventions has been inconsistent. We developed a new multi-component intervention (EXBELT comprising an educational intervention for nursing home staff in combination with a policy change (belt use is prohibited by the nursing home management, availability of a nurse specialist and nursing home manager as consultants, and availability of alternative interventions. The first aim of this study is to further develop and test the effectiveness of EXBELT on belt restraint reduction in Dutch psychogeriatric nursing homes. However, the reduction of belts should not result in an increase of other restrictive restraints (such as a chair with locked tray table or psychoactive drug use. The overall aim is an effective and feasible intervention that can be employed on a large scale in Dutch nursing homes. Methods and design Effects of EXBELT will be studied in a quasi-experimental longitudinal study design. Alongside the effect evaluation, a process evaluation will be carried out in order to further develop EXBELT. Data regarding age, gender, use of physical restraints, the number of falls and fall related injuries, psychoactive drug use, and the use of alternative interventions will be collected at baseline and after four and eight months of follow-up. Data regarding the process evaluation will be gathered in a period of eight months between baseline and the last measurement. Furthermore, changing attitudes will become an important addition to the educational part of EXBELT. Discussion A quasi

  20. Discordance between age- and size-based criteria of child passenger restraint appropriateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Mary L; Bingham, C Raymond; Jacobson, Peter D; Macy, Michelle L

    2018-04-03

    In this study, we sought to accomplish the following objectives: to (1) calculate the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained across 8 criteria of increasing restrictiveness; (2) examine agreement between age- and size-based appropriateness criteria; (3) assess for changes in the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained by the 8 criteria between 2011 (shortly after updates to U.S. guidelines) and 2015. Data from 2 cross-sectional surveys of 928 parents of children younger than 12 years old (n = 591 in 2011, n = 337 in 2015) were analyzed in 2017. Child age, weight, and height were measured at an emergency department visit and used to determine whether the parent-reported child passenger restraint was considered appropriate according to 8 criteria. Age-based criteria were derived from Michigan law and U.S. Weight, height, and size-based criteria were derived from typical restraints available in the United States in 2007 and 2011. The percentage appropriate restraint use was calculated for each criterion. The kappa statistic was used to measure agreement between criteria. Change in appropriateness from 2011 to 2015 was assessed with chi-square statistics. Percentage appropriate restraint use varied from a low of 19% for higher weight limits in 2011 to a high of 91% for Michigan law in 2015. Agreement between criteria was slight to moderate. The lowest kappa was for Michigan law and higher weight limits in 2011 (κ = 0.06) and highest for U.S. guidelines and lower weight limits in 2011 (κ = 0.60). Percentage appropriate restraint use was higher in 2015 than 2011 for the following criteria: U.S. guidelines (74 vs. 58%, P consistency in reporting results from studies of child passenger safety in the United States. Potential explanations for the increased percentage of children considered appropriately restrained between 2011 and 2015 include adoption of the updated U.S. guidelines and the use of child passenger restraints with

  1. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy...

  2. Surveillance technology: an alternative to physical restraints? A qualitative study among professionals working in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Francke, A.L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working with surveillance technology as an alternative to traditional restraints creates obvious differences in the way care is organised. It is not clear whether professional caregivers find working with surveillance technology useful and workable and whether surveillance technology is

  3. Dieting in Moderation: The Role of Dietary Restraint in the Relationship between Body Dissatisfaction and Psychological Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M

    1997-10-01

    This study demonstrates the substantial conceptual consequences in distinguishing a variable's role as a moderator as opposed to a mediator. In particular, the study investigates the role of dietary restraint in the relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological well-being. Path analyses showed that, in addition to its mediating role, dietary restraint has a moderating role, such that there is a stronger relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological well-being when dietary restraint is high than when dietary restraint is low. In contrast, gender had only a direct effect on weight dissatisfaction. It was concluded that the same processes occur for both men and for women, whereby it is the individuals who diet who suffer loss of psychological well-being.

  4. A network approach to response inhibition: dissociating functional connectivity of neural components involved in action restraint and action cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Sack, A.T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Schuhmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to inhibit action tendencies is vital for adaptive human behaviour. Various paradigms are supposed to assess action inhibition and are often used interchangeably. However, these paradigms are based on different conceptualizations (action restraint vs. action cancellation) and the

  5. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  6. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  7. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  8. Determination of protein global folds using backbone residual dipolar coupling and long-range NOE restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, Alexander W.; Homans, Steve W.; Brown, Jonathan Miles

    2003-01-01

    We report the determination of the global fold of human ubiquitin using protein backbone NMR residual dipolar coupling and long-range nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) data as conformational restraints. Specifically, by use of a maximum of three backbone residual dipolar couplings per residue (N i -H N i , N i -C' i-1 , H N i - C' i-1 ) in two tensor frames and only backbone H N -H N NOEs, a global fold of ubiquitin can be derived with a backbone root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 A with respect to the crystal structure. This degree of accuracy is more than adequate for use in databases of structural motifs, and suggests a general approach for the determination of protein global folds using conformational restraints derived only from backbone atoms

  9. Allometric scaling of chemical restraint associated with inhalant anesthesia in giant anteaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Gerardi, Patrícia Molina; Honsho, Daniel Kan

    2009-04-01

    This study describes the use of allometric scaling in five giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) submitted for osteosynthesis, gastrostomy, or treatment of burns. Chemical restraint was performed by allometric scaling using the dog as a reference; acepromazine (0.06 mg/kg), diazepam (0.3 mg/kg), ketamine (8.8 mg/kg), and buprenorphine (5.9 microg/kg) were combined, and the animals were maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, temperature, and anesthetic depth were measured. Postoperative treatment consisted of ketoprofen, buprenorphine, and ceftiofur. Anesthetic induction was obtained in 10-15 min, achieving muscle relaxation and absence of excitement. Physiologic parameters were stable during the procedures, and postoperative treatment was effective. Allometric scaling was effective for chemical restraint and postoperative treatment.

  10. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible...... changes in an animal model. Thus, in this study we applied methods that are state of the art in regard to stereological cell counting methods. Using a validated rat model of depression in combination with a clinically relevant schedule of electroconvulsive stimulation, we estimated the total number...... of newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress...

  11. A smart base restraint for wind turbines to mitigate undesired effects due to structural vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, N.; Georgakis, Christos T.; Spizzuoco, M.

    2016-01-01

    Concerns in the last decades of the negative impact of the use of fossil fuels on the environment has lead to a boom in the production of wind turbines. To take advantage of the smoother stronger winds at height, wind turbine heights are progressively increasing. This has led to an increased demand...... to control tower forces. The application of a semi-active (SA) control system is herein proposed and discussed. Its aim is to limit bending moment demand at the base of a wind turbine by relaxing the base restraint of the turbine's tower, without increasing the top displacement. This is done thanks....... This smart restraint is made of a central smooth hinge, elastic springs and SA magnetorheological dampers driven by a control algorithm properly designed for the specific application. A commercial 105 m tall wind turbine has been assumed as a case study. Several numerical simulations have been performed...

  12. [Use of restraint in psychiatry: Feelings of caregivers and ethical perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivarch, J; Cano, N

    2013-09-01

    The return of restraint in psychiatry raises many ethical issues for caregivers. However their experience is little explored in literature. Our objective was to study the feelings of caregivers facing restraint with regard to an ethical perspective and to identify areas for improvement. Between November 2011 and February 2012 a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study was performed in two psychiatric emergency services and two closed units in which doctors and nurses were individually interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Five topics were explored: indications and contexts, impact on the patient, caregiver-patient relationship, perspective on the practice and feelings of caregivers on which we insist particularly. Results were presented in tables with percentages and possibly diagrams. The notable responses of caregivers were also cited. Twenty nurses and nine psychiatrists, mostly female, were recruited. They all had participated in experiments of restraint. The self-aggressiveness, the aggressiveness against other persons and agitation were the most frequent indications. In the patients, caregivers identified misunderstanding (79.3%) and anger (75.9%). The majority of nurses (75%) felt that there was an improvement in the caregiver-patient relationship after the episode of restraint compared to what it had been in the moments preceding this measure. The emotional experience of caregivers was rich, intense and predominantly negative type of frustration (35% of nurses; 66.7% of doctors), anger (30 and 33.3%) and lack of feeling (35 and 44.4%). The feelings of doctors and nurses were not completely similar. For caregivers it was "a difficult but necessary experience" (82.75%), "an act of care and safety" (68.9%). All psychiatrists and almost half of the nurses (45%) said they did not feel the same when they used seclusion. In their opinion, seclusion entailed a less painful experience because of its therapeutic properties. More than half of the

  13. Mediation of Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance through Dietary Disinhibition and Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Flatt, Shirley W; Pacanowski, Carly R; Pakiz, Bilgé; Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the degree to which eating behaviors, such as disinhibition and restraint, are associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance could contribute to further refinement of effective weight management intervention strategies. The purpose of this analysis was to examine if these factors mediate weight loss or weight loss maintenance using data from a randomized controlled trial testing a commercial weight loss program that delivered behavioral counseling and structured meal plans including prepackaged foods. Mediation analyses were used to examine whether changes in disinhibition and restraint mediated the relationship between intervention and weight change during initial weight loss (0-6 months), continued weight loss (6-12 months), or weight loss maintenance (12-24 months) phases. Only decreases in disinhibition between baseline and 6 months mediated the intervention effect on initial weight loss. Our results suggest the mediation effects of these eating behaviors are modest and other factors contribute to a larger, more complex long-term weight loss prognosis.

  14. Antagonism of corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors in the fourth ventricle modifies responses to mild but not restraint stress

    OpenAIRE

    Miragaya, Joanna R.; Harris, Ruth B. S.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated restraint stress (RRS; 3 h of restraint on 3 consecutive days) in rodents produces temporary hypophagia, but a long-term downregulation of body weight. The mild stress (MS) of an intraperitoneal injection of saline and housing in a novel room for 2 h also inhibits food intake and weight gain, but the effects are smaller than for RRS. Previous exposure to RRS exaggerates hypophagia, glucocorticoid release, and anxiety-type behavior caused by MS. Here we tested the involvement of brain...

  15. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marianno

    Full Text Available Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h or continuous (24 h EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase. Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC. In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h. In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h. After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress.

  16. Repeated restraint stress lowers the threshold for response to third ventricle CRF administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth B S

    2017-03-01

    Rats and mice exposed to repeated stress or a single severe stress exhibit a sustained increase in energetic, endocrine, and behavioral response to subsequent novel mild stress. This study tested whether the hyper-responsiveness was due to a lowered threshold of response to corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) or an exaggerated response to a standard dose of CRF. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3h of restraint on each of 3 consecutive days (RRS) or were non-restrained controls. RRS caused a temporary hypophagia but a sustained reduction in body weight. Eight days after the end of restraint, rats received increasing third ventricle doses of CRF (0-3.0μg). The lowest dose of CRF (0.25μg) increased corticosterone release in RRS, but not control rats. Higher doses caused the same stimulation of corticosterone in the two groups of rats. Fifteen days after the end of restraint, rats were food deprived during the light period and received increasing third ventricle doses of CRF at the start of the dark period. The lowest dose of CRF inhibited food intake during the first hour following infusion in RRS, but not control rats. All other doses of CRF inhibited food intake to the same degree in both RRS and control rats. The lowered threshold of response to central CRF is consistent with the chronic hyper-responsiveness to CRF and mild stress in RRS rats during the post-restraint period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Housing in Pyramid Counteracts Neuroendocrine and Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Restraint in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surekha Bhat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space within the great pyramid and its smaller replicas is believed to have an antistress effect. Research has shown that the energy field within the pyramid can protect the hippocampal neurons of mice from stress-induced atrophy and also reduce neuroendocrine stress, oxidative stress and increase antioxidant defence in rats. In this study, we have, for the first time, attempted to study the antistress effects of pyramid exposure on the status of cortisol level, oxidative damage and antioxidant status in rats during chronic restraint stress. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal controls (NC housed in home cage and left in the laboratory; restrained rats (with three subgroups subject to chronic restraint stress by placing in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 h per day for 14 days, the restrained controls (RC having their restrainers kept in the laboratory; restrained pyramid rats (RP being kept in the pyramid; and restrained square box rats (RS in the square box during the period of restraint stress everyday. Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA and plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were significantly decreased in RC and RS rats as compared to NC. However, these parameters were maintained to near normal levels in RP rats which showed significantly decreased erythrocyte MDA and plasma cortisol and significantly increased erythrocyte GSH levels, erythrocyte GSH-Px and SOD activities when compared with RS rats. The results showed that housing in pyramid counteracts neuroendocrine and oxidative stress caused by chronic restraint in rats.

  18. Intrinsic brain subsystem associated with dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jizheng; Li, Mintong; Zhang, Yi; Song, Huaibo; von Deneen, Karen M; Shi, Yinggang; Liu, Yijun; He, Dongjian

    2017-02-01

    Eating behaviors are closely related to body weight, and eating traits are depicted in three dimensions: dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. The current study aims to explore whether these aspects of eating behaviors are related to intrinsic brain activation, and to further investigate the relationship between the brain activation relating to these eating traits and body weight, as well as the link between function connectivity (FC) of the correlative brain regions and body weight. Our results demonstrated positive associations between dietary restraint and baseline activation of the frontal and the temporal regions (i.e., food reward encoding) and the limbic regions (i.e., homeostatic control, including the hypothalamus). Disinhibition was positively associated with the activation of the frontal motivational system (i.e., OFC) and the premotor cortex. Hunger was positively related to extensive activations in the prefrontal, temporal, and limbic, as well as in the cerebellum. Within the brain regions relating to dietary restraint, weight status was negatively correlated with FC of the left middle temporal gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus, and was positively associated with the FC of regions in the anterior temporal gyrus and fusiform visual cortex. Weight status was positively associated with the FC within regions in the prefrontal motor cortex and the right ACC serving inhibition, and was negatively related with the FC of regions in the frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits responding to hunger control. Our data depicted an association between intrinsic brain activation and dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, and presented the links of their activations and FCs with weight status.

  19. Adrenocortical and behavioural response to chronic restraint stress in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Morales, Raúl; del Río, Eva; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Bisagno, Verónica; Nadal, Roser; de Felipe, Carmen; Armario, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Brain substance P and its receptor (neurokinin-1, NK1) have a widespread brain distribution and are involved in an important number of behavioural and physiological responses to emotional stimuli. However, the role of NK1 receptors in the consequences of exposure to chronic stress has not been explored. The present study focused on the role of these receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to daily repeated restraint stress (evaluated by plasma corticosterone levels), as well as on the effect of this procedure on anxiety-like behaviour, spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM), a hippocampus-dependent task. Adult null mutant NK1-/- mice, with a C57BL/6J background, and the corresponding wild-type mice showed similar resting corticosterone levels and, also, did not differ in corticosterone response to a first restraint. Nevertheless, adaptation to the repeated stressor was faster in NK1-/- mice. Chronic restraint modestly increased anxiety-like behaviour in the light-dark test, irrespective of genotype. Throughout the days of the MWM trials, NK1-/- mice showed a similar learning rate to that of wild-type mice, but had lower levels of thigmotaxis and showed a better retention in the probe trial. Chronic restraint stress did not affect these variables in either genotype. These results indicate that deletion of the NK1 receptor does not alter behavioural susceptibility to chronic repeated stress in mice, but accelerates adaptation of the HPA axis. In addition, deletion may result in lower levels of thigmotaxis and improved short-term spatial memory, perhaps reflecting a better learning strategy in the MWM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Soldier Gear Encumbrance on Restraints in a Frontal Crash Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design Sebastian Karwaczynski Lead Restraint Development Engineer...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design 14...has to date not accounted for the Soldier gear burden. •Actual loads imparted onto the occupant in a representative military vehicle crash test

  1. Variation in Behavioral Reactivity Is Associated with Cooperative Restraint Training Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Training techniques that prepare laboratory animals to participate in testing via cooperation are useful tools that have the potential to benefit animal wellbeing. Understanding how animals systematically vary in their cooperative training trajectories will help trainers to design effective and efficient training programs. In the present report we document an updated method for training rhesus monkeys to cooperatively participate in restraint in a ‘primate chair.’ We trained 14 adult male mac...

  2. Retrospective analysis of detomidine infusion for standing chemical restraint in 51 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D V; Bohart, G V; Evans, A T; Robertson, S; Rondenay, Y

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a detomidine infusion technique to provide standing chemical restraint in the horse. Retrospective study. Fifty-one adult horses aged 9.5 ± 6.9 years (range 1-23 years) and weighing 575 ± 290.3 kg. Records of horses presented to our clinic over a 3-year period in which a detomidine infusion was used to provide standing chemical restraint were reviewed. Information relating to the types of procedure performed, duration of infusion, drug dosages and adjunct drugs administered was retrieved. Detomidine was administered as an initial bolus loading dose (mean ± SD) of 7.5 ± 1.87 μg kg -1 . The initial infusion rate was 0.6 μg kg -1 minute -1 , and this was halved every 15 minutes. The duration of the infusion ranged from 20 to 135 minutes. Twenty horses received additional detomidine or butorphanol during the procedure. All horses undergoing surgery received local anesthesia or epidural analgesia in addition to the detomidine infusion. A wide variety of procedures were performed in these horses. Detomidine administered by infusion provides prolonged periods of chemical restraint in standing horses. Supplemental sedatives or analgesics may be needed in horses undergoing surgery. An effective method that provides prolonged periods of chemical restraint in standing horses is described. The infusion alone did not provide sufficient analgesia for surgery and a significant proportion of animals required supplemental sedatives and analgesics. Copyright © 2002 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A prospective study of children aged children and are associated with restraint misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven-Martinsen, Marianne; Naess, Paal Aksel; Hansen, Trond Boye; Gaarder, Christine; Lereim, Inggard; Stray-Pedersen, Arne

    2014-12-01

    The implementation of the compulsory wearing of seat belts (SBs) for children and improvements in child restraint systems have reduced the number of deaths and severe injuries among children involved in motor vehicle (MV) collisions (MVCs). Establishing the characteristics predictive of such injuries may provide the basis for targeted safety campaigns and lead to a further reduction in mortality and morbidity among children involved in MVCs. This study performed a multidisciplinary investigation among child occupants involved in MVCs to elucidate injury mechanisms, evaluate the safety measures used and determine the characteristics that are predictive of injury. A prospective study was conducted of all child occupants aged interior of the MVs were investigated and the injured children were medically examined. Supplementary information was obtained from witnesses, the crash victims, police reports, medical records and reconstructions. Each case was reviewed by a multidisciplinary team to assess the mechanism of injury. In total, 158 child occupants involved in 100 MVCs were investigated, of which 27 (17%) exhibited Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores of 2+ injuries and 15 (9%) exhibited AIS 3+ injuries. None of the children died. Of those with AIS 2+ injuries (n=27), 89% (n=24) were involved in frontal impact collisions and 11% (3/27) were involved in side impacts. Multivariate analysis revealed that restraint misuse, age, the prevailing lighting conditions and ΔV were all independently correlated with AIS 2+ injuries. Safety errors were found in 74% (20/27) of those with AIS 2+ injuries and 93% (14/15) of those with AIS 3+ injuries. The most common safety error was misuse of restraints, and in particular loose and/or improperly positioned SBs. The risk of injury among child occupants is significantly higher when the child occupants are exposed to safety errors within the interior of the vehicle. Future campaigns should focus on the prevention of restraint misuse

  4. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  5. Association between weight and risk of crash-related injuries for children in child restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Elliott, Michael R; Flannagan, Carol A; Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-12-01

    To determine the association between weight and the risk of injury in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) for children 1 through 8 years of age who were using child restraints. This was a cross-sectional study of children 1 to 8 years of age in MVCs, in which cases from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used. Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of ≥2 indicated clinically significant injuries. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System study sample included 650 children 1 to 5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints who weighed 20 to 65 lb and 344 children 3 to 8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats who weighed 30 to 100 lb. With adjustment for seating position, type of vehicle, direction of impact, crash severity, and vehicle model year, there was no association between absolute weight and clinically significant injuries in either age group (odds ratio: 1.17 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.42] for children 1-5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints and 1.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.55] for children 3-8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats). The risk of clinically significant injuries was not associated with weight across a broad weight range in this sample of children in MVCs who were using child restraint systems. Parents should continue to restrain their children according to current recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

  6. Emotional eating and routine restraint scores are associated with activity in brain regions involved in urge and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Samantha M W; Schembre, Susan M; He, Qinghua; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Ames, Susan L; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-10-15

    Researchers have proposed a variety of behavioral traits that may lead to weight gain and obesity; however, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying these weight-related eating behaviors. In this study, we measured activation of reward circuitry during a task requiring response and inhibition to food stimuli. We assessed participants' emotional eating, external eating, and two subscales of dietary restraint-routine restraint and compensatory restraint-using the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire. For routine restraint, we found positive associations with activation in the insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in response to high-calorie versus low-calorie foods. For emotional eating, we found positive associations with insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in response to high-calorie versus low-calorie foods. We also found positive associations between emotional eating and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in response to approach versus inhibition towards high-calorie foods. Thus, our results demonstrate an increase in activation across brain regions related to self-control and urges in response to high-calorie food associated with both emotional eating and routine restraint. Overall, these results support the construct validity of both emotional eating and routine restraint and provide preliminary evidence that these subscales have similar neural correlates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Applying sensory modulation to mental health inpatient care to reduce seclusion and restraint: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Kolmos, Anne; Andersen, Kjeld; Sippel, Volkmar; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2017-10-01

    Clinical training in managing conflicts and preventing violence seldom contains sensory modulation (SM) as a method to de-escalate and prevent restraint and seclusion. Sensory-based interventions promote adaptive regulation of arousal and emotion. SM is a complementary approach that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint in mental healthcare, but there is need for more research in this area. Using SM to reduce restraint and seclusion in inpatient mental health care. The study included two similar psychiatric units where one unit implemented SM and one unit served as the control group. In the very beginning of the study, a staff-training program in the use of SM including assessment tools and intervention strategies was established. Data on restraint and forced medicine were sampled post the course of the year of implementation and compared with the control group. The use of belts decreased with 38% compared to the control group. The use of forced medication decreased with 46% compared to the control group. Altogether the use of physical restraint and forced medication decreased significantly with 42% (p mental healthcare facilities has a significant effect on the reduction of restraint and seclusion. As a part of the implementation, staff training and education in SM are crucial.

  8. Nursing staff members' intentions to use physical restraints with older people: testing the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, P; Mendelsson, G

    2001-09-01

    To examine nursing staff members' attitudes, subjective norms, moral obligations and intentions to use physical restraints, using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). During the last two decades an extensive body of research has examined nurses' attitudes as one of the main factors affecting the decision to use or not to use physical restraints with older persons. However, no studies have examined empirically the antecedents to nurses' intentions to use physical restraints within a theoretically based framework. A correlational design was used with 303 nursing staff members from an 800-bed elder care hospital in central Israel. Participants completed a questionnaire including questions based on the TRA as well as socio-demographic and professional characteristics. Regression analyses found attitudes, subjective norms and moral considerations to be significantly associated to intention to use physical restraints with older people. The TRA explained 48% of the variance in nurses' intentions. The TRA proved to be a useful framework for examining nurses' intentions to use physical restraints. Nurses' attitudes, beliefs and expectations of significant others should be examined before implementing educational programmes regarding the use of physical restraints.

  9. Impact of restraint and disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C; Robertson, M D; Morgan, L M

    2010-10-01

    The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was energy load dependent. 33 participants (12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained and low/high in disinhibition based on Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint/disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and feelings of appetite was measured, after a 500kcal and 1000kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint did not impact on either fasting or postprandial PYY plasma levels, but participants with high disinhibition had a tendency towards a blunted postprandial PYY response. Moreover, restrained eaters reported lower ratings of prospective food consumption postprandially, and a tendency towards higher fullness/lower hunger. In conclusion, circulating PYY is unaffected by restrained eating behaviour, despite being associated with increased fullness and reduced hunger in the fed state. High levels of disinhibition tend to be associated with a blunted PYY response and this may contribute towards the susceptibility to overconsumption and increased risk of weight gain characteristic of this trait.

  10. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  11. Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo--role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Simon F; Camici, Giovanni G; Keller, Stephan; Rozenberg, Izabela; Arras, Margarete; Schuler, Beat; Gassmann, Max; Garcia, Irene; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C

    2014-01-01

    Stress is known to correlate with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are not known. This study was designed to assess the effect of experimental stress on arterial thrombus formation, the key event in acute myocardial infarction. Mice exposed to 20 h of restraint stress displayed an increased arterial prothrombotic potential as assessed by photochemical injury-induced time to thrombotic occlusion. This increase was prevented by chemical sympathectomy performed through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Blood-born tissue factor (TF) activity was enhanced by stress and this increase could be prevented by 6-OHDA treatment. Vessel wall TF, platelet count, platelet aggregation, coagulation times (PT, aPTT), fibrinolytic system (t-PA and PAI-1) and tail bleeding time remained unaltered. Telemetric analysis revealed only minor hemodynamic changes throughout the stress protocol. Plasma catecholamines remained unaffected after restraint stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels were unchanged and inhibition of TNF-α had no effect on stress-enhanced thrombosis. These results indicate that restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis via the sympathetic nervous system. Blood-borne TF contributes, at least in part, to the observed effect whereas vessel wall TF, platelets, circulating coagulation factors, fibrinolysis and inflammation do not appear to play a role. These findings shed new light on the understanding of stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  12. Restraint stress in lactating mice alters the levels of sulfur-containing amino acids in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Takuma; Nagamachi, Satsuki; Ikeda, Hiromi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2018-03-30

    It is well known that maternal stress during the gestation and lactation periods induces abnormal behavior in the offspring and causes a lowering of the offspring's body weight. Various causes of maternal stress during the lactation period, relating to, for example, maternal nutritional status and reduced maternal care, have been considered. However, little is known about the effects on milk of maternal stress during the lactation period. The current study aimed to determine whether free amino acids, with special reference to sulfur-containing amino acids in milk, are altered by restraint stress in lactating mice. The dams in the stress group were restrained for 30 min at postnatal days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Restraint stress caused a reduction in the body weight of lactating mice. The concentration of taurine and cystathionine in milk was significantly higher in the stress group, though stress did not alter their concentration in maternal plasma. The ratio of taurine concentration in milk to its concentration in maternal plasma was significantly higher in the stress group, suggesting that stress promoted taurine transportation into milk. Furthermore, taurine concentration in milk was positively correlated with corticosterone levels in plasma. In conclusion, restraint stress in lactating mice caused the changes in the metabolism and in the transportation of sulfur-containing amino acids and resulted in higher taurine concentration in milk. Taurine concentration in milk could also be a good parameter for determining stress status in dams.

  13. Social isolation alters central nervous system monoamine content in prairie voles following acute restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Neal; Anderson, Eden M; Moenk, Deirdre; Trahanas, Diane; Matuszewich, Leslie; Grippo, Angela J

    2018-04-01

    Animal models have shown that social isolation and other forms of social stress lead to depressive- and anxiety-relevant behaviors, as well as neuroendocrine and physiological dysfunction. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prior social isolation on neurotransmitter content following acute restraint in prairie voles. Animals were either paired with a same-sex sibling or isolated for 4 weeks. Plasma adrenal hormones and ex vivo tissue concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites were measured following an acute restraint stressor in all animals. Isolated prairie voles displayed significantly increased circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, as well as elevated serotonin and dopamine levels in the hypothalamus, and potentially decreased levels of serotonin in the frontal cortex. However, no group differences in monoamine levels were observed in the hippocampus or raphe. The results suggest that social stress may bias monoamine neurotransmission and stress hormone function to subsequent acute stressors, such as restraint. These findings improve our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the consequences of social stress.

  14. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  15. Utilization of paramagnetic relaxation enhancements for high-resolution NMR structure determination of a soluble loop-rich protein with sparse NOE distance restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuita, Kyoko; Kataoka, Saori; Sugiki, Toshihiko; Hattori, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ikegami, Takahisa; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Kojima, Chojiro

    2015-01-01

    NMR structure determination of soluble proteins depends in large part on distance restraints derived from NOE. In this study, we examined the impact of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE)-derived distance restraints on protein structure determination. A high-resolution structure of the loop-rich soluble protein Sin1 could not be determined by conventional NOE-based procedures due to an insufficient number of NOE restraints. By using the 867 PRE-derived distance restraints obtained from the NOE-based structure determination procedure, a high-resolution structure of Sin1 could be successfully determined. The convergence and accuracy of the determined structure were improved by increasing the number of PRE-derived distance restraints. This study demonstrates that PRE-derived distance restraints are useful in the determination of a high-resolution structure of a soluble protein when the number of NOE constraints is insufficient

  16. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  17. Piezoceramic Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Valeriy

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the latest and complete information about various types of piezosensors. A sensor is a converter of the measured physical size to an electric signal. Piezoelectric transducers and sensors are based on piezoelectric effects. They have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process control and for research and development in many different industries. In each area of application specific requirements to the parameters of transducers and sensors are developed. This book presents the fundamentals, technical des

  18. Educational intervention on physical restraint use in long-term care facilities – Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Huan Lan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available “Physical restraint” formerly used as a measure of protection for psychiatric patients is now widely used. However, existing studies showed that physical restraint not only has inadequate effect of protection but also has negative effects on residents. To analyzes the impact of educational program on the physical restraint use in long-term care facilities. Design: A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. Eight databases, including Cochrane Library, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, Ovid Medline and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro, were searched up to January 2017. Eligible studies were classified by intervention and accessed for quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies. Sixteen research articles were eligible in the final review; 10 randomize control trail studies were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the use of physical restraint was significantly less often in the experimental (education group (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.78, p < 0.001 compared to the control group. Meta-regression revealed the period of post education would have decreased the effect of the restraint educational program (β: 0.08, p = 0.002; instead, the longer education period and more times of education would have a stronger effect of reducing the use of physical restraint (β: −0.07, p < 0.001; β: −0.04, p = 0.056. The educational program had an effect on the reduced use of physical restraint. The results of meta-regression suggest that long-term care facilities should provide a continuous education program of physical restraint for caregivers.

  19. Evaluation Model for Restraint Effect of Pressure Induced Bending on the Plastic Crack Opening of Circumferential Through-Wall-Crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Weon

    2006-01-01

    Most of the pipe crack evaluation procedures, including leak-before-break (LBB) analysis, assume that the cracked pipe subjected to remote bending or internal pressure is free to rotate. In this case, the pressure induced bending (PIB) enhances crack opening of a through-wall-crack (TWC) in a pipe. In a real piping system, however, the PIB will be restrained because the ends of the pipe are constrained by the rest of the piping system. Hence, the amount of restraint affects the crack opening of a TWC in a pipe, and the restraint effect on crack opening directly affects the results of LBB evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the restraint effect of PIB on crack opening displacement (COD) to quantify the uncertainties in current analysis procedures and to ensure the application of LBB concepts to nuclear piping systems. Recently, several researches were conducted to investigate the restraint effect of PIB on COD, and they proposed a simplified model to evaluate COD under restrained conditions. However, these results are quite limited because the restraint effect was evaluated only in terms of linear-elastic crack opening. In practice, the TWC in a pipe behaves plastically under normal operating loads, and the current LBB analysis methodologies require elastic-plastic crack opening evaluation. Therefore, this study evaluates the restraint effect of PIB on the plastic crack opening of a TWC in a pipe using finite element analysis under various influencing parameters. Based on these results, a closed-from model to be able to estimate the restraint effect of PIB on plastic crack opening is proposed

  20. Testosterone depletion increases the susceptibility of brain tissue to oxidative damage in a restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Dong-Woon; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Among sex hormones, estrogen is particularly well known to act as neuroprotective agent. Unlike estrogen, testosterone has not been well investigated in regard to its effects on the brain, especially under psychological stress. To investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. BALB/c mice were subjected to either an orchiectomy or sham operation. After allowing 15 days for recovery, mice were re-divided into four groups according to exposure of restraint stress: sham, sham plus stress, orchiectomy, and orchiectomy plus stress. Serum testosterone was undetectable in orchiectomized groups and restraint-induced stress significantly reduced testosterone levels in sham plus stress group. The serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably elevated by restraint stress, and these elevated hormones were markedly augmented by orchiectomy. Two oxidative stressors and biomarkers for lipid and protein peroxidation were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by restraint stress, while the reverse pattern was observed in antioxidant enzymes. These results were supported by histopathological findings, with 4-hydroxynonenal staining for oxidative injury and Fluoro-Jade B staining showing the degenerating neurons. The aforementioned patterns of oxidative injury were accelerated by orchiectomy. These findings strongly suggest the conclusion that testosterone exerts a protective effect against oxidative brain damage, especially under stressed conditions. Unlike estrogen, the effects of testosterone on the brain have not been thoroughly investigated. In order to investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. Orchiectomy markedly augmented the restraint stress-induced elevation of serum corticosterone and adrenaline levels as well as oxidative alterations

  1. Chronic restraint stress exacerbates nociception and inflammatory response induced by bee venom in rats: the role of the P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qiu; Li, Man; Zhou, Zhong-He; Liu, Bao-Jun; Chen, Hui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Chronic restraint stress exacerbates pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chronic restraint stress on inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV). First, we investigated: (1) the effect of two-week restraint stress with daily 2 or 8 h on the baseline paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT), paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) and paw circumference (PC); (2) the effect of chronic stress on the spontaneous paw-flinching reflex (SPFR), decrease in PWM, PWTL and increase in PC of the injected paw induced by BV. The results showed that (1) chronic restraint decreased significantly the PWMT and inhibited significantly the increase in PC, but had no effect on PWTL, compared with control group; (2) chronic restraint enhanced significantly BV-induced SPFR and inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. In a second series of experiments, the role of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in the enhancement of BV-induced inflammatory pain produced by chronic restraint stress was determined. Systemic pretreatment with P2X7R antagonist completely reversed the decrease in PWMT produced by chronic restraint, inhibited significantly the enhancement of BV-induced inflammatory pain produced by chronic restraint stress. Taken together, our data indicate that chronic restraint stress-enhanced nociception and inflammation in the BV pain model, possibly involving the P2X7R.

  2. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Hutter, F.; Edelhaeuser, R.

    1992-01-01

    WO 2010040565 A1 UPAB: 20100506 NOVELTY - The integrated optical sensor comprises a first waveguide (4), a second waveguide (5) optically coupled to the first waveguide via a directional coupler, a substrate, which carries the first and the second waveguides, a single waveguide coupled with a light source, and an output waveguide coupled with a light-sensitive element. The sensor has a functional surface in the region of the directional coupler for depositing or deposition of the substance to...

  3. Wireless sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  4. [Effects of a training of power and balance on the use of mechanical restraint among in-patients with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Tilman; Bohnet, Ulrich; Flammer, Erich; Lüchtenberg, Dietmar; Eisele, Frank

    2009-09-01

    Patients with dementia are most frequently affected by mechanical restraint in psychiatric hospitals, most frequently due to falls. There is evidence for beneficial effects of a training of power and balance on the frequency of falls in residential homes. An adapted training of power and balance was developed by specialists of training in sports. In 2007, 159 patients with dementia were trained. The frequency and duration of mechanical restraint was compared with a control group of a different hospital (n = 217) and the patients treated in the year before (n = 164). The percentage of patients with mechanical restraint and the mean duration of restraint per admission were significantly lower than in the control group. However, only a non-significant reduction could be achieved in comparison with the patients treated in the year before without an increase of falls. A considerable reduction of the use of mechanical restraint in patients with dementia is feasible. An unequivocal association with the training could not be confirmed due to other influencing factors.

  5. Effective applied moment in circumferential through-wall cracked pipes for leak-before-break evaluation considering pipe restraint effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeji; Hwang, Il-Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Jin, E-mail: yjoh2@kepco-enc.com [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Gimcheon 39660 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Effective applied moment at pipe cracked section considering the pipe restraint effect. • Verification of the proposed evaluation methods using finite element analyses. • Applicability for distributed external load of the proposed methods. - Abstract: In the leak-before-break (LBB) design of nuclear power plants, crack opening displacement (COD) is an essential element for determining the length of the leakage size crack. Recent researches regarding the evaluation of COD have indicated that the current practice of the LBB evaluation without consideration of the pressure induced bending (PIB) restraint overestimates COD, which in turn gives non-conservative results. Under a free-ended boundary condition, however, the applied moment at cracked section also can be overestimated, which has conservative effects on LBB evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate pipe restraint effects on the applied moment as well as on COD to keep the constancy. In this paper, an evaluation method for the effect of the PIB restraint on COD and an effective applied moment (=crack driving force) at cracked section was developed. Both the linear elastic and elastic–plastic behaviors of the crack were considered. By comparing the behaviors with 3-D finite element analysis results from earlier studies, it was confirmed that the proposed methods make accurate estimations of the PIB restraint effect on COD. Next, the applicability of the proposed method to other types of external loading conditions was examined.

  6. Sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Lahner, Lesanna L; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Sladky, Kurt K

    2012-09-01

    Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Adult parrots (n=9) were administered either midazolam (2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution intranasally before a 15-minute manual restraint in a complete crossover study. Respiratory rate and sedation scores were recorded before and during capture and during and after 15 minutes of manual restraint. Heart rate and cloacal temperature were recorded during manual restraint. After restraint, the parrots received intranasal flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution, and the recovery time was recorded. In those birds that received midazolam, sedation was observed within 3 minutes of administration, and vocalization, flight, and defense responses were significantly reduced during capture. During manual restraint, the mean rate of cloacal temperature increase was significantly slower and remained significantly lower in birds that received midazolam compared with controls. Mean respiratory rates were significantly lower for up to 12 minutes in parrots that received midazolam compared with those receiving saline solution. Flumazenil antagonized the effects of midazolam within 10 minutes. No overt clinical adverse effects to intranasal midazolam and flumazenil administration were observed. Further studies on the safety of intranasal midazolam and flumazenil in this species are warranted.

  7. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Pitcher, Mark H; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-08-01

    With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the "nociceptive" central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli.

  8. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  9. Nurses' ethical reasoning in cases of physical restraint in acute elderly care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Sabine; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-11-01

    In their practice, nurses make daily decisions that are ethically informed. An ethical decision is the result of a complex reasoning process based on knowledge and experience and driven by ethical values. Especially in acute elderly care and more specifically decisions concerning the use of physical restraint require a thoughtful deliberation of the different values at stake. Qualitative evidence concerning nurses' decision-making in cases of physical restraint provided important insights in the complexity of decision-making as a trajectory. However a nuanced and refined understanding of the reasoning process in terms of ethical values is still lacking. A qualitative interview design, inspired by the Grounded Theory approach, was carried out to explore nurses' reasoning process in terms of ethical values. We interviewed 21 acute geriatric nurses from 12 hospitals in different regions in Flanders, Belgium in the period October 2009-April 2011. The Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven was used to analyse interview data. Nurses' decision-making is characterized as an ethical deliberation process where different values are identified and where the process of balancing these values forms the essence of ethical deliberation. Ethical decision-making in cases of physical restraint implies that nurses have to choose which values receive priority in the process, which entails that not all values can be respected to the same degree. As a result, decision making can be experienced as difficult, even as a dilemma. Driven by the overwhelming goal of protecting physical integrity, nurses took into account the values of dignity and justice more implicitly and less dominantly.

  10. Interaction between repeated restraint stress and concomitant midazolam administration on sweet food ingestion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional changes can influence feeding behavior. Previous studies have shown that chronically stressed animals present increased ingestion of sweet food, an effect reversed by a single dose of diazepam administered before testing the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of animals chronically treated with midazolam and/or submitted to repeated restraint stress upon the ingestion of sweet food. Male adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: controls and exposed to restraint 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 40 days. Both groups were subdivided into two other groups treated or not with midazolam (0.06 mg/ml in their drinking water during the 40-day treatment. The animals were placed in a lighted area in the presence of 10 pellets of sweet food (Froot loops®. The number of ingested pellets was measured during a period of 3 min, in the presence or absence of fasting. The group chronically treated with midazolam alone presented increased ingestion when compared to control animals (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and midazolam group: 3.60 ± 0.57 pellets. The group submitted to restraint stress presented an increased ingestion compared to controls (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and stressed group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets. Chronically administered midazolam reduced the ingestion in stressed animals (stressed/water group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets; stressed/midazolam group: 3.2 ± 0.49 pellets. Thus, repeated stress increases appetite for sweet food independently of hunger and chronic administration of midazolam can decrease this behavioral effect.

  11. A restraint molecular dynamics and simulated annealing approach for protein homology modeling utilizing mean angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Till

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed the program PERMOL for semi-automated homology modeling of proteins. It is based on restrained molecular dynamics using a simulated annealing protocol in torsion angle space. As main restraints defining the optimal local geometry of the structure weighted mean dihedral angles and their standard deviations are used which are calculated with an algorithm described earlier by Döker et al. (1999, BBRC, 257, 348–350. The overall long-range contacts are established via a small number of distance restraints between atoms involved in hydrogen bonds and backbone atoms of conserved residues. Employing the restraints generated by PERMOL three-dimensional structures are obtained using standard molecular dynamics programs such as DYANA or CNS. Results To test this modeling approach it has been used for predicting the structure of the histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein HPr from E. coli and the structure of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (Ppar γ. The divergence between the modeled HPr and the previously determined X-ray structure was comparable to the divergence between the X-ray structure and the published NMR structure. The modeled structure of Ppar γ was also very close to the previously solved X-ray structure with an RMSD of 0.262 nm for the backbone atoms. Conclusion In summary, we present a new method for homology modeling capable of producing high-quality structure models. An advantage of the method is that it can be used in combination with incomplete NMR data to obtain reasonable structure models in accordance with the experimental data.

  12. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  13. Anti-stress effect of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Morus alba in chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nade, Vandana S; Yadav, Adhikrao V

    2010-09-01

    Restraint stress is a well-known method to induce chronic stress which leads to alterations in various behavioral and biochemical parameters. The present work was designed to study anti-stress effects of Morus alba in chronic restraint stress (RS)-induced perturbations in behavioral, biochemical and brain oxidative stress status. The stress was produced by restraining the animals inside an adjustable cylindrical plastic tube for 3 h once daily for ten consecutive days. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Morus alba (EASF) 25, 50, 100 mg/kg and diazepam (1 mg/kg) per day was administered 60 min prior to the stress procedure. The behavioral and biochemical parameters such as open field, cognitive dysfunction; leucocytes count; blood glucose and corticosteroid levels were determined. On day 10, the rats were sacrificed and biochemical assessment of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GSH) in whole rat brain were performed. Chronic restraint stress produced cognitive dysfunction, altered behavioral parameters, increased leucocytes count, SOD, LPO, glucose and corticosterone levels, with concomitant decrease in CAT and GSH activities. Gastric ulceration, adrenal gland and spleen weights were also used as the stress indices. All these RS induced perturbations were attenuated by EASF of Morus alba. The results of the study suggest that in addition to its classically established pharmacological activities, the plant also has immense potential as an anti-stress agent of great therapeutic relevance. This study indicates the beneficial role of Morus alba for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced disorders.

  14. Subchronic nandrolone administration reduces cardiac oxidative markers during restraint stress by modulating protein expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Barbara; Carriero, Vitina; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Penna, Claudia; Berchialla, Paola; De Francia, Silvia; Bracco, Enrico; Racca, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic-androgenic steroid prohibited in collegiate and professional sports, is associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects through redox-dependent mechanisms. We previously observed that high-dose short-term ND administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks) did not induce left heart ventricular hypertrophy and, paradoxically, improved postischemic response, whereas chronic ND treatment (5 mg/kg twice a week for 10 weeks) significantly reduced the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning, with an increase in infarct size and a decrease in cardiac performance. We wanted to determine whether short-term ND administration could affect the oxidative redox status in animals exposed to acute restraint stress. Our hypothesis was that, depending on treatment schedule, ND may have a double-edged sword effect. Measurement of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, two oxidative stress markers, in rat plasma and left heart ventricular tissue, revealed that the levels of both markers were increased in animals exposed to restraint stress, whereas no increase in marker levels was noted in animals pretreated with ND, indicating a possible protective action of ND against stress-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, isolation and identification of proteins extracted from the left heart ventricular tissue samples of rats pretreated or not with ND and exposed to acute stress showed a prevalent expression of enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis and energy metabolism. Among other proteins, peroxiredoxin 6 and alpha B-crystallin, both involved in the oxidative stress response, were predominantly expressed in the left heart ventricular tissues of the ND-pretreated rats. In conclusion, ND seems to reduce oxidative stress by inducing the expression of antioxidant proteins in the hearts of restraint-stressed animals, thus contributing to amelioration of postischemic heart performance.

  15. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9–12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors. PMID:24575039

  16. Effect of Fluoxetine on the Hippocampus of Wistar Albino Rats in Cold Restraint Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Saikarthik; Raghunath, Gunapriya; Ilango, Saraswathi; Vijayakumar, J; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2017-06-01

    Stress has been known to be a potential modulator of learning and memory. Long term stress can lead to depression. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor group of drug used in the treatment of depression. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Fluoxetine on cold restraint induced stress in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. A total of 18 male wistar albino rats were divided randomly into three groups (n=6). Group 1 was the control group which were kept in normal laboratory conditions. Group 2 was the negative control group which were given cold restraint stress for period of four weeks. Group 3 was the experimental group, where the animals were pretreated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg for a period of one week followed by cold restraint stress for 30 minutes and cotreated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg for a period of four weeks. The whole study was done for a period of five weeks followed by behavioural studies and subsequently sacrificed with removal of brain for various histological, Immunohistochemical (IHC), neurochemical and antioxidant analysis. The values were expressed as Mean±SEM. One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test was used for the comparison of means. A probability of 0.05 and less was taken as statistically significant using Prism Graphpad software version 6.01. The results show there was significant improvement in the Morris water maze test after treatment with fluoxetine in Group 2. Similar results were also noted in the levels of neurotransmitters and antioxidant levels in brain and also in the number of cells counted in IHC and histological studies by H&E when Group 3 was compared with Group 2. The treatment reversed the damage in Group 2 which was comparable with the control group. The results revealed that administration of fluoxetine 10 mg/kg given orally has a potential antistressor effect by improving the neurogenic and neuroprotective effect on the cold restraint stress induced

  17. Evaluation of the international restraints and limitations on the Argentine nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Hugo R.

    2002-01-01

    The first part of the book makes a short description of the nuclear development in the 20th. Century in the international, Latin American and Argentine frameworks. The second part outlines the relationship between the nuclear technology and the international relations in the light of the different theoretical models of international relations. Finally the third part analyzes in the international context the Argentine nuclear policy, from the presidency of J. D. Peron that of C. Menem. The international restraints to the Argentine nuclear policy are also described

  18. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodi B. Arfer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard.

  19. Mars Science Laboratory Differential Restraint: The Devil is in the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The Differential Restraint, a mechanism used on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover to maintain symmetry of the mobility system during the launch, cruise, and entry descent and landing phases of the MSL mission, completed nearly three full design cycles before a finalized successful design was achieved. This paper address the lessons learned through these design cycles, including three major design elements that can easily be overlooked during the design process, including, tolerance stack contribution to load path, the possibility of Martian dirt as a failure mode, and the effects of material properties at temperature extremes.

  20. Restraint and eating concern in North European and East Asian women with and without eating disorders in Australia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy A; Surgenor, Lois J; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Rieger, Elizabeth; Ung, Ken Eng Khean; Walter, Garry

    2007-06-01

    To investigate eating disorder psychopathology, restraint and eating concern in young women with and without an eating disorder from two different ethnic groups in Australia and Singapore. The relationship of Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Global, Restraint and Eating Concern scores to cultural orientation and sociocultural factors was analysed in 154 women with and without an eating disorder. Participants were from the following backgrounds: North European Australian, East Asian Australian, Singaporean Chinese and North European expatriates in Singapore. Women with eating disorders had similar psychopathology across the cultural groups. Among controls, Singaporean Chinese reported significantly greater overall eating disorder psychopathology than other cultural groups and greater restraint than North European Australians/expatriates. Eating concern was not associated with cultural group overall or acculturation to Western culture. Dissatisfaction with family functioning, socioeconomic status and education level were not significantly associated with any of the eating disorder measures. In eating disorder psychopathology, the specific symptom of eating concern may transcend cultural influences.

  1. Radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.L.; Geronime, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation sensor and thermocouple, respectively, which can be used for reactor in-core instrumentation. The radiation sensor consists of an inconel conductor wire and rhodium emitter wire, the thermocouple of two intertwined alumel or chromel wires. Both are arranged in the center of a metal tube relative to which they are separated by an insulator made of SiO 2 fibers. This insulator is first introduced as a loose fabric between the radiation sensor and the thermocouple, respectively, and the metal tube and then compacted to a density of 35-73% of pure SiO 2 by drawing the tube. There is no need for soldering or welding. The insulation resistivity at room temperature ist between 10 14 and 10 15 ohms. (ORU) [de

  2. Water Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  3. Acute restraint stress decreases c-fos immunoreactivity in hilar mossy cells of the adult dentate gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Jillian N.; Duffy, Áine M.

    2017-01-01

    Although a great deal of information is available about the circuitry of the mossy cells (MCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG) hilus, their activity in vivo is not clear. The immediate early gene c-fos can be used to gain insight into the activity of MCs in vivo, because c-fos protein expression reflects increased neuronal activity. In prior work, it was identified that control rats that were perfusion-fixed after removal from their home cage exhibited c-fos immunoreactivity (ir) in the DG in a spatially stereotyped pattern: ventral MCs and dorsal granule cells (GCs) expressed c-fos protein (Duffy et al., Hippocampus 23:649–655, 2013). In this study, we hypothesized that restraint stress would alter c-fos-ir, because MCs express glucocorticoid type 2 receptors and the DG is considered to be involved in behaviors related to stress or anxiety. We show that acute restraint using a transparent nose cone for just 10 min led to reduced c-fos-ir in ventral MCs compared to control rats. In these comparisons, c-fos-ir was evaluated 30 min after the 10 min-long period of restraint, and if evaluation was later than 30 min c-fos-ir was no longer suppressed. Granule cells (GCs) also showed suppressed c-fos-ir after acute restraint, but it was different than MCs, because the suppression persisted for over 30 min after the restraint. We conclude that c-fos protein expression is rapidly and transiently reduced in ventral hilar MCs after a brief period of restraint, and suppressed longer in dorsal GCs. PMID:28190104

  4. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: Effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Domenec J.; Belles, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L.; Gomez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, Jose L.

    2006-01-01

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2 h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24 h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited

  5. Do emotion regulation difficulties when upset influence the association between dietary restraint and weight gain among college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tyler K; Forbush, Kelsie T; Hagan, Kelsey E; Chapa, Danielle A N

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that affects more than one-fifth of adolescents aged 12-19 in the United States. Theoretical models suggest that prolonged dietary restraint leads to binge-eating behaviors, which in turn increases individuals' risk for weight gain or obesity. Results from the literature indicate a potential role for negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) as a mediating variable that explains the link between dietary restraint and binge-eating episodes. The current study tested short-term, prospective longitudinal associations among dietary restraint, binge eating, negative urgency, and weight gain among college students - a population at increased risk for the development of overweight and obesity. We hypothesized that dietary restraint and weight gain would be mediated by negative urgency and binge eating, but only among participants with overweight and obesity. College students (N = 227) completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory, UPPS-P Impulsivity Scale, and self-reported weight and height to calculate body mass index. Results showed that the association between dietary restraint and weight gain was mediated by negative urgency and binge eating, but only among participants with overweight and obesity. Our findings indicated that negative urgency might represent a mechanism that explains why dietary restraint leads to future binge-eating episodes and weight gain among college students with overweight and obesity. Results suggest that future treatment and prevention programs for overweight and obesity may benefit from incorporating strategies to improve emotion regulation as a way to reduce binge eating and to prevent additional weight gain among 'at-risk' populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of restraint in a structured rock–paper–scissors community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Joshua R.; Harding, Brittany N.; Kerr, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    It is not immediately clear how costly behavior that benefits others evolves by natural selection. By saving on inherent costs, individuals that do not contribute socially have a selective advantage over altruists if both types receive equal benefits. Restrained consumption of a common resource is a form of altruism. The cost of this kind of prudent behavior is that restrained individuals give up resources to less-restrained individuals. The benefit of restraint is that better resource management may prolong the persistence of the group. One way to dodge the problem of defection is for altruists to interact disproportionately with other altruists. With limited dispersal, restrained individuals persist because of interaction with like types, whereas it is the unrestrained individuals that must face the negative long-term consequences of their rapacity. Here, we study the evolution of restraint in a community of three competitors exhibiting a nontransitive (rock–paper–scissors) relationship. The nontransitivity ensures a form of negative feedback, whereby improvement in growth of one competitor has the counterintuitive consequence of lowering the density of that improved player. This negative feedback generates detrimental long-term consequences for unrestrained growth. Using both computer simulations and evolution experiments with a nontransitive community of Escherichia coli, we find that restrained growth can evolve under conditions of limited dispersal in which negative feedback is present. This research, thus, highlights a set of ecological conditions sufficient for the evolution of one form of altruism. PMID:21690371

  7. Evolution of restraint in a structured rock-paper-scissors community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Joshua R; Harding, Brittany N; Kerr, Benjamin

    2011-06-28

    It is not immediately clear how costly behavior that benefits others evolves by natural selection. By saving on inherent costs, individuals that do not contribute socially have a selective advantage over altruists if both types receive equal benefits. Restrained consumption of a common resource is a form of altruism. The cost of this kind of prudent behavior is that restrained individuals give up resources to less-restrained individuals. The benefit of restraint is that better resource management may prolong the persistence of the group. One way to dodge the problem of defection is for altruists to interact disproportionately with other altruists. With limited dispersal, restrained individuals persist because of interaction with like types, whereas it is the unrestrained individuals that must face the negative long-term consequences of their rapacity. Here, we study the evolution of restraint in a community of three competitors exhibiting a nontransitive (rock-paper-scissors) relationship. The nontransitivity ensures a form of negative feedback, whereby improvement in growth of one competitor has the counterintuitive consequence of lowering the density of that improved player. This negative feedback generates detrimental long-term consequences for unrestrained growth. Using both computer simulations and evolution experiments with a nontransitive community of Escherichia coli, we find that restrained growth can evolve under conditions of limited dispersal in which negative feedback is present. This research, thus, highlights a set of ecological conditions sufficient for the evolution of one form of altruism.

  8. Vehicle license plate recognition based on geometry restraints and multi-feature decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Zongyue

    2005-10-01

    Vehicle license plate (VLP) recognition is of great importance to many traffic applications. Though researchers have paid much attention to VLP recognition there has not been a fully operational VLP recognition system yet for many reasons. This paper discusses a valid and practical method for vehicle license plate recognition based on geometry restraints and multi-feature decision including statistical and structural features. In general, the VLP recognition includes the following steps: the location of VLP, character segmentation, and character recognition. This paper discusses the three steps in detail. The characters of VLP are always declining caused by many factors, which makes it more difficult to recognize the characters of VLP, therefore geometry restraints such as the general ratio of length and width, the adjacent edges being perpendicular are used for incline correction. Image Moment has been proved to be invariant to translation, rotation and scaling therefore image moment is used as one feature for character recognition. Stroke is the basic element for writing and hence taking it as a feature is helpful to character recognition. Finally we take the image moment, the strokes and the numbers of each stroke for each character image and some other structural features and statistical features as the multi-feature to match each character image with sample character images so that each character image can be recognized by BP neural net. The proposed method combines statistical and structural features for VLP recognition, and the result shows its validity and efficiency.

  9. Restraint effect of water infiltration by soil cover types of LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. M.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    Since soil cover for LLW disposal vault shows quite different restraint effect of water infiltration depending on its type, four different types of soil cover were studied and simulated using HELP code. Simulation result showed that Profile B1 is the most effective type in restraint of water infiltration to the disposal vault. Profile B1 is totally 6m thick and composed of silt, gravelly sand, pea gravel, sand and clayey soil mixed with bentonite 20%. Profile B1 also includes artificial layers, such as asphalt and geomembrane layers. This profile is designed conceptually by NETEC for the soil cover of the near surface disposal facility of the low-level radioactive waste. For comparison, 3 types of different profile were tested. One profile includes bentonite mixed layer only as water barrier layer, or one as same as profile B1 but without geomembrane layer or one without asphalt layer respectively. The simulation using HELP code showed that the water balance in profile B1 was effectively controlled

  10. The central effect of biological Amines on immunosuppressive effect of restraint stress in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeraati F

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of some histaminergic agents were evaluated on stress- induced immunosuppression in immunized nale rats. In rat immunized with sheep red blood cells ( SRBCs. Restraint stress (RS prevented the booster-induced rise in anti-SRBC antibody titre and cell immunity response. Intracerebroventicular (I.C>V injection of histamine (150 µg/rat induced a similar effect with RS. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine (50 µg/rat reduced the inhibitory effect of Ras on immune function. Also histamine could inhibit the effect of RS on immune function. Also histamine could inhibitory the effect of chlorpheniramine when injected simultaneously. Pretreatment with ranidine (10 µg/rat had not a significant effect. Serotonin (3 µg/rat and dopamine (0.2 µg/rat could reverse the effects of chlorpheniromine when injected with chlorpheniramine (P<0.05. Epinephrine (0.2 µg/rat had not a significant effect. The results indicate that histamine mediates the immunosuppression of restraint stress by influencing the histamine H1 receptor in the brain and this effects of histamine may be modulated by serotoninergic and dopaminergic system.

  11. Sleep in prenatally restraint stressed rats, a model of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Gatta, Eleonora; Marrocco, Jordan; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Consolazione, Michol; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) can induce persisting changes in individual's development. PRS increases anxiety and depression-like behaviors and induces changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in adult PRS rats after exposure to stress. Since adaptive capabilities also depend on temporal organization and synchronization with the external environment, we studied the effects of PRS on circadian rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle, that are parameters altered in depression. Using a restraint stress during gestation, we showed that PRS induced phase advances in hormonal/behavioral circadian rhythms in adult rats, and an increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep, positively correlated to plasma corticosterone levels. Plasma corticosterone levels were also correlated with immobility in the forced swimming test, indicating a depressive-like profile in the PRS rats. We observed comorbidity with anxiety-like profile on PRS rats that was correlated with a reduced release of glutamate in the ventral hippocampus. Pharmacological approaches aimed at modulating glutamate release may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to treat stress-related disorders. Finally, since depressed patients exhibit changes in HPA axis activity and in circadian rhythmicity as well as in the paradoxical sleep regulation, we suggest that PRS could represent an original animal model of depression.

  12. Dietary restraint, life satisfaction and self-discrepancy by gender in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize dieting and non-dieting university students by gender, based on their satisfaction with life and their food-related life, self-discrepancy, food behavior and health-related aspects. A non-probabilistic sample of 305 students from five Chilean state universities responded a questionnaire that included the Revised Restraint Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale, the Health-related Quality of Life Index, the Nutrition Interest Scale and the Self-Discrepancy Index. Socio-demographic characteristics, food behavior, and approximate weight and height were also enquired. Chronic dieters and non-dieters were distinguished according to the median score of the Revised Restraint Scale. 51.1% of women and 55.5% of men classified as chronic dieters, sharing characteristics such as nutrition concern, mental health problems, higher body mass index, and physical and economic self-discrepancy. Women dieters reported lower life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life, more health problems and health-related restriction of food, while men dieters showed higher social and emotional self-discrepancy.

  13. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  14. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-01

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  15. Practical Use Technique of Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gyu Seop

    1985-11-15

    This book tells of practical use technology of sensor, introducing the recent trend of sensor for electronic industry, IC temperature sensor, radiation temperature sensor of surface acoustic wave, optical fiber temperature sensor, a polyelectrolyte film humidity sensor, semiconductor pressure sensor for industrial instrumentation, silicon integration pressure sensor, thick film humidity sensor and its application, photo sensor reflection type, and color sensor. It also deals with sensor for FA, sensor for a robot and sensor for the chemical industry.

  16. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  17. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  18. Gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  19. Naturalistic driving study of rear seat child occupants: Quantification of head position using a Kinect™ sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kim, Jinyong; Loeb, Helen; Kuo, Jonny; Koppel, Sjaan; Bohman, Katarina; Charlton, Judith L

    2016-09-01

    Restraint performance is evaluated using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in prescribed, optimal seating positions. Anecdotally, humans-children in particular-assume a variety of positions that may affect restraint performance. Naturalistic driving studies (NDSs), where cameras and other data acquisition systems are placed in a vehicle used by participants during their regular transportation, offer means to collect these data. To date, these studies have used conventional video and analysis methods and, thus, analyses have largely been qualitative. This article describes a recently completed NDS of child occupants in which their position was monitored using a Kinect sensor to quantify their head position throughout normal, everyday driving trips. A study vehicle was instrumented with a data acquisition system to measure vehicle dynamics, a set of video cameras, and a Kinect sensor providing 3D motion capture at 1 Hz of the rear seat occupants. Participant families used the vehicle for all driving trips over 2 weeks. The child occupants' head position was manually identified via custom software from each Kinect color image. The 3D head position was then extracted and its distribution summarized by seat position (left, rear, center) and restraint type (forward-facing child restraint system [FFCRS], booster seat, seat belt). Data from 18 families (37 child occupants) resulted in 582 trips (with children) for analysis. The average age of the child occupants was 45.6 months and 51% were male. Twenty-five child occupants were restrained in FFCRS, 9 in booster seats, and 3 in seat belts. As restraint type moved from more to less restraint (FFCRS to booster seat to seat belt), the range of fore-aft head position increased: 218, 244, and 340 mm on average, respectively. This observation was also true for left-right movement for every seat position. In general, those in the center seat position demonstrated a smaller range of head positions. For the first

  20. Repeated Neck Restraint Stress Bidirectionally Modulates Excitatory Transmission in the Dentate Gyrus and Performance in a Hippocampus-dependent Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrka, Jadwiga; Hess, Grzegorz

    2018-05-21

    The consequences of stress depend on characteristics of the stressor, including the duration of exposure, severity, and predictability. Exposure of mice to repeated neck restraint has been shown to bidirectionally modulate the potential for long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) in a manner dependent on the number of restraint repetitions, but the influence of repeated brief neck restraint on electrophysiology of single DG neurons has not yet been investigated. Here, we aimed at finding the effects of 1, 3, 7, 14, or 21 daily neck restraint sessions lasting 10 min on electrophysiological characteristics of DG granule cells as well as excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to these neurons. While the excitability of DG granule cells and inhibitory synaptic transmission were unchanged, neck restraint decreased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory currents after three repetitions but enhanced it after 14 and 21 repetitions. The consequences of repeated neck restraint on hippocampus-dependent memory were investigated using the object location test (OLT). Neck restraint stress impaired cognitive performance in the OLT after three repetitions but improved it after 14 and 21 repetitions. Mice subjected to three neck restraint sessions displayed an increase in the measures of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, however, prolongation of the exposure to neck restraint resulted in a gradual decline in the intensity of these measures. These data indicate that stress imposed by an increasing number of repeated neck restraint episodes bidirectionally modulates both excitatory synaptic transmission in the DG and cognitive performance in the object location memory task. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  2. Traffic Safety Facts - Research Note: Additional Analysis of National Child Restraint Use Special Study: Characteristics Of Those Not Restrained

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    The National Child Restraint Use Special Study (NCRUSS) recorded the use of car seats and belt-positioning booster seats in children up to 8 years old in 4,167 vehicles. Observers approached vehicles that carried at least one child. They interviewed ...

  3. 75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... No. NHTSA-2010-0158 Regulation Identifier No. (RIN) 2127-AJ44 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... (SNPRM). SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 213...

  4. Testing the relative associations of different components of dietary restraint on psychological functioning in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; Phillipou, Andrea; Newton, Richard; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Jenkins, Zoe; Cistullo, Leonardo L; Castle, David

    2018-05-25

    Although empirical evidence identifies dietary restraint as a transdiagnostic eating disorder maintaining mechanism, the distinctiveness and significance of the different behavioural and cognitive components of dietary restraint are poorly understood. The present study examined the relative associations of the purportedly distinct dietary restraint components (intention to restrict, delayed eating, food avoidance, and diet rules) with measures of psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress), disability, and core eating disorder symptoms (overvaluation and binge eating) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Data were analysed from a treatment-seeking sample of individuals with AN (n = 124) and BN (n = 54). Intention to restrict, food avoidance, and diet rules were strongly related to each other (all r's > 0.78), but only weakly-moderately related to delayed eating behaviours (all r's psychological distress. Patient diagnosis did not moderate these associations. Overall, findings indicate that delayed eating behaviours may be a distinct component from other indices of dietary restraint (e.g., intention to restrict, food avoidance, diet rules). This study highlights the potential importance of ensuring that delayed eating behaviours are screened, assessed, and targeted early in treatment for patients with AN and BN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 'Mechanical restraint-confounders, risk, alliance score': testing the clinical validity of a new risk assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann Nielsen, Lea; Bech, Per; Hounsgaard, Lise; Alkier Gildberg, Frederik

    2017-08-01

    Unstructured risk assessment, as well as confounders (underlying reasons for the patient's risk behaviour and alliance), risk behaviour, and parameters of alliance, have been identified as factors that prolong the duration of mechanical restraint among forensic mental health inpatients. To clinically validate a new, structured short-term risk assessment instrument called the Mechanical Restraint-Confounders, Risk, Alliance Score (MR-CRAS), with the intended purpose of supporting the clinicians' observation and assessment of the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical restraint. The content and layout of MR-CRAS and its user manual were evaluated using face validation by forensic mental health clinicians, content validation by an expert panel, and pilot testing within two, closed forensic mental health inpatient units. The three sub-scales (Confounders, Risk, and a parameter of Alliance) showed excellent content validity. The clinical validations also showed that MR-CRAS was perceived and experienced as a comprehensible, relevant, comprehensive, and useable risk assessment instrument. MR-CRAS contains 18 clinically valid items, and the instrument can be used to support the clinical decision-making regarding the possibility of releasing the patient from mechanical restraint. The present three studies have clinically validated a short MR-CRAS scale that is currently being psychometrically tested in a larger study.

  6. Acute Restraint Stress Alters Wheel-Running Behavior Immediately Following Stress and up to 20 Hours Later in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Jessica L; deWolski, Karen; Meek, Thomas H; Acosta, Wendy; Middleton, Kevin M; Crino, Ondi L; Garland, Theodore

    In vertebrates, acute stressors-although short in duration-can influence physiology and behavior over a longer time course, which might have important ramifications under natural conditions. In laboratory rats, for example, acute stress has been shown to increase anxiogenic behaviors for days after a stressor. In this study, we quantified voluntary wheel-running behavior for 22 h following a restraint stress and glucocorticoid levels 24 h postrestraint. We utilized mice from four replicate lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running activity (HR mice) for 60 generations and their nonselected control (C) lines to examine potential interactions between exercise propensity and sensitivity to stress. Following 6 d of wheel access on a 12L∶12D photo cycle (0700-1900 hours, as during the routine selective breeding protocol), 80 mice were physically restrained for 40 min, beginning at 1400 hours, while another 80 were left undisturbed. Relative to unrestrained mice, wheel running increased for both HR and C mice during the first hour postrestraint (P Wheel running was also examined at four distinct phases of the photoperiod. Running in the period of 1600-1840 hours was unaffected by restraint stress and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. During the period of peak wheel running (1920-0140 hours), restrained mice tended to run fewer revolutions (-11%; two-tailed P = 0.0733), while HR mice ran 473% more than C (P = 0.0008), with no restraint × line type interaction. Wheel running declined for all mice in the latter part of the scotophase (0140-0600 hours), restraint had no statistical effect on wheel running, but HR again ran more than C (+467%; P = 0.0122). Finally, during the start of the photophase (0720-1200 hours), restraint increased running by an average of 53% (P = 0.0443) in both line types, but HR and C mice did not differ statistically. Mice from HR lines had statistically higher plasma corticosterone concentrations

  7. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  8. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  9. Image Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Paul; Stefanov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    An image sensor of the type for providing charge multiplication by impact ionisation has plurality of multiplication elements. Each element is arranged to receive charge from photosensitive elements of an image area and each element comprises a sequence of electrodes to move charge along a transport path. Each of the electrodes has an edge defining a boundary with a first electrode, a maximum width across the charge transport path and a leading edge that defines a boundary with a second elect...

  10. Optischer Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenburg, A.; Fischer, A.

    1995-01-01

    An optical sensor (1) comprising an integrated optical arrangement has a waveguide (4) and at least one defraction grating (5) arranged in this waveguide. Light can launched into the waveguide via the defraction grating. In the reflection area of defraction grating, part of the light is dispersed through the waveguide at the beam angle for which the launch conditions and thus the defraction in the waveguide are fulfilled, so that, at this angle, a dark line (14) occurs whose position is evalu...

  11. Gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Korotchenkov, Gh.; Vieru, T.; Prodan, I.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the gas sensors on base of metal-oxide films (SnO, InO), which may be used for enviromental control, in the fireextinguishing systema etc. The gas includes an insulating substrate, an active layer, a resistive layer with ohmic contacts. The resistive layer has two or more regions with dofferent resistances , and on the active layer are two or more pairs of ohmic contacts

  12. Re-building Trust after Physical Restraint During Involuntary Psychiatric Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Anwar; Ibrahim, Mahajne; Roe, David

    2018-06-01

    This study attempted to identify the elements which might best minimize the negative consequences of restriction of inpatients and rebuild therapeutic alliance and trust. Through in depth interviews with 15 psychiatric patients who had experience restrained during the last involuntary psychiatric hospitalization. Analysis of the data revealed three major themes with regard to trust between restrained patient and restraining staff members during restriction of the patient's freedom. Duration of Restriction, Contact with a Staff Member while Restrained, Supportive Interactions and Staff's Response to Restricted Patients' Needs were reported by patients as crucial in determining the way restrained is experienced and its later impact. Physical restraint in psychiatric hospitalizations generates many negative feelings and can even be traumatic. The patients interviewed help us learn how to provide more human and therapeutic interactions even in extreme situations of restrain which can be crucial to rebuild therapeutic alliance and trust. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Issues in the Seclusion and Restraint of Juveniles: Policy, Practice and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Ellis

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate use of seclusion and restraint (S/R is an important issue among juvenile justice professionals. Recent newspaper articles have brought the issue to the attention of the United States Senate, law enforcement agencies, and the general public. The result has been a series of investigations and publications by the Senate, law enforcement, and professional associations. Despite the attention this issue has received, professionals have yet to reach a definitive agreement as to what recent legislation and the professional and popular literature regarding the use of S/R. They identify major issues currently under discussion, highlight areas of consensus, and enumerate several dimensions that require further exploration. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of S/R for social work practitioners, including the importance of education and training, monitoring, hiring, policy advocacy, and ongoin research.

  14. Radar correlated imaging for extended target by the combination of negative exponential restraint and total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tingting; Wang, Lianlian; Lu, Guanghua

    2017-07-01

    Radar correlated imaging (RCI) introduces the optical correlated imaging technology to traditional microwave imaging, which has raised widespread concern recently. Conventional RCI methods neglect the structural information of complex extended target, which makes the quality of recovery result not really perfect, thus a novel combination of negative exponential restraint and total variation (NER-TV) algorithm for extended target imaging is proposed in this paper. The sparsity is measured by a sequential order one negative exponential function, then the 2D total variation technique is introduced to design a novel optimization problem for extended target imaging. And the proven alternating direction method of multipliers is applied to solve the new problem. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm could realize high resolution imaging efficiently for extended target.

  15. Resisting force characteristics of a mechanical snubber and its restraint effect on beam deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmata, Kenichiro

    1987-01-01

    A mechanical snubber is used to restrain piping systems in nuclear power plants during an earthquake. It has nonlinearities in both load (or exciting amplitude) and frequency response, so it will be very difficult to analyze the resisting force characteristics of the mechanical snubber theoretically. In this report, the equation of motion of the mechanical snubber is derived and digital simulations of snubber dynamic characteristics over a frequency range are carried out using the Continuous System Simulation Language (CSSL). Also, the restraint effect of the mechanical snubber applied to a simple beam is discussed both numerically and experimentally. The beam is replaced by a lumped mass system and CSSL is used to perform the digital simulations. (author)

  16. Moving beyond resistance to restraint minimization: a case study of change management in aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan; Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; O'Connell, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes a quality initiative to minimize restraint in an Australian residential aged care facility. The process of improving practice is examined with reference to the literature on implementation of research into practice and change management. The differences between planned and emergent approaches to change management are discussed. The concepts of resistance and attractors are explored in relation to our experiences of managing the change process in this initiative. The importance of the interpersonal interactions that were involved in facilitating the change process is highlighted. Recommendations are offered for dealing with change management processes in clinical environments, particularly the need to move beyond an individual mind-set to a systems-based approach for quality initiatives in residential aged care.

  17. Exercising restraint: clinical, legal and ethical considerations for the patient with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrien, Barry

    2007-04-01

    The number of older people using emergency care is increasing steadily and older people account for over half of all emergency admissions. In the emergency setting, nurses caring for older people with Alzheimer's disease can be faced with many complex ethical and legal challenges. Moreover, challenges such as the use of physical restraint can precipitate conflict when the nurse is placed in the precarious position of doing good, respecting autonomy and avoiding paternalism. Although, there is no complete set of "rules" that can provide nurses with an answer to each dilemma, it is of significant value for nurses to have sound knowledge of ethical and legal positions in order to analyse the many complex situations that they may encounter.

  18. Shortened constraint-induced movement therapy in subacute stroke - no effect of using a restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogårdh, Christina; Vestling, Monika; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of using a mitt during shortened constraint-induced movement therapy for patients in the subacute phase after stroke. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four patients with stroke (mean age 57.6 (standard deviation (SD) 8.5) years; average 7 weeks post-stroke) with mild to moderate......, no statistically significant differences between the groups were found in any measures at any point in time. CONCLUSION: In this study, no effect of using a restraint in patients with subacute stroke was found. Thus, this component in the constraint-induced therapy concept seems to be of minor importance...... Scale, the Sollerman hand function test, the 2-Point Discrimination test and Motor Activity Log test. RESULTS: Patients in both groups showed significant improvements in arm and hand motor performance and on self-reported motor ability after 2 weeks of therapy and at 3 months follow-up. However...

  19. A self-medication hypothesis for increased vulnerability to drug abuse in prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Gatta, Eleonora; Mairesse, Jérôme; Van Camp, Gilles; Fagioli, Francesca; Maccari, Stefania; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Morley-Fletcher, Sara

    Stress-related events that occur in the perinatal period can permanently change brain and behavior of the developing individual and there is increasing evidence that early-life adversity is a contributing factor in the etiology of drug abuse and mood disorders. Neural adaptations resulting from early-life stress may mediate individual differences in novelty responsiveness and in turn contribute to drug abuse vulnerability. Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) in rats is a well-documented model of early stress known to induce long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral alterations including impaired feedback mechanisms of the HPA axis, enhanced novelty seeking, and increased sensitiveness to psychostimulants as well as anxiety/depression-like behavior. Together with the HPA axis, functional alterations of the mesolimbic dopamine system and of the metabotropic glutamate receptors system appear to be involved in the addiction-like profile of PRS rats.

  20. eLearning course may shorten the duration of mechanical restraint among psychiatric inpatients: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Raija; Pitkänen, Anneli; Joffe, Grigori; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta

    2014-10-01

    The management of psychiatric inpatients exhibiting severely disturbed and aggressive behaviour is an important educational topic. Well structured, IT-based educational programmes (eLearning) often ensure quality and may make training more affordable and accessible. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of an eLearning course for personnel on the rates and duration of seclusion and mechanical restraint among psychiatric inpatients. In a cluster-randomized intervention trial, the nursing personnel on 10 wards were randomly assigned to eLearning (intervention) or training-as-usual (control) groups. The eLearning course comprised six modules with specific topics (legal and ethical issues, behaviour-related factors, therapeutic relationship and self-awareness, teamwork and integrating knowledge with practice) and specific learning methods. The rates (incidents per 1000 occupied bed days) and durations of the coercion incidents were examined before and after the course. A total of 1283 coercion incidents (1143 seclusions [89%] and 140 incidents involving the use of mechanical restraints [11%]) were recorded on the study wards during the data collection period. On the intervention wards, there were no statistically significant changes in the rates of seclusion and mechanical restraint. However, the duration of incidents involving mechanical restraints shortened from 36.0 to 4.0 h (median) (P eLearning course, the duration of incidents involving the use of mechanical restraints decreased. However, more studies are needed to ensure that the content of the course focuses on the most important factors associated with the seclusion-related elements. The eLearning course deserves further development and further studies. The duration of coercion incidents merits attention in future research.

  1. A protocol for the refinement of NMR structures using simultaneously pseudocontact shift restraints from multiple lanthanide ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, Davide; Giachetti, Andrea; Luchinat, Claudio, E-mail: luchinat@cerm.unifi.it; Rosato, Antonio, E-mail: rosato@cerm.unifi.it [University of Florence, Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM) (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The binding of paramagnetic metal ions to proteins produces a number of different effects on the NMR spectra of the system. In particular, when the magnetic susceptibility of the metal ion is anisotropic, pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) arise and can be easily measured. They constitute very useful restraints for the solution structure determination of metal-binding proteins. In this context, there has been great interest in the use of lanthanide(III) ions to induce PCSs in diamagnetic proteins, e.g. through the replacement native calcium(II) ions. By preparing multiple samples in each of which a different ion of the lanthanide series is introduced, it is possible to obtain multiple independent PCS datasets that can be used synergistically to generate protein structure ensembles (typically called bundles). For typical NMR-based determination of protein structure, it is necessary to perform an energetic refinement of such initial bundles to obtain final structures whose geometric quality is suitable for deposition in the PDB. This can be conveniently done by using restrained molecular dynamics simulations (rMD) in explicit solvent. However, there are no available protocols for rMD using multiple PCS datasets as part of the restraints. In this work, we extended the PCS module of the AMBER MD package to handle multiple datasets and tuned a previously developed protocol for NMR structure refinement to achieve consistent convergence with PCS restraints. Test calculations with real experimental data show that this new implementation delivers the expected improvement of protein geometry, resulting in final structures that are of suitable quality for deposition. Furthermore, we observe that also initial structures generated only with traditional restraints can be successfully refined using traditional and PCS restraints simultaneously.

  2. Nurses' decision-making process in cases of physical restraint in acute elderly care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, S; Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Gastmans, C

    2013-05-01

    The increasing vulnerability of patients in acute elderly care requires constant critical reflection in ethically charged situations such as when employing physical restraint. Qualitative evidence concerning nurses' decision making in cases of physical restraint is limited and fragmented. A thorough understanding of nurses' decision-making process could be useful to understand how nurses reason and make decisions in ethically laden situations. The aims of this study were to explore and describe nurses' decision-making process in cases of physical restraint. We used a qualitative interview design inspired by the Grounded Theory approach. Data analysis was guided by the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. Twelve hospitals geographically spread throughout the five provinces of Flanders, Belgium. Twenty-one acute geriatric nurses interviewed between October 2009 and April 2011 were purposively and theoretically selected, with the aim of including nurses having a variety of characteristics and experiences concerning decisions on using physical restraint. In cases of physical restraint in acute elderly care, nurses' decision making was never experienced as a fixed decision but rather as a series of decisions. Decision making was mostly reasoned upon and based on rational arguments; however, decisions were also made routinely and intuitively. Some nurses felt very certain about their decisions, while others experienced feelings of uncertainty regarding their decisions. Nurses' decision making is an independent process that requires nurses to obtain a good picture of the patient, to be constantly observant, and to assess and reassess the patient's situation. Coming to thoughtful and individualized decisions requires major commitment and constant critical reflection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Staff Training Reduces the Use of Physical Restraint in Mental Health Service, Evidence-based Reflection for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junrong; Xiao, Aixiang; Yu, Lin; Guo, Jianxiong; Lei, Huawei; Wei, Hongmei; Luo, Wei

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to synthesize the evidence regarding the reduction of physical restraint, and to seek some practical recommendations based on the current situation in China. Nine databases were retrieved; these were PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Trip Database, PsysINFO, Cochrane Library, CNKI (Chinese database), Wanfang (Chinese database) and CBM (Chinese database) respectively. The selected articles were screened manually, and the identified researches were appraised through Review manager 5.3. Eight studies (four randomized controlled trials and four quasi-experimental studies) published between June 2013 and May 2017 were selected. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as the effect index for dichotomous variables. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs were calculated as the pooled continuous effect. The outcome of meta-analysis suggested staff training reduced the duration (IV=-0.88; 95% CIs=-1.65 to -0.10; Z=2.22; p=0.03) and adverse effect (RR, 0.16; 95% CIs=0.09 to 0.30; Z=5.96; pstaff training had no effects on the incidence of physical restraint. (RR, 1.01; 95% CIs=0.45 to 2.24; Z=0.02; p=0.99) CONCLUSION: Staff training was an effective measure to minimize the duration and adverse effects of physical restraint. More studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of staff training in relation to reduce the prevalence of physical restraint. Furthermore, considering the nurse's education background in China, it is recommended to conduct a compulsory training program to reduce the unnecessary restraint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Associated With Poor Child Motor Vehicle Restraint on the USA-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrodt, Alexander; Huynh, Tam; Fitzgerald, Tamara N

    Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a significant cause of pediatric morbidity, particularly in low- to middle-income countries. We describe car seat use in children on the USA-Mexico border. A retrospective review was conducted for children 0-9 years old, admitted to the region's only Level I trauma center. Simultaneously, data were obtained from the SAFE KIDS database, a program that encourages car seat use through city checkpoints. There were 250 MVC admissions and nine fatalities in children 0-9 years old from 2010 to 2015. Nine percent of MVCs occurred in Mexico and 49% in El Paso, TX. Comparing trauma admissions to SAFE KIDS, there was some correlation between the location of MVCs and screening checkpoints (r = .50). There was a weaker correlation between injured children's neighborhoods and screening locations (r = .32). Only 37% of parents knew the crash history of the car seat and 3% were using a car seat previously involved in an MVC. While 96% of inspected children were placed appropriately in the backseat, 80% of children were found to be inappropriately restrained. Younger children more likely to be restrained (p < .05). Children from New Mexico and Mexico had the lowest rates of proper restraint and the highest injury severity scores. Proper use of car seats is a public health concern on the USA-Mexico border, and children are not properly restrained. Screening may be improved by focusing where at-risk children live and where most accidents occur. Restraint education is needed, particularly in New Mexico and Mexico.

  5. Optimizing the passenger air bag of an adaptive restraint system for multiple size occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhonghao; Jiang, Binhui; Zhu, Feng; Cao, Libo

    2014-01-01

    The development of the adaptive occupant restraint system (AORS) has led to an innovative way to optimize such systems for multiple size occupants. An AORS consists of multiple units such as adaptive air bags, seat belts, etc. During a collision, as a supplemental protective device, air bags can provide constraint force and play a role in dissipating the crash energy of the occupants' head and thorax. This article presents an investigation into an adaptive passenger air bag (PAB). The purpose of this study is to develop a base shape of a PAB for different size occupants using an optimization method. Four typical base shapes of a PAB were designed based on geometric data on the passenger side. Then 4 PAB finite element (FE) models and a validated sled with different size dummy models were developed in MADYMO (TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands) to conduct the optimization to obtain the best baseline PAB that would be used in the AORS. The objective functions-that is, the minimum total probability of injuries (∑Pcomb) of the 5th percentile female and 50th and 95th percentile male dummies-were adopted to evaluate the optimal configurations. The injury probability (Pcomb) for each dummy was adopted from the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (US-NCAP). The parameters of the AORS were first optimized for different types of PAB base shapes in a frontal impact. Then, contact time duration and force between the PAB and dummy head/chest were optimized by adjusting the parameters of the PAB, such as the number and position of tethers, lower the Pcomb of the 95th percentile male dummy. According to the optimization results, 4 typical PABs could provide effective protection to 5th and 50th percentile dummies. However, due to the heavy and large torsos of the 95th percentile occupants, the current occupant restraint system does not demonstrate satisfactory protective function, particularly for the thorax.

  6. Agmatine abolishes restraint stress-induced depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Andiara E; Bettio, Luis E B; Neis, Vivian B; Santos, Danúbia B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila B; Farina, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-04-03

    Agmatine has been recently emerged as a novel candidate to assist the conventional pharmacotherapy of depression. The acute restraint stress (ARS) is an unavoidable stress situation that may cause depressive-like behavior in rodents. In this study, we investigated the potential antidepressant-like effect of agmatine (10mg/kg, administered acutely by oral route) in the forced swimming test (FST) in non-stressed mice, as well as its ability to abolish the depressive-like behavior and hippocampal antioxidant imbalance induced by ARS. Agmatine reduced the immobility time in the mouse FST (1-100mg/kg) in non-stressed mice. ARS caused an increase in the immobility time in the FST, indicative of a depressive-like behavior, as well as hippocampal lipid peroxidation, and an increase in the activity of hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, reduced catalase (CAT) activity and increased SOD/CAT ratio, an index of pro-oxidative conditions. Agmatine was effective to abolish the depressive-like behavior induced by ARS and to prevent the ARS-induced lipid peroxidation and changes in SOD, GR and CAT activities and in SOD/CAT activity ratio. Hippocampal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were not altered by any experimental condition. In conclusion, the present study shows that agmatine was able to abrogate the ARS-induced depressive-like behavior and the associated redox hippocampal imbalance observed in stressed restraint mice, suggesting that its antidepressant-like effect may be dependent on its ability to maintain the pro-/anti-oxidative homeostasis in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural evaluation of fast reactor core restraint with irradiation creep-swelling opposition effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Irradiation creep and swelling correlations are derived from primary loading in-reactor experiments in which irradiation creep and swelling act in the same direction. When correlation uncertainty bands are applied in core restraint evaluations, significant variability in sub-assembly behavior is predicted. For example, sub-assemblies in the outer core region where neutron flux and duct temperature gradients are significant exhibit bowing responses ranging from a creep dominated outward bow to a swelling dominated inward bow. Furthermore, solutions based on upper bound and lower bound correlation uncertainty combinations are observed to cross-over indicating that such combinations are physically unrealistic in the assessment of creep-swelling opposition effects. In order to obtain realistic upper and lower bound sub-assembly responses, judgement must be applied in the selection of creep-swelling equation uncertainty combinations. Experimental programs have been defined which will provide the needed basic as well as prototypic creep-swelling opposition data for reference and advanced sub-assembly duct alloys. The first of these is an irradiation of cylindrical capsules subjected to a through-wall temperature gradient. This test which is presently underway in the EBR-II reactor will provide the data needed to refine irradiation creep and swelling correlations and their associated uncertainties when applied to core restraint evaluations. Restrained pin and duct bowing experiments in FFTF have also been defined. These will provide the prototypic data necessary to verify irradiated duct bowing methodology. The results of this experimental program are expected to reduce creep and swelling uncertainties and permit better definition of the design window for load plane gaps. (orig.)

  8. Boosting restraint norms: a community-delivered campaign to promote booster seat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Garcia-Espana, J Felipe; Winston, Flaura K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theoretically grounded community-delivered marketing campaign to promote belt-positioning booster seat (BPB) use among vulnerable populations when disseminated by community members. A prospective, nonrandomized community intervention trial was conducted to evaluate the "Boosting Restraint Norms" social marketing campaign delivered by community partners in Norristown, Pennsylvania (intervention community), between October 2008 and November 2008. York, Pennsylvania, served as the comparison community. In total, 800 vehicles with 822 children aged 4 to 7 years were observed for BPB use, the primary outcome of interest, at baseline (September 2008) and at 6 months after intervention (April 2009). During the study period, a 28 percent increase in the prevalence of BPB use at 6 months was observed in the intervention community with no change in the prevalence of BPB use in the comparison community. After adjustment for child age and gender, vehicle type, driver gender, and driver level, BPB use increased from 39 to 50 percent in the intervention community. The "Boosting Restraint Norms" social marketing campaign, distributed through community organizations combined with caregiver education and a one-time free distribution of BPBs, was effective in increasing BPB use. This study demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing community organizations with established audiences to spread the "No Regrets" messaging of the campaign in the community. This study also indicates that spreading evidence-based messages in this manner may effectively change behavior in populations that are often hard to reach. Future studies are needed in which this methodology is tested in additional communities and rural settings.

  9. Chronic restraint-induced stress has little modifying effect on radiation hematopoietic toxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Katsube, Takanori; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Vares, Guillaume; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Nenoi, Mitsuru; Liu Qiang; Morita, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    Both radiation and stresses cause detrimental effects on humans. Besides possible health effects resulting directly from radiation exposure, the nuclear plant accident is a cause of social psychological stresses. A recent study showed that chronic restraint-induced stresses (CRIS) attenuated Trp53 functions and increased carcinogenesis susceptibility of Trp53-heterozygous mice to total-body X-irradiation (TBXI), having a big impact on the academic world and a sensational effect on the public, especially the residents living in radioactively contaminated areas. It is important to investigate the possible modification effects from CRIS on radiation-induced health consequences in Trp53 wild-type (Trp53wt) animals. Prior to a carcinogenesis study, effects of TBXI on the hematopoietic system under CRIS were investigated in terms of hematological abnormality in the peripheral blood and residual damage in the bone marrow erythrocytes using a mouse restraint model. Five-week-old male Trp53wt C57BL/6J mice were restrained 6 h per day for 28 consecutive days, and TBXI (4 Gy) was given on the 8th day. Results showed that CRIS alone induced a marked decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) and the white blood cell (WBC) count, while TBXI caused significantly lower counts of RBCs, WBCs and blood platelets, and a lower concentration of hemoglobin regardless of CRIS. CRIS alone did not show any significant effect on erythrocyte proliferation and on induction of micronucleated erythrocytes, whereas TBXI markedly inhibited erythrocyte proliferation and induced a significant increase in the incidences of micronucleated erythrocytes, regardless of CRIS. These findings suggest that CRIS does not have a significant impact on radiation-induced detrimental effects on the hematopoietic system in Trp53wt mice. (author)

  10. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  11. Effects of harmane during treadmill exercise on spatial memory of restraint-stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Shahini, Faezeh; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Azarbayjani, MohammadAli; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2018-06-08

    Chronic stress induces hippocampal-dependent memory deficits, which can be counterbalanced with prolonged exercise. On the other hand, the β-carboline alkaloid harmane exerts potential in therapies for Alzheimer's and depression diseases and modulating neuronal responses to stress. The present study investigated the effect of chronic treatment of harmane alone or during treadmill running on spatial memory deficit in restraint-stressed mice. To examine spatial memory, adult male NMRI mice were subjected to the Y-maze. Intraperitoneal administration of harmane (0.6 mg/kg, once/ 48 h for 25 days) decreased the percentage of time in the novel arm and the number of novel arm visits, indicating a spatial memory deficit. A 9-day restraint stress (3 h/day) also produced spatial learning impairment. However, a 4-week regime of treadmill running (10 m/min for 30 min/day, 5 days/week) aggravated the stress impairing effect on spatial learning of 3-day stressed mice compared to exercise/non-stressed mice. Moreover, harmane (0.3 mg/kg) associated with exercise increased the number of novel arm visits in 9-day stressed mice compared to harmane/exercise/non-stressed or 9-day stressed group. It should be noted that none of these factors alone or in combination with each other had no effect on locomotor activity. Taken together, these data suggest that there is no interaction between harmane and exercise on spatial memory in stress condition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Gemfibrozil pretreatment proved protection against acute restraint stress-induced changes in the male rats' hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Leila; Nejad, Sara Chavoshi; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Zadeh, Sadaf Sarraf; Pour, Marieh Hossein; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ashabi, Ghorbangol; Alamdary, Shabnam Zeighamy; Samami, Elham

    2013-08-21

    Stress predisposes the brain to various neuropathological disorders. Fibrates like gemfibrozil, commonly used for hyperlipidemia, have not yet been examined for their protective/deteriorative potential against restraint stress-induced disturbances. Pretreatment of rats with a range of gemfibrozil concentrations showed significant protection against stress consequences at 90 mg/kg of gemfibrozil, as it resulted in the highest level of antioxidant defense system potentiation among other doses. It also reduced plasma corticosterone compared with the stressed animals. Administration of gemfibrozil (90 mg/kg) before stress induction was able to significantly induce the protein levels of some protective factors including hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone-1 (NQO-1) in the antioxidant nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf-2) pathway, as well as mitochondrial pro-survival proteins, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1). In parallel, the level of cleaved caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), two proteins involved in apoptotic cell death, and the number of damaged neurons detected in hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) stained hippocampus sections were suppressed in the presence of gemfibrozil. Herein, although gemfibrozil demonstrated protection against the restraint stress, considering its dose and context-dependent effects reported in the previous studies, as well as its common application in clinic, further investigations are essential to unravel its exact beneficial/deleterious effects in various neuronal contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of chronic restraint stress on inhibitory gating in the auditory cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lanlan; Li, Wai; Li, Sibin; Wang, Xuejiao; Qin, Ling

    2017-05-01

    A fundamental adaptive mechanism of auditory function is inhibitory gating (IG), which refers to the attenuation of neural responses to repeated sound stimuli. IG is drastically impaired in individuals with emotional and cognitive impairments (i.e. posttraumatic stress disorder). The objective of this study was to test whether chronic stress impairs the IG of the auditory cortex (AC). We used the standard two-tone stimulus paradigm and examined the parametric qualities of IG in the AC of rats by recording the electrophysiological signals of a single-unit and local field potential (LFP) simultaneously. The main results of this study were that most of the AC neurons showed a weaker response to the second tone than to the first tone, reflecting an IG of the repeated input. A fast negative wave of LFP showed consistent IG across the sampled AC sites, whereas a slow positive wave of LFP had less IG effect. IG was diminished following chronic restraint stress at both, the single-unit and LFP level, due to the increase in response to the second tone. This study provided new evidence that chronic stress disrupts the physiological function of the AC. Lay Summary The effects of chronic stress on IG were investigated by recording both, single-unit spike and LFP activities, in the AC of rats. In normal rats, most of the single-unit and N25 LFP activities in the AC showed an IG effect. IG was diminished following chronic restraint stress at both, the single-unit and LFP level.

  14. Dietary restraint of 5-year-old girls: Associations with internalization of the thin ideal and maternal, media, and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; McLean, Siân A; Gregg, Karen J

    2015-12-01

    Understanding socio-cultural factors associated with the development of dieting tendencies is important for preventing future disordered eating. We explored individual and socio-cultural factors associated with weight-focussed dietary restraint tendencies (described as dietary restraint) in 5-year-old girls. Participants were 111 5-year-old girls and 109 of their mothers. Girls were interviewed about their dietary restraint, body image, appearance ideals, positive weight bias (attributing positive characteristics to thinner figures), and peer conversations. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires assessing dietary restraint and appearance ideals, as well as measures reporting on their daughter's media exposure and peer appearance interest. Thirty-four percent of girls reported at least a moderate level of dietary restraint. While most girls were satisfied with their body size, half showed some internalization of the thin ideal. Girls' dietary restraint was correlated with weight bias favoring thinner bodies, and greater internalization of the thin ideal, media exposure, and appearance conversations with peers. Media exposure and appearance conversations were the strongest predictors of dietary restraint. These cross-sectional findings suggest that the socio-cultural environment of young girls may be important in the very early development of unhealthy dieting tendencies. Longitudinal research is necessary to identify whether these are prospective risk factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. "I cry every day and night, I have my son tied in chains": physical restraint of people with schizophrenia in community settings in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Laura; Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; De Silva, Mary; Pathare, Soumitra; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2017-07-11

    A primary rationale for scaling up mental health services in low and middle-income countries is to address human rights violations, including physical restraint in community settings. The voices of those with intimate experiences of restraint, in particular people with mental illness and their families, are rarely heard. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of, and reasons for, restraint of people with schizophrenia in community settings in rural Ethiopia in order to develop constructive and scalable interventions. A qualitative study was conducted, involving 15 in-depth interviews and 5 focus group discussions (n = 35) with a purposive sample of people with schizophrenia, their caregivers, community leaders and primary and community health workers in rural Ethiopia. Thematic analysis was used. Most of the participants with schizophrenia and their caregivers had personal experience of the practice of restraint. The main explanations given for restraint were to protect the individual or the community, and to facilitate transportation to health facilities. These reasons were underpinned by a lack of care options, and the consequent heavy family burden and a sense of powerlessness amongst caregivers. Whilst there was pervasive stigma towards people with schizophrenia, lack of awareness about mental illness was not a primary reason for restraint. All types of participants cited increasing access to treatment as the most effective way to reduce the incidence of restraint. Restraint in community settings in rural Ethiopia entails the violation of various human rights, but the underlying human rights issue is one of lack of access to treatment. The scale up of accessible and affordable mental health care may go some way to address the issue of restraint. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02160249 Registered 3rd June 2014.

  16. Activation of the HPA axis and depression of feeding behavior induced by restraint stress are separately regulated by PACAPergic neurotransmission in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Lee E

    2016-07-01

    We measured serum CORT elevation in wild-type and PACAP-deficient C57BL/6N male mice after acute (1 h) or prolonged (2-3 h) daily restraint stress for 7 d. The PACAP dependence of CORT elevation was compared to that of stress-induced hypophagia. Daily restraint induced unhabituated peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia/weight loss, of similar magnitude for 1, 2, and 3 h of daily restraint, in wild-type mice. Peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia, were both attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice for 2 and 3 h daily restraint. Hypophagia induced by 1-h daily restraint was also greatly reduced in PACAP-deficient mice, however CORT elevation, both peak and during recovery from stress, was unaffected. Thus, hypothalamic PACAPergic neurotransmission appears to affect CRH gene transcription and peptide production, but not CRH release, in response to psychogenic stress. A single exposure to restraint sufficed to trigger hypophagia over the following 24 h. PACAP deficiency attenuated HPA axis response (CORT elevation) to prolonged (3 h) but not acute (1 h) single-exposure restraint stress, while hypophagia induced by either a single 1 h or a single 3 h restraint were both abolished in PACAP-deficient mice. These results suggest that PACAP's actions to promote suppression of food intake following an episode of psychogenic stress is unrelated to the release of CRH into the portal circulation to activate the pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, demonstration of suppressed food intake after a single 1-h restraint stress provides a convenient assay for investigating the location of the synapses and circuits mediating the effects of PACAP on the behavioral sequelae of psychogenic stress.

  17. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H; Macdonald, S; Richardson, P

    1997-03-01

    To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland. Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers. Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts, 68 were restrained by a seat belt and booster cushion, 63 in toddler seats, 25 in two way seats, and 18 in rear facing infant carriers. Ninety seven per cent of drivers, 95% of front seat passengers, and 77% of rear seat passengers were restrained. However, in 98 (52%) vehicles at least one passenger was restrained by a device that was used incorrectly. Seven per cent of adults and 28% of children were secured incorrectly. The commonest errors were loose seat belts and restraint devices not adequately secured to the seat. Rates of incorrect use were highest in child seat restraints, reaching 60% with two way seats and 44% with rear facing infant seats. The incorrect use of car occupant restraints is an under-recognised problem, both by health professionals, and the general public. Incorrect use has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of restraints, can itself result in injury, and is likely to be an important factor in child passenger injuries. The correct use of car seat restraints merits greater attention in strategies aiming to reduce road traffic casualties. Areas of intervention that could be

  18. Activation of the HPA Axis and Depression of Feeding Behavior Induced by Restraint Stress Are Separately Regulated by PACAPergic Neurotransmission in the Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    We measured serum CORT elevation in wild-type and PACAP-deficient C57Bl/6N male mice after acute (1 hr) or prolonged (2–3 hr) daily restraint stress for seven days. The PACAP-dependence of CORT elevation was compared to that of stress-induced hypophagia. Daily restraint induced unhabituated peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia/weight loss, of similar magnitude for 1, 2 and 3 hr of daily restraint, in wild-type mice. Peak CORT elevation, and hypophagia, were both attenuated in PACAP-deficient m...

  19. Intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1978-07-01

    Intrusion detection sensors are an integral part of most physical security systems. Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Safeguards and Security, Sandia Laboratories has conducted a survey of available intrusion detection sensors and has tested a number of different sensors. An overview of these sensors is provided. This overview includes (1) the operating principles of each type of sensor, (2) unique sensor characteristics, (3) desired sensor improvements which must be considered in planning an intrusion detection system, and (4) the site characteristics which affect the performance of both exterior and interior sensors. Techniques which have been developed to evaluate various intrusion detection sensors are also discussed

  20. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  1. Factors Associated With the Trend of Physical and Chemical Restraint Use Among Long-Term Care Facility Residents in Hong Kong: Data From an 11-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kuen; Kwan, Joseph S K; Wai Kwan, Chi; Chong, Alice M L; Lai, Claudia K Y; Lou, Vivian W Q; Leung, Angela Y M; Liu, Justina Y W; Bai, Xue; Chi, Iris

    2017-12-01

    Negative effects of restraint use have been well-documented. However, the prevalence of restraints use has been high in long-term care facilities in Hong Kong compared with other countries and this goes against the basic principles of ethical and compassionate care for older people. The present study aimed to review the change in the prevalence of physical and chemical restraint use in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) over a period of 11 years in Hong Kong and to identify the major factors associated with their use. This is an observational study with data obtained from the Hong Kong Longitudinal Study on LTCF Residents between 2005 and 2015. Trained assessors (nurses, social workers, and therapists) used the Minimum Data Set Resident Assessment Instrument to collect the data from 10 residential LTCFs. Physical restraint was defined as the use of any of the following: full bedside rails on all open sides of bed, other types of bedside rails used, trunk restraint, limb restraint, or the use of chair to prevent rising during the past 7 days. Chemical restraint was defined as the use of any of the following medications: antipsychotic, antianxiety, or hypnotic agents during past 7 days, excluding elder residents with a diagnosis of psychiatric illness. Annual prevalence of restraint use over 11 years and factors that were associated with the use of physical and chemical restraints. We analyzed the data for 2896 older people (978 male individuals, mean age = 83.3 years). Between 2005 and 2015, the prevalence of restraint use was as follows: physical restraint use increased from 52.7% to 70.2%; chemical restraint use increased from 15.9% to 21.78%; and either physical or chemical restraint use increased from 57.9% to 75.7%. Physical restraint use was independently associated with older age, impaired activities of daily living or cognitive function, bowel and bladder incontinence, dementia, and negative mood. Chemical restraint use was independently associated

  2. Constraint - Induced Movement Therapy: Determinants and Correlates of Duration of Adherence to Restraint use Among Stroke Survivors with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinola Olasumbo Sanya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT was developed to improve purposeful movement of the stroke-affected extremity by restrictingthe use of the unaffected extremity. The two main components of CIMT are the training of the more-impaired arm to perform functional tasks, and the restraint of the less-impaired arm. One challenge that the application of CIMT faces is in ensuring adherence to the use of restraint.Purpose: There is a need to determine the factors that may influence adherence, as this would allow CIMT to be delivered more effectively, and prevent situations where unrealistic expectations are placed on stroke–affected individuals.Methods: Thirty stroke survivors with hemiparesis who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited from the physiotherapy out-patient clinics, using a purposive sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on clinical and socio-demographic parameters. The participants were given a restraint and an adherence time log-book, to make a daily record during the period they wore the restraint. The adherence time logbook was collected at the end of every week of the 3-week study. Motor function and functional use of the upper limb were measured using Motricity Index and Motor Activity Log respectively. Data was analysed using mean and standard deviations, independent t-test and Spearman rho; p was significant at 0.05.Results: Gender (p=0.73 and side affected/handedness (p=0.79 had no significant influence on the percentage duration of adherence to restraint use (DARU. The influence of socio-economic status was seen, with the participants of middle socio-economic status adhering for longer duration (p=0.02. Age had weak and no significant correlation with percentage DARU (p=0.55. There was significantly fair correlation between motor function/functional use at any stage (p=0.55 and the corresponding percentage duration of adherence to restraint use, except

  3. Proposal of Screening Method of Sleep Disordered Breathing Using Fiber Grating Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirooki; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Masato

    Every conventional respiration monitoring technique requires at least one sensor to be attached to the body of the subject during measurement, thereby imposing a sense of restraint that results in aversion against measurements that would last over consecutive days. To solve this problem, we developed a respiration monitoring system for sleepers, and it uses a fiber-grating vision sensor, which is a type of active image sensor to achieve non-contact respiration monitoring. In this paper, we verified the effectiveness of the system, and proposed screening method of the sleep disordered breathing. It was shown that our system could equivalently measure the respiration with thermistor and accelerograph. And, the respiratory condition of sleepers can be grasped by our screening method in one look, and it seems to be useful for the support of the screening of sleep disordered breathing.

  4. Sensors for Entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-07-15

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on "Sensors for Entertainment", developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  5. Sensors for Entertainment

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Lamberti; Andrea Sanna; Jon Rokne

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on ?Sensors for Entertainment?, developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  6. Feasibility planning study for a behavior database. Volume III Appendix B, Compendium of survey questions on drinking and driving and occupant restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The general objective of the project was to determine the feasibility of and the general requirements for a centralized database on driver behavior and attitudes related to drunk driving and occupant restraints. Volume III is a compendium of question...

  7. Real-World Rib Fracture Patterns in Frontal Crashes in Different Restraint Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen L; Craig, Matthew; Scarboro, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the detailed medical injury information in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) to evaluate patterns of rib fractures in real-world crash occupants in both belted and unbelted restraint conditions. Fracture patterns binned into rib regional levels were examined to determine normative trends associated with belt use and other possible contributing factors. Front row adult occupants with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ rib fractures, in frontal crashes with a deployed frontal airbag, were selected from the CIREN database. The circumferential location of each rib fracture (with respect to the sternum) was documented using a previously published method (Ritchie et al. 2006) and digital computed tomography scans. Fracture patterns for different crash and occupant parameters (restraint use, involved physical component, occupant kinematics, crash principal direction of force, and occupant age) were compared qualitatively and quantitatively. There were 158 belted and 44 unbelted occupants included in this study. For belted occupants, fractures were mainly located near the path of the shoulder belt, with the majority of fractures occurring on the inboard (with respect to the vehicle) side of the thorax. For unbelted occupants, fractures were approximately symmetric and distributed across both sides of the thorax. There were negligible differences in fracture patterns between occupants with frontal (0°) and near side (330° to 350° for drivers; 10° to 30° for passengers) crash principal directions of force but substantial differences between groups when occupant kinematics (and contacts within the vehicle) were considered. Age also affected fracture pattern, with fractures tending to occur more anteriorly in older occupants and more laterally in younger occupants (both belted and unbelted). Results of this study confirmed with real-world data that rib fracture patterns in unbelted occupants were more distributed

  8. Underutilization of occupant restraint systems in motor vehicle injury crashes: A quantitative analysis from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Consunji, Rafael; Asim, Mohammad; Abdelrahman, Husham; Zarour, Ahmad; Parchani, Ashok; Peralta, Ruben; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Restraint systems (seat belts and airbags) are important tools that improve vehicle occupant safety during motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). We aimed to identify the pattern and impact of the utilization of passenger restraint systems on the outcomes of MVC victims in Qatar. A retrospective study was conducted for all admitted patients who sustained MVC-related injuries between March 2011 and March 2014 inclusive. Out of 2,730 road traffic injury cases, 1,830 (67%) sustained MVC-related injuries, of whom 88% were young males, 70% were expatriates, and 53% were drivers. The use of seat belts and airbags was documented in 26 and 2.5% of cases, respectively. Unrestrained passengers had greater injury severity scores, longer hospital stays, and higher rates of pneumonia and mortality compared to restrained passengers (P = .001 for all). There were 311 (17%) ejected cases. Seat belt use was significantly lower and the mortality rate was 3-fold higher in the ejected group compared to the nonejected group (P = .001). The overall mortality was 8.3%. On multivariate regression analysis, predictors of not using a seat belt were being a front seat passenger, driver, or Qatari national and young age. Unrestrained males had a 3-fold increase in mortality in comparison to unrestrained females. The risk of severe injury (relative risk [RR] = 1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-2.26, P = .001) and death (RR = 4.13, 95% CI, 2.31-7.38, P = .001) was significantly greater among unrestrained passengers. The nonuse of seat belts is associated with worse outcomes during MVCs in Qatar. Our study highlights the lower rate of seat belt compliance in young car occupants that results in more severe injuries, longer hospital stays, and higher mortality rates. Therefore, we recommend more effective seat belt awareness and education campaigns, the enforcement of current seat belt laws, their extension to all vehicle occupants, and the adoption of proven interventions that will assure sustained

  9. Evaluation of ISO CRS Envelopes Relative to U.S. Vehicles and Child Restraint Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Manary, Miriam A; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to use computer simulation to evaluate the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 13216-3:2006(E) child restraint system (CRS) envelopes relative to rear seat compartments from vehicles and CRSs in the U.S. market, investigate the potential compatibility issues of U.S. vehicles and CRSs, and demonstrate whether necessary modifications can be made to introduce such a system into compatibility evaluations between U.S. vehicles and CRSs. Three-dimensional geometry models for 26 vehicles and 16 convertible CRS designs developed previously were used. Geometry models of 3 forward-facing and 3 rear-facing CRS envelopes provided by the ISO were built in the current study. The virtual fit process closely followed the physical procedures described in the ISO standards. The results showed that the current ISO rear-facing envelopes can provide reasonable classifications for CRSs and vehicles, but the forward-facing envelopes do not represent products currently in the U.S. market. In particular, all of the selected vehicles could accommodate the largest forward-facing CRS envelope at the second-row seat location behind the driver seat. In contrast, half of the selected CRSs could not fit within any of the forward-facing ISO CRS envelopes, mainly due to protrusion at the rear-top corner of the envelope. The results also indicate that the rear seat compartment in U.S. vehicles often cannot accommodate a large portion of convertible CRSs in the rear-facing position. The increased demand for vehicle fuel economy and the recommendation to keep children rear-facing longer may lead to smaller cars and larger CRSs, which may increase the potential for fit problems. The virtual classifications indicated that contact between the forward-facing CRSs and the head restraints in the rear seats as well as that between the rear-facing CRSs and the back of the front seats is a main concern regarding the compatibility between the vehicles and the

  10. Wireless sensor platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  11. Exploring precrash maneuvers using classification trees and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Rami; Yan, Xuedong; Radwan, Essam; Su, Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    Taking evasive actions vis-à-vis critical traffic situations impending to motor vehicle crashes endows drivers an opportunity to avoid the crash occurrence or at least diminish its severity. This study explores the drivers, vehicles, and environments' characteristics associated with crash avoidance maneuvers (i.e., evasive actions or no evasive actions). Rear-end collisions, head-on collisions, and angle collisions are analyzed separately using decision trees and the significance of the variables on the binary response variable (evasive actions or no evasive actions) is determined. Moreover, the random forests method is employed to rank the importance of the drivers/vehicles/environments characteristics on crash avoidance maneuvers. According to the exploratory analyses' results, drivers' visibility obstruction, drivers' physical impairment, drivers' distraction are associated with crash avoidance maneuvers in all three types of accidents. Moreover, speed limit is associated with rear-end collisions' avoidance maneuvers and vehicle type is correlated with head-on collisions and angle collisions' avoidance maneuvers. It is recommended that future research investigates further the explored trends (e.g., physically impaired drivers, visibility obstruction) using driving simulators which may help in legislative initiatives and in-vehicle technology recommendations.

  12. Agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running exercise effectively prevent anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and memory impairment in restraint stressed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Lapmanee

    Full Text Available Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT, forced swimming test (FST, and Morris water maze (MWM. Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.

  13. Allopregnanolone's attenuation of the lordosis-inhibiting effects of restraint is blocked by the antiprogestin, CDB-4124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy

    2014-07-01

    A brief restraint experience reduces lordosis behavior in ovariectomized females that have been hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate. The addition of progesterone to the priming prevents the lordosis inhibition. Based on prior studies with an inhibitor of progesterone metabolism, we have implicated the intracellular progesterone receptor, rather than progesterone metabolites, as responsible for this protection. However, the progesterone metabolite, allopregnanolone (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one), also prevents lordosis inhibition after restraint. In a prior study, we reported that the progestin receptor antagonist, RU486 (11β-(4-dimethylamino)phenyl-17β-hydroxy-17-(1-propynyl)estra-4,9-dien-3-one), attenuated the effect of allopregnanolone. Because RU486 can also block the glucocorticoid receptor, in the current studies, we evaluated the effect of the progestin receptor antagonist, CDB-4124 (17α-acetoxy-21-methoxy-11β-[4-N,N-dimethyaminopheny]-19-norpregna-4,9-dione-3,20-dione), which is relatively devoid of antiglucocorticoid activity. Ovariectomized, Fischer rats were injected with 10 μg estradiol benzoate. Two days later, rats received either 60 mg/kg CDB-4124 or 20% DMSO/propylene glycol vehicle 1 h before injection with 4 mg/kg allopregnanolone. After a pretest to confirm sexual receptivity, rats were restrained for 5min and immediately tested for sexual behavior. Lordosis behavior was reduced by the restraint and attenuated by allopregnanolone. Pretreatment with CDB-4124 reduced allopregnanolone's effect. These findings support prior suggestions that allopreganolone reduces the response to restraint by mechanisms that require activation of the intracellular progesterone receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ALLOPREGNANOLONE’S ATTENUATION OF THE LORDOSIS-INHIBITNG EFFECTS OF RESTRAINT IS BLOCKED BY THE ANTIPROGESTIN, CDB-4124

    OpenAIRE

    Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    A brief restraint experience reduces lordosis behavior in ovariectomized females that have been hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate. The addition of progesterone to the priming prevents the lordosis inhibition. Based on prior studies with an inhibitor of progesterone metabolism, we have implicated the intracellular progesterone receptor, rather than progesterone metabolites, as responsible for this protection. However, the progesterone metabolite, allopregnanolone (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan...

  15. ALLOPREGNANOLONE’S ATTENUATION OF THE LORDOSIS-INHIBITNG EFFECTS OF RESTRAINT IS BLOCKED BY THE ANTIPROGESTIN, CDB-4124

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    A brief restraint experience reduces lordosis behavior in ovariectomized females that have been hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate. The addition of progesterone to the priming prevents the lordosis inhibition. Based on prior studies with an inhibitor of progesterone metabolism, we have implicated the intracellular progesterone receptor, rather than progesterone metabolites, as responsible for this protection. However, the progesterone metabolite, allopregnanolone (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one), also prevents lordosis inhibition after restraint. In a prior study, we reported that the progestin receptor antagonist, RU486 (11β-(4-dimethylamino)phenyl-17β-hydroxy-17-(1-propynyl)estra-4,9-dien-3-one), attenuated the effect of allopregnanolone. Because RU486 can also block the glucocorticoid receptor, in the current studies, we evaluated the effect of the progestin receptor antagonist, CDB-4124 (17 α-acetoxy-21-methoxy-11β-[4-N,N-dimethyaminopheny]-19-norpregna-4,9-dione-3,20-dione), which is relatively devoid of antiglucocorticoid activity. Ovariectomized, Fischer rats were injected with 10 μg estradiol benzoate. Two days later, rats received either 60 mg/kg CDB-4124 or the 20% DMSO/propylene glycol vehicle 1 hr before injection with 4 mg/kg allopregnanolone. After a pretest to confirm sexual receptivity, rats were restrained for 5 min and immediately tested for sexual behavior. Lordosis behavior was reduced by the restraint and attenuated by allopregnanolone. Pretreatment with CDB-4124 reduced allopregnanolone’s effect. These findings support prior suggestions that allopreganolone reduces the response to restraint by mechanisms that require activation of the intracellular progesterone receptor. PMID:24650591

  16. 49 CFR 571.202a - Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of adjustment within the specified range. S4.1Performance levels. In each vehicle other than a school... rear head restraint must conform to either S4.2 or S4.3 of this section. In each school bus, a head... the ambient temperature between 18 degrees C. and 28 degrees C. S5.1Except as specified in S5.2.3 and...

  17. Nerve growth factor stimulates axon outgrowth through negative regulation of growth cone actomyosin restraint of microtubule advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Stephen G; Ahmed, Mostafa; Chandrasekar, Indra; Wysolmerski, Robert B; Goeckeler, Zoe M; Rioux, Robert M; Whitesides, George M; Bridgman, Paul C

    2016-02-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) promotes growth, differentiation, and survival of sensory neurons in the mammalian nervous system. Little is known about how NGF elicits faster axon outgrowth or how growth cones integrate and transform signal input to motor output. Using cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that myosin II (MII) is required for NGF to stimulate faster axon outgrowth. From experiments inducing loss or gain of function of MII, specific MII isoforms, and vinculin-dependent adhesion-cytoskeletal coupling, we determined that NGF causes decreased vinculin-dependent actomyosin restraint of microtubule advance. Inhibition of MII blocked NGF stimulation, indicating the central role of restraint in directed outgrowth. The restraint consists of myosin IIB- and IIA-dependent processes: retrograde actin network flow and transverse actin bundling, respectively. The processes differentially contribute on laminin-1 and fibronectin due to selective actin tethering to adhesions. On laminin-1, NGF induced greater vinculin-dependent adhesion-cytoskeletal coupling, which slowed retrograde actin network flow (i.e., it regulated the molecular clutch). On fibronectin, NGF caused inactivation of myosin IIA, which negatively regulated actin bundling. On both substrates, the result was the same: NGF-induced weakening of MII-dependent restraint led to dynamic microtubules entering the actin-rich periphery more frequently, giving rise to faster elongation. © 2016 Turney et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Role of TLR4 in the Modulation of Central Amygdala GABA Transmission by CRF Following Restraint Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varodayan, F P; Khom, S; Patel, R R; Steinman, M Q; Hedges, D M; Oleata, C S; Homanics, G E; Roberto, M; Bajo, M

    2018-01-04

    Stress induces neuroimmune responses via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Here, we investigated the role of TLR4 in the effects of the stress peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on GABAergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) following restraint stress. Tlr4 knock out (KO) and wild-type rats were exposed to no stress (naïve), a single restraint stress (1 h) or repeated restraint stress (1 h per day for 3 consecutive days). After 1 h recovery from the final stress session, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to investigate the effects of CRF (200 nM) on CeA GABAA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). TLR4 does not regulate baseline GABAergic transmission in the CeA of naive and stress-treated animals. However, CRF significantly increased the mean sIPSC frequencies (indicating enhanced GABA release) across all genotypes and stress treatments, except for the Tlr4 KO rats that experienced repeated restraint stress. Overall, our results suggest a limited role for TLR4 in CRF's modulation of CeA GABAergic synapses in naïve and single stress rats, though TLR4-deficient rats that experienced repeated psychological stress exhibit a blunted CRF cellular response. TLR4 has a limited role in CRF's activation of the CeA under basal conditions, but interacts with the CRF system to regulate GABAergic synapse function in animals that experience repeated psychological stress. © The Author(s) 2018. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormonal and molecular effects of restraint stress on formalin-induced pain-like behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Caela C; Sadler, Katelyn E; Kolber, Benedict J

    2016-10-15

    The evolutionary advantages to the suppression of pain during a stressful event (stress-induced analgesia (SIA)) are obvious, yet the reasoning behind sex-differences in the expression of this pain reduction are not. The different ways in which males and females integrate physiological stress responses and descending pain inhibition are unclear. A potential supraspinal modulator of stress-induced analgesia is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). This limbic brain region is involved in both the processing of stress and pain; the CeA is anatomically and molecularly linked to regions of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and descending pain network. The CeA exhibits sex-based differences in response to stress and pain that may differentially induce SIA in males and females. Here, sex-based differences in behavioral and molecular indices of SIA were examined following noxious stimulation. Acute restraint stress in male and female mice was performed prior to intraplantar injections of formalin, a noxious inflammatory agent. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors were measured for 60min following formalin injection and mechanical hypersensitivity was evaluated 120 and 180min post-injection. Restraint stress altered formalin-induced spontaneous behaviors in male and female mice and formalin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in male mice. To assess molecular indices of SIA, tissue samples from the CeA and blood samples were collected at the 180min time point. Restraint stress prevented formalin-induced increases in extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation in the male CeA, but no changes associated with pERK2 were seen with formalin or restraint in females. Sex differences were also seen in plasma corticosterone concentrations 180min post injection. These results demonstrate sex-based differences in behavioral, molecular, and hormonal indices of acute stress in mice that extend for 180min after stress and noxious stimulation. Copyright

  20. Contribution of social isolation, restraint, and hindlimb unloading to changes in hemodynamic parameters and motion activity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Tsvirkun

    Full Text Available The most accepted animal model for simulation of the physiological and morphological consequences of microgravity on the cardiovascular system is one of head-down hindlimb unloading. Experimental conditions surrounding this model include not only head-down tilting of rats, but also social and restraint stresses that have their own influences on cardiovascular system function. Here, we studied levels of spontaneous locomotor activity, blood pressure, and heart rate during 14 days under the following experimental conditions: cage control, social isolation in standard rat housing, social isolation in special cages for hindlimb unloading, horizontal attachment (restraint, and head-down hindlimb unloading. General activity and hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored in conscious rats by telemetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were both evaluated during treadmill running to reveal cardiovascular deconditioning development as a result of unloading. The main findings of our work are that: social isolation and restraint induced persistent physical inactivity, while unloading in rats resulted in initial inactivity followed by normalization and increased locomotion after one week. Moreover, 14 days of hindlimb unloading showed significant elevation of blood pressure and slight elevation of heart rate. Hemodynamic changes in isolated and restrained rats largely reproduced the trends observed during unloading. Finally, we detected no augmentation of tachycardia during moderate exercise in rats after 14 days of unloading. Thus, we concluded that both social isolation and restraint, as an integral part of the model conditions, contribute essentially to cardiovascular reactions during head-down hindlimb unloading, compared to the little changes in the hydrostatic gradient.

  1. Fecal pellet output does not always correlate with colonic transit in response to restraint stress and corticotropin-releasing factor in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakade, Yukiomi; Mantyh, C.; Pappas, T.N.; Takahashi, Toku

    2007-01-01

    Fecal pellet output has been assessed as a colonic motor activity because of its simplicity. However, it remains unclear whether an acceleration of colonic transit correlates well with an increase in fecal pellet output. We examined the causal relationship between colonic transit and fecal pellet output stimulated by the central application of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and restraint stress. Immediately after intracisternal injection of CRF, 51 Cr was injected via a catheter positioned in the proximal colon. Ninety minutes after 51 Cr injection, the total number of excreted feces was counted, and then the rats were killed. The radioactivity of each colonic segment was evaluated, and the geometric center (GC) of the distribution of 51 Cr was calculated. For the restraint stress study, after administration of 51 Cr into the proximal colon, rats were submitted to wrapping restraint stress for 90 min. Then they were killed, and GC was calculated. Both restraint stress and CRF significantly accelerated colonic transit. There was a positive correlation observed between fecal pellet output and GC of colonic transit in response to restraint stress, but not CRF, when the number of excreted feces was more than three. In contrast, there was no significant correlation observed between the two in stress and CRF when the number of excreted feces was less than two. The acceleration of colonic transit in response to restraint stress and central administration of CRF does not always correlate with an increase in fecal pellet output. (author)

  2. Baseline knowledge on vehicle safety and head restraints among Fleet Managers in British Columbia Canada: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, Ediriweera; Hewapathirane, D Sesath; Peiris, Dinithi; Romilly, Doug; White, Marc

    2011-09-01

    Whiplash is the most common injury type arising from motor vehicle collisions, often leading to long-term suffering and disability. Prevention of such injuries is possible through the use of appropriate, correctly positioned, vehicular head restraints. To survey the awareness and knowledge level of vehicle fleet managers in the province of British Columbia, Canada, on the topics of vehicle safety, whiplash injury, and prevention; and to better understand whether these factors influence vehicle purchase/lease decisions. A survey was administered to municipal vehicle fleet managers at a professional meeting (n = 27). Although many respondents understood the effectiveness of vehicle head restraints in the prevention of whiplash injury, the majority rarely adjusted their own headrests. Fleet managers lacked knowledge about the seriousness of whiplash injuries, their associated costs for Canada's healthcare system, and appropriate head restraint positions to mitigate such injuries. The majority of respondents indicated that fleet vehicle purchase/lease decisions within their organization did not factor whiplash prevention as an explicit safety priority. There is relatively little awareness and enforcement of whiplash prevention strategies among municipal vehicle fleet managers.

  3. European methodology of analysis vertical restraints under rule of reason in context of cooperative relation specific investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agamirova Maria, Е.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of underinvestment in specific assets is a key issue in new institutional economics, especially in case of cooperative relation specific investments. It can be solved due to vertical restraints, as an alternative way of vertical integration to transfer control to partner, who makes relation specific investments. The type of relationspecific investments called «cooperative» investments (or cross investments was nearly absent in economic analysis up to the very end of the twentieth century despite of the fact that such investments are widespread. It led to the absence of analysis relation specific investments in official regulation documents. At the same time, different types of relation specific investments can be characterized by different degree of riskiness and need special regulations of vertical agreements. In the paper author makes an attempt to analyze the European methodology of assessment vertical restraints under rule of reason focusing on the type of relation specific investments. It makes possible to improve analysis of vertical restraint in Russian antitrust.

  4. Induced dyadic stress and food intake: Examination of the moderating roles of body mass index and restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Marilou; Gagnon-Girouard, Marie-Pierre; Provencher, Véronique; Bégin, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Restrained eaters and overweight and obese people are prone to increase their food intake during stressful situations. This study examines the impact of a stressful couple discussion on food intake in both spouses, while simultaneously taking into account the effect of BMI and restraint on this association. For 15min, 80 heterosexual couples discussed an aspect that they wanted their partner to change followed by an individual bogus taste test for the purpose of measuring his or her stress-induced food intake. Prior to and after the discussion, subjective mood state was assessed, as well as appetite perceptions, and the mood change before and after the discussion was calculated. Multiple regression analyses with a three-way interaction between mood change, BMI, and restraint were used to predict food intake for both men and women, while controlling for appetite perceptions. Only restrained women with a high BMI ate more when their mood worsened. For men, only appetite perceptions significantly predicted food intake. These results suggest that an induced negative mood in the form of a stressful couple discussion impacts food intake differently for men and women, and that particular attention should be given to the concomitant effect of both restraint and BMI when studying stress-induced eating among women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intranasal cotinine improves memory, and reduces depressive-like behavior, and GFAP+ cells loss induced by restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Mendoza, Cristhian; Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Echeverria, Florencia; Grizzell, J Alex; Barreto, George E; Iarkov, Alexandre; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress. The results revealed that in addition to the mood and cognitive impairments, restraint stress induced a significant decrease in the number and arborization of GFAP+ cells in the brain of mice. Intranasal cotinine prevented these stress-derived symptoms and the morphological abnormalities GFAP+ cells in both of these brain regions which are critical to resilience to stress. The significance of these findings for the therapy of PTSD and depression is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex and repeated restraint stress interact to affect cat odor-induced defensive behavior in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot-Sinal, Tara S; Gregus, Andrea; Boudreau, Daniel; Kalynchuk, Lisa E

    2004-11-19

    The overall objective of the present experiment was to assess sex differences in the effects of repeated restraint stress on fear-induced defensive behavior and general emotional behavior. Groups of male and female Long-Evans rats received either daily restraint stress (stressed) or daily brief handling (nonstressed) for 21 consecutive days. On days 22-25, a number of behavioral tests were administered concluding with a test of defensive behavior in response to a predatory odor. Stressed and nonstressed males and females were exposed to a piece of cat collar previously worn by a female domestic cat (cat odor) or a piece of collar never worn by a cat (control odor) in a familiar open field containing a hide barrier. Rats displayed pronounced defensive behavior (increased hiding and risk assessment) and decreased nondefensive behavior (grooming, rearing) in response to the cat odor. Nonstressed females exposed to cat odor displayed less risk assessment behavior relative to nonstressed males exposed to cat odor. Restraint stress had little effect on defensive behavior in male rats but significantly increased risk assessment behaviors in females. Behavior on the Porsolt forced swim test (a measure of depression-like behavior) and the open field test (a measure of anxiety-like behavior) was not affected by stress or sex. These findings indicate the utility of the predator odor paradigm in detecting subtle shifts in naturally occurring anxiety-like behaviors that may occur differentially in males and females.

  7. The effect of restraints type on the generated stresses in gantry crane beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowa Leszek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis of the mechanical phenomena in the gantry crane beam, because the cranes are currently one of the most common devices for the transporting loads. Designing modern mechanical structures is a complex task that requires the use of appropriate tools. Such a modern tool is the numerical simulation, which uses different numerical methods. One of the best known methods is the finite element method, also used here. Simulations are limited to analysis of the strength of the gantry crane beam that was the loaded of the force load movement along its length. The numerical analysis was made to the gantry crane beam which cross-section was an I-beam and ends were fixed in different ways. As the result of numerical calculations, the stresses and displacements of the structure of gantry were obtained. The influence of the restraints type and changing the loading force position on generate the Huber-Misses stress in the gantry crane beam was estimated. The aim was to ensure that the maximum equivalent stress generated in the gantry crane beam was less than the strength of material, because then the construction is safe.

  8. TRANSPORTING CHILDREN IN CARS AND THE USE OF CHILD SAFETY RESTRAINT SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcês, Allan Quadros; Coimbra, Igor Bonifacio Andrade; Silva, Diego Salvador Muniz DA

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the transport of children in automobiles and the use of child restraints systems (CRS). This is a transversal descriptive study which included 200 vehicle drivers who carried 0-10 year old children in the city of São Luis, MA, Brazil. The drivers' passengers' and children's features were properly identified. The children's transportation using CRS were analyzed according to the Resolution 277/8 of the Brazilian National Traffic Department. The transportation of children was classified as inappropriate in 70.5% of the vehicles analyzed. The most common way for children transportation was free on the back seats (47%) or on the lap of passengers/drivers (17%). The main reasons to justify the improper transportation were either not understanding the importance of CRS use (64.5%) or not having financial resources to buy the devices. The child safety seat was the most used CRS (50.8 %) among vehicles with proper child transportation system. The transportation of children was inappropriate in most of the vehicles analyzed, reflecting the need for creating awareness among automobile drivers, including education, supervision and improvement of policies for health improvement and prevention of accidents involving children transportation. Level of Evidence III, Cross Sectional Study.

  9. Sex-dependent effects of restraint on nociception and pituitary-adrenal hormones in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, A M; Steenbergen, H L; van de Poll, N E; Farabollini, F

    1994-05-01

    The sex-dependent effects of acute restraint (RT) on nociceptive and pituitary-adrenal responses were investigated in the rat. In a first experiment, the effect of 30 min RT on pain sensitivity was evaluated through repeated use of the tail withdrawal test during and after treatment. RT induced an increase in the nociceptive threshold, i.e., analgesia, in males and females, but the duration and time-course of this effect varied between sexes. The latencies returned to approximately control values in females in the second half of RT, but in males they remained higher for the whole period of RT and immediately afterwards. Twenty-four hours later, males displayed longer latencies than controls in response to simple reexposure to the environment. In a second experiment, ACTH and corticosterone plasma levels were measured immediately after 15 or 30 min of RT. ACTH and corticosterone were higher in restrained animals than in controls after both periods of treatment, and in both sexes; however, females showed higher basal and stress corticosterone levels than males. The role played by corticosteroids in the nociceptive responses of the two sexes is discussed.

  10. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  11. Protein backbone angle restraints from searching a database for chemical shift and sequence homology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornilescu, Gabriel; Delaglio, Frank; Bax, Ad [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    1999-03-15

    Chemical shifts of backbone atoms in proteins are exquisitely sensitive to local conformation, and homologous proteins show quite similar patterns of secondary chemical shifts. The inverse of this relation is used to search a database for triplets of adjacent residues with secondary chemical shifts and sequence similarity which provide the best match to the query triplet of interest. The database contains 13C{alpha}, 13C{beta}, 13C', 1H{alpha} and 15N chemical shifts for 20 proteins for which a high resolution X-ray structure is available. The computer program TALOS was developed to search this database for strings of residues with chemical shift and residue type homology. The relative importance of the weighting factors attached to the secondary chemical shifts of the five types of resonances relative to that of sequence similarity was optimized empirically. TALOS yields the 10 triplets which have the closest similarity in secondary chemical shift and amino acid sequence to those of the query sequence. If the central residues in these 10 triplets exhibit similar {phi} and {psi} backbone angles, their averages can reliably be used as angular restraints for the protein whose structure is being studied. Tests carried out for proteins of known structure indicate that the root-mean-square difference (rmsd) between the output of TALOS and the X-ray derived backbone angles is about 15 deg. Approximately 3% of the predictions made by TALOS are found to be in error.

  12. Restraint of fatigue crack growth by wedge effects of fine particles

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, I; Kotani, N

    2000-01-01

    Presents some experimental results which demonstrate restraint of fatigue crack growth in an Al-Mg alloy by wedge effects of fine particles. Fatigue test specimens were machined from a JIS A5083P-O Al-Mg alloy plate of 5 mm thickness and an EDM starter notch was introduced to each specimen. Three kinds of fine particles were prepared as the materials to be wedged into the fatigue cracks, i.e. magnetic particles and two kinds of alumina particles having different mean particle sizes of 47.3 mu m and 15.2 mu m. Particles of each kind were suspended in an oil to form a paste, which was applied on the specimen surface covering the notch zone prior to the fatigue tests. In order to make some fracture mechanics approaches, in situ observations of fatigue cracks were performed for the two cases using a CCD microscope, with a magnification of *1000. The crack length and the crack opening displacement (COD) at the notch root, delta , were measured. The crack retardation effect continues almost through the entire lifet...

  13. Inspection device for fuel rod restraint by support lattice of fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Isao; Senga, Masatoshi; Kada, Mitoshi.

    1991-01-01

    An inspection operation section for disposing fuel assembly vertically at predetermined positions, a control section wired therewith, a moving operation section movable in the direction of X, Y and Z axes by a driving signal sent from the control section are disposed to an inspection section main body. A downward bore scope and a upward bore scope, each of such a size as can be inserted to the gaps between the fuel rods, are disposed while opposing to each other for observing the inside of each of cells from above and below in support lattices of fuel assemblies. High performance television cameras are disposed to each of bore scopes to supply images to monitoring televisions in the control section. Thus, a displacing operation section of the inspection operation section is automatically controlled three-dimensionally, the downward bore scope and the upward bore scope are integrally intruded to the inside of the gaps between the predetermined fuel rods from a required height and stopped at a predetermined position, mounted automatically to a required cell of the support lattice to efficiently observe and inspect the fuel rod restraint. (N.H.)

  14. Curvature Effects on the Vibration Characteristics of Doubly Curved Shallow Shells with General Elastic Edge Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of curvature upon the vibration characteristics of doubly curved shallow shells are assessed in this paper. Boundary conditions of the shell are generally specified in terms of distributed elastic restraints along the edges. The classical homogeneous boundary supports can be easily simulated by setting the stiffnesses of restraining springs to either zero or infinite. Vibration problems of the shell are solved by a modified Fourier series method that each of the displacements is invariably expressed as a simple trigonometric series which converges uniformly and acceleratedly over the solution domain. All the unknown expansion coefficients are treated equally as a set of independent generalized coordinates and solved using the Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The current method provides a unified solution to the vibration problems of curved shallow shells involving different geometric properties and boundary conditions with no need of modifying the formulations and solution procedures. Extensive tabular and graphical results are presented to show the curvature effects on the natural frequencies of the shell with various boundary conditions.

  15. Induction of food craving experience: the role of mental imagery, dietary restraint, mood and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Lobera, I; Bolaños-Ríos, P; Valero, E; Ruiz Prieto, I

    2012-01-01

    Food craving consists of a strong motivational state whereby a person is driven to seek and ingest a specifically desired food. To explore the influence of mental imagery on the food craving experience as well as to analyse the role of different psychological variables. Participants consisted of 65 normal weight undergraduate students. An experimental induction of food craving was analysed considering the actual previous craving and the induced one as a state food craving. Measures of trait food craving, imaging ability, dietary restraint, anxiety, depression, and coping strategies were considered. Sweet foods in general and chocolate in particular were the most craved foods. During the induction thoughts and images were the most highly rated triggers, and all the different sensory modalities were involved. Anxiety, depression, and negative coping strategies influenced the results with regards to the food craving. This study confirms the role of mental imagery, the correlation between state and trait food craving, and the influence of different psychological variables on the food craving.

  16. The effect of mechanical restraint on the deformation of Zircaloy cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.; Haste, T.J.

    1980-10-01

    Zircaloy cladding, deformed at temperatures postulated for loss-of-coolant accidents, can exhibit considerable ductility. The actual circumferential strain is governed by the temperature uniformity around the rod during the time at which the major part of the deformation occurs. If the bulges in neighbouring rods in a multi-rod array touch before rupture, and the array is large enough for the outer rods to restrain bulges rather than be pushed away by them, then the stress in such bulges drops. However the stress in adjacent axial regions of the cladding which have not contacted remains high and these continue to strain until they also interact, thus propagating the bulging axially. Meanwhile the non-contacted portions of the interacting bulges continue to strain slowly into the remaining sub-channels. Illustrative calculations suggest that the mechanical restraint of bulging cladding will only be effective in increasing sub-channel blockage when the failure strains are greater than 60-70%. This may occur with temperature differences between neighbouring rods of 10-25 0 C if the deformation process is thermally stabilised. (author)

  17. Structural simplicity as a restraint on the structure of amorphous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, Matthew J.; Bartók, Albert P.; Kerber, Rachel N.; Grey, Clare P.; Csányi, Gábor; Goodwin, Andrew L.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the structural origins of the properties of amorphous materials remains one of the most important challenges in structural science. In this study, we demonstrate that local "structural simplicity", embodied by the degree to which atomic environments within a material are similar to each other, is a powerful concept for rationalizing the structure of amorphous silicon (a -Si) a canonical amorphous material. We show, by restraining a reverse Monte Carlo refinement against pair distribution function (PDF) data to be simpler, that the simplest model consistent with the PDF is a continuous random network (CRN). A further effect of producing a simple model of a -Si is the generation of a (pseudo)gap in the electronic density of states, suggesting that structural homogeneity drives electronic homogeneity. That this method produces models of a -Si that approach the state-of-the-art without the need for chemically specific restraints (beyond the assumption of homogeneity) suggests that simplicity-based refinement approaches may allow experiment-driven structural modeling techniques to be developed for the wide variety of amorphous semiconductors with strong local order.

  18. Systematic review of restraint interventions for challenging behaviour among persons with intellectual disabilities: focus on experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Saenen, Lore; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. Heyvaert et al. focused on the effectiveness of restraint interventions (RIs) for reducing challenging behaviour among persons with intellectual disabilities) in the first article. In this second article, Heyvaert et al. focus on experiences with RIs for challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities. A mixed methods research synthesis involving statistical meta-analysis and qualitative meta-synthesis techniques was applied to synthesize 76 retrieved articles. This second article reports on the qualitative meta-synthesis of 17 articles on experiences with RIs for challenging behaviour among people with intellectual disabilities. The 17 included articles report on important variables relating to the persons receiving RIs, to the persons giving RIs and to their interactions and relationship, as well as variables situated at the meso- and macro-level. The developed model can assist in reflecting on and improving of current RI practices among people with intellectual disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain JB-1 reverses restraint stress-induced gut dysmotility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C; Wu, R Y; Wong, A; Stanisz, A M; Yan, R; Min, K K; Pasyk, M; McVey Neufeld, K-A; Karamat, M I; Foster, J A; Bienenstock, J; Forsythe, P; Kunze, W A

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stress affects the gut with dysmotility being a common consequence. Although a variety of microbes or molecules may prevent the dysmotility, none reverse the dysmotility. We have used a 1 hour restraint stress mouse model to test for treatment effects of the neuroactive microbe, L. rhamnosus JB-1 ™ . Motility of fluid-filled ex vivo gut segments in a perfusion organ bath was recorded by video and migrating motor complexes measured using spatiotemporal maps of diameter changes. Stress reduced jejunal and increased colonic propagating contractile cluster velocities and frequencies, while increasing contraction amplitudes for both. Luminal application of 10E8 cfu/mL JB-1 restored motor complex variables to unstressed levels within minutes of application. L. salivarius or Na.acetate had no treatment effects, while Na.butyrate partially reversed stress effects on colonic frequency and amplitude. Na.propionate reversed the stress effects for jejunum and colon except on jejunal amplitude. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a potential for certain beneficial microbes as treatment of stress-induced intestinal dysmotility and that the mechanism for restoration of function occurs within the intestine via a rapid drug-like action on the enteric nervous system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Caregivers’ Use of Child Passenger Safety Resources and Quality of Future Child Restraint System Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H. Mirman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Child Restraint System (CRS misuse is common. We characterized caregivers’ use of child passenger safety informational and instructional resources and determined whether there were differences in the quality of CRS installations associated with prior exposure to specific resources as evaluated in a standardized CRS installation environment. Methods: Caregivers completed self-report surveys and installed a forward-facing CRS in a controlled environment. Installations were evaluated for security (tightness and accuracy (no errors by a child passenger safety technician (CPST. Results: CRS manuals were the most common way caregivers learned to install a CRS. Primary care providers (PCPs were the most frequently endorsed source of CRS safety information. There was no strong pattern of associations between prior exposure to resources and installation quality (security or accuracy, although some evidence supports protective effects of learning from CPSTs; 13% (19 out of 151 installations were secure and 57% (86 out of 151 installations were accurate. Conclusions: A focus on developing effective and lasting behavioral interventions is needed.

  1. A modular optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John Albert

    This dissertation presents the design of a modular, fiber-optic sensor and the results obtained from testing the modular sensor. The modular fiber-optic sensor is constructed in such manner that the sensor diaphragm can be replaced with different configurations to detect numerous physical phenomena. Additionally, different fiber-optic detection systems can be attached to the sensor. Initially, the modular sensor was developed to be used by university of students to investigate realistic optical sensors and detection systems to prepare for advance studies of micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS). The design accomplishes this by doing two things. First, the design significantly lowers the costs associated with studying optical sensors by modularizing the sensor design. Second, the sensor broadens the number of physical phenomena that students can apply optical sensing techniques to in a fiber optics sensor course. The dissertation is divided into seven chapters covering the historical development of fiber-optic sensors, a theoretical overview of fiber-optic sensors, the design, fabrication, and the testing of the modular sensor developed in the course of this work. Chapter 1 discusses, in detail, how this dissertation is organized and states the purpose of the dissertation. Chapter 2 presents an historical overview of the development of optical fibers, optical pressure sensors, and fibers, optical pressure sensors, and optical microphones. Chapter 3 reviews the theory of multi-fiber optic detection systems, optical microphones, and pressure sensors. Chapter 4 presents the design details of the modular, optical sensor. Chapter 5 delves into how the modular sensor is fabricated and how the detection systems are constructed. Chapter 6 presents the data collected from the microphone and pressure sensor configurations of the modular sensor. Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the data collected and draws conclusions about the design based on the data collected. Chapter 7 also

  2. Effectiveness of somatodendritic and/or postsynaptic 5-ht-1A receptors following exposure to single restraint stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, N.; Haleem, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of a selected dose of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-0H-DPAT) were studied on somatodendritic and/or postsynaptic S-hydroxytryptamine (S-HT; serotonin)-) A receptors responsiveness following exposure to single restraint stress. Rats were restrained for 2.h. 24-h after the termination of restraint period, 8-OH-DPAT at the doses of 0.25 mg/kg and saline (1 ml/kg), was injected to unrestrained and restrained animals. Activity in a light dark box was monitored. Intensity of 8-0H-DPAT-induced serotonin syndrome was monitored for 5-30 min post injection. Rats were decapitated I-h post-injection to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). An episode of 2-h restraint stress decreased 24-h cumulative food intakes and changes in growth rates. Administration of 8-0H-DPAT increased time spent in light compartment in both unrestrained and restrained animals. Time spent in light compartment was smaller in 8-0H-DPAT injected restrained than unrestrained animals. Intensity of 8-0H-DPAT-induced serotonin syndrome monitored next day was smaller in restrained than unrestrained animals. Restrained animals injected with saline exhibited an increase in S-HT and S hydroxyindolacetic acid (S-HIAA) levels in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain and cortex but not in the striatum. 8-OH-DPAT decreased 5-HT and S-HIAA levels in different brain regions of unrestrained and restrained animals. The decreases were greater in restrained than unrestrained animals, suggesting a supersensitivity of somatodendritic S-HT -I A receptors. Stimulation of somatodendritic S-HT -I A receptor following exposure to an episode of 2-h restraint stress decreased the functional activity of postsynaptic S-HT -I A dependent responses. 8-OH-DP A T decreased S-HT and S-HIAA levels more in restrained than unrestrained animals, suggesting an increase in the effectiveness of somatodendritc 5-HT-IAA receptor

  3. Feasibility Study on Fiber-optic Radiation Sensor for Remote Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Hyesu; Jang, Kyoung Won; Shin, Sang Hun and others

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor using an optical fiber and various scintillators. To select an adequate inorganic scintillator for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor, 5 types of scintillators were evaluated. The spectra of gamma-rays emitted from a Na-22 radiation source were measured by using the manufactured sensors. As a result, the BGO was suitable for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor due to its high scintillation output and exact photoelectric peak for the gamma-ray energy. The basic principle of radiation detection is to detect the signals caused by interactions between radiations and materials. There are various types of radiation detectors depending on types of radiation to be detected and physical quantities to be measured. As one of the radiation detectors, a fiber-optic radiation sensor using a scintillator and an optical fiber has two advantages such as no space restraint and remote sensing. Moreover, in nuclear environments, this kind of sensor has immunities for electromagnetic field, temperature, and pressure. Thus, the fiber-optic radiation sensor can be used in various fields including nondestructive inspection, radioactive waste management, nuclear safety, radiodiagnosis and radiation therapy. As a fundamental study of the fiber-optic radiation sensor for remote gamma-ray spectroscopy, in this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor using an optical fiber and various scintillators. To select an adequate inorganic scintillator for the sensing probe of fiber-optic radiation sensor, 5 types of scintillators were evaluated. The spectra of gamma-rays emitted from a Na-22 radiation source were measured by using the manufactured sensors

  4. Integrated cryogenic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanarena, D.B.; Rao, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated cryogenic pressure-temperature, level-temperature, and flow-temperature sensors have several advantages over the conventional single parameter sensors. Such integrated sensors were not available until recently. Pressure Systems, Inc. (PSI) of Hampton, Virginia, has introduced precalibrated precision cryogenic pressure sensors at the Los Angeles Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1989. Recently, PSI has successfully completed the development of integrated pressure-temperature and level-temperature sensors for use in the temperature range 1.5-375K. In this paper, performance characteristics of these integrated sensors are presented. Further, the effects of irradiation and magnetic fields on these integrated sensors are also reviewed

  5. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    produced at relatively low cost. Therefore, they find wide use in lots of applications. However, the method requires a material that possesses some conflicting properties: stable and reproducible relations between air humidity, moisture uptake and a specific property (for instance the length of a hair, the electrical impedance of the material), fast absorption and desorption of the water vapour (to obtain a short response time), small hysteresis, wide range of relative humidity (RH) and temperature-independent output (only responsive to RH). For these reasons, much research is done and is still going on to find suitable materials that combine high performance and low price. In this special feature, three of the four papers report on absorption sensors, all with different focus. Aziz et al describe experiments with newly developed materials. The surface structure is extensively studied, in view of its ability to rapidly absorb water vapour and exhibit a reproducible change in the resistance and capacitance of the device. Sanchez et al employ optical fibres coated with a thin moisture-absorbing layer as a sensitive humidity sensor. They have studied various coating materials and investigated the possibility of using changes in optical properties of the fibre (here the lossy mode resonance) due to a change in humidity of the surrounding air. The third paper, by Weremczuk et al, focuses on a cheap fabrication method for absorption-based humidity sensors. The inkjet technology appears to be suitable for mass fabrication of such sensors, which is demonstrated by extensive measurements of the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of the absorbing layers. Moreover, they have developed a model that describes the relation between humidity and the electrical parameters of the moisture-sensitive layer. Despite intensive research, absorption sensors still do not meet the requirements for high accuracy applications. The dew-point temperature method is more appropriate

  6. BioMagResBank databases DOCR and FRED containing converted and filtered sets of experimental NMR restraints and coordinates from over 500 protein PDB structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doreleijers, Jurgen F. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, BioMagResBank, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Nederveen, Aart J. [Utrecht University, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Vranken, Wim [European Bioinformatics Institute, Macromolecular Structure Database group (United Kingdom); Lin Jundong [University of Wisconsin-Madison, BioMagResBank, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Kaptein, Robert [Utrecht University, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Markley, John L.; Ulrich, Eldon L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, BioMagResBank, Department of Biochemistry (United States)], E-mail: elu@bmrb.wisc.edu

    2005-05-15

    We present two new databases of NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints: the Database Of Converted Restraints (DOCR) and the Filtered Restraints Database (FRED). These databases currently correspond to 545 proteins with NMR structures deposited in the Protein Databank (PDB). The criteria for inclusion were that these should be unique, monomeric proteins with author-provided experimental NMR data and coordinates available from the PDB capable of being parsed and prepared in a consistent manner. The Wattos program was used to parse the files, and the CcpNmr FormatConverter program was used to prepare them semi-automatically. New modules, including a new implementation of Aqua in the BioMagResBank (BMRB) software Wattos were used to analyze the sets of distance restraints (DRs) for inconsistencies, redundancies, NOE completeness, classification and violations with respect to the original coordinates. Restraints that could not be associated with a known nomenclature were flagged. The coordinates of hydrogen atoms were recalculated from the positions of heavy atoms to allow for a full restraint analysis. The DOCR database contains restraint and coordinate data that is made consistent with each other and with IUPAC conventions. The FRED database is based on the DOCR data but is filtered for use by test calculation protocols and longitudinal analyses and validations. These two databases are available from websites of the BMRB and the Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) in various formats: NMR-STAR, CCPN XML, and in formats suitable for direct use in the software packages CNS and CYANA.

  7. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-04

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. BioMagResBank databases DOCR and FRED containing converted and filtered sets of experimental NMR restraints and coordinates from over 500 protein PDB structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doreleijers, Jurgen F.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Vranken, Wim; Lin Jundong; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Kaptein, Robert; Markley, John L.; Ulrich, Eldon L.

    2005-01-01

    We present two new databases of NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints: the Database Of Converted Restraints (DOCR) and the Filtered Restraints Database (FRED). These databases currently correspond to 545 proteins with NMR structures deposited in the Protein Databank (PDB). The criteria for inclusion were that these should be unique, monomeric proteins with author-provided experimental NMR data and coordinates available from the PDB capable of being parsed and prepared in a consistent manner. The Wattos program was used to parse the files, and the CcpNmr FormatConverter program was used to prepare them semi-automatically. New modules, including a new implementation of Aqua in the BioMagResBank (BMRB) software Wattos were used to analyze the sets of distance restraints (DRs) for inconsistencies, redundancies, NOE completeness, classification and violations with respect to the original coordinates. Restraints that could not be associated with a known nomenclature were flagged. The coordinates of hydrogen atoms were recalculated from the positions of heavy atoms to allow for a full restraint analysis. The DOCR database contains restraint and coordinate data that is made consistent with each other and with IUPAC conventions. The FRED database is based on the DOCR data but is filtered for use by test calculation protocols and longitudinal analyses and validations. These two databases are available from websites of the BMRB and the Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) in various formats: NMR-STAR, CCPN XML, and in formats suitable for direct use in the software packages CNS and CYANA

  9. SASSIE: A program to study intrinsically disordered biological molecules and macromolecular ensembles using experimental scattering restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Joseph E.; Raghunandan, Sindhu; Nanda, Hirsh; Krueger, Susan

    2012-02-01

    A program to construct ensembles of biomolecular structures that are consistent with experimental scattering data are described. Specifically, we generate an ensemble of biomolecular structures by varying sets of backbone dihedral angles that are then filtered using experimentally determined restraints to rapidly determine structures that have scattering profiles that are consistent with scattering data. We discuss an application of these tools to predict a set of structures for the HIV-1 Gag protein, an intrinsically disordered protein, that are consistent with small-angle neutron scattering experimental data. We have assembled these algorithms into a program called SASSIE for structure generation, visualization, and analysis of intrinsically disordered proteins and other macromolecular ensembles using neutron and X-ray scattering restraints. Program summaryProgram title: SASSIE Catalogue identifier: AEKL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 991 624 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 826 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python, C/C++, Fortran Computer: PC/Mac Operating system: 32- and 64-bit Linux (Ubuntu 10.04, Centos 5.6) and Mac OS X (10.6.6) RAM: 1 GB Classification: 3 External routines: Python 2.6.5, numpy 1.4.0, swig 1.3.40, scipy 0.8.0, Gnuplot-py-1.8, Tcl 8.5, Tk 8.5, Mac installation requires aquaterm 1.0 (or X window system) and Xcode 3 development tools. Nature of problem: Open source software to generate structures of disordered biological molecules that subsequently allow for the comparison of computational and experimental results is limiting the use of scattering resources. Solution method: Starting with an all atom model of a protein, for example, users can input

  10. Opportunities, threats and barriers to enacting mandatory child car restraint laws in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, Hamid; Ainy, Elaheh; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of Iranian children's deaths are caused by injuries. Of these, 36% result from road traffic injuries (RTIs). Both RTIs and fatalities could be reduced by using child car restraints (CCRs). Despite their demonstrated effectiveness, CCRs are not mandatory in Iran. This study was conducted to assess opportunities and barriers in enacting mandatory CCR laws in that country. Using mixed method research, a phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences and perspectives of road safety stakeholders in regard to opportunities and threats in enacting mandatory CCR laws in Iran. The themes derived from group discussions were used to first develop a structured questionnaire, which was later distributed to and completed by study participants. The study analysis was conducted using scores and rankings from the responses to these questions. Twenty-eight stakeholders participated in the study. Most were male, aged 36.7 ± 5.6 (range 25-59). In terms of identifying the organization that should establish mandatory CCR laws, the Traffic Police Department achieved the highest score of 90 (range 0-100). The participants also thought that the Traffic Police department is responsible to monitor compliance and conduct follow-up investigations (score = 100). In regard to existing barriers in enacting CCR laws, the lack of positive Publicity by mass media and the lack of related laws received scores of 85 and 70, respectively. Enabling factors and opportunities included 'positive regards or attitude of families towards their child's health,' 'officials' commitment to support such laws' and 'having adequate resources to raise community awareness of the importance of CCR use. These received scores of 83, 69 and 68, respectively. The results suggest that cooperation and collaboration among stakeholders including the Traffic Police, families and local communities are needed to maximize the likelihood of mandating CCR laws.

  11. Use of child restraint system and patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanea, Mohammd; Masuadi, Emad; Hazwani, Tarek

    2018-01-01

    Child restraint system (CRS) is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC). However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS. Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%), with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%). Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%). Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use. The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.

  12. Repeated restraint stress exposure during early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cue-induced cocaine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Ryan M; Rosenkranz, J Amiel; Wolf, Marina E; Caccamise, Aaron; Shroff, Freya; Smith, Alyssa B; Loweth, Jessica A

    2018-01-01

    A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1. Rats were then subjected to repeated restraint stress or control conditions (seven sessions held between WD6 and WD14). All rats were tested again for cue-induced cocaine seeking on WD15, 1 day after the last stress or control session. Although controls showed a time-dependent increase in cue-induced cocaine seeking (incubation), rats exposed to repeated stress in early withdrawal exhibited a more robust increase in seeking behavior between WD1 and WD15. In separate stressed and control rats, equivalent cocaine seeking was observed on WD48. These results indicate that repeated stress in early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cocaine craving, although craving plateaus at the same level were observed in controls. However, 1 month after the WD48 test, rats subjected to repeated stress in early withdrawal showed enhanced cue-induced cocaine seeking following acute (24 hours) food deprivation stress. Together, these data indicate that chronic stress exposure enhances the initial rate of incubation of craving during early withdrawal, resulting in increased vulnerability to cue-induced relapse during this period, and may lead to a persistent increase in vulnerability to the relapse-promoting effects of stress. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Use of child restraint system and patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammd Alsanea

    Full Text Available Child restraint system (CRS is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC. However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS.Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%, with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%. Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%. Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use.The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.

  14. Effect of muscle restraint on sheep meat tenderness with rigor mortis at 18°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Wells, Robyn W

    2002-02-01

    The effect on shear force of skeletal restraint and removing muscles from lamb m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) immediately after slaughter and electrical stimulation was undertaken at a rigor temperature of 18°C (n=15). The temperature of 18°C was achieved through chilling of electrically stimulated sheep carcasses in air at 12°C, air flow 1-1.5 ms(-2). In other groups, the muscle was removed at 2.5 h post-mortem and either wrapped or left non-wrapped before being placed back on the carcass to follow carcass cooling regimes. Following rigor mortis, the meat was aged for 0, 16, 40 and 65 h at 15°C and frozen. For the non-stimulated samples, the meat was aged for 0, 12, 36 and 60 h before being frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1 × 1 cm cross-section. Commencement of ageing was considered to take place at rigor mortis and this was taken as zero aged meat. There were no significant differences in the rate of tenderisation and initial shear force for all treatments. The 23% cook loss was similar for all wrapped and non-wrapped situations and the values decreased slightly with longer ageing durations. Wrapping was shown to mimic meat left intact on the carcass, as it prevented significant prerigor shortening. Such techniques allows muscles to be removed and placed in a controlled temperature environment to enable precise studies of ageing processes.

  15. Hunger and disinhibition but not cognitive restraint are associated with central norepinephrine transporter availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresch, A; Rullmann, M; Luthardt, J; Becker, G A; Patt, M; Ding, Y-S; Hilbert, A; Sabri, O; Hesse, S

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between food-intake related behaviours measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and in vivo norepinephrine transporter (NET) availability has not been explored yet. We investigated ten obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 42.4 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) and ten normal-weight healthy controls (HC, BMI 23.9 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ) with (S,S)-[ 11 C]-O-methylreboxetine ([ 11 C]MRB) positron emission tomography (PET). All participants completed the TFEQ, which measures cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Image analysis required magnetic resonance imaging data sets onto which volumes-of-interests were drawn. Tissue time activity curves (TACs) were obtained from the dynamic PET data followed by kinetic modeling of these regional brain TACs applying the multilinear reference tissue model (2 parameters) with the occipital cortex as reference region. Obese individuals scored significantly higher on the hunger subscale of the TFEQ. Correlative data analysis showed that a higher degree of hunger correlated negatively with the NET availability of the insular cortex in both obese individuals and HC; however, this finding was more pronounced in obesity. Further, for obese individuals, a negative correlation between disinhibition and NET BP ND of the locus coeruleus was detected. In conclusion, these initial data provide in vivo imaging support for the involvement of the central NE system in maladaptive eating behaviors such as susceptibility to hunger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal restraint stress generates two distinct behavioral and neurochemical profiles in male and female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Prenatal Restraint Stress (PRS in rats is a validated model of early stress resulting in permanent behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. Although sexual dimorphism in the effects of PRS has been hypothesized for more than 30 years, few studies in this long period have directly addressed the issue. Our group has uncovered a pronounced gender difference in the effects of PRS (stress delivered to the mothers 3 times per day during the last 10 days of pregnancy on anxiety, spatial learning, and a series of neurobiological parameters classically associated with hippocampus-dependent behaviors. Adult male rats subjected to PRS ("PRS rats" showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM, a reduction in the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus, a reduction in the activity of mGlu1/5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the ventral hippocampus, and an increase in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and pro-BDNF in the hippocampus. In contrast, female PRS rats displayed reduced anxiety in the EPM, improved learning in the Morris water maze, an increase in the activity of mGlu1/5 receptors in the ventral and dorsal hippocampus, and no changes in hippocampal neurogenesis or BDNF levels. The direction of the changes in neurogenesis, BDNF levels and mGlu receptor function in PRS animals was not consistent with the behavioral changes, suggesting that PRS perturbs the interdependency of these particular parameters and their relation to hippocampus-dependent behavior. Our data suggest that the epigenetic changes in hippocampal neuroplasticity induced by early environmental challenges are critically sex-dependent and that the behavioral outcome may diverge in males and females.

  17. Application Of FA Sensor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seon Ho

    1993-03-01

    This book introduces FA sensor from basic to making system, which includes light sensor like photo diode and photo transistor, photo electricity sensor, CCD type image sensor, MOS type image sensor, color sensor, cds cell, and optical fiber scope. It also deals with direct election position sensor such as proximity switch, differential motion, linear scale of photo electricity type, and magnet scale, rotary sensor with summary of rotary encoder, rotary encoder types and applications, flow sensor, and sensing technology.

  18. Sensors an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    Sensors: An Introductory Course provides an essential reference on the fundamentals of sensors. The book is designed to help readers in developing skills and the understanding required in order to implement a wide range of sensors that are commonly used in our daily lives. This book covers the basic concepts in the sensors field, including definitions and terminologies. The physical sensing effects are described, and devices which utilize these effects are presented. The most frequently used organic and inorganic sensors are introduced and the techniques for implementing them are discussed. This book: Provides a comprehensive representation of the most common sensors and can be used as a reference in relevant fields Presents learning materials in a concise and easy to understand manner Includes examples of how sensors are incorporated in real life measurements Contains detailed figures and schematics to assist in understanding the sensor performance Sensors: An Introductory Course is ideal for university stu...

  19. Coupled wave sensor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Buried line guided radar sensors have been used successfully for a number of years to provide perimeter security for high value resources. This paper introduces a new complementary sensor advancement at Computing Devices termed 'coupled wave device technology' (CWD). It provides many of the inherent advantages of leakey cable sensors, such as terrain-following and the ability to discriminate between humans and small animals. It also is able to provide a high or wide detection zone, and allows the sensor to be mounted aerially and adjacent to a wall or fence. Several alternative sensors have been developed which include a single-line sensor, a dual-line hybrid sensor that combines the elements of ported coax and CWD technology, and a rapid-deployment portable sensor for temporary or mobile applications. A description of the technology, the sensors, and their characteristics is provided

  20. Smart Optoelectronic Sensors and Intelligent Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Y. YURISH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Light-to-frequency converters are widely used in various optoelectronic sensor systems. However, a further frequency-to-digital conversion is a bottleneck in such systems due to a broad frequency range of light-to-frequency converters’ outputs. This paper describes an effective OEM design approach, which can be used for smart and intelligent sensor systems design. The design is based on novel, multifunctional integrated circuit of Universal Sensors & Transducers Interface especially designed for such sensor applications. Experimental results have confirmed an efficiency of this approach and high metrological performances.

  1. A mixed-methods systematic review protocol to examine the use of physical restraint with critically ill adults and strategies for minimizing their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Dale, Craig; Smith, Orla M; Burry, Lisa; Enright, Glenn; Fergusson, Dean; Sinha, Samir; Wiesenfeld, Lesley; Sinuff, Tasnim; Mehta, Sangeeta

    2016-11-21

    Critically ill patients frequently experience severe agitation placing them at risk of harm. Physical restraint is common in intensive care units (ICUs) for clinician concerns about safety. However, physical restraint may not prevent medical device removal and has been associated with negative physical and psychological consequences. While professional society guidelines, legislation, and accreditation standards recommend physical restraint minimization, guidelines for critically ill patients are over a decade old, with recommendations that are non-specific. Our systematic review will synthesize evidence on physical restraint in critically ill adults with the primary objective of identifying effective minimization strategies. Two authors will independently search from inception to July 2016 the following: Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO, Joanna Briggs Institute, grey literature, professional society websites, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We will include quantitative and qualitative study designs, clinical practice guidelines, policy documents, and professional society recommendations relevant to physical restraint of critically ill adults. Authors will independently perform data extraction in duplicate and complete risk of bias and quality assessment using recommended tools. We will assess evidence quality for quantitative studies using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach and for qualitative studies using the Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research (CERQual) guidelines. Outcomes of interest include (1) efficacy/effectiveness of physical restraint minimization strategies; (2) adverse events (unintentional device removal, psychological impact, physical injury) and associated benefits including harm prevention; (3) ICU outcomes (ventilation duration, length of stay, and mortality); (4) prevalence, incidence, patterns of use

  2. A mixed-methods systematic review protocol to examine the use of physical restraint with critically ill adults and strategies for minimizing their use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Rose

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critically ill patients frequently experience severe agitation placing them at risk of harm. Physical restraint is common in intensive care units (ICUs for clinician concerns about safety. However, physical restraint may not prevent medical device removal and has been associated with negative physical and psychological consequences. While professional society guidelines, legislation, and accreditation standards recommend physical restraint minimization, guidelines for critically ill patients are over a decade old, with recommendations that are non-specific. Our systematic review will synthesize evidence on physical restraint in critically ill adults with the primary objective of identifying effective minimization strategies. Methods Two authors will independently search from inception to July 2016 the following: Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO, Joanna Briggs Institute, grey literature, professional society websites, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We will include quantitative and qualitative study designs, clinical practice guidelines, policy documents, and professional society recommendations relevant to physical restraint of critically ill adults. Authors will independently perform data extraction in duplicate and complete risk of bias and quality assessment using recommended tools. We will assess evidence quality for quantitative studies using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach and for qualitative studies using the Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research (CERQual guidelines. Outcomes of interest include (1 efficacy/effectiveness of physical restraint minimization strategies; (2 adverse events (unintentional device removal, psychological impact, physical injury and associated benefits including harm prevention; (3 ICU outcomes (ventilation duration, length of stay, and mortality; (4

  3. Towards Sensor Database Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes; Seshadri, Praveen

    2001-01-01

    . These systems lack flexibility because data is extracted in a predefined way; also, they do not scale to a large number of devices because large volumes of raw data are transferred regardless of the queries that are submitted. In our new concept of sensor database system, queries dictate which data is extracted...... from the sensors. In this paper, we define the concept of sensor databases mixing stored data represented as relations and sensor data represented as time series. Each long-running query formulated over a sensor database defines a persistent view, which is maintained during a given time interval. We...... also describe the design and implementation of the COUGAR sensor database system....

  4. Intrauterine and lactation exposure to fluoxetine blunted in the offspring the aortic adaptive response induced by acute restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Bruno V D; Higashi, Carolina M; da S Novi, Daniella R B; Zanluqui, Nagela G; Gregório, Thais F; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Gerardin, Daniela C C; Pelosi, Gislaine G; Moreira, Estefânia G; Ceravolo, Graziela S

    2017-10-15

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the most widely prescribed antidepressants to women during pregnancy. Maternal treatment with fluoxetine can expose fetuses and neonates to higher levels of serotonin that plays a role in stress response. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether maternal treatment with fluoxetine interferes with aorta reactivity of adult male offspring after acute restraint stress. Wistar rats were gavaged with fluoxetine (5mg/kg/day) or water (control) during pregnancy and lactation. The experiments were performed in adult male offspring, treated or not with reserpine (4mg/Kg, ip, 28h before the experimental protocol). Fluoxetine and control rats were submitted to a single restraint stress session (ST) for 1h. Curves to phenylephrine were performed in thoracic aorta with endothelium. Aortic nitric oxide (NOx) were evaluated by the Griess method. The aortic contraction induced by phenylephrine was similar between control and fluoxetine rats. The acute stress reduced contraction in aorta of control ST compared to control, and L-NAME equaled this response. In fluoxetine rats, ST did not change the aortic constriction. Reserpine treatment restored the vasoconstriction in control ST, but did not interfere with aortic contraction in control, fluoxetine or fluoxetine ST. The NOx concentration was higher in aortas from control ST than control rats, and reserpine reduced NOx levels of control ST. The NOx concentration was similar between fluoxetine and fluoxetine ST rats, treated or not with reserpine. In conclusion, maternal treatment with fluoxetine blunted acute restraint stress-induced NO system activation and aortic adaptation in adult offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres I.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that glucocorticoids released during stress might impair neuronal function by decreasing glucose uptake by hippocampal neurons. Previous work has demonstrated that glucose uptake is reduced in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices 24 h after exposure to acute stress, while no effect was observed after repeated stress. Here, we report the effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices and on plasma glucose and corticosterone levels. Male adult Wistar rats were exposed to restraint 1 h/day for 50 days in the chronic model. In the acute model there was a single exposure. Immediately or 24 h after stress, the animals were sacrificed and the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected, sliced, and incubated with Krebs buffer, pH 7.4, containing 5 mM glucose and 0.2 µCi D-[U-14C] glucose. CO2 production from glucose was estimated. Trunk blood was also collected, and both corticosterone and glucose were measured. The results showed that corticosterone levels after exposure to acute restraint were increased, but the increase was smaller when the animals were submitted to repeated stress. Blood glucose levels increased after both acute and repeated stress. However, glucose utilization, measured as CO2 production in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices, was the same in stressed and control groups under conditions of both acute and chronic stress. We conclude that, although stress may induce a decrease in glucose uptake, this effect is not sufficient to affect the energy metabolism of these cells.

  6. Influence of BMI and dietary restraint on self-selected portions of prepared meals in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, David; Rytz, Andréas; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Forde, Ciarán G; Martin, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The rise of obesity prevalence has been attributed in part to an increase in food and beverage portion sizes selected and consumed among overweight and obese consumers. Nevertheless, evidence from observations of adults is mixed and contradictory findings might reflect the use of small or unrepresentative samples. The objective of this study was i) to determine the extent to which BMI and dietary restraint predict self-selected portion sizes for a range of commercially available prepared savoury meals and ii) to consider the importance of these variables relative to two previously established predictors of portion selection, expected satiation and expected liking. A representative sample of female consumers (N = 300, range 18-55 years) evaluated 15 frozen savoury prepared meals. For each meal, participants rated their expected satiation and expected liking, and selected their ideal portion using a previously validated computer-based task. Dietary restraint was quantified using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ-R). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed on self-selected portions with age, hunger level, and meal familiarity entered as control variables in the first step of the model, expected satiation and expected liking as predictor variables in the second step, and DEBQ-R and BMI as exploratory predictor variables in the third step. The second and third steps significantly explained variance in portion size selection (18% and 4%, respectively). Larger portion selections were significantly associated with lower dietary restraint and with lower expected satiation. There was a positive relationship between BMI and portion size selection (p = 0.06) and between expected liking and portion size selection (p = 0.06). Our discussion considers future research directions, the limited variance explained by our model, and the potential for portion size underreporting by overweight participants. Copyright © 2016 Nestec S.A. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  7. A simple and reliable approach to docking protein-protein complexes from very sparse NOE-derived intermolecular distance restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chun; Clore, G. Marius

    2006-01-01

    A simple and reliable approach for docking protein-protein complexes from very sparse NOE-derived intermolecular distance restraints (as few as three from a single point) in combination with a novel representation for an attractive potential between mapped interaction surfaces is described. Unambiguous assignments of very sparse intermolecular NOEs are obtained using a reverse labeling strategy in which one the components is fully deuterated with the exception of selective protonation of the δ-methyl groups of isoleucine, while the other component is uniformly 13 C-labeled. This labeling strategy can be readily extended to selective protonation of Ala, Leu, Val or Met. The attractive potential is described by a 'reduced' radius of gyration potential applied specifically to a subset of interfacial residues (those with an accessible surface area ≥ 50% in the free proteins) that have been delineated by chemical shift perturbation. Docking is achieved by rigid body minimization on the basis of a target function comprising the sparse NOE distance restraints, a van der Waals repulsion potential and the 'reduced' radius of gyration potential. The method is demonstrated for two protein-protein complexes (EIN-HPr and IIA Glc -HPr) from the bacterial phosphotransferase system. In both cases, starting from 100 different random orientations of the X-ray structures of the free proteins, 100% convergence is achieved to a single cluster (with near identical atomic positions) with an overall backbone accuracy of ∼2 A. The approach described is not limited to NMR, since interfaces can also be mapped by alanine scanning mutagenesis, and sparse intermolecular distance restraints can be derived from double cycle mutagenesis, cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry, or fluorescence energy transfer

  8. Predatory functional morphology in raptors: interdigital variation in talon size is related to prey restraint and immobilisation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Denver W; Freedman, Elizabeth A; Scannella, John B

    2009-11-25

    Despite the ubiquity of raptors in terrestrial ecosystems, many aspects of their predatory behaviour remain poorly understood. Surprisingly little is known about the morphology of raptor talons and how they are employed during feeding behaviour. Talon size variation among digits can be used to distinguish families of raptors and is related to different techniques of prey restraint and immobilisation. The hypertrophied talons on digits (D) I and II in Accipitridae have evolved primarily to restrain large struggling prey while they are immobilised by dismemberment. Falconidae have only modest talons on each digit and only slightly enlarged D-I and II. For immobilisation, Falconini rely more strongly on strike impact and breaking the necks of their prey, having evolved a 'tooth' on the beak to aid in doing so. Pandionidae have enlarged, highly recurved talons on each digit, an adaptation for piscivory, convergently seen to a lesser extent in fishing eagles. Strigiformes bear enlarged talons with comparatively low curvature on each digit, part of a suite of adaptations to increase constriction efficiency by maximising grip strength, indicative of specialisation on small prey. Restraint and immobilisation strategy change as prey increase in size. Small prey are restrained by containment within the foot and immobilised by constriction and beak attacks. Large prey are restrained by pinning under the bodyweight of the raptor, maintaining grip with the talons, and immobilised by dismemberment (Accipitridae), or severing the spinal cord (Falconini). Within all raptors, physical attributes of the feet trade off against each other to attain great strength, but it is the variable means by which this is achieved that distinguishes them ecologically. Our findings show that interdigital talon morphology varies consistently among raptor families, and that this is directly correlative with variation in their typical prey capture and restraint strategy.

  9. A novel ventricular restraint device (ASD) repetitively deliver Salvia miltiorrhiza to epicardium have good curative effects in heart failure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Wenhua, Li; Gang, Wang; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Abbas, Muhammad; Liao, Xiaoqian; Yang, Mengqi; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaolin; Qi, Xiaoming; Chen, Yineng; Jiadi, Lv; Ye, Linlan; Zhijie, Wang; Ding, Chen Ding; Feng, Yu; Xiaohui, Zhou

    2017-11-01

    A novel ventricular restraint is the non-transplant surgical option for the management of an end-stage dilated heart failure (HF). To expand the therapeutic techniques we design a novel ventricular restraint device (ASD) which has the ability to deliver a therapeutic drug directly to the heart. We deliver a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen Zhusheye) through active hydraulic ventricular support drug delivery system (ASD) and we hypothesize that it will show better results in HF management than the restraint device and drug alone. SD rats were selected and divided into five groups (n=6), Normal, HF, HF+SM (IV), HF+ASD, HF+ASD+SM groups respectively. Post myocardial infarction (MI), electrocardiography (ECG) showed abnormal heart function in all groups and HF+ASD+SM group showed a significant therapeutic improvement with respect to other treatment HF, HF+ASD, and HF+SM (IV) groups on day 30. The mechanical functions of the heart such as heart rate, LVEDP, and LVSP were brought to normal when treated with ASD+SM and show significant (P valueASD+SM group animals compared with other treatment groups. Masson's Trichrome staining was used to study histopathology of cardiac myocytes and quantification of fibrosis was assessed. The large blue fibrotic area was observed in HF, HF+ASD, and HF+SM (IV) groups while HF+ASD+SM showed negligible fibrotic myocyte at the end of study period (30days). This study proves that novel ASD device augments the therapeutic effect of the drug and delivers Salvia miltiorrhiza to the cardiomyocytes significantly as well as provides additional support to the dilated ventricle by the heart failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic restraint stress after injury and shock is associated with persistent anemia despite prolonged elevation in erythropoietin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Letitia E; Pasupuleti, Latha V; Gore, Amy V; Sifri, Ziad C; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Mohr, Alicia M

    2015-07-01

    Following severe traumatic injury, critically ill patients have a prolonged hypercatacholamine state that is associated with bone marrow (BM) dysfunction and persistent anemia. However, current animal models of injury and shock result in a transient anemia. Daily restraint stress (chronic stress [CS]) has been shown to increase catecholamines. We hypothesize that adding CS following injury or injury and shock in rats will prolong the hypercatecholaminemia and prolong the initial anemia, despite elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-8 per group) underwent lung contusion (LC) or combined LC/hemorrhagic shock (LCHS) followed by 6 days of CS. CS consisted of a 2-hour restraint period interrupted with repositioning and alarms every 30 minutes. At 7 days, urine was assessed for norepinephrine (NE) levels, blood for EPO and hemoglobin (Hgb), and BM for erythroid progenitor growth. Animals undergoing LC or combined LCHS predictably recovered by Day 7; urine NE, EPO, and Hgb levels were normal. The addition of CS to LC and LCHS models was associated with a significant elevation in NE on Day 6. The addition of CS to LC led to a persistent 20% to 25% decrease in the growth of BM hematopoietic progenitor cells. These findings were further exaggerated when CS was added following LCHS, resulting in a 20%q to 40% reduction in BM erythroid progenitor colony growth and a 20% decrease in Hgb when compared with LCHS alone. Exposing injured animals to CS results in prolonged elevation of NE and EPO, which is associated with worsening BM erythroid function and persistent anemia. Chronic restraint stress following injury and shock provides a clinically relevant model to further evaluate persistent injury-associated anemia seen in critically ill trauma patients. Furthermore, alleviating CS after severe injury is a potential therapeutic target to improve BM dysfunction and anemia.

  11. A simple and reliable approach to docking protein-protein complexes from very sparse NOE-derived intermolecular distance restraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun; Clore, G. Marius [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)], E-mail: mariusc@intra.niddk.nih.gov

    2006-09-15

    A simple and reliable approach for docking protein-protein complexes from very sparse NOE-derived intermolecular distance restraints (as few as three from a single point) in combination with a novel representation for an attractive potential between mapped interaction surfaces is described. Unambiguous assignments of very sparse intermolecular NOEs are obtained using a reverse labeling strategy in which one the components is fully deuterated with the exception of selective protonation of the {delta}-methyl groups of isoleucine, while the other component is uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled. This labeling strategy can be readily extended to selective protonation of Ala, Leu, Val or Met. The attractive potential is described by a 'reduced' radius of gyration potential applied specifically to a subset of interfacial residues (those with an accessible surface area {>=} 50% in the free proteins) that have been delineated by chemical shift perturbation. Docking is achieved by rigid body minimization on the basis of a target function comprising the sparse NOE distance restraints, a van der Waals repulsion potential and the 'reduced' radius of gyration potential. The method is demonstrated for two protein-protein complexes (EIN-HPr and IIA{sup Glc}-HPr) from the bacterial phosphotransferase system. In both cases, starting from 100 different random orientations of the X-ray structures of the free proteins, 100% convergence is achieved to a single cluster (with near identical atomic positions) with an overall backbone accuracy of {approx}2 A. The approach described is not limited to NMR, since interfaces can also be mapped by alanine scanning mutagenesis, and sparse intermolecular distance restraints can be derived from double cycle mutagenesis, cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry, or fluorescence energy transfer.

  12. Protective effect of Momordica charantia water extract against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice and the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qin; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Background : Momordica charantia is used in China for its jianghuo (heat-clearing and detoxifying) effects. The concept of shanghuo (the antonym of jianghuo , excessive internal heat) in traditional Chinese medicine is considered a type of stress response of the body. The stress process involves internal organs, especially the liver. Objective : We hypothesized that Momordica charantia water extract (MWE) has a hepatoprotective effect and can protect the body from stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of MWE against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Design : The mice were intragastrically administered with MWE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg bw) daily for 7 days. The Normal Control (NC) and Model groups were administered distilled water. A positive control group was intragastrically administered vitamin C 250 mg/kg bw. After the last administration, mice were restrained for 20 h. Results : MWE reduced the serum AST and ALT, reduced the NO content and the protein expression level of iNOSin the liver; significantly reduced the mitochondrial ROS content, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and II in restraint-stressed mice. Conclusions : The results indicate that MWE has a protective effect against liver injury in restraint-stressed mice. Abbreviations : MWE: Momordica charantia water extract; M. charantia: Momordica charantia L.; ROS: reactive oxygen species; NO: nitric oxide; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; IL-1β: interleukin-1 beta; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin 6; IFN-γ: interferon gamma; VC: vitamin C; ALT: alanine transaminase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: glutathione; GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase; MDA: malondialdehyde; BCA: bicinchoninic acid; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; Trolox: 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; JC-B: Janus Green B; DW: dry weight; FC: Folin

  13. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors's magnetic field and frequency

  14. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  15. Invisible magnetic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach-Batlle, Rosa; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro

    2018-04-01

    Sensing magnetic fields is essential in many applications in biomedicine, transportation, or smart cities. The distortion magnetic sensors create in response to the field they are detecting may hinder their use, for example, in applications requiring dense packaging of sensors or accurately shaped field distributions. For sensing electromagnetic waves, cloaking shells that reduce the scattering of sensors have been introduced. However, the problem of making a magnetic sensor undetectable remains unsolved. Here, we present a general strategy on how to make a sensor magnetically invisible while keeping its ability to sense. The sensor is rendered undetectable by surrounding it with a spherical shell having a tailored magnetic permeability. Our method can be applied to arbitrary shaped magnetic sensors in arbitrary magnetic fields. The invisibility can be made exact when the sensor is spherical and the probed field is uniform. A metasurface composed of superconducting pieces is presented as a practical realization of the ideal invisibility shell.

  16. Embedded sensor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Dharma Prakash

    2017-01-01

    This inspiring textbook provides an introduction to wireless technologies for sensors, explores potential use of sensors for numerous applications, and utilizes probability theory and mathematical methods as a means of embedding sensors in system design. It discusses the need for synchronization and underlying limitations, inter-relation between given coverage and connectivity to number of sensors needed, and the use of geometrical distance to determine location of the base station for data collection and explore use of anchor nodes for relative position determination of sensors. The book explores energy conservation, communication using TCP, the need for clustering and data aggregation, and residual energy determination and energy harvesting. It covers key topics of sensor communication like mobile base stations and relay nodes, delay-tolerant sensor networks, and remote sensing and possible applications. The book defines routing methods and do performance evaluation for random and regular sensor topology an...

  17. Sensor Substrate Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Novel substrates, such as aerogels and porous, low density ceramics may increase the sensitivities of chemical reaction-based sensors for toxic vapors. These sensors...

  18. [Analysis on influencing factors for child restraint system use in Shanghai and Shenzhen, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao; Jin, Ye; Peng, Ji; Xia, Qinghua; Ma, Jianping; Wang, Linhong; Duan, Leilei

    2016-01-01

    To understand the factors related with child restraint system (CRS) use, and provide evidence for the development of appropriate intervention measures to promote the use of CRS for the protection of child passengers' safety. Self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted among 0-6 years old children's parents who owned private cars selected through stratified cluster random sampling in Shanghai and Shenzhen to collect date about CRS use and related factors. Group discussion was conducted among some of the parents randomly selected to further understand the reasons for using or not using CRS. Of 7528 parents surveyed, 39.23% (2820/7189) reported to have CRS and 17.14% (1232/7189) reported consistent use of CRS. Multivariate analysis indicated that young age of children, high level of education of parents, good family economic status, awareness of importance of children's safety were the positive factors for CRS use. The frequency and distance of children'car taking and the seatbelt use of drivers significantly influenced the CRS use. The main reasons for not purchasing CRS included limited car space (53.33%, 2329/4 367), low frequency of children car taking (48.55%, 2120/4367), difficulty in installation (42.25%, 1845/4367), high cost (38.58%, 1685/4367), and unreliable quality (31.03%, 1355/4367). The main reasons for not using CRS included children's refusal (67.36%, 293/435), short travel distance (53.79%, 234/435), difficulty in installation or use (53.10%, 231/435), limited car space (32.41%, 141/435), and unnecessary (25.75%, 112/435). Parents have gaps and misunderstandings in using CRSs to protect child passengers safety. There are demands of technical guiding service in use of CRS. Integrated intervention measures should be implemented targeting at the identified barriers and needs in CRS use to promote child passenger safety, which include strengthening the propaganda and education, promoting the legislation and law enforcement, strengthening market

  19. Did Child Restraint Laws Globally Converge? Examining 40 Years of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif-Muñoz, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to determine what factors have been associated with the global adoption of mandatory child restraint laws (ChRLs) since 1975. In order to determine what factors explained the global adoption of mandatory ChRLs, Weibull models were analyzed. To carry out this analysis, 170 countries were considered and the time risk corresponded to 5,146 observations for the period 1957-2013. The dependent variable was first time to adopt a ChRL. Independent variables representing global factors were the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank's (WB) road safety global campaign; the Geneva Convention on Road Traffic; and the United Nation's (UN) 1958 Vehicle Agreement. Independent variables representing regional factors were the creation of the European Transport Safety Council and being a Commonwealth country. Independent variables representing national factors were population; gross domestic product (GDP) per capita; political violence; existence of road safety nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); and existence of road safety agencies. Urbanization served as a control variable. To examine regional dynamics, Weibull models for Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Commonwealth were also carried out. Empirical estimates from full Weibull models suggest that 2 global factors and 2 national factors are significantly associated with the adoption of this measure. The global factors explaining adoption are the WHO and WB's road safety global campaign implemented after 2004 (P policy was global. Regional analysis showed that the UN's Convention on Road Traffic was significant in Asia, the creation of the European Transport Safety Council was significant in Europe and North America, and the global campaign was in Africa. In Commonwealth and European and North American countries, the existence of road safety agencies was also positively associated with ChRL adoption. Results of the world models suggest that

  20. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  1. Chronic restraint stress in rats causes sustained increase in urinary corticosterone excretion without affecting cerebral or systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Anders; Maigaard, Katrine; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2013-01-01

    acids, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), respectively, in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress. To reliably collect 24h urine samples, the full 3-week restraint stress paradigm was performed in metabolism cages. We further determined frontal...... and Tnf). The metabolism cage housing in itself did not significantly influence a range of biological stress markers. In the restraint stress group, there was a sustained 2.5 fold increase in 24h corticosterone excretion from day 2 after stress initiation. However, neither whole-body nor cerebral measures......Increased oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) may be a common mechanism underlying accelerated aging in psychological stress states and mental disorders. In the present study, we measured the urinary excretion of corticosterone and markers of systemic oxidative stress on nucleic...

  2. Focus on image sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jos Gunsing; Daniël Telgen; Johan van Althuis; Jaap van de Loosdrecht; Mark Stappers; Peter Klijn

    2013-01-01

    Robots need sensors to operate properly. Using a single image sensor, various aspects of a robot operating in its environment can be measured or monitored. Over the past few years, image sensors have improved a lot: frame rate and resolution have increased, while prices have fallen. As a result,

  3. Multi-Sensor Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Ahmed, Zaki; Khan, M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    The use of multiple sensors typically requires the fusion of data from different type of sensors. The combined use of such a data has the potential to give an efficient, high quality and reliable estimation. Input data from different sensors allows the introduction of target attributes (target ty...

  4. Thermal flow micro sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on sensors fabricated by silicon micromachining technology using the thermal domain for the measurement of fluid flow. Attention is paid especially to performance and geometry of the sensors. Three basic types of thermal flow sensors are discussed: anemometers, calorimetric flow

  5. Sensors for Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Lamberti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on “Sensors for Entertainment”, developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  6. Electric field sensor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.D.; Parks, S.

    1977-01-01

    Above-ground intrusion sensors are reviewed briefly. Buried wire sensors are next considered; feasibility studies were conducted. A triangular system of an overhead transmitter wire exciting two buried sensor wires was developed and tested. It failed sometimes to detect a man making a broad jump. A differential receiver was developed to solve this problem

  7. The effect of staff training on agitation and use of restraint in nursing home residents with dementia: a single-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testad, Ingelin; Ballard, Clive; Brønnick, Kolbjørn; Aarsland, Dag

    2010-01-01

    Agitation is common in dementia and is associated with use of restraints and use of psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine whether an education and supervision intervention could reduce agitation and the use of restraints and antipsychotic drugs in nursing homes. Four Norwegian nursing homes were randomly allocated to receive either treatment as usual or an intervention consisting of a 2-day educational seminar and monthly group guidance for 6 months. One hundred forty-five residents with dementia (based on medical records and corroborated with a Functional Assessment Staging score >or= 4) completed baseline and 6-month intervention assessments and were included in the analyses. The co-primary outcome measures were the proportion of residents subject to interactional restraint and the severity of agitation using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Patients were assessed at baseline, immediately after completion of the intervention at 6 months, and 12 months after baseline. Comparison of change in the 2 groups was made using repeated-measures analysis of variance (CMAI) and Mann-Whitney test (restraints). The study was conducted from 2003 to 2004. The proportion of residents starting new restraint was lower in the intervention than in the control group at 6-month evaluation (P = .02), but no statistically significant differences were found at 12-month assessment (P = .57). The total CMAI score declined from baseline to 6 and 12 months' follow-up in the intervention homes compared to a small increase in the control homes (F2,176 = 3.46, P = .034). There were no statistically significant differences in use of antipsychotic drugs. A brief 2-day staff education program followed by continued monthly guidance was able both to improve quality of care by reducing the frequency of interactional restraints and to reduce severity of agitation. ©Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Active Head Restraints Used to Improve the Car Seats Safety in a Rear Impact Situation, in Accordance with the Requirements of EURO NCAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Solopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the urgent, presently, problem that is to ensure the best level of the passive safety of car seats with active head restraints, as well as to assess the effectiveness of such constructional designs. This is an impact-related task, to be, as a consequence, essentially nonlinear with large deformations, strains and accelerations.To solve this problem finite element models of three types of seat designs with active head restraints have been developed. When creating the simulation FEM a number of CAD (Computer Aided Design/CAE (Computer Aided Engineering software was used.This work was performed within the framework of the developed technique, which allows an efficient creation of the car seat designs with passive and active head restraints that meet requirements of the passive safety.The results of calculations and experiments allowed us to find that the active head restraint significantly reduced a NIC (Neck Injury Criterion value, namely up to 36.92 (4% when using the active headrest with articulated tilting couch, 29.23 (per 24% when using the active headrest with sliding pad, and 26.15 (31% when using the active head restraint, which is provided with an airbag. We have also managed to achieve significantly reduced head acceleration under impact.It was found that FEM seats with active head restraint, which is provided with an airbag, are the most secure because of the least NIC value under the impact (26.15.Presented in the article materials are used in teaching students at the department “Wheeled vehicles” of scientific and educational complex "Special engineering" in BMSTU.

  9. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression.

  10. Imidazoline2 (I2) receptor- and alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in control and acute restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, David P; Hudson, Alan L; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Coventry, Toni L; Jessop, David S; Nutt, David J; Harbuz, Michael S

    2004-03-01

    Central noradrenaline regulates the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the neuroendocrine response to stress. alpha2-adrenoceptors and imidazoline2 (I2) receptors modulate the activity of the central noradrenergic system. The present set of experiments investigated the role of alpha2-adrenoceptors and I2 receptors in the regulation of HPA axis activity under basal conditions and during exposure to the acute psychological stress of restraint. Three separate experiments were carried out in which rats were given an i.p. injection of either saline vehicle, the combined alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist and I2 receptor ligand idazoxan (10 mg/kg), the selective I2 receptor ligand BU224 (2.5 or 10 mg/kg) or the selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 (2.5 mg/kg) with or without restraint stress. Drugs were administered immediately prior to restraint of 60 min duration. Blood was sampled pre-injection, 30, 60 and 240 min post-injection and plasma corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. In experiment 1, idazoxan increased plasma corticosterone levels in naive animals and potentiated the corticosterone response to acute restraint stress. In experiment 2, BU224 administration increased plasma corticosterone levels in a dose-related manner in naive rats. The results of experiment 3 indicated that RX821002 also elevated plasma corticosterone levels in naive rats, however, only BU224 potentiated the corticosterone response to restraint stress. These studies suggest that both alpha2-adrenoceptors and I2 receptors play a role in modulating basal HPA axis activity and that I2 receptors may play a more important role than alpha2-adrenoceptors in modulating the HPA axis response to the acute psychological stress of restraint.

  11. Abdominal Twin Pressure Sensors for the assessment of abdominal injuries in Q dummies: in-dummy evaluation and performance in accident reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beillas, Philippe; Alonzo, François; Chevalier, Marie-Christine; Lesire, Philippe; Leopold, Franck; Trosseille, Xavier; Johannsen, Heiko

    2012-10-01

    The Abdominal Pressure Twin Sensors (APTS) for Q3 and Q6 dummies are composed of soft polyurethane bladders filled with fluid and equipped with pressure sensors. Implanted within the abdominal insert of child dummies, they can be used to detect abdominal loading due to the belt during frontal collisions. In the present study - which is part of the EC funded CASPER project - two versions of APTS (V1 and V2) were evaluated in abdominal belt compression tests, torso flexion test (V1 only) and two series of sled tests with degraded restraint conditions. The results suggest that the two versions have similar responses, and that the pressure sensitivity to torso flexion is limited. The APTS ability to detect abdominal loading in sled tests was also confirmed, with peak pressures typically below 1 bar when the belt loaded only the pelvis and the thorax (appropriate restraint) and values above that level when the abdomen was loaded directly (inappropriate restraint). Then, accident reconstructions performed as part of CASPER and previous EC funded projects were reanalyzed. Selected data from 19 dummies (12 Q6 and 7 Q3) were used to plot injury risk curves. Maximum pressure, maximum pressure rate and their product were all found to be injury predictors. Maximum pressure levels for a 50% risk of AIS3+ were consistent with the levels separating appropriate and inappropriate restraint in the sled tests (e.g. 50% risk of AIS3+ at 1.09 bar for pressure filtered CFC180). Further work is needed to refine the scaling techniques between ages and confirm the risk curves.

  12. Eating styles in the morbidly obese: restraint eating, but not emotional and external eating, predicts dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Amy; Hevey, David

    2013-01-01

    The research explored (1) the relationships between self-reported eating style (restraint, emotional and external eating) and dietary intake and (2) emotional eater status as a moderator of food intake when emotional, in a morbidly obese population. A sample of 57 obese participants (BMI: M = 51.84, SD = 8.66) completed a five-day food diary together with a reflective diary, which assessed eating style and positive and negative affect daily. A dietician-scored food pyramid analysis of intake. Restraint eating was the only predictor (negative) of overall food intake and the variable most strongly associated with the consumption of top-shelf foods. Emotional and external eating were unrelated to food intake. Emotional eater status did not moderate food intake in response to positive and negative mood states. The findings indicated largely analogous relationships between eating style and dietary intake in this obese sample compared with previous results from healthy populations. The lack of predictive validity for emotional eating scales (when emotional) raises questions over people's ability to adequately assess their eating style and consequently, the overall validity of emotional eater scales.

  13. The Role of MAPK and Dopaminergic Synapse Signaling Pathways in Antidepressant Effect of Electroacupuncture Pretreatment in Chronic Restraint Stress Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has demonstrated the function in ameliorating depressive-like behaviors via modulating PKA/CREB signaling pathway. To further confirm the antidepressant mechanism of EA on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and dopaminergic synapse signaling pathways, 4 target proteins were detected based on our previous iTRAQ analysis. Rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, and electroacupuncture (EA group. Except for the control group, all rats were subjected to 28 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS protocols to induce depression. In the EA group, EA pretreatment at Baihui (GV20 and Yintang (GV29 was performed daily (1 mA, 2 Hz, discontinuous wave, 20 minutes prior to restraint. The antidepressant-like effect of EA was measured by body weight and open-field test. The protein levels of DAT, Th, Mapt, and Prkc in the hippocampus were examined by using Western blot. The results showed EA could ameliorate the depression-like behaviors and regulate the expression levels of Prkc and Mapt in CRS rats. The effect of EA on DAT and Th expression was minimal. These findings implied that EA pretreatment could alleviate depression through modulating MAPK signaling pathway. The role of EA on dopaminergic synapse signaling pathways needs to be further explored.

  14. Comparative product testing of children's restraint systems, with inclusion of side-collision tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, H. [Stiftung Warentest, Berlin (Germany); Noeske, V. [DEKRA Dresden (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Stiftung Warentest has conducted comparative product testing for Group 0.. III child car seats to evaluate accident protection, handling, comfort of the seats, and safety against faulty use. The tests that were conducted were intended to provide assessment of product quality. Owing to great reader interest, tests conducted on child car seats have become well established for a considerable number of years now. They enjoy esteemed status, for example, in our magazine test. Stiftung Warentest conducted its first tests on children's restraint system many years ago: in May of 1968. The great interest in this topic, as evidenced by widespread feedback from readers, justifies the high costs occasioned by the dynamic testing of children's restraint systems. The popularity of this topic leads to greater sales of the particular issues of the magazine test - which carries no advertising - and at least compensates for most of the added costs necessary for dynamic collision testing. It is not generally well known that Stiftung Warentest covers approximately 90% of its budget from the sales of its two magazines test and Finanztest, and of its other special publications. The annual subsidy by the German government is relatively small. The national subsidy is intended to compensate for the loss of revenue from the exclusion of advertising. (orig.)

  15. Effects of chronic restraint stress on social behaviors and the number of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Li, Han-Xia; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Song, Tian-Jia; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are considered to be related to mammalian social behavior and the regulation of stress responses. The present study investigated the effects of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHRS) on social behaviors and anxiety, as well as its repercussions on OXT- and AVP-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) nuclei in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CHRS were exposed to repeated restraint stress of 30min per day for 10days. Changes in social approach behaviors were evaluated with the three-chambered social approach task. Changes in anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated in the light-dark box test. The number of neurons expressing oxytocin and/or vasopressin in PVN and SON were examined by immunohistochemistry techniques. The results demonstrated that social approach was increased and anxiety was decreased following 10-day exposure to CHRS. Furthermore, the number of OXT-immunoreactive cells in PVN was increased significantly, whereas no change in SON was seen. The number of AVP immunoreactive cells either in PVN or SON was unaffected. The results of this study suggest that certain types of stress could be effective in the treatment of social dysfunction in persons with mental disorders such as autism, social anxiety disorder. The therapeutic effects may be mediated by changes in the function of OXT neurons in PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bypass Flow and Hot Spot Analysis for PMR200 Block-Core Design with Core Restraint Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hong Sik; Kim, Min Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The accurate prediction of local hot spot during normal operation is important to ensure core thermal margin in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor because of production of its high temperature output. The active cooling of the reactor core determining local hot spot is strongly affected by core bypass flows through the inter-column gaps between graphite blocks and the cross gaps between two stacked fuel blocks. The bypass gap sizes vary during core life cycle by the thermal expansion at the elevated temperature and the shrinkage/swelling by fast neutron irradiation. This study is to investigate the impacts of the variation of bypass gaps during core life cycle as well as core restraint mechanism on the amount of bypass flow and thus maximum fuel temperature. The core thermo fluid analysis is performed using the GAMMA+ code for the PMR200 block-core design. For the analysis not only are some modeling features, developed for solid conduction and bypass flow, are implemented into the GAMMA+ code but also non-uniform bypass gap distribution taken from a tool calculating the thermal expansion and the shrinkage/swell of graphite during core life cycle under the design options with and without core restraint mechanism is used

  17. Acute hunger modifies responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire hunger and disinhibition, but not restraint, scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri

    2017-03-01

    It is widely assumed that responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) represent long-term (trait) attitudes to eating behaviour. However, the questionnaire requires agreement with a number of food related statements, and it is possible that some are easier to agree with when assessed hungry than sated. To test this potential state-dependency, participants completed a 100 mm visual analogue scale rating of their current hunger at the time they completed the TFEQ. Data were collected from two cohorts: Cohort 1 (507 women and 119 men) completed both measures on paper, while the hunger rating was computerised in Cohort 2 (179 women). Regression analysis revealed significant effects of rated hunger on scores on the hunger (TFEQ-H) and disinhibition (TFEQ-D) but not restraint (TFEQ-R) subscales, with higher TFEQ-H and TFEQ-D scores when participants were more hungry. In addition, 61 women and two men from Cohort 1 completed the measures on two separate occasions. Here, scores on TFEQ-H were higher on days when these participants were hungrier, but no differences in TFEQ-D or TFEQ-R were found. Overall these data suggest TFEQ-H could be interpreted as an indirect measure of current hunger, that scores on TFEQ-D are partly moderated by hunger but TFEQ-R is a more trait-like measure of restraint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An investigation of child restraint/seatbelt usage in motor vehicles by Maori in Northland New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, M; Peters, T

    2003-01-01

    Method: Observational surveys were conducted at the two main car parks (McDonald's and the largest supermarket) to determine the number of passengers restrained, the type of restraints, and correct use. Observations were restricted to those who were obviously Maori, based upon the local knowledge of the observer. In addition, face to face questionnaires were administered to Maori whanau/caregivers involved in the care of two or more children for more than three days a week. Results: A total of 788 participants were observed. Babies were those most likely to have all occupants restrained correctly (97%), followed by toddlers (66%), adults (56%), and school age children (48%); 138 interviews were conducted. Females (86%) were significantly more likely to ensure that all passengers were restrained on short journeys compared to males (67%; p<0.05). Respondents under 45 (80%) were significantly less likely to restrain child passengers compared to people aged 45 or older (91%; p<0.05). Discussion: This study highlights the problem that larger families in this study had in providing correct child restraints for all their children. PMID:12642567

  19. A MATLAB-based eye tracking control system using non-invasive helmet head restraint in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luna, Paolo; Mohamed Mustafar, Mohamed Faiz Bin; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-09-30

    Tracking eye position is vital for behavioral and neurophysiological investigations in systems and cognitive neuroscience. Infrared camera systems which are now available can be used for eye tracking without the need to surgically implant magnetic search coils. These systems are generally employed using rigid head fixation in monkeys, which maintains the eye in a constant position and facilitates eye tracking. We investigate the use of non-rigid head fixation using a helmet that constrains only general head orientation and allows some freedom of movement. We present a MATLAB software solution to gather and process eye position data, present visual stimuli, interact with various devices, provide experimenter feedback and store data for offline analysis. Our software solution achieves excellent timing performance due to the use of data streaming, instead of the traditionally employed data storage mode for processing analog eye position data. We present behavioral data from two monkeys, demonstrating that adequate performance levels can be achieved on a simple fixation paradigm and show how performance depends on parameters such as fixation window size. Our findings suggest that non-rigid head restraint can be employed for behavioral training and testing on a variety of gaze-dependent visual paradigms, reducing the need for rigid head restraint systems for some applications. While developed for macaque monkey, our system of course can work equally well for applications in human eye tracking where head constraint is undesirable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The interaction of chronic restraint stress and voluntary alcohol intake: effects on spatial memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan L; Lewis, Michael J; Luine, Victoria N

    2012-08-01

    Alcohol consumption and exposure to stressful life events activate similar neural pathways and thus result in several comparable physiological and behavioral effects. Alcoholics in treatment claim that life stressors are the leading cause of continued drinking or relapse. However, few studies have investigated the interactive effects of stress and alcohol on cognitive behavior. The effects of restraint stress, alcohol, and stress in combination with alcohol were examined on a spatial memory test, the object placement (OP) task. In addition, intake levels were measured to determine if stress altered general consumption of alcohol. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four conditions: no alcohol/no stress control (CON), stress alone (STR), alcohol alone (ALC), and STR+alcohol (STR+ALC). Following each restraint stress bout, the STR+ALC and the ALC groups were given access to 8% alcohol for 1h using the two-bottle choice limited access paradigm. As predicted, the STR+ALC group significantly increased alcohol consumption, while the ALC group had consistent drinking over the 10-day treatment. On the OP task, STR and ALC groups performed at chance levels, whereas the CON and STR+ALC groups significantly discriminated between objects in the new and old locations. These data show that stress increases alcohol intake and the intake of alcohol is associated with reduction of the stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. The data have important implications for the development of alcohol abuse and its treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Medical prescription and informed consent for the use of physical restraints in nursing homes in the Canary Islands (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Guerra, Gabriel J; Fariña-López, Emilio; Penelo, Eva

    To identify the frequency of completion of informed consent and medical prescription in the clinical records of older patients subject to physical restraint, and to analyse the association between patient characteristics and the absence of such documentation. A cross-sectional and descriptive multicentre study with direct observation and review of clinical records was conducted in nine public nursing homes, comprising 1,058 beds. 274 residents were physically restrained. Informed consent was not included in 82.5% of cases and was incomplete in a further 13.9%. There was no medical prescription in 68.3% of cases and it was incomplete in a further 12.0%. The only statistical association found was between the lack of prescription and the patients' advanced age (PR=1.03; p <0.005). Failure to produce this documentation contravenes the law. Organisational characteristics, ignorance of the legal requirements or the fact that some professionals may consider physical restraint to be a risk-free procedure may explain these results. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Buckle up safely (shoalhaven): a process and impact evaluation of a pragmatic, multifaceted preschool-based pilot program to increase correct use of age-appropriate child restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kate; Keay, Lisa; Clapham, Kathleen; Lyford, Marilyn; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne; Simpson, Judy M; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2014-01-01

    To conduct a process and impact evaluation of a multifaceted education-based pilot program targeting correct use of age-appropriate restraints in a regional setting with a high proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families. The program was delivered in 2010 in 3 early learning centers where 31 percent of the children were of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent. Each component of the program was assessed for message consistency and uptake. To measure program effectiveness, participating children were matched 1:1 by age, language spoken at home, and annual household income with 71 children from the control arm of a contemporaneous trial. The outcome measure in the control and program centers (a 4-category ordinal scale of restraint use) was compared using ordinal logistic regression accounting for age of the parent. Process evaluation found that though program components were delivered with a consistency of message, uptake was affected by turnover of all staff at one center and by parents experiencing difficulty in paying for subsidized restraints at each of the centers. Impact evaluation found that children from the centers receiving the program had nearly twice the odds of being in a better restraint category than children matched from the control group (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj] = 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-3.90). This was a pragmatic study reflecting the real-life issues of implementing a program in preschools where 57 percent of families had a low income and turnover of staff was high. Despite these issues, impact evaluation showed that the integrated educational program showed promise in increasing correct use of age-appropriate restraints. The findings from this pilot study support the use of an integrated educational program that includes access to subsidized restraints to promote best practice child restraint use among communities that include a high proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families in New

  3. Pre-treatment with mild whole-body heating prevents gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y H; Noguchi, R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the preventive effect of pre-mild whole-body heating (WBH) on gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress. The ulcer index and ulcer area ratio in rats exposed to restraint and water-immersion stress were significantly decreased (p immersion stress alone (p immersion, thereby preventing gastric ulcer formation. Pre-treatment with mild WBH is the safest cytoprotective method through the accumulation of HSP 70f. The concentration of HSP 70f in peripheral lymphocytes may be a useful clinical laboratory indicator for assessing the level of HSP 70f as having cytoprotective activity.

  4. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  5. Intake of energy is best predicted by overeating tendency and consumption of fat is best predicted by dietary restraint: a 4-year follow-up of patients with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Laar, F.A. van de

    2008-01-01

    The present study addressed the possible mediating effects of overeating tendencies in (a) the relationship of dietary restraint with intake of energy and (b) the relationships of changes in dietary restraint and changes in intake of energy and (saturated) fat across a 4-year period. Participants

  6. Intake of energy is best predicted by overeating tendency and consumption of fat is best predicted by dietary restraint. A four-year follow up of patients with newly diagnosed type-2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Laar, F.A. van de

    2008-01-01

    The present study addressed the possible mediating effects of overeating tendencies in (a) the relationship of dietary restraint with intake of energy and (b) the relationships of changes in dietary restraint and changes in intake of energy and (saturated) fat across a 4-year period. Participants

  7. Hydrostatic force sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.S.; Stoughton, R.S.; Kazerooni, H.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of a new kind of force sensor which detects forces by measuring an induced pressure change in a material of large Poisson's ratio. In this investigation we develop mathematical expressions for the sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth, and show that its sensitivity can be much larger and its bandwidth is usually smaller than those of existing strain-gage-type sensors. This force sensor is well-suited for measuring large but slowly varying forces. It can be installed in a space smaller than that required by existing sensors

  8. Multifuctional integrated sensors (MFISES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homeijer, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roozeboom, Clifton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Many emerging IoT applications require sensing of multiple physical and environmental parameters for: completeness of information, measurement validation, unexpected demands, improved performance. For example, a typical outdoor weather station measures temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, light intensity, rainfall, wind speed and direction. Existing sensor technologies do not directly address the demand for cost, size, and power reduction in multi-paramater sensing applications. Industry sensor manufacturers have developed integrated sensor systems for inertial measurements that combine accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, but do not address environmental sensing functionality. In existing research literature, a technology gap exists between the functionality of MEMS sensors and the real world applications of the sensors systems.

  9. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  10. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  11. MEMS optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical sensor utilizing effective index modulation of a waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of reflected light and a force sensing system accommodating said optical sensor. One embodiment of the invention relates to a sensor system comprising...... at least one multimode light source, one or more optical sensors comprising a multimode sensor optical waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector, at least one transmitting optical waveguide for guiding light from said at least one light source to said one or more multimode sensor optical...... waveguides, a detector for measuring light reflected from said Bragg reflector in said one or more multimode sensor optical waveguides, and a data processor adapted for analyzing variations in the Bragg wavelength of at least one higher order mode of the reflected light....

  12. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Ken D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinn, Edward L. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States); Mauck, Jerry L. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States); Bockhorst, Richard M. [Technology Resources, Dana Point, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).

  13. HEAT Sensor: Harsh Environment Adaptable Thermionic Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limb, Scott J. [Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    This document is the final report for the “HARSH ENVIRONMENT ADAPTABLE THERMIONIC SENSOR” project under NETL’s Crosscutting contract DE-FE0013062. This report addresses sensors that can be made with thermionic thin films along with the required high temperature hermetic packaging process. These sensors can be placed in harsh high temperature environments and potentially be wireless and self-powered.

  14. Compliant Tactile Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    Tactile sensors are currently being designed to sense interactions with human hands or pen-like interfaces. They are generally embedded in screens, keyboards, mousepads, and pushbuttons. However, they are not well fitted to sense interactions with all kinds of objects. A novel sensor was originally designed to investigate robotics manipulation where not only the contact with an object needs to be detected, but also where the object needs to be held and manipulated. This tactile sensor has been designed with features that allow it to sense a large variety of objects in human environments. The sensor is capable of detecting forces coming from any direction. As a result, this sensor delivers a force vector with three components. In contrast to most of the tactile sensors that are flat, this one sticks out from the surface so that it is likely to come in contact with objects. The sensor conforms to the object with which it interacts. This augments the contact's surface, consequently reducing the stress applied to the object. This feature makes the sensor ideal for grabbing objects and other applications that require compliance with objects. The operational range of the sensor allows it to operate well with objects found in peoples' daily life. The fabrication of this sensor is simple and inexpensive because of its compact mechanical configuration and reduced electronics. These features are convenient for mass production of individual sensors as well as dense arrays. The biologically inspired tactile sensor is sensitive to both normal and lateral forces, providing better feedback to the host robot about the object to be grabbed. It has a high sensitivity, enabling its use in manipulation fingers, which typically have low mechanical impedance in order to be very compliant. The construction of the sensor is simple, using inexpensive technologies like silicon rubber molding and standard stock electronics.

  15. Sensor for metal detection

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-06-26

    NOVELTY - The sensor has a microfluidic flow channel that is provided with an inlet port, an outlet port, and a detection chamber. The detection chamber is provided with a group of sensing electrodes (4) having a working electrode (8), a counter electrode (9), and a reference electrode (10). A flow sensor is configured to measure flow in the channel. A temperature sensor (6) is configured to measure temperature in the channel (3). An electrical connection is configured to connect the sensor to a sensing device. USE - Sensor for detecting metal such as toxic metal in sample such as clinical sample such as stool, saliva, sputum, bronchial lavage, urine, vaginal swab, nasal swab, biopsy, tissue, tears, breath, blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, joint fluid, and amniotic fluid, water sample, food sample, air sample, and soil sample (all claimed). ADVANTAGE - The sensor for use with the portable analytical instrument is configured for detection of metalsin samples. The sensor can provide the excellent solution for on-site metal detection, including heavy metal detection. The sensors can provide significant advantages in higher throughput, lower cost, at the same time being less labor intensive and less dependent on individual skills. The disposable design of the sensor, the enhanced reliability and repeatability of measurements can be obtained. The sensors can be widely applied in various industries. DETAILED DESCRIPTION - INDEPENDENT CLAIMS are included for the following: (1) a system for detecting metal in sample; and (2) a method for using sensor for detecting metal in sample. DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING(S) - The drawing shows a schematic view of the sensor prototype. Channel (3) Sensing electrodes (4) Temperature sensor (6) Working electrode (8) Counter electrode (9) Reference electrode (10)

  16. Evaluation of the protective effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil on the dentate gyrus following chronic restraint stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Bhari Talip

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic restraint stress has been shown to cause a number of morphological changes in the hippocampal formation of rats. Tocotrienol, an isoform of vitamin E, exhibits numerous health benefits, different from those of tocopherol. Recent studies have demonstrated that tocotrienol prevents stress-induced changes in the gastric mucosa, thus indicating that it may also protect other organs such as the brain from the damaging effects of stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF extracted from palm oil on the dentate gyrus of rats following exposure to chronic restraint stress. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control, stress, tocotrienol and combination of stress and tocotrienol. Animals were stressed by restraining them for 5 hours every day for 21 consecutive days. TRF was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. Our results showed that the plasma corticosterone level was significantly increased in response to stress, compared to the control. The results confirmed previous findings that chronic restraint stress suppresses cellular proliferation and reduces granule cell number in the dentate gyrus. However, TRF supplementation failed to prevent or minimize these stress-induced changes. Therefore, we conclude that TRF at the current dosage is not effective in preventing the morphological changes in the dentate gyrus induced by chronic restraint stress.

  17. Restraint increases prolactin and REM sleep in C57BL/6J mice but not in BALB/cJ mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Easton, Amy; Bergmann, Bernard M.; Turek, Fred W.

    2001-01-01

    Sleep is generally considered to be a recovery from prior wakefulness. The architecture of sleep not only depends on the duration of wakefulness but also on its quality in terms of specific experiences. In the present experiment, we studied the effects of restraint stress on sleep architecture and

  18. Impact of eLearning course on nurses' professional competence in seclusion and restraint practices: a randomized controlled study (ISRCTN32869544).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, R; Lahti, M; Pitkänen, A; Joffe, G; Putkonen, H; Hätönen, H; Katajisto, J; Välimäki, M

    2011-11-01

    Education on the care of aggressive and disturbed patients is fragmentary. eLearning could ensure the quality of such education, but data on its impact on professional competence in psychiatry are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ePsychNurse.Net, an eLearning course, on psychiatric nurses' professional competence in seclusion and restraint and on their job satisfaction and general self-efficacy. In a randomized controlled study, 12 wards were randomly assigned to ePsychNurse.Net (intervention) or education as usual (control). Baseline and 3-month follow-up data on nurses' knowledge of coercion-related legislation, physical restraint and seclusion, their attitudes towards physical restraint and seclusion, job satisfaction and general self-efficacy were analysed for 158 completers. Knowledge (primary outcome) of coercion-related legislation improved in the intervention group, while knowledge of physical restraint improved and knowledge of seclusion remained unchanged in both groups. General self-efficacy improved in the intervention group also attitude to seclusion in the control group. In between-group comparison, attitudes to seclusion (one of secondary outcomes) favoured the control group. Although the ePsychNurse.Net demonstrated only slight advantages over conventional learning, it may be worth further development with, e.g. flexible time schedule and individualized content. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  19. Effects of off-centered cracks and restraint of induced bending caused by pressure on the crack-opening-area analysis of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.M.; Bonora, N.

    1996-01-01

    Current models for the crack-opening-area analysis of pipes with circumferential through-wall cracks are based on various idealizations or assumptions which are often necessary to simplify the mathematical formulation and numerical calculation. This paper focuses on the validity of two such assumptions that involve off-centered cracks and the restraint of induced bending caused by pressure, and quantifies their effects on the crack-opening area analysis of pipes. Finite element and/or simple estimation methods were employed to compute the center-crack-opening displacement and crack-opening shape for a through-wall-cracked pipe, considering off-centered cracks and the restraint of induced bending caused by pressure. The results of the analyses show that, for both cases, the crack-opening area can be reduced significantly. For pipes with off-centered cracks, the crack-opening area can be evaluated from analyses of symmetrically centered cracks and assuming elliptical profile. For pipes with complete restraint of the induced bending caused by pressure, the reduction in crack-opening area depends on the crack size. When the crack size is small, the restraint effects can be ignored. However, when the crack size is large, the restrained crack opening can be significantly smaller than the unrestrained crack opening, depending on the length of pipe involved; hence, it may be important for the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses. (orig.)

  20. Restriction on Restraints in the Care for People With Intellectual Disabilities in the Netherlands: Lessons Learned from Australia, UK, and United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, A.; Frederiks, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, physical/mechanical restraints in the care provided to people with intellectual disabilities are still in use, with the case of "Brandon" being a recent and illustrative example. The public debate that this case triggered raised questions concerning the policy proposal in the

  1. Is an unhealthy work environment in nursing home care for people with dementia associated with the prescription of psychotropic drugs and physical restraints?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, B.M.; De Jonge, J.; Smit, D.; Dasselaar, W.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research showed that long-term care facilities differ widely in the use of psychotropic drugs and physical restraints. The aim of this study is to investigate whether characteristics of an unhealthy work environment in facilities for people with dementia are associated with more

  2. The role of right prefrontal cortex in response inhibition: interfering with action restraint and action cancellation using transcranial magnetic brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dambacher, F.; Sack, A.T.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Brugman, S.; Schuhmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of inhibiting impulsive urges is paramount for human behavior. Such successful response inhibition has consistently been associated with activity in pFC. The current study aims to unravel the differential involvement of different areas within right pFC for successful action restraint

  3. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  4. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  5. The Ringcore Fluxgate Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    A model describing the fundamental working principle of the "ringcore fluxgate sensor" is derived. The model is solely based on geometrical and measurable magnetic properties of the sensor and from this a number of fluxgate phenomenon can be described and estimated. The sensitivity of ringcore...... fluxgate sensors is measured for a large variety of geometries and is for all measurements found to fall between two limits obtained by the fluxgate model. The model is used to explain the zero field odd harmonic output of the fluxgate sensor, called the "feedthrough". By assuming a non ideal sensor...... with spatially distributed magnetization, the model predicts feedthrough signals which exactly reflects the measured signals. The non-linearities in a feedback compensated ringcore fluxgate sensors, called the "transverse field effect", can also be explained by the model. Measurements on stress annealed...

  6. Cryogenic microsize Hall sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitkovic, J.; Polak, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hall sensors have a variety of applications in magnetic field measurements. The active area of the Hall sensor does not play an important role in measuring of homogeneous magnetic field. Actually Hall sensors are widely used to measure profiles of magnetic fields produced by magnetization currents in samples of HTC superconductors, as well as of LTC ones. Similar techniques are used to measure magnetization of both HTC and LTC superconductors. In these cases Hall sensor operates in highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Because of that, Hall sensors with very small active area are required. We developed and tested Hall sensors with active area 100 μm x 100 μm - type M and 50 μm x 50 μm - type V. Here we report on the most imporant parameters of these units, as well as on their properties as differential magnetometer. (orig.)

  7. Clementine sensor suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledebuhr, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    LLNL designed and built the suite of six miniaturized light-weight space-qualified sensors utilized in the Clementine mission. A major goal of the Clementine program was to demonstrate technologies originally developed for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Programs. These sensors were modified to gather data from the moon. This overview presents each of these sensors and some preliminary on-orbit performance estimates. The basic subsystems of these sensors include optical baffles to reject off-axis stray light, light-weight ruggedized optical systems, filter wheel assemblies, radiation tolerant focal plane arrays, radiation hardened control and readout electronics and low mass and power mechanical cryogenic coolers for the infrared sensors. Descriptions of each sensor type are given along with design specifications, photographs and on-orbit data collected.

  8. Flexible magnetoimpedance sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-03-01

    Flexible magnetoimpedance (MI) sensors fabricated using a NiFe/Cu/NiFe tri-layer on Kapton substrate have been studied. A customized flexible microstrip transmission line was employed to investigate the MI sensors\\'s magnetic field and frequency responses and their dependence on the sensors\\'s deflection. For the first time, the impedance characteristic is obtained through reflection coefficient analysis over a wide range of frequencies from 0.1 MHz to 3 GHz and for deflections ranging from zero curvature to a radius of 7.2 cm. The sensor element maintains a high MI ratio of up to 90% and magnetic sensitivity of up to 9.2%/Oe over different bending curvatures. The relationship between the curvature and material composition is discussed based on the magnetostriction effect and stress simulations. The sensor\\'s large frequency range, simple fabrication process and high sensitivity provide a great potential for flexible electronics and wireless applications.

  9. Working Group Report: Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  10. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  11. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  12. Networked Sensor Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical

  13. Bioinspired Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel del Valle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This editorial summarizes and classifies the contributions presented by different authors to the special issue of the journal Sensors dedicated to Bioinspired Sensor Systems. From the coupling of sensor arrays or networks, plus computer processing abilities, new applications to mimic or to complement human senses are arising in the context of ambient intelligence. Principles used, and illustrative study cases have been presented permitting readers to grasp the current status of the field.

  14. Magnetic actuators and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, John R

    2014-01-01

    An accessible, comprehensive guide on magnetic actuators and sensors, this fully updated second edition of Magnetic Actuators and Sensors includes the latest advances, numerous worked calculations, illustrations, and real-life applications. Covering magnetics, actuators, sensors, and systems, with updates of new technologies and techniques, this exemplary learning tool emphasizes computer-aided design techniques, especially magnetic finite element analysis, commonly used by today's engineers. Detailed calculations, numerous illustrations, and discussions of discrepancies make this text an inva

  15. Perimeter intrusion sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  16. Magnetic moments of multiquark systems and restraints upon the six-quark admixture to the deuteron wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Krivoruchenko, M.I.; Shchepkin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic moment of the six-quark bag with the deuteron quantum numbers is calculated in the chiral bag model taking into account the gluonic and the pionic corrections. For the six-quark bag radius R 6q =1.18-1.38 fm (corresponding to the nucleon bag radius R 3q =0.8-1.0 fm) the magnetic moment equals m D 6q =1.17-1.23 nuclear magnetons. This result together with the deuteron magnetic momentum data provides a restraint upon the six-quark bag admixture in the deuteron P B < or approx. 3%. This value is a few times lower than the probability that two nucleons are in the range r < 1.4 fm. Therefore, it may be interpreted as an evidence for a considerable difference between the properties of the effective bag in the deuteron and of the MIT bag

  17. Fluoxetine reverts chronic restraint stress-induced depression-like behaviour and increases neuropeptide Y and galanin expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren Hofman Oliveira; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2011-01-01

    Stressful life events and chronic stress are implicated in the development of depressive disorder in humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin have been shown to modulate the stress response, and exert antidepressant-like effects in rodents. To further investigate these neuropeptides in depression......-like behaviour, NPY and galanin gene expression was studied in brains of mice subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS) and concomitant treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX). CRS caused a significant increase in depression-like behaviour that was associated with increased NPY mRNA levels...... in the medial amygdala. Concomitant FLX treatment reverted depression-like effects of CRS and led to significant increases in levels of NPY and galanin mRNA in the dentate gyrus, amygdala, and piriform cortex. These findings suggest that effects on NPY and galanin gene expression could play a role...

  18. A novel restraint spraying-Conform process for manufacturing hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with enhanced properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. G.; Yang, H.; Zhang, B. Q.; Liu, Y. L.; Yin, J. C.; Wei, W.; Zhong, Y.

    2017-02-01

    A novel restraint spraying-Conform (RS-C) process, which directly combines spraying with Conform to process metals in one step, has been proposed. Al-20Si alloy selected as experimental material was successfully fabricated by the RS-C process. The microstructures were dominated with fine and uniform primary silicon phases. The tensile strength and elongation to failure of the Al-20Si alloy were 204 MPa and 7.2% respectively after the RS-C process. The wear resistance of the processed Al-20Si alloy was increased significantly, about 1.7 times over the as-cast ingot. The experimental results indicate that RS-C is a promising near net shape forming technology.

  19. Correct use of safety belts and child restraint devices in cars among children in Goiânia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Roberto Medeiros; Felisbino Júnior, Pedro; Braga, Felipe de Moura; da Costa Neto, Sílvio Dias; Belo, Felipe Marques; Reginaldo, Sandro da Silva; de Moraes, Frederico Barra

    2014-01-01

    to conduct an observational study, by means of campaigns, regarding the use of child restraint devices in cars in Goiânia. this was a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample built up as cases arose. The data were gathered into an Excel spreadsheet and were analyzed descriptively and statistically (SPSS 16.0), using chi-square and taking p vehicles were transporting children on the rear seats, and this was being done correctly in 214 vehicles, i.e. 46.72%. In 2006, of the 410 vehicles analyzed, only 90 of them (21.95%) were transporting children correctly (p vehicles, with an improvement of 25% (p media, and because of legal obligations.

  20. Smart sensors and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyung, Chong-Min; Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan

    2015-01-01

     This book describes for readers technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoTs).  The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from MEMS, biological, chemical, and electrical domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc.  Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book will provide a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms.  .

  1. Dynamic Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    ...: Declarative Languages and Execution Environment includes topographical soldier interface and a sensor network simulation environment for algorithm development, deployment planning, and operational support. Finally, Task 3...

  2. Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pavlovsky

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative hydrogen sensor based on palladium (Pd nanoparticle networks is described in the article. Made by Applied Nanotech Inc. sensor has a fast response time, in the range of seconds, which is increased at 80 °C due to higher hydrogen diffusion rates into the palladium lattice. The low detection limit of the sensor is 10 ppm of H2, and the high limit is 40,000 ppm. This is 100% of a lowest flammability level of hydrogen. This range of sensitivities complies with the requirements that one would expect for a reliable hydrogen sensor.

  3. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  4. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C. Cheung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation.

  5. Food-specific response inhibition, dietary restraint and snack intake in lean and overweight/obese adults: a moderated-mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M; Lee, M; Higgs, S

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between response inhibition and obesity is currently unclear. This may be because of inconsistencies in methodology, design limitations and the use of narrow samples. In addition, dietary restraint has not been considered, yet restraint has been reported to moderate performance on behavioural tasks of response inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate performance on both a food-based and a neutral stimuli go/no-go task, which addresses current design limitations, in lean and overweight/obese adults. The moderating role of dietary restraint in the relationship between body composition, response inhibition and snack intake was also measured. Lean and overweight/obese, males and females (N=116) completed both a food-based and neutral category control go/no-go task, in a fully counterbalanced repeated-measures design. A bogus taste-test was then completed, followed by a self-report measure of dietary restraint. PROCESS moderated-mediation analysis showed that overweight/obese, compared with lean, participants made more errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task, but only when they were low in dietary restraint. Performance on the food-based go/no-go task predicted snack intake across the sample. Increased intake in the overweight, low restrainers was fully mediated by increased errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task. Distinguishing between high and low restrained eaters in the overweight/obese population is crucial in future obesity research incorporating food-based go/no-go tasks. Poor response inhibition to food cues predicts overeating across weight groups, suggesting weight loss interventions and obesity prevention programmes should target behavioural inhibition training in such individuals.

  6. Improvement of hydrogen bond geometry in protein NMR structures by residual dipolar couplings - an assessment of the interrelation of NMR restraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Pernille Rose; Axelsen, Jacob Bock [University of Copenhagen, Institute of Molecular Biology (Denmark); Lerche, Mathilde Hauge [Amersham Health (Sweden); Poulsen, Flemming M. [University of Copenhagen, Institute of Molecular Biology (Denmark)], E-mail: fmp@apk.molbio.ku.dk

    2004-01-15

    We have examined how the hydrogen bond geometry in three different proteins is affected when structural restraints based on measurements of residual dipolar couplings are included in the structure calculations. The study shows, that including restraints based solely on {sup 1}H{sup N}-{sup 15}N residual dipolar couplings has pronounced impact on the backbone rmsd and Ramachandran plot but does not improve the hydrogen bond geometry. In the case of chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 the addition of {sup 13}CO-{sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} and {sup 15}N-{sup 13}CO one bond dipolar couplings as restraints in the structure calculations improved the hydrogen bond geometry to a quality comparable to that obtained in the 1.8 A resolution X-ray structure of this protein. A systematic restraint study was performed, in which four types of restraints, residual dipolar couplings, hydrogen bonds, TALOS angles and NOEs, were allowed in two states. This study revealed the importance of using several types of residual dipolar couplings to get good hydrogen bond geometry. The study also showed that using a small set of NOEs derived only from the amide protons, together with a full set of residual dipolar couplings resulted in structures of very high quality. When reducing the NOE set, it is mainly the side-chain to side-chain NOEs that are removed. Despite of this the effect on the side-chain packing is very small when a reduced NOE set is used, which implies that the over all fold of a protein structure is mainly determined by correct folding of the backbone.

  7. RosettaTMH: a method for membrane protein structure elucidation combining EPR distance restraints with assembly of transmembrane helices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Leaver-Fay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins make up approximately one third of all proteins, and they play key roles in a plethora of physiological processes. However, membrane proteins make up less than 2% of experimentally determined structures, despite significant advances in structure determination methods, such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy. One potential alternative means of structure elucidation is to combine computational methods with experimental EPR data. In 2011, Hirst and others introduced RosettaEPR and demonstrated that this approach could be successfully applied to fold soluble proteins. Furthermore, few computational methods for de novo folding of integral membrane proteins have been presented. In this work, we present RosettaTMH, a novel algorithm for structure prediction of helical membrane proteins. A benchmark set of 34 proteins, in which the proteins ranged in size from 91 to 565 residues, was used to compare RosettaTMH to Rosetta’s two existing membrane protein folding protocols: the published RosettaMembrane folding protocol (“MembraneAbinitio” and folding from an extended chain (“ExtendedChain”. When EPR distance restraints are used, RosettaTMH+EPR outperforms ExtendedChain+EPR for 11 proteins, including the largest six proteins tested. RosettaTMH+EPR is capable of achieving native-like folds for 30 of 34 proteins tested, including receptors and transporters. For example, the average RMSD100SSE relative to the crystal structure for rhodopsin was 6.1 ± 0.4 Å and 6.5 ± 0.6 Å for the 449-residue nitric oxide reductase subunit B, where the standard deviation reflects variance in RMSD100SSE values across ten different EPR distance restraint sets. The addition of RosettaTMH and RosettaTMH+EPR to the Rosetta family of de novo folding methods broadens the scope of helical membrane proteins that can be accurately modeled with this software suite.

  8. Akebia quinata Decaisne aqueous extract acts as a novel anti-fatigue agent in mice exposed to chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Haeng; Jang, Seol; Lee, Si Woo; Park, Sun Dong; Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2018-08-10

    Akebia quinata Decaisne extract (AQE; Lardizabalaceae) is used in traditional herbal medicine for stress- and fatigue-related depression, improvement of fatigue, and mental relaxation. To clarify the effects of AQE on stress-induced fatigue, we investigated the neuroprotective pharmacological effects of A. quinata Decaisne in mice exposed to chronic restraint stress. Seven-week old C57BL/6 mice chronically stressed by immobilization for 3 h daily for 15 d and non-stressed control mice underwent daily oral administration of AQE or distilled water. The open field, sucrose preference, and forced swimming behavioral tests were carried out once weekly, and immunohistochemical analyses of NeuN, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, and BDNF receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in striatum and hippocampus were performed at the end of the experimental period. Brain levels of serotonin, adrenaline, and noradrenaline as well as serum levels of corticosterone were measured. Behavioral tests showed that treatment with AQE improved all lethargic behaviors examined. AQE significantly attenuated the elevated levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and serotonin in the brain and corticosterone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase levels in the serum. Histopathological analysis showed that AQE reduced liver injury and lateral ventricle size in restraint-stress mice via inhibition of neuronal cell death. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased phosphorylation of CREB and expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in striatum and hippocampus. Chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, and isochlorogenic acid C were identified as the primary components of AQE. All three agents increased expression of BDNF in SH-SY5Y cells and PC12 cells with H 2 O 2 -induced neuronal cell damage. AQE may have a neuroprotective effect and ameliorate the effects of stress and fatigue-associated brain damage through

  9. Role of sex steroids in progesterone and corticosterone response to acute restraint stress in rats: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, B; Leite, C M; Carvalho-Lima, M; Anselmo-Franci, J A

    2013-07-01

    Adrenal progesterone secretion increases along with corticosterone in response to stress in male and female rats to modulate some stress responses. Here we investigated the role of sex steroids in sex differences in the progesterone response to 60 min of restraint stress in adult male and female rats. Comparisons between males and females in the progesterone response were evaluated in parallel with corticosterone responses. From day 5 to 7 after gonadectomy, female and male rats were treated with estradiol or testosterone, respectively (OVX-E and ORCH-T groups), or oil (OVX and ORCH groups). Female rats in proestrus, intact and 7 d adrenalectomized (ADX) male rats were also studied. At 10:00 h, blood samples were withdrawn via an implanted jugular cannula before (-5 min), during (15, 30, 45, 60 min) and after (90 and 120 min) restraint stress to measure plasma progesterone and corticosterone concentrations by radioimmunoassay. Intact male and proestrus female rats exhibited similar progesterone responses to stress. Gonadectomy did not alter the amount of progesterone secreted during stress in female rats but decreased secretion in male rats. Unlike corticosterone, the progesterone response to stress in females was not influenced by estradiol. In males, testosterone replacement attenuated the progesterone and corticosterone responses to stress. Basal secretion of progesterone among intact, ORCH and ADX males was similar, but ADX-stressed rats secreted little progesterone. Hence, the gonads differently modulate adrenal progesterone and corticosterone responses to stress in female and male rats. The ovaries enhance corticosterone but not progesterone secretion, while the testes stimulate progesterone but not corticosterone secretion.

  10. Chronic exercise prevents repeated restraint stress-provoked enhancement of immobility in forced swimming test in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Jang-Kyu; Leem, Yea-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    We assessed whether chronic treadmill exercise attenuated the depressive phenotype induced by restraint stress in ovariectomized mice (OVX). Immobility of OVX in the forced swimming test was comparable to that of sham mice (CON) regardless of the postoperative time. Immobility was also no difference between restrained mice (exposure to periodic restraint for 21 days; RST) and control mice (CON) on post-exposure 2nd and 9th day, but not 15th day. In contrast, the immobility of ovariectomized mice with repeated stress (OVX + RST) was profoundly enhanced compared to ovariectomized mice-alone (OVX), and this effect was reversed by chronic exercise (19 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks; OVX + RST + Ex) or fluoxetine administration (20 mg/kg, OVX + RST + Flu). In parallel with behavioral data, the immunoreactivity of Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX) in OVX was significantly decreased by repeated stress. However, the reduced numbers of Ki-67- and DCX-positive cells in OVX + RST were restored in response to chronic exercise (OVX + RST + Ex) and fluoxetine (OVX + RST + Flu). In addition, the expression pattern of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) was similar to that of the hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis markers (Ki-67 and DCX, respectively). These results suggest that menopausal depression may be induced by an interaction between repeated stress and low hormone levels, rather than a deficit in ovarian secretion alone, which can be improved by chronic exercise.

  11. Activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptors enhances glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus of prenatally restraint stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Jérôme; Gatta, Eleonora; Reynaert, Marie-Line; Marrocco, Jordan; Morley-Fletcher, Sara; Soichot, Marion; Deruyter, Lucie; Camp, Gilles Van; Bouwalerh, Hammou; Fagioli, Francesca; Pittaluga, Anna; Allorge, Delphine; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Maccari, Stefania

    2015-12-01

    Oxytocin receptors are known to modulate synaptic transmission and network activity in the hippocampus, but their precise function has been only partially elucidated. Here, we have found that activation of presynaptic oxytocin receptor with the potent agonist, carbetocin, enhanced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus with no effect on GABA release. This evidence paved the way for examining the effect of carbetocin treatment in "prenatally restraint stressed" (PRS) rats, i.e., the offspring of dams exposed to repeated episodes of restraint stress during pregnancy. Adult PRS rats exhibit an anxious/depressive-like phenotype associated with an abnormal glucocorticoid feedback regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and, remarkably, with a reduced depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus. Chronic systemic treatment with carbetocin (1mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 2-3 weeks) in PRS rats corrected the defect in glutamate release, anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, and abnormalities in social behavior, in the HPA response to stress, and in the expression of stress-related genes in the hippocampus and amygdala. Of note, carbetocin treatment had no effect on these behavioral and neuroendocrine parameters in prenatally unstressed (control) rats, with the exception of a reduced expression of the oxytocin receptor gene in the amygdala. These findings disclose a novel function of oxytocin receptors in the hippocampus, and encourage the use of oxytocin receptor agonists in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders in adult life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microelectronic temperature sensor; silicon temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitner, M.; Kanert, W.; Reichert, H.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a silicon temperature sensor with a sensitivity and a reliability as high and a tolerance as small as possible, for use in measurement and control. By employing the principle of spreading-resistance, using silicon doped by neutron transmutation, and trimming of the single wafer tolerances of resistance less than +- 5% can be obtained; overstress tests yielded a long-term stability better than 0.2%. Some applications show the advantageous use of this sensor. (orig.) [de

  13. Medical Sensor Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob

    researchers have been developing power-efficient security mechanisms for sensor networks. However, most of this work ignores the special usability demands from the clinical use-scenarios: set-up must be fast, and key pre-distribution is problematic if disposable sensors are discarded after being used for only...

  14. Sensors in Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Sensors rapidly become available both for personal as well as scientific use. A wide range of applications exists for personal use e.g. safety in and around the house, sport, fitness and health. In this workshop we will explore how sensors are (can be) used in education. We start with an

  15. Nanophotonic Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Yu, Yan; Cumming, David R S

    2016-09-01

    The increasing miniaturization and resolution of image sensors bring challenges to conventional optical elements such as spectral filters and polarizers, the properties of which are determined mainly by the materials used, including dye polymers. Recent developments in spectral filtering and optical manipulating techniques based on nanophotonics have opened up the possibility of an alternative method to control light spectrally and spatially. By integrating these technologies into image sensors, it will become possible to achieve high compactness, improved process compatibility, robust stability and tunable functionality. In this Review, recent representative achievements on nanophotonic image sensors are presented and analyzed including image sensors with nanophotonic color filters and polarizers, metamaterial-based THz image sensors, filter-free nanowire image sensors and nanostructured-based multispectral image sensors. This novel combination of cutting edge photonics research and well-developed commercial products may not only lead to an important application of nanophotonics but also offer great potential for next generation image sensors beyond Moore's Law expectations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Sensor technology foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Jørgensen, Birte Holst; Rasmussen, Birgitte

    2001-01-01

    heavily impacted by new sensor technology. It also appears that new sensor technology will affect food processing and the environment sector. Some impact is made on sectors such as agriculture, chemical engineering, domestic and otherappliances, security and defence, transport, and energy. Less impact...

  17. ALC Rooftop Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an... Interior view of the new sensor box ...................................................... 3 Fig. 4 Interior of original sensor box...7 Fig. 10 Interior of fiber patch panel .................................................................. 7 Fig. 11

  18. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  19. Magnetic sensor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a sensor device and a method for detg. the presence and/or amt. of target moieties in a sample fluid, the target moieties being labeled with magnetic or magnetizable objects. The sensor device comprises a magnetic field generating means adapted for applying a retention

  20. Aggregating Linked Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stasch, Christoph; Schade, Sven; Llaves, Alejandro; Janowicz, K.; Bröring, Arne; Taylor, Kerry; Ayyagari, Arun; De Roure, David

    2011-01-01

    Sensor observations are usually oered in relation to a specific purpose, e.g., for reporting fine dust emissions, following strict procedures, and spatio-temporal scales. Consequently, the huge amount of data gathered by today's public and private sensor networks is most often not reused outside of