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Sample records for preconception diet influencing

  1. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio, or the ratio of boys to girls at birth, have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews et al. ["You are what your mother eats: Evidence for maternal preconception diet

  2. Early-life influences on obesity: from preconception to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Krawetz, Stephen A; Rizzo, Nico S; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Szymanski, Linda M; Barkin, Shari; Yatkine, Ann; Waterland, Robert A; Mennella, Julie A; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Krebs, Nancy F; Young, Bridget E; Wardle, Jane; Wrann, Christiane D; Kral, John G

    2015-07-01

    The double burden of under- and overnutrition profoundly affects human health globally. According to the World Health Organization, obesity and diabetes rates have almost doubled worldwide since 1980, and, in 2011, more than 40 million children under 5 years of age were overweight. Ecologic factors, parental genetics and fitness, and the intrauterine environment significantly influence the likelihood of offspring developing the dysmetabolic diathesis of obesity. This report examines the effects of these factors, including preconception, intrauterine and postnatal energy balance affecting programming of transgenerational transmission, and development of chronic diseases later in life-in particular, diabesity and its comorbidities. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Embryonic developmental plasticity in the long-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus reidi, Ginsburg 1933) in relation to parental preconception diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Ferrer, Francisco; Izquierdo, Marisol; Fazeli, Alireza; Holt, William V

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that parental periconception nutrition in adult seahorses affects the development and growth of their offspring. We tested the hypothesis that because seahorse embryos develop inside the male's brood pouch, manipulation of the male's diet would affect offspring growth and development independently of the female's diet. Adult males and females were fed separately with either wild-caught crustaceans or commercial aquarium diet for 1 month before conception to influence the periconception environment. Approximately 10000 offspring were obtained from four different treatment groups (Male/Wild or Male/Commercial×Female/Wild or Female/Commercial). Weights, physical dimensions and fatty acid profiles of the newborns were determined. Offspring produced when the males receiving commercial diet were mated with wild-fed females were larger (P<0.05) than those produced by wild-fed males. When both males and females were fed with commercial diet, their offspring were significantly smaller than those from the other treatment groups. When commercial diet-fed females were mated with wild-fed males, the offspring showed distortion of the snout:head length ratio. These results support the view that the preconception diet received by males and females differentially affects embryonic development.

  4. Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  5. PRE-CONCEPTIONAL PREPARATION OF WOMEN AND ITS INFLUENCE TO THE FETUS AND CHILD HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Nisevich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presented the results of the medical history, monitoring of the pregnancy and outcome of the delivery among 260 women with obstetric gynecologic anamnesis record and high risk of the fetus contamination split into 3 groups. 106 women (group I underwent the pre con ceptional preparation 2 to 4 months prior to pregnancy and received both conventional therapy and metabolic medications prior to and during pregnancy. 82 women (group II were observed from 2nd to 3rd trimester of pregnancy and also received metabolic medications. 72 women (group III were observed from the first weeks of pregnancy and received only conventional therapy during their pregnancy. The researchers discovered that all the women had different chronic diseases. The laboratory examination proved there was a high rate of contamination by different viruses and agents of sexually transmitted diseases. They also found out that the metabolic therapy during the pre con ceptional preparation and pregnancy leads to a drastic drop of different complications during pregnancy, delivery and down lying period, improves placenta function and optimizes the fetus development conditions, sizably reduces any chances of the fetus and newborn intrauterine infection, enhances the newborn adaptation and leads to reductions in the perinatal and infant mortality. Ever deteriorating health of women and various complications during pregnancy and delivery registered among the women, who underwent pre con ceptional preparation by metabolic correction, clearly show the necessity to take steps to prevent the women's diseases and keep their reproductive health from adolescence on.Key words: pre-conceptional preparation, metabolic medications, pregnancy, act of delivery, newborns, fetal infection, perinatal death.

  6. Preconception Care and Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Preconception Care and Prenatal Care What is preconception care? Preconception care is the ... improve the health of your child. What is prenatal care? Prenatal care is the health care a woman ...

  7. Preconceptions influence women’s perceptions of information on breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Brodersen, John

    2015-01-01

    condensation for our initial analysis, and further analysis was guided by the theory of cognitive dissonance. Results: For our participants, the decision-making process was dominated by the attitudes of the women’s circle of acquaintances and, to a lesser extent, by the information that accompanied...... screening. However, very little attention has been paid to the decision-making process and how the information leaflets are used and understood by women. The aim of this study is twofold. First, we use a theoretical framework to explore how the framing of information influences theintention to participate...... invitation toparticipate in the breast screening programme in Denmark. The selected women received a copy of the official information leaflet 1 week before we interviewed them. The six women were interviewed individually using an interviewguide based on the theory of planned behaviour. We used meaning...

  8. The clinical content of preconception care: nutrition and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paula M; Nelson, Lauren; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Dunlop, Anne L; Long, Richard; Andrist, Sara; Jack, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    Women of child-bearing age should achieve and maintain good nutritional status prior to conception to help minimize health risks to both mothers and infants. Many women may not be aware of the importance of preconception nutrition and supplementation or have access to nutrition information. Health care providers should be knowledgeable about preconception/pregnancy-related nutrition and take the initiative to discuss this information during preconception counseling. Women of reproductive age should be counseled to consume a well-balanced diet including fruits and vegetables, iron and calcium-rich foods, and protein-containing foods as well as 400 microg of folic acid daily. More research is critically needed on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and the role of obesity in birth outcomes. Preconception counseling is the perfect opportunity for the health care provider to discuss a healthy eating guideline, dietary supplement intake, and maintaining a healthy weight status.

  9. From concept to practice: reflections on the preconception health agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Merry-K

    2010-03-01

    Interest in preconceptional healthcare was advanced by release of the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its Select Panel on Preconception Care in 2006. With increasing interest, apprehension surfaced from healthcare professionals, women, and the public at large. The most common themes of concerns are that an emphasis on preconception care is pronatalist, unnecessary, exclusive of men, framed too narrowly, doomed to failure because of competing clinical demands and influences, and involves a vocabulary that is meaningless to the public. This article explores the themes and argues that none of them are fatal to moving forward with a preconception agenda-rather, they should stimulate thoughtful response, careful framing, and vigilance for unintended consequences related to restructuring the basic perinatal prevention paradigm from a prenatal care approach to a women's wellness model.

  10. How does Diet influence Behavior and Neuroinflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bettina Merete Pyndt; Hansen, Julie Torpe; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup

    , and behavior in order to generate knowledge enabling researchers to increase the number of responders when inducing these models using environmental modulation. The hypothesis is that a diet-induced change in GM composition can induce a cytokine mediated low-grade neuroinflammation, which is also observed...... to a systemic rise in proinflammatory cytokines, thereby inducing neuroinflammation. In the burrowing test the mice on control diet burrowed significantly more bedding out of the burrow (p=0.02). However, after the test it was noticed that the mice on sugar diet had been digging several places within the cage...

  11. Diet may influence the oral microbiome composition in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Christina J; Malik, Richard; Browne, Gina V; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-09

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent amongst domestic cats, causing pain, gingival bleeding, reduced food intake, loss of teeth and possibly impacts on overall systemic health. Diet has been suggested to play a role in the development of periodontal disease in cats. There is a complete lack of information about how diet (composition and texture) affects the feline oral microbiome, the composition of which may influence oral health and the development of periodontal disease. We undertook a pilot study to assess if lifelong feeding of dry extruded kibble or wet (canned and/or fresh meat combinations) diets to cats (n = 10) with variable oral health affected the microbiome. Oral microbiome composition was assessed by amplifying the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene from supragingival dental plaque DNA extracts. These amplicons were sequenced using Illumina technology. This deep sequencing revealed the feline oral microbiome to be diverse, containing 411 bacterial species from 14 phyla. We found that diet had a significant influence on the overall diversity and abundance of specific bacteria in the oral environment. Cats fed a dry diet exclusively had higher bacterial diversity in their oral microbiome than wet-food diet cats (p microbiome between cats on the two diets assessed, the relationship between these differences and gingival health was unclear. Our preliminary results indicate that further analysis of the influence of dietary constituents and texture on the feline oral microbiome is required to reveal the relationship between diet, the oral microbiome and gingival health in cats.

  12. Diet may influence the oral microbiome composition in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Christina J.; Malik, Richard; Browne, Gina V.; Norris, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is highly prevalent amongst domestic cats, causing pain, gingival bleeding, reduced food intake, loss of teeth and possibly impacts on overall systemic health. Diet has been suggested to play a role in the development of periodontal disease in cats. There is a complete lack of information about how diet (composition and texture) affects the feline oral microbiome, the composition of which may influence oral health and the development of periodontal disease. We u...

  13. Maternal preconception diet and the sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, J.S.; Lumey, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal variations in the sex ratio or the ratio of boys over girls at birth have been widely studied and variously attributed to social changes, conditions of war, and environmental changes. Recently, Mathews, Johnson and Neil (2008) studied the direct evidence of individual pregnancies and

  14. Role of Diet in Influencing Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badsha, Humeira

    2018-01-01

    Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA. Some benefits of vegan diet may be explained by antioxidant constituents, lactobacilli and fibre, and by potential changes in intestinal flora. Similarly, Mediterranean diet shows anti-inflammatory effects due to protective properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins, but also by influencing the gut microbiome. Gluten-free and elemental diets have been associated with some benefits in RA though the existing evidence is limited. Long-term intake of fish and other sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are protective for development of RA. The benefits of fasting, anti-oxidant supplementation, flavanoids, and probiotics in RA are not clear. Vitamin D has been shown to influence autoimmunity and specifically decrease RA disease activity. The role of supplements such as fish oils and vitamin D should be explored in future trials to gain new insights in disease pathogenesis and develop RA-specific dietary recommendations. Conclusion: Specifically more research is needed to explore the association of diet and the gut microbiome and how this can influence RA disease activity. PMID:29515679

  15. The pharmacist's role in promoting preconception health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ibiary, Shareen Y; Raney, Erin C; Moos, Merry-K

    2014-01-01

    To review the pharmacist's role in preconception health. PubMed search using the terms preconception, immunizations, epilepsy, diabetes, depression, tobacco, asthma, hypertension, anticoagulation, pharmacist, pregnancy, and current national guidelines. Preconception health has become recognized as an important public health focus to improve pregnancy outcomes. Pharmacists have a unique role as accessible health care providers to optimize preconception health by screening women for tobacco use, appropriate immunizations, and current medication use. Counseling patients on preconception risk factors and adequate folic acid supplementation as well as providing recommendations for safe and effective management of chronic conditions are also critical and within the scope of practice for pharmacists. Pharmacists play an important role in medication screening, chronic disease state management, and preconception planning to aid women in preparing for healthy pregnancies.

  16. The ketogenic diet: metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A dietary therapy for pediatric epilepsy known as the ketogenic diet has seen a revival in its clinical use in the past decade. Though the diet’s underlying mechanism remains unknown, modern scientific approaches like genetic disruption of glucose metabolism are allowing for more detailed questions to be addressed. Recent work indicates that several mechanisms may exist for the ketogenic diet including disruption of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, inhibition of glycolysis, and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Here we describe on-going work in these areas that is providing a better understanding of metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy. PMID:23228828

  17. Women's attitudes towards a pre-conception healthy lifestyle programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, K L; LeBlanc, E S; Vesco, K K; Stevens, V J

    2015-04-01

    Nearly half of US women begin pregnancy overweight or obese and more than half of overweight or obese pregnant women experience excessive gestational weight gain. Recent lifestyle intervention programmes have helped women avoid excessive weight gain during pregnancy, but helping women lose weight before pregnancy may be a more effective way to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed women's attitudes towards pre-conception diet and weight management interventions. An anonymous survey was conducted in patients waiting in a health maintenance organization's obstetrics and primary care waiting rooms. It focused on attitudes towards participating in a pre-conception, lifestyle change programme. Eighty percent of the 126 women surveyed were pregnant or considering pregnancy within 5 years. Of the 126 respondents, 60 (48%) were overweight or obese. Of these, 96% rated healthy diet and healthy weight before pregnancy as very important or important and 77% favoured a healthy lifestyle programme (diet, weight management and physical activity) before becoming pregnant. Likewise, overweight or obese women reported being likely or highly likely to participate in specific intervention programme aspects such as keeping phone appointments (77%), using a programme website (70%) and keeping food and exercise records (63%). Survey results show that women in this population believe that adopting a healthy lifestyle and losing weight are important before pregnancy and that they are enthusiastic about programmes that will help them achieve those goals in preparation for pregnancy. © 2015 World Obesity.

  18. Preconception healthcare delivery at a population level: construction of public health models of preconception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Alberg, Corinna; Nacul, Luis; Pashayan, Nora

    2014-08-01

    A key challenge of preconception healthcare is identifying how it can best be delivered at a population level. To review current strategies of preconception healthcare, explore methods of preconception healthcare delivery, and develop public health models which reflect different preconception healthcare pathways. Preconception care strategies, programmes and evaluations were identified through a review of Medline and Embase databases. Search terms included: preconception, pre-pregnancy, intervention, primary care, healthcare, model, delivery, program, prevention, trial, effectiveness, congenital disorders OR abnormalities, evaluation, assessment, impact. Inclusion criteria for review articles were: (1) English, (2) human subjects, (3) women of childbearing age, (4) 1980–current data, (5) all countries, (6) both high risk and universal approaches, (7) guidelines or recommendations, (8) opinion articles, (9) experimental studies. Exclusion criteria were: (1) non-human subjects, (2) non-English, (3) outside of the specified timeframe, (4) articles on male healthcare. The results of the literature review were synthesised into public health models of care: (1) primary care; (2) hospital-based and inter-conception care; (3) specific preconception care clinics; and, (4) community outreach. Fifteen evaluations of preconception care were identified. Community programmes demonstrated a significant impact on substance use, folic acid supplementation, diabetes optimization, and hyperphenylalaninemia. An ideal preconception visits entail risk screening, education, and intervention if indicated. Subsequently, four public health models were developed synthesizing preconception care delivery at a population level. Heterogeneity of risk factors, health systems and strategies of care reflect the lack of consensus about the best way to deliver preconception care. The proposed models aim to reflect differing aspects of preconception healthcare delivery.

  19. Before the beginning: nutrition and lifestyle in the preconception period and its importance for future health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Judith; Heslehurst, Nicola; Hall, Jennifer; Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Hutchinson, Jayne; Cade, Janet E; Poston, Lucilla; Barrett, Geraldine; Crozier, Sarah R; Barker, Mary; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Baird, Janis; Mishra, Gita D

    2018-05-05

    A woman who is healthy at the time of conception is more likely to have a successful pregnancy and a healthy child. We reviewed published evidence and present new data from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries on the timing and importance of preconception health for subsequent maternal and child health. We describe the extent to which pregnancy is planned, and whether planning is linked to preconception health behaviours. Observational studies show strong links between health before pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes, with consequences that can extend across generations, but awareness of these links is not widespread. Poor nutrition and obesity are rife among women of reproductive age, and differences between high-income and low-income countries have become less distinct, with typical diets falling far short of nutritional recommendations in both settings and especially among adolescents. Several studies show that micronutrient supplementation starting in pregnancy can correct important maternal nutrient deficiencies, but effects on child health outcomes are disappointing. Other interventions to improve diet during pregnancy have had little effect on maternal and newborn health outcomes. Comparatively few interventions have been made for preconception diet and lifestyle. Improvements in the measurement of pregnancy planning have quantified the degree of pregnancy planning and suggest that it is more common than previously recognised. Planning for pregnancy is associated with a mixed pattern of health behaviours before conception. We propose novel definitions of the preconception period relating to embryo development and actions at individual or population level. A sharper focus on intervention before conception is needed to improve maternal and child health and reduce the growing burden of non-communicable diseases. Alongside continued efforts to reduce smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity in the population, we call for heightened

  20. Consumers' perceptions of preconception health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squiers, Linda; Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Levis, Denise M; Lynch, Molly; Dolina, Suzanne; Margolis, Marjorie; Scales, Monica; Kish-Doto, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To inform the development of a preconception health (PCH) social marketing plan, we conducted qualitative research with prospective consumers. We present formative findings based on the four Ps of social marketing: product, price, promotion, and place. We conducted focus groups with 10 groups of women in Atlanta, Georgia, in fall 2010. We classified women aged 18 to 44 into five groups based on their pregnancy plans, and then further segmented the groups based on socioeconomic status for a total of 10 groups. The focus group guide was designed to elicit participants' responses about the product, price, promotion, and placement of PCH. We used NVivo 9 software to analyze focus group data. Women planning a pregnancy in the future had different perspectives on PCH as a product than women not planning a pregnancy. Barriers to PCH included lack of social support, addiction, and lack of awareness about PCH. Participants preferred to think of PCH behaviors as "promoting" a healthy baby rather than preventing an unhealthy birth outcome. Many women in the focus groups preferred to hear PCH messages from a health care provider, among other channels. The results from this research will inform the development of a social marketing plan for PCH and the development of concepts that will be tested with consumers to determine their viability for use in a national campaign.

  1. Influences on the quality of young children's diets: the importance of maternal food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Catherine M; Crozier, Sarah R; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân M

    2011-01-01

    It is recognised that eating habits established in early childhood may track into adult life. Developing effective interventions to promote healthier patterns of eating throughout the life course requires a greater understanding of the diets of young children and the factors that influence early dietary patterns. In a longitudinal UK cohort study, we assessed the diets of 1640 children at age 3 years using an interviewer-administered FFQ and examined the influence of maternal and family factors on the quality of the children's diets. To describe dietary quality, we used a principal components analysis-defined pattern of foods that is consistent with healthy eating recommendations. This was termed a 'prudent' diet pattern and was characterised by high intakes of fruit, vegetables and wholemeal bread, but by low intakes of white bread, confectionery, chips and roast potatoes. The key influence on the quality of the children's diets was the quality of their mother's diets; alone it accounted for almost a third of the variance in child's dietary quality. Mothers who had better-quality diets, which complied with dietary recommendations, were more likely to have children with comparable diets. This relationship remained strong even after adjustment for all other factors considered, including maternal educational attainment, BMI and smoking, and the child's birth order and the time spent watching television. Our data provide strong evidence of shared family patterns of diet and suggest that interventions to improve the quality of young women's diets could be effective in improving the quality of their children's diets.

  2. Pre-conception counselling in primary care: Prevalence of risk factors among couples contemplating pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal van der-Bruin, K.M. de; Cessie, S. le; Elsinga, J.; Jong de-Potjer, L.C.; Haeringen, A. van; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Assendelft, P.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of pregnancy can be influenced by several risk factors. Women who are informed about these risks during pre-conception counselling (PCC) have an opportunity to take preventive measures in time. Several studies have shown that high-risk populations have a high prevalence of such risk

  3. Nutrition myths - the factor influencing the quality of children's diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slávka Mrosková

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the influence of parents' belief in nutrition myths on the frequency of their serving certain foods to their children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Survey carried out with 297 respondents - parents of children aged 5-18 years. The data collection took place between September 2013 and December 2014. The questionnaire focussed on 14 nutrition myths related to selected foods (milk, dairy products, meat, offal, fruit, vegetables, eggs, fish, legumes, soya, and flour dishes. At the same time, the parents reported the frequency of their serving the monitored foods to their children. In the statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used. Results: For nine nutrition myths we found significant negative coefficients between a certain nutrition myth and the frequency of the serving of the food. The nutrition myths related to the consumption of fish (r = -0.328, eggs (r = -0.203, soya (r = -0.301; -0.290, offal (r = -0.155, meat (r = -0.128, milk (r = -0.272; -0.254, and fruit/vegetables (r = -0.104. Conclusion: The belief in nutrition myths appears to be a determinant modifying parental behaviour and subsequently the quality of children's diets.

  4. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  5. Social marketing: planning before conceiving preconception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Christine E; Daniel, Katherine Lyon

    2006-09-01

    Social marketing approaches can help to shape the formation of and to create demand for preconception care services. This article describes four components of social marketing, often referred to as the 4 P's, that should be carefully researched and set in place before a national effort to launch and sustain preconception care services is pursued. First, the product or package of services must be defined and adapted using the latest in scientific and health care standards and must be based on consumer needs and desires. Second, the pricing of the services in financial or opportunity costs must be acceptable to the consumer, insurers, and health care service providers. Third, the promotion of benefits must be carefully crafted to reach and appeal to both consumers and providers. Fourth, the placement and availability of services in the marketplace must be researched and planned. With the application of market research practices that incorporate health behavior theories in their exploration of each component, consumer demand for preconception care can be generated, and providers can take preconception care to the market with confidence.

  6. Students' Persistent Preconceptions and Learning Economic Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busom, Isabel; Lopez-Mayan, Cristina; Panadés, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Economic views held by the general public tend to differ significantly from those of economic experts. Would these differences fade away if people were exposed to some economic instruction? In this article, the authors identify college students' preconceptions about economic issues at the beginning of the semester, verify their persistence…

  7. Me? Have a Baby? Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  8. Me? Have Another Baby? Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  9. Maternal stress and psychological distress preconception: association with offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, S R; Healy, E; Robinson, S M; Harvey, N C; Cooper, C; Inskip, H M; Baird, J; Godfrey, K M

    2017-06-01

    Perinatal maternal stress and low mood have been linked to offspring atopic eczema. To examine the relation of maternal stress/mood with atopic eczema in the offspring, focusing particularly on stress/psychological distress preconception. At recruitment in the UK Southampton Women's Survey, preconception maternal reports of perceived stress in daily living and the effect of stress on health were recorded; in a subsample, psychological distress was assessed (12-item General Health Questionnaire). Infants were followed up at ages 6 (n = 2956) and 12 (n = 2872) months and atopic eczema ascertained (based on UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). At 6 months post-partum, mothers were asked if they had experienced symptoms of low mood since childbirth and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Preconception perceived stress affecting health [OR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08-1.35), P = 0.001] and stress in daily living [OR 1.16 (1.03-1.30), P = 0.014] were associated with an increased risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months but not at 6 months, robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Findings were similar for maternal psychological distress preconception. Low maternal mood between delivery and 6 months post-partum was associated with an increased risk of infantile atopic eczema at age 12 months, but no significant association between post-natal mood and atopic eczema was seen after taking account of preconception stress. Our data provide novel evidence linking maternal stress at preconception to atopic eczema risk, supporting a developmental contribution to the aetiology of atopic eczema and pointing to potentially modifiable influences. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNiro, M.J.; Epstein, S.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals was investigated by analyzing animals grown in the laboratory on diets of constant nitrogen isotopic composition. The isotopic composition of the nitrogen in an animal reflects the nitrogen isotopic composition of its diet. The delta 15 N values of the whole bodies of animals are usually more positive than those of their diets. Different individuals of a species raised on the same diet can have significantly different delta 15 N values. The variability of the relationship between the delta 15 N values of animals and their diets is greater for different species raised on the same diet than for the same species raised on different diets. Different tissues of mice are also enriched in 15 N relative to the diet, with the difference between the delta 15 N values of a tissue and the diet depending on both the kind of tissue and the diet involved. The delta 15 N values of collagen and chitin, biochemical components that are often preserved in fossil animal remains, are also related to the delta 15 N value of the diet. The dependence of the delta 15 N values of whole animals and their tissues and biochemical components on the delta 15 N value of diet indicates that the isotopic composition of animal nitrogen can be used to obtain information about an animal's diet if its potential food sources had different delta 15 N values. The isotopic method of dietary analysis was used to reconstruct changes in the diet of the human population that occupied the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico over a 7000 yr span. Variations in the delta 13 C and delta 15 N values of bone collagen suggest that C 4 and/or CAM plants (presumably mostly corn) and legumes (presumably mostly beans) were introduced into the diet much earlier than suggested by conventional archaeological analysis. (author)

  11. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention or standard care (control. Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12 and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48 occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake (p = 0.03, specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA (p = 0.045 with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06. There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  12. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Tsagareli, Victoria; Noakes, Manny; Norman, Robert

    2016-01-04

    Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention) or standard care (control). Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12) and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48) occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (p = 0.03), specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.045) with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06). There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  13. Diet strongly influences the gut microbiota of surgeonfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Miyake, Sou

    2015-01-20

    Intestinal tracts are among the most densely populated microbial ecosystems. Gut microbiota and their influence on the host have been well characterized in terrestrial vertebrates but much less so in fish. This is especially true for coral reef fishes, which are among the most abundant groups of vertebrates on earth. Surgeonfishes (family: Acanthuridae) are part of a large and diverse family of reef fish that display a wide range of feeding behaviours, which in turn has a strong impact on the reef ecology. Here, we studied the composition of the gut microbiota of nine surgeonfish and three nonsurgeonfish species from the Red Sea. High-throughput pyrosequencing results showed that members of the phylum Firmicutes, especially of the genus Epulopiscium, were dominant in the gut microbiota of seven surgeonfishes. Even so, there were large inter- and intraspecies differences in the diversity of surgeonfish microbiota. Replicates of the same host species shared only a small number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), although these accounted for most of the sequences. There was a statistically significant correlation between the phylogeny of the host and their gut microbiota, but the two were not completely congruent. Notably, the gut microbiota of three nonsurgeonfish species clustered with some surgeonfish species. The microbiota of the macro- and microalgavores was distinct, while the microbiota of the others (carnivores, omnivores and detritivores) seemed to be transient and dynamic. Despite some anomalies, both host phylogeny and diet were important drivers for the intestinal microbial community structure of surgeonfishes from the Red Sea. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Labayen, I; Jago, R; Martínez-Gómez, D; Dallongeville, J; Bel-Serrat, S; Marcos, A; Manios, Y; Breidenassel, C; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Ferrari, M; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n = 1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake was registered using a 24-h recall and a diet quality index was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Lifestyle groups were computed as: healthy diet and active, unhealthy diet but active, healthy diet but inactive, and unhealthy diet and inactive. CVD risk factor measurements included cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity indicators, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. A CVD risk score was computed. The healthy diet and active group had a healthier cardiorespiratory profile, fat mass index (FMI), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (all P ≤ 0.05). Overall, active adolescents showed higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower FMI, TC/HDL-C ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index and healthier blood pressure than their inactive peers with either healthy or unhealthy diet (all P ≤ 0.05). Healthy diet and active group had healthier CVD risk score compared with the inactive groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Thus, a combination of healthy diet and active lifestyle is associated with decreased CVD risk in adolescents. Moreover, an active lifestyle may reduce the adverse consequences of an unhealthy diet. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Diet quantity influence phenotypic dimorphism during honey bee (Apis mellifera) caste determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen and worker honey bees are genetically analogous, but morphologically and physiologically different. Nutritional differences in larval diets regulate caste determination. Our recent work indicates diet quantity has a strong influence on caste in honeybees, and that queen induction can occur in ...

  16. Habitat surrounding patch reefs influences the diet and nutrition of the western rock lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study the influence of habitat on the diet and nutrition of a common reef-associated generalist consumer, the western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus, was tested. Stable isotopes (13C/12C and 15N/14N) and gut contents were used to assess the diet of lobsters collected from ...

  17. Milk diets influence doxorubicin-induced intestinal toxicity in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, R. L.; Pontoppidan, P. E.; Rathe, M.

    2016-01-01

    IL-8 levels compared with DOX-Form (all P diet. Thus a single dose of DOX induces intestinal toxicity in preweaned pigs...... and may lead to a systemic inflammatory response. The toxicity is affected by type of enteral nutrition with more pronounced GI toxicity when formula is fed compared with bovine colostrum. The results indicate that bovine colostrum may be a beneficial supplementary diet for children subjected...

  18. Preconception care by family physicians and general practitioners in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetters Michael D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preconception care provided by family physicians/general practitioners (FP/GPs can provide predictable benefits to mothers and infants. The objective of this study was to elucidate knowledge of, attitudes about, and practices of preconception care by FP/GPs in Japan. Methods A survey was distributed to physician members of the Japanese Academy of Family Medicine. The questionnaire addressed experiences of preconception education in medical school and residency, frequency of preconception care in clinical practice, attitudes about providing preconception care, and perceived need for preconception education to medical students and residents. Results Two hundred and sixty-eight of 347 (77% eligible physicians responded. The most common education they reported receiving was about smoking cessation (71%, and the least was about folic acid supplementation (12%. Many participants reported providing smoking cessation in their practice (60%, though only about one third of respondents advise restricting alcohol intake. Few reported advising calcium supplementation (10% or folic acid supplementation (4%. About 70% reported their willingness to provide preconception care. Almost all participants believe medical students and residents should have education about preconception care. Conclusion FP/GPs in Japan report little training in preconception care and few currently provide it. With training, most participants are willing to provide preconception care themselves and think medical students and residents should receive this education.

  19. Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNiro, M.J.; Epstein, S.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals was investigated by analyzing animals grown in the laboratory on diets of constant carbon isotopic composition. The isotopic composition of the whole body of an animal reflects the isotopic composition of its diet, but the animal is on average enriched in delta 13 C by about 1 part per thousand relative to the diet. In three of the four cases examined the 13 C enrichment of the whole body relative to the diet is balanced by a 13 C depletion of the respired CO 2 . The isotopic relationships between the whole bodies of animals and their diets are similar for different species raised on the same diet and for the same species raised on different diets. However, the delta 13 C values of whole bodies of individuals of a species raised on the same diet may differ by up to 2 parts per thousand. The relationship between the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of a tissue and the 13 C/ 12 C ratio of the diet depends both on the type of tissue and on the nature of the diet. Many of the isotopic relationships among the major biochemical fractions, namely the lipid, carbohydrate and protein fractions, are qualitatively preserved as diet carbon is incorporated into the animal. However, the difference between the delta 13 C values of a biochemical fraction in an animal and in its diet may be as large as 3 parts per thousand. The delta 13 C values of the biochemical components collagen chitin and the insoluble organic fraction of shells, all of which are often preserved in fossil material, are related to the isotopic composition of the diet. (author)

  20. The Influence of Peers on Diet and Exercise Among Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sophia Jihey; Ersig, Anne L; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    Adolescents' diet and exercise are modifiable factors contributing to high rates of adolescent obesity. Diverse contextual factors, including family, social environment, and peers, affect adolescents' diet and exercise behaviors. Because peer influence increases during adolescence, peers' contributions to adolescents' diet and exercise behaviors should be examined as potential targets for intervention to reduce the prevalence of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify research examining the contribution of peers to diet and exercise of adolescents. The electronic databases PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and SCOPUS were searched. A total of 24 unique articles were included: seven examined diet only, fourteen studied exercise only, and three explored diet and exercise. This review provided evidence that diet and exercise of adolescents were significantly associated with those of their peers. However, these associations differed depending on gender, the type of diet and exercise, and closeness of friends. Findings from this review suggest that peers could be possible targets for interventions to promote healthier diet and exercise among adolescents; however, more studies are needed to identify specific peer influences and develop tailored interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Raw meat based diet influences faecal microbiome and end products of fermentation in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Misa; Dal Monego, Simeone; Conte, Giuseppe; Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno

    2017-02-28

    Dietary intervention studies are required to deeper understand the variability of gut microbial ecosystem in healthy dogs under different feeding conditions and to improve diet formulations. The aim of the study was to investigate in dogs the influence of a raw based diet supplemented with vegetable foods on faecal microbiome in comparison with extruded food. Eight healthy adult Boxer dogs were recruited and randomly divided in two experimental blocks of 4 individuals. Dogs were regularly fed a commercial extruded diet (RD) and starting from the beginning of the trial, one group received the raw based diet (MD) and the other group continued to be fed with the RD diet (CD) for a fortnight. After 14 days, the two groups were inverted, the CD group shifted to the MD and the MD shifted to the CD, for the next 14 days. Faeces were collected at the beginning of the study (T0), after 14 days (T14) before the change of diet and at the end of experimental period (T28) for DNA extraction and analysis of metagenome by sequencing 16SrRNA V3 and V4 regions, short chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate and faecal score. A decreased proportion of Lactobacillus, Paralactobacillus (P diet significantly (P diet composition modifies faecal microbial composition and end products of fermentation. The administration of MD diet promoted a more balanced growth of bacterial communities and a positive change in the readouts of healthy gut functions in comparison to RD diet.

  2. The relationship between a Mediterranean diet and circulating adiponectin levels is influenced by cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Omar Salem; Hussain, Tajamul; Al-Daghri, Nasser Mohammad; De Rosas, Edgard; Kazmi, Usamah; Vinodson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has been shown to lower the risk of developing several chronic diseases. The ability to augment circulating adiponectin levels is proposed as an underlying mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of this diet. We aimed to examine whether the positive relationship between the Mediterranean diet and adiponectin is altered by cigarette smoking, taking potential confounders into consideration. Plasma adiponectin levels were enzymatically measured in 45 never smokers, 61 smokers and 34 ex-smokers who adhered to a Mediterranean style diet and in 41 never smokers who did not adhere to the diet. Plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly in nonsmoking diet adherents compared to nonsmoking non-diet adherents. Among the diet adherents adiponectin decreased significantly in both moderate and heavy smokers compared to never smokers and significantly increased in quitters compared to smokers. Multiple regression analysis, controlling for age, obesity, Mediterranean diet and insulin resistance revealed an independent inverse association of smoking with adiponectin. Adiponectin levels remained significant and similar in subjects stratified according to age (50 years), BMI (25 kg/m(2)) and HOMA-IR (1.6). Despite its positive effects on adiponectin, the Mediterranean diet failed to negate the adiponectin-lowering effect of cigarette smoking, demonstrating the profound and independent capacity of cigarette smoke to negatively influence human health.

  3. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  4. Influence of x irradiation and diet on pituitary/thyroid function in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qassar, I.G.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were maintained on low iodine diet or treated with T 4 . A significant increase in thyroid weight was observed in rats on low iodine diet whereas among rats on normal diet with thyroxine injections, the thyroid was lower in weight than thyroids of control animals. Pituitary weight increased significantly in rats on low iodine diet or T 4 treatment. Labelling index was significantly higher in the group on low iodine diet. A significantly lower labelling index was observed after thyroxine treatment. Where PTU was administered to rats pretreated with either normal diet, normal diet plus T 4 , or maintained on low iodine diet and then exposed to radiation (100 to 400R) to the neck, it was not possible to distinguish the effect of such local radiation on body growth. The pre-radiation treatment did not have any effect on thyroid weight during two weeks post-radiation, suggesting that a four week post-radiation period is essential to elicit radiation effects on the thyroid. Contrary to low iodine treatment, administration of PTU did not result in any increase in pituitary weight in rats maintained on normal diet prior to radiation or in rats maintained on low iodine diet prior to radiation. There was, however, a significant increase in pituitary weight in rats injected with thyroxine prior to radiation (250R or 400R). A significant increase in serum TSH was observed two weeks after radiation and PTU treatment. A lower TSH level was observed, however, in the 250R sub-group (normal diet or T 4 injection) and in the 400R sub-group (low iodine diet). There was a significant difference among sham-irradiated and the three x-irradiated sub-groups maintained on low iodine diet. The results of these studies indicate that local x irradiation with 100 to 400R to the neck may influence thyroid/pituitary function in the rat

  5. Maternal stress and infant mortality: The importance of the preconception period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Khashan, Ali S.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Although preconception and prenatal maternal stress are associated with adverse birth and childhood outcomes, the relation to infant mortality remains uncertain. We used logistic regression to study infant mortality risk following maternal stress within a population-based sample of offspring born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008 (N= 3,055,361). Preconception (6-0 months before conception) and prenatal (conception to birth) stress was defined as death of a first-degree relative of the mother. A total of 20,651 offspring were exposed to preconception stress, 26,731 to prenatal stress, and 8,398 cases of infant mortality were identified. Preconception stress increased the risk of infant mortality independent of measured covariates (adjusted OR=1.53; 95% CI=1.25–1.88) and the association was timing-specific and robust across low-risk groups. Prenatal stress did not increase risk of infant mortality (adjusted OR=1.05; 95% CI=0.84–1.30). The period immediately before conception may be a sensitive developmental period influencing risk for infant mortality. PMID:23653129

  6. Food for thought: how diet influences cognitive function and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than one third of American adults are obese and statistics are similar worldwide. Caloric intake and diet composition have large and lasting effects on cognition and emotion, especially during critical periods in development, but the neural mechanisms for these effects are not well understood. ...

  7. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, A.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2011), N23-N31 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acetone * breath * ketogenic diet Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2011

  8. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, Alžběta; Chippendale, Thomas W E; Smith, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  9. How do women prepare for pregnancy? Preconception experiences of women attending antenatal services and views of health professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Stephenson

    Full Text Available To determine the extent to which women plan and prepare for pregnancy.Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pregnant women attending three maternity services in London about knowledge and uptake of preconception care; including a robust measure of pregnancy planning, and phone interviews with a range of health care professionals.We recruited 1173/1288 (90% women, median age of 32 years. 73% had clearly planned their pregnancy, 24% were ambivalent and only 3% of pregnancies were unplanned. 51% of all women and 63% of those with a planned pregnancy took folic acid before pregnancy. 21% of all women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking alcohol in the 3 months before pregnancy; 48% of smokers and 41% of drinkers reduced or stopped before pregnancy. The 51% of all women who reported advice from a health professional before becoming pregnant were more likely to adopt healthier behaviours before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratios for greatest health professional input compared with none were 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.54-3.54 for taking folic acid and 2.18 (95% CI 1.42-3.36 for adopting a healthier diet before pregnancy]. Interviews with 20 health professionals indicated low awareness of preconception health issues, missed opportunities and confusion about responsibility for delivery of preconception care.Despite a high level of pregnancy planning, awareness of preconception health among women and health professionals is low, and responsibility for providing preconception care is unclear. However, many women are motivated to adopt healthier behaviours in the preconception period, as indicated by halving of reported smoking rates in this study. The link between health professional input and healthy behaviour change before pregnancy is a new finding that should invigorate strategies to improve awareness and uptake of pre-pregnancy health care, and bring wider benefits for public health.

  10. Influence of diet on the results of laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Lis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood and urine laboratory tests are necessary to diagnose the state of the patient. These tests are also helpful in the assessment of diet and nutritional status of the organism. It is recommended that both blood and urine for laboratory tests be collected in the morning, from fasting patients after an overnight rest. These conditions are defined as the standard conditions for collection of material for laboratory testing. Before testing, patients should follow their natural diet and avoid physical exertion, night work, long-distance travel, as well as consumption of alcohol and drugs. They should also reduce the consumption of synthetic vitamins and herbal remedies and other dietary supplements. Medications should be limited to those that are absolutely necessary. All of these factors can affect the results of laboratory tests.

  11. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darenskaya, N.G.; Kuznetsova, S.S.; Lebengarts, Ya.Z.

    1975-01-01

    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs

  12. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darenskaya, N G; Kuznetsova, S S; Lebengarts, Ya Z

    1975-07-01

    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs.

  13. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1

  14. Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeNiro, M J; Epstein, S [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). Div. of Geological Sciences

    1981-03-01

    The influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals was investigated by analyzing animals grown in the laboratory on diets of constant nitrogen isotopic composition. The isotopic composition of the nitrogen in an animal reflects the nitrogen isotopic composition of its diet. The delta/sup 15/N values of the whole bodies of animals are usually more positive than those of their diets. Different individuals of a species raised on the same diet can have significantly different delta/sup 15/N values. The variability of the relationship between the delta/sup 15/N values of animals and their diets is greater for different species raised on the same diet than for the same species raised on different diets. Different tissues of mice are also enriched in /sup 15/N relative to the diet, with the difference between the delta/sup 15/N values of a tissue and the diet depending on both the kind of tissue and the diet involved. The delta/sup 15/N values of collagen and chitin, biochemical components that are often preserved in fossil animal remains, are also related to the delta/sup 15/N value of the diet. The dependence of the delta/sup 15/N values of whole animals and their tissues and biochemical components on the delta/sup 15/N value of diet indicates that the isotopic composition of animal nitrogen can be used to obtain information about an animal's diet if its potential food sources had different delta/sup 15/N values. The isotopic method of dietary analysis was used to reconstruct changes in the diet of the human population that occupied the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico over a 7000 yr span. Variations in the delta/sup 13/C and delta/sup 15/N values of bone collagen suggest that C/sub 4/ and/or CAM plants (presumably mostly corn) and legumes (presumably mostly beans) were introduced into the diet much earlier than suggested by conventional archaeological analysis.

  15. Dietary and Health Profiles of Spanish Women in Preconception, Pregnancy and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Marta; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Santiago, Susana; Martínez, Jose Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional status and lifestyle of women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation determine maternal, fetal and child health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate dietary patterns and lifestyles according the perinatal physiological status in a large sample of Spanish women. Community pharmacists that were previously trained to collect the data recruited 13,845 women. General information, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, unhealthy habits and dietary data were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Mean values and percentages were used as descriptive statistics. The t-test, ANOVA or chi-squared test were used to compare groups. A score that included dietary and behavioral characteristics was generated to compare lifestyles in the three physiological situations. The analysis revealed that diet quality should be improved in the three stages, but in a different manner. While women seeking a pregnancy only met dairy recommendations, those who were pregnant only fulfilled fresh fruits servings and lactating women only covered protein group requirements. In all cases, the consumption allowances of sausages, buns and pastries were exceeded. Food patterns and unhealthy behaviors of Spanish women in preconception, pregnancy and lactation should be improved, particularly in preconception. This information might be useful in order to implement educational programs for each population group. PMID:25333199

  16. Preconception Care: Concepts and Perceptions: An ethical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Zee (Boukje)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractGeneral individual preconception care is a new strategy to improve the health of future children and their mothers –and to a lesser extent the prospective fathers’ health- through primary intervention. Improving their health through preconception care comprises two component actions.

  17. Underlying mechanisms and the evolving influence of diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Since 2007, 52 genes have been associated with obesity and obesity-related measurements in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), among these the fat and obesity-associated gene (FTO). Despite the success in identifying genes predi...... and the microbiome that can be modified by diet, and by genotype, adding to the complexity of determining the contributors to obesity....... has been shown to attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity. Several studies have examined gene-diet interactions in relation to obesity, but only a few suggestive interactions have been identified. This is most probably due to small effect sizes of the interactions and thereby a demand for large samples...... to increased risk of developing obesity. Recently, the intestinal microbiome, the collected genome of the bacteria, also has been associated with obesity and with specific dietary profiles. The underlying mechanisms determining the susceptibility to obesity do not only include the genome but also the epigenome...

  18. Exposure to diet priming images as cues to reduce the influence of unhealthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Shoji

    2017-02-01

    A key barrier to changing unhealthy eating habits is the current food-rich environment. Today, there are many palatable food cues that trigger unhealthy eating habits, and once a habit is strongly engrained, it becomes very difficult to change. This research examined the effects of diet priming that is a type of cueing intervention that activates a dieting goal in a tempting situation and thus reduces unhealthy eating behavior in line with the dieting goal. This research was conducted both in a laboratory and in two field experiments. In the three experiments, participants were randomly assigned to conditions where they were either primed by an image of a slim model associated with dieting (priming condition) or were presented with an image of an animal unrelated to dieting (control condition). The dependent variable was the number of snacks that participants took in the laboratory in Study 1 and the number of snacks consumed within the next two weeks in a daily setting in Study 2 and 3. The three studies showed that unhealthy eating habits strongly affect general eating behavior. However, in this research, diet priming changed the influence of unhealthy eating habits and resulted in the decrease of unhealthy eating. Exposure to diet priming cues moderated the influence of unhealthy eating habits triggered by palatable food cues in today's food-rich environment. These findings suggest that diet priming can change habitual reactions to temptations associated with unhealthy eating. Implications for diet priming as an intervention for unhealthy eating habits are discussed herein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Influence of diets with qualitatively different carbohydrates on lipid metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelova, V F; Zalesskaia, Iu M

    1977-01-01

    Tests conducted with rats demonstrated that rations carrying saccharose cause a rise in the pre-beta-lipoproteids, blood triglycerides, total lipids and triglycerides in the aorta, as well as an accelerated biosynthesis of the latter in the liver and the fatty tissue. The effect of the saccharose making part of an isocaloric ration depends upon the quality of the diet as a whole. In rats receiving saccharose in a ration with a reduced amount of fat (11% bythe calorific value) there takes place an accelerated biosynthesis of phospholipids with no evidence of fatty degeneration of the liver. Animals receiving saccharose in a ration with a physiological level of fat (26% by caloricity) demonstrated a higher content of beta-lipoproteids in the blood, of total lipids and tryglycerides in the liver with lacking acceleration of the phospholipids biosynthesis in the latter.

  20. Determinants of diet quality in pregnancy: sociodemographic, pregnancy-specific, and food environment influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Danielle M; Gilliland, Jason A; Evers, Susan E; Wilk, Piotr; Campbell, M Karen

    2013-01-01

    To advance the knowledge of determinants of diet quality in pregnancy by focusing on both personal characteristics and the food environment. Cross-sectional study in which participants from the Prenatal Health Project were linked to a geographic dataset by home address. Access to fast food, convenience stores, and grocery stores was measured using a geographic information system (ArcGIS9.3). Pregnant women (n = 2,282) were recruited between 2002 and 2005 in London, Ontario, Canada. Dietary quality was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the Canadian Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy. Univariate and multivariate linear regressions were calculated with the predictor variables on the Canadian Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy. Pregnant women who were born in Canada, common-law, nulliparous, less physically active, smokers, more anxious, or lacking family support had lower diet quality on average. Presence of fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, and grocery stores within 500 m of participants' homes was not associated with diet quality after controlling for personal variables. The food environment does not seem to have a large influence on diet quality in pregnancy. Further research is needed to determine other potential reasons for low diet quality among pregnant women. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews on metabolic parameters of rats fed with hiperlipidemic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Ariana de Souza Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.

  2. The microbiota of pigs influenced by diet texture and severity of Lawsonia intracellularis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølbak, Lars; Johnsen, Kaare; Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim K; Johansen, Markku; Møller, Kristian; Leser, Thomas D

    2008-04-01

    Pigs with and without naturally occurring Lawsonia intracellularis infection were fed diets with different texture. In a previous study from 79 pig herds using a similar feeding on pelleted or non-pelleted form showed that the non-pelleted diet was associated with a reduced prevalence of L. intracellularis. In this study a mechanistic approach was taken for explaining and testing this observation by studying the microbiota and the occurrence of L. intracellularis in the distal ileum of 54 pigs by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, Real-Time PCR and in situ hybridization. The texture of the diet influenced the microbiota, and from a quantitative discriminative analysis of the terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) of ileum samples it was deduced that Clostridium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were associated with the non-pelleted diet and Streptococcus spp. with the pelleted diet. In experimentally infected pigs it was verified that 89bp and 90bp sized T-RFs (HhaI) from ileum represented L. intracellularis. The non-pelleted diet seemed to reduce the relative amount of L. intracellularis in the total microbiota of the ileum, but the number of pigs detected positive with L. intracellularis by Real-Time PCR was not influenced. The five pigs with highest L. intracellularis content showed T-RFs that were not present in profiles from less or non-infected pigs, which may indicate that some bacterial species were associated with L. intracellularis infection.

  3. Maternal preconceptional nutrition leads to variable fat deposition and gut dimensions of adult offspring mice (C57BL/6JBom)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Elna Louise Krogh; Wang, Tobias; Malte, H.

    2010-01-01

    . There was no significant effect of maternal nutrition on dry mass of the stomach or ceca. Conclusion:   Our study shows that preconceptional nutrition can have important influence on several body features of offspring in mice, including body composition and dimensions of the digestive system....

  4. Influence of food diet in the radiosensitivity of spodoptera frugiperda smith abbot larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Labrada, A.; Fundora, Z.; Herrera, A.

    1988-01-01

    To apply the traditional method in pest control it is needed to know the reaction capability of the insect in reference to radiations as well as the influence which can be exerted over it by different factors. The radiosensitivity of Spodoptera Frugiperda Smith Abbot larvae raised with two different diets (natural and artificial) was studied using doses between 20 and 100 Gy, in Co-60 gamma source with a dose power of 13.4 Gy/min survival, formation and dimensions of pupas, adult emergency and other interesting aspects were determined. The multiple analysis of results showed the influence of the food diet on radiosensitivity of larvae. results of both diets are statistically compared

  5. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  6. Colony Diet Influences Ant Worker Foraging and Attendance of Myrmecophilous Lycaenid Caterpillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pohl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Foraging animals regulate their intake of macronutrients such as carbohydrates and proteins. However, regulating the intake of these two macronutrients can be constrained by the nutrient content of available food sources. Compensatory foraging is a method to adjust nutrient intake under restricted nutrient availability by preferentially exploiting food sources that contain limiting nutrients. Here we studied the potential for compensatory foraging in the dolichoderine ant Iridomyrmex mayri, which is commonly found in associations with caterpillars of the obligatorily ant-associated lycaenid butterfly Jalmenus evagoras. The caterpillars receive protection against predators and parasites, and reward the ants with nutritional secretions from specialized exocrine glands. These secretions contain a mixture of sugars and free amino acids, particularly serine. We tested the influence of nutrient-deficient diets on foraging patterns in I. mayri by recording the intake of test solutions containing single types of macronutrients during food preference tests. We also investigated the level of ant attendance on fifth instar J. evagoras caterpillars to evaluate how changes in diet influenced ant tending of caterpillars and foraging on their secretions. Foragers on a protein diet compensated for the nutritional deficit by increasing the intake of test solutions that contained sucrose, compared to their counterparts on a non-restricted diet. Ants on a sugar diet, however, did not show a corresponding increased consumption of test solutions containing the amino acid serine. Additionally, compared with their counterparts on a mixed diet, ants on limited nutrient diets showed an increase in the number of caterpillar-tending workers, suggesting that the caterpillars’ secretions are suitable to compensate for the ants’ nutritional deficit.

  7. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  8. Influence of diet on the incorporation of labelled amino acids in muscles of calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, P.; Hansen, R.J.; Black, A.L.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the influence of diet on the incorporation of labelled amino acids into the semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles of calves after 48 h administration of isotope through jugular vein. 14 C or 3 H-labelled tyrosine and 14 C or 3 H-histidine were used as tracers. The results suggest that the incorporation into myofibrillar protein fraction of both the muscles was at least two fold greater on good diets as compared to all forage ration. Similar trend was also recorded with the plasma protein fraction at both 24 and 48 h after injection. (author)

  9. Influence of diet on the incorporation of labelled amino acids in muscles of calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P; Hansen, R J; Black, A L [California Univ., Davis (USA). Dept. of Physiological Sciences

    1974-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the influence of diet on the incorporation of labeled amino acids into the semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles of calves after 48 h administration of isotope through jugular vein. /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H-labelled tyrosine and /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H-histidine were used as tracers. The results suggest that the incorporation into myofibrillar protein fraction of both the muscles was at least two fold greater on good diets as compared to all forage ration. Similar trend was also recorded with the plasma protein fraction at both 24 and 48 h after injection.

  10. Dietary Fat Intake and Fecundability in 2 Preconception Cohort Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wise, Lauren A; Wesselink, Amelia K; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    American preconception cohort studies. Women who were attempting to become pregnant completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Pregnancy status was updated bimonthly for 12 months or until pregnancy. Fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using...

  11. Awareness, knowledge and uptake of preconception care among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness, knowledge and uptake of preconception care among women in ... care to increase the chances of healthy outcomes of pregnancy for both mother and child. ... Descriptive statistics as well as Chi-square analysis was done to show ...

  12. Theoretical Insights into Preconception Social Conditions and Perinatal Health: The Role of Place and Social Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jennifer B; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Recent efforts to explain the stark social and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes that have persisted for decades in the U.S. have looked beyond prenatal factors, to explore preconception social conditions that may influence perinatal health via dysregulation of physiologic processes. The extant evidence supporting this link however remains limited, both due to a lack of data and theory. To address the latter, this manuscript generates a structured set of theoretical insights that further develop the link between two preconception social conditions - place and social relationships - and perinatal health. The insights propose the following. necessarily encompasses all social contexts to which females are exposed from infancy through young adulthood; encompasses a variety of related exposures that, when possible, should be jointly considered; and may compound the effect of poverty-in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood-on perinatal health. Social relationships: span relationships from early life through adulthood, and extend to intergenerational associations; often involve (or induce) major changes in the lives of individuals and should be examined with an emphasis on the developmental stage in which the change occurred; and necessarily encompass a lack of social integration, or, social isolation. We also identify potential biological and social-structural mechanisms linking these preconception social conditions to perinatal health, and conclude by identifying promising directions for future research.

  13. Working Through Preconception: Moving from Forcing to Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Kwok; Antoinette McCallin; Geoff Dickson

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about grounded theory and the processes of theory generation. Less is written about managing the problem of preconception, which has the potential to undermine the openness and emergence that are fundamental to classic grounded theory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practical realities of managing preconception, and to draw attention to less well recognised factors that contribute to forcing. The topic interest, tactical innovation in rugby, is introduced. R...

  14. The influence of persistent organic pollutants in the traditional Inuit diet on markers of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, L K; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E C; Vestergaard, H

    2017-01-01

    influence on both YKL-40 and hsCRP by ΣOCP (psmoking. POP levels were associated with the intake of the traditional Inuit diet and with markers of inflammation. This supports a pro-inflammatory role of POPs......Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are high in Inuit living predominately on the traditional marine diet. Adverse effects of POPs include disruption of the immune system and cardiovascular diseases that are frequent in Greenland Inuit. We aimed to assess the association between...... exposure to POPs from the marine diet and inflammation, taking into account other factors such as vitamin D. We invited Inuit and non-Inuit living in settlements or the town in rural East Greenland or in the capital city Nuuk. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and donated a blood sample...

  15. The influence of sex and diet on the characteristics of hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefna, Marie; Goris, Maaike; Thissen, Cynthia M C; Reitsema, Vera A; Bruintjes, Jojanneke J; de Vrij, Edwin L; Bouma, Hjalmar R; Boerema, Ate S; Henning, Robert H

    2017-07-01

    Research on deep hibernators almost exclusively uses species captured from the wild or from local breeding. An exception is Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), the only standard laboratory animal showing deep hibernation. In deep hibernators, several factors influence hibernation quality, including body mass, sex and diet. We examined hibernation quality in commercially obtained Syrian hamsters in relation to body mass, sex and a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Animals (M/F:30/30, 12 weeks of age) were obtained from Harlan (IN, USA) and individually housed at 21 °C and L:D 14:10 until 20 weeks of age, followed by L:D 8:16 until 27 weeks. Then conditions were changed to 5 °C and L:D 0:24 for 9 weeks to induce hibernation. Movement was continuously monitored with passive infrared detectors. Hamsters were randomized to control diet or a diet 3× enriched in linoleic acid from 16 weeks of age. Hamsters showed a high rate of premature death (n = 24, 40%), both in animals that did and did not initiate torpor, which was unrelated to body weight, sex and diet. Time to death (31.7 ± 3.1 days, n = 12) or time to first torpor bout (36.6 ± 1.6 days, n = 12) was similar in prematurely deceased hamsters. Timing of induction of hibernation and duration of torpor and arousal was unaffected by body weight, sex or diet. Thus, commercially obtained Syrian hamsters subjected to winter conditions showed poor survival, irrespective of body weight, sex and diet. These factors also did not affect hibernation parameters. Possibly, long-term commercial breeding from a confined genetic background has selected against the hibernation trait.

  16. A gut reaction: the combined influence of exercise and diet on gastrointestinal microbiota in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, R B; Fenning, A S; Dalbo, V J; Scanlan, A T; Duncan, M J; Moore, R J; Stanley, D

    2017-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high-intensity interval training (HIIT), light-intensity training (LIT), sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet. No significant differences in microbiota were apparent between activity conditions in rats fed a HF diet but changes in the presence/absence of phylotypes were observed in the LIT and HIIT groups. In rats fed SC, significant differences in intestinal microbiota were evident between exercised and nonexercised rats. Both LIT and HIIT induced significant differences in intestinal microbiota in SC-fed rats compared to their respective SC-fed controls. Characterization of the exercise-induced bacterial phylotypes indicated an increase in bacteria likely capable of degrading resistant polysaccharides and an increase in short chain fatty acid producers. While a significant effect of exercise on microbiota composition occurred in SC-fed rats, the HF-fed rats microbiota showed little response. These data suggest that a HF diet prevented microbiota differentiation in response to exercise. The importance of diet-exercise interaction is extended to the level of intestinal bacteria and gut health. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. The influence of different microalgal diets on Crassostrea angulata (Lamarck, 1819 broodstock conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Anjos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese oyster Crassostrea angulata shows great potential in oyster farming. In Europe, pure populations of this species were observed only in the southern coasts of Portugal and Spain, namely in Rio Sado, Rio Mira and Guadalquivir. The conservation of C. angulata populations is important in the context of production diversification and biodiversity preservation. In this way the zootechnological development for seed hatchery production is extremely important. Broodstock conditioning is a key step in the process of rearing bivalve in hatchery. Many factors regulate the reproductive cycle, being food the most important. However the influence of the nutritional quality of different phytoplankton on sexual maturation has been poorly explored. To evaluate the effects of different diets on C. angulata sexual maturity, broodstock were conditioned with different food regimes: Diet 1: bi-specific combination of Pavlova lutheri and Isochrysis galbana clone T-ISO (1:1; Diet 2: tri-specific combination of P. lutheri, I galbana clone T-ISO and Skeletonema constatum (1:1:1; Diet 3: bi-specific combination of S. constatum and Chaetoceros calcitrans (1:1 and Diet 4: tri-specific combination of P. lutheri, S. constatum and C. calcitrans (1:1:1. During conditioning, condition index and gonad histological analysis were performed. Results showed heterogeneity between diets. At the beginning of conditioning 60% of individuals were in resting (stage 0, 30% were males in early gametogenesis (stage I and 10% were females in mature stage (stage III. At the end of the conditioning, the most effective diet was the Diet 3 (60 % of mature oysters with a mean condition index value of 2.83±0.95. Whereas those fed with Diet 1 have an unsuccessfully gonadic development, with 80% of individuals in resting stage. Indeed, the condition index, in Diet 1 decreased during the conditioning period. The results obtained in this study reinforce the idea that the diatom microalgae

  18. Surf zone fish diet as an indicator of environmental and anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Leonardo Lopes; Zalmon, Ilana Rosental

    2017-10-01

    Changes in species' abundance have been used as indicators of environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. However, sublethal, e.g., diet, changes should be detected before some alterations in the composition and structure of fish assemblages occur as a result of ecological negative impacts. The objective of the present study was to assess possible changes in surf zone fish diet in response to environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. Surf zone fish were sampled and their stomach contents were analyzed on two sandy beaches under different levels of human pressure in Southeastern Brazil. Habitat variables related to seasonality, food availability, anthropogenic disturbance, upwelling and river influence were measured as follows: (1) wave height; (2) water temperature; (3) intertidal macroinvertebrates abundance; (4) solid waste amount; (5) salinity; (6) particulate organic carbon (POC) and (7) chlorophyll a (Chl a). Our results showed the influence of seasonality, prey abundance and hydrodynamics in prey selection, and diet overlap between typical surf zone residents. A literature search was also performed and it shows that insects and Emerita brasiliensis eggs, which were the main food item consumed by some surf zone fish at urbanized Brazilian beaches, are unusual worldwide. Furthermore, solid waste was related to high consumption of insects by pompanos fish in urbanized areas, suggesting that this fish diet could be a sublethal indicator of human impact on sandy beaches.

  19. Intestinal immune system of young rats influenced by cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Ramos-Romero, Sara; Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Castellote, Cristina; Permanyer, Joan; Franch, Angels; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2008-08-01

    Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) maintains mucosal homeostasis by counteracting pathogens and inducing a state of nonresponsiveness when it receives signals from food antigens and commensal bacteria. We report for the first time the influence of continuous cocoa consumption on GALT function in rats postweaning. Weaned Wistar rats were fed cocoa-enriched diets (4% or 10% food intake) for 3 weeks. The function of the primary inductive sites of GALT, such as Peyer's patches (PP) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), was evaluated through an analysis of IgA-secretory ability and lymphocyte composition (T, B and natural killer cells), activation (IL-2 secretion and IL-2 receptor alpha expression) and proliferation. T-helper effector cell balance was also established based on cytokine profile (interferon gamma, IL-4 and IL-10) after mitogen activation. A 10% cocoa intake induced significant changes in PP and MLN lymphocyte composition and function, whereas a 4% cocoa diet did not cause significant modifications in either tissues. Cocoa diet strongly reduced secretory IgA (S-IgA) in the intestinal lumen, although IgA's secretory ability was only slightly decreased in PP. In addition, the 10% cocoa diet increased T-cell-antigen receptor gammadelta cell proportion in both lymphoid tissues. Thus, cocoa intake modulates intestinal immune responses in young rats, influencing gammadelta T-cells and S-IgA production.

  20. Influence of irradiation on protein and amino acids in laboratory rodent diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of irradiation treatment on the protein quality and constituent amino acids of laboratory rodent diets is reviewed and compared with other methods of sterilization - autoclaving and ethylene oxide fumigation. Gamma irradiation has been shown to have minimal influence on total protein, protein quality and total and available amino acid levels. Autoclaving reduces amino acid availability and consequently protein quality. Limited evidence shows reduction of certain available amino acids following ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  1. Medication Therapy Management and Preconception Care: Opportunities for Pharmacist Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A. DiPietro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As medication therapy management (MTM continues to grow in the profession of pharmacy, careful consideration as to areas for positive patient impact is warranted. Given the current gaps in preconception care in the United States, and the accessibility and expertise of the pharmacist, MTM interventions related to preconception care may be valuable. This paper describes potential for pharmacist intervention in several different areas of preconception care. Notably, targeted medication reviews may be appropriate for interventions such as folic acid recommendations, teratogenic/category X medication management, immunizations, and disease state management. Comprehensive medication reviews may be warranted for selected disease states due to complexity of interventions, such the management of diabetes. Comprehensive medication reviews may also be warranted if several targeted interventions are necessary, or if there are a several medications or disease states requiring intervention. Pharmacists also have important roles in screening, support, and referrals needed for preconception care in the context of MTM. Patients may benefit substantially from pharmacist-directed MTM services related to preconception care. In addition, depending on clinical pharmacy service contracts and billing opportunities, pharmacists may be reimbursed for providing these services, generating sustainable revenue while fulfilling an important public health need.   Type: Idea Paper

  2. Investigating Women’s Lifestyle during the Preconception Period in Kalat County, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh Bayrami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Factors such as weight, diet, cigarette smoking and unprescribed drug use, and also environmental pollutants affect maternal health and the birth of the healthy neonates. The aim of this study was to investigate women's lifestyle during the preconception period in Kalat, Iran. Materials & Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on 118 married women, who did not use any contraceptive methods in order to get pregnant, from August to March 2012, in Kalat County, Iran. The subjects were covered by Kalat medical and health centers and were selected using quota sampling method. The data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics and preconception lifestyle. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and Pearson’s correlation and ANOVA tests. PResults: The mean age of the subjects was 25.2± 6.05 years. The most desirable and undesirable aspects of lifestyle were not using of unprescribed drugs and cigarettes (7.38 ± 0. 9 as well as lack of physical activity (3.06 ± 1.1, respectively. There was a significant correlation between women’s occupation and drug and cigarette use (P

  3. Preconception paternal bisphenol A exposure induces sex-specific anxiety and depression behaviors in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fan

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, an environmental endocrine-disrupting compound, has drawn a great attention for its adverse effect on behavioral development. Maternal exposure to this compound has been reported to induce anxiety and depression in offspring, but the effect of its paternal exposure is rarely discussed. This study investigated whether preconception paternal BPA exposure can affect the emotions of male rats and their offspring. Eighteen adult male rats (F0 received either a vehicle or 50 μg/kg/day BPA diet for 21 weeks and were then mated with non-exposed females to produce offspring (F1. The affective behaviors of F0 and F1 rats were evaluated in the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze and the forced swimming test, and their serum corticosterone were then examined. BPA exposure induced increased anxiety behaviors along with increased serum corticosterone in F0 rats. This paternal exposure also led to increased anxiety behaviors in F1 females and aggravated depression behaviors in both sexes of F1 rats. Furthermore, only F1 females exhibited increased serum corticosterone. Overall, these data indicate that preconception paternal exposure to a low dose of BPA may induce transgenerational sex-specific impairments in the affection of adult rats.

  4. [Performance of entero-insular axis in an athletic population: diet and exercise influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Quezada-Feijoo, Maribel; Toro, Carmen; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Segura, Eduardo; Mangas, Alipio; Toro, Rocio

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and appetite regulation can lead to improved competitive performance of athletes. Mediators of the entero-insular axis generate neurohumoral signals that influence on the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. Determine the influence of diet and prolonged exercise on intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) in an athlete population. It is a prospective intervention study, conducted from October 2012 to March 2013. 32 healthy semiprofessional rugby players, aged 13-39 years were included. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were taken at time 0 and after six months of study. Athletes were randomized to a protein diet (PD) or Mediterranean diet (MD) and plasma levels of intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins were calculated. In the PD group, GLP-1 and GIP plasmatic levels showed a significant decrease (p <0.03; p <0.01 respectively). GLP-1 and ghrelin plasmatic concentration demonstrated a significant decrease (p <0.03 respectively) in those who experienced gain of muscle mass (MM). Finally, the athletes related to the PD who showed increased total weight and muscle mass presented significantly decreased GLP-1 concentration (p <0.03 and p<0.002, respectively). GLP-1 plasmatic concentration was decreased, with the PD suggesting to be more beneficial for the athletes in order to avoid hypoglycemia. Furthermore, muscle mass and total weight gain, linked to the PD, could enhance athletic performance in certain sport modalities. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Turmeric Rhizome Powder diets on decreasing oxidative stress caused by heat stress inbroiler model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Javad Hosseini-Vashan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS increases during oxidative stress conditions, which stimulates diabetes, inflammatory reactions, rheumatism and anemia. Some antioxidant properties of turmeric rhizome powder (TRP were revealed by previous researchers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of TRP on decreasing effects of oxidative stress resulted from heat stress in broiler chickens.   Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two-hundred-sixty-four 1-day-old broilers were divided into 3 dietary treatments. The dietary treatments involved 0(control, 0.4 and 0.8% turmeric rhizome powder (cases. In order to create oxidative stress, the ambient temperature was daily raised from 21 to 33oc for 5 hours (11a.m-4p.m throughout the 28th-42nd days. Blood lipids, Glutathione peroxidase (GPx ,superoxide dismutase (SOD, and Tiobarbituric acid reaction score (TBARS were determined at the end of the experiment.   Results: The results revealed that total cholesterol and triglyceride were not affected. The 0.4 TRP diet decreased blood LDL (46.7±3.01 compared to basal group (52.0±2.17. HDL increased in broilers fed 0.8% TRP (74.0 ± 3.87 compared to chickens with basal diet (63.7± 2.98. Enzyme activity of GPx improved in broilers fed TRP diets (225.9± 11.52 as compared to chickens with basal diet(183.1± 8.52 however, the TRP diet did not affect enzyme activity of SOD (P > 0.05. The TBARS index decreased in broilers fed TRP (0.76 ± 0.0052 in basal vs.0.49 ± 0.0032 in 0.8% TRP.   Conclusion: The major bioactive component of TRP is Curcumin that can improve the antioxidant properties under oxidative stress and high ambient temperature.

  6. The influence of vegan diet on bone mineral density and biochemical bone turnover markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Chełchowska, Magdalena; Franek, Edward; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetarian diets can be healthy when they are well balanced and if a variety of foods is consumed. However, elimination of animal products from the diet (vegan diets) decreases the intake of some essential nutrients and may influence the bone metabolism. This is especially important in childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of vegan diet on bone density (BMD) density and serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers. We examined a family on vegan diet which consisted of parents and two children. Dietary constituents were analysed using a nutritional program. Total and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of calcium and phosphate in serum obtained from fasting patients were determined by colorimetric methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D by the chemiluminescence method and bone turnover markers by specific enzyme immunoassays. In studied vegans, the dietary intake of phosphate was adequate while calcium and vitamin D were below the recommended range. Concentrations of calcium, phosphate and bone turnover markers in the serum of all subjects were within the physiological range, but 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was low. Age-matched Z-score total BMD was between -0.6 and 0.3 in adults, however in children it was lower (-0.9 and -1.0). Z-score BMD lumbar spine (L2-L4) was between -0.9 to -1.9 in parents and -1.5 to -1.7 in children. Our results suggest that an inadequate dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D may impair the bone turnover rate and cause a decrease in bone mineral density in vegans. The parameters of bone density and bone metabolism should be monitored in vegans, especially children, in order to prevent bone abnormalities.

  7. Influence of diet and rearing system on heavy pig performance, carcass and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying alternative dietary protein sources and new types of outdoor rearing techniques that enhance animal welfare, thus optimising costs and production performance, are among the main objectives of nutritionists and breeders. The aim of this study was to compare two types of rations where pea and potato concentrate completely substituted soybean in intensively and extensively bred swine. Forty Large White × Duroc piglets weighing about 40 kg were divided into 4 groups of 10 sex- and weightmatched individuals: Indoor rearing + Control diet, Indoor rearing + Experimental diet, Outdoor rearing + Control diet, Outdoor rearing + Experimental diet. Different diets were formulated for the growing phase (40-100 kg and the fattening period (100-slaughter; pigs, weighed individually every 40 days to estimate the average daily gain and feed conversion rate, were slaughtered when they reached the weight for Italian ham production. The following measurements were obtained: carcass weight, slaughtered yield, weight of lean cuts, pH 45 minutes and 24 hours post mortem. 40 semimembranosus muscle samples were analysed for colour parameters (L*, a* and b*, moisture, fat, protein and ash while the energy values were calculated. Semimembranosus intramuscular fat and ham backfat were analysed for fatty acid profile. Statistical analysis of performances data was conducted using design with repeated measures and the slaughterhouse, meat and fat composition data were subjected to ANOVA. The results show that soybean can be completely substituted with other protein crops. Rearing and slaughterhouse performances were not affected by the diet, whereas significant differences emerged with the rearing system. Diet composition significantly affected lean meat proportion (50.0 vs 48.2 and fat thickness of 3/4 Thoracic Vertebra (25.3 vs 28.3 mm, while the rearing system significantly affected all carcass quality measures. Some parameters were better in outdoorthan

  8. Working Through Preconception: Moving from Forcing to Emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kwok

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about grounded theory and the processes of theory generation. Less is written about managing the problem of preconception, which has the potential to undermine the openness and emergence that are fundamental to classic grounded theory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the practical realities of managing preconception, and to draw attention to less well recognised factors that contribute to forcing. The topic interest, tactical innovation in rugby, is introduced. Researcher motivation and the management of preconception are discussed. The example used is the theory of developing, which explains how rugby coaches in New Zealand manage the problem of winning games. The research demonstrates how the novice grounded theory researcher who is prepared to follow the method and trust the process can produce a rigorous grounded theory that makes a meaningful contribution to rugby coaches, players and their administrators.

  9. Procreative liberty: the case for preconception sex selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Edgar

    2003-01-01

    Preconception sex selection for non-medical reasons raises serious moral, legal and social issues. The main concerns include the threat of a sex ratio distortion due to a common preference for boys over girls, the charge of sexism, the danger of reinforcing gender stereotypical behaviour in sex selected children, and the fear of a slippery slope towards creating designer babies. This paper endeavours to show that none of the objections to preconception sex selection is conclusive and that there is no justification for denying parents the right to choose the sex of their prospective children.

  10. Core state preconception health indicators - pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system and behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cheryl L; Zapata, Lauren B; Farr, Sherry L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Morrow, Brian; Ahluwalia, Indu; D'Angelo, Denise V; Barradas, Danielle; Cox, Shanna; Goodman, David; Williams, Letitia; Grigorescu, Violanda; Barfield, Wanda D

    2014-04-25

    behaviors (e.g., smoking and drinking) among women of reproductive age, and ensuring that chronic conditions are under control. Evidence-based interventions and clinical practice guidelines exist to address these risks and to improve pregnancy outcomes and women's health in general. The results also highlight the need to increase access to health care for all nonpregnant women of reproductive age and the need to encourage the use of essential preventive services for women, including preconception health services. In addition, system changes in community settings can alleviate health problems resulting from inadequate social and emotional support and environments that foster unhealthy lifestyles. Policy changes can promote health equity by encouraging environments that promote healthier options in nutrition and physical activity. Finally, variation in the preconception health status of women by age and race/ethnicity underscores the need for implementing and scaling up proven strategies to reduce persistent health disparities among those at highest risk. Ongoing surveillance and research in preconception health are needed to monitor the influence of improved health-care access and coverage on women's prepregnancy and interpregnancy health status, pregnancy and infant outcomes, and health disparities. Public health decision makers, program planners, researchers, and other key stakeholders can use the state-level PRAMS and BRFSS preconception health indicators to benchmark and monitor preconception health among women of reproductive age. These data also can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of preconception health state and national programs and to assess the need for new programs, program enhancements, and policies.

  11. Identifying molecular effects of diet through systems biology: influence of herring diet on sterol metabolism and protein turnover in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intawat Nookaew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in lifestyle have resulted in an epidemic development of obesity-related diseases that challenge the healthcare systems worldwide. To develop strategies to tackle this problem the focus is on diet to prevent the development of obesity-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. This will require methods for linking nutrient intake with specific metabolic processes in different tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr -/- mice were fed a high fat/high sugar diet to mimic a westernized diet, being a major reason for development of obesity and atherosclerosis. The diets were supplemented with either beef or herring, and matched in macronutrient contents. Body composition, plasma lipids and aortic lesion areas were measured. Transcriptomes of metabolically important tissues, e.g. liver, muscle and adipose tissue were analyzed by an integrated approach with metabolic networks to directly map the metabolic effects of diet in these different tissues. Our analysis revealed a reduction in sterol metabolism and protein turnover at the transcriptional level in herring-fed mice. CONCLUSION: This study shows that an integrated analysis of transcriptome data using metabolic networks resulted in the identification of signature pathways. This could not have been achieved using standard clustering methods. In particular, this systems biology analysis could enrich the information content of biomedical or nutritional data where subtle changes in several tissues together affects body metabolism or disease progression. This could be applied to improve diets for subjects exposed to health risks associated with obesity.

  12. Preconception stress and the secondary sex ratio in a population-based preconception cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jisuk; Lynch, Courtney D; Kim, Sungduk; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Sapra, Katherine J; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-03-01

    To examine the association between preconception parental stress and the secondary sex ratio, defined as the ratio of males to females at birth. A population-based preconception cohort. Not applicable. A total of 235 couples who were enrolled before conception in Michigan and Texas between 2005 and 2009 and who had a singleton birth during the follow-up period. Couples were interviewed separately at baseline to obtain information on perceived stress (Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale) and lifetime history of physician-diagnosed anxiety and/or mood disorders. Female partners were also trained to collect basal saliva samples for the measurement of salivary stress markers, alpha-amylase and cortisol. None. Birth outcome data including infant sex were collected upon delivery. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of a male birth for each stress marker. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a 76% increase in the risk of fathering a male infant (RR 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.17-2.65) in men diagnosed with anxiety disorders compared with those who were not diagnosed. When lifetime history of physician-diagnosed anxiety disorders was modeled jointly for the couple, the association was slightly strengthened (RR 2.03; 95% confidence interval 1.46-2.84). This prospective cohort study suggests that paternal lifetime history of physician-diagnosed anxiety disorders may be associated with an increase in the secondary sex ratio, resulting in an excess of male births. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Time Course of Influence by Ovariectomy and Calcium Diet on Bone Properties in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Minematsu, Akira; Yoshimura, Osamu; Yotsuji, Hirofumi; Ichigo, Hirozo; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Sasaki, Hisato; Tanaka, Sachiko; Kanemura, Naohiko; Shirahama, Kunji; Miyamoto, Hidetaka

    2001-01-01

    This study was investigated the influence by ovariectomy (OVX) and calcium diet on bone properties in eighty-one female ICR strain mice with age of 5 weeks. The animals were randomly assigned to sham operation (SHAM), OVX, SHAM+low Ca intake (L.Ca) and OVX+L.Ca group. They were euthanized with lethal dose of pentobarbital sodium at day 50, 100 and 140 post-operatively. For determining the bone properties, both femur and tibial bones were excised from the hind limb, and removed off surrounding...

  14. [Diet and exercise influence on the proteomic profile of an athlete population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Rocio; Mangas, Alipio; Quezada, Maribel; Rodriguez-Rosety, Manuel; Fournielles, Gabriel; Rodriguez-Rosety, Ignacio; Rodriguez Rosety, Miguel Angel; Alonso, Jose Angel; Garcia-Cozar, Francisco Jose; Duran, Maria Del Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition has emerged as a fundamental tool included in the training program of athletes. Body composition seeks different objectives depending on type of sport, position, or time of the season. Furthermore, analysis proteomics allows us to know the structure and function of proteins. To study, using proteomics, the influence of two different diets on the anthropometric profile in a rugby players group. It is a prospective and interventionist study. Thirty-two rugby players were included. Two groups were defined, one followed proteic diet (PD) and, the other group subscribed the Mediterranean diet (MD). All participants were evaluated anthropometrically at the beginning and after six months. A blood sample was taken to twenty -two players, half of each group, used for the proteomic analysis. MD highlight more benefit for these athletes. Two groups were defined based on their anthropometric behavior, G1 and G2. The proteomic analysis related significantly some TGF-family mediators with these groups. MD improves the muscular mass without increasing the total body weight, so this data could be determinant to define profiles for athletes. Some TGF-members could be implicated in the adipose tissue and muscular mass balance. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of diets supplemented with vitamins C and E on pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Jaqueline Inês Alves; Ono, Eduardo Akifumi; de Menezes, Glauber Cruz; Brasil, Elenice Martins; Roubach, Rodrigo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz; Affonso, Elizabeth Gusmão

    2007-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diets supplemented with 500, 800, 1200 mg kg-1 of vitamin C (ascorbic acid or AA) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol or alpha-T) on the physiological responses of pirarucu fed for 2 months. Weight and mortality were not affected by dietary vitamin type or their concentrations. Significant increase (p<0.05) on the red blood cells count was obtained on treatments with 800 and 1200 mg AA kg-1 and on the hemoglobin concentration on treatment with 500 mg alpha-T kg-1 relatively to control. Mean corpuscular volume presented a significant decrease (p<0.05) on treatment with 800 and 1200 mg AA kg-1 when compared to control. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly high (p<0.05) on treatment with 500 mg alpha-T kg-1. Only in vitamin C treatments, we noticed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the number of leucocytes relative to control. All fish in the vitamin-supplemented treatments, except 500 mg AA kg-1, had high total protein values compared to control. Fish treated with 800 or 1200 mg alpha-T kg-1 also showed increases in plasma glucose concentrations. Our results suggest that 800 and 1200 mg AA kg-1 are probably the most suitable concentrations for pirarucu diets, although high vitamin E diets are not necessary for quantitative leucocyte increases for this species.

  16. Sex-specific influences of mtDNA mitotype and diet on mitochondrial functions and physiological traits in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen C Aw

    Full Text Available Here we determine the sex-specific influence of mtDNA type (mitotype and diet on mitochondrial functions and physiology in two Drosophila melanogaster lines. In many species, males and females differ in aspects of their energy production. These sex-specific influences may be caused by differences in evolutionary history and physiological functions. We predicted the influence of mtDNA mutations should be stronger in males than females as a result of the organelle's maternal mode of inheritance in the majority of metazoans. In contrast, we predicted the influence of diet would be greater in females due to higher metabolic flexibility. We included four diets that differed in their protein: carbohydrate (P:C ratios as they are the two-major energy-yielding macronutrients in the fly diet. We assayed four mitochondrial function traits (Complex I oxidative phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, and mtDNA copy number and four physiological traits (fecundity, longevity, lipid content, and starvation resistance. Traits were assayed at 11 d and 25 d of age. Consistent with predictions we observe that the mitotype influenced males more than females supporting the hypothesis of a sex-specific selective sieve in the mitochondrial genome caused by the maternal inheritance of mitochondria. Also, consistent with predictions, we found that the diet influenced females more than males.

  17. Pattern of access determines influence of junk food diet on cue sensitivity and palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosheleff, Alisa R; Araki, Jingwen; Hsueh, Jennifer; Le, Andrew; Quizon, Kevin; Ostlund, Sean B; Maidment, Nigel T; Murphy, Niall P

    2018-04-01

    Like drug addiction, cues associated with palatable foods can trigger food-seeking, even when sated. However, whether susceptibility to the motivating influence of food-related cues is a predisposing factor in overeating or a consequence of poor diet is difficult to determine in humans. Using a rodent model, we explored whether a highly palatable 'junk food' diet impacts responses to reward-paired cues in a Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer test, using sweetened condensed milk (SCM) as the reward. The hedonic impact of SCM consumption was also assessed by analyzing licking microstructure. To probe the effects of pattern and duration of junk food exposure, we provided rats with either regular chow ad libitum (controls) or chow plus access to junk food for either 2 or 24 h per day for 1, 3, or 6 weeks. We also examined how individual susceptibility to weight gain related to these measures. Rats provided 24 h access to the junk food diet were insensitive to the motivational effects of a SCM-paired cue when tested sated even though their hedonic experience upon reward consumption was similar to controls. In contrast, rats provided restricted, 2 h access to junk food exhibited a cue generalization phenotype under sated conditions, lever-pressing with increased vigor in response to both a SCM-paired cue, and a cue not previously paired with reward. Hedonic response was also significantly higher in these animals relative to controls. These data demonstrate that the pattern of junk food exposure differentially alters the hedonic impact of palatable foods and susceptibility to the motivating influence of cues in the environment to promote food-seeking actions when sated, which may be consequential for understanding overeating and obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preconception health assessment in China, Lebanon and the Philippines: applicability to other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Mary-Elizabeth; Charafeddine, Lama; Zhong, Nanbert; Padilla, Carmencita D; Yunis, Khalid; El Rafei, Reem; Alamiddine, Kawthar; Zhao, Xinliang; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Howson, Christopher P

    2014-07-01

    To test the utility of a preconception checklist tool in identifying preconception health needs of women in three countries; China, Lebanon and the Philippines. An academic medical center within each country participated in the development and testing of a preconception checklist tool, which was administered over a 6 month period to selected target groups in each country. The checklist provided valuable data on the preconception health of 6,530 women. Aggregated data identified common preconception health needs across all countries, including provision of modern contraceptives and adequate immunization coverage; HIV and STI screening; treatment for anemia; and counseling for maintenance of a healthy weight. A preconception checklist tool was found to be useful in distinct cultural settings. The study was a pilot. Future steps include validation and standardization of the checklist, data from which could be used to help shape preconception care policies and implementation strategies.

  19. Women's motives for not participating in preconception counseling: qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosli, E. J.; Elsinga, J.; Buitendijk, S. E.; Assendelft, W. J. J.; van der Pal-de Bruin, K. M.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: Information about risk factors and preventive measures given before conception is estimated to prevent 15-35% of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to identify women's motives for not responding to an invitation for preconception counseling (PCC) from their general practitioner. METHODS: A

  20. Women's motives for not participating in preconception counseling: Qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosli, E.J.; Elsinga, J.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Information about risk factors and preventive measures given before conception is estimated to prevent 15-35% of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to identify women's motives for not responding to an invitation for preconception counseling (PCC) from their general practitioner. Methods: A

  1. Students' Preconceptions about Urban Environmental Problems and Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Pedro; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined students' preconceptions about environmental problems in cities, particularly that of urban disposable waste. They found that students' ideas were dominated by what they perceived, without regard to existing interactions, and that students were unaware of the fundamental role of reuse and recycling in the solution of the disposal of solid…

  2. Awareness and perception of preconception care among health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: Preconception care (PCC) has been found to improve fetomaternal outcome but it is not widely practiced in. Nigeria. Objective: To obtain information concerning the level of awareness, perception and practice of PCC among health workers with the view of providing recommendation for a ...

  3. My Health, My Choice, My Future Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-01

    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  4. Parental perspectives on the awareness and delivery of preconception care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, M; Koster, M P H; Franx, A; van Stel, H F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The attention for Preconception Care (PCC) has grown substantially in recent years, yet the implementation of PCC appears challenging as uptake rates remain low. The objective of this study was to assess parental perspectives on how PCC should be provided. METHODS: Recruitment of

  5. Preconception lifestyle changes in women with planned pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Joline; Beeckman, Dimitri; Van Hecke, Ann; Delbaere, Ilse; Verhaeghe, Sofie

    2018-01-01

    (1) to study preconception lifestyle changes and associated factors in women with planned pregnancies; (2) to assess the prevalence of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in women not reporting any preconception lifestyle changes; and (3) to explore the need for and use of preconception-related advice. secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study about pregnancy planning. six Flemish Hospitals (Belgium). four hundred and thirty women with a planned pregnancy ending in birth. preconception lifestyle changes were measured during the first 5 days postpartum using the validated London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy. The following changes were assessed: folic acid or multivitamin intake, smoking reduction or cessation, alcohol reduction or cessation, caffeine reduction or cessation, eating more healthily, achieving a healthier weight, obtaining medical or health advice, or another self-reported preconception lifestyle change. most women (83%) that planned their pregnancy reported ≥1 lifestyle change in preparation for pregnancy. Overall, nulliparous women (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.23-3.87) and women with a previous miscarriage (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.14-5.21) were more likely to prepare for pregnancy, while experiencing financial difficulties (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.04-0.97) or having a lower educational level (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32-0.99) decreased the likelihood of preparing for pregnancy. Half of the women (48%) obtained advice about preconception health, and 86% of these women received their advice from a professional caregiver. Three-quarters (77%) of the women who did not improve their lifestyle before conceiving reported one or more risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. multiparous women and women of lower socio-economic status were less likely to change their lifestyle before conception. Strategies to promote preconception health in these women need to be tailored to their needs and characteristics to overcome barriers to change. It may be advantageous to

  6. Home food availability, parental dietary intake, and familial eating habits influence the diet quality of urban Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, Margarita; Adams, Alexandra K; Carrel, Aaron L; LaRowe, Tara L; Schoeller, Dale A

    2014-10-01

    The home food environment influences children's eating behaviors and potentially affects overall diet quality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the home food environment and Hispanic children's diet quality. Hispanic children, 10-14 years of age (n=187), and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality based on reported dietary intake obtained through a food frequency questionnaire administered to the children. Parents self-reported home food availability, familial eating habits, and their own habitual diet through a home environment survey. The children's HEI total score was 59.4±8.8. Reported diets did not adhere to the dietary recommendations for total vegetables, greens and beans, whole grains, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, sodium, solid fats, and added sugars. None of the participants had "good" scores (HEI, >80), 86% had scores that "need improvement" (HEI, 51-80), and 14% had "poor" scores (HEI, food availability, parental diet, and familial eating habits seem to play an important role in the diet quality of children. Interventions targeting family education on healthful dietary habits at home could have a positive impact on children's diet quality and overall health.

  7. Preconception care in Saudi women with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y Madanat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM in Saudi Arabia is one of the highest in the world. The role of preconception care (PCC is well-established as a means of improving pregnancy outcomes in DM. Objectives: To assess the rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge, and the rate of unplanned pregnancies in Saudi women with DM. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 355 Saudi women aged 18–49 years with self-reported DM. The study questionnaire contained variables about the provision of preconception counseling, knowledge of PCC facts, and the number of unplanned pregnancies after developing DM. The level of PCC knowledge was evaluated using a modified Likert scale. Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20 was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, and percentages were calculated; t-test was used for statistical significance. Results: About one-third of the participants had received preconception counseling after being diagnosed with DM. Counseling on PCC for older and married participants was significantly less. Of the 355 participants, 42.8% had little or no PCC knowledge. All pregnancies that occurred after developing DM were unplanned. Conclusions: The rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge in the studied Saudi women with DM is suboptimal, and none of the pregnancies that occurred after developing DM was planned. The study highlights the need for PCC programs that target all Saudi women of child-bearing age with DM, and their families starting at the age of puberty and at diagnosis of type 2DM, to optimize women's health and improve pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tanya M., E-mail: tanya.brown@mun.ca [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X9 (Canada); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute of Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Ferguson, Steven H. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Young, Brent G. [University of Manitoba, 500 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Reimer, Ken J. [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000, Stn Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. - Highlights: • Diet and location influenced THg and Cd in ringed seals across the Canadian Arctic. • Biomagnification processes contribute to elevated THg levels in the western Arctic. • Consuming low-trophic position prey explains high Cd levels in the eastern Arctic.

  9. Mercury and cadmium in ringed seals in the Canadian Arctic: Influence of location and diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Tanya M.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Wang, Xiaowa; Ferguson, Steven H.; Young, Brent G.; Reimer, Ken J.; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and total cadmium (TCd) were determined in muscle and liver of ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from up to 14 locations across the Canadian Arctic. Location, trophic position (TP) and relative carbon source best predicted the THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. THg concentrations in ringed seals were highest in the western Canadian Arctic (Beaufort Sea), whereas TCd was highest in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Hudson Bay and Labrador). A positive relationship between THg and TP and a negative relationship between THg and relative carbon source contributed to the geographical patterns observed and elevated THg levels at certain sites. In contrast, a negative relationship between TCd and TP was found, indicating that high TCd concentrations are related to seals feeding more on invertebrates than fish. Feeding ecology appears to play an important role in THg and TCd levels in ringed seals, with biomagnification driving elevated THg levels and a dependence on low-trophic position prey resulting in high TCd concentrations. The present study shows that both natural geological differences and diet variability among regions explain the spatial patterns for THg and TCd concentrations in ringed seals. - Highlights: • Diet and location influenced THg and Cd in ringed seals across the Canadian Arctic. • Biomagnification processes contribute to elevated THg levels in the western Arctic. • Consuming low-trophic position prey explains high Cd levels in the eastern Arctic.

  10. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and diet influence colorectal adenoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwood, Emma L; Elliott, Faye; Forman, David; Barrett, Jennifer H; Wilkie, Murray J V; Carey, Francis A; Steele, Robert J C; Wolf, Roland; Bishop, Timothy; Smith, Gillian

    2010-05-01

    We have earlier shown that diet and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genotypes influence colorectal cancer risk, and now investigate whether similar associations are seen in patients with premalignant colorectal adenomas (CRA), recruited during the pilot phase of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. Nineteen polymorphisms in 13 genes [cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione S-transferase (GST), N-acetyl transferase, quinone reductase (NQ01) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) genes] were genotyped using multiplex PCR or Taqman-based allelic discrimination assays and analyzed in conjunction with diet, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, in a case-control study [317 CRA cases (308 cases genotyped), 296 controls]. Findings significant at a nominal 5% level are reported. CRA risk was inversely associated with fruit (P=0.02, test for trend) and vegetable (P=0.001, test for trend) consumption. P450 CYP2C9*3 heterozygotes had reduced CRA risk compared with homozygotes for the reference allele [odds ratio (OR): 0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.99], whereas CYP2D6*4 homozygotes (OR: 2.72; 95% CI: 1.18-6.27) and GSTM1 'null' individuals (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.04-1.98) were at increased risk. The protective effect of fruit consumption was confined to GSTP1 (Ala114Val) reference allele homozygotes (OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71, P=0.03 for interaction). CRA risk was not associated with meat consumption, although a significant interaction between red meat consumption and EPHX1 (His139Arg) genotype was noted (P=0.02 for interaction). We report the novel associations between P450 genotype and CRA risk, and highlight the risk association with GSTM1 genotype, common to our CRA and cancer case-control series. In addition, we report a novel modifying influence of GSTP1 genotype on dietary chemoprevention. These novel findings require independent confirmation.

  11. Perceived influence and college students' diet and physical activity behaviors: an examination of ego-centric social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E; Forthofer, Melinda; Bantum, Erin O; Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-06-06

    Obesity is partially a social phenomenon, with college students particularly vulnerable to changes in social networks and obesity-related behaviors. Currently, little is known about the structure of social networks among college students and their potential influence on diet and physical activity behaviors. The purpose of the study was to examine social influences impacting college students' diet and physical activity behaviors, including sources of influence, comparisons between sources' and students' behaviors, and associations with meeting diet and physical activity recommendations. Data was collected from 40 students attending college in Hawaii. Participants completed diet and physical activity questionnaires and a name generator. Participants rated nominees' influence on their diet and physical activity behaviors as well as compared nominees' behaviors to their own. Descriptive statistics were used to look at perceptions of influence across network groups. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. A total of 325 nominations were made and included: family (n = 116), college friends (n = 104), high school friends (n = 87), and significant others (n = 18). Nearly half of participants were not from Hawaii. Significant others of non-Hawaii students were perceived to be the most influential (M(SD) = 9(1.07)) and high school friends the least influential (M(SD) = 1.31(.42)) network. Overall, perceived influence was highest for diet compared to physical activity, but varied based on comparisons with nominees' behaviors. Significant others were most often perceived has having similar (44 %) or worse (39 %) eating behaviors than participants, and those with similar eating behaviors were perceived as most influential (M(SD) = 9.25(1.04)). Few associations were seen between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. Among the groups nominated, high

  12. Perceived influence and college students’ diet and physical activity behaviors: an examination of ego-centric social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook E. Harmon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is partially a social phenomenon, with college students particularly vulnerable to changes in social networks and obesity-related behaviors. Currently, little is known about the structure of social networks among college students and their potential influence on diet and physical activity behaviors. The purpose of the study was to examine social influences impacting college students’ diet and physical activity behaviors, including sources of influence, comparisons between sources’ and students’ behaviors, and associations with meeting diet and physical activity recommendations. Methods Data was collected from 40 students attending college in Hawaii. Participants completed diet and physical activity questionnaires and a name generator. Participants rated nominees’ influence on their diet and physical activity behaviors as well as compared nominees' behaviors to their own. Descriptive statistics were used to look at perceptions of influence across network groups. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between network variables and odds of meeting recommendations. Results A total of 325 nominations were made and included: family (n = 116, college friends (n = 104, high school friends (n = 87, and significant others (n = 18. Nearly half of participants were not from Hawaii. Significant others of non-Hawaii students were perceived to be the most influential (M(SD = 9(1.07 and high school friends the least influential (M(SD = 1.31(.42 network. Overall, perceived influence was highest for diet compared to physical activity, but varied based on comparisons with nominees’ behaviors. Significant others were most often perceived has having similar (44 % or worse (39 % eating behaviors than participants, and those with similar eating behaviors were perceived as most influential (M(SD = 9.25(1.04. Few associations were seen between network variables and odds of meeting

  13. Health Care System Measures to Advance Preconception Wellness: Consensus Recommendations of the Clinical Workgroup of the National Preconception Health and Health Care Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayne, Daniel J; Verbiest, Sarah; Chelmow, David; Clarke, Heather; Dunlop, Anne; Hosmer, Jennifer; Menard, M Kathryn; Moos, Merry-K; Ramos, Diana; Stuebe, Alison; Zephyrin, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Preconception wellness reflects a woman's overall health before conception as a strategy to affect health outcomes for the woman, the fetus, and the infant. Preconception wellness is challenging to measure because it attempts to capture health status before a pregnancy, which may be affected by many different service points within a health care system. The Clinical Workgroup of the National Preconception Health and Health Care Initiative proposes nine core measures that can be assessed at initiation of prenatal care to index a woman's preconception wellness. A two-stage web-based modified Delphi survey and a face-to-face meeting of key opinion leaders in women's reproductive health resulted in identifying seven criteria used to determine the core measures. The Workgroup reached unanimous agreement on an aggregate of nine preconception wellness measures to serve as a surrogate but feasible assessment of quality preconception care within the larger health community. These include indicators for: 1) pregnancy intention, 2) access to care, 3) preconception multivitamin with folic acid use, 4) tobacco avoidance, 5) absence of uncontrolled depression, 6) healthy weight, 7) absence of sexually transmitted infections, 8) optimal glycemic control in women with pregestational diabetes, and 9) teratogenic medication avoidance. The focus of the proposed measures is to quantify the effect of health care systems on advancing preconception wellness. The Workgroup recommends that health care systems adopt these nine preconception wellness measures as a metric to monitor performance of preconception care practice. Over time, monitoring these baseline measures will establish benchmarks and allow for comparison within and among regions, health care systems, and communities to drive improvements.

  14. The Participation of Prospective Fathers in Preconception Care

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    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the data of male participants in the Coordinating Center of the Hungarian Preconception Service (HPS, Budapest, 1984-2010. One of main objectives of the HPS was the incorporation of male partners of female participants into the preparation of childbirth. The HPS is based on three steps: (I Reproductive health check-up. (II A 3-month preparation for conception with the major determinants of the development of new life such as sex, health and/or some diseases. Smoking and illicit drug use cessation and limitation of alcohol intake was suggested in the male participants (III to achieve optimal conception and better protection of early pregnancy. Pregnant women usually visit prenatal care clinics between the 7th and 12th gestational week when it is too late to reduce the risk of congenital abnormalities. Male participation in HPS will help to enhance use of appropriate preconception methods at the appropriate time.

  15. The influence of a short-term gluten-free diet on the human gut microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonder, Marc Jan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Cai, Xianghang; Trynka, Gosia; Cenit, Maria C; Hrdlickova, Barbara; Zhong, Huanzi; Vatanen, Tommi; Gevers, Dirk; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wang, Yang; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background: A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the most commonly adopted special diet worldwide. It is an effective treatment for coeliac disease and is also often followed by individuals to alleviate gastrointestinal complaints. It is known there is an important link between diet and the gut microbiome,

  16. Influence of diet quantity on learning and memory ability and immunological function in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Diet can regulate gene expression via manifesting genetic style so as to make a correlation with senility and tumor onset of tissue organs.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of diet quantity on learning and memory ability and immunological function changes in mice and verify the correlation between functional changes and diet quantity.DESIGN:Completely randomized grouping design.SETTINGS:Three Gorges University Medical College;School of Medicine,Hubei Institute for Nationalities.MATERIALS:Eighty Kunming mice of 3 weeks old,grade Ⅱ,weighing 17 - 18 g and either gender,were selected from Animal Experimental Center,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology.The experimental animals were disposed according to ethical criteria.At one week after feeding,they were randomly divided into 4 groups,including over-diet group,quantitative-diet group,quantitative-limit diet group and over-limit diet group with 20 mice in each group.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Medical Experimental Center of Hubei Institute for Nationalities and the Department of Laboratory,Central Hospital of Hubei Enshi Autonomous Prefecture from April to June 2006.① Diet quantity of animals was > 6 g/d in the over-diet group,4 g/d in the quantitative-diet group,3.34 g/d in the quantitative-limit diet group and 1.8 g/d in the over-limit diet group,respectively.Mice in the four groups drank freely.②At 35 days after feeding,every 10 mice were randomly selected from each group and enclosed in the wide mouthed bottle (250 mL,containing sodalime) to observe and record survival time under normal pressure and hypoxic condition.Other mice were given step down test,shuttle box test and autonomic activity test.Step down test:The first step-down latency and error times within 5 minutes were used to evaluate learning ability and the memory ability was retested at 24 hours later.Shuttle box test:The shuttle-box latency and error times within 5 minutes were used to

  17. Sexual behaviours and preconception health in Italian university students

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    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Risky sexual behaviours have been recognized as a threat for sexual and reproductive health. AIM: This article shows the results of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk" in relation to determining how a large sample of university students in Italy cope with preconception health, especially in the domains of sexual transmitted infections (STIs, fertility and vaccination preventable disease. METHODS: Twentythree questions of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey about sexual behaviour and reproductive health were analysed. Besides, results were stratified for sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: 19.7% of students have had first sexual intercourse before age 15. 21.8% of female students used emergency contraception. 66.4% of the 74.0% sexual active students reported using contraceptives, but about 32% of them used methods ineffective against STIs. A general low coverage for rubella, measles and mumps vaccination was revealed. 63.7% of men and 30.9% of woman never had urologic or gynaecological examinations. DISCUSSION: Overall, young adults in Italy are not still enough sensitized on fertility and preconception care. High schools and universities should increase awareness towards preservation of male and female fertility and preconception care.

  18. Preconception Health Behaviors of Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, Adejoke B; Sneller, Krista; Ebeye, Tega D; Dykstra, Megan Jongekrijg; Ellens, Victoria L; Lee, HaEun Grace; Zandee, Gail L

    2016-01-01

    Preconception behaviors have a significant impact on birth outcomes, particularly among low-income minority groups, and women with unplanned pregnancies. This study examined women's perceived health status and behaviors such as drinking, smoking, exercise, and use of multivitamins and folic acid. This was a descriptive study based on a convenience sample of women living in urban underserved neighborhoods. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted using STATA 13. The sample consisted of 123 women ages 18 to 51 years (mean = 30.57); 51.22% were Hispanic, 36.59% African American, and 12.2% Caucasian. Over 70% had a household income of less than $20,000, 57.72% had no health insurance in the last year, and 58.54% were not married. These women were below the Healthy People 2020 goals for drinking, smoking, and multivitamin use, especially those who were planning to get pregnant in the next 6 months or not sure of their pregnancy planning status. There were no significant differences on any of the preconception health behavior variables based on pregnancy intention. Nurses and healthcare providers should emphasize importance of practicing healthy behaviors during the preconception period among low-income ethnic minority women specifically those living in urban medically underserved areas who are unsure of their pregnancy planning status or are at risk of unintended pregnancy.

  19. Diet influenced tooth erosion prevalence in children and adolescents: Results of a meta-analysis and meta-regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, M.M.; Nascimento, G.G.; Vargas-Ferreira, F.; Tarquinio, S.B.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Demarco, F.F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of diet in tooth erosion presence in children and adolescents by meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA: Two reviewers independently performed the selection process and the quality of studies was assessed. SOURCES: Studies

  20. Evidence of a bacterial core in the stored products pest Plodia interpunctella: the influence of different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Gargari, Giorgio; Guglielmetti, Simone; Faoro, Franco; Lozzia, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Daria; Limonta, Lidia

    2016-12-01

    The potential influence of insects' feeding behaviour on their associated bacterial communities is currently a matter of debate. Using the major pest of commodities, Plodia interpunctella, as a model and adopting a culture-independent approach, the impact of different diets on the host-associated microbiota was evaluated. An analysis of similarity showed differences among the microbiotas of moths fed with five substrates and provided evidence that diet represents the only tested factor that explains this dissimilarity. Bacteria shared between food and insects provide evidence for a limited conveyance to the host of the bacteria derived from the diet; more likely, the content of carbohydrates and proteins in the diets promotes changes in the insect's microbiota. Moth microbiotas were characterized by two robust entomotypes, respectively, associated with a carbohydrate-rich diet and a protein-rich diet. These results were also confirmed by the predicted metagenome functional potential. A core microbiota, composed of six taxa, was shared between eggs and adults, regardless of the origin of the population. Finally, the identification of possible human and animal pathogens on chili and associated with the moths that feed on it highlights the possibility that these bacteria may be conveyed by moth frass. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A Structural and Functional Elucidation of the Rumen Microbiome Influenced by Various Diets and Microenvironments

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    Simon Deusch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the microbiome inhabiting the rumen are, amongst other factors, mainly shaped by the animal's feed intake. Describing the influence of different diets on the inherent community arrangement and associated metabolic activities of the most active ruminal fractions (bacteria and archaea is of great interest for animal nutrition, biotechnology, and climatology. Samples were obtained from three fistulated Jersey cows rotationally fed with corn silage, grass silage or grass hay, each supplemented with a concentrate mixture. Samples were fractionated into ruminal fluid, particle-associated rumen liquid, and solid matter. DNA, proteins and metabolites were analyzed subsequently. DNA extracts were used for Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and the metabolomes of rumen fluids were determined by 500 MHz-NMR spectroscopy. Tryptic peptides derived from protein extracts were measured by LC-ESI-MS/MS and spectra were processed by a two-step database search for quantitative metaproteome characterization. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD006070. Protein- and DNA-based datasets revealed significant differences between sample fractions and diets and affirmed similar trends concerning shifts in phylogenetic composition. Ribosomal genes and proteins belonging to the phylum of Proteobacteria, particularly Succinivibrionaceae, exhibited a higher abundance in corn silage-based samples while fiber-degraders of the Lachnospiraceae family emerged in great quantities throughout the solid phase fractions. The analysis of 8163 quantified bacterial proteins revealed the presence of 166 carbohydrate active enzymes in varying abundance. Cellulosome affiliated proteins were less expressed in the grass silage, glycoside hydrolases appeared in slightest numbers in the corn silage. Most expressed glycoside hydrolases belonged to families 57 and 2. Enzymes analogous to ABC transporters for amino acids and

  2. The influence of the type of birth and the mother´s diet on the breastfeeding period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Benites

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The prenatal aspects may influence the duration of breastfeeding of newborns, which when reduced harm to their development brings cranio-orofacial. Correlate the type of delivery and maternal diet with breastfeeding period. This was a descriptive study based on the records of the medical records of 820 dyads of mothers and newborns participating in the University Extension Baby Clinic. The results were analyzed, considering a significance level of 5%. The absence of complications during pregnancy was a positive factor for the occurrence of vaginal delivery in 94% of the sample (p<0.001. It was found a high percentage of cesarean delivery (43%. The number of caesarean sections in women with cariogenic diet was higher than in women with non-cariogenic diet. The women who have a cariogenic diet does not have a tendency to breastfeed their children for more than 6 months (p<0.01. Also there was an association between vaginal delivery and longer period of 6 months of breastfeeding (p<0.001. The collected sample mode of delivery and maternal diet influence the duration of breastfeeding.

  3. The influence of parental encouragement and caring about healthy eating on children's diet quality and body weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin; Vander Ploeg, Kerry; Chu, Yen Li; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    In order to mitigate childhood obesity, evidence on what influences children's health behaviours is needed to inform new health promotion strategies. The present study investigated the association between parental practices and their child's diet and body weight status. Grade 5 students and their parents completed health surveys. Parents were asked how much they 'encourage their child to eat healthy foods' and how much they 'personally care about healthy eating'. Children's diet quality and vegetable and fruit intake were assessed using an FFQ. Children's heights and weights were measured to determine body weight status. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine the influence of parental responses on the outcomes of interest. Elementary schools across the province of Alberta, Canada. Grade 5 students (aged 10 and 11 years; n 8388) and their parent(s). Most parents reported caring about healthy eating and encouraging their child to eat healthy foods at least quite a lot. Children whose parents who cared or encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' were more likely have better diet quality and were less likely to be overweight. Children whose parents both cared and encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' scored an average of 2·06 points higher on the diet quality index (β=2·06; 95 % CI 1·45, 2·66). Health promotion strategies that aim for a high level of parental interest and encouragement of their children to eat healthy foods may improve diet quality and prevent overweight among children.

  4. Influences of reduced masticatory sensory input from soft-diet feeding upon spatial memory/learning ability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Keisuke; Kaku, Masato; Motokawa, Masahide; Tohma, Yuiko; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Fujita, Tadashi; Kohno, Shinya; Ohtani, Junji; Tenjoh, Kaoru; Nakano, Mao; Kamada, Hiroko; Tanne, Kazuo

    2007-02-01

    It has been reported that reduction of masticatory afferent stimulation might influence learning and memory function. In order to clarify the influences of reduced masticatory sensory input on spatial memory/learning ability and neuropathological changes, we conducted the Morris water maze experiment and investigated the number of hippocampal neurons in association with the differences in masticatory afferent stimuli from hard- and soft-diet feeding in mice. The water maze experiment showed no significant difference in learning ability between 180-day-old solid- and powderdiet groups. Meanwhile, the ability was significantly reduced in the 360-day-old powder-diet group as compared with the age-matched solid-diet group. The total number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions was significantly smaller in 360-day-old powder-diet group than in the remaining groups. These results demonstrate that reduction of masticatory afferent stimuli due to long-term soft-diet feeding may induce neuron loss in the hippocampus and reduced memory/learning ability.

  5. Preconception care: The influence of nutrition and lifestyle on fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Hammiche (Fatima)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn Western societies there has been a change in reproductive behaviour with a tendency towards more couples postponing childbearing. As a consequence the number of couples experiencing impaired fertility in the Netherlands is rising. Female age in this respect is the commonly studied

  6. Early-life influences on obesity: From preconception to adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The double burden of under- and overnutrition profoundly affects human health globally. According to the World Health Organization, obesity and diabetes rates have almost doubled worldwide since 1980, and, in 2011, more than 40 million children under 5 years of age were overweight. Ecologic factors,...

  7. Gut microbiota and lipopolysaccharide content of the diet influence development of regulatory T cells: studies in germ-free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncir, Tomas; Stepankova, Renata; Kozakova, Hana; Hudcovic, Tomas; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

    2008-11-06

    Mammals are essentially born germ-free but the epithelial surfaces are promptly colonized by astounding numbers of bacteria soon after birth. The most extensive microbial community is harbored by the distal intestine. The gut microbiota outnumber ~10 times the total number of our somatic and germ cells. The host-microbiota relationship has evolved to become mutually beneficial. Studies in germ-free mice have shown that gut microbiota play a crucial role in the development of the immune system. The principal aim of the present study was to elucidate whether the presence of gut microbiota and the quality of a sterile diet containing various amounts of bacterial contaminants, measured by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content, can influence maturation of the immune system in gnotobiotic mice. We have found that the presence of gut microbiota and to a lesser extent also the LPS-rich sterile diet drive the expansion of B and T cells in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. The most prominent was the expansion of CD4+ T cells including Foxp3-expressing T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. Further, we have observed that both the presence of gut microbiota and the LPS-rich sterile diet influence in vitro cytokine profile of spleen cells. Both gut microbiota and LPS-rich diet increase the production of interleukin-12 and decrease the production of interleukin-4. In addition, the presence of gut microbiota increases the production of interleukin-10 and interferon-gamma. Our data clearly show that not only live gut microbiota but also microbial components (LPS) contained in sterile diet stimulate the development, expansion and function of the immune system. Finally, we would like to emphasize that the composition of diet should be regularly tested especially in all gnotobiotic models as the LPS content and other microbial components present in the diet may significantly alter the outcome of experiments.

  8. Preconception Prebiotic and Sitagliptin Treatment in Obese Rats Affects Pregnancy Outcomes and Offspring Microbiota, Adiposity, and Glycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Dennison

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications and greater risk of obesity in offspring, but studies designed to examine preconception weight loss are limited. The objective of this study was to determine if a combined dietary [oligofructose (OFS] and pharmacological (sitagliptin preconception intervention could mitigate poor pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and improve offspring metabolic health and gut microbiota composition. Diet-induced obese female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of four intervention groups for 8 weeks: (1 Obese-Control (consumed control diet during intervention; (2 Obese-OFS (10% OFS diet; (3 Obese-S (sitagliptin drug; (4 Obese-OFS + S (combination treatment. Two reference groups were also included: (5 Obese-HFS (untreated obese consumed high fat/sucrose diet throughout study; (6 Lean-Control (lean reference group that were never obese and consumed control diet throughout. Offspring consumed control diet until 11 weeks of age followed by HFS diet until 17 weeks of age. The Obese-OFS + S rats lost weight during the intervention phase whereas the OFS and S treatments attenuated weight gain compared with Obese-HFS (p < 0.05. Gestational weight gain was lowest in Obese-OFS + S rats and highest in Obese-HFS rats (p < 0.05. Prepregnancy intervention did not affect reproductive parameters but did affect pregnancy outcomes including litter size. Male Obese-OFS offspring had significantly lower percent body fat than Obese-HFS at 17 weeks. Female Obese-S and Obese-OFS offspring had significantly lower fasting glucose at 17 weeks compared with Obese-Control and Obese-HFS. Clostridium cluster XI was higher in Obese-HFS and Obese-S dams at birth compared with all other groups. Dams with an adverse pregnancy outcome had significantly lower (p = 0.035 Lactobacillus spp. compared with dams with normal or small litters. At weaning, male offspring

  9. Influence of Fishmeal-Free Diets on Microbial Communities in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Recirculation Aquaculture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Victor; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Davidson, John; Summerfelt, Steven; Good, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Reliance on fishmeal as a primary protein source is among the chief economic and environmental concerns in aquaculture today. Fishmeal-based feeds often require harvest from wild fish stocks, placing pressure on natural ecosystems and causing price instability. Alternative diet formulations without the use of fishmeal provide a potential solution to this challenge. Although the impact of alternative diets on fish performance, intestinal inflammation, palatability, and gut microbiota has been a topic of recent interest, less is known about how alternative feeds impact the aquaculture environment as a whole. The recent focus on recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and the closed-containment approach to raising food fish highlights the need to maintain stable environmental and microbiological conditions within a farm environment. Microbial stability in RAS biofilters is particularly important, given its role in nutrient processing and water quality in these closed systems. If and how the impacts of alternative feeds on microbial communities in fish translate into changes to the biofilters are not known. We tested the influence of a fishmeal-free diet on the microbial communities in RAS water, biofilters, and salmon microbiomes using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene V6 hypervariable region amplicon sequencing. We grew Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to market size in six replicate RAS tanks, three with traditional fishmeal diets and three with alternative-protein, fishmeal-free diets. We sampled intestines and gills from market-ready adult fish, water, and biofilter medium in each corresponding RAS unit. Our results provide data on how fish diet influences the RAS environment and corroborate previous findings that diet has a clear influence on the microbiome structure of the salmon intestine, particularly within the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria). We conclude that the strong stability of taxa likely involved in water quality processing regardless of diet (e

  10. Preconception carrier screening for multiple disorders: evaluation of a screening offer in a Dutch founder population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Inge B; Holtkamp, Kim C A; Ottenheim, Cecile P E; van Eeten-Nijman, Janneke M C; Lakeman, Phillis; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; van Maarle, Merel C; Henneman, Lidewij

    2018-02-01

    Technological developments have enabled carrier screening for multiple disorders. This study evaluated experiences with a preconception carrier screening offer for four recessive disorders in a Dutch founder population. Questionnaires were completed by 182 attendees pretesting and posttesting and by 137 non-attendees. Semistructured interviews were conducted with seven of the eight carrier couples. Attendees were mainly informed about the existence of screening by friends/colleagues (49%) and family members (44%). Familiarity with the genetic disorders was high. Knowledge after counseling increased (p influencers (family/friends) can be used to raise awareness of a screening offer. Our findings provide lessons for the implementation of expanded carrier screening panels in other communities and other settings.

  11. Oxidative Stress and Ageing: The Influence of Environmental Pollution, Sunlight and Diet on Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khimara Naidoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the process of human skin ageing. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and are widely implicated in cutaneous ageing. Extrinsic skin ageing is driven to a large extent by environmental factors and external stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR, pollution and lifestyle factors which have been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and generate oxidative stress. The oxidative damage from these exogenous sources can impair skin structure and function, leading to the phenotypic features of extrinsic skin ageing. The following review highlights the current evidence surrounding the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the ageing process and the influence of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution and diet on skin ageing.

  12. Nutrition and Helicobacter pylori: Host Diet and Nutritional Immunity Influence Bacterial Virulence and Disease Outcome

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    Kathryn P. Haley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world’s human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H. pylori which increase the risk for developing gastric cancer. Furthermore, host diet and nutrition status have been shown to influence H. pylori-associated disease outcomes. In this review we will discuss how H. pylori is able to create a replicative niche within the hostile host environment by subverting and modifying the host-generated immune response as well as successfully competing for limited nutrients such as transition metals by deploying an arsenal of metal acquisition proteins and virulence factors. Lastly, we will discuss how micronutrient availability or alterations in the gastric microbiome may exacerbate negative disease outcomes associated with H. pylori colonization.

  13. Dietary influences on cognitive function with aging: from high-fat diets to healthful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Matthew D; Greenwood, Carol E

    2007-10-01

    Human epidemiologic studies provide convincing evidence that dietary patterns practiced during adulthood are important contributors to age-related cognitive decline and dementia risk. Diets high in fat, especially trans and saturated fats, adversely affect cognition, while those high in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and fish are associated with better cognitive function and lower risk of dementia. While the precise physiologic mechanisms underlying these dietary influences are not completely understood, modulation of brain insulin activity and neuroinflammation likely contribute. Not surprisingly, deficits in cognitive functions, especially those dependent on the medial temporal lobes, are apparent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Special care in food selection at meals should be exercised by those with T2DM since ingestion of rapidly absorbed, high-glycemic index carbohydrate foods further impairs medial temporal lobe function, with food-induced increases in oxidative stress and cytokine release likely explaining the association between food ingestion and reduction in cognitive function in those with T2DM.

  14. Influence of Term of Exposure to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity on Myocardial Collagen Type I and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé de; Nascimento, André Ferreira do; Oliveira, Sílvio Assis Junior de; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for many medical complications; medical research has shown that hemodynamic, morphological and functional abnormalities are correlated with the duration and severity of obesity. Present study determined the influence of term of exposure to high-fat diet-induced obesity on myocardial collagen type I and III. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: a control (C) group fed a standard rat chow and an obese (Ob) group alternately fed one of four palatable high-fat diets. Each diet was changed daily, and the rats were maintained on their respective diets for 15 (C 15 and Ob 15 ) and 30 (C 30 and Ob 30 ) consecutive weeks. Obesity was determined by adiposity index. The Ob 15 group was similar to the C 15 group regarding the expression of myocardial collagen type I; however, expression in the Ob 30 group was less than C 30 group. The time of exposure to obesity was associated with a reduction in collagen type I in Ob 30 when compared with Ob 15 . Obesity did not affect collagen type III expression. This study showed that the time of exposure to obesity for 30 weeks induced by unsaturated high-fat diet caused a reduction in myocardial collagen type I expression in the obese rats. However, no effect was seen on myocardial collagen type III expression

  15. Influence of maternal diet during early pregnancy on the fatty acid profile in the fetus at late pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Flavia Spreafico; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; Herrera, Emilio

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different dietary fatty acids during the first half of pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of maternal adipose tissue and of maternal and fetal plasma at mid- and late-pregnancy. Pregnant rats received soybean-, olive-, fish-, linseed- or palm-oil diets from conception to day 12 of gestation. Virgin rats receiving the same treatments were studied in parallel. At day 12, some rats were sacrificed and others were returned to the standard diet and studied at day 20. At day 12, the concentrations of most fatty acids in plasma reflected the dietary composition and individual fatty acids in lumbar adipose tissue of pregnant rats correlated with those in the diet. At day 20, the plasma concentration of each fatty acid was higher in pregnant than in both virgin rats and day-12 pregnant rats. The composition in 20-day pregnant (but not in virgin) rats resembled the diet consumed during the first 12 days. Fatty acid concentration in fetal plasma was also influenced by the maternal diet during the first 12 days of pregnancy, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) concentrations correlated with those in the mothers. In conclusion, during the first half of pregnancy maternal adipose tissue stores dietary-derived fatty acids, which are released into blood during late pregnancy enabling LC-PUFA to become available to the fetus.

  16. Influence of Term of Exposure to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity on Myocardial Collagen Type I and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares [Departamento de Esportes, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES (Brazil); Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé de; Nascimento, André Ferreira do [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Sílvio Assis Junior de [Escola de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Padovani, Carlos Roberto [Departamento de Bioestatística do Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Cicogna, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: dany.tomaz@gmail.com [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for many medical complications; medical research has shown that hemodynamic, morphological and functional abnormalities are correlated with the duration and severity of obesity. Present study determined the influence of term of exposure to high-fat diet-induced obesity on myocardial collagen type I and III. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: a control (C) group fed a standard rat chow and an obese (Ob) group alternately fed one of four palatable high-fat diets. Each diet was changed daily, and the rats were maintained on their respective diets for 15 (C{sub 15} and Ob{sub 15}) and 30 (C{sub 30} and Ob{sub 30}) consecutive weeks. Obesity was determined by adiposity index. The Ob{sub 15} group was similar to the C{sub 15} group regarding the expression of myocardial collagen type I; however, expression in the Ob{sub 30} group was less than C{sub 30} group. The time of exposure to obesity was associated with a reduction in collagen type I in Ob{sub 30} when compared with Ob{sub 15}. Obesity did not affect collagen type III expression. This study showed that the time of exposure to obesity for 30 weeks induced by unsaturated high-fat diet caused a reduction in myocardial collagen type I expression in the obese rats. However, no effect was seen on myocardial collagen type III expression.

  17. Diet of the west coast rock lobster Jasus Lalandii : Influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of small lobsters (<75mm CL) consisted of a wide range of species, which included, in order of importance, coralline algae, barnacles Notomegabalanus algicola, sponges and ribbed mussels Aulacomya ater. However, prey items rich in inorganic material were not dominant in their diet, as had been predicted.

  18. The influence of diet on the development of swine dysentery upon experimental infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindecrona, R.H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jensen, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    , to confirm if low non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-containing diets reduce swine dysentery the effect of different dietary levels of NSP and resistant starch (RS) was evaluated. These diets were based on cooked rice and animal protein, cooked rice and potato starch, cooked rice and wheat bran, or cooked rice...

  19. Does diet influence consumer nutrient cycling? Macroinvertebrate and fish excretion in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan McManamay; Jackson Webster; H. Valett; C. Dolloff

    2011-01-01

    Consumer nutrient cycling supplies limiting elements to autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms in aquatic systems. However, the role of consumers in supplying nutrients may change depending on their diet and their own stoichiometry. We evaluated the stoichiometry, N and P excretion, and diets of the dominant macroinvertebrates and fish at 6 stream sites to determine...

  20. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  1. Influence of organic diets and probiotics on an experimental Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Boye, Mette

    2012-01-01

    following exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of the Danish project OPTIFISH is to optimize growth and survival for organic cultured rainbow trout. OPTIFISH investigates how organic vs. non-organic diet types as well as diets with or without probiotics affect the intestine, the intestinal...... of fry to pathogens, e.g. F .psychrophilum. In the current experiment four diet types were tested on fry, a conventional type (Inicio®, BioMar A/S) with and without probiotics, as well as an organic type with and without probiotic. Bactocell® (Lallemand) was used as the probiotic. Studies were done...... been fed diets that were organic or conventional nor if the feed had been added probiotic. No significance in mortalities was seen between the diet groups. The bacteriological examinations showed that the bacterium had entered the fish, as it was found in inner organs in one fourth of the sampled fish...

  2. Fluid physico-chemical properties influence capture and diet in Nepenthes pitcher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Vincent; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Marshall, David J; Gaume, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants have evolved modified leaves with slippery surfaces and enzymatic fluids that trap and digest prey, faeces and/or plant detritus. Although the fluid's contribution to insect capture is recognized, the physico-chemical properties involved remain underexplored and may vary among species, influencing their diet type. This study investigates the contributions of acidity and viscoelasticity in the fluid's capture efficiency of two ant and two fly species in four Nepenthes species with different nutrition strategies. Four Nepenthes species were studied, namely N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis, N. hemsleyana and N. ampullaria. Fluid was collected from pitchers of varying ages from plants growing in the field and immediately transferred to glass vials, and individual ants (tribe Campotini, Fomicinae) and flies (Calliphora vomitoria and Drosophila melanogaster) were dropped in and observed for 5 min. Water-filled vials were used as controls. Survival and lifetime data were analysed using models applied to right-censored observations. Additional laboratory experiments were carried out in which C. vomitoria flies were immersed in pH-controlled aqueous solutions and observed for 5 min. Pitcher fluid differed among Nepenthes species as regards insect retention capacity and time-to-kill, with differences observed between prey types. Only the fluids of the reputedly insectivorous species were very acidic and/or viscoelastic and retained significantly more insects than the water controls. Viscoelastic fluids were fatal to flies and were able to trap the broadest diversity of insects. Younger viscoelastic fluids showed a better retention ability than older fluids, although with less rapid killing ability, suggesting that a chemical action follows a mechanical one. Insect retention increased exponentially with fluid viscoelasticity, and this happened more abruptly and at a lower threshold for flies compared with ants. Flies were more often retained if they

  3. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  4. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; van Strien, Jan W.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractLove feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-Term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionna...

  5. Influences on the diet quality of pre-school children: importance of maternal psychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Megan; Inskip, Hazel M; Ntani, Georgia; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Robinson, Sian M; Barker, Mary E

    2015-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that maternal psychological profiles relate to children's quality of diet. Cross-sectional study. Mothers provided information on their health-related psychological factors and aspects of their child's mealtime environment. Children's diet quality was assessed using an FFQ from which weekly intakes of foods and a diet Z-score were calculated. A high score described children with a better quality diet. Cluster analysis was performed to assess grouping of mothers based on psychological factors. Mealtime characteristics, describing how often children ate while sitting at a table or in front of the television, their frequency of takeaway food consumption, maternal covert control and food security, and children's quality of diet were examined, according to mothers' cluster membership. Mother-child pairs (n 324) in the Southampton Initiative for Health. Children were aged 2-5 years. Hampshire, UK. Two main clusters were identified. Mothers in cluster 1 had significantly higher scores for all psychological factors than mothers in cluster 2 (all P diets (β = -0.61, 95% CI -0.82, -0.40, P ≤ 0.001). This association was attenuated, but remained significant after controlling for confounding factors that included maternal education and home/mealtime characteristics (P = 0.006). The study suggests that mothers should be offered psychological support as part of interventions to improve children's quality of diet.

  6. The influence of bacteria-dominated diets on Daphnia magna somatic growth, reproduction, and lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Brett, Michael T; Pulkkinen, Katja; Kainz, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    We explored how dietary bacteria affect the life history traits and biochemical composition of Daphnia magna, using three bacteria taxa with very different lipid composition. Our objectives were to (1) examine whether and how bacteria-dominated diets affect Daphnia survival, growth, and fecundity, (2) see whether bacteria-specific fatty acid (FA) biomarkers accrued in Daphnia lipids, and (3) explore the quantitative relationship between bacteria availability in Daphnia diets and the amounts of bacterial FA in their lipids. Daphnia were fed monospecific and mixed diets of heterotrophic (Micrococcus luteus) or methanotrophic bacteria (Methylomonas methanica and Methylosinus trichosporium) and two phytoplankton species (Cryptomonas ozolinii and Scenedesmus obliquus). Daphnia neonates fed pure bacteria diets died after 6-12 days and produced no viable offspring, whereas those fed pure phytoplankton diets had high survival, growth, and reproduction success. Daphnia fed a mixed diet with 80% M. luteus and 20% of either phytoplankton had high somatic growth, but low reproduction. Conversely, Daphnia fed mixed diets including 80% of either methane-oxidizing bacteria and 20% Cryptomonas had high reproduction rates, but low somatic growth. All Daphnia fed mixed bacteria and phytoplankton diets had strong evidence of both bacteria- and phytoplankton-specific FA biomarkers in their lipids. FA mixing model calculations indicated that Daphnia that received 80% of their carbon from bacteria assimilated 46 ± 25% of their FA from this source. A bacteria-phytoplankton gradient experiment showed a strong positive correlation between the proportions of the bacterial FA in the Daphnia and their diet, indicating that bacterial utilization can be traced in this keystone consumer using FA biomarkers. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of Diet and Tobacco Smoking on Pancreatic Cancer Incidence in Poland in 1960–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Jarosz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between pancreatic cancer incidence and selected dietary factors, alcohol consumption, and tobacco smoking in Poland in 1960–2008. Data on pancreatic cancer morbidity were derived from the National Cancer Registry and on food consumption from the national food balance sheets. In 1960–1989 correlations were found between pancreatic cancer incidence rates and energy (0.60 for males and 0.57 for females, cholesterol (0.87 and 0.80, fibre (−0.84 and −0.89 and folate (−0.45 and −0.49 intake, the consumption of total fats (0.94 and 0.91, animal fats (0,90 and 0,82, sugar (0.88 and 0.87, cereals (−0.93 and −0.91, and alcohol (0.86 and 0.82. In 1990–2008 morbidity correlated with the consumption of red meat (0.67 and 0.48, poultry (−0.88 and −0.57, and fruit (−0.62 and −0.50. Correlation with tobacco smoking was observed in the whole studied period (0.55 and 0.44. Increased incidence of pancreatic cancer in 1960–1995 was probably related to adverse dietary patterns up to 1989, especially high consumption of fats, sugar, and alcohol. Further positive changes in the diet such as lowering red meat consumption and increasing fruit consumption could influence incidence reduction in recent years. Also changes in tobacco smoking could affect the morbidity.

  8. Influence of Rain Tree Pod Meal Supplementation on Rice Straw Based Diets Using Gas Fermentation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the roughage to concentrate (R:C ratio with rain tree pod meal (RPM supplementation on in vitro fermentation using gas production technique. The experiment design was a 6×4 factorial arrangement in a CRD. Factor A was 6 levels of R:C ratio (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 and factor B was 4 levels of RPM (0, 4, 8 and 12 mg. It was found that gas kinetic, extent rate (c was linearly increased (p<0.01 with an increasing level of concentrate while cumulative gas production (96 h was higher in R:C of 40:60. In addition, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level affected NH3-N and IVDMD and were highest in R:C of 0:100 with 0, 4 mg of RPM and 40:60 with 8 mg of RPM, respectively. Moreover, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level significantly increased total volatile fatty acids and propionate concentration whereas lower acetate, acetate to propionate ratios and CH4 production in R:C of 20:80 with 8 mg of RPM. Moreover, the two factors, R:C ratio and RPM level influenced the protozoal population and the percentage of methanogens in the total bacteria population. In addition, the use of real-time PCR found that a high level of concentrate in the diet remarkably decreased three cellulolytic bacteria numbers (F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus. Based on this study, it is suggested that the ratio of R:C at 40:60 and RPM level at 12 mg could improve ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of reducing fermentation losses, thus improving VFA profiles and ruminal ecology.

  9. Influence of various carbohydrates on the utilization of low protein diet by the adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Akmal.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different dietary carbohydrates on food intake, body weight and nitrogen balance of adult rats fed 5 per cent protein diet ad-libitum for 14, 24, and 45 days or restricted to 70 per cent of their normal food intake for 10 and 31 days was studied. No significant difference in food intake and body weight on either of treatments was observed. Nitrogen balance studies indicated that rats fed ad-libitum or restricted diet having starch as a source of dietary carbohydrate utilized nitrogen more efficiently than sucrose fed animals. Possible explanations have been discussed. Regression equations were calculated and it was found from the regression lines that minimum calories and nitrogen intake to maintain nitrogen equilibrium under experimental conditions were 123 kcal and 270 mg N per kg 3/4/day on starch based diet compared with 136 kcal and 295 mg N per kg 3/4/day on sucrose diet respectively

  10. Influence of diet pellet hardness and particle size on food utilization by mice, rats and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D J

    1977-10-01

    Increasing hardness of diet pellets reduced food wastage by each species. Also, less wastage occurred when pellets made from finely ground materials were given, an effect that was not related to hardness. The hardest diet reduced growth of the mice by reducing true food consumption and a poorer food conversion efficiency (true food consumption/growth) was obtained. Apparent food consumption increased with the softness of the diet and food utilization (apparent food consumption/growth) of the softest diets was less efficient than those of the others. Grinding of the raw materials prior to pelleting had no effect on food conversion, but food utilization was less efficient because of the greater wastage of pellets from coarsely ground materials and consequent apparent food comsumption.

  11. Cultural based preconceptions in aesthetic experience of architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On a broader scale, the aim of this paper is to examine theoretically the effects a cultural context has on the aesthetic experience of images existing in perceived reality. Minimalism in architecture, as direct subject of research, is a field of particularities in which we observe functioning of this correlation. Through the experiment with the similarity phenomenon, the paper follows specific manifestations of general formal principles and variability of meaning of minimalism in architecture in limited areas of cultural backgrounds of Serbia and Japan. The goal of the comparative analysis of the examples presented is to indicate the conditions that may lead to a possibly different aesthetic experience in two different cultural contexts. Attribution of different meanings to similar formal visual language of architecture raises questions concerning the system of values, which produces these meanings in their cultural and historical perspectives. The establishment of values can also be affected by preconceptions resulting from association of perceived similarities. Are the preconceptions in aesthetic reception of architecture conditionally affected by pragmatic needs, symbolic archetypes, cultural metaphors based on tradition or ideologically constructed dogmas? Confronting philosophical postulates of the Western and Eastern traditions with the transculturality theory of Wolfgang Welsch, the answers may become more available.

  12. Preconception exposures to potential germ-cell mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation and other agents can cause germ-cell mutations in animal systems. No human germ-cell mutagen has been identified, but this does not mean that human germ-cells are not vulnerable to mutagenesis. There has been particular concern about the possible health effects on offspring following parental preconception exposure to ionizing radiation - both occupational and therapeutic. A strong association with preconception radiation exposure in the fathers of the cases was found in a case-control study of young people with leukaemia living near the Sellafield nuclear plant in the UK. Subsequent studies of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation have failed to confirm these findings. No statistically significant effects have been reported from studies of possible indicators of germ-cell mutagenesis in the A-bomb survivors. Studies of offspring of cancer survivors who receive radiotherapy and mutagenic chemotherapy have found no evidence of germ-cell mutagenesis. Failure to detect human germ-cell mutagenic agents may be a consequence of inadequate study sizes or insufficiently sensitive laboratory techniques. (authors)

  13. Influence of the diet components on the symbiotic microorganisms community in hindgut of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideo; Aoyagi, Hideki; Shiina, Shunsuke; Shina, Syunsuke; Doudou, Yuri; Dodo, Yuri; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Uchiyama, Hiroo

    2006-08-01

    Artificial diet was developed for rearing of lower termites (workers) Coptotermes formosanus. C. formosanus was fed with either wood powder of Japanese red pine, cellulose, cellobiose, or glucose for 30 days. The effect of carbon sources in the diet on the structure and function of the symbiotic intestinal microbial community and on the physiological activity of C. formosanus was studied. Three symbiont protozoa, Pseudotrichonympha grassi, Holomastigotoides hartmanni, and Spirotrichonympha leidyi, were found in the hindgut of C. formosanus that fed on the diets containing carbon sources with high molecular weight (MW). However, when artificial diets containing carbohydrate with low MW were used, both P. grassi and H. hartmanni disappeared, and only few S. leidyi were alive. This suggested that both P. grassi and H. hartmanni play important roles in the digestion and utilization of carbohydrate with high MW. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial community in the hindgut of termites showed that the similarity between intestinal bacteria community in termites fed with diets containing high-MW carbon sources and those with low MW was only about 40%. It was apparent that changes in diets resulted to changes in intestinal microbial community, and this in turn affected cellulase activity in C. formosanus.

  14. The influence of high fat diets with different ketogenic ratios on the hippocampal accumulation of creatine - FTIR microspectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczen, A.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, Ch.; Borondics, F.; Chwiej, J.

    2017-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was the determination and comparison of anomalies in creatine (Cr) accumulation occurring within CA3 and DG areas of hippocampal formation as a result of two high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diets (KD) with different ketogenic ratio (KR). To reach this goal, Fourier transformed infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation source (SRFTIR microspectroscopy) was applied for chemical mapping of creatine absorption bands, occurring around 1304, 1398 and 2800 cm- 1. The samples were taken from three groups of experimental animals: control group (N) fed with standard laboratory diet, KD1 and KD2 groups fed with high-fat diets with KR 5:1 and 9:1 respectively. Additionally, the possible influence on the phosphocreatine (PhCr, the high energetic form of creatine) content was evaluated by comparative analysis of chemical maps obtained for creatine and for compounds containing phosphate groups which manifest in the spectra at the wavenumbers of around 1240 and 1080 cm- 1. Our results showed that KD2 strongly modifies the frequency of Cr inclusions in both analyzed hippocampal areas. Statistical analysis, performed with Mann-Whitney U test revealed increased accumulation of Cr within CA3 and DG areas of KD2 fed rats compared to both normal rats and KD1 experimental group. Moreover, KD2 diet may modify the frequency of PhCr deposits as well as the PhCr to Cr ratio.

  15. [Influence of diet and behavior related factors on the peripheral blood triglyceride levels in adults: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, M B; Wang, H; Zhang, J; He, Q F; Fang, L; Wang, L X; Su, D T; Zhao, M; Zhang, X W; Hu, R Y; Cong, L M; Ding, G G; Ye, Z; Yu, M

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To study the influence of diet and behavior related factors on the peripheral blood triglyceride levels in adults, through a cross-sectional survey. Methods: The current study included 13 434 subjects without histories of major chronic diseases from a population-based cross-sectional survey: the 2010 Metabolic Syndrome Survey in Zhejiang Province. A generalized linear model was used to investigate the influence of diet/behavior-related factors on the peripheral blood triglyceride levels. Results: Mean TG of the sample population appeared as (1.36±1.18) mmol/L. The proportions of elevated TG and marginally elevated TG were 10.3% and 11.0% respectively, with statistically significant difference seen between males and females ( χ (2)=44.135, P smoking, alcohol-intake, meat, fruit and water intake in male population from this study. However, in females, the intake of aquatic product and physical exercise showed statistically significant differences. After controlling for other variables, factors as age, drinking, staple food and aquatic products showed positive influence on TG, while milk presented negative influence on TG. Through interaction analysis, fruit and meat intake in males and staple food in females showed positive influence on TG, when compared to the reference group. Conclusion: Hyperglyceridemia appeared as one of the major metabolic abnormities in Zhejiang province. Programs on monitoring the alcohol, staple food and meat intake should be priority on intervention, in the communities.

  16. Reducing racial disparities in obesity: simulating the effects of improved education and social network influence on diet behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Galea, Sandro; Riddle, Matt; Kaplan, George A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding how to mitigate the present black-white obesity disparity in the United States is a complex issue, stemming from a multitude of intertwined causes. An appropriate but underused approach to guiding policy approaches to this problem is to account for this complexity using simulation modeling. We explored the efficacy of a policy that improved the quality of neighborhood schools in reducing racial disparities in obesity-related behavior and the dependence of this effect on social network influence and norms. We used an empirically grounded agent-based model to generate simulation experiments. We used a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design that represented the presence or absence of improved neighborhood school quality, the presence or absence of social influence, and the type of social norm (healthy or unhealthy). Analyses focused on time trends in sociodemographic variables and diet quality. First, the quality of schools and social network influence had independent and interactive effects on diet behavior. Second, the black-white disparity in diet behavior was considerably reduced under some conditions, but never completely eliminated. Third, the degree to which the disparity in diet behavior was reduced was a function of the type of social norm that was in place; the reduction was the smallest when the type of social norm was healthy. Improving school quality can reduce, but not eliminate racial disparities in obesity-related behavior, and the degree to which this is true depends partly on social network effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Summary of Pathways or Mechanisms Linking Preconception Maternal Nutrition with Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janet C

    2016-07-01

    Population, human, animal, tissue, and molecular studies show collectively and consistently that maternal nutrition in the pre- or periconception period influences fetal growth and development, which subsequently affects the individual's long-term health. It is known that nutrition during pregnancy is an important determinant of the offspring's growth and health. However, now there is evidence that the mother's nutritional status at conception also influences pregnancy outcome and long-term health. For example, the mother's nutritional status at conception influences the way energy is partitioned between maternal and fetal needs. Furthermore, placental development during the first weeks of gestation reflects maternal nutrition and establishes mechanisms for balancing maternal and fetal nutritional needs. Also, maternal nutritional signals at fertilization influence epigenetic remodeling of fetal genes. These findings all indicate that maternal parenting begins before conception. The following papers from a symposium on preconception nutrition presented at the 2015 Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting of the ASN emphasize the importance of maternal nutrition at conception on the growth and long-term health of the child. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated. EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05). Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.

  19. Does the oscillation of the water volume of the reservoir influence in the same way in fish diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Dantas de Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: To evaluate the fish feeding and to establish the preferential and secondary items of their diets, to determine the trophic guilds and the possible trophic structure variations in function of the water volume in Umari reservoir, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazilian semiarid. Methods The fish were captured quarterly between February and November of 2013, with gill nets with different meshes, being the apparatuses exposed at 5:00 p.m., with removal at 5:00 a.m. The food items were identified using stereoscopic and optical microscopes and evaluated through the Feeding Index (IAi, being the results of this procedure used in food similarity analysis. The volume of the items was orderly in NMDS and the time differences were tested in PERMANOVA. Results A total of 740 individuals belonging to 14 species were sampled, being analyzed a total of 258 stomachs and 8 intestines of 11 species. From the IAi values used in the trophic similarity analysis, the species were classified into five trophic guilds: detritivorous, insectivorous, malacophagous, carcinophagous and piscivorous. Conclusion The oscillation in the water volume of the reservoir did not influence the diet of the guild detritivorous, which shows that the variations in the volume of water of the reservoir do not influence in the same way the diet of the local ichthyofauna.

  20. The Influence of Palatable Diets in Reward System Activation: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in eating patterns that have occurred in recent decades are an important cause of obesity. Food intake and energy expenditure are controlled by a complex neural system involving the hypothalamic centers and peripheral satiety system (gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones. Highly palatable and caloric food disrupts appetite regulation; however, palatable foods induce pleasure and reward. The cafeteria diet is such a palatable diet and has been shown consistently to increase body weight and induce hyperplasia in animal obesity models. Moreover, palatable high-fat foods (such as those of the cafeteria diet can induce addiction-like deficits in brain reward function and are considered to be an important source of motivation that might drive overeating and contribute to the development of obesity. The mechanism of neural adaptation triggered by palatable foods is similar to those that have been reported for nondrug addictions and long-term drug use. Thus, this review attempts to describe the potential mechanisms that might lead to highly palatable diets, such as the cafeteria diet, triggering addiction, or compulsion through the reward system.

  1. Influence of diet, exercise, and serum vitamin d on sarcopenia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Caitlin; Xiao, Liren; Imayama, Ikuyo; Duggan, Catherine R; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Kong, Angela; Campbell, Kristin L; Wang, Ching-Yun; Villasenor, Adriana; Neuhouser, Marian L; Alfano, Catherine M; Blackburn, George L; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 12 months of dietary weight loss and/or aerobic exercise on lean mass and the measurements defining sarcopenia in postmenopausal women and to examine the potential moderating effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and age. Four hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to diet modification (N = 118), exercise (N = 117), diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). The diet intervention was a group-based program with a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention was 45 min·d, 5 d·wk, of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Total and appendicular lean mass (ALM) were quantified by dual x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 12 months. A skeletal muscle index (SMI = ALM (kg) / height (m)) and the prevalence of sarcopenia (SMI exercise significantly preserved ALM and SMI. Diet + exercise attenuated the loss of ALM and SMI compared with diet alone and did not result in significant loss of total mass or ALM compared with controls. Neither serum 25(OH)D nor age was significant moderators of the intervention effects. Aerobic exercise added to dietary weight loss can attenuate the loss of ALM during weight loss and may be effective for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia among overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

  2. The influence of diet composition upon growth and development of sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of protein, metabolizable energy, and sulfur amino acid content of five diets upon growth and development of captive Florida Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) and Greater Sandhill Crane (G. c. tabida) chicks raised under controlled conditions. A high protein (32%) diet resulted in faster growth than that obtained when a lower protein (24%) ration was supplied. Florida Sandhill Crane chicks fed a diet containing 2,160 kcal/kg grew significantly slower than chicks fed a ration containing 2,830 kcal/kg. Reducing the sulfur amino acid content of a ration containing 24% protein from 0.88% to 0.73% significantly slowed the growth of young cranes. A 17% incidence of leg disorders and a 25% incidence of wing abnormalities occurred between 7 and 28 days of age among Greater Sandhill Cranes fed a high protein diet. Florida Sandhill Cranes grew slower than Greater Sandhill Cranes irrespective of the type of ration they were provided and did not develop leg or wing abnormalities. Abnormalities invariably developed only in the most rapidly growing Greater Sandhill Cranes. Diets that promoted slower growth reduced the incidence of abnormalities. A ration formulated to contain a low (0.73%) sulfur amino acid level appeared to be the most suitable for slowing growth rates of captive-reared Sandhill Cranes and reducing the risk of abnormaiwing or leg development.

  3. Influence of Didymosphenia geminata blooms on prey composition and associated diet and growth of Brown Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    We compared diet, stomach fullness, condition, and growth of Brown Trout Salmo trutta among streams with or without blooms of the benthic diatom Didymosphenia geminata in the Black Hills, South Dakota. In Rapid Creek, where D. geminata blooms covered ∼30% of the stream bottom, Brown Trout consumed fewer ephemeropterans (6–8% by weight) than individuals from two stream sections that have not had D. geminatablooms (Castle and Spearfish creeks; 13–39% by weight). In contrast, dipterans (primarily Chironomidae) represented a larger percentage of Brown Trout diets from Rapid Creek (D. geminata blooms present; 16–28% dry weight) compared with diets of trout from streams without D. geminata blooms (6–19% dry weight). Diets of small Brown Trout (100–199 mm TL) reflected the invertebrate species composition in benthic stream samples; in Rapid Creek, ephemeropterans were less abundant whereas dipterans were more abundant than in streams without D. geminata blooms. Stomach fullness and condition of Brown Trout from Rapid Creek were generally greater than those of Brown Trout from other populations. Linkages among invertebrate availability, diet composition, and condition of Brown Trout support the hypothesis that changes in invertebrate assemblages associated with D. geminata (i.e., more Chironomidae) could be contributing to high recruitment success for small Brown Trout in Rapid Creek.

  4. Influence of diet, exercise and serum vitamin D on sarcopenia in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Caitlin; Xiao, Liren; Imayama, Ikuyo; Duggan, Catherine R.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Kong, Angela; Campbell, Kristin L.; Wang, Ching-Yun; Villasenor, Adriana; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Blackburn, George L.; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of 12 months of dietary weight loss and/or aerobic exercise on lean mass and the measurements defining sarcopenia in postmenopausal women, and to examine the potential moderating effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and age. Methods 439 overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to: diet modification (N=118); exercise (N=117), diet+exercise (N=117), or control (N=87). The diet intervention was a group-based program with a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention was 45 mins/day, 5 days/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Total and appendicular lean mass were quantified by dual Xray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and 12 months. A skeletal muscle index (SMI=appendicular lean mass (kg)/m2) and the prevalence of sarcopenia (SMIlean mass, and a borderline significant decrease in appendicular lean mass and SMI compared to controls. In contrast, aerobic exercise significantly preserved appendicular lean mass and SMI. Diet + exercise attenuated the loss of appendicular lean mass and SMI compared to diet alone, and did not result in significant loss of total- or appendicular lean mass compared to controls. Neither serum 25(OH)D nor age were significant moderators of the intervention effects. Conclusions Aerobic exercise added to dietary weight loss can attenuate the loss of appendicular lean mass during weight loss, and may be effective for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia among overweight and obese postmenopausal women. PMID:23190588

  5. Ex situ diet influences the bacterial community associated with the skin of red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael E Antwis

    Full Text Available Amphibians support symbiotic bacterial communities on their skin that protect against a range of infectious pathogens, including the amphibian chytrid fungus. The conditions under which amphibians are maintained in captivity (e.g. diet, substrate, enrichment in ex situ conservation programmes may affect the composition of the bacterial community. In addition, ex situ amphibian populations may support different bacterial communities in comparison to in situ populations of the same species. This could have implications for the suitability of populations intended for reintroduction, as well as the success of probiotic bacterial inoculations intended to provide amphibians with a bacterial community that resists invasion by the chytrid fungus. We aimed to investigate the effect of a carotenoid-enriched diet on the culturable bacterial community associated with captive red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas and make comparisons to bacteria isolated from a wild population from the Chiquibul Rainforest in Belize. We successfully showed carotenoid availability influences the overall community composition, species richness and abundance of the bacterial community associated with the skin of captive frogs, with A. callidryas fed a carotenoid-enriched diet supporting a greater species richness and abundance of bacteria than those fed a carotenoid-free diet. Our results suggest that availability of carotenoids in the diet of captive frogs is likely to be beneficial for the bacterial community associated with the skin. We also found wild A. callidryas hosted more than double the number of different bacterial species than captive frogs with very little commonality between species. This suggests frogs in captivity may support a reduced and diverged bacterial community in comparison to wild populations of the same species, which could have particular relevance for ex situ conservation projects.

  6. Studies on insulin receptor, 2. Studies on the influence of starvation and high fat diet on insulin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1979-08-01

    The present study is to investigate an influence of starvation and high fat diet on insulin receptor of the plasma membrane by means of radioreceptor assay using /sup 125/I-labelled insulin. Male guinea pigs of Hartley strain were employed for the starvation study, and /sup 125/I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver and kidney was determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours of the fast after the last meal. Male rats of Wistar strain were employed for the high fat study where the diet containing 35% of butter was fed ad libitum for 38 or 68 days. The animals were killed at the fast of 12 hours, and /sup 125/I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver was determined. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1) An increase in /sup 125/I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver and kidney was observed by the starvation for 24 to 72 hours. 2) The mechanism of the increase by starvation was considered to be different by the organs; it was due to an increase in number of insulin receptor in the liver, and due to an increase in affinity of insulin receptor in the kidney. 3) In non-obese rats fed with high fat diet, the number of insulin receptor on the liver plasma membrane showed a decrease, and this observation clearly indicated that the decrease in number of the receptor did not depend on the obesity. 4) Obese rats also fed with high fat diet presented a decrease in number of insulin receptor without an elevation of insulin levels in the circulating blood. This indicated that at least in the obese rats fed with high fat diet, the decrease in number of the receptor was not due to hyperinsulinemia.

  7. [Influence of non-sodium restricted diet with diuretics on plasma rennin, renal blood flow and in patients with cirrhotic ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin-fang; Gu, Xi-bing; Zhu, Hong-ying; Yang, Xiao-juan; Wang, Dong; Yu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    To explore influence of sodium restricted diet and non-sodium restricted diet on plasma rennin (PRA), angiotensin II (All), ALD, renal blood flow (RBF) and subside of ascites in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Eighty cases of hepatitis B with cirrhotic ascites were randomly divided into sodium restricted diet group and non-sodium restricted diet group. 39 cases were in non-sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 6500-8000 mg daily; 41 cases were in sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 5000 mg daily. Both groups received diuretics furosemide and spironolactone. Blood sodium, urine sodium, PRA, AII, ALD, RBF ascites subsiding were compared after treatment. In non-sodium restricted diet group, blood sodium and urine sodium increased 10 days after treatment compared with those before treatment, and compared with those of sodium restricted diet group 10 days after treatment, P Renal damage induced by low blood sodium after treatment was less in non-sodium restricted diet group than that in sodium restricted diet group, P blood sodium, thus increasing excretion of urine sodium and diuretic effect. It can also decrease levels of PRA, AII and ALD, increase renal blood flow and prevent renal damage induced by low blood sodium and facilitate subsiding of ascites.

  8. Hepatozoon infection prevalence in four snake genera: influence of diet, prey parasitemia levels, or parasite type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Beatriz; Maia, João P M C; Harris, D James

    2012-10-01

    Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) are the most commonly reported hemoparasites from snakes. Of over 300 Hepatozoon species identified, more than 120 were described from snakes. However, recent genetic assessments have found Hepatozoon lineages recovered from both prey and predators, indicating that diet may play an important role in the infection of final vertebrate hosts. Here 4 different snake genera with different diets were assessed. Hepatozoon spp. prevalence varied greatly between the genera, but only lineages already identified from potential prey, i.e., gecko and lacertid lizards, were recovered from the snakes. Interestingly, the Hepatozoon spp. lineage known from geckos was the most common in the snakes, but this does not reflect their diet. Higher parasitemia levels, reported for some geckos relative to lacertid lizards, may play a role. Alternatively, this lineage may be more effective at parasitizing snakes or may occur, despite being unrecorded, in other vertebrate groups consumed by snakes.

  9. Role of parental autonomy support on self-determination in influencing diet and exercise motivation in older adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison SA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and sophomore college students, the influence of parental autonomy support on overall adolescents self-determination was examined to determine whether self-determination influences adolescents' motivation to engage in healthy diet and exercise behaviors. Utilizing hierarchical multiple regression analyses, parental autonomy support was not predictive of older adolescents' motivation for diet and exercise; however, study results did indicate that parental autonomy support remains highly influential in adolescent self-determination (F[2, 130] = 22.21; P = 0.001 during early college years and that in this sample, adolescent self-determination is predictive of motivation for diet (t = 2.21; P < 0.05, but not exercise. Findings suggest that parental autonomy support continues to influence adolescent internalization of attitudes and behaviors during latter adolescence, but may play a lessor role in motivation for specific health-related behaviors as the adolescent nears adulthood. A better understanding of health motivation antecedents of adolescents may facilitate nurses develop new approaches to health-promotion strategies. Keywords: parental autonomy support, self-determination, adolescent health behaviors, motivation

  10. Barriers to the implementation of preconception care guidelines as perceived by general practitioners: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazza Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite strong evidence of the benefits of preconception interventions for improving pregnancy outcomes, the delivery and uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation remain low. General practitioners play a central role in the delivery of preconception care. Understanding general practitioners’ perceptions of the barriers and enablers to implementing preconception care allows for more appropriate targeting of quality improvement interventions. Consequently, the aim of this study was to examine the barriers and enablers to the delivery and uptake of preconception care guidelines from general practitioners’ perspective using theoretical domains related to behaviour change. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using focus groups consisting of 22 general practitioners who were recruited from three regional general practice support organisations. Questions were based on the theoretical domain framework, which describes 12 domains related to behaviour change. General practitioners’ responses were classified into predefined themes using a deductive process of thematic analysis. Results Beliefs about capabilities, motivations and goals, environmental context and resources, and memory, attention and decision making were the key domains identified in the barrier analysis. Some of the perceived barriers identified by general practitioners were time constraints, the lack of women presenting at the preconception stage, the numerous competing preventive priorities within the general practice setting, issues relating to the cost of and access to preconception care, and the lack of resources for assisting in the delivery of preconception care guidelines. Perceived enablers identified by general practitioners included the availability of preconception care checklists and patient brochures, handouts, and waiting room posters outlining the benefits and availability of preconception care consultations

  11. Participant recruitment and retention in longitudinal preconception randomized trials: lessons learnt from the Calcium And Pre-eclampsia (CAP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Theresa A; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Singata-Madliki, Mandisa; Ciganda, Alvaro; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Belizán, José M; Purnat, Tina Dannemann; Manyame, Sarah; Parker, Catherine; Cormick, Gabriela

    2017-10-26

    The preconception period has the potential to influence pregnancy outcomes and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to evaluate a variety of potentially beneficial preconception interventions. However, RCTs commencing before pregnancy have significant participant recruitment and retention challenges. The Calcium And Pre-eclampsia trial (CAP trial) is a World Health Organization multi-country RCT of calcium supplementation commenced before pregnancy to prevent recurrent pre-eclampsia in which non-pregnant participants are recruited and followed up until childbirth. This sub-study explores recruitment methods and preconception retention of participants of the CAP trial to inform future trials. Recruiters at the study sites in Argentina, South Africa and Zimbabwe completed post-recruitment phase questionnaires on recruitment methods used. Qualitative data from these questionnaires and quantitative data on pre-pregnancy trial visit attendance and pregnancy rates up to September 2016 are reported in this paper. RStudio (Version 0.99.903 https://www.rstudio.org ) statistical software was used for summary statistics. Between July 2011 and 8 September 2016, 1354 women with previous pre-eclampsia were recruited. Recruitment took 2 years longer than expected and was facilitated mainly through medical record/register and maternity ward/clinic-based strategies. Recruiters highlighted difficulties associated with inadequate medical records, redundant patient contact details, and follow-up of temporarily ineligible women as some of the challenges faced. Whilst the attendance rates at pre-pregnancy visits were high (78% or more), visits often occurred later than scheduled. Forty-five percent of participants became pregnant (614/1354), 33.5% (454/1354) within 1 year of randomization. In preconception trials, both retrospective and prospective methods are useful for recruiting eligible women with certain conditions. However, these are time-consuming in low

  12. Preconception Maternal Iodine Status Is Positively Associated with IQ but Not with Measures of Executive Function in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sian M; Crozier, Sarah R; Miles, Elizabeth A; Gale, Catharine R; Calder, Philip C; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M

    2018-05-15

    Adverse effects of severe maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy on fetal brain development are well-established, but the effects of milder deficiency are uncertain. Most studies examine iodine status in pregnancy; less is known about iodine nutrition before conception. We examined relations between maternal preconception iodine status and offspring cognitive function, within a prospective mother-offspring cohort. Maternal iodine status was assessed through the use of the ratio of iodine:creatinine concentrations (I/Cr) in spot urine samples [median (IQR) period before conception 3.3 y (2.2-4.7 y)]. Childhood cognitive function was assessed at age 6-7 y. Full-scale IQ was assessed via the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and executive function through the use of tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Analyses (n = 654 mother-child dyads) were adjusted for potential confounders including maternal intelligence, education, and breastfeeding duration. The median (IQR) urinary iodine concentration was 108.4 µg/L (62.2-167.8 µg/L) and the I/Cr ratio 114 µg/g (76-164 µg/g). The preconception I/Cr ratio was positively associated with child IQ, before and after adjustment for potential confounding influences [β = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.21)/SD, P = 0.003]. 8.9% of women had a preconception urinary I/Cr ratio function outcomes assessed via CANTAB, before or after adjustment for confounders. The positive association between iodine status before conception and child IQ provides some support for demonstrated links between low maternal iodine status in pregnancy and poorer cognitive function reported in other studies. However, given the negative effects on school performance previously observed in children born to iodine-deficient mothers, the lack of associations with measures of executive function in the present study was unexpected. Further data are needed to establish the public health importance of low preconception

  13. Saturated or unsaturated fat supplemented maternal diets influence omental adipose tissue proteome of suckling goat-kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restelli, Laura; Marques, Andreia T; Savoini, Giovanni; Invernizzi, Guido; Carisetti, Michela; Lecchi, Cristina; Bendixen, Emoke; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2017-11-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how maternal diet can influence the adipose tissue of goat kids. Omental adipose tissue proteomes of goat-kids from mothers fed with diet enriched with stearic acid (ST-kids), fish oil (FO-kids) and standard diets (CTRL) were determined by quantitative iTRAQ 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis. Twenty proteins were found to be differentially expressed in suckling kids' omental adipose tissue. Stearic acid induces changes in a higher number of proteins when compared to fish oil. Eleven proteins, namely AARS, ECl1, PMSC2, CP, HSPA8, GPD1, RPL7, OGDH, RPL24, FGA and RPL5 were decreased in ST-kids only. Four proteins, namely DLST, EEF1G, BCAP31 and RALA were decreased in FO-kids only, and one, NUCKS1, was increased. Four proteins, namely PMSC1, PPIB, TUB5×2 and EIF5A1, were be less abundant in both ST- and FO- kids. Most of the protein whose abundance was decreased in ST kids (10 out of 15) are involved in protein metabolism and catabolism pathways. Qualitative gene expression analysis confirmed that all the proteins identified by mass spectrometry, with the exception of FGA, were produced by adipose tissue. Quantitative gene expression analysis demonstrated that two proteins, namely CP, a minor acute phase protein, and ECl1, involved in fatty acid beta oxidation, were downregulated at mRNA level as well. ECl1 gene expression was downregulated in ST-kids AT as compared to Ctrl-kids and CP was downregulated in both ST- and FO-kids. The present results demonstrate that it is possible to influence adipose goat-kid proteome by modifying the maternal diet. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Influence of prenatal application of angiotensin II and postnatal salt diet on GABAergic and oxytocin system in rat brain steam and cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackova, L.; Olexova, L.; Svitok, P.; Senko, T.; Stefanik, P.

    2015-01-01

    Our goal was to determinate how gene expression of GABA transporter 1 (GAT1), glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) is influenced with prenatal exposition to angiotensin II (Ang II) and postnatal salt diet in nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and cerebellum in rats. In NTS we observed strong tendency in different reaction of OTR gene expression between Ang II prenatal treatment and control rats after high salt diet. We observed significant influence of sex on GAD67 gene expression in cerebellum. Also, sex in combination with salt diet is significant factor in expression of GAT1 gene in cerebellum. (authors)

  15. Fertility and irradiation: a preconceptional investigation in teratology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of preconceptional irradiation on female fertility were investigated in six groups of 35 nulliparous Swiss-Webster mice whole-body irradiated with single doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 300 rads of 60 Co. They were mated with nontreated males and killed on gestational day 18. The litters were recorded in the chronologic order of their occurrence within each group. The percentage of pregnancies decreased with the dose, while the prenatal loss increased. Up to 100 rads, the middle group of pregnancies was devoid of resorptions, fetal death, and congenital anomalies, thus giving rise to a ''maximum viability enclave.'' Beyond this level those three adverse effects were more or less homogeneously distributed over the whole period for which pregnancies were recorded. Exencephaly, microcephaly, and eye defects were the most frequent malformations. Among other sequelae, hypertrophy of the higher pole occurred in the left kidney in the surviving infertile females killed 5 months after treatment

  16. Influence of green grass-based diets on growth and reproductive performance in dairy heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, M. R.; Rashid, M. H.; Islam, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in growth, dry matter intake, and blood profiles (nutrition and reproductive hormones) of dairy heifers in response to green grass-based diets. Twelve crossbred heifers were equally divided into group 1: rice straw and concentrate; group 2: r...

  17. Diet influences rates of carbon and nitrogen mineralization from decomposing grasshopper frass and cadavers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect herbivory can produce a pulse of mineral nitrogen (N) in soil from the decomposition of frass and cadavers. In this study we examined how diet quality affects rates of N and carbon (C) mineralization from grasshopper frass and cadavers. Frass was collected from grasshoppers fed natural or mer...

  18. The influence of high iron diet on rat lung manganese absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Khristy; Molina, Ramon; Donaghey, Thomas; Brain, Joseph D.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Individuals chronically exposed to manganese are at high risk for neurotoxic effects of this metal. A primary route of exposure is through respiration, although little is known about pulmonary uptake of metals or factors that modify this process. High dietary iron levels inversely affect intestinal uptake of manganese, and a major goal of this study was to determine if dietary iron loading could increase lung non-heme iron levels and alter manganese absorption. Rats were fed a high iron (1% carbonyl iron) or control diet for 4 weeks. Lung non-heme iron levels increased ∼2-fold in rats fed the high iron diet. To determine if iron-loading affected manganese uptake, 54 Mn was administered by intratracheal (it) instillation or intravenous (iv) injection for pharmacokinetic studies. 54 Mn absorption from the lungs to the blood was lower in it-instilled rats fed the 1% carbonyl iron diet. Pharmacokinetics of iv-injected 54 Mn revealed that the isotope was cleared more rapidly from the blood of iron-loaded rats. In situ analysis of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) expression in lung detected mRNA in airway epithelium and bronchus-associated lymphatic tissue (BALT). Staining of the latter was significantly reduced in rats fed the high iron diet. In situ analysis of transferrin receptor (TfR) mRNA showed staining in BALT alone. These data demonstrate that manganese absorption from the lungs to the blood can be modified by iron status and the route of administration

  19. Short- and long-term influence of diet and simvastatin on brachial artery endothelial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Petersen, Knud Erik

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) has often been studied in patients with hypercholesterolemia without overt coronary atherosclerosis where an improvement after statin treatment has been documented within few weeks. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term effect of diet...

  20. Maternal and paternal transmission of type 2 diabetes : influence of diet, lifestyle and adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Corpeleijn, E.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Stolk, R. P.; Spijkerman, A. M. W.; van der A, D. L.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Beulens, J. W. J.; van, der A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Transmission of family history of type 2 diabetes to the next generation is stronger for maternal than paternal diabetes in some populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this difference is explained by diet, lifestyle factors and/or adiposity. Methods. We

  1. The influence of the ketogenic diet on the elemental and biochemical compositions of the hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwiej, Joanna; Skoczen, Agnieszka; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Janeczko, Krzysztof; Patulska, Agnieszka; Sandt, Christophe; Simon, Rolf; Ciarach, Malgorzata; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that dietary therapies, mainly the ketogenic diet, may be highly effective in the reduction of epileptic seizures. All of them share the common characteristic of restricting carbohydrate intake to shift the predominant caloric source of the diet to fat. Catabolism of fats results in the production of ketone bodies which become alternate energy substrates to glucose. Although many mechanisms by which ketone bodies yield its anticonvulsant effect are proposed, the relationships between the brain metabolism of the ketone bodies and their neuroprotective and antiepileptogenic action still remain to be discerned. In the study, X-ray fluorescence microscopy and FTIR microspectroscopy were used to follow ketogenic diet-induced changes in the elemental and biochemical compositions of rat hippocampal formation tissue. The use of synchrotron sources of X-rays and infrared allowed us to examine changes in the accumulation and distribution of selected elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se) and biomolecules (proteins, lipids, ketone bodies, etc.) with the micrometer spatial resolution. The comparison of rats fed with the ketogenic diet and rats fed with the standard laboratory diet showed changes in the hippocampal accumulation of P, K, Ca, and Zn. The relations obtained for Ca (increased level in CA3, DG, and its internal area) and Zn (decreased areal density in CA3 and DG) were analogous to those that we previously observed for rats in the acute phase of pilocarpine-induced seizures. Biochemical analysis of tissues taken from ketogenic diet-fed rats demonstrated increased intensity of absorption band occurring at 1740 cm(-1), which was probably the result of elevated accumulation of ketone bodies. Moreover, higher absolute and relative (3012 cm(-1)/2924 cm(-1), 3012 cm(-1)/lipid massif, and 3012 cm(-1)/amide I) intensity of the 3012-cm(-1) band resulting from increased unsaturated fatty acids content was found after the treatment

  2. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2016-01-01

    Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of romantic

  3. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; van Strien, Jan W.

    2016-01-01

    Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300–400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of

  4. Regulation of Romantic Love Feelings: Preconceptions, Strategies, and Feasibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J E Langeslag

    Full Text Available Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships. If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative

  5. The influence of a short-term gluten-free diet on the human gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonder, Marc Jan; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Cai, Xianghang; Trynka, Gosia; Cenit, Maria C; Hrdlickova, Barbara; Zhong, Huanzi; Vatanen, Tommi; Gevers, Dirk; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wang, Yang; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the most commonly adopted special diet worldwide. It is an effective treatment for coeliac disease and is also often followed by individuals to alleviate gastrointestinal complaints. It is known there is an important link between diet and the gut microbiome, but it is largely unknown how a switch to a GFD affects the human gut microbiome. We studied changes in the gut microbiomes of 21 healthy volunteers who followed a GFD for four weeks. We collected nine stool samples from each participant: one at baseline, four during the GFD period, and four when they returned to their habitual diet (HD), making a total of 189 samples. We determined microbiome profiles using 16S rRNA sequencing and then processed the samples for taxonomic and imputed functional composition. Additionally, in all 189 samples, six gut health-related biomarkers were measured. Inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota remained stable during this short-term GFD intervention. A number of taxon-specific differences were seen during the GFD: the most striking shift was seen for the family Veillonellaceae (class Clostridia), which was significantly reduced during the intervention (p = 2.81 × 10(-05)). Seven other taxa also showed significant changes; the majority of them are known to play a role in starch metabolism. We saw stronger differences in pathway activities: 21 predicted pathway activity scores showed significant association to the change in diet. We observed strong relations between the predicted activity of pathways and biomarker measurements. A GFD changes the gut microbiome composition and alters the activity of microbial pathways.

  6. Actively preparing for pregnancy is associated with healthier lifestyle of women during the preconception period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, Marjolein; van Stel, Henk F; Franx, Arie; Koster, Maria P H

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether actively preparing for pregnancy by women is associated with lifestyle changes during the preconception period. DESIGN: retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: primary care community midwifery practice in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: convenience sample of 283

  7. Tailored preconceptional dietary and lifestyle counselling in a tertiary outpatient clinic in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammiche, F.; Laven, J.S.E.; Mil, van N.; Cock, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lindemans, J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adverse reproductive performance has been linked to unhealthy dietary intake and lifestyles. Our objectives were to investigate the prevalence of unhealthy dietary intake and lifestyles before conception and to evaluate whether tailored preconception counselling modifies these behaviours.

  8. Preconceptions of Students about the Natural Urban Environment in a Small Spanish City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Pedro; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a study of preconceptions of secondary students from a small Spanish city. The analysis has led the authors to propose some recommendations for curricular design and development for schools in urban environments. (LZ)

  9. Preconception care policy, guidelines, recommendations and services across six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawe, Jill; Delbaere, Ilse; Ekstrand, Maria

    2015-01-01

    : Governmental policy and legislation; Professional bodies and organisations; Healthcare providers; Charitable organisations; Web-based public information and internet sites. Results All countries had preconception recommendations for women with chronic diseases, such as diabetes and epilepsy. Recommendations...

  10. [Preconception counseling: evaluation of an outpatient clinic at a university hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; Mom-Boertjens, J.; Bos, K.L.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the outcomes from an outpatients' clinic for preconceptional counselling in the Netherlands and to assess its activities in terms of referrals, referral indications, supplementary investigations, treatment policy and a possible future pregnancy. DESIGN:

  11. The influence of components of diet on the symptoms of ADHD in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikowska, Klaudia; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Rózańska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    In most children with ADHD the cause of the disease is not exactly known, and its etiology is multifactorial. The conventional treatment is based on the combination of behavioral and psychological therapy and the pharmacotherapy. The pharmacotherapy has a high effectiveness in ADHD treatment, but it is often associated with undesirable side effects, such as: loss of appetite and weight, growth inhibition, abdominal pain, headaches, sleeping problems and increased blood pressure. In the recent years, much attention was devoted to the issue of an appropriate diet in this disease, especially when the standard pharmacotherapy is not effective. The diet of pregnant and lactating woman, and child may have an impact on the development and deepening of the hyperkinetic syndrome. There is much evidence to indicate that it is linked to nutritional factors. Chronic deficiencies of certain minerals such as zinc, iron, magnesium and iodine and insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a significant impact on the development and deepening of the symptoms of ADHD in children. A crucial role in the diet of pregnant and lactating women, and child plays also polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, mainly DHA, which are necessary for proper development and function of brain. Their chronic deficiency may contribute to increase risk of ADHD in children. The authors of several studies also demonstrated the positive impact of the elimination food products containing synthetic food additives, like artificial food dyes and preservatives on the behavior of children with ADHD. The beneficial effects brought also the elimination of food products, that are rich in salicylates. It was found that the intake of food products with a low glycemic index helps to reduce symptoms in some hyperactive children. Providing an appropriate supply of nutrients and minerals and elimination of certain food products from diet is especially important during intensive growth and

  12. The influence of diet on the δ 13C of shell carbon in the pulmonate snail Helix aspersa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Lowell D.

    2002-02-01

    The influence of diet and atmospheric CO 2 on the carbon isotope composition of shell aragonite and shell-bound organic carbon in the pulmonate snail Helix aspersa raised in the laboratory was investigated. Three separate groups of snails were raised on romaine lettuce (C3 plant, δ 13C=-25.8‰), corn (C4 plant, δ 13C=-10.5‰), and sour orange ( 12C-enriched C3 plant, δ 13C=-39.1‰). The isotopic composition of body tissues closely tracked the isotopic composition of the snail diet as demonstrated previously. However, the isotopic composition of the acid insoluble organic matrix extracted from the aragonite shells does not track diet in all groups. In snails that were fed corn the isotopic composition of the organic matrix was more negative than the body by as much as 5‰ whereas the matrix was approximately 1‰ heavier than the body tissues in snails fed a diet of C3 plant material. These results indicate that isotopic composition of the organic matrix carbon cannot be used as an isotopic substrate for paleodietary reconstructions without first determining the source of the carbon and any associated fractionations. The isotopic composition of the shell aragonite is offset from the body tissues by 12.3‰ in each of the culture groups. This offset was not influenced by the consumption of carbonate and is not attributable to the diffusion of atmospheric CO 2 into the hemolymph. The carbon isotopic composition of shell aragonite is best explained in terms of equilibrium fractionations associated with exchange between metabolic CO 2 and HCO 3 in the hemolymph and the fractionation associated with carbonate precipitation. These results differ from previous studies, based primarily on samples collected in the field, that have suggested atmospheric carbon dioxide contributes significantly to the shell δ 13C. The culture results indicate that the δ 13C of aragonite is a good recorder of the isotopic composition of the snail body tissue, and therefore a better

  13. Improving the uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation: what do women think?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Anna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite strong evidence of the benefits of preconception interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes, the delivery and uptake of preconception care in general and periconceptional folate supplementation in particular remains low. The aim of this study was to determine women's views of the barriers and enablers to the uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation. Methods Focus groups were undertaken in 2007 with 17 women of reproductive age (18-45 years. To identify key issues and themes within the data, focus groups were analysed using an inductive process of thematic analysis. Results Most women were unaware of the need to attend for preconception care and were surprised at the breadth of issues involved. Women also felt general practitioners (GPs should be more proactive in promoting preconception care availability but acknowledged that they themselves had to be thinking about pregnancy or becoming pregnant to be receptive to it. Barriers to periconceptional folate supplementation included confusion about reasons for use, dose, duration, timing and efficacy of folate use. Enablers included the desire to do anything they could to ensure optimum pregnancy outcomes, and promotional material and letters of invitation from their GP to advise them of the availability and the need for preconception care. Conclusion A number of important barriers and enablers exist for women regarding the delivery and uptake of preconception care and periconceptional folate supplementation. It is essential that these patient perspectives are addressed in both the implementation of evidence based clinical practice guidelines and in the systematic design of an intervention to improve preconception care delivery.

  14. Mother-daughter dyadic approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Fischl, Andrea Rodgers; Choi, Jessica; Schmitt, Patricia L.; White, Neil H.; Becker, Dorothy; Downs, Julie; Hannan, Margaret; Thurheimer, Jennifer; Sereika, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preconception counseling (PC) significantly and inexpensively reduces risks of reproductive-health complications for women with diabetes. Our validated technology-based preconception counseling intervention, READY-Girls, is tailored for female teens with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes and targets decision-making regarding effective family planning and seeking PC. Our teen-focused research was instrumental in changing the American Diabetes Association's Practice Recommendati...

  15. Influence of forage inclusion in the diet on ileal and total tract digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Carlson, Dorthe; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the ileal and total tract digestibility of 3 forages (clover–grass, clover–grass silage, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum)–barley (Hordeum vulgare) silage) supplemented to a basal diet. A total of 24 pigs, adapted to eating forages by supplementing a basal feed...... throughout the whole experiment. The intake of forages was low and quite variable and on average accounted for only 10 to 12% of the DMI. Ileal digestibility of protein estimated by collection from the T-cannula was higher (P = 0.031) than the digestibility estimated by the slaughter technique indicating...... in the diet as forage reduced (P pea– barley silage. In organic slaughter pig production, the overall energy supply from these forages is limited, but they may play an important role in satiety...

  16. Sex Differences in Metabolic Morbidities: Influenced by Diet or Exercise Habits?

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Wen Chiu; Chia-Tsuan Huang; Hung-Yi Chuang; Yu-Tsz Chang; Ming-Tsang Wu; Hong-Wen Liu

    2009-01-01

    We implemented a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan to compare the physical and biochemical parameters, diet and exercise lifestyles, and prevalences of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension between males and females, and to clarify the determinants of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional study, 7,578 subjects were selected from the general population by stratified random sampling for the Surveillance of Taiwanese Civil Health in 2002. Bl...

  17. Parental Perception of Weight Status: Influence on Children's Diet in the Gateshead Millennium Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Almoosawi

    Full Text Available Recognising overweight and obesity is critical to prompting action, and consequently preventing and treating obesity. The present study examined the association between parental perceptions of child weight status and child's diet.Participants were members of the Gateshead Millennium Study. Parental perception of their child's weight status was assessed using a questionnaire and compared against International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for childhood overweight and obesity when the children were aged 6-8 years old. Diet was assessed at age 6-8years old using the FAST (Food Assessment in Schools Tool food diary method. The association between parental perception and dietary patterns as defined by Principal Components Analysis, was assessed using multivariate regression after adjustment for child's gender, child's weight status, maternal body mass index (BMI, maternal education and deprivation status.Of the 361 parents who provided complete data on confounders and on their perception of their child's weight status, 63 (17% parents perceived their child as being of 'normal' weight or 'overweight' when they were actually 'overweight' or 'obese', respectively. After adjustment for confounders, parents who misperceived their child's weight had children with a lower 'healthy' dietary pattern score compared to children whose parents correctly perceived their weight (β = -0.88; 95% CI: -1.7, -0.1; P-value = 0.028. This association was found despite higher consumption of reduced sugar carbonated drinks amongst children whose parents incorrectly perceived their weight status compared to children whose parents perceived their weight correctly (52.4% vs. 33.6%; P-value = 0.005.In conclusion, children whose parents did not correctly perceive their weight status scored lower on the 'healthy' dietary pattern. Further research is required to define parents' diets based on their perception status and to examine if a child's or parent's diet mediates the

  18. Sex Differences in Metabolic Morbidities: Influenced by Diet or Exercise Habits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We implemented a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan to compare the physical and biochemical parameters, diet and exercise lifestyles, and prevalences of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension between males and females, and to clarify the determinants of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional study, 7,578 subjects were selected from the general population by stratified random sampling for the Surveillance of Taiwanese Civil Health in 2002. Blood samples were taken and information on body composition, demographics, exercise and dietary habits, and medical and drug histories were obtained from structured interviews administered by well-trained interviewers. A total of 6,600 subjects (87.1%, aged 15.6–95.0 years old, completed the survey. The overall prevalences of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension were 9.9%, 22.8%, and 15.7%, respectively, and hyperlipidemia (27.0% and hypertension (19.2% were more prevalent in males. Males were more likely to have high-fat and high-cholesterol diets, compared with females. Although there were differences in the prevalences of hyperlipidemia and hypertension between the sexes, adjusted logistic regression analysis demonstrated little contribution of diet and exercise habits to the risks of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or hypertension after adjusting for age, sex, waist-to-hip ratio, serum blood sugar levels, cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, creatinine, uric acid, and blood pressure.

  19. The influence of persistent organic pollutants in the traditional Inuit diet on markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schæbel, L K; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E C; Vestergaard, H; Andersen, S

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are high in Inuit living predominately on the traditional marine diet. Adverse effects of POPs include disruption of the immune system and cardiovascular diseases that are frequent in Greenland Inuit. We aimed to assess the association between exposure to POPs from the marine diet and inflammation, taking into account other factors such as vitamin D. We invited Inuit and non-Inuit living in settlements or the town in rural East Greenland or in the capital city Nuuk. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and donated a blood sample for measurement of the two markers of inflammation YKL-40 and hsCRP, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, eleven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), fourteen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), one polybrominated biphenyl, and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) adjusted to the serum lipid content. Participants were 50 through 69 years old, living in settlements, town or city (n = 151/173/211; 95% participation rate). ΣOCP, ΣPCB and ΣPBDE serum levels were higher in Inuit than in non-Inuit (pInuit compared to non-Inuit (pInuit diet and with markers of inflammation. This supports a pro-inflammatory role of POPs to promote chronic diseases common to populations in Greenland. These data inform guidelines on 'the Arctic dilemma' and encourage follow-up on the ageing Arctic populations.

  20. Choosing Pre-conception Planning for Women/Families: Counselling and Informed Consent (Part 2) - Pre-conception Reproductive Planning, Lifestyle, Immunization, and Psychosocial Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas

    2017-12-06

    To inform reproductive and other health care providers about pre-conception evaluation, including considerations for reproductive planning, lifestyle modification, immunization status and attitudes, and psychosocial issues. This counselling information can be used for patient education and planning and possible pre-conception and/or prenatal testing. This information may allow for improved risk assessment when pre-conception counselling for individual patients and their families is used. CONSIDERATIONS FOR PRE-CONCEPTION CARE (PART 2) REGARDING PRE-CONCEPTION REPRODUCTIVE PLANNING, LIFESTYLE, IMMUNIZATIONS, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES: CONSIDERATION FOR CARE STATEMENTS: For this review article, the Consideration for Care Statements use the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations strength and quality principles because they are comparable for the clinician and the patient/public user. For example, "Strong" for clinicians is defined as "the recommendation would apply to most individuals. Formal discussion aids are not likely to be needed to help individuals make decisions consistent with their values and preferences." For patients/the public, "Strong" is defined as, "we believe most people in this situation would want the recommended course of actions and only a small number would not." Quality of evidence (High, Moderate, Low) is based on the confidence that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect. In addition, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care key to evidence statements and grading of recommendations are included. PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database were searched until May 2017, using appropriate key words (i.e., preconception, reproductive planning, lifestyle modification, immunization risks and benefits, psychosocial pregnancy factors/issues). Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment

  1. Geographical Area and Life History Traits Influence Diet in an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Tartu

    Full Text Available Global changes are thought to affect most Arctic species, yet some populations are more at risk. Today, the Barents Sea ecoregion is suffering the strongest sea ice retreat ever measured; and these changes are suspected to modify food access and thus diet of several species. Biochemical diet tracers enable investigation of diet in species such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus. We examined individual diet variation of female polar bears in Svalbard, Norway, and related it to year, season (spring and autumn, sampling area and breeding status (solitary, with cubs of the year or yearlings. Sampling areas were split according to their ice cover: North-West (less sea ice cover, South-East (larger amplitude in sea ice extent and North-East/South-West (NESW as bears from that zone are more mobile among all regions of Svalbard. We measured fatty acid (FA composition in adipose tissue and carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N stable isotopes in plasma and red blood cells. Females feeding in the North-West area had lower δ15N values than those from the NESW. In South-East females, δ13C values were lower in autumn compared to spring and females seemed less selective in their diet as depicted by large variances in stable isotope values. Considering the differences in FA composition and stable isotope values, we suggest that females from the North-West and South-East could ingest a higher proportion of avian prey. With regard to breeding status, solitary females had higher δ15N values and smaller variance in their stable isotopic values than females with cubs, suggesting that solitary females were more selective and prey on higher trophic level species (i.e. seals. Overall, our results indicate that prey availability for Svalbard polar bears varies according to geographical area and prey selectivity differs according to breeding status. Our findings suggest that complex changes in sea ice and prey availability will interact to affect Svalbard polar bear feeding

  2. Geographical Area and Life History Traits Influence Diet in an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Ehrich, Dorothee; Thiemann, Gregory W; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Global changes are thought to affect most Arctic species, yet some populations are more at risk. Today, the Barents Sea ecoregion is suffering the strongest sea ice retreat ever measured; and these changes are suspected to modify food access and thus diet of several species. Biochemical diet tracers enable investigation of diet in species such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). We examined individual diet variation of female polar bears in Svalbard, Norway, and related it to year, season (spring and autumn), sampling area and breeding status (solitary, with cubs of the year or yearlings). Sampling areas were split according to their ice cover: North-West (less sea ice cover), South-East (larger amplitude in sea ice extent) and North-East/South-West (NESW) as bears from that zone are more mobile among all regions of Svalbard. We measured fatty acid (FA) composition in adipose tissue and carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes in plasma and red blood cells. Females feeding in the North-West area had lower δ15N values than those from the NESW. In South-East females, δ13C values were lower in autumn compared to spring and females seemed less selective in their diet as depicted by large variances in stable isotope values. Considering the differences in FA composition and stable isotope values, we suggest that females from the North-West and South-East could ingest a higher proportion of avian prey. With regard to breeding status, solitary females had higher δ15N values and smaller variance in their stable isotopic values than females with cubs, suggesting that solitary females were more selective and prey on higher trophic level species (i.e. seals). Overall, our results indicate that prey availability for Svalbard polar bears varies according to geographical area and prey selectivity differs according to breeding status. Our findings suggest that complex changes in sea ice and prey availability will interact to affect Svalbard polar bear feeding patterns

  3. Is a high-fiber diet able to influence ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Lei; Pang, Wenhui; Wang, Xiaoting; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Guanggang

    2016-01-01

    More recently, a large amount of experimental and clinical discovered that dietary- fiber intake would decrease the susceptibility to allergic airway disease (AAD) and respiratory inflammation. To investigate whether a fiber-intake supplement is able to influence the induction of AAD and to elucidate the interactive relationship. AAD model mice and control mice were raised on a fundamental diet with standard 4% fiber content, whereas other mice were fed a 10% fiber-content diet in the high fiber-content group, along with a 25% fiber-content diet instead in very-high fiber-content group. All experimental mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to induce allergic inflammation in both the upper and lower airways. Hallmarks of AAD were examined in terms of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in subepithelial mucosa, T-helper type 1 (Th1) to Th2 skewing of the immune response. Furthermore, to elucidate the interrelations, we generated 16S ribosomal DNA from fecal samples and further validated the variation of colony composition in each group. The excessive high-fiber supplement induced a promoting effect rather than a suppressive effect, including a rise in nasal rubbing and sneezing, an increase in eosinophil inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia in subepithelial mucosa, and promoted Th2 skewing of the immune response as well as the production of serum levels of ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E. Moreover, overconsumption of dietary fiber greatly altered the construction of bacterial flora in the intestinal tract, including an increased proportion of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria, and a decreased proportion of Bacteroidetes. Our work indicated that, instead of a protecting impact, excessive fiber intake preformed a negative influence on the induction of AAD. Therefore, we suspected that an excessive supplement of dietary fiber might not be an advisable method for the prevention and treatment of AADs.

  4. The influence of sulfur and hair growth on stable isotope diet estimates for grizzly bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Mowat

    Full Text Available Stable isotope ratios of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos guard hair collected from bears on the lower Stikine River, British Columbia (BC were analyzed to: 1 test whether measuring δ34S values improved the precision of the salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. diet fraction estimate relative to δ15N as is conventionally done, 2 investigate whether measuring δ34S values improves the separation of diet contributions of moose (Alces alces, marmot (Marmota caligata, and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus and, 3 examine the relationship between collection date and length of hair and stable isotope values. Variation in isotope signatures among hair samples from the same bear and year were not trivial. The addition of δ34S values to mixing models used to estimate diet fractions generated small improvement in the precision of salmon and terrestrial prey diet fractions. Although the δ34S value for salmon is precise and appears general among species and areas, sulfur ratios were strongly correlated with nitrogen ratios and therefore added little new information to the mixing model regarding the consumption of salmon. Mean δ34S values for the three terrestrial herbivores of interest were similar and imprecise, so these data also added little new information to the mixing model. The addition of sulfur data did confirm that at least some bears in this system ate marmots during summer and fall. We show that there are bears with short hair that assimilate >20% salmon in their diet and bears with longer hair that eat no salmon living within a few kilometers of one another in a coastal ecosystem. Grizzly bears are thought to re-grow hair between June and October however our analysis of sectioned hair suggested at least some hairs begin growing in July or August, not June and, that hair of wild bears may grow faster than observed in captive bears. Our hair samples may have been from the year of sampling or the previous year because samples were collected in summer when

  5. The influence of sulfur and hair growth on stable isotope diet estimates for grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Garth; Curtis, P Jeff; Lafferty, Diana J R

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) guard hair collected from bears on the lower Stikine River, British Columbia (BC) were analyzed to: 1) test whether measuring δ34S values improved the precision of the salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) diet fraction estimate relative to δ15N as is conventionally done, 2) investigate whether measuring δ34S values improves the separation of diet contributions of moose (Alces alces), marmot (Marmota caligata), and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) and, 3) examine the relationship between collection date and length of hair and stable isotope values. Variation in isotope signatures among hair samples from the same bear and year were not trivial. The addition of δ34S values to mixing models used to estimate diet fractions generated small improvement in the precision of salmon and terrestrial prey diet fractions. Although the δ34S value for salmon is precise and appears general among species and areas, sulfur ratios were strongly correlated with nitrogen ratios and therefore added little new information to the mixing model regarding the consumption of salmon. Mean δ34S values for the three terrestrial herbivores of interest were similar and imprecise, so these data also added little new information to the mixing model. The addition of sulfur data did confirm that at least some bears in this system ate marmots during summer and fall. We show that there are bears with short hair that assimilate >20% salmon in their diet and bears with longer hair that eat no salmon living within a few kilometers of one another in a coastal ecosystem. Grizzly bears are thought to re-grow hair between June and October however our analysis of sectioned hair suggested at least some hairs begin growing in July or August, not June and, that hair of wild bears may grow faster than observed in captive bears. Our hair samples may have been from the year of sampling or the previous year because samples were collected in summer when bears were

  6. Age and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Amelia K; Rothman, Kenneth J; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sørensen, Henrik T; Wise, Lauren A

    2017-12-01

    There is a well-documented decline in fertility treatment success with increasing female age; however, there are few preconception cohort studies that have examined female age and natural fertility. In addition, data on male age and fertility are inconsistent. Given the increasing number of couples who are attempting conception at older ages, a more detailed characterization of age-related fecundability in the general population is of great clinical utility. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between female and male age with fecundability. We conducted a web-based preconception cohort study of pregnancy planners from the United States and Canada. Participants were enrolled between June 2013 and July 2017. Eligible participants were 21-45 years old (female) or ≥21 years old (male) and had not been using fertility treatments. Couples were followed until pregnancy or for up to 12 menstrual cycles. We analyzed data from 2962 couples who had been trying to conceive for ≤3 cycles at study entry and reported no history of infertility. We used life-table methods to estimate the unadjusted cumulative pregnancy proportion at 6 and 12 cycles by female and male age. We used proportional probabilities regression models to estimate fecundability ratios, the per-cycle probability of conception for each age category relative to the referent (21-24 years old), and 95% confidence intervals. Among female patients, the unadjusted cumulative pregnancy proportion at 6 cycles of attempt time ranged from 62.0% (age 28-30 years) to 27.6% (age 40-45 years); the cumulative pregnancy proportion at 12 cycles of attempt time ranged from 79.3% (age 25-27 years old) to 55.5% (age 40-45 years old). Similar patterns were observed among male patients, although differences between age groups were smaller. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a nearly monotonic decline in fecundability with increasing female age, with the exception of 28-33 years, at which

  7. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  8. Food abundance, prey morphology, and diet specialization influence individual sea otter tool use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Jessica A.; Ralls, Katherine; Tinker, M. Tim

    2017-01-01

    Sea otters are well-known tool users, employing objects such as rocks or shells to break open invertebrate prey. We used a series of generalized linear mixed effect models to examine observational data on prey capture and tool use from 211 tagged individuals from 5 geographically defined study areas throughout the sea otter’s range in California. Our best supported model was able to explain 75% of the variation in the frequency of tool use by individual sea otters with only ecological and demographic variables. In one study area, where sea otter food resources were abundant, all individuals had similar diets focusing on preferred prey items and used tools at low to moderate frequencies (4–38% of prey captures). In the remaining areas, where sea otters were food-limited, individuals specialized on different subsets of the available prey and had a wider range of average tool-use frequency (0–98% of prey captures). The prevalence of difficult-to-access prey in individual diets was a major predictor of tool use and increased the likelihood of using tools on prey that were not difficult to access as well. Age, sex, and feeding habitat also contributed to the probability of tool use but to a smaller extent. We developed a conceptual model illustrating how food abundance, the prevalence of difficult-to-access prey, and individual diet specialization interacted to determine the likelihood that individual sea otters would use tools and considered the model’s relevance to other tool-using species.

  9. The choice of animal feeding system influences fatty acid intakes of the average French diet

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    Schmitt Bernard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids intake of French adult population does not comply with the French Population Reference Intakes (PRI. The aim the study is to quantify the impact of a modification of animal feeding system on the fatty acids intake of French population. A 15-day diet representative of average consumption for the French adult male population was developed with animal products derived either from conventional production system (STD either from a specific production system (Bleu-Blanc-Cœur® [BBC] that acts on the fatty acids profile of animal products. The impact of a such change in feeding system on fatty acids content has been quantified. BBC diet contributes to reducing the gap between the fatty acid content of a STD diet and the PRI with highest impact on C12:0–14:0–16:0 fatty acids (−4.6 g/d, i.e. 63.3%, C18:3n-3 (+0.8 g/d, i.e. 48.2%, C20:5n-3 (+35 mg/d, i.e. 42.7%, C22:6n-3 (+49 mg/d, i.e. 35% and the C18:2n-6/C18:3n-3 ratio (−4.9 points, i.e. 43.5%. The research also shows that animal products complement one another. Consuming a variety of animal source foods derived from a specific feeding practices could help reduce the gap between actual consumption and recommended dietary intake of fatty acids.

  10. Complications During Ketogenic Diet Initiation: Prevalence, Treatment, and Influence on Seizure Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Abigail; Turner, Zahava; Doerrer, Sarah C; Stanfield, Anthony; Kossoff, Eric H

    2017-03-01

    Many centers still admit children for several days to start the ketogenic diet. The exact incidence of adverse effects during the admission and their potential later impact on seizure reduction has not been widely studied. We performed a retrospective study of children with intractable epilepsy electively admitted for ketogenic diet initiation at our institution from 2011 to 2016. Charts were reviewed for adverse effects during the admission period and then examined for seizure reduction and compliance at three months. A rating scale (1 to 4) was created for severity of any adverse events. A total of 158 children were included, with the mean age 4.6 years. Potentially attributable adverse effects occurred in 126 (80%) children, most commonly emesis, food refusal, and hypoglycemia. Seventy-three (46%) children received some form of intervention by the medical team, most commonly the administration of juice (24%). Younger age was correlated with an increased likelihood of moderate to severe adverse effects during admission, often repeated hypoglycemia (3.6 versus 4.9 years, P = 0.04). Fasting was more likely to result in lethargy and a single blood glucose in the 30 to 40 mg/dL range, but it was not correlated with emesis, repeated hypoglycemia, or higher adverse effect scores. There was no statistically significant correlation between the severity of adverse effects and the three-month seizure reduction. Mild easily treated adverse effects occurred in most children admitted for the ketogenic diet. Younger children were at greater risk for significant difficulties and should be monitored closely. Because fasting led to more lethargy and hypoglycemia, it may be prudent to avoid this in younger children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of a cocoa-enriched diet on specific immune response in ovalbumin-sensitized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castellote, Cristina; Permanyer, Joan; Franch, Angels; Castell, Margarida

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies in young rats have reported the impact of 3 weeks of high cocoa intake on healthy immune status. The present article describes the effects of a longer-term cocoa-enriched diet (9 weeks) on the specific immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in adult Wistar rats. At 4 weeks after immunization, control rats produced anti-OVA antibodies, which, according their amount and isotype, were arranged as follows: IgG1 > IgG2a > IgM > IgG2b > IgG2c. Both cocoa diets studied (4% and 10%) down-modulated OVA-specific antibody levels of IgG1 (main subclass associated with the Th2 immune response in rats), IgG2a, IgG2c and IgM isotypes. Conversely, cocoa-fed rats presented equal or higher levels of anti-OVA IgG2b antibodies (subclass linked to the Th1 response). Spleen and lymph node cells from OVA-immunized control and cocoa-fed animals proliferated similarly under OVA stimulation. However, spleen cells from cocoa-fed animals showed decreased interleukin-4 secretion (main Th2 cytokine), and lymph node cells from the same rats displayed higher interferon-gamma secretion (main Th1 cytokine). These changes were accompanied by a reduction in the number of anti-OVA IgG-secreting cells in spleen. In conclusion, cocoa diets induced attenuation of antibody synthesis that may be attributable to specific down-regulation of the Th2 immune response.

  12. Influence of Different Diets on Two-sex Life Table Parameters of Oenopia conglobata contaminata (Menteries

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    H. Zohdi

    2017-08-01

    determine the demographic parameters. After hatching of eggs, larvae was individually transferred to a plastic container (5*10 cm and kept in a growth chamber. Every day the larvae were fed with the above mentioned host. Their growth and development were monitored daily and also mortality rate was recorded. In the experiments, fourth-instar nymph of the aphids and A. pistaciae were used. The raw data of the developmental time and female daily fecundity of O. conglobata contaminata individuals were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table using the computer program TWO SEX MS Chart. Results and Discussion: Results showed that the maximum net reproduction rate (R0 and intrinsic rate of increase (rm in psylla diet was 290.87 , 0.1559, respectively and the minimum of R0 and rm belong to eggs of E. kuehniella diet (61.68 and 0.1103. This result proves that psylla diet is the best food for O. conglobata contaminata and aphids diets were in the next ranks (R0 and rm in A.fabae and A.gossypii diets were 200.48, 0.140; 72.44,0.128, respectively. Results of mean generation time of O. conglobata contaminata that was rearing on different diets showed that there were significant differences among the different diets. Mean generation time of O. conglobata in Psylla, A.fabae, A.gossypii and egg of E. kuehniella diets were 36.31, 37.72, 33.34 and 37.30 days, respectively. Finite rate of increase (λ of O. conglobata contaminata by feeding A.pistasciae, A.fabae, A.gossypii and E. kuehniella was determined 1.198, 1.150, 1.136 and 1.116, respectively.The results of this study can be compared with the result of Mokhtari and Samih (2014, Rounagh and Samih (2014 and Hassani et al. (2009. Life expectancy of female and male O. conglobata contaminata by feeding A.pistasciae, A.fabae, A.gossypii and E. kuehniella were 80.82,64.16; 81.02,68.76; 80.54,68.88 and 59.75, 62.11 days, respectively. Results also indicated that the psylla and A.fabae diets improved the demographics parameters and

  13. Understanding sustainable diets: a descriptive analysis of the determinants and processes that influence diets and their impact on health, food security, and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jessica L; Fanzo, Jessica C; Cogill, Bruce

    2014-07-01

    The confluence of population, economic development, and environmental pressures resulting from increased globalization and industrialization reveal an increasingly resource-constrained world in which predictions point to the need to do more with less and in a "better" way. The concept of sustainable diets presents an opportunity to successfully advance commitments to sustainable development and the elimination of poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and poor health outcomes. This study examines the determinants of sustainable diets, offers a descriptive analysis of these areas, and presents a causal model and framework from which to build. The major determinants of sustainable diets fall into 5 categories: 1) agriculture, 2) health, 3) sociocultural, 4) environmental, and 5) socioeconomic. When factors or processes are changed in 1 determinant category, such changes affect other determinant categories and, in turn, the level of "sustainability" of a diet. The complex web of determinants of sustainable diets makes it challenging for policymakers to understand the benefits and considerations for promoting, processing, and consuming such diets. To advance this work, better measurements and indicators must be developed to assess the impact of the various determinants on the sustainability of a diet and the tradeoffs associated with any recommendations aimed at increasing the sustainability of our food system. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Understanding Sustainable Diets: A Descriptive Analysis of the Determinants and Processes That Influence Diets and Their Impact on Health, Food Security, and Environmental Sustainability123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jessica L.; Fanzo, Jessica C.; Cogill, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The confluence of population, economic development, and environmental pressures resulting from increased globalization and industrialization reveal an increasingly resource-constrained world in which predictions point to the need to do more with less and in a “better” way. The concept of sustainable diets presents an opportunity to successfully advance commitments to sustainable development and the elimination of poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and poor health outcomes. This study examines the determinants of sustainable diets, offers a descriptive analysis of these areas, and presents a causal model and framework from which to build. The major determinants of sustainable diets fall into 5 categories: 1) agriculture, 2) health, 3) sociocultural, 4) environmental, and 5) socioeconomic. When factors or processes are changed in 1 determinant category, such changes affect other determinant categories and, in turn, the level of “sustainability” of a diet. The complex web of determinants of sustainable diets makes it challenging for policymakers to understand the benefits and considerations for promoting, processing, and consuming such diets. To advance this work, better measurements and indicators must be developed to assess the impact of the various determinants on the sustainability of a diet and the tradeoffs associated with any recommendations aimed at increasing the sustainability of our food system. PMID:25022991

  15. Influence of temperature and diet on the development of Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmaire, 1893 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Diaperinae

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    Renato C. Marinoni

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmaire, 1893 develops in stored food products (peanuts, maize, oats, rice, sorghum, etc. and breeds successfully in the laboratory. To determine the best conditions for development, experiments were set up in different temperatures and diets, similar to storage conditions of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.. The higher viability of individuals and the shorter developmental time were observed in the diet composed of hulls and seeds of fruits at 21 and 24°C.Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmaire, 1893 é um coleóptero que se desenvolve em produtos armazenados (amendoim, milho, aveia, arroz, sorgo, etc. e é facilmente criado em laboratório. Para avaliar as melhores condições de desenvolvimento foram estabelecidos experimentos em diferentes temperaturas e em dietas definidas por três diferentes condições de armazenamento de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.. A maior viabilidade de indivíduos e o menor tempo de desenvolvimento foram verificados na dieta constituída por frutos abertos (vagens e grãos e em temperaturas de 21 e 24°C. É discutida a possível influência da umidade relativa nos resultados.

  16. Temporal and spatial variation in Hg accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): possible influences of DOC and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Lisa D; Evans, Douglas; Dillon, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are filter feeders located near the base of the foodweb and these animals are able to utilize a variety of carbon sources that may also vary seasonally. We conducted both a spatial and a temporal study in order to test the hypotheses: (1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations influence Hg accumulation in zebra mussels sampled from a series of lakes and (2) seasonal variations in diet influence Hg accumulation. In the spatial study, we found a significant negative relationship between Hg concentrations and DOC concentrations, suggesting an influence of DOC on Hg bioaccumulation. In the temporal study, we used stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) as ecological tools to provide a temporally integrated description of the feeding ecology of zebra mussels. Both δ(15)N and δ(13)C varied seasonally in a similar manner: more depleted values occurred in the summer and more enriched values occurred in the fall. Mercury concentrations also varied significantly over the year, with highest concentrations occurring in the summer, followed by a progressive decrease in concentrations into the fall. The C/N ratio of zebra mussels also varied significantly over the year with the lowest values occurring mid-summer and then values increased in the fall and winter, suggesting that there was significant variation in lipid stores. These results indicate that in addition to any effect of seasonal dietary changes, seasonal variation in energy stores also appeared to be related to Hg levels in the zebra mussels. Collectively results from this study suggest that DOC concentrations, seasonal variation in diet and seasonal depletion of energy stores are all important variables to consider when understanding Hg accumulation in zebra mussels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How the contractualist account of preconception negligence undermines prenatal reproductive autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Glen

    2013-08-01

    Suppose a physician advises a woman to delay her planned pregnancy for a few months in order to significantly reduce the likelihood that her baby will suffer with Spina Bifida. If the woman chooses to ignore this advice and conceives soon after, I believe most people would consider it a matter of common sense that the child thus born is a victim of this woman's negligence, even if it is fortunate enough to not be burdened with Spina Bifida. This common sense judgement appeared to have been done in by the fact that the timing of conception can be identity-influencing, and so the child that is born only exists because of its mother's decision to ignore her physician's advice. However, recently, contemporary contractualist theories have been used to make sense of preconception negligence towards persons whose existence is a result of that same negligence. I will briefly discuss this interesting development and then show how this retrieval of the common sense judgement comes at a great cost to prenatal reproductive autonomy.

  18. Psychological Health and Lifestyle Management Preconception and in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Gillman, Matthew W; Skouteris, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Healthful lifestyles before and during pregnancy are important to facilitate healthy outcomes for mother and baby. For example, behaviors such as a sedentary lifestyle and consuming an energy-dense/nutrient-poor diet increase the risk of overweight/obesity before pregnancy and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, leading to adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Maternal psychopathology may be implicated in the development of suboptimal maternal lifestyle behaviors before and during pregnancy, perhaps through impacts on motivation. This article explores this notion using maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain as examples of the health impacts of psychological states. We suggest that factors such as psychological well-being, individual motivation for behavior change, and broader environmental influences that affect both individual and system-wide determinants all play important roles in promoting healthy lifestyles periconception and are key modifiable aspects for intervention designers to consider when trying to improve dietary behaviors and increase physical activity before and during pregnancy. In addition, implementing system-wide changes that impact positively on individual and environmental barriers to behavior change that are sustainable, measureable, and effective is required. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Mother-daughter dyadic approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Fischl, Andrea Rodgers; Choi, Jessica; Schmitt, Patricia L; White, Neil H; Becker, Dorothy; Downs, Julie; Hannan, Margaret; Thurheimer, Jennifer; Sereika, Susan M

    2014-12-29

    Preconception counseling (PC) significantly and inexpensively reduces risks of reproductive-health complications for women with diabetes. Our validated technology-based preconception counseling intervention, READY-Girls , is tailored for female teens with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes and targets decision-making regarding effective family planning and seeking PC. Our teen-focused research was instrumental in changing the American Diabetes Association's Practice Recommendations to specify that preconception counseling should "Start at puberty…". This directive requires support from well-informed mothers of teens. Our goal is to provide both teen girls and their mothers with preconception counseling knowledge, and provide mothers with sex-communication training. Evaluation should focus on mother-daughter dyads. This feasibility study explored mother's and daughter's awareness and knowledge of diabetes and pregnancy, and preconception counseling; and compared mother-daughter responses using dyadic analyses. A mixed-method design was conducted with 10 mothers of daughters with T1D. Mothers were given READY-Girls intervention and completed knowledge and support questionnaires. Their responses were compared to those of their daughter's who were participating in a large randomized, control intervention trial with READY-Girls . The major theme from one-on-one interviews was, "I know nothing about diabetes/pregnancy risks and PC". Mother's and daughter's perceptions of having limited knowledge were confirmed by low knowledge scores. Mothers perceived giving higher levels of support compared to their daughter's perceptions of receiving support. Mothers can play a vital role in initiating discussions regarding reproductive-health with their daughters and reinforcing preconception counseling. Mother-daughter team approach for starting preconception counseling at puberty in girls with diabetes is feasible. Mother-daughter dyadic analyses can be important to explore

  20. Maternal Diet, Metabolic State, and Inflammatory Response Exert Unique and Long-Lasting Influences on Offspring Behavior in Non-Human Primates

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    Jacqueline R. Thompson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status influences brain health and gestational exposure to metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and diabetes increases the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the role of maternal Western-style diet (WSD, metabolic state, and inflammatory factors in the programming of Japanese macaque offspring behavior. Utilizing structural equation modeling, we investigated the relationships between maternal diet, prepregnancy adiposity, third trimester insulin response, and plasma cytokine levels on 11-month-old offspring behavior. Maternal WSD was associated with greater reactive and ritualized anxiety in offspring. Maternal adiposity and third trimester macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC exerted opposing effects on offspring high-energy outbursts. Elevated levels of this behavior were associated with low maternal MDC and increased prepregnancy adiposity. This is the first study to show that maternal MDC levels influence offspring behavior. We found no evidence suggesting maternal peripheral inflammatory response mediated the effect of maternal diet and metabolic state on aberrant offspring behavior. Additionally, the extent of maternal metabolic impairment differentially influenced chemokine response. Elevated prepregnancy adiposity suppressed third trimester chemokines, while obesity-induced insulin resistance augmented peripheral chemokine levels. WSD also directly increased maternal interleukin-12. This is the first non-human primate study to delineate the effects of maternal diet and metabolic state on gestational inflammatory environment and subsequent offspring behavior. Our findings give insight to the complex mechanisms by which diet, metabolic state, and inflammation during pregnancy exert unique influences on offspring behavioral regulation.

  1. Roadrunner physics: using cartoons to challenge student preconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxford, Rachael; Ridge, Mathew; Overduin, James; Selway, Jim

    The cartoon universe is governed by laws that differ radically from those in the real world, but also mirror some of our preconceptions of how the world ``should'' work. We all know that Wile E. Coyote will never be able to catch the Roadrunner with a fan attached to a sailboard, or an outboard motor submerged in a pail of water--but why, exactly? Can we attach some numbers to this knowledge? We have designed some classroom demonstrations accompanied by personal-response-type questions that use classic cartoon clips to challenge student thinking in introductory courses, prompting them to rediscover the truths of physics for themselves. We extend this idea to intermediate-level modern physics, showing that some phenomena in the cartoon universe can be reconciled with standard physics if the values of fundamental constants such as c , G and h differ radically from those in the real world. Such an approach can both heighten student interest and deepen understanding in various physics topics.

  2. Influence of early life exposure, host genetics and diet on the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snijders, Antoine M.; Langley, Sasha A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Brislawn, Colin J.; Noecker, Cecilia; Zink, Erika M.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Casey, Cameron P.; Miller, Darla R.; Huang, Yurong; Karpen, Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.; Brown, James B.; Borenstein, Elhanan; Jansson, Janet K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2016-11-28

    Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease1, we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut.We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system2 to discover that early life history impacts themicrobiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism. Quantitative trait analysis identified mouse genetic trait loci (QTL) that impact the abundances of specific microbes. Human orthologues of genes in the mouse QTL are implicated in gastrointestinal cancer. Additionally, genes located in mouse QTL for Lactobacillales abundance are implicated in arthritis, rheumatic disease and diabetes. Furthermore, Lactobacillales abundance was predictive of higher host T-helper cell counts, suggesting an important link between Lactobacillales and host adaptive immunity.

  3. Maternal and paternal parenting practices and their influence on children's adiposity, screen-time, diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stress and Ramadan observance; a possible influence of associated dieting

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    RJ Shephard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of Ramadan observance and any associated dietary restriction upon oxidative stress are not well known. The topic has thus been examined in a brief systematic review of available literature concerning non-athletic but otherwise healthy subjects, patients with selected clinical conditions, and in athletes. Methods: Ovid/Medline and Google searches were supplemented by a perusal of reference lists in papers thus identified. Results: Ramadan observance and associated dietary restrictions are generally associated with a decrease of body mass in non-athletic adults, and in patients with conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. During Ramadan, measures of oxidative stress (particularly malondialdehyde and F2 isoprostanes are consistently decreased, antioxidant status (particularly levels of peroxidases, uric acid and reduced glutathione are enhanced and inflammatory reactions (particularly c-reactive protein, IL-6 and TNF-a are decreased in association with decreases in body mass. Perhaps because of lower initial body weights and greater dietary control during Ramadan, changes of oxidant status are more variable in athletes; in 3 of 7 studies, Ramadan observance had little effect on oxidant status, and in 2 reports there was some deterioration. In 3 of 4 studies where athletes underwent short-term dieting, there was also no improvement of antioxidant status. Conclusion: Ramadan observance and any associated dieting reduce oxidative stress in non-athletic individuals, apparently in association with decreases of body mass. In athletes, oxidant levels are generally unchanged during Ramadan, and if food intake is maintained they may even increase. More information is needed upon possible adverse health consequences, but chronic risks are probably small because any changes are limited to one month per year.

  5. Perception of influences on the diet of elderly people from the Lan-C sector of Hualpén commune, Chile

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    Claudia Troncoso Pantoja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To interpret the perception of influences on the diet of elderly people from the Lan-C sector of Hualpén commune, Chile, during the year 2016. Materials and methods: In order to accomplish the objective, researchers used a qualitative design with an interpretative phenomenological approach. The qualitative sampling was performed by the snowball method. The sample size was not determined a priori, but through theoretical saturation; that is, when interviews did not provide new data to the research, which happened in the fifth interview. Subjects included in the study fulfilled the screening criteria, such as being over 60 years old, not having cognitive damage that prevented a fluent conversation, not being diagnosed with any form of dementia, living in the Lan-C sector of Hualpén commune, and signing an informed consent of the research with which ethical aspects of the study were controlled. Data collection was performed through semi-structured interviews. The results were coded and analyzed through the content analysis method. Results: Interviewees mentioned that their diet was influenced by their family, emotions and economic situation. The family, especially their children, had a positive influence on their diet by selecting the food they were to consume, preparing their meals, and maintaining or improving their health through the diet. They also stated that the economic situation affected their diet and, although they had a limited income, they favored the purchase of healthy food which would allow them to keep an adequate quality of life. Regarding their emotions, they especially refer to memories of their childhood and youth, their mother and special dates which have influence on their diet. Other factors, such as advertisement or friends, were not identified as conditioning their eating behavior. Conclusion: There are some factors that affect the diet of elderly people, such as their emotions, economic situation and family.

  6. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P < 0.001; Δ = 12.6%). The DQI was positively correlated with both paternal and maternal Par-Educ-Lev. However, this association was more pronounced in northern Europe than in southern Europe (P interaction = 0.004 for the mother and 0.06 for the father). The DQI was also positively correlated with Par-Occ-Lev (all P trends < 0.01), but this correlation was independent of the geographical area (P interaction = 0.51 for the mother and 0.50 for the father). In conclusion, Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev are associated with diet quality in adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe.

  7. Fetal health locus of control: Scale properties and applications in preconception health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliday, Elizabeth; Strahm, Anna; Mammenga, Stefani

    2016-04-01

    Preconception health programs have resulted in improved health behaviors among participants and have shown promise in reducing adverse birth outcomes. However, the role of health beliefs in preconception health program outcomes has been overlooked but warrants attention due to reported positive associations between women's views of control over fetal health and health behavior in pregnancy. Towards an ultimate aim of improving preconception health program reach and effectiveness, we examined properties of a fetal health locus of control (FHLC; Labs & Wurtele, 1986) measure in nulliparous, childbearing aged university women and men. Students (n=1467) completed an online survey that included the FHLC subscales maternal, powerful others', and chance control over fetal health. Factor analyses and correlations with related scales supported the soundness of FHLC constructs in both women and men. All participants rated maternal control in fetal health nearly twice as highly as powerful others' and chance. We therefore recommend that FHLC be integrated into preconception health program evaluation as personal agency in fetal health likely has an important role in women's and men's preconception health behavior and health behavior change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of high glycine diets on the activity of glycine-catabolizing enzymes and on glycine catabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Przybilski, H.

    1986-01-01

    Male albino rats were adapted to isocaloric purified diets that differed mainly in their glycine and casein contents. Controls received a 30% casein diet. In experimental diets gelatin or gelatin hydrolysate was substituted for half of the 30% casein. An additional group was fed a glycine-supplemented diet, which corresponded in glycine level to the gelatin diet but in which the protein level was nearly the same as that of the casein control diet. Another group received a 15% casein diet. Rat liver glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and serine dehydratase activities were measured. 14 CO 2 production from the catabolism of 14 C-labeled glycine was measured in vivo and in vitro (from isolated hepatocytes). Serine dehydratase and glycine cleavage system activities were higher in animals fed 30% casein diets than in those fed 15% casein diets. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase activity of the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions was highest when a high glycine diet (glycine administered as pure, protein bound in gelatin or peptide bound in gelatin hydrolysate) was fed. 14 CO 2 formation from [1- 14 C]- and [2- 14 C]glycine both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes was higher when a high glycine diet was fed than when a casein diet was fed. These results suggest that glycine catabolism is dependent on and adaptable to the glycine content of the diet. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase appears to play a major role in the regulation of glycine degradation via serine and pyruvate

  9. Influence of Deficiency or Supplementary Selenium and a- Tochopherol (Vitamin E) In The Diet of Pubertal Male Zaraibi Goats on Fertility, Semen Quality and Testicular Traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; Teama, F.E.I.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty pubertal male Zaraibi goats (bucks) were randomly divided into four equal groups; fed deficient Se or vit. E, adequate Se, adequate vit. E and adequate Se + vit. E diets for 3 months to study the influence of deficient or adequate selenium (Se) and vitamin E (vit. E) in the diet of pubertal male Zaraibi goats on fertility, semen quantity and quality and some testicular traits. The results showed that the best values of semen quantity (the ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and total sperm output per ejaculate) and semen quality (percentage of progressive motility, percentage of live sperm, number of motile sperm per ejaculate, percentage of dead, abnormal spermatozoa and acrosomal abnormality) were observed in bucks fed diet supplemented with adequate Se combined with adequate vit. E. The lowest values of semen quantity and semen quality were observed in bucks suffering from deficiency of Se and/or vit. E in their diets. Testosterone level in seminal plasma was significantly higher in bucks fed adequate Se and/or vit. E than those fed diet deficient in Se and vit. E. Testosterone level was significantly higher in bucks fed diet adequate in Se + vit. E than those fed diet adequate with Se or vit. E alone. Se and vit. E deficiency in the diets was accompanied by a significant decrease in testosterone, T 4 and T 3 levels in seminal plasma. Selenium or vit. E each one alone supplementation led to increases of these hormones. T 4 and T 3 levels were significantly higher in bucks fed adequate Se or adequate Se + vit. E than in bucks fed diet with adequate vitamin E alone. Adequate Se alone and adequate Se + vit. E diets were accompanied by significant increases in Se in seminal plasma. Adequate vit. E and adequate Se + vit. E diets were accompanied by significant increase in vit. E level in the seminal plasma. It is clear that there was synergism between Se and vit. E in the biological role of Se, since the level of Se in bucks fed diet containing adequate Se

  10. Maternal obesity induced by diet in rats permanently influences central processes regulating food intake in offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona L Kirk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic systems which regulate appetite may be permanently modified during early development. We have previously reported hyperphagia and increased adiposity in the adult offspring of rodents fed an obesogenic diet prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. We now report that offspring of obese (OffOb rats display an amplified and prolonged neonatal leptin surge, which is accompanied by elevated leptin mRNA expression in their abdominal white adipose tissue. At postnatal Day 30, before the onset of hyperphagia in these animals, serum leptin is normal, but leptin-induced appetite suppression and phosphorylation of STAT3 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC are attenuated; the level of AgRP-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH, which derives from neurones in the ARC and is developmentally dependent on leptin, is also diminished. We hypothesise that prolonged release of abnormally high levels of leptin by neonatal OffOb rats leads to leptin resistance and permanently affects hypothalamic functions involving the ARC and PVH. Such effects may underlie the developmental programming of hyperphagia and obesity in these rats.

  11. Turkish female immigrants' intentions to participate in preconception carrier screening for hemoglobinopathies in the Netherlands: An empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Elderen (Thérèse); D. Mutlu; J. Karstanje; J. Passchier (Jan); A. Tibben (Arend); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Preconception carrier screening for hemoglobinopathies (HbPs) is debated in the Netherlands. Objectives: Intentions to participate in preconception carrier screening for HbPs as well as informed reproductive options were assessed in 109 Turkish female immigrants. Method:

  12. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  13. Parental perspectives on the awareness and delivery of preconception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poels, M; Koster, M P H; Franx, A; van Stel, H F

    2017-09-26

    The attention for Preconception Care (PCC) has grown substantially in recent years, yet the implementation of PCC appears challenging as uptake rates remain low. The objective of this study was to assess parental perspectives on how PCC should be provided. Recruitment of participants took place among couples who received antenatal care at a Dutch community midwifery practice. Between June and September 2014, five focus group sessions were held with 29 women and one focus group session with 5 men. Thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo 10 software. Participants were generally unfamiliar with the concept of PCC. It was proposed to raise awareness by means of a promotional campaign, stipulating that PCC is suited for every couple with a (future) child wish. Suggestions were made to display marketing materials in both formal and informal (local community) settings. Addressing existing social networks and raising social dialogue was expected to be most efficient. It was recommended to make PCC more accessible by offering multiple forms and to involve male partners. Opportunistic offering PCC by healthcare providers was considered more acceptable when the subject was deliberately raised, for example while discussing contraceptives, lifestyle risks or drug prescriptions. GP's or midwifes were regarded the most suitable PCC providers, however provider characteristics such as experience, empathy and communication skills were considered more important. This study showed that from the parental perspective it is recommended to address every couple with a (future) child wish by means of enlarging the awareness and accessibility of PCC. In order to enlarge the awareness, it is recommended to address social networks, to raise the social dialogue and to conduct promotional campaigns regarding PCC. In order to improve the accessibility of PCC, it was suggested to simultaneously offer multiple forms: group sessions, individual consultations, walk-in-hours and online sessions

  14. [The influence of nettle and burdock extracts in combination with different diets on dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerovsky, A I; Yakimova, T V; Nasanova, O N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of low-fat diet, nettle (Urtica dioica) leafs and burdock (Arctium lappa) roots extracts on lipid metabolism and glycosylation reactions has been investigated in experimental diabetes mellitus. These extracts were applied in diets with both high and low fat content. The experiments were performed on 90 noninbred male albino rats (200–220 g) that were divided into 9 experimental groups. Diabetes mellitus was modeled with twice-repeated intraperitoneal streptozotocin (30 mg/kg) injections. The animals received food with increased fat content (proteins – 8%, fats – 30%, carbohydrates – 62% of total daily caloric content) during 4 weeks before streptozotocine injections and 8 weeks after its discontinuation. Simultaneously the rats were daily administered nettle leafs (100 mg/kg), burdock roots (25 mg/kg) extracts or metformin (100 mg/kg) into the stomach during 10 days. During the period of agents introduction half the animals continued to receive food with high fat content, the other half received low fat diet (proteins – 20%, fats – 8%, carbohydrates – 72% of the total daily caloric content). The forth (control) group received low fat food only without extracts or metformin administration. The levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, malonic dialdehyde, lipid and lipoprotein fractions content were measured. It has been shown that after streptozotocine injections and 30% fat diet consumption the blood glucose level increased by 5.3 fold compared to that of the intact animals, the content of atherogenic lipid fractions increased by 2–8.3 fold and the protein glycosylation reactions were intensified by 1.9–2.5 fold. In animals fed with 8% fat diet the blood glucose and malonic dialdehyde content decreased by 1.8–2.3 fold. In this experiment the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, cholesterol of nonhigh-density lipoproteins, low-density and very low-density lipoproteins, as well as the cholesterol and protein content of

  15. Preconception Blood Pressure Levels and Reproductive Outcomes in a Prospective Cohort of Women Attempting Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Mendola, Pauline; Mumford, Sunni L; Naimi, Ashley I; Yeung, Edwina H; Kim, Keewan; Park, Hyojun; Wilcox, Brian; Silver, Robert M; Perkins, Neil J; Sjaarda, Lindsey; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2018-05-01

    Elevated blood pressure in young adulthood is an early risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Despite a strong biological rationale, little research has evaluated whether incremental increases in preconception blood pressure have early consequences for reproductive health. We evaluated preconception blood pressure and fecundability, pregnancy loss, and live birth in the EAGeR trial (Effects of Aspirin on Gestational and Reproduction; 2007-2011), a randomized clinical trial of aspirin and reproductive outcomes among 1228 women attempting pregnancy with a history of pregnancy loss. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured during preconception in the first observed menstrual cycle and in early pregnancy and used to derive mean arterial pressure. Fecundability was assessed as number of menstrual cycles until pregnancy, determined through human chorionic gonadotropin testing. Pregnancy loss included both human chorionic gonadotropin-detected and clinical losses. Analyses adjusted for treatment assignment, age, body mass index, race, marital status, smoking, parity, and time since last loss. Mean preconception systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 111.6 mm Hg (SD, 12.1) and 72.5 (SD, 9.4) mm Hg. Risk of pregnancy loss increased 18% per 10 mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.36) and 17% per 10 mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.35) in adjusted analyses. Findings were similar for early pregnancy blood pressure. Preconception blood pressure was not related to fecundability or live birth in adjusted analyses. Findings suggest that preconception blood pressure among healthy women is associated with pregnancy loss, and lifestyle interventions targeting blood pressure among young women may favorably impact reproductive health. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00467363. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontal disease among pre-conception Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Su, Yi; Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic infectious diseases. It has been reported that periodontal disease is associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Given the fact that the treatment for periodontal disease during pregnancy was ineffective in improving pregnancy outcomes by most of studies, the pre-conception period has been put forward as a more optimal time. However, very few studies have reported the prevalence of periodontal disease among pre-conception women. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors of periodontal disease among Chinese pre-conception women. A survey was conducted among pre-conception women at the Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Changzhou, China between January 2012 and December 2014. A total of 987 pre-conception women were recruited for a full-mouth dental examination after providing informed consent. A dental examination was carried out by probing six sites per tooth using a manual UNC-15 probe and a recording form. The overall rate of periodontal disease among participants was 73.9% (729/987) (95% confidence interval (CI): 71.0-76.6%). Among women with periodontal disease, 48.0% of cases were mild, 50.9% were moderate and 1.1% were severe. Self-reported bleeding during tooth brushing was the only significant predictive factor for overall periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.71, 95% CI: 2.24, 6.15, P periodontal disease (aOR: 5.17, 95% CI: 3.05, 8.79, P periodontal disease was found in pre-conception Chinese women. Women who have bleeding during tooth brushing could be at increased risk of periodontal disease, and might require further oral health care.

  17. The influence of Mediterranean, carbohydrate and high protein diets on gut microbiota composition in the treatment of obesity and associated inflammatory state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Fuller, Nicholas Robert; Zulet, María Angeles; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Caterson, Ian Douglas

    2014-01-01

    The role of the gut microbiota in understanding the onset and development of obesity is gaining importance. Dietary strategies are the main tool employed to counteract obesity, and nowadays they are focused on a wide range of different aspects of diet and not only on calorie restriction. Additionally, diet is known to be a major factor influencing modification of the gut microbiota. Therefore the influence of both macronutrient and micronutrient content of any dietary strategy to treat obesity on gut bacterial composition should now be taken into consideration, in addition to energy restriction. This review aims to collect the available data regarding the influence of different dietary components on gut microbiota in relation to obesity and inflammatory states in humans. Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.

  18. Influence of different fibre sources in diets for growing pigs on chemical composition of faeces and slurry and ammonia emission from slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate how three different fibre sources, sugar beet pulp, soya bean hulls and pectin residue, in diets for growing pigs influenced the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in faeces, pH-value in faeces and slurry, excretion of nitrogen in urine...

  19. INFLUENCE OF A SEROTONIN-RICH AND DOPAMINE-RICH DIET ON PLATELET SEROTONIN CONTENT AND URINARY-EXCRETION OF BIOGENIC-AMINES AND THEIR METABOLITES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KEMA, IP; SCHELLINGS, AMJ; MEIBORG, G; HOPPENBROUWERS, CJM; MUSKIET, FAJ

    Using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography, we reevaluated the 24-h influence of a serotonin- and dopamine-rich diet on platelet serotonin and serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and major catecholamine metabolites in the urine of 15 healthy adults. Although

  20. LATENT RISK OF INTRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL MILK FORMULAS INTO INFANTS’ DIET: THE WAYS TO MINIMIZE NEGATIVE INFLUENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Davydovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding has protective effect against certain diseases both in short and long-term prospects. On the contrary, artificial milk formulas (AMF and especially when early introduced, is associated with increased risk of infectious diseases and also is a risk factor for development of metabolic syndrome, type 1 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders in further life. The role of cow milk protein intolerance in transformation of alimentary allergy into other forms of atopic disorders («atopic» or «allergic march» is actively discussed in the article. Protective role of prolonged breast feeding is a subject of wide speculation in this article; the authors also open a question of significance of early diet for human health at the population level and consider possible ways to minimize negative influence of AMF introduction. It is well-known that different AMF are tolerated by children in different ways, in spite of the adjacency of «table» compositions. This fact most often is associated to protein components of milk formulas, as it is the most susceptible during processing of raw materials. Under the influence of high temperature and pressure, which are used by all manufacturers during AMF production, proteins are denatured. Denatured protein obtains certain characteristics, which can change its assimilation and tolerability. Awareness of these characteristics allows the key manufacturers to produce AMF with protein components of a high quality.

  1. Ten-year single-center experience of the ketogenic diet: factors influencing efficacy, tolerability, and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Cinthya; Rowe, Natalie; Beavis, Erin; Kepreotes, Helen; Mackie, Fiona E; Lawson, John A; Cardamone, Michael

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of 3 ketogenic diets, the classical ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), and modified Atkins diet. A single-center, retrospective study of 48 children with intractable epilepsy receiving ketogenic diets from 2003 to 2012. Patient demographics, epilepsy history, nutritional management, and side effects were collated. Compliance and tolerability were assessed by recording reasons for diet modification and cessation. The value of potassium citrate supplementation for preventing nephrolithiasis was reviewed. Median age at ketogenic diet initiation was 3.8 years (IQR: 2.3-7 years). The majority had intractable epilepsy, and 33 of the 48 children (69%) had epileptic encephalopathies. Three (6%) patients became seizure free, 35 (73%) reported Diet duration or ketogenic diet type did not predict reduction in seizures (P = .381; P = .272). Constipation (n = 31, 65%) was very common. Food refusal (n = 3, 6%) and poor parental compliance (n = 5, 10%) were common reasons cited for cessation. There were lower rates of side effects for modified Atkins diet. Diet cessation was greatest for MCT; however, 3 patients on MCT ceased therapy because adequate seizure control was achieved. Nephrolithiasis was reported in 1 patient before potassium citrate was used and 2 patients noncompliant with potassium citrate supplementation developed hypercalciuria. The 3 ketogenic diets were comparably effective in seizure control and generally well-tolerated. Potassium citrate supplementation is an effective prophylactic supplement for the prevention of nephrolithiasis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of trace elements mixture on bacterial diversity and fermentation characteristics of liquid diet fermented with probiotics under air-tight condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyong He

    Full Text Available Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to investigate the effect of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on the diversity, growth and fermentation characteristics of bacteria in the liquid diet fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis under air-tight condition. Results showed that the mixtures of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- at different concentrations promoted Bacillus growth, increased bacterial diversity and lactic acid production and lowered pH to about 5. The importance of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is different for Bacillus growth with the order Zn2+> Fe2+>Cu2+> I- in a 21-d fermentation and Cu2+>I->Fe2+>Zn2+ in a 42-d fermentation. Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is recommended at a level of 150, 60, 150 and 0.6 mg/kg respectively for the production of fermented liquid diet with Bacillus subtilis. The findings improve our understanding of the influence of trace elements on liquid diet fermentation with probiotics and support the proper use of trace elements in the production of fermented liquid diet for piglets.

  3. Hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetic pregnancy: role of preconception insulin aspart treatment in a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Simon; Damm, Peter; Mersebach, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A recent randomized trial compared prandial insulin aspart (IAsp) with human insulin in type 1 diabetic pregnancy. The aim of this exploratory analysis was to investigate the incidence of severe hypoglycemia during pregnancy and compare women enrolled preconception with women enrolled...... during early pregnancy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS IAsp administered immediately before each meal was compared with human insulin administered 30 min before each meal in 99 subjects (44 to IAsp and 55 to human insulin) randomly assigned preconception and in 223 subjects (113 for IAsp and 110 for human...

  4. Hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetic pregnancy: role of preconception insulin aspart treatment in a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Simon; Damm, Peter; Mersebach, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A recent randomized trial compared prandial insulin aspart (IAsp) with human insulin in type 1 diabetic pregnancy. The aim of this exploratory analysis was to investigate the incidence of severe hypoglycemia during pregnancy and compare women enrolled preconception with women enrolled...... during early pregnancy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS IAsp administered immediately before each meal was compared with human insulin administered 30 min before each meal in 99 subjects (44 to IAsp and 55 to human insulin) randomly assigned preconception and in 223 subjects (113 for IAsp and 110 for human...... insulin) randomly assigned in early pregnancy (...

  5. Which Diet-Related Behaviors in Childhood Influence a Healthier Dietary Pattern? From the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Ah; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Se Young; Park, Eun Ae; Cho, Su Jin; Kim, Hae Soon; Park, Hyesook

    2016-12-23

    This study was performed to examine how childhood dietary patterns change over the short term and which changes in diet-related behaviors influence later changes in individual dietary patterns. Using food frequency questionnaire data obtained from children at 7 and 9 years of age from the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort, we examined dietary patterns by principal component analysis. We calculated the individual changes in dietary pattern scores. Changes in dietary habits such as eating a variety of food over two years were defined as "increased", "stable", or "decreased". The dietary patterns, termed "healthy intake", "animal food intake", and "snack intake", were similar at 7 and 9 years of age. These patterns explained 32.3% and 39.1% of total variation at the ages of 7 and 9 years, respectively. The tracking coefficient of snack intake had the highest coefficient (γ = 0.53) and that of animal food intake had the lowest (γ = 0.21). Intra-individual stability in dietary habits ranged from 0.23 to 0.47, based on the sex-adjusted weighted kappa values. Of the various behavioral factors, eating breakfast every day was most common in the "stable" group (83.1%), whereas consuming milk or dairy products every day was the least common (49.0%). Moreover, changes in behavior that improved the consumption of milk or dairy products or encouraged the consumption of vegetables with every meal had favorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores over two years. However, those with worsened habits, such as less food variety and more than two portions of fried or stir-fried food every week, had unfavorable effects on changes in healthy dietary pattern scores. Our results suggest that diet-related behaviors can change, even over a short period, and these changes can affect changes in dietary pattern.

  6. Skeletal muscle growth dynamics and the influence of first-feeding diet in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu A. Vo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics between hypertrophy (increase in cell size and hyperplasia (increase in cell numbers of white and red muscle in relation to body size [standard length (SL], and the influence of the first-feeding diets on muscle growth were investigated in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua. Cod larvae were fed copepod nauplii or rotifers of different nutritional qualities from 4 to 29 days post hatching (dph, Artemia nauplii from 20 to 40 dph and a formulated diet from 36 to 60 dph. The short period of feeding with cultivated copepod nauplii had a positive effect on both muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy after the copepod/rotifer phase (19 dph, and a positive long term effect on muscle hypertrophy (60 dph. The different nutritional qualities of rotifers did not significantly affect muscle growth. We suggest here a model of the dynamics between hyperplasia and hypertrophy of red and white muscle fibre cells in relation to cod SL (4 to 30 mm, where the different red and white muscle growth phases clearly coincided with different metamorphosis stages in cod larvae. These shifts could be included as biomarkers for the different stages of development during metamorphosis. The main dietary muscle effect was that hypertrophic growth of red muscle fibres was stronger in cod larvae that were fed copepods than in larvae that were fed rotifers, both in relation to larval age and size. Red muscle fibres are directly involved in larval locomotory performance, but may also play an important role in the larval myogenesis. This can have a long term effect on growth potential and fish performance.

  7. DIET OF ST. PETERSBURG INFANTS AND PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN AS A FACTOR MAINTAINING NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF THE REGION NATURE AND ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bulatova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study defects of infants and pre-school children diet, which negative consequences are aggravated by unfavorable nature and ecological conditions of St. Petersburg region. Patients and methods: diet of 119 children (53 — aged from 2 to 3 years old and 66 — from 4 to 6 years old visiting St. Petersburg pre-school institutions of 12-hours stay (including all additional food outside the institution was analyzed.  Analysis of diet was formed by assessment of actual nutrition and supply of nutrients. Results: actual diet of infants and pre-school children was found to deviate significantly from recommended standards which lead to long-standing imbalance of the main nutrients intake. Many defects of the diet are maintained by specific negative factors of the habitat. Combined influence of such influence causes disturbances in development and increase of ecology-dependent disorders in children. Conclusions: in organization of nutrition of children living in unfavorable nature and ecology conditions account must be taken not only of age standards of nutrients and calories intake, but weather, nature biological rhythms and specific geological characteristics.

  8. Chinese children at a crossroads: influence of family socioeconomic factors on diet patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hilary; Meng, Mao; Wei, Liu; Xiawei, Zhao; Wang, May C

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study explores the roles of family socioeconomic status (SES) in influencing dietary consumption patterns in 60 Chinese elementary school-aged children (ages 6-11) in Chengdu, China. Two interviewer-administered questionnaires were specially developed to gather sociodemographic and food frequency data. Children from low SES families consumed rice and traditional staples, and high calcium drinks more frequently, and western fast food less frequently than children from higher SES families. After controlling for family SES, children who were primarily cared for by their mothers or grandparents consumed less healthy snacks less frequently than children who were primarily cared for by other adults (including fathers).

  9. Influence of various levels of milk by-products in weaner diets on growth performance, blood urea nitrogen, diarrhea incidence, and pork quality of weaning to finishing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate various levels of milk by-product in weaning pig diet on growth performance, blood profiles, carcass characteristics and economic performance for weaning to finishing pigs. Methods A total of 160 weaning pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc), average 7.01±1.32 kg body weight (BW), were allotted to four treatments by BW and sex in 10 replications with 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed each treatment diet with various levels of milk by-product (Phase 1: 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, Phase 2: 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively). During weaning period (0 to 5 week), weaning pigs were fed experimental diets and all pigs were fed the same commercial feed during growing-finishing period (6 to 14 week). Results In the growth trial, BW, average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in the nursery period (5 weeks) increased as the milk by-product level in the diet increased (linear, pby-product in weaner diet decreased crude protein (quadratic, p = 0.05) and crude ash (Linear, p = 0.05) of Longissimus muscle. In addition, cooking loss and water holding capacity increased with increasing milk product levels in the weaner diets (linear, pby-product treatment had higher feed cost per weight gain compared to non-milk by-products treatment (linear, p = 0.01). Conclusion Supplementation of 10% to 5% milk by-products in weaning pig diet had results equivalent to the 30% to 15% milk treatment and 0% milk by-product supplementation in the diet had no negative influence on growth performance of finishing pigs. PMID:29103280

  10. Influence of diet with kale on lipid peroxides and malondialdehyde levels in blood serum of laboratory rats over intoxication with paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Elżbieta; Bodziarczyk, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Organism's lipid peroxidation is one of the most often examined and known physiological process evoked by free radicals. It concerns oxidation reaction of unsaturated fatty acid and/or other lipids leading to lipid oxidation products (LOP), which as a result of further changes generate among others the malondialdehyde molecules. The aim of the work was an estimation if raw or cooked kale addition to rat's diet influences antioxidant defense efficiency in their organisms in comparison to rats fed with standard AIN-93G diet. The experiment was conducted with 36 Wistar strain, male rats over 21 days. The rats were divided into 3 groups (each 12 stuck) which were fed with: standard diet AIN-93G (2 groups), AIN-93G diet with 10% addition of raw kale (2 groups), and AIN-93G with 10% addition of cooked lyophilised kale. The total content of polyphenols (FC method) and antioxidant activity (ABTS+•) were previously determined in raw and then in cooked kale. On the 20th day of experiment, half of rats (6 stuck) of each kind of the diet were injected intraperitoneally by the solution of paraquat (PQ) in physiological salt to evoke the oxidative stress. The next day animals were stunned and blood from their hearts was sampled. In the obtained serum, the levels of lipid oxidation products (LOP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. It was observed that in blood serum of rats fed with modified diet with raw and cooked lyophilised kale addition the lipid oxides level was lower in comparison to control group fed with standard diet (p kale addition. Diet with kale, both raw and cooked, efficiently inhibited the lipid peroxidation process in rats' organisms, ongoing during natural metabolism and during evoked oxidative stress.

  11. The influence of diet on the evolution of symptoms presented in fibromyalgia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to relate fibromyalgia and nutritional factors. Objective: to determine the influence of the food habits on the intensity of the symptoms of fibromyalgia patients. Methods: we interviewed 40 female patients, aged 15 to 59, in the clinic of the Hospital pain set of Sorocaba (CHS through about the fibromyalgia clinical picture and their eating habits. Results: the mean duration of symptoms of fibromyalgia among the interviewed patients was 6.75 years. The average impact of fibromyalgia on the quality of life was about 64 measured by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. The only food that was related to symptom improvement by the patients was the banana (17.5%. The majority of respondents did not noticed relationship between such foods and modification of disease symptoms. Conclusion: there was not observed association between food intenak and fibromyalgia symptom severity.

  12. The influence of low versus high fibre haylage diets in combination with training or pasture rest on equine gastric ulceration syndrome (EGUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Boswinkel, M; Ellis, AD; Sloet van Oldenruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, MM

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to examine the influence of a low fibre (LF) and a high fibre (HF) diet on the presence of gastric ulceration in thirty 3-year old Dutch Warmblood horses during training period and during pasture rest. In the first part of the study all horses were stabled individually and fed either an iso-energetic HF (75% haylage) or LF (25% haylage) diet for sixteen weeks. Horses were exercised daily throughout this period, after which the first gastroscopy was performed. T...

  13. Intraspecific variation and influence of diet on the venom chemical profile of the Ectatomma brunneum Smith (Formicidae) ant evaluated by photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Rafaella Caroline; Firmino, Ellen Liciane Barbosa; Mendonça, Angelica; Sguarizi-Antonio, Denise; Pereira, Márlon César; da Cunha Andrade, Luis Humberto; Antonialli-Junior, William Fernando; Lima, Sandro Marcio

    2017-10-01

    Studies of venomous animals have shown that environmental and genetic factors contribute to determining the chemical composition of venom. It is well known that external effects cause differences in the toxicity, concentration, and prey specificity of venom. However, the influence of different factors on the chemical profile of Hymenoptera venom remains little explored. In view of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate intraspecific differences and the influence of diet on the chemical profile of Ectatomma brunneum venom using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. For the study of intraspecific variation of the venom, foragers were collected at locations with different environmental conditions, such as urban, intermediate, woodland and monoculture sites. To investigate the influence of diet on the venom, two colonies were sampled in the same area and were maintained in the laboratory under controlled diet conditions and at room temperature. The mid-infrared absorption spectra obtained were interpreted using discriminant function analysis. The results showed significant differences among the chemical profiles of the venoms of individuals from different environments and individuals exposed to a controlled diet in the laboratory, suggesting that venom composition was determined not only by genetic traits inherent to the species, but also by exogenous factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Sustainable Diets: A Descriptive Analysis of the Determinants and Processes That Influence Diets and Their Impact on Health, Food Security, and Environmental Sustainability 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Jessica L.; Fanzo, Jessica C.; Cogill, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The confluence of population, economic development, and environmental pressures resulting from increased globalization and industrialization reveal an increasingly resource-constrained world in which predictions point to the need to do more with less and in a “better” way. The concept of sustainable diets presents an opportunity to successfully advance commitments to sustainable development and the elimination of poverty, food and nutrition insecurity, and poor health outcomes. This study exa...

  15. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once...... a week for to or 20 weeks. Throughout the study the animals were fed I) semisynthetic casein-based control diet, 2) control diet with 20% lard, 3) control diet with 20% lard and 20% dietary fiber, or 4) control diet where most of the carbohydrate pool was substituted with sucrose and dextrin....... The composition of the different diets was designed to achieve equivalent intakes of essential nutrients. Animals were killed after 10, 20, and 31 weeks. The study showed a pronounced effect of dietary composition on the development of DMH-induced ACF. The diet high in sucrose and dextrin caused a statistically...

  16. Influence of a high fibre diet on glycaemic control and quality of life in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, P A; Maskell, E; Rawlings, J M; Nash, A S; Markwell, P J

    2002-02-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate a high fibre diet used in the management of 10 dogs with naturally occurring insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Following baseline measurements of health and glycaemic control, the dogs were fed a canned diet containing a blend of insoluble and soluble dietary fibres and were monitored during the ensuing four months. Switching to the high fibre diet was associated with significantly lower mean 24-hour and postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, which were maintained over the study period. The high fibre diet was also associated with significant reductions in plasma concentrations of fructosamine, glycated haemoglobin, free glycerol and cholesterol, and there were significant improvements in dog activity and demeanour. Bodyweight declined during the fourth month of feeding the diet, which is likely to have resulted from underfeeding relative to increased activity. The results indicate that a high fibre diet can significantly improve glycaemic control and quality of life in dogs with diabetes mellitus.

  17. [Caffeine--common ingredient in a diet and its influence on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed by people of all ages. In the last period a market of caffeine-containing products, particularly energy drinks and food supplements increased. Caffeine for years is under discussion, whether has positive whether adverse impact on health. Children are a group of special anxieties. Caffeine is a stimulant of central nervous system and therefore is probably the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world. The physiological effect of caffeine and the lack of nutrition value causes a great interest its impact on health, especially with reference to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Results of scientific research are not clear. The influence of caffeine on the human body is conditioned with the individual metabolism of caffeine which also depends on many endogenic and environmental factors. According to the current knowledge moderate caffeine intake by healthy adults at a dose level of 400 mg a day is not associated with adverse effects, but it also depends on other health determinants of a lifestyle. Excessive caffeine consumption can cause negative health consequences such as psychomotor agitation, insomnia, headache, gastrointestinal complaints. Adverse effect of caffeine intoxication is classified in World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Metabolism of caffeine by pregnant woman is slowed down. Caffeine and its metabolites pass freely across the placenta into a fetus. For this reason pregnant women should limit caffeine intake. Children and adolescents should also limit daily caffeine consumption. It results from the influence of caffeine on the central nervous system in the period of rapid growth and the final stage of brain development, calcium balance and sleep duration. Average daily caffeine consumption in European countries ranging from 280-490 mg. The highest caffeine intake is in Scandinavian countries what results from the great consumption of the coffee. As far as caffeine

  18. Influence of sibutramine in addition to diet and exercise on the relationship between weight loss and blood glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamil, S; Finer, N; James, W P T

    2017-01-01

    on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine. Patients were classified into four groups of weight change. A total of 1582 patients had a weight...... loss induced by sibutramine, diet, and exercise attenuates falls in blood glucose levels and HbA1c compared with similar weight loss with placebo, diet and exercise....

  19. Plant protein and secondary metabolites influence diet selection in a mammalian specialist herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulappa, Amy C.; Kelsey, Rick G.; Frye, Graham G.; Rachlow, Janet L.; Shipley, Lisa A.; Bond, Laura; Pu, Xinzhu; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2015-01-01

    For herbivores, nutrient intake is limited by the relatively low nutritional quality of plants and high concentrations of potentially toxic defensive compounds (plant secondary metabolites, PSMs) produced by many plants. In response to phytochemical challenges, some herbivores selectively forage on plants with higher nutrient and lower PSM concentrations relative to other plants. Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) are dietary specialists that feed on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and forage on specific plants more than others within a foraging patch. We predicted that the plants with evidence of heavy foraging (browsed plants) would be of higher dietary quality than plants that were not browsed (unbrowsed). We used model selection to determine which phytochemical variables best explained the difference between browsed and unbrowsed plants. Higher crude protein increased the odds that plants would be browsed by pygmy rabbits and the opposite was the case for certain PSMs. Additionally, because pygmy rabbits can occupy foraging patches (burrows) for consecutive years, their browsing may influence the nutritional and PSM constituents of plants at the burrows. In a post hoc analysis, we did not find a significant relationship between phytochemical concentrations, browse status and burrow occupancy length. We concluded that pygmy rabbits use nutritional and chemical cues while making foraging decisions. PMID:26366011

  20. New Trends in the Chinese Diet: Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Teresa; Cicia, Gianni; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis, Athanasios K; Zhou, Yanfeng; Cembalo, Luigi; Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco

    2016-04-19

    China is one of the most dynamic regions in the world in terms of economic growth and development. Such development has inevitably influenced the structure and habits of Chinese society. Whilst the economic condition of the middle class and high-income segment has steadily improved, cultural changes are also under way: ancient Chinese traditions now include major elements from other cultures, most notably the West. The above scenario is the background to this paper. A structured research-administered survey was developed to investigate the changes in the Chinese consumer food culture: 500 urban participants were randomly selected from six reference cities, covering geographically almost the whole country. This study aims not only to analyze the propensity of consumers to include food products from other countries in their ancient Chinese culinary culture, but also represents an initial attempt to perform a market segmentation of Chinese consumers according to their degree of cultural openness towards non-Chinese food, taking into account socio-demographic, cognitive and psychographic variables.

  1. New Trends in the Chinese Diet: Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicia, Gianni; Grunert, Klaus G.; Krystallis, Athanasios K.; Zhou, Yanfeng; Cembalo, Luigi; Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    China is one of the most dynamic regions in the world in terms of economic growth and development. Such development has inevitably influenced the structure and habits of Chinese society. Whilst the economic condition of the middle class and high-income segment has steadily improved, cultural changes are also under way: ancient Chinese traditions now include major elements from other cultures, most notably the West. The above scenario is the background to this paper. A structured research-administered survey was developed to investigate the changes in the Chinese consumer food culture: 500 urban participants were randomly selected from six reference cities, covering geographically almost the whole country. This study aims not only to analyze the propensity of consumers to include food products from other countries in their ancient Chinese culinary culture, but also represents an initial attempt to perform a market segmentation of Chinese consumers according to their degree of cultural openness towards non-Chinese food, taking into account socio-demographic, cognitive and psychographic variables. PMID:27800438

  2. New trends in the Chinese diet: cultural influences on consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Giudice

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the most dynamic regions in the world in terms of economic growth and development. Such development has inevitably influenced the structure and habits of Chinese society. Whilst the economic condition of the middle class and high-income segment has steadily improved, cultural changes are also under way: ancient Chinese traditions now include major elements from other cultures, most notably the West. The above scenario is the background to this paper. A structured research-administered survey was developed to investigate the changes in the Chinese consumer food culture: 500 urban participants were randomly selected from six reference cities, covering geographically almost the whole country. This study aims not only to analyze the propensity of consumers to include food products from other countries in their ancient Chinese culinary culture, but also represents an initial attempt to perform a market segmentation of Chinese consumers according to their degree of cultural openness towards non-Chinese food, taking into account socio-demographic, cognitive and psychographic variables.

  3. Influence of a low calcium and phosphorus diet on the anabolic effect of human parathyroid hormone (1-38) in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, P.D.; Forrer, R.; Kneissel, Michaela

    2001-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or synthetic N-terminal PTH fragments administered intermittently have been established as anabolic agents in animal and human bones. In the present study, the influence of a low calcium diet on the anabolic effect of human PTH(1-38) [hPTH(1-38)] was investigated. Forty......-eight 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a diet with a low calcium content (LCa) or a diet with the recommended amount of calcium (RCa). After an adaptation period of 15 days, the rats were randomly assigned to hPTH(1-38) treatment (+LCa/+RCa) or vehicle only (-LCa....../-RCa) for an additional 14 days. Total bone mineral density (BMD) values of several bones were determined using quantitative computed tomography and from ratios of ash weight to volume. Biomechanical competence of the fourth lumbar vertebrae and of the right femora was assessed. An anabolic effect could be detected...

  4. Authenticity in Obesity Public Service Announcements: Influence of Spokesperson Type, Viewer Weight, and Source Credibility on Diet, Exercise, Information Seeking, and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe; Tinkham, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the joint influence of spokesperson type in obesity public service announcements (PSAs) and viewer weight on diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) intention. Results of a 2 (spokesperson type: real person vs. actor) × 2 (viewer weight: overweight vs. non-overweight) between-subjects experiment indicated that overweight viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person had the highest diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and eWoM intention. Parasocial interaction was also found to mediate the relationships between spokesperson type/viewer weight and two of the dependent variables: diet intention and exercise intention. In addition, viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person rated the spokesperson as significantly higher on source credibility (trustworthiness, competence, and goodwill) than those who saw the PSA featuring the actor.

  5. Developing social marketed individual preconception care consultations: Which consumer preferences should it meet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. van Voorst (Sabine); C.A. Ten Kate (Chantal A.); L.C. de Jong-Potjer (L.); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); S. Denktaş (Semiha)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAims: Preconception care (PCC) is care that aims to improve the health of offspring by addressing risk factors in the pre-pregnancy period. Consultations are recognized as a method to promote perinatal health. However, prospective parents underutilize PCC services. Uptake can improve if

  6. Importance of intervening in the preconception period to impact pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Sohni V; Imam, Ayesha M; Lassi, Zohra S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    Preconception care that begins in adolescence and is provided before and between pregnancies has the potential to impact 136 million women who give birth each year and ensure that newborns receive the healthiest start possible. Providing simple interventions before pregnancy can prevent a significant proportion of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Interventions to promote adolescent health and prevent teenage pregnancies, encourage contraceptive use and appropriate birth spacing, optimize weight and micronutrient status, and screen for and manage chronic conditions have proven efficacy. These interventions must now be scaled up to maximize delivery. Women who receive preconception care are more likely to adopt healthy behaviors, and therefore have better pregnancy outcomes. Preconception care is particularly effective when men are involved and care is provided in the community setting. All healthcare providers can and should begin to provide preconception care to all adolescent girls, women and couples of reproductive age by asking them if they wish to become pregnant or are actively trying to prevent pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Male sleep duration and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wise, Lauren Anne; Rothman, Kenneth Jay; Wesselink, Amelia Kent

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the association between male sleep duration and fecundability. DESIGN: Pregnancy Online Study (PRESTO), a Web-based prospective cohort study of North American couples enrolled during the preconception period (2013-2017). SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Male...

  8. Preconception care: preliminary estimates of costs and effects of smoking cessation and folic acid supplementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Polder, J.J.; Cohen-Overbeek, T.E.; Zimmermann, L.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess costs and effectiveness of preconception counseling for all women planning pregnancy in The Netherlands with regard to folic acid supplementation and smoking cessation counseling. STUDY DESIGN: Costs and effects were estimated based on 200,000 women approached yearly and uptake

  9. Psychological impact of preconception counseling: Assessment of anxiety before and during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Weerd; A.K. van der Bij (Akke); J.C.C. Braspenning (Jozé); R.J.L.M. Cikot (Rolf J.L.M); D.D.M. Braat (Didi); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Assessment of anxiety levels in women and men before and after preconception counseling and during the first trimester of pregnancy. Methods: Couples were recruited from the fertility clinic of the University Medical Center Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Anxiety was assessed using

  10. GP-initiated preconception counselling in a randomised controlled trial does not induce anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Potjer, L. C.; Elsinga, J.; le Cessie, S.; van der Pal-de Bruin, K. M.; Neven, A. Knuistingh; Buitendijk, S. E.; Assendelft, W. J. J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preconception counselling (PCC) can reduce adverse pregnancy outcome by addressing risk factors prior to pregnancy. This study explores whether anxiety is induced in women either by the offer of PCC or by participation with GP-initiated PCC. METHODS: Randomised trial of usual care versus

  11. Why do women not use preconception care? A systematic review on barriers and facilitators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, M.; Koster, M.P.H.; Boeije, H.R.; Franx, A.; Stel, H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Preconception care (PCC) has the potential to optimize pregnancy outcomes. However, awareness of PCC among the target population is generally limited, and the use of PCC remains low. Importance: The objective of this studywas to reviewthe literature onwomen's perceptions regarding

  12. Preconception paternal occupational radiation exposure and the risk of childhood leukaemia: a paradox within an enigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R.J. [Westlakes Research Institute, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    A brief review is given of the evidence leading to the theory that preconception paternal occupational radiation exposure is a factor involved in the incidence of childhood leukaemia near nuclear facilities. Evidence is also presented which casts doubt on this theory (UK).

  13. Using Intervention Mapping for a Needs Assessment on Preconception Care in Suriname: The Perisur Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.E.; Korfker, D.G.; Detmar, S.B.; Hindori, M.P.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Vondeling, H.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year approximately 10,000 babies are born in Suriname of which an estimated 400 die in the perinatal period. The main purpose of the Perisur project is to improve perinatal outcomes and improve under-five and maternal health. This study focused on introducing preconception care in

  14. Designing & Evaluating General Individual Preconception Care : - The Ready for a Baby program -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Temel (Sevilay)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractPreconception Care (PCC) entails risk assessment, health promotion, counselling, and intervention. The Dutch Health Council categorized PCC into general PCC targeted at couples planning a pregnancy within the general population, and specialist PCC for couples with a known or

  15. GP-initiated preconception counselling in a randomised controlled trial does not induce anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Potjer, L.C. de; Elsinga, J.; Cessie, S. le; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Assendelft, W.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Preconception counselling (PCC) can reduce adverse pregnancy outcome by addressing risk factors prior to pregnancy. This study explores whether anxiety is induced in women either by the offer of PCC or by participation with GP-initiated PCC. Methods: Randomised trial of usual care versus

  16. Current practice of preconception care by primary caregivers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. van Voorst (Sabine); S. Plasschaert (Sophie); L.C. de Jong-Potjer (L.); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); S. Denktaş (Semiha)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Over the past decade the value of preconception care (PCC) consultations has been acknowledged. Investments have been made to promote delivery and uptake of PCC consultations in the Dutch primary care setting. We assessed current activities, perceptions and prerequisites for

  17. Women's interest in GP-initiated pre-conception counselling in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Potjer, LC; de Bock, GH; Zaadstra, BM; de Jong, ORW; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP; Springer, MP

    Background. Pre-conception counselling has the potential to reduce pregnancy complications and congenital disorders. The timing of counselling, before conception, is crucial to maximize the benefit. As many couples are unaware of their risk status and the fact that the first period of pregnancy is

  18. Myo-inositol, glucose and zinc concentrations determined in the preconceptional period, during and after pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, P.M.; Roes, E.M.; Peer, P.G.M.; Merkus, H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the blood concentrations of myo-inositol, glucose and zinc before, during and after normal pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Preconceptionally, at 6, 10, 20, 30 and 37 weeks amenorrhea, and 6 weeks after delivery, blood samples of 18 nulliparae and 19 multiparae were obtained and

  19. Improving awareness of preconception health among adolescents: experience of a school-based intervention in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charafeddine, Lama; El Rafei, Rym; Azizi, Sophie; Sinno, Durriyah; Alamiddine, Kawthar; Howson, Christopher P; Walani, Salimah R; Ammar, Walid; Nassar, Anwar; Yunis, Khalid

    2014-07-31

    Maternal behavior before and after conception affects maternal and child health. Limited awareness of adolescents in preconception health may be addressed through school education. The aim of this intervention is to assess preconception health awareness among adolescents in Lebanese high schools and to test the effectiveness of a one-time educational session in improving preconception knowledge. The intervention consisted of a 30-minute educational session about good practices in preconception health, developed by the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network's (NCPNN) research team. A convenience sample of high school Lebanese students in grades 10 to 12, aged 14 to 26 years old, from 70 private and public schools in all six Lebanese provinces, participated in the intervention in 2011 and 2012. A multiple-choice questionnaire administered prior to and 2 months after the session was used to assess knowledge improvement among the students. A total of 7,290 students were enrolled. After the session, mean scores of correct answers increased from 4.36 to 6.42 out of 10, representing a 47.2% improvement (p improvement was observed for questions about Trisomy 21, folic acid intake and toxoplasmosis with percentages improvement of 96%, 172% and 83% respectively. Being female or in private school was a significant predictor of higher scores in both pre-test and post-test (p students. We recommend expanding the scope of this intervention into universities in Lebanon.

  20. Preconception care: a screening tool for health assessment and risk detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Bij, A.K. van der; Cikot, R.J.L.M.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Braat, D.D.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome is a main component of preconception care, but requires adequate time and knowledge. This study compares self-administered questionnaires to history taking by a physician to evaluate the reliability of such a screening tool for

  1. "Is It Worth Knowing?" Focus Group Participants' Perceived Utility of Genomic Preconception Carrier Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jennifer L; Goddard, Katrina A B; Davis, James; Wilfond, Benjamin; Kauffman, Tia L; Reiss, Jacob A; Gilmore, Marian; Himes, Patricia; Lynch, Frances L; Leo, Michael C; McMullen, Carmit

    2016-02-01

    As genome sequencing technology advances, research is needed to guide decision-making about what results can or should be offered to patients in different clinical settings. We conducted three focus groups with individuals who had prior preconception genetic testing experience to explore perceived advantages and disadvantages of genome sequencing for preconception carrier screening, compared to usual care. Using a discussion guide, a trained qualitative moderator facilitated the audio-recorded focus groups. Sixteen individuals participated. Thematic analysis of transcripts started with a grounded approach and subsequently focused on participants' perceptions of the value of genetic information. Analysis uncovered two orientations toward genomic preconception carrier screening: "certain" individuals desiring all possible screening information; and "hesitant" individuals who were more cautious about its value. Participants revealed valuable information about barriers to screening: fear/anxiety about results; concerns about the method of returning results; concerns about screening necessity; and concerns about partner participation. All participants recommended offering choice to patients to enhance the value of screening and reduce barriers. Overall, two groups of likely users of genome sequencing for preconception carrier screening demonstrated different perceptions of the advantages or disadvantages of screening, suggesting tailored approaches to education, consent, and counseling may be warranted with each group.

  2. Assessing Student Preconceptions of Sport Management Faculty: Where Do Women and Latinos Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Jason; Sagas, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Latino individuals and women as a group have found it difficult to become established within the professorate. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine student preconceptions of Latino professors within sport management. The study was conducted within a sport management class (N = 102), utilizing self-categorization theory based on race…

  3. Why Do Women Not Use Preconception Care? : A Systematic Review On Barriers And Facilitators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, Marjolein; Koster, Maria P H; Boeije, Hennie R; Franx, Arie; van Stel, Henk F

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Preconception care (PCC) has the potential to optimize pregnancy outcomes. However, awareness of PCC among the target population is generally limited, and the use of PCC remains low. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the literature on women's perceptions regarding

  4. Supporting Students' Preparation for the Viva: Their Pre-Conceptions and Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    There has been relatively little research on the pre-conceptions of doctoral students about the final examination, the viva voce and hence there is a shortage of evidence to underpin activities designed to prepare them for this experience. The present paper, which is based upon data from a wide range of focus groups of pre-viva students, seeks to…

  5. Woman's Pre-Conception Evaluation: Genetic and Fetal Risk Considerations for Counselling and Informed Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas

    2017-10-11

    To inform reproductive and other health care providers about genetic and fetal risk information to consider during a woman/couples' pre-conception evaluation, including considerations for genetic risk assessment, genetic screening, or testing to allow for improved counselling and informed choice. This genetic information can be used for patient education, planning, and possible pre-conception and/or prenatal testing. This information may allow improved risk assessment for pre-conception counselling for individual patients and their families. PubMed or Medline and the Cochrane Database were searched in May 2017 using appropriate key words ("pre-conception," "genetic disease," "maternal," "family history," "genetic," "health risk," "genetic health surveillance," "prenatal screening," "prenatal diagnosis," "birth defects," and "teratogen"). Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty societies. The benefits for the patient and her family include an increased understanding of relevant genetic risk pre-conception and in early pregnancy, and better pregnancy outcomes as a result of use of the information. The harm includes potential increased anxiety or psychological stress associated with the possibility of identifying genetic risks. The evidence obtained was peer-reviewed by the Genetics Committee of The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Consideration for Care Statements For this review article, the Consideration for Care Statements use the GRADE strength and quality as it is comparable for the clinician and the patient/public user. [GRADE from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (www.canadiantaskforce.ca). For clinicians, Strong = The recommendation would apply to most individuals. Formal discussion aids are not likely to be

  6. Use of targeted medication reviews to deliver preconception care: A demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro Mager, Natalie A; Bright, David R; Markus, Dani; Weis, Lindsey; Hartzell, David M; Gartner, James

    To demonstrate the ability of a statewide network of community pharmacists to provide preconception care services with the use of targeted medication reviews (TMRs). Community pharmacists are well qualified and well positioned to assist in this public health priority; however, there are no documented case studies of pharmacists providing preconception care with the use of TMRs. Through the demonstration project, pharmacists provided educational TMRs focused on 3 elements of preconception care to women aged 15 to 45 years enrolled in a nonprofit managed care plan: (1) medications that may cause fetal harm (category D/X); (2) folic acid use; and (3) immunizations. TMRs were generated and released to the individual pharmacy where that patient had prescriptions filled. Any practicing pharmacist in Ohio participating in the medication therapy management platform with a patient in the sample received a TMR notification. The pharmacists documented and billed for the service through this commercially available platform. Nineteen weeks after implementation of the TMRs, 1149 individual pharmacists from 818 different pharmacies had completed at least 1 TMR. Pharmacists completed 33% of all TMR opportunities with a 65% success rate. Establishing new services that were focused on preconception care resulted in rapid integration into existing medication therapy management processes in hundreds of pharmacies across Ohio. These results may help to provide justification for additional payers to reimburse for similar services. Through demonstrating the impact on preconception care, the role of the community pharmacist may continue to expand to include provision of additional preventive care services following the model developed in this initiative. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comprehensive smoke-free policies: a tool for improving preconception health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Liu, Sherry T; Conrey, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Lower income women are at higher risk for preconception and prenatal smoking, are less likely to spontaneously quit smoking during pregnancy, and have higher prenatal relapse rates than women in higher income groups. Policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in public places are intended to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke; additionally, since these policies promote a smoke-free norm, there have been associations between smoke-free policies and reduced smoking prevalence. Given the public health burden of smoking, particularly among women who become pregnant, our objective was to assess the impact of smoke-free policies on the odds of preconception smoking among low-income women. We estimated the odds of preconception smoking among low-income women in Ohio between 2002 and 2009 using data from repeated cross-sectional samples of women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). A logistic spline regression was applied fitting a knot at the point of enforcement of the Ohio Smoke-free Workplace Act to evaluate whether this policy was associated with changes in the odds of smoking. After adjusting for individual- and environmental-level factors, the Ohio Smoke-free Workplace Act was associated with a small, but statistically significant reduction in the odds of preconception smoking in WIC participants. Comprehensive smoke-free policies prohibiting smoking in public places and workplaces may also be associated with reductions in smoking among low-income women. This type of policy or environmental change strategy may promote a tobacco-free norm and improve preconception health among a population at risk for smoking.

  8. Salivary and serum inflammatory mediators among pre-conception women with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Yiming; Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily W; O, Karmin; Qian, Xu

    2016-12-15

    There have been inconsistent conclusions regarding the levels of inflammatory mediators in saliva and serum among people with or without periodontal disease. Although pre-conception has been put forward as the optimal time for the periodontal treatment in order to improving pregnancy outcomes, few studies have been conducted to examine inflammatory mediators in saliva and serum among pre-conception women. Pre-conception women were recruited between January 2012 and December 2014. Women were provided with an oral health examination to detect periodontal disease. Salivary and serum samples were collected at the same of examination. Inflammatory mediators includinginterleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and beta-glucuronidase (β-glucuronidase) were tested and analyzed among women with overall periodontal disease (n = 442) or moderate/severe periodontal disease (n = 247). Results were compared to that in women with a healthy periodontium (n = 91). Significantly increased concentrations of inflammatory mediators of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and β-glucuronidase in saliva and IL-1β, β-glucuronidase and TNF-α in serum were found among pre-conception women with moderate/severe periodontal disease, compared with women without periodontal disease. Significantly increased levels were also found in all the above saliva inflammatory mediators and in serum IL-1β and TNF-α among women with overall periodontal disease. The levels of all inflammatory mediators in saliva and almost all inflammatory mediators except IL-6 in serum significantly increased with severity of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is highly associated with the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators in saliva and some mediators in serum among pre-conception women.

  9. Web-based surveillance of public information needs for informing preconception interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo D'Ambrosio

    Full Text Available The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes can be minimized through the adoption of healthy lifestyles before pregnancy by women of childbearing age. Initiatives for promotion of preconception health may be difficult to implement. Internet can be used to build tailored health interventions through identification of the public's information needs. To this aim, we developed a semi-automatic web-based system for monitoring Google searches, web pages and activity on social networks, regarding preconception health.Based on the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines and on the actual search behaviors of Italian Internet users, we defined a set of keywords targeting preconception care topics. Using these keywords, we analyzed the usage of Google search engine and identified web pages containing preconception care recommendations. We also monitored how the selected web pages were shared on social networks. We analyzed discrepancies between searched and published information and the sharing pattern of the topics.We identified 1,807 Google search queries which generated a total of 1,995,030 searches during the study period. Less than 10% of the reviewed pages contained preconception care information and in 42.8% information was consistent with ACOG guidelines. Facebook was the most used social network for sharing. Nutrition, Chronic Diseases and Infectious Diseases were the most published and searched topics. Regarding Genetic Risk and Folic Acid, a high search volume was not associated to a high web page production, while Medication pages were more frequently published than searched. Vaccinations elicited high sharing although web page production was low; this effect was quite variable in time.Our study represent a resource to prioritize communication on specific topics on the web, to address misconceptions, and to tailor interventions to specific populations.

  10. Influence of SNPs in nutrient-sensitive candidate genes and gene-diet interactions on blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Angquist, Lars; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    2013-01-01

    Blood lipid response to a given dietary intervention could be determined by the effect of diet, gene variants or gene-diet interactions. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether variants in presumed nutrient-sensitive genes involved in lipid metabolism modified lipid profile ...

  11. Low-Fiber Diet in Limited Bowel Preparation for CT Colonography: Influence on Image Quality and Patient Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedenbaum, Marjolein H.; Denters, Maaike J.; de Vries, Ayso H.; van Ravesteijn, Vincent F.; Bipat, Shandra; Vos, Frans M.; Dekker, Evelien; Stoker, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a low-fiber diet is necessary for optimal tagging-only bowel preparation for CT colonography. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Fifty consecutively enrolled patients received an iodine bowel preparation: 25 patients used a low-fiber diet and 25 used

  12. [The influence of fasting, of a hyperprotein diet and of nicotinamide on hepatic L-threonine deaminase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleo, M F; Casella, A; Marinello, E

    1981-09-15

    The induction of L-threonine deaminase, following nicotinamide injection has been studied: the effect of fasting and of hyperproteic diet have been also taken in consideration. Maximal induction is observed after 5 days hyperproteic diet, and is additional only with nicotinamide treatment. Results are interpreted assuming a different hepatic content and behavior of multiple forms of the enzyme.

  13. [Influence, in normal subjects, of an isocaloric hyperprotein diet on cortisol, ACTH, GH and PRL response to lysine-8-vasopressin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, C; Sellini, M; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Scavo, D

    1981-12-30

    The Lysin-8-Vasopressin test has been experimented in ten healthy subjects during normocaloric balanced diet and after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet. The levels of ACTH, Cortisol and GH are significantly more elevated after hyperproteic-normocaloric diet than in basal conditions. The levels of Prolactin do not show any remarkable change. These results can indicate the increased reactivity of the diencephalon-hypophysis-adrenal axis and of the hormones connected with the mechanisms of homeostasis and stress, probably correlated to more disposable proteic material and to the metabolic effects which follow.

  14. Influence of diet, exercise, and dietician’s on the incidence and survival of japanese dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ogata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that there are distinct regional differences in the incidence and prevalence of dialysis, as well as the survival of dialysis patients in Japan. We investigated the relationship between diet, the level of exercise, and the incidence of dialysis due to diabetes mellitus (DM and chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN. We also investigated the influence of access to full-time and part-time dieticians at dialysis centers on survival. We used data for the 47 prefectures of Japan from the National Nutrition Survey 1995-99 (n=38,003 and the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 2005-07 (n=45,033. The impact of each factor was assessed by univariate regression analysis. Univariate analysis showed that body mass index (BMI (r=0.296, p=0.022, intake of fish and shellfish (r=−0.254, p=0.043, and the intake of meat (r=0.275, p=0.031 were correlated with the incidence of new patients starting dialysis due to DM. In addition, the BMI (r=0.355, p=0.014, number of steps walked daily (r=−0.358, p=0.014, intake of green and yellow vegetables (r=−0.424, p=0.003, intake of fish and shellfish (r=−0.358, p=0.014, and intake of milk (r=−0.529, p<0.001 were correlated with the incidence of new patients starting dialysis due to CGN. Access to full-time dieticians was correlated with the 1-year survival of new dialysis patients (r=0.294, p=0.023, but not access to part-time dieticians. We conclude that nutritional advice might play an important role in survival in dialysis patients.

  15. Influence of Protein and Energy Level in Finishing Diets for Feedlot Hair Lambs: Growth Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Ríos-Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight Pelibuey×Katahdin male intact lambs (23.87±2.84 kg were used in an 84-d feeding trial, with six pens per treatment in a 2×2 factorial design arrangement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the interaction of two dietary energy levels (3.05 and 2.83 Mcal/kg ME and two dietary protein levels (17.5% and 14.5% on growth performance, dietary energetics and carcass traits. The dietary treatments used were: i High protein-high energy (HP-HE; ii High protein-low energy (HP-LE; iii Low protein-high energy (LP-HE, and iv Low protein-low energy (LP-LE. With a high-energy level, dry matter intake (DMI values were 6.1% lower in the low-protein diets, while with low-energy, the DMI values did not differ between the dietary protein levels. Energy levels did not influence the final weight and average daily gain (ADG, but resulted in lower DMI values and higher gain efficiencies. No effects of protein level were detected on growth performance. The observed dietary net energy (NE ratio and observed DMI were closer than expected in all treatments and were not affected by the different treatments. There was an interaction (p2.80 Mcal/kg ME. Providing a level of protein above 14.5% does not improves growth-performance, dietary energetics or carcass dressing percentage.

  16. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Diana J R; Laudenslager, Mark L; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  17. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Diana J. R.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges. PMID:26529405

  18. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J R Lafferty

    Full Text Available Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol, key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116 as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD] and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD. We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  19. Influence of a five-day vegetarian diet on urinary levels of antibiotics and phthalate metabolites: a pilot study with "Temple Stay" participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kyunghee; Lim Kho, Young; Park, Yoonsuk; Choi, Kyungho

    2010-05-01

    Diet is purported to be means of exposure to many environmental contaminants. The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of dietary change on the levels of exposure to several environmental chemicals - in particular, antibiotics and phthalates. For this purpose, we examined the extent to which short-term changes in diet influenced the inadvertent exposure levels to these chemicals in an adult population. We recruited participants (n=25) of a five-day 'Temple Stay' program in Korea and collected urine samples before and after the program. We also conducted a questionnaire survey on participants' dietary patterns prior to their participation. During the program, participants followed the daily routines of Buddhist monks and maintained a vegetarian diet. Urinary levels of three antibiotics and their major metabolites, metabolites of four major phthalates, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress biomarker were analyzed. The frequency and levels of detection for antibiotics and phthalates noticeably decreased during the program. Urinary MDA levels were significantly lower than before program participation (0.16 versus 0.27mg/g creatinine). Although the exposure to target compounds might be influenced by other behavioral patterns, these results suggest that even short-term changes in dietary behavior may significantly decrease inadvertent exposure to antibiotics and phthalates and hence may reduce oxidative stress levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Paleo Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Topic: Paleo Diet Objectives: The aim of bachelor thesis is to study available literature about Paleo Diet and evaluated it. Then determine whether there is awareness of Paleo Diet in Czech republic. In addition, find out whether there is any experience in dieting according to Paleo Diet and whether Paleo Diet coul be applied in our environment. Methods: As a source of information served a survey. The research group consists of respondents who should have any experience in dieting according t...

  1. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robledo, Candace A. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Mendola, Pauline, E-mail: pauline.mendola@mail.nih.gov [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, Edwina; Männistö, Tuija [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Liu, Danping [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States); Ying, Qi [Texas A& M University, Zachary Department of Civil Engineering, College Station, TX 77845 (United States); Sherman, Seth [The EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Grantz, Katherine L. [Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Epidemiology Branch, Rockville, MD 20892 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) and PM{sub 2.5} constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM{sub 10}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO{sub X} (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO{sub 2} (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O{sub 3} was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O{sub 3} appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also increased

  2. Preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robledo, Candace A.; Mendola, Pauline; Yeung, Edwina; Männistö, Tuija; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Liu, Danping; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. Methods: Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and PM 2.5 constituents, PM ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1–24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. Results: Preconception maternal exposure to NO X (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO 2 (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O 3 was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. Conclusion: Maternal exposures to NO x and SO 2 preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O 3 appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation. - Highlights: • Air pollution may be related to gestational diabetes (GDM). • No prior studies have examined preconception exposure. • Maternal exposure to NO x and SO 2 before conception increased subsequent GDM risk. • NO x and SO 2 exposure in the first seven weeks of pregnancy also increased GDM risk. • Early exposure to O 3 reduced GDM risk but risk increased

  3. IMPORTANCE OF DIET AND DIETARY INFLUENCES ON HEALTH EFFECTS IN SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS: A SERIOUS AND GROWING GLOBAL PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Rout Susanta Kumar; Rout Bikram Keshari

    2011-01-01

    To develop to their optimal potential, it is vital that children are provided with nutritionally sound diets. Diet and exercise patterns during childhood and adolescence may spell the difference between health and risk of disease in later years.Everyone agrees that adequate nutrient intake is important to all living things. Without food or water, life on earth would cease to exist. In the field of medical health, some gains have been made in meeting maternal and child nutritional needs. There...

  4. Influence of the Form of Administration of Chlorogenic Acids on Oxidative Stress Induced by High fat Diet in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Budryn, G.; Zaczy?ska, D.; ?y?elewicz, D.; Grzelczyk, J.; Zdu?czyk, Z.; Ju?kiewicz, J.

    2017-01-01

    Green coffee is one of health-promoting supplements of the diet, applied in the form of either preparations or enriched food products. Its positive impact is manifested by mitigation of the development of certain tumors, e.g., in the colon and liver, and type 2 diabetes. Many studies proved that chlorogenic acids are the main active substances in green coffee. The bioavailability of these compounds depends among others on their interactions with other components of the diet, mainly proteins. ...

  5. The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: a multi-level framework on maternal, paternal, and child health disparities derived by community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Schafer, Peter; DeClerque, Julia L; Lanzi, Robin G; Hobel, Calvin; Shalowitz, Madeleine; Chinchilli, Vern; Raju, Tonse N K

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple

  6. Preconception care for women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus: a mixed-methods study exploring uptake of preconception care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah; Tariq, Anisah; Komaromy, Carol; Lloyd, Cathy E; Karamat, M Ali; Webb, Jackie; Gill, Paramjit S

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem and one of the most common medical conditions in pregnancy. A wide range of modifiable risk factors are associated with diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, and it is widely acknowledged that preconception care (PCC) is beneficial for women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus. However, uptake of PCC services is low. To systematically review qualitative research on PCC for women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus of childbearing age, identify facilitators of and barriers to uptake of PCC and establish themes and gaps in knowledge. Through qualitative interviews explore views on the provision of, and facilitators of and barriers to the uptake of, PCC. Mixed methods encompassing a systematic review and qualitative interviews. Two secondary care sites and 11 primary care sites. Women of childbearing age with pre-existing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of white British or Pakistani origin. None. A narrative synthesis of the literature using thematic analysis and a thematic analysis of the qualitative interview data using the method of constant comparison. Eighteen qualitative studies were included in the systematic review and a quality appraisal was carried out using relevant criteria for qualitative research appraisal, including a narrative summary of study quality. Twelve interviews with women with pre-existing T1DM or T2DM were carried out. This fell short of the original aim of interviewing 48 women owing to challenges in recruitment, especially in primary care. A synthesis of these data shows that uptake of PCC is influenced by a range of factors, including the complexity of pregnancy planning, the skill and expertise of health professionals who provide care to women with diabetes mellitus, the role of health professionals in the delivery of PCC, and the quality of relationships between women and health professionals. Owing to significant challenges with recruitment of participants

  7. Results of first catamnestical examinations of children of parents irradiated preconceptionally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, T; Eberhardt, H J; Rupprecht, E; Voigtmann, L; Jochem, I [Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Kinderklinik; Medizinische Akademie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1976-12-01

    Results of first preliminary examinations of 21 children whose parents were preconceptionally irradiated for tumor treatment are presented. Most striking variations have been found in connective tissue and skeleton. Carporadiograms proved to be a valuable means for examining minus variants in cases of normal clinical evidence. In the case of a child of an irradiated father malformations of the bones of hands and feet have been observed. There were two premature still-births out of three pregnancies in the case of a patient exposed to a high gonad dose. No obvious deviations could be observed in sense organs and the central nervous system. The sex ratio of children of irradiated women was significantly shifted in favour of girls. It is proposed to establish for the GDR a central file of data on descendants from persons irradiated preconceptionally. The present study may be considered as a model. Finally, the information to be given to radiotherapy patients in the generative age is dealt with.

  8. Pre-1989 epidemiological surveys of low-level dose pre-conception irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Information from 59 pre-1989 epidemiological surveys concerning pre-conception irradiation at doses less than 0.1 Gy has been collated to determine whether any consistent patterns of health effects emerge. The surveys are considered in three groups: childhood malignancies, Down's syndrome and indicators of reproductive damage. Although a pattern is observed for Down's syndrome, no reliable associations are apparent for childhood malignancies (where all surveys pre-date the Gardner survey at Sellafield) or indications of reproductive damage. The twelve surveys of Down's syndrome in relation to maternal pre-conception irradiation received for medical reasons show a pattern consistent with a doubling dose of about 20 mGy. This doubling dose value is, however, not based on individual measurements of ovarian dose and is inconsistent with results from high-level dose surveys. There is no association between paternal irradiation and Down's syndrome. (author)

  9. Recurrent pancreatitis in pregnancy after preconception Whipple for pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Danielle; Dahlke, Joshua D; Rouse, Dwight J

    2014-08-01

    Solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor is a rare tumor affecting young women. Case reports have presented pregnancy outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple procedure) in pregnancy for this neoplasm. We report a case of a woman who underwent a preconception Whipple procedure for a solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor who experienced recurrent pancreatitis confined to pregnancy. A 28-year-old gravida 2 para 1 woman with a history of a Whipple procedure for a solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor 2 years prior had three episodes of severe pancreatitis in pregnancy. She was managed conservatively with each episode. She delivered at term and did not have a recurrence in the 8 months since her delivery. Recurrent pancreatitis in pregnancy after a preconception Whipple procedure can be managed conservatively without surgical intervention.

  10. Diet density in rearing and reproductive phases influences carcass composition, pregnancy rate and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of diet density in the rearing phase×diet density in the reproductive phase on carcass composition, pregnancy rate, and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does. The experiment followed a 2×2×2 factorial (2 seasons, 2 diet densities in the rearing phase and 2 diet densities in reproductive phase, that is, from mating to weaning of the first litter. The reference diet (RD contained 184 g/kg of crude protein (CP, 165 g/kg of acid detergent fibre (ADF and 10.5 MJ/kg of digestible energy (DE. The low-density diet (LD had 147 g/kg of CP, 24 g/kg of ADF and 8.4 MJ/kg of DE. The treatments were applied from 70 d of age until weaning of the first litter at 35 d of age. Ninety-six females from the Botucatu Genetic Group (24 females/experimental group were mated at 142 d of age. On day 12 of gestation, 23 does were slaughtered to evaluate weights of carcass, organs and dissectible fat, and embryo implantation rate. No effects of diet density in the rearing or in the reproductive phases were detected on feed intake of does during the reproductive phase. Does fed LD during the rearing phase showed lower body weight at mating (3574±47 vs. 3866±43 g, P=0.0001 and during most of the reproductive phase, but they lost less weight in the peripartum. Perirenal fat was lighter in these does (72.8±10.0 vs. 102.1±9.6 g, P=0.048 and they showed a lower pregnancy rate (76.1 vs. 91.7%, P=0.045. The does fed RD in the reproductive phase were heavier during this phase (4055±40 g vs. 3887±41 g, P=0.0044. The does fed LD in rearing phase and RD in the reproductive phase showed larger litters at weaning, due to decreased kit mortality, than those fed RD in both phases (6.16±0.47 vs. 3.93±0.71, P=0.0361. Litters were lighter at weaning when LD was fed in the reproductive phase (3582±201 vs. 4733±187, P<0.0001. Feeding a low-density diet during the rearing phase and a reference diet during the

  11. Preconception maternal bereavement and infant and childhood mortality: A Danish population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Dalman, Christina; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Khashan, Ali S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, though these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood. Methods Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979–2009 (N=1,865,454), we predicted neonatal (0–28 days), post-neonatal infant (29–364 days), and early childhood (1–5 years) mortality following maternal bereavement in the preconception (6–0 months before pregnancy) and prenatal (between conception and birth) periods. Maternal bereavement was defined as death of a first degree relative of the mother. Analyses were conducted using logistic and log-linear Poisson regression that were adjusted for offspring, mother, and father sociodemographic and health factors. Results We identified 6,541 (0.004%) neonates, 3,538 (0.002%) post-neonates, and 2,132 (0.001%) children between the ages of 1 to 5 years who died. After adjusting for covariates, bereavement during the preconception period was associated with an increased odds of neonatal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.53–2.30) and post-neonatal infant mortality (aOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.15–2.02). Associations were timing-specific (6 months prior to pregnancy only) and consistent across sensitivity analyses. Bereavement during the prenatal period was not consistently associated with increased risk of offspring mortality, however this may reflect relatively low statistical power. Conclusions Results support and extend previous findings linking bereavement during the preconception period with increased odds of early offspring mortality. The period immediately prior to pregnancy may be a sensitive period with potential etiological implications and ramifications for offspring mortality. PMID:26374948

  12. Preconception care of women with diabetes: a review of current guideline recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazza Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM continues to rise worldwide. More women from developing countries who are in the reproductive age group have diabetes resulting in more pregnancies complicated by T2DM, and placing both mother and foetus at higher risk. Management of these risks is best achieved through comprehensive preconception care and glycaemic control, both prior to, and during pregnancy. The aim of this review was to compare the quality and content of current guidelines concerned with the preconception care of women with diabetes and to develop a summary of recommendations to assist in the management of diabetic women contemplating pregnancy. Methods Relevant clinical guidelines were identified through a search of several databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS and The Cochrane Library and relevant websites. Five guidelines were identified. Each guideline was assessed for quality using the AGREE instrument. Guideline recommendations were extracted, compared and contrasted. Results All guidelines were assessed as being of high quality and strongly recommended for use in practice. All were consistent in counselling about the risk of congenital malformation related to uncontrolled blood sugar preconceptionally, ensuring adequate contraception until glycaemic control is achieved, use of HBA1C to monitor metabolic control, when to commence insulin and switching from ACE inhibitors to other antihypertensives. Major differences were in the targets recommended for optimal metabolic control and opinion regarding the usage of metformin as an adjunct or alternative treatment before or during pregnancy. Conclusions International guidelines for the care of women with diabetes who are contemplating pregnancy are consistent in their recommendations; however some are more comprehensive than others. Having established current standards for the preconception care of diabetic women, there is now a need to focus on guideline

  13. Selected preconception health indicators and birth weight disparities in a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutz, Kelly L; Richardson, Liana J; Hussey, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    This analysis explored the effect of timing, sequencing, and change in preconception health across adolescence and young adulthood on racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight in a diverse national cohort of young adult women. Data came from Waves I (1994-1995), III (2001-2002), and IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Eligibility was restricted to all singleton live births to female non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-origin Latina, or Asian/Pacific Islander participants (n = 3,014) occurring between the Wave III (ages 18-26 years) and IV (ages 24-32 years) interviews. Birth weight was categorized into low (4,000 g). Preconception health indicators were cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, overweight or obesity, and inadequate physical activity, measured in adolescence (Wave I, ages 11-19 years) and early adulthood (Wave III) and combined into four-category variables to capture the timing and sequencing of exposure. Measures of preconception health did not explain the Black-White disparity in low birth weight, which increased after adjustment for confounders (odds ratio [OR], 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-3.53) and effect modification by overweight/obesity (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.65-7.78). A positive association between adult-onset overweight/obesity and macrosomia was modified by race (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.02-14.36 for Black women). This longitudinal analysis provides new evidence on preconception health and racial/ethnic disparities in birth weight. Specifically, it indicates that interventions focused on prevention of overweight/obesity and maintenance of healthy weight during the transition to adulthood, especially among Black females, may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparing the quality of preconception care provided in healthcare centers in Mashhad in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardasht, Fatemeh Ghaffari; Shourab, Nahid Jahani; Jafarnejad, Farzaneh; Esmaily, Habibollah

    2015-01-01

    Improving the quality of healthcare services is considered as the main strategy to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Providing appropriate healthcare for mothers and their newborn children is facilitated significantly by considering the mothers' health and welfare before pregnancy occurs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the quality of preconception care provided to women of reproductive age provided by five health centers in Mashhad in 2012 and 2013. Multi-stage sampling was used to select the participants in this descriptive study. As a result, 360 women of reproductive age and 39 healthcare providers from 24 healthcare centers in Mashhad were selected to participate. The data gathering tool was a checklist based on the Donabedian model that includes the three dimensions of structure, process, and outcome. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 11.5), Kruskal-Wallis tests, ANOVA, and Spearman rank correlation. The results showed that preconception care at the 24 healthcare centers had essentially the same conditions. But in the process and outcome components, the quality of the preconception care at five of the health centers was significantly different (p=0.008). The highest quality of care processes was identified at health center number 3. The difference in the component of outcomes being followed up by the healthcare providers at five of the health centers was statistically significant (p=0.000); however, there were no significant differences found among the satisfaction and awareness of the women who participated at the five health centers. The results showed that the performance of health personnel in providing preconception care and providing follow-up care was not satisfactory.

  15. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  16. Preconceptions of Japanese Students Surveyed Using the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Michi

    2010-07-01

    We assess the preconceptions of Japanese students about force and motion. The Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation is a research-based, multiple-choice assessment of students' conceptual understanding of Newton's laws of motion and energy conservation. It is administered to determine the effectiveness of introductory mechanics curricula. In this study, the test was given to engineering students at the beginning of the first lecture of an introductory mechanics course for several years. Some students had minimal high school physics education, whereas the others had completed high school physics programs. To probe the students' preconceptions, we studied their test answers for each of the following categories: velocity, acceleration, Newton's first and second laws, Newton's third law, and energy conservation. We find that preconceptions, such as F ∝ mv, are prevalent among the students, regardless of their level of high school physics education. In the case of a collision between two objects, two preconceptions—a mass-dependent model and an action-dependent model—are prevalent. Typically, students combine the two models, with action dependency outweighing mass dependency. In the case of a sled sliding down a hill without friction at two heights and inclinations, a quarter of students used the height-dependent model to answer questions regarding speed and kinetic energy.

  17. Swedish healthcare providers' perceptions of preconception expanded carrier screening (ECS)-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, A; Kihlbom, U; Höglund, A T

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive autonomy, medicalization, and discrimination against disabled and parental responsibility are the main ongoing ethical debates concerning reproductive genetic screening. To examine Swedish healthcare professionals' views on preconception expanded carrier screening (ECS), a qualitative study involving academic and clinical institutions in Sweden was conducted in September 2014 to February 2015. Eleven healthcare professionals including clinicians, geneticists, a midwife, and a genetic counselor were interviewed in depth using a semi-structured interview guide. The questionnaire was constructed after reviewing the main literature and meetings with relevant healthcare providers. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content analyzed for categories and subcategories. Participants nurtured many ethical and non-ethical concerns regarding preconception ECS. Among the ethical concerns were the potential for discrimination, medicalization, concerns with prioritization of healthcare resources, and effects on reproductive freedom. The effects of implementation of preconception ECS, its stakeholders, regulations, and motivation are some of non-ethical concerns. These concerns, if not addressed, may affect the uptake and usage of carrier screening within Swedish healthcare system. As this is a qualitative study with a small non-random sample size, the findings cannot be generalized. The participants had little to no working experience with expanded screening panels. Moreover, the interviews were conducted in English, a second language for the participants, which might have limited the expression of their views. However, the authors claim that the findings may be pertinent to similar settings in other Scandinavian countries.

  18. Influence of reductive diet and physical aerobic training on binding and degradation of 125J-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in children with simple obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczesniak, L.; Rychlewski, T.; Kasprzak, Z.; Banaszak, F.

    1994-01-01

    Insuline resistance, expressed by lower insuline binding by receptors, is related to the obesity. Improvement of the binding was observed together with reduction of body weight and in result of physical exercise. In the work was investigated an influence of complex result of reductive diet at the level of 1300-1500 kcal and systematic half-an-hour aerobic exercise on binding and degradation of 125 J-insulin by erythrocyte receptors in children with simple obesity. The rest binding of insulin by erythrocyte receptors in obese children was compared with the result observed in the children having normal body weight. Results of these researches confirm that systematic physical exercise connected with reductive diet improves the indexes of lipid balance, increases efficiency of the organism, estimated by maximal oxygen absorption, decreases body weight and improves binding of 125 J-insulin to erythrocyte receptors. (authors)

  19. Influence of diet and microbial activity in the digestive tract on digestibility, and nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggum, B O; Thorbek, G; Beames, R M

    1982-01-01

    -55 kg. Measurements were made on the influence of microbial activity in the digestive tract on digestibility and nitrogen and energy metabolism. Dietary inclusion of the antibiotic Nebacitin was the method used to reduce the microbial population. 2. The microbial activity in the hind-gut (mumol ATP....../g air-dry contents) of antibiotic-treated rats was reduced to approximately one-tenth of that of untreated rats. 3. Live-weight gain was not significantly affected in either species by a reduction in the microbial activity, in spite of a reduction in dry matter digestibility in animals with reduced...... microflora. 4. For rats on low-crude-fibre diets, a reduction in microflora reduced digestibility of all nutrients and energy and metabolizability of digestible energy by approximately 5.4%. All differences were highly significant. On high-crude-fibre diets the decrease was approximately 5.9%. In pigs...

  20. Influence of the glutamic acid content of the diet on the catabolisc rate of labelled glutamic acid in rats. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergner, H.; Wilke, A.; Simon, O.; Wolf, E.

    1984-01-01

    Male rats received in 8 groups of 10 animals each for a period of 7 days 7 synthetic diets and one semisynthetic diet on maintenance requirement level. A L-amino acid mixture corresponding to the pattern of egg protein without glutamic acid was the protein source of the synthetic diets. Glutamic acid was supplemented successively from 0 to 58 mol-% of the total amino acid content. The crude protein source of diet 8 was whole-egg powder. On the 8th day of experiment 5 animals per group were labelled by intragastric infusion with 14 C-glutamic acid. During the following 24 hours the excretion of CO 2 and 14 CO 2 was measured. Throughout the experimental feeding body weight was relative constant, however, when the synthetic diets were fed it was necessary to increase the daily amount of energy from 460 to 480 kJ/kg/sup 0.67/. The relative 14 CO 2 excretion within 24 hours was 68-75 % of the dose. However, the main part of the amount of radioactivity excreted during 24 hours was already found after 4 to 6 hours. Exponential functions calculated from the data of cumulative 14 CO 2 excretion suggest the existence of a fast process of 14 CO 2 formation directly from 14 C-glutamic acid, reaching a plateau within 2 hours and a slow process of oxidation of intermediates of glutamic acid metabolism, causing a continued 14 CO 2 formation even after 24 hours. The oxidation of 14 C-glutamic acid to CO 2 decreased 2 to 14 hours after labelling if the glutamic acid content of the diet increased. The same was found for the specific radioactivity of 14 CO 2 . A storage of intermediates of glutamic acid before degradation was assumed. (author)

  1. Preconception and prenatal environmental factors associated with communication impairments in 9 year old children using an exposome-wide approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Steer

    Full Text Available Although speech and language deficits are common in children and strongly associated with poor educational and social outcomes, little attention has been paid to the antecedents. In this study we used the information from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to examine preconception and prenatal environmental risk factors that were related to communication difficulties in children using the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC. We used an exposome-wide approach to identify environmental factors univariably associated with the CCC. Taking account of the False Discovery rate, we used a P value of 0.000157 to identify 621 of 3855 items tested. These were then subjected to a series of stepwise linear regression analyses, firstly within 10 domains: personal characteristics, health, development, education, socio-economic variables, lifestyle, home and social environments, life events and chemical and other exposures; and then with the predictive variables from each domain. The final model consisted of 19 variables independently associated with the communication scale. These variables suggested 6 possible mechanisms: stressors primarily associated with socio-economic disadvantage although other lifestyle choices such as a social network of family or friends can ameliorate these effects; indicators of future parenting skills primarily associated with aspects of parental personality; aspects of the home environment; poor maternal health with a novel finding concerning maternal hearing loss; and maternal education which was partially mediated by the child's IQ. Finally, there may be a mechanism via the maternal diet in pregnancy in particular the consumption of fatty or processed foods. This is the subject of ongoing investigation.

  2. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight and maternal anemia remain intractable problems in many developing countries. The adequacy of the current strategy of providing iron-folic acid (IFA supplements only during pregnancy has been questioned given many women enter pregnancy with poor iron stores, the substantial micronutrient demand by maternal and fetal tissues, and programmatic issues related to timing and coverage of prenatal care. Weekly IFA supplementation for women of reproductive age (WRA improves iron status and reduces the burden of anemia in the short term, but few studies have evaluated subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Preconcept trial aims to determine whether pre-pregnancy weekly IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM supplementation will improve birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status compared to the current practice of prenatal IFA supplementation only. This paper provides an overview of study design, methodology and sample characteristics from baseline survey data and key lessons learned. Methods/design We have recruited 5011 WRA in a double-blind stratified randomized controlled trial in rural Vietnam and randomly assigned them to receive weekly supplements containing either: 1 2800 μg folic acid 2 60 mg iron and 2800 μg folic acid or 3 MM. Women who become pregnant receive daily IFA, and are being followed through pregnancy, delivery, and up to three months post-partum. Study outcomes include birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status. Data are being collected on household characteristics, maternal diet and mental health, anthropometry, infant feeding practices, morbidity and compliance. Discussion The study is timely and responds to the WHO Global Expert Consultation which identified the need to evaluate the long term benefits of weekly IFA and MM supplementation in WRA. Findings will generate new information to help guide policy and programs designed to reduce the burden of anemia in women and

  3. Influence of the irradiated diet on the longevity and reproduction of Cyric cephalonic a (Stain ton, 1865) (Lepidoptera: parlayed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Graziela dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The present work aims to irradiate diets with multiple doses, as recommended by the Decree DINAL n.o 09 of 08/03/1985 to disinfestation of insects, which means, the dose of 1,0 kGy and observes the longevity and reproduction of C. cephalonica (Staint., 1865) (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)

  4. Influence of the glutamic acid content of the diet on the catabolic rate of labelled glutamic acid in rats. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, A.; Simon, O.; Bergner, H.

    1984-01-01

    40 rats with a body weight of 100 g received 7 semisynthetic diets with different contents of glutamic acid and one diet contained whole-egg. A L-amino acid mixture corresponding to the pattern of egg protein was the protein source of the semisynthetic diets. Glutamic acid was supplemented succesively from 0 to 58 mol-% of the total amino acid content. On the 8th day of the experimental feeding the animals were labelled by subcutaneous injection of 14 C-glutamic acid. Subsequently the CO 2 and the 14 CO 2 excretion were measured for 24 hours. In this period 64 to 68 % of the injected radioactivity were recovered as 14 CO 2 . The curve pattern of 14 CO 2 excretion indicates two different processes of 14 CO 2 formation. One characterizing the direct degradation of glutamic acid to CO 2 with a high rate constant and a second one with a lower rate constant characterizing the 14 CO 2 formation via metabolites of glutamic acid. 77 % of the total 14 CO 2 excretion in 24 hours resulted from the direct oxidation of glutamic acid and 23 % from the oxidation of intermediates. When 14 CO 2 formation was measured 10 to 24 hours after injection of 14 C-glutamic acid a positive correlation to the content of glutamic acid in the diet was observed. The intestinal tissue contributes considerably to the catabolization of glutamic acid, however, there seems to exist an upper limit for this capacity. (author)

  5. Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rist, L.; Mueller, A.; Barthel, C.; Snijders, B.; Jansen, M.; Simões-Wüst, A.P.; Huber, M.; Kummeling, I.; Mandach, U. von; Steinhart, H.; Thijs, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding

  6. Influence of the Form of Administration of Chlorogenic Acids on Oxidative Stress Induced by High fat Diet in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budryn, G; Zaczyńska, D; Żyżelewicz, D; Grzelczyk, J; Zduńczyk, Z; Juśkiewicz, J

    2017-06-01

    Green coffee is one of health-promoting supplements of the diet, applied in the form of either preparations or enriched food products. Its positive impact is manifested by mitigation of the development of certain tumors, e.g., in the colon and liver, and type 2 diabetes. Many studies proved that chlorogenic acids are the main active substances in green coffee. The bioavailability of these compounds depends among others on their interactions with other components of the diet, mainly proteins. When they are used as food ingredients, their bioavailability is additionally decreased because of the decomposition or interactions with other ingredients during food processing. The undesirable changes may be limited among others by microencapsulation, for example with β-cyclodextrin. In this study, rats were fed the pro-oxidative high fat diet, which was supplemented with chlorogenic acids from green coffee that were used in four forms such as: a purified extract, complexes of chlorogenic acids and β-cyclodextrin, and bread supplemented with either the extract or the β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. Chlorogenic acids added to bread because of the reduced absorption from the crumb in the small intestine and increased passage to the colon, contributed to the beneficial modification of enzymatic activities of intestinal microbiota. When added directly to the diet, they contributed to the improved antioxidant status in the liver and kidneys, lowered glucose level and increased HDL level. A high ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione in the liver and a high concentration of antioxidants in the blood serum were observed after administration of chlorogenic acids in the form of inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin, indicating that microencapsulation increased their bioaccessibility due to the limited interactions with other components of the diet.

  7. Influence of the glutamic acid content of the diet on the catabolic rate of labelled glutamic acid in rats. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, O.; Wilke, A.; Bergner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Mal rats received during a 8 days experimental feeding period diets with different contents in glutamic acid. The daily feed intake was restricted to the energy maintenance level of 460 kJ/kg/sup 0.75/. The diet contained a mixture of L-amino acids corresponding to the pattern of egg protein except glutamic acid. Glutamic acid was added successively at 10 levels (0 to 14.8 % of dry matter) and the resulting diets were fed to groups of 4 animals each. At the end of the experimental feeding period 14 C- and 15 N-labelled glutamic acid were applied by intragastric infusion. CO 2 and 14 CO 2 excretion was measured during the following 4 hours and the urinary N and 15 N excretion during the following 24 hours. The CO 2 excretion decreased from 53 to 44 mmol CO 2 /100g body weight with increasing levels of dietary glutamic acid. This change seems to result from the increasing proportion of amino acids as an energetic fuel. While the amount of oxidized glutamic acid increased with increasing supplements of glutamic acid the relative 14 CO 2 excretion decreased from 57 to 48 % of the applied radioactivity. The urinary 15 N excretion during 24 hours was 31 % of the given amount of 15 N if no glutamic acid was included in the diet. This proportion increased successively up to 52 % in the case of the highest supply of glutamic acid. Because the total N excretion increased at the same extent as the 15 N excretion a complete mixing of the NH 2 groups resulting from glutamic acid due to desamination with the ammonia pool was assumed. No correlation between glutamic acid content of the diet and specific radioactivity of CO 2 or atom-% 15 N excess of urinary N was observed. (author)

  8. China's community-based strategy of universal preconception care in rural areas at a population level using a novel risk classification system for stratifying couples´ preconception health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Tian, Weidong; Chen, Jingqi; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian

    2016-12-28

    Preconception care (PCC) is recommended for optimizing a woman's health prior to pregnancy to minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the impact of strategy and a novel risk classification model of China´s "National Preconception Health Care Project" (NPHCP) in identifying risk factors and stratifying couples' preconception health status. We performed a secondary analysis of data collected by NPHCP during April 2010 to December 2012 in 220 selected counties in China. All couples enrolled in the project accepted free preconception health examination, risk evaluation, health education and medical advice. Risk factors were categorized into five preconception risk classes based on their amenability to prevention and treatment: A-avoidable risk factors, B- benefiting from targeted medical intervention, C-controllable but requiring close monitoring and treatment during pregnancy, D-diagnosable prenatally but not modifiable preconceptionally, X-pregnancy not advisable. Information on each couple´s socio-demographic and health status was recorded and further analyzed. Among the 2,142,849 couples who were enrolled to this study, the majority (92.36%) were from rural areas with low education levels (89.2% women and 88.3% men had education below university level). A total of 1463266 (68.29%) couples had one or more preconception risk factors mainly of category A, B and C, among which 46.25% were women and 51.92% were men. Category A risk factors were more common among men compared with women (38.13% versus 11.24%; P = 0.000). This project provided new insights into preconception health of Chinese couples of reproductive age. More than half of the male partners planning to father a child, were exposed to risk factors during the preconception period, suggesting that an integrated approach to PCC including both women and men is justified. Stratification based on the new risk classification model demonstrated that a majority of the

  9. Influence of food companies' brand mascots and entertainment companies' cartoon media characters on children's diet and health: a systematic review and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, V I; Story, M

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the extent and persuasive power of marketing unhealthy foods to children worldwide are important obesity prevention goals. Research is limited to understand how brand mascots and cartoon media characters influence children's diet. We conducted a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000–2014) to identify experimental studies that measured how food companies' mascots and entertainment companies' media characters influence up to 12 diet-related cognitive, behavioural and health outcomes for children under 12 years. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies used 21 unique popular media characters, but no brand mascots. Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding. However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables. Future research should use a theoretically grounded conceptual model and larger and more diverse samples across settings to produce stronger findings for mediating and moderating factors. Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children. PMID:25516352

  10. Influence of food companies' brand mascots and entertainment companies' cartoon media characters on children's diet and health: a systematic review and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, V I; Story, M

    2015-02-01

    Reducing the extent and persuasive power of marketing unhealthy foods to children worldwide are important obesity prevention goals. Research is limited to understand how brand mascots and cartoon media characters influence children's diet. We conducted a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000-2014) to identify experimental studies that measured how food companies' mascots and entertainment companies' media characters influence up to 12 diet-related cognitive, behavioural and health outcomes for children under 12 years. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies used 21 unique popular media characters, but no brand mascots. Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding. However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables. Future research should use a theoretically grounded conceptual model and larger and more diverse samples across settings to produce stronger findings for mediating and moderating factors. Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children. © 2014 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  11. Lactose in diet influences the degradation of mixed linked β(1-3;1-4)-D-glucan in the small intestine of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    The objective of the current study was to investigate if lactose in diet would influence the degradation of mixed linked β(1–3;1–4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) in the small intestine. Β-glucan is an important cell wall (dietary fiber, DF) component of the endosperm of barley and oats. The digestibility...... of β-glucan in the small intestine from both cereals is among the highest of all DF components, but in one particular study with oat-based diets it was significantly lower than what was found in other studies. In this study whey protein containing lactose was used as protein supplement. Lactose...... is slowly digestible in the small intestine. To investigate if lactose could be causative for the lower digestibility of β-glucan in the study with whey protein, it was decided to quantify the content of lactose in the diets and to analyze for lactose in digesta samples from the small intestine (the small...

  12. Combination of meal and exercise timing with a high-fat diet influences energy expenditure and obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Ikeda, Yuko; Tsubosaka, Miku; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-11-01

    In mice, obesity has been observed not only in those freely fed a high-fat diet (HFD) but also in those fed while physically inactive. In contrast, a HFD during physically active periods protects against obesity and the impairments in the circadian rhythm induced by free feeding of a HFD. Although exercise is known to be effective for obesity prevention and management, the optimal timing of exercise has not yet been determined. In the present experiments, we aimed to determine the best combination of daily timing of HFD consumption and exercise for the prevention of HFD-induced weight gain in mice. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). Increases in body weight related to free feeding of a HFD was significantly reduced with 4 h of exercise during the late (evening) or middle (noon) active period compared to 4 h of exercise during the early (morning) active period or free access to exercise, which resulted in hours of exercise similar to that of morning exercise. These results suggested that eating in the morning or at noon followed by exercise in the evening could prevent weight gain more effectively than exercise in the morning followed by eating at noon or in the evening. The group fed a HFD for 4 h in the morning had lower body weight than the group fed a HFD for 4 h in the evening without exercise. The last group of experiments tested the hypothesis that there would be an interaction between mealtime and exercise time (i.e. time of day) versus order (i.e. which comes first) effects. We compared groups that exercised for 4 h at noon and were fed either in the morning or evening and groups that were fed for 4 h at noon and either exercised in the morning or evening. We found that the groups that were fed before exercise gained less body and fat weight and more skeletal muscle weight compared to the groups that exercised before eating. Corresponding to the body and fat weight

  13. GENETIC VARIATION IN THE BETA-3-ADRENORECEPTOR GENE (TRP64ARG POLYMORPHISM) AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE AFTER A HIGH PROTEIN/LOW CARBOHYDRATE VERSUS A STANDARD HYPOCALORIC DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Romero, Enrique

    2015-08-01

    the Trp64Arg variant in Beta receptor has been reported to be associated with increased body weight and insulin resistance Objective: the aim of our study was to investigate the influence of polymorphism (rs 4994) in Beta-3-adrenergic receptor gene on metabolic response and weight loss in a medium-term intervention study secondary's to a high protein/low carbohydrate vs. a standard hypocaloric diets (1000 kcal/day). a population of 284 obese subjects was analyzed in a randomized trial. A nutritional evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of a 9-month period in which subjects received 1 of 2 diets (diet HP: high protein/low carbohydrate vs diet S: standard diet). there were no significant differences between the positive effects (on weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, systolic blood pressure and leptin levels) in either genotype group with both diets. With both diets and only in wild genotype (diet HP vs diet S), total cholesterol (-10.1 ± 3.9 mg/dl vs -10.1 ± 2.2 mg/dl;p>0.05), LDL cholesterol (-9.5 ± 2.1 mg/dl vs -8.5 ± 2.3 mg/dl;p>0.05) and triglycerides (-19.1 ± 2.1 mg/dl vs -14.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl;p>0.05) decreased. The improvement in these parameters was similar in subjects with diet HP than HS. With diet HP and only in wild genotype, insulin levels (-3.7 ± 1.9 UI/L;phypocaloric diets is the greatest in subjects with normal homozygous beta 3-AR gene. Improvement in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and HOMA-R levels is better than in the heterozygous group. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of essential oils in diet and life-stage on gut microbiota and fillet quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Florencia; Faccenda, Filippo; De Filippo, Carlotta; Albanese, Davide; Pindo, Massimo; Martelli, Roberta; Marconi, Paola; Lunelli, Fernando; Fava, Francesca; Parisi, Giuliana

    2018-05-01

    Developing fish farming to meet the demands of food security and sustainability in the 21st century will require new farming systems and improved feeds. Diet and microbe interactions in the gut is an important variable with the potential to make a significant impact on future fish farming diets and production systems. It was monitored the gut microbiota of farmed rainbow trout using 16S rRNA profiling over 51 weeks during standard rearing conditions and feeding diet with supplementation of an essential oils (MixOil) mixture from plants (at a concentration in diet of 200 mg/kg). Gut microbiota 16S rRNA profiling indicated that the fish gut was dominated by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Although the dietary supplementation with MixOil had no impact on either the composition or architecture of gut microbiota, significant changes in alpha and beta diversity and relative abundance of groups of gut bacteria were evident during growth stages on test feeds, especially upon prolonged growth on finishing feed. Fish fillet quality to guarantee palatability and safety for human consumption was also evaluated. Significant differences within the gut microbiota of juvenile and adult trout under the same rearing conditions were observed, The addition of essential oil blend affected some physicochemical characteristics of trout fillets, including their resistance to oxidative damage and their weight loss (as liquid loss and water holding capacity) during the first period of storage, that are two important parameters related to product shelf life and susceptibility to spoilage. The results highlighted the need for further studies concern dietary microbiome modulation at different life stages and its influence on animal health, growth performance and final product quality.

  15. Family Planning and Preconception Health Among Men in Their Mid-30s: Developing Indicators and Describing Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Frances E; Sonenstein, Freya L; Astone, Nan M; Pleck, Joseph H; Dariotis, Jacinda K; Marcell, Arik V

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Healthy People 2020 call for improvements in meeting men's reproductive health needs but little is known about the proportion of men in need. This study describes men aged 35 to 39 in need of family planning and preconception care, demographic correlates of these needs, and contraception use among men in need of family planning. Using data from Wave 4 (2008-2010) of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, men were classified in need of family planning and preconception care if they reported sex with a female in the last year and believed that they and their partner were fecund; the former included men who were neither intentionally pregnant nor intending future children and the latter included men intending future children. Men were classified as being in need of both if they reported multiple sex partners in the past year. About 40% of men aged 35 to 39 were in need of family planning and about 33% in need of preconception care with 12% in need of both. Current partner's age, current union type, and sexually transmitted infection health risk differentiated men in need of family planning and preconception care (all ps family planning reported none of the time current partner hormonal use (55%) or condom use (52%) during the past year. This study identified that many men in their mid-30s are in need of family planning or preconception care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Influence of vegetable diets on physiological and immune responses to thermal stress in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Gesto, Manuel; Batista, Sónia

    2018-01-01

    quality parameters. However, scarce information is available regarding the long-term impact of vegetable diets (combining the inclusion of both vegetable protein and oils) on the stress response and immunity of this fish species. This study aims to evaluate the concomitant effect of the extended use...... of vegetable protein-based diets with fish oil (FO) replacement (0, 50 or 100%) by vegetable oils (VO), on the response to acute (10 min) or prolonged (4 days) stress, induced by thermal shock. Plasma levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate as well as hepatic levels of glucose, glycogen and lactate were......The substitution of fish resources as ingredients for aquafeeds by those based on vegetable sources is needed to ensure aquaculture sustainability in the future. It is known that Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) accepts high dietary content of plant ingredients without altering growth or flesh...

  17. Histomorphometrical analysis of the influence of soft diet on masticatory muscle development in the muscular dystrophic mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, H; Kirkeby, S; Kronborg, D

    1990-01-01

    The known difference in the severity of dystrophy between the masseter and the digastric muscle of the mouse (dy/dy C57BL/J6) may be attributed to the differences in muscle work load. This possibility was tested by subjecting 3-week-old mice (normal and dystrophic) to a soft diet for 4 weeks....... Microscopic examination of haematoxylin-eosin stained sections of these muscles showed that the fibre size dispersion (a measure of disease severity) decreased slightly but significantly in the masseters of mice on a soft diet. It was thus possible to improve the condition of dystrophic masticatory muscles...... by changing their function. Body weight curves measured during the experimental period suggest that the dystrophic mice may have been under weight because of malnutrition due to lack of sufficient masticatory power....

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL STATUS AND ETHNICITY ON DIET IN MEDIAEVAL TALLINN AS SEEN THROUGH STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lightfoot, Emma; Naum, Magdalena; Kadakas, Villu

    2016-01-01

    , for comparative purposes. The individuals were investigated using carbon, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. The results indicate that while all analysed individuals consumed diets based on C3 plants and animals consuming C3 plants, some individuals also consumed small amounts of C4 plants (likely......Food encodes social and cultural values and has an important role to play in defining identities. In mixed populations, diet can be used to distinguish between ‘us’ and ‘them’. This study investigates the extent to which the inhabitants of mediaeval Tallinn, an important trading centre, used food...... millet) or seafood. C 4 plants were consumed by the urban residents buried at the Church of the Holy Spirit and one or two individuals from Sulevimägi. It is thought that millet was an imported food consumed by the middle class. Marine foods were consumed by the individuals at St Catherine’s Church...

  19. Influence of the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy in the development of wheezing and eczema in infants in Pamplona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Zallo, N; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I; Alvarez-Alvarez, I; Marin-Fernandez, B; Guillén-Grima, F; Azcona-San Julián, C

    This study examined the relationship between different food groups and the adherence to a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and the risk of wheezing and eczema in children aged 12-15 months. The study involves 1087 Spanish infants from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL). The study of the association of the different food consumption and Mediterranean diet with wheezing, recurrent wheezing and eczema was performed using different models of unconditional logistic regression to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). No association was found between a good adherence to the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy and the development of wheezing (p=0.372), recurrent wheezing (p=0.118) and eczema (p=0.315). The consumption once or twice a week of white fish (OR: 1.95[1.01-3.75]), cooked potatoes (OR: 1.75[1.22-2.51]) and industrial pastry (OR: 1.59[1.13-2.24]), and the consumption more than three times a week of industrial pastry (OR: 1.47 [1.01-2.13]) during pregnancy increases the risk of "wheezing" at 12 months. Instead, high fruit consumption during the pregnancy has a protective effect against "wheezing" in 12-month-old infants (OR: 0.44 [0.20-0.99]). No statistically significant differences were observed between food intake during pregnancy and "recurrent wheezing". No statistically significant differences were observed between the consumption of any food during pregnancy and the presence of eczema at 12 months. The present study showed that the consumption of Mediterranean diet during pregnancy did not have a protective effect for wheezing, recurrent wheezing or eczema. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Colon carcinogenesis: influence of Western diet-induced obesity and targeting stem cells using dietary bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdagly, Maria; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Reddivari, Lavanya; Veeramachaneni, D N Rao; Vanamala, Jairam

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer strikes more than 1 million people annually and is responsible for more than 500,000 cancer deaths worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that the majority of malignancies, including colon cancer are driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are resistant to current chemotherapeutic approaches leading to cancer relapse. Wnt signaling plays a critical role in colon stem cell renewal and carcinogenesis. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), a Wnt target gene, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 B1 (ALDH1B1) are good markers for normal and malignant human colon stem cells. Diet contributes to 20% to 42% of all human cancers and 50% to 90% of colon cancer. Recent evidence shows that the Western diet has a causative link to colon cancer; however, mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. Western diet-induced obesity elevates systemic insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin levels, which could lead to elevated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of CSCs through PI3K/AKT/Wnt pathway. Although conventional chemotherapy targets the PI3K/AKT pathways and can significantly reduce tumor size, it fails to eliminate CSCs and has serious side effects. Dietary bioactive compounds such as grape seed extract, curcumin, lycopene, and resveratrol have promising chemopreventive effects, without serious side effects on various types of cancers due to their direct and indirect actions on CSC self-renewal pathways such as the Wnt pathway. Understanding the role of CSCs in diet-induced colon cancer will aid in development of evidence-based dietary chemopreventive strategies and/or therapeutic agents targeting CSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of probiotics intercropped with plant protein diets and their influence on the growth performance and immunological status of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis aquaculture, infectious diseases represent a major challenge, leading to significant economic losses (Arijo et al, 2005. According to FAO / WHO (2001, probiotics are defined as "live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host". Previous studies working with different fish species provided evidence on the effectiveness of various probiotic bacteria in promoting the fish welfare (Castex et al., 2009; Hernandez et al., 2010; Merrifield et al., 2011. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of dietary probiotic supplementation intercropped with plant protein as fishmeal replacement on the growth performance and immunological status in sole (Solea senegalensis. Fish were fed for 10 weeks on six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (55% protein and 8% lipid, dry matter basis, formulated to have 35% or 72% of fishmeal replacement by plant protein (PP35 or PP72 intercropped with three probiotic supplementation (NO – unsupplemented, PRO1 and PRO2, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. The probiotics were tested at a dosage recommended by the manufacturer. PRO1 was a multi-species probiotic bacteria (Bacillus sp., Pediococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. supplemented at 1.8 × 1010 CFU kg-1 diet (CFU - colony forming unit and PRO2 was an autolyzed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplemented at 4g kg-1 diet. Zootechnical parameters were measured at start and the end of the feeding trial for growth performance determination. Plasma was collected at 3, 17, 38 and 73 days of feeding dietary treatment for the determination of innate immune response (plasma lysozyme and peroxidase contents, plasma alternative complement pathway activity – ACH50 in order to detect differences between treatments as well to identify the influence of long or short-time probiotic supplementation. Fish with an initial body weight of 33.1 ± 0.2 g grew to a maximum final body

  2. Comparative study of two techniques for assessing fat intake in a Mediterranean diet. The influence of culinary oils changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, B; Cuesta, I; Varela-Moreiras, G; Carmena, R; Pérez-Olleros, L

    2000-07-01

    The diet usually consumed by a community of 18 normolipemic monks was studied. It included olive oil as cooking fat (basal period BP). This diet was modified by substituting olive oil for sunflower oil during a 21-day period (experimental period EP). The precise individual weighing technique was utilised for the determination of intake, and by means of the food composition tables (FCTs) the energy and nutrient of the diet were calculated. By chemical analysis of the duplicate sample (CA) of the cooked dishes the lipid intake was also determined. Total serum cholesterol HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, AI and B-100 apolipoproteins and Lp(a) were also analysed. Similarly the absolute and relative values for SFA, MUFA and PUFA obtained by both techniques were also different and these were maintained when the (PUFA + MUFA)/SFA ratio was calculated by both techniques and in the two periods. The correction of the lipid intake by means of the CA technique did not improve either the correlation between the intake or the plasma lipid concentration or the cholesterolemia prediction (r = 0.83 for FCT and CA).

  3. The influence of a whole food vegan diet with Nori algae and wild mushrooms on selected blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Joachim; Dschietzig, Thomas; Schwarz, Jens; Dura, Andreas; Nelle, Esther; Watanabe, Fumio; Wintgens, Karl Florian; Reich, Michael; Armbruster, Franz Paul

    2014-01-01

    Vegan and vegetarian diets could overcome many diseases of civilization. This study examines whether a whole food vegan diet with Nori algae and wild mushrooms can provide a sufficient quantity of critical nutrients. Five blood samples (Baseline to Time 5) were taken over eight months from 75 subjects (10 vegans without B12 supplementation who consumed Nori algae and wild mushrooms, 20 vegans with supplementation, 40 vegetarians, 5 meat-eaters). Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, total vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin, homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, vitamin B6, folic acid, ferritin, TSH, zinc, creatinine, vitamin D2 and D3. In the vegan group without supplementation, all means were within the tolerance (holotranscobalamin, homocystein) or normal, except for elevated methylmalonic acid and diminished vitamin D. This group developed significantly higher vitamin D2 levels. The vegan group with B12 supplementation and the vegetarian group showed normal values for all parameters. Vegans following a whole food diet had a borderline supply of vitamin B12. Folic acid, vitamin B6, TSH, iron metabolism, and the blood count were in the normal range. Vegans taking dietary supplements demonstrated satisfactory overall results. An ingestion of sundried mushrooms can contribute to the supply of vitamin D.

  4. Influences of an essential oil mixture supplementation to corn versus wheat-based practical diets on growth, organ size, intestinal morphology and immune response of male and female broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Coven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet type, supplementation diet with an essential oil mixture (EOM, and bird gender on the growth performance, carcass yield, internal organ weight, immune response, and small intestine histology of broiler chickens. To do this, a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement was designed. The variables used were: two diet types (based on either wheat or corn, 2 feed additives (with or without EOM, and gender (male or female. EOM supplementation in the diet decreased body weight in corn-fed male birds at Days 21 and 42, but not in those fed the wheat-based diet, signifying a diet x EOM x gender interaction. Cumulative feed intake was not influenced by either the diet type or EOM. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by diet type, whereas EOM improved feed conversion ratio over the 42-day growth period. Feeding birds on wheat decreased the carcass yield while it increased relative small intestine and large intestine weight. Relative weights of liver, bursa fabricius and serum infectious bursal disease (IBD and Newcastle disease (ND titers were not affected by any of the variables studied. EOM supplementation and feeding birds on corn increased jejunal villus height at both 21 and 42 days of age, while bird gender showed no effect. In general, EOM positively influenced body weight gain and efficiency of feed conversion in broiler chickens. Birds receiving the corn-based diet were more efficient in converting feed to body mass as compared to those fed on the wheat-based diet.

  5. Preconception risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Norita; Weng, Stephen F; Kai, Joe; Kleijnen, Jos; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2018-03-14

    Globally, about five per cent of children are born with congenital or genetic disorders. The most common autosomal recessive conditions are thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease, with higher carrier rates in specific patient populations. Identifying and counselling couples at genetic risk of the conditions before pregnancy enables them to make fully informed reproductive decisions, with some of these choices not being available if genetic counselling is only offered in an antenatal setting. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effectiveness of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment to improve reproductive outcomes in women and their partners who are identified as carriers of thalassaemia, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease in healthcare settings when compared to usual care. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Registers. In addition, we searched for all relevant trials from 1970 (or the date at which the database was first available if after 1970) to date using electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO), clinical trial databases (National Institutes of Health, Clinical Trials Search portal of the World Health Organization, metaRegister of controlled clinical trials), and hand searching of key journals and conference abstract books from 1998 to date (European Journal of Human Genetics, Genetics in Medicine, Journal of Community Genetics). We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles, reviews and guidelines and also contacted subject experts in the field to request any unpublished or other published trials.Date of latest search of the registers: 20 June 2017.Date of latest search of all other sources: 16 November 2017. Any randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (published or unpublished) comparing reproductive outcomes of systematic preconception genetic risk assessment for thalassaemia, sickle

  6. Do Skilled Elementary Teachers Hold Scientific Conceptions and Can They Accurately Predict the Type and Source of Students' Preconceptions of Electric Circuits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Holding scientific conceptions and having the ability to accurately predict students' preconceptions are a prerequisite for science teachers to design appropriate constructivist-oriented learning experiences. This study explored the types and sources of students' preconceptions of electric circuits. First, 438 grade 3 (9 years old) students were…

  7. Influence of two cultivars of persimmon on atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets: Investigation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Jesion, Iwona; Namiesnik, Jacek; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Park, Yong-Seo; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Giordani, Edgardo; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2011-01-01

    To assess the influence of two persimmon cultivars on some atherosclerosis indices in rats fed cholesterol (Chol)-containing diets. Persimmon cultivars "Fuyu" and "Jiro" as supplementation to rats' diets were investigated in vitro to compare the contents of their bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) and antioxidant potentials. In the in vivo investigation, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six diet groups, each with six rats: control, control/Fuyu, control/Jiro, Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro. During a period of 47 d (42 d of feeding and 5-d adaptation before the experiment) of the trial, rats in the control group were fed a basal diet and two additional control groups (control/Fuyu and control/Jiro) a basal diet plus 5% of lyophilized Fuyu and Jiro, respectively. The Chol, Chol/Fuyu, and Chol/Jiro rat groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 1% Chol (Chol group) and 1% Chol plus 5% lyophilized Fuyu (Chol/Fuyu group) and plus 5% lyophilized Jiro (Chol/Jiro group), respectively. After completion of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized using Narcotan (halothane) and sacrificed and the atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta were assessed. The obtained results of the investigation of all six groups were compared. Testing of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol in the liver, electrophoretic patterns of liver tissue, and three-dimensional fluorescence of serum protein fractions was performed. The polyphenols and tannins were significantly higher in the Fuyu cultivar (Pacid) (ABTS) assay (Pcholesterol 19.4% and 9.5%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 25.6% and 13.1%, respectively, P<0.05) and hindered the decrease in plasma antioxidant activity versus the Chol group by 40.0% and 16.8% and by 39.6% and 11.3% for the ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assays, respectively. The atherosclerotic

  8. Preconception health and care (PHC)-a strategy for improved maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Anna; Lindmark, Gunilla

    2016-06-20

    Maternal health status before pregnancy is a decisive factor for pregnancy outcomes and for risk for maternal and infant complications. Still, maternity care does not start until the pregnancy is established and in most low-income settings not until more than half of the pregnancy has passed, which often is too late to impact outcomes. In Western societies preconception care (PCC) is widely recognized as a way to optimize women's health through biomedical and behavioural changes prior to conception with the aim of improving pregnancy outcomes. But the content of PCC is inconsistent and limited to single interventions or preconception counselling to women with chronic illnesses. It has been suggested that PCC should be extended to preconception health and care (PHC), including interventions prior to pregnancy in order to optimize women's health in general, and thereby subsequent pregnancy outcomes, the well-being of the family, and the health of the future child. With this definition, almost every activity that can improve the health of girls and women can be included in the concept. In the World Health Report of 2005 a longitudinal approach to women's wellness and reproductive health was highlighted, and the World Health Organization has proposed a more comprehensive maternal and child health care, also including psychosocial issues and intimate partner violence. The present article gives an overview of the recent literature and discusses contents and delivery of PCC/PHC in Western as well as low-income countries. The article puts special emphasis on why violence against women is an issue for PHC.

  9. Influence of food availability on the diet and activity budget of two western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) groups of differing size in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Neba, Terence Fuh; Donati, Giuseppe; Todd, Angelique; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    Variation in food availability, body size and group size are known to influence primate diet and activity budgets. Here we report how seasonal food availability shapes the diet and activity patterns of two habituated western lowland gorilla (WLG) groups of differing size. WLGs are ripe fruit opportunists, showing dietary flexibility when preferred foods are scarce. However, as fruit can be rare/ patchily distributed, as intra-group feeding competition increases with group size, access to indi...

  10. Randomized Efficacy Trial of Early Preconception Counseling for Diabetic Teens (READY-Girls)

    OpenAIRE

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Ferons-Hannan, Margaret; Sereika, Susan; Becker, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?To develop and assess the feasibility of an early preconception counseling program for adolescents called READY-Girls (Reproductive-health Education and Awareness of Diabetes in Youth for Girls). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?A total of 53 adolescent females with type 1 diabetes between 16 and 19.9 years of age were randomized into groups receiving a CD-ROM, a book, or standard care (control) and given one comprehensive session. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, immediately after, a...

  11. Preconception sex selection for non-medical and intermediate reasons: ethical reflections

    OpenAIRE

    de Wert, G.; Dondorp, W.

    2010-01-01

    Sex selection for non-medical reasons is forbidden in many countries. Focusing on preconception sex selection, the authors first observe that it is unclear what should count as a ‘medical reason’ in this context and argue for the existence of ‘intermediate reasons’ that do not fit well within the rigid distinction between ‘medical’and ‘non-medical’. The article further provides a critical review of the arguments for the prohibition of sex selection for non-medical reasons and finds that none ...

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial of Preconception Interventions in Infertile Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Dodson, William C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Williams, Nancy I; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Fleming, Jennifer; Allison, Kelly C; Sarwer, David B; Coutifaris, Christos; Dokras, Anuja

    2015-11-01

    Lifestyle modification is recommended in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) prior to conception but there are few randomized trials to support its implementation or benefit. This study aimed to determine the relative efficacy of preconception intervention on reproductive and metabolic abnormalities in overweight/obese women with PCOS. This was a randomized controlled trial of preconception and infertility treatment at Academic Health Centers in women with infertility due to PCOS, age 18-40 y and body mass index 27-42 kg/m(2). Women were randomly assigned to receive either 16 weeks of 1) continuous oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) (ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg/1 mg norethindrone acetate) ("OCP"); 2) lifestyle modification consisting of caloric restriction with meal replacements, weight loss medication (either sibutramine, or orlistat), and increased physical activity to promote a 7% weight loss ("Lifestyle"); or 3) combined treatment with both OCP and lifestyle modification ("Combined"). After preconception intervention, women underwent standardized ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate and timed intercourse for four cycles. Pregnancies were followed with trimester visits until delivery. Weight, ovulation, and live birth were measured. We consented 216 and randomly assigned 149 women (Lifestyle: n = 50; OCP: n = 49; Combined: n = 50). We achieved significant weight loss with both Lifestyle (mean weight loss, -6.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI), -7.4--5.0; and Combined (mean weight loss, -6.4%; 95% CI, -7.6--5.2) compared with baseline and OCP (both P syndrome at the end of preconception treatment compared with baseline within OCP (odds ratio [OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.42-4.27) whereas no change in metabolic syndrome was detected in the Lifestyle (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.63-2.19) or Combined (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.44-1.17) groups. Cumulative ovulation rates were superior after weight loss: OCP, 46%; Lifestyle, 60%; and Combined, 67% (P weight loss intervention

  13. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Emelie; Edholm, Peter; Ponsot, Elodie; Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta; Hellmén, Erik; Nilsson, Andreas; Engfeldt, Peter; Cederholm, Tommy; Risérus, Ulf; Kadi, Fawzi

    2015-10-15

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 ± 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Influence of a multideficient diet from northeastern Brazil on resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity in conscious, freely moving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.F. Monteiro

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The "regional basic diet" or RBD is a multideficient diet (providing 8% protein which is known to produce dietary deficiencies in some populations in northeastern Brazil. The present study investigated the effects of RBD-induced malnutrition on resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity in conscious rats. Malnourished rats were obtained by feeding dams the RBD during mating and pregnancy (RBD-1 group or during nursing and a 10-day period after weaning (RBD-2 group. At 90 days of age, only RBD-2 rats weighed significantly (P<0.001 less than control rats born to dams fed a standard commercial diet (23% protein during pregnancy and nursing. Baseline mean arterial pressure and heart rate of both RBD-1 and RBD-2 rats were comparable to those of controls. The slopes for both reflex bradycardia and tachycardia (bpm/mmHg induced by intravenous phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were unchanged in either RBD-1 (-2.08 ± 0.11 and -3.10 ± 0.43, respectively or RBD-2 (-2.32 ± 0.30 and -3.73 ± 0.53, respectively rats, when compared to controls (-2.09 ± 0.10 and -3.17 ± 0.33, respectively. This study shows that, after a prolonged period of nutritional recovery, the patterns of resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity of both pre- and postnatally malnourished rats were similar to those of controls. The decreased body weight and the tendency to increased reflex tachycardia in RBD-2 rats may suggest that this type of maternal malnutrition during lactation is more critical than during pregnancy.

  15. Influence of sibutramine in addition to diet and exercise on the relationship between weight loss and blood glucose changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil, Sadaf; Finer, Nicholas; James, William Philip T; Caterson, Ian D; Andersson, Charlotte; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Weight loss is expected to improve glycaemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high-risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine-induced weight loss on glycaemic control. In total, 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine. Patients were classified into four groups of weight change. A total of 1582 patients had a weight loss >5.7 kg; 2047 patients lost 3.7-5.7 kg; 2432 patients lost sibutramine lost slightly more weight than those on placebo (-0.2 kg on average, P sibutramine-treated patients were -0.4 mmol/L (±3.2, P = 0.0002), +0.1 mmol/L (±3.0, P = 0.04), +0.4 mmol/L (±2.8, P = 0.01), and +0.2 mmol/L (±3.4, P = 0.003). Mean values of HbA1c followed the same pattern though the HbA1c changes were smaller with weight loss and greater with weight gain in the sibutramine group. All results were statistically significant (P sibutramine, diet, and exercise attenuates falls in blood glucose levels and HbA1c compared with similar weight loss with placebo, diet, and exercise. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Influence of main dietary chemical constituents on the in vitro gas and methane production in diets for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarana, Laura; Cattani, Mirko; Tagliapietra, Franco; Bailoni, Lucia; Schiavon, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Modification of chemical composition of diets fed to dairy cows might be a good strategy to reduce methane (CH4) production in the rumen. Notable reductions of CH4 production compared to conventional high-roughages rations were more frequently observed for very concentrated diets or when fat supplements were used. In these cases, the reduction in the gas emission was mainly a consequence of an overall impairment of rumen function with a reduction of fiber digestibility. These strategies do not always comply with feeding standards used in intensive dairy farms and they are usually not applied owing to the risks of negative health and economic consequences. Thus, the present study evaluated the effects of seven commercial diets with contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), protein and lipids ranging 325 to 435 g/kg DM, 115 to 194 g/kg DM, and 26 to 61 g/kg DM, respectively, on in vitro degradability, gas (GP), and CH4 production. In this experiment, changes in the dietary content of NDF, crude protein (CP) and lipids were always obtained at the expense or in favor of starch. A decreased of the dietary NDF content increased NDF (NDFd) and true DM (TDMd) degradability, and increased CH4 production per g of incubated DM (P production per g of TDMd was not affected. An increased dietary lipid content reduced NDFd, TDMd, and GP per g of incubated DM, but it had no consequence on CH4 production per g of TDMd. It was concluded that, under commercial conditions, changes in dietary composition would produce small or negligible alterations of CH4 production per unit of TDMd, but greater differences in GP and CH4 production would be expected when these amounts are expressed per unit of DM intake. The use of TDMd as a standardizing parameter is proposed to account for possible difference in DM intake and productivity.

  17. The relationship among preconception depression, anxiety, and social support of the reproductive-aged women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jihong; Chen, Ping; Ma, Xu

    2018-02-14

    The reproductive-aged women have to face physiological and psychological challenges as long as they plan to conceive. However, most previous studies focused on depression and anxiety during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the association among preconception depression, anxiety, and social support of the Chinese reproductive-aged women. Nine-hundred five reproductive-aged women who planned to conceive for the first or second time in the next three months were recruited through the Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital and Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from three provinces in China. Social Support Rating Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used in this study. The hierarchical regression model was employed to examine the prediction effect of the three sub-dimensions of social support on preconception depression and anxiety. Of the reproductive-aged women, 25.86 and 13.04% had preconception depression and anxiety symptoms. Nearly all reproductive-aged women had moderate and high social support before pregnancy. The significant differences in depression and anxiety among different levels of occupation and monthly income were found. For depression and anxiety, objective support, support availability, and subjective support simultaneously entered into the model still could significantly explain 5.9 and 6.7% of variations after controlling for the demographic variables, respectively. According to this study, there were significant correlations among preconception depression, anxiety, and social support. And objective support, support availability, and subjective support could negatively predict preconception depression and anxiety. Attaching importance to the preconception mental health and social support can provide effective scientific support for helping women fully understand and effectively use the social resources, and scientifically prepare for pregnancy.

  18. Is the intestinal microbiota in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) influenced by diet type and challenge by yersinia ruckeri?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Dalsgaard, Inger; Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff

    2013-01-01

    colonization of pathogenic bacteria. The question is if the gut microbiota is also important in lower vertebrates such as fish? And does it play a role in connection to pathogenic challenge? To examine these questions rainbow trout fry were fed two different diets of either a marine or vegetable origin...... of vegetable fed fish. Several genera within the order Lactobacillales belonged to the many reads from Firmicutes. In challenged fish with a high load of reads from genus Yersinia there was a significantly lower amount of reads from the order Burkholderiales. Further, these fish further clustered separately...

  19. Dietary Protein Source and Cyclooxygenase-Inhibition Influence Development of Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Homeostasis and Brown Adipose Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aune, Ulrike Liisberg

    striking differences between various protein sources in relation to the development of obesity, insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation. Casein protein, despite being the regular protein source used in experimental diets for rodents, seems to provide strong protection against obesity. This was......, the lean protein source, pork, seemed to promote obesity. However, this was attenuated when pork was exchanged for cod. Reduced feed-intake in the cod-fed mice could provide some explanation for this, but, other mechanisms, potentially involving endocannabinoids, may play a role. The small amount...

  20. Treatment of young rats with cholestyramine or a hypercholesterolemic diet does not influence the response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Bruijne, J.J. de; Katan, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Groups of 10 female Wistar rats (aged 4 weeks) were fed for 29 days either a low-cholesterol commercial diet, a commercial diet containing 2% (w/w) cholesterol, 0.5% cholate and 5% olive oil or a diet containing 2% cholestyramine. The rats were then fed the low-cholesterol commercial diet for the

  1. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  2. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  3. Individual carotenoid content of SRM 1548 total diet and influence of storage temperature, lyophilization, and irradiation on dietary carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, N.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A modified version of the AOAC procedure for the extraction of carotenoids from mixed feeds was coupled with an isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) method to measure individual carotenoids in SRM 1548 total diet and in a high-carotenoid mixed diet (HCMD). The major carotenoids identified in SRM 1548 were lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein, alpha-carotene, and zeaxanthin in descending order of concentration. The concentration of all carotenoids in SRM 1548 decreased as storage temperature increased. Significant differences in carotenoid concentrations occurred between -80 and 4 degrees C storage temperatures. Lyophilization of the HCMD significantly decreased beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations and produced an apparent increase in xanthophyll concentrations. Exposure to gamma-irradiation significantly decreased alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations and led to an apparent increase in P-cryptoxanthin. SRM 1548 was found to be unsuitable for use as a reference material for carotenoid measurements, while HCMD has greater potential as a reference material

  4. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  5. [Evaluation of influence of diet content and its supplementation with chosen group of B vitamins on lipids and lipoprtoteins concentration in female rat serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna

    2009-01-01

    The influence of diet content and its supplementation with chosen group of B vitamins on the intake of feeding stuff increase, changes of body mass, accumulation of fat tissue, lipids and lipoproteins concentration in the blood of female rats were under research. The animals, aged 5 months, were divided into three groups (8 persons each) and fed ad libitum with granulated Labofeed B type mix. Group I with the basic mix containing among other things whole grain, Group II with a modified mix, where whole grain was replaced by wheat flour and saccharose and Group III with modified mix supplemented in excess with chosen vitamins of B group. This experiment took 6 weeks during which the amount of consumed feed was currently evaluated, and the body mass was controlled weekly. After finishing the experiment in the obtained serum the concentration of triacylglycerols, complete cholesterol with enzyme method and the content of cholesterol fractions with electrophoretic separation method were determined. Analysis of fat content in muscles and livers was conducted and the amount of round the bodily organ fat was determined. It was ascertained that change of the content of the feed and its supplementation with the chosen B group vitamins did not influence in a substantial way its intake and the increase of body mass, however it had influenced substantially, in animals fed with the modified feed the accumulation of round the organ fat and in supplemented the intramuscular fat. Analysis of the results enabled the ascertainment that the diet supplementation with chosen ingredients of the B group vitamins corrects the negative effect of accumulation of the visceral fat tissue as a result of the change of its contents, caused substantial increase in the concentration of triacylglycerols, complete cholesterol and its fractions VLDL- and LDL- with simultaneous decrease of the concentration of cholesterol HDL- fractions.

  6. Influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers fed on wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, M R; Ravindran, V; Wester, T J; Ravindran, G; Thomas, D V

    2013-06-01

    1. The influence of pellet diameter and length on the quality of pellets and performance, nutrient utilisation and digestive tract development of broilers given wheat-based diets was examined from 10 to 42 d of age. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two pellet diameters (3 and 4.76 mm) and two pellet lengths (3 and 6 mm). From 0 to 9 d of age, all birds were offered a common starter diet pelleted with a 3-mm diameter die and 3-mm length. Broiler grower (d 10 to 21) and finisher (d 22 to 42) diets, based on wheat, were formulated and then subjected to the 4 different treatments. 2. In grower diets, increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the gelatinised starch (GS) content of the diets. In finisher diets, GS content of 3-mm diameter pellets did not change with increasing pellet length but decreased in 4.76-mm diameter pellets. 3. In grower and finisher diets, increments in intact pellet weight, pellet durability index and pellet hardness with increasing pellet length were greater in 3-mm diameter pellets than those with 4.76-mm diameter. 4. Increasing pellet length from 3 to 6 mm increased apparent metabolisable energy values. Neither the interaction nor main effects were significant for the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and starch. 5. During the grower period (d 10 to 21), birds given pellets of 6-mm length had greater body-weight gain than those given 3-mm length pellets. Feeding 6-mm length pellets decreased feed per body-weight gain compared to 3-mm length pellets. During the finisher (d 22 to 42) and whole grow-out (d 10 to 42) periods, while different pellet lengths had no effect on feed per body-weight gain values at 3-mm pellet diameter, increasing the pellet length decreased feed per body-weight gain at 4.76-mm pellet diameter. 6. Increasing pellet diameter and pellet length reduced the relative length of duodenum. Birds given 3-mm diameter pellets had heavier proventriculus compared to

  7. A methodology for evaluating the influence of diets and intergenerational dietary transitions on historic and future human exposure to persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Cristina L; Armitage, James M; Breivik, Knut; Wania, Frank

    2012-11-15

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Inuit populations have been observed to decrease over the last decade. The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology to quantify the potential influence of intergenerational dietary transitions on human exposure to organic contaminants in the Arctic environment using PCB-153 as a case study. Long-term (1930-2050) dynamic simulations using realistic emission estimates were conducted using linked chemical fate and bioaccumulation models. Female body burdens were calculated over time assuming five diets with varying proportions of traditional and imported food items and then used to illustrate the potential variability at a community/population level. At any given time point, individuals consuming a 100% traditional diet (i.e. high intake of ringed seal blubber) have modelled body burdens approximately 15-150 times higher than individuals consuming a 100% imported food diet. Consumption of locally-harvested fish (e.g. Arctic cod) and seal meat are also associated with comparatively low body burdens. Decreased emissions are predicted to decrease the PCB-153 body burden of 30-year old females by 6 to 13-fold from 1980 to 2020 with dietary transitions accounting for an additional factor of 2-50 (i.e. 12-650 times lower in total) depending on the type of dietary transition and the origin of the imported food items. The model results indicate that dietary transitions are an important factor underlying the variability within and between subpopulations in addition to partially explaining the observed temporal trends. Specific information on the nature and timing of dietary transitions is highly valuable when interpreting biomonitoring data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Pre-Pregnancy Risk Factors and its Relationship with Preconception Care in Isfahan- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shadab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Preconception care means interventions required for maternal and fetal health care and detection of pre-pregnancy risk factors. Some risk factors that have a significant effect on the outcome of pregnancy can be detected and controlled before pregnancy. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of pre-pregnancy risk factors, and its relationship with preconception care in Isfahan-Iran. Materials and Methods This descriptive study was a cross-sectional research which was conducted with multi-stage sampling (stratified and cluster from April to May 2016 on 702 women giving birth in hospitals in Isfahan (Iran. Data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire and data were analyzed using SPSS software, descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The results showed that, the interval between current pregnancy with a previous pregnancy less than 4 years 22.8%, abnormal weight (13%, sexually transmitted infections (11.3%, thyroid disorders (11 % , and history of hospitalization of infants in the intensive care unit (11.1%, were the highest pre-pregnancy risk factors reported. There was a significant positive correlation between thyroid disorder and polycystic ovary (P

  9. Results of first catamnestical examinations of children of parents irradiated preconceptionally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Eberhardt, H.J.; Rupprecht, E.; Voigtmann, L.; Jochem, I.; Medizinische Akademie, Dresden

    1976-01-01

    Results of first preliminary examinations of 21 children whose parents were preconceptionally irradiated for tumor treatment are presented. Most striking variations have been found in connective tissue and skeleton. Carporadiograms proved to be a valuable means for examining minus variants in cases of normal clinical evidence. In the case of a child of an irradiated father malformations of the bones of hands and feet have been observed. There were two premature still-births out of three pregnancies in the case of a patient exposed to a high gonad dose. No obvious deviations could be observed in sense organs and the central nervous system. The sex ratio of children of irradiated women was significantly shifted in favour of girls. It is proposed to establish for the GDR a central file of data on descendants from persons irradiated preconceptionally. The present study may be considered as a model. Finally, the information to be given to radiotherapy patients in the generative age is dealt with. (author)

  10. Wombs for rent: an examination of prohibitory and regulatory approaches to governing preconception arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Melody

    2003-02-01

    On October 9, 2002, Bill C-13 had its first reading in the Canadian House of Commons. Bill C-13 was in the same form as Bill C-56 of the First Session of the Thirty-seventh Parliament, which had its first reading on May 9, 2002. Bill C-13, an Act respecting assisted human reproduction, prohibits the practice of commercial surrogacy or preconception agreements in Canada, under threat of criminal sanction. In the first half of the article, the author discusses the deficiencies of the Bill's prohibitory approach to governing surrogacy agreements. These problems include the difficulty of implementing a criminal regime, the weak constitutional basis on which the federal government claims jurisdiction to enact a criminal prohibition of commercial surrogacy and the legislation's inability to prevent exploitation and coercion of vulnerable parties in surrogacy arrangements. In the second half of the article, the author examines an alternative regulatory scheme proposed by the Ontario Law Reform Commission and compares it to the prohibitory approach. The author concludes that the regulatory approach is much more effective than the prohibitory approach in governing the practice of commercial and non-commercial surrogacy arrangements. Regulation minimises the potentially exploitative aspects of surrogacy and provides legal protection to both parties in the agreement. The regulatory scheme proposed by the Ontario Law Reform Commission is also more effective in protecting the best interests of the child born as a result of a preconception agreement.

  11. Preconceptional nutrition and pregnancy outcomes: review and Dietitian-Nutritionist intervention proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fernández Molina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status of the mother before and during pregnancy has been observed in recent years as one of the most influential environmental factors on fetal development. This study focuses on the early stages of gestation or periconception period: preconception, conception, implantation, embryogenesis and placentation; since they represent a critical step in pregnancy outcomes. After an extensive literature review of 66 studies published between 1990 and 2015, iron, iodine, omega 3 fatty acids, folic acid and other B vitamins, minerals and micronutrients for which more evidence of a positive relationship with the development of the offspring were found. The approach of a dietary intervention by the dietitian, both individually and collectively, in the preconception period in women of childbearing age and/or pregnancy intentions is proposed in this study, being able to continue the intervention in periods of gestation, breastfeeding, postpartum and even offspring, causing long-term benefits, which are likely to remain and manifest throughout an individual’s life.

  12. Influence exercised by different levels of protein and cellular tissue in the diet on the radiosensitivity of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebengarts, Ya.Z.; Darenskaya, N.G.; Kuznetsova, S.S.; Il'in, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    Six groups of 50 male guinea pigs each were fed beginning with the 25-day age with the diet containing different amounts of protein (22.8, 17.5 and 13.8%) and cellulose (11.8, 13.6 and 15.7%). 10 animals from each group were gamma-irradiated ( 60 Co) at 300-700 R at the age of 4.5 months. The LDsub(50/30) values obtained varied from 428 R (group 2) to 503-510 R (groups 1, 3, 6) the difference being statistically insignificant. There was also no significant difference among the groups with respect to leucocyte and hemoglobin content in blood as well as to the number of skin autoflora colonies [ru

  13. [Influence of diets with a high content of qualitatively different carbohydrates on the metabolism of blood lipoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapkov, B G; Listratenkova, E F

    1977-01-01

    The feeding of rats for a space of 30 days on diets with elevated content of starch or saccharose (71 per cent of the total calorific value) was followed by an accelerated synthesis and secretion into the blood of pre-beta-lipoproteins. The ration with succharose, however, produced a much greater effect on the rate of synthesis of pre-beta-lipoproteins than did the one containing starch. The action of both carbohydrate-rich rations was noted to be attended by a growing rate of the apoproteids and glycerides exchange in the low-density lipoproteins. The feature distinguishing the effect produced by the ration with saccharose, as compared with that containing starch, was an accelerated etherification of cholesterol in the blood.

  14. Influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Zambonino-Infante, José Luiz; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Gatesoupe, François-Joël

    2011-11-01

    Fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. The objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. Vibrionaceae was high in faeces and in the intestine of sea bream, while a more diverse microbiota was retrieved from the stomach, where Bacillales and Flavobacteriaceae appeared to be influenced by the diet. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed a high diversity of the microbiota transiting in the sea bream digestive tract, with a shift between gastric and intestinal communities, especially in the group fed with lupin meal. The goldfish was different, with a predominance of Aeromonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens and Staphylococcus spp. among the aerotolerant-cultivable bacteria. The culture-independent methods revealed the presence of anaerobes like Cetobacterium somerae, and that of Vibrio spp., likely in a viable, but noncultivable state. There was a trend towards decreasing diversity in goldfish microbiota with the partial substitution by lupin, which seemed to inhibit some taxa. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Dalgard, Florence; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies with conflicting findings have investigated the association between acne and mental health problems. Acne usually starts in adolescents, as does an increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been more focus on the link between diet and acne and diet and mental health problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between acne and mental distress and to explore a possible influence of dietary factors on the relation. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study in Oslo of 18 or 19 year old adolescents. The participation rate was 80%. Acne was self-reported. To measure mental distress, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 was used. Diet and lifestyle variables were also collected by questionnaire and socio-demographic variables were obtained from Statistics Norway. Results The prevalence of acne was 14.4% among the males and 12.8% among the females. The mean score of mental distress increased when the severity of acne increased. In the crude analyses, the significant associations with acne among the males were: mental distress OR = 1.63, frequent consumption of chocolate/sweets OR = 1.40, frequent consumption of potato chips OR = 1.54. The significant crude associations with acne among the females were: mental distress OR = 2.16, infrequent consumption of raw vegetables OR = 1.41, non-Western background OR = 1.77 and low family income OR = 2.14. No crude associations with acne were identified in either gender for the consumption of sugary soft drinks, fatty fish, cigarette smoking or alcohol. In adjusted models which included diet and socio-demographic variables, the association between acne and mental distress was unchanged for both males (OR = 1.68) and females (OR = 2.04), and between acne and infrequent consumption of raw vegetables among the females (OR = 1.38). Conclusion Among late adolescents in Oslo, self-reported acne is significantly associated with mental distress and

  16. Pregnancy eating attributes study (PEAS): a cohort study examining behavioral and environmental influences on diet and weight change in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansel, Tonja R; Lipsky, Leah M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Burger, Kyle; Faith, Myles; Liu, Aiyi

    2016-01-01

    The rising prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity and excessive gestational weight gain poses a serious public health concern due to the contribution of these factors to increased risk of negative health outcomes for both mother and child. Scant intervention research has indicated moderate short-term improvement in maternal diet and gestational weight gain, with little evidence of long-term behavior change, in parallel with findings from interventions outside of pregnancy. Recent laboratory-based findings from neuroscience implicate aberrant reward processing of food at the brain level ("food reward sensitivity," the between-individual variation in the response to food stimuli) as a contributor to eating beyond energy needs. However, scant research has examined the influence of these processes on weight change in population-based settings, and the relevance of these processes to pregnancy-related weight change has not been explored. The purpose of the Pregnancy Eating Attributes Study (PEAS) is to examine the role of food reward sensitivity in maternal diet and weight change during pregnancy and postpartum. The study examines the interplay of food reward sensitivity with behavioral control, home food environment, and related aspects of eating behavior in the context of weight-related biomedical, psychosocial, genetic and behavioral factors including physical activity, stress, sleep and depression. Women of varying baseline weight status (n = 450) are enrolled early in pregnancy and followed, along with their infants, until 1 year postpartum. Assessments occur during each trimester of pregnancy, and postpartum at approximately 2 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months. Maternal food reward, self-control, home food environment, eating behaviors, dietary intake, health behaviors, and anthropometrics are assessed along with maternal and infant clinical and biological data, infant anthropometrics, and feeding practices. Primary exposures of interest include food

  17. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoresen Magne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies with conflicting findings have investigated the association between acne and mental health problems. Acne usually starts in adolescents, as does an increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been more focus on the link between diet and acne and diet and mental health problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between acne and mental distress and to explore a possible influence of dietary factors on the relation. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study in Oslo of 18 or 19 year old adolescents. The participation rate was 80%. Acne was self-reported. To measure mental distress, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 was used. Diet and lifestyle variables were also collected by questionnaire and socio-demographic variables were obtained from Statistics Norway. Results The prevalence of acne was 14.4% among the males and 12.8% among the females. The mean score of mental distress increased when the severity of acne increased. In the crude analyses, the significant associations with acne among the males were: mental distress OR = 1.63, frequent consumption of chocolate/sweets OR = 1.40, frequent consumption of potato chips OR = 1.54. The significant crude associations with acne among the females were: mental distress OR = 2.16, infrequent consumption of raw vegetables OR = 1.41, non-Western background OR = 1.77 and low family income OR = 2.14. No crude associations with acne were identified in either gender for the consumption of sugary soft drinks, fatty fish, cigarette smoking or alcohol. In adjusted models which included diet and socio-demographic variables, the association between acne and mental distress was unchanged for both males (OR = 1.68 and females (OR = 2.04, and between acne and infrequent consumption of raw vegetables among the females (OR = 1.38. Conclusion Among late adolescents in Oslo, self-reported acne is significantly associated with

  18. Lifestyle influences on the association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer prognosis - results from The Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Olsen, Anja; Kroman, Niels

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer specific mortality as well as potential influences from other lifestyle factors on the association was investigated. STUDY DESIGN: Female participants from the prospective cohort "Diet, Cancer......, and Health" diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) were identified and their pre-diagnostic HRT use evaluated for association with tumour biology and breast cancer outcome in multivariate analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Breast cancer specific mortality. RESULTS: Of the 1212 patients originally considered 1064...... were included. Of these, 105 women died from breast cancer during a median follow-up of 6.3 years (range 0.2-14.3 years). In multivariate analyses women who used HRT at enrolment into the cohort study had 47% lower risk of dying from breast cancer as compared to women who had previously or never used...

  19. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

    2008-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL diet of both small (CL diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of

  20. Effects of preconceptional irradiation on mortality and cancer incidence in the offspring of patients given injections of Thorotrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Michael; Juel, K; Ishikawa, Y

    1994-01-01

    Findings from a British case-control study suggest that a preconceptional paternal external radiation dose of more than 100 mSv (10 rem) is significantly related to risk for leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in offspring. The suggestion, however, has not been supported by experimental or other...

  1. Healthcare providers' views on the delivery of preconception care in a local community setting in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, M; Koster, MPH; Franx, A; van Stel, H F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The attention for preconception care (PCC) has grown substantially in recent years, yet PCC is far from routine in daily practice. One of the major challenges for the implementation of PCC is to identify how it can best be organized and provided within the primary care setting. The aim

  2. Health beliefs and stages of changes to improve behaviors among obese and overweight women undergoing preconception care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Malverdy

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Results showed that a health belief model could be a predictor of weight adjustment behaviors including nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Therefore, educational interventions based on a health belief model could be effective for improvement of these behaviors in obese and overweight women under preconception care.

  3. "I Thought It Would Be More Glamorous": Preconceptions and Misconceptions among Students in the Public Relations Principles Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Shannon A.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses public speaking students' preconceptions as they begin their study and the misconceptions to which they ascribe. Finds that students often enter the basic course unaware of a management focus, shocked by the level of strategic decision making required of practitioners, and surprised by the amount of research knowledge and activity…

  4. Pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of women with a preconception body mass index >50 kg/m²

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Barbara; Secher, Niels J; Møller, Lars K

    2013-01-01

    analyzed as relative risks by a two-proportion z-test. Women with preconception BMI >50 kg/m(2) smoked, developed gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, and needed induction of labor more frequently than mothers with BMI ≤50 kg/m(2) . Examination of the case records showed that many attempted vaginal...

  5. Healthcare providers’ views on the delivery of preconception care in a local community setting in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, M.; M.P.H. Koster (Maria); A. Franx (Arie); H.F. van Stel (Henk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The attention for preconception care (PCC) has grown substantially in recent years, yet PCC is far from routine in daily practice. One of the major challenges for the implementation of PCC is to identify how it can best be organized and provided within the primary care

  6. Preconception Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol. How to avoid illness. Hazards in your workplace or home that could harm you or your baby. Health problems that run in your or your partner's family. Problems you have had with prior pregnancies, including preterm birth. Family concerns that could affect ...

  7. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  8. Role of parental autonomy support on self-determination in influencing diet and exercise motivation in older adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison SA; Dashiff CJ; Vance DE

    2013-01-01

    Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and sop...

  9. Randomized efficacy trial of early preconception counseling for diabetic teens (READY-girls).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Ferons-Hannan, Margaret; Sereika, Susan; Becker, Dorothy

    2008-07-01

    To develop and assess the feasibility of an early preconception counseling program for adolescents called READY-Girls (Reproductive-health Education and Awareness of Diabetes in Youth for Girls). A total of 53 adolescent females with type 1 diabetes between 16 and 19.9 years of age were randomized into groups receiving a CD-ROM, a book, or standard care (control) and given one comprehensive session. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, immediately after, and at 3 months. Teens who received the CD and those who received the book demonstrated significant (P Future studies should examine repeated boosters of a CD and a book, which are not meant to replace but rather to reinforce and supplement health professional education.

  10. Preconception and early pregnancy maternal haemodynamic changes in healthy women in relation to pregnancy viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, F L; Collins, A; McEniery, C M; Bennett, P R; Wilkinson, I B; Lees, C C

    2017-05-01

    Are there differences in preconception cardiovascular function between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage? Preconception cardiovascular function of central haemodynamics and arterial function are similar between women who have a viable pregnancy and those who have a first trimester miscarriage. Miscarriages have been associated with increased long-term cardiovascular disease risk, and arterial and cardiovascular dysfunction has been hypothesised as the common link. It is not known if these risks are present prior to pregnancy or are a reflection of poor arterial and haemodynamic adaptation to pregnancy. This prospective longitudinal preconception cohort study was conducted over 18 months. In total, 367 participants were recruited pre-pregnancy, from which 197 pregnancies were recorded; 39 of these pregnancies ended in first trimester miscarriage. Complete longitudinal data were available for 172 pregnancies (140 viable pregnancies, 32 first trimester miscarriages) from pre-pregnancy to 6 weeks gestation. This was a single site study based at a maternity hospital in London. Healthy women were recruited prior to natural conception and followed up once they became pregnant. All underwent haemodynamic [cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR)] and arterial function [aortic augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)] testing prior to pregnancy and at 6 weeks gestation, using non-invasive devices (gas re-breathing method, Innocor® and an occilometric device, Vicorder®). Cross-sectional measurements at pre-pregnancy and 6 weeks gestation and a longitudinal analysis of changes were compared between women who had a subsequent viable pregnancy, and those who had a subsequent first trimester miscarriage. There were no differences between women destined to have a healthy ongoing pregnancy compared to those who miscarried, in terms of baseline cardiovascular function, assessed by CO, PVR, PWV or AIx

  11. The influence of early feeding practices on healthy diet variety score among pre-school children in four European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise; Moschonis, George; Oliveira, Andreia; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Manios, Yannis; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Charles, Marie Aline; Emmett, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined whether maternal diet and early infant feeding experiences relating to being breast-fed and complementary feeding influence the range of healthy foods consumed in later childhood. Data from four European birth cohorts were studied. Healthy Plate Variety Score (HPVS) was calculated using FFQ. HPVS assesses the variety of healthy foods consumed within and across the five main food groups. The weighted numbers of servings consumed of each food group were summed; the maximum score was 5. Associations between infant feeding experiences, maternal diet and the HPVS were tested using generalized linear models and adjusted for appropriate confounders. The British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de L'Enfant study (EDEN), the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort and the Greek EuroPrevall cohort. Pre-school children and their mothers. The mean HPVS for each of the cohorts ranged from 2.3 to 3.8, indicating that the majority of children were not eating a full variety of healthy foods. Never being breast-fed or being breast-fed for a short duration was associated with lower HPVS at 2, 3 and 4 years of age in all cohorts. There was no consistent association between the timing of complementary feeding and HPVS. Mother's HPVS was strongly positively associated with child's HPVS but did not greatly attenuate the relationship with breast-feeding duration. Results suggest that being breast-fed for a short duration is associated with pre-school children eating a lower variety of healthy foods.

  12. The Influence of Iron and Zinc Supplementation on the Bioavailability of Provitamin A Carotenoids from Papaya Following Consumption of a Vitamin A-Deficient Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana-Sop, Marie Modestine; Gouado, Inocent; Achu, Mercy Bih; Van Camp, John; Amvam Zollo, Paul Henri; Schweigert, Florian J; Oberleas, Donald; Ekoe, Tetanye

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies are serious public health problems in Cameroon, as in many developing countries. Local vegetables which are sources of provitamin A carotenoids (PACs) can be used to improve vitamin A intakes. However, traditional meals are often unable to cover zinc and iron needs. The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability of 3 PACs (α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) in young men, who were fed with a vitamin A-free diet and received iron and zinc supplementation. Twelve healthy participants were divided into three groups and were supplemented with elemental iron (20 mg of iron fumarate), 20 mg of zinc sulfate or iron+zinc (20 mg of iron in the morning and 20 mg of zinc in the evening) for 11 d. They were given a vitamin A- and PAC-free diet from the 6th to the 11th day, followed by a test meal containing 0.55 kg of freshly peeled papaya as a source of PACs. Blood samples were collected four times successively on the 11th day (the test meal day), at T0 (just after the test meal), after 2 h (T2), after 4 h (T4) and after 7 h (T7). Ultracentrifugation was used to isolate serum chylomicrons. Retinol appearance and PAC postprandial concentrations were determined. The supplementation with zinc, iron and iron+zinc influenced the chylomicron appearance of retinol and PACs differently as reflected by retention times and maximum absorption peaks. Iron led to highest retinol levels in the chylomicron. Zinc and iron+zinc supplements were best for optimal intact appearance of α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin respectively. Supplementation with iron led to the greatest bioavailability of PACs from papaya and its conversion to retinol.

  13. Influence of chronic stress on the compositions of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride in male Wistar rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Siyuan; Han, Xue; Fu, Jihua; Yuan, Xiaoling; Sun, Xing; Li, Qiang

    2012-07-01

      We determined the influence of chronic stress (CS) on the compositions of hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD).   Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard diet or a HFD and half of the HFD fed rats were given CS (electric foot shock assisted with noise) for 8 weeks.   Compared with the control group, the levels of hepatic total cholesterol (TC) and TG were significantly elevated in the HFD and HFD with chronic stress (HFD+CS) groups, and the more severe elevations of them were found in the HFD group. Inversely, the more severe elevations of hepatic water-soluble parts of TC and TG were found in the HFD+CS group, as the elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in liver and serum, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde in liver. Meanwhile, downregulated mRNA expressions of hepatic liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) were also more severe in the HFD+CS group.   CS can aggravate the high levels of water-soluble compositions of hepatic TC and TG induced by HFD as it aggravates hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress; in spite of that, however, it cannot further promote hepatic lipidosis. This is consistent with the downregulated mRNA expressions of LXR-α and PPAR-γ. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  14. Pre-Conception Dyslipidemia Is Associated with Development of Preeclampsia and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Baumfeld

    Full Text Available The association between glucose intolerance, elevated blood pressure and abnormal lipid levels is well established and comprises the basis of metabolic syndrome pathophysiology. We hypothesize that abnormal preconception lipid levels are associated with the increased risk of severe pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus.We included all singleton deliveries (n = 27,721 of women without known cardiovascular morbidity and preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus during previous pregnancies. Association between preconception low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc level≤50 mg/dL, high triglycerides (level≥150 mg/dL and the primary outcome (composite of gestational diabetes mellitus/or preeclampsia was assessed using Generalized Estimation Equations.Primary outcome of preeclampsia and/or gestational diabetes was observed in a total of 3,243 subjects (11.7%. Elevated triglycerides and low HDLc were independently associated with the primary outcome: with odds ratio (OR of 1.61 (95% CI 1.29-2.01 and OR = 1.33 (95% CI 1.09-1.63, respectively, after adjusting for maternal age, weight, blood pressure, repeated abortions, fertility treatments and fasting glucose. There was an interaction between the effects of HDLc≤50 mg/dL and triglycerides≥150 mg/dL with an OR of 2.69 (95% CI 1.73-4.19.Our analysis showed an increased rate of preeclampsia and/or gestational diabetes in women with low HDLc and high triglycerides values prior to conception. In view of the severity of these pregnancy complications, we believe this finding warrants a routine screening for the abnormal lipid profile among women of a child-bearing age.

  15. Preconception Screening for Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Thrombophilia and Hyperhomocysteinemia Risk in Healthy Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Yu. Glotova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency characteristics of the gene polymorphisms (FVL G1691A, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTRR A66G associated with thrombophilia, hyperhomocysteinemia risk and different perinatal or pregnancy complications were studied. This examination was conducted among 130 planned-pregnancy healthy young women aged between 19 and 29 years. A gene mutation analysis was performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR. Factor V Leiden (FVL G1691A and prothrombin gene (FII G20210A mutations were not identified in the women surveyed. The frequency of the occurrence of the heterozygous FVL 1691G/A genotype associated with the risk of thrombosis during pregnancy was very low in these women (0.8%. The frequency of the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1298C/С mutant genotype was 11.5%, MTHFR 677T/Т – 5.4%, and MTRR (methionine synthase reductase 66G/G – 31.5%. A combination of the MTHFR 677TT/1298CC and MTHFR 677TТ/MTRR 66GG mutant genotypes, which significantly increased the risk of pregnancy loss and neural tube defects, were found to occur in 0.8% of the cases.We concluded that selective thrombophilia screening (FVL G1691A and FII G20210A based on prior personal and/or family history of venous thromboembolism was more cost-effective than a universal preconception screening in all planning pregnancy women. However, in order to decrease the risk of congenital anomalies and pregnancy complications associated with folate dependent homocysteine metabolism, preconception care should include folate supplementation

  16. Promoting pre-conceptional use of folic acid to Hispanic women: a social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Hauser, Kimberlea; Bell-Ellison, Bethany A; Rodriguez, Nydia Y; Frías, Jaime L

    2006-09-01

    To develop a culturally appropriate communication initiative in an effort to promote the use of pre-conceptional folic acid among Hispanic women of childbearing age. The materials were designed to communicate information about the risks of neural tube defects and the value of folic acid supplementation before conception. The initiative was developed using a social marketing approach. A series of focus groups were conducted with Hispanic women, particularly Mexican and Mexican-American women, to gain an understanding of their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding birth defects and folic acid. Additionally focus groups assessed women's preferences for existing folic acid education materials. Qualitative analysis of coded transcripts revealed key themes which were incorporated into a multi-media initiative. Critical themes of the research highlighted the need to include the role of partners and a sense of family in the promotions aimed at these groups. Another key component was the need to dispel myths which act as barriers to pre-conceptional folic acid use. Other important elements included in the media products were the need for Spanish and English versions, an explanation of neural tube defects, and a reference to the cost of the supplements. The final products of the initiative included Spanish and English versions of a brochure, photo-novella, and radio public service announcement. Pre-testing results showed women understood the message, thought the message was for women like them, and expected to begin taking a folic acid supplement. Results of the overall evaluation of the initiative are on-going.

  17. Infant Birthweight in the US: The Role of Preconception Stressful Life Events and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P.; Mandell, Kara C.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Wakeel, Fathima; Park, Hyojun; Zarak, Dakota

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among preconception stressful life events (PSLEs), women’s alcohol and tobacco use before and during pregnancy, and infant birthweight. METHODS Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n=9,350). Data were collected in 2001. Exposure to PSLEs was defined by indications of death of a parent, spouse, or previous live born child; divorce or marital separation; or fertility problems prior to conception. Survey data determined alcohol and tobacco usage during the three months prior to and in the final three months of pregnancy. We used staged multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of women’s substance use and PSLEs on the risk of having a very low (<1,500 grams, VLBW) or low (1,500–2,499 grams, LBW) birthweight infant, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS Women who experienced any PSLE were more likely to give birth to VLBW infants (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.66) than women who did not experience any PSLE. Compared to women who never smoked, women who smoked prior to conception (AOR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.04–1.66) or during their last trimester (AOR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.56–2.52) were more likely to give birth to LBW infants. CONCLUSIONS PSLEs and women’s tobacco use before and during pregnancy are independent risk factors for having a lower birthweight baby. Interventions to improve birth outcomes may need to address women’s health and health behaviors in the preconception period. PMID:26767530

  18. Influence of algal diet on feeding and egg-production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Jensen, Johanne

    1990-01-01

    Threshold concentration, retention efficiency and egg-production in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana were examined using the algal species Isochrysis galbana clone T-iso, Dunalietta tertiolecta Butcher, Rhodomonas baltica Karsten, Ditylum brightwellii Grunow and Thalassiosira weissflogii...... Grun. Feeding and egg-production in A. tonsa was shown to be influenced by the size, quantity and quality of the food particles. The small I. galbana (4.8 μm) were inefficiently retained by A. tonsa and maximum ingestion rates on this species were first obtained at algal concentrations s> 1 μg C · ml−1...

  19. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of items allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no ... two or three days of starting the diet and antibiotics. If you haven't started feeling ...

  20. The preconception Mediterranean dietary pattern in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment increases the chance of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N.S.; Spek, van der P.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations between preconception dietary patterns and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes validated by biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway. Design: Observational prospective study. Setting: A tertiary referral fertility clinic at the Erasmus University

  1. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  2. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican-origin adults: implications for diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Wilkinson, Anna V; Koehly, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether influence from social network members is associated with motivation to change dietary and physical activity behaviors. Baseline assessment followed by mailing of family health history-based personalized messages (2 weeks) and follow-up assessment (3 months). Families from an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, Texas. 475 adults from 161 Mexican-origin families. Out of 347 households contacted, 162 (47%) participated. Family health history, social networks, and motivation to change behaviors. Two-level logistic regression modeling. Having at least one network member who encourages one to eat more fruits and vegetables (p = .010) and to engage in regular physical activity (p = .046) was associated with motivation to change the relevant behavior. About 40% of the participants did not have encouragers for these behaviors. Identification of new encouragers within networks and targeting natural encouragers (e.g., children, spouses) may increase the efficacy of interventions to motivate behavioral changes among Mexican-origin adults.

  3. Social influence and motivation to change health behaviors among Mexican origin adults: Implications for diet and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether influence from social network members is associated with motivation to change dietary and physical activity behaviors. Design Baseline assessment followed by mailing of family health history-based personalized messages (2 weeks) and follow-up assessment (3 months). Setting Families from an ongoing population-based cohort in Houston, TX. Subjects 475 adults from 161 Mexican origin families. Out of 347 households contacted, 162 (47%) participated. Measures Family health history, social networks, and motivation to change behaviors. Analysis Two-level logistic regression modeling. Results Having at least one network member who encourages one to eat more fruits and vegetables (p=.010) and to engage in regular physical activity (p=.046) was associated with motivation to change the relevant behavior. About 40% of the participants did not have encouragers for these behaviors. Conclusions Identification of new encouragers within networks and targeting natural encouragers (e.g., children, spouses) may increase the efficacy of interventions to motivate behavioral changes among Mexican origin adults. PMID:22208416

  4. Influence of socio-demographic and diet determinants on the levels of mercury in preschool children from a Mediterranean island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garí, Mercè; Grimalt, Joan O.; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Mercury levels measured in 302 hair samples of 4 year-old children from Menorca (western Mediterranean Sea) are reported. Their concentrations, arithmetic mean 1.4 μg/g, ranging between 0.040 μg/g and 10 μg/g, were higher than in other children inland populations but lower than in previously studied island cohorts, e.g. Faroe, Madeira and Seychelles. 20% of the samples were above the WHO recommended values. Higher concentrations in females than males were observed. Frequent consumption of fish and other seafood were significantly related to the observed mercury concentrations. Oily fish was the main source of this pollutant but shellfish and squid consumption were also associated with high mercury concentrations. Maternal smoking, occupational status or previous siblings were also found to significantly influence the levels of this pollutant. McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities used to assess children's motor and cognitive abilities did not show association with mercury concentrations at 4 years of age. Highlights: •20% of children exceed the WHO guideline level of 2 μg/g of mercury in hair. •Higher mercury concentrations in female than male children are observed. •Oily fish is the main source of mercury within frequent-fish consumer children. •Higher parity is associated with lower mercury concentrations in children. •No associations between children's cognitive abilities and mercury levels are found. -- Oily fish and shellfish consumption, parity, maternal smoking and occupational status are the main determinants of mercury in four year-old children from Menorca Island (Mediterranean Sea)

  5. Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age

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    Ruth Blanco-Rojo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142. Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC. Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene; rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene; and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively. Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26; women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59 and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57. Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001. In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  6. Influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status: a cross-sectional study in Spanish women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2014-03-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  7. Consuming High-Protein Soy Snacks Affects Appetite Control, Satiety, and Diet Quality in Young People and Influences Select Aspects of Mood and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Todd, Chelsie B; Zino, Adam Z; Immel, Jordan E; Mukherjea, Ratna; Shafer, Rebecca S; Ortinau, Laura C; Braun, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    Data concerning the effects of afternoon snacking on ingestive behavior, mood, and cognition are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare 1088 kJ of high-protein (HP) or high-fat (HF) afternoon snacks vs. no snacking on appetite, food intake, mood, and cognition in adolescents. Thirty-one healthy adolescents (age: 17 ± 1 y) consumed the following afternoon snacks (in randomized order) for 3 d: HP snack (26 g of protein/6 g of fat per 27 g of carbohydrates), HF snack (4 g of protein/12 g of fat per 32 g of carbohydrates), and no snack (NoS). On day 4 of each treatment, the participants completed an 8-h testing day containing pre- and postsnack appetite questionnaires, food cue-stimulated functional MRI brain scans, mood, cognitive function, and eating initiation. Ad libitum dinner and evening snacks were provided and assessed. HP, but not HF, delayed eating initiation vs. NoS (P snacks reduced appetite vs. NoS (P snacks than NoS (P snacking, particularly on HP soy foods, improves appetite, satiety, and diet quality in adolescents, while beneficially influencing aspects of mood and cognition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01781286. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common questions IBS patients have is what food to avoid. This can drive a person to ... Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause ...

  9. Short-term Exposure to a Mediterranean Environment Influences Attitudes and Dietary Profile in U.S. College Students: The MEDiterranean Diet in AMEricans (A-MED-AME) Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroka, Katherine; Dinu, Monica; Hoover, Chelsea; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term exposure to a Mediterranean diet during a structured abroad experience could influence dietary habits and attitudes. This study used a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted on the Florence University of the Arts (FUA) campus, Italy. Fifty-four (47 females, 7 males; mean age 21.1 ± 1.9 years) college students from 12 different states, mainly located in the central United States, were enrolled in this study. Outcome measures included adherence score to Mediterranean diet and self-reported perceptions of diet and food availability. A demographic survey was used to collect data regarding personal characteristics, anthropometrics, duration of stay, and residency status. Chi-square test, independent T-test, and Mann-Whitney test were used to perform analyses. At 3 weeks' follow-up, 94% of the population reported that availability of foods affected their food choices. Interestingly, students reported that they consumed less meat with respect to their usual dietary habits in the United States (p Mediterranean diet significantly increased by about 1 point, going from 9.9 ± 2.4 to 10.9 ± 2.0 (p Mediterranean diet was observed. Future research should explore the relationship between length of time spent in a foreign country and dietary adherence in a cultural context.

  10. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  11. Ethical, legal, and social issues in health technology assessment for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, B K; Avard, D; Entwistle, V; Kennedy, C; Chakraborty, P; McGuire, M; Wilson, B J

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening programs have been a focus of recent policy debates that have included attention to ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSIs). In parallel, there has been an ongoing discussion about whether and how ELSIs may be addressed in health technology assessment (HTA). We conducted a knowledge synthesis study to explore both guidance and current practice regarding the consideration of ELSIs in HTA for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening. As the concluding activity for this project, we held a Canadian workshop to discuss the issues with a diverse group of stakeholders. Based on key workshop themes integrated with our study results, we suggest that population-based genetic screening programs may present particular types of ELSIs and that a public health ethics perspective is potentially highly relevant when considering them. We also suggest that approaches to addressing ELSIs in HTA for prenatal/preconceptional and newborn screening may need to be flexible enough to respond to diversity in HTA organizations, cultural values, stakeholder communities, and contextual factors. Finally, we highlight a need for transparency in the way that HTA producers move from evidence to conclusions and the ways in which screening policy decisions are made. Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Influence of housing system, grain type, and particle size on Salmonella colonization and shedding of broilers fed triticale or corn-soybean meal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, F B O; Sheldon, B W; Santos, A A; Ferket, P R

    2008-03-01

    Salmonella colonization in poultry may be influenced by grain type and particle size. Broilers reared either in nonlitter cage-based housing or in a conventionally floored litter house from 0 to 42 d were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) ground corn-soybean meal (C, 560 microm), 2) coarsely ground corn-soybean meal (CC, >1,700 microm), 3) ground triticale-soybean meal (T, 560 microm), or 4) whole triticale-soybean meal (WT). A 4-strain cocktail of Salmonella enterica was orally gavaged into each chick at placement. Growth performance, cecal and fecal Salmonella populations, gizzard and proventriculus pH, intestinal size, jejunum histomorphometry, and carcass yields were measured. Broilers responded differently to the dietary treatments according to the housing system used. At 42 d, birds reared on litter and fed ground grain had greater BW than those fed coarse grain (2.87 vs. 2.71 kg), whereas cage-reared broilers fed ground triticale were heavier than those fed corn (2.75 vs. 2.64 kg). Broilers raised on litter had a better feed conversion ratio than those raised in cages (1.71 vs. 1.81 g/g). Independent of the housing system, relative eviscerated carcass weights of birds fed T and C were heavier than those of CC- and WT-fed broilers (762 vs. 752 g/kg). Generally, the jejunum villus area and mucosal depth were larger, whereas the small intestine was lighter and shorter in broilers raised on litter. Relative gizzard weights of broilers raised on litter and fed the coarser diets were heavier than those of broilers reared in cages and fed finely ground diets. Feeding whole or coarsely ground grains decreased cecal Salmonella populations in 42-d-old broilers (3.8, 3.9, 4.4, and 4.4 log most probable number/g for CC, WT, C, and T, respectively). Additionally, 42-d-old broilers reared on litter had lower cecal Salmonella populations than those in cages (3.8 vs. 4.4 log most probable number/g). In conclusion, as a feed ingredient, triticale is a good

  13. Maternal perinatal diet induces developmental programming of bone architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, M J; Grasemann, C; Cloutier, A M; Louis, L; Alm, C; Palmert, M R; Bouxsein, M L

    2013-04-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet can alter offspring metabolism via perinatal developmental programming. This study tests the hypothesis that maternal HF diet also induces perinatal programming of offspring bone mass and strength. We compared skeletal acquisition in pups from C57Bl/6J mice fed HF or normal diet from preconception through lactation. Three-week-old male and female pups from HF (HF-N) and normal mothers (N-N) were weaned onto normal diet. Outcomes at 14 and 26 weeks of age included body mass, body composition, whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC) via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, femoral cortical and trabecular architecture via microcomputed tomography, and glucose tolerance. Female HF-N had normal body mass and glucose tolerance, with lower body fat (%) but higher serum leptin at 14 weeks vs. N-N (Pbone volume fraction was 20% higher at 14 weeks in female HF-N vs. N-N (Pbone area was 6% higher at 14 weeks vs. N-N (Pbone, supporting the hypothesis that maternal diet alters postnatal skeletal homeostasis.

  14. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  15. Application of Donabedian quality-of-care framework to assess the outcomes of preconception care in urban health centers, Mashhad, Iran in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghaffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Improving patient health status is the primary goal of healthcare system. and planning to improve the health care services without taking into account the views of care receivers is not possible .In this regard, Donabedian Model as an appropriate framework in assessing the quality of health care, has particular attention to the issue of "outcomes", which are sometimes seen as the most important indicators of quality. This study therefore aimed to assess the outcomes of preconception care including changes to health knowledge as well as patient satisfaction in urban health centers, Mashhad, Iran in 2012. Methods: In this descriptive study, 350 women of reproductive age who received preconception care in urban health centers of Mashhad, Iran, were selected using a two stage sampling design. Demographic and obstetric data were collected through a self-structured questionnaire.  Outcomes of preconception care including health knowledge as well as patient satisfaction were measured using a questionnaire adopted from Donabedian Model. Data were analyzed with SPSS Software version 16 and statistical tests such as ANOVA, Chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient. Findings: The mean age of women was 22.5 ± 26.93 and the mean score of their marriage years was 6.32±4.77.  67.4% of subjects experienced between one and six pregnancies. The mean score of health knowledge of preconception care was 53.4 ± 8.14 and the highest score of its subdomains was related to the personal hygiene. The mean score of patients' satisfaction of preconception care was 84.11 ± 56.75 and its highest score was in relation to counseling and provided care. Conclusion: According to the results, planning to provide better education services for clients, raising public awareness regarding preconception care and more emphasis on preconception care importance in continuous education of health care providers are recommended.  

  16. Preconception and prenatal urinary concentrations of phenols and birth size of singleton infants born to mothers and fathers from the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerlian, Carmen; Mustieles, Vicente; Minguez-Alarcon, Lidia; Ford, Jennifer B; Calafat, Antonia M; Souter, Irene; Williams, Paige L; Hauser, Russ

    2018-05-01

    Although pregnancy concentrations of some phenols have been associated with infant size at birth, there is limited data on the effect of preconception exposure. We aimed to examine paternal and maternal preconception and maternal prenatal urinary phenol concentrations in relation to birth weight and head circumference. We evaluated 346 singletons born to 346 mothers and 184 fathers (184 couples) from a prospective preconception cohort of subfertile couples from the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study in Boston, USA. We used multiple urine samples collected before the index pregnancy in both men and women to estimate mean preconception urinary benzophenone-3, triclosan, butylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben, or ethylparaben concentrations. We also estimated mean maternal prenatal urinary phenol concentrations by averaging trimester-specific urine samples. Birth weight and head circumference were abstracted from delivery records. We estimated the association of natural log-phenol concentrations with birth outcomes using multivariable linear regression models, adjusting for known confounders. In adjusted models, each log-unit increase in paternal preconception benzophenone-3 concentration was associated with a 137 g increase in birth weight (95% CI: 60, 214). Additional adjustment for prenatal benzophenone-3 concentration strengthened this association. None of the maternal preconception phenol concentrations were associated with birth weight. However, maternal prenatal triclosan concentrations were associated with a 38 g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: -76, 0). Few associations were observed between phenols and head circumference except for a decrease of 0.27 cm (95% CI: -54, 0) in relation to maternal preconception methylparaben concentration. Although our findings should be interpreted in light of inherent study limitations, these results suggest potential evidence of associations between some paternal or maternal phenol concentrations and

  17. The Fecal Microbiota in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus Is Influenced by Interactions Between Age and Diet; A Five Year Longitudinal Study

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    Emma N. Bermingham

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In humans, aging is associated with changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota; these changes may contribute to the age-related increase in incidence of many chronic diseases, including Type 2 diabetes. The life expectancies of cats are increasing, and they are also exhibiting the same types of diseases. While there are some studies investigating the impacts of diets on gastrointestinal microbiota in young cats, the impacts of aging in older cats has not been explored. We followed a cohort of related kittens, maintained on two commercial diets (kibbled and canned from weaning (8 weeks to 5 years of age (260 weeks. We hypothesized that the long-term feeding of specific diet formats would (a lead to microbial composition changes due to aging, (b impact body composition, and (c affect insulin sensitivity in the aging cat. We observed that both diet and age affected fecal microbial composition, and while age correlated with changes in body composition, diet had no effect on body composition. Similarly insulin sensitivity was not affected by age nor diet. 16S rRNA sequencing found unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae were prominent across all ages averaging 21.3% of gene sequence reads and were higher in cats fed canned diets (average of 25.7% of gene sequence reads, vs. 17.0% for kibble-fed cats. Age-related effects on body composition and insulin sensitivity may become apparent as the cats grow older; this study will continue to assess these parameters.

  18. GP-initiated preconception counselling in a randomised controlled trial does not induce anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven A Knuistingh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preconception counselling (PCC can reduce adverse pregnancy outcome by addressing risk factors prior to pregnancy. This study explores whether anxiety is induced in women either by the offer of PCC or by participation with GP-initiated PCC. Methods Randomised trial of usual care versus GP-initiated PCC for women aged 18–40, in 54 GP practices in the Netherlands. Women completed the six-item Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI before PCC (STAI-1 and after (STAI-2. After pregnancy women completed a STAI focusing on the first trimester of pregnancy (STAI-3. Results The mean STAI-1-score (n = 466 was 36.4 (95% CI 35.4 – 37.3. Following PCC there was an average decrease of 3.6 points in anxiety-levels (95% CI, 2.4 – 4.8. Mean scores of the STAI-3 were 38.5 (95% CI 37.7 – 39.3 in the control group (n = 1090 and 38.7 (95% CI 37.9 – 39.5 in the intervention group (n = 1186. Conclusion PCC from one's own GP reduced anxiety after participation, without leading to an increase in anxiety among the intervention group during pregnancy. We therefore conclude that GPs can offer PCC to the general population without fear of causing anxiety. Trial Registration: ISRCTN53942912

  19. Preconception carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis in thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies: challenges and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Harteveld, Cornelis L

    2017-03-01

    Hemoglobinopathies constitute the most common severe monogenic disorders worldwide, with an increasing global burden each year. The benefit of applying programmes for preconception carrier screening, with the option of prenatal diagnosis, to minimize the incidence of new cases is recognized in many countries. Areas covered: The challenges associated with identifying carrier couples using hematology-based screening, along with DNA diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis were addressed, based on a literature search and the authors expertise. Expert commentary: The hemoglobinopathies are extremely heterogeneous at the haematological, molecular and clinical level, requiring appropriately equipped and staffed laboratories with experience to support comprehensive screening and diagnosis. However complete services with adequate infrastructure to address the associated technical challenges do not exist widely, especially in low-income countries that, coincidentally, are often those with the highest frequency of hemoglobinopathies in their population. Additionally, overcoming limited public awareness, education and absence of systematic dissemination of information also constitutes a challenge. This article aims to highlight these challenges and to evaluate potential future developments that may address at least some of them, focusing mainly on the technical challenges related to molecular diagnostics.

  20. Preconception Care: A New Standard of Care within Maternal Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research suggests that much pediatric affliction has origins in the vulnerable phase of fetal development. Prenatal factors including deficiency of various nutrients and exposure to assorted toxicants are major etiological determinants of myriad obstetrical complications, pediatric chronic diseases, and perhaps some genetic mutations. With recent recognition that modifiable environmental determinants, rather than genetic predestination, are the etiological source of most chronic illness, modification of environmental factors prior to conception offers the possibility of precluding various mental and physical health conditions. Environmental and lifestyle modification through informed patient choice is possible but evidence confirms that, with little to no training in clinical nutrition, toxicology, or environmental exposures, most clinicians are ill-equipped to counsel patients about this important area. With the totality of available scientific evidence that now exists on the potential to modify disease-causing gestational determinants, failure to take necessary precautionary action may render members of the medical community collectively and individually culpable for preventable illness in children. We advocate for environmental health education of maternity health professionals and the widespread adoption and implementation of preconception care. This will necessitate the translation of emerging knowledge from recent research literature, to health professionals, to reproductive-aged women, and to society at large.

  1. Preconception health: awareness, planning, and communication among a sample of US men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Levis, Denise M; Prue, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    It is important to educate both men and women about preconception health (PCH), but limited research exists in this area. This paper examines men's and women's awareness of exposure to PCH information and of specific PCH behaviors, PCH planning, and PCH discussions with their partners. Data from Porter Novelli's 2007 Healthstyles survey were used. Women and men of reproductive age were included in the analysis (n = 2,736) to understand their awareness, planning, and conversations around PCH. Only 27.9% of women and men reported consistently using an effective birth control method. The majority of men (52%) and women (43%) were unaware of any exposure to PCH messages; few received information from their health care provider. Women were more aware than men of specific pre-pregnancy health behaviors. Women in the sample reported having more PCH conversations with their partners than did men. PCH education should focus on both women and men. Communication about PCH is lacking, both between couples and among men and women and their health care providers. PCH education might benefit from brand development so that consumers know what to ask for and providers know what to deliver.

  2. Consistencies far beyond chance: an analysis of learner preconceptions of reflective symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kainose Mhlolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on regularities observed in learners' preconceptions of reflective symmetry. Literature suggests that the very existence of such regularities indicates a gap between what learners know and what they need to know. Such a gap inhibits further understanding and application, and hence needed to be investigated. A total of 235 Grade 11 learners, from 13 high schools that participate in the First Rand Foundation-funded Mathematics Education project in the Eastern Cape, responded to a task on reflective symmetry. Our framework for analysing the responses was based on the taxonomy of structure of the observed learning outcome. The results indicated that 85% of learner responses reflect a motion understanding of reflections, where learners considered geometric figures as physical motions on top of the plane. While this understanding is useful in some cases, it is not an essential aspect of mapping understanding, which is critical for application in function notations and other analytical geometry contexts. We suggest that if this gap is to be closed, learners need to construct these reflections physically so that they may think of reflections beyond motion.

  3. Preconception sex selection for non-medical and intermediate reasons: ethical reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wert, G; Dondorp, W

    2010-01-01

    Sex selection for non-medical reasons is forbidden in many countries. Focusing on preconception sex selection, the authors first observe that it is unclear what should count as a 'medical reason' in this context and argue for the existence of 'intermediate reasons' that do not fit well within the rigid distinction between 'medical'and 'non-medical'. The article further provides a critical review of the arguments for the prohibition of sex selection for non-medical reasons and finds that none of these are conclusive. The authors conclude that the ban should be reconsidered, but also that existing-- societal concerns about possible harmful effects should be taken seriously. Measures to this effect may include limiting the practice to couples who already have at least one child of the sex opposite to that which they now want to select ('family balancing'). Finally, a difficult set of questions is raised by concerns about the reliability and unproven (long-term) safety of the only technology (flow cytometry) proven to work.

  4. Couples' notions about preconception health: implications for framing social marketing plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Megan A; Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Levis, Denise M; Isenberg, Karen; Kish-Doto, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To understand couples' notions of preconception health (PCH) and to inform the development of social marketing plans focused on PCH. APPROACH/DESIGN: We used a social marketing perspective to understand how couples considered PCH as a product, its potential price, how it should be promoted, and in what type of places it should be promoted. These variables are typically referred to as the four social marketing P's. Telephone interviews with couples recruited from a national database. A total of 58 couples (116 individuals) were segmented by five couple segments based on pregnancy planning intention and current parental status in which the wife or partner was 18 to 44 years of age. The five segments were combined into three categories: couples who were planning pregnancies, couples who were not planning pregnancies, or couples who were recent parents (interconception). Couple-based structured interviews lasting approximately 45 to 60 minutes were conducted via telephone. Questions inquired about couples' experience with PCH and the four social marketing P's. Commonalities existed across the four social marketing P's for the different couple segments. Notable couple-related themes that emerged included the importance of couple communication, support, and relationship quality. PCH was more relevant for couples planning a pregnancy, but nonplanning couples understood the benefits of PCH and related behaviors. Couples may be an important target audience when considering social marketing approaches for PCH. Many couples perceived the relevance of the issue to important aspects of their lives, such as health, family, and their relationships.

  5. A content analysis of preconception health education materials: characteristics, strategies, and clinical-behavioral components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Denise M; Westbrook, Kyresa

    2013-01-01

    Many health organizations and practitioners in the United States promote preconception health (PCH) to consumers. However, summaries and evaluations of PCH promotional activities are limited. We conducted a content analysis of PCH health education materials collected from local-, state-, national-, and federal-level partners by using an existing database of partners, outreach to maternal and child health organizations, and a snowball sampling technique. Not applicable. Not applicable. Thirty-two materials were included for analysis, based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. A codebook guided coding of materials' characteristics (type, authorship, language, cost), use of marketing and behavioral strategies to reach the target population (target audience, message framing, call to action), and inclusion of PCH subject matter (clinical-behavioral components). The self-assessment of PCH behaviors was the most common material (28%) to appear in the sample. Most materials broadly targeted women, and there was a near-equal distribution in targeting by pregnancy planning status segments (planners and nonplanners). "Practicing PCH benefits the baby's health" was the most common message frame used. Materials contained a wide range of clinical-behavioral components. Strategic targeting of subgroups of consumers is an important but overlooked strategy. More research is needed around PCH components, in terms of packaging and increasing motivation, which could guide use and placement of clinical-behavioral components within promotional materials.

  6. Management of Hyperthyroidism during the Preconception Phase, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sudipa; Bischoff, Lindsay A

    2016-11-01

    Hyperthyroidism can occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and the treatment of hyperthyroidism should be considered in the preconception phase. Pregnancy has multiple normal physiologic effects on thyroid hormone, which is a separate process distinct from syndromes such as transient hyperthyroidism of hyperemesis gravidarum. The rationale regarding antithyroid drug use during different stages of pregnancy is reviewed, including the literature regarding adverse neonatal outcomes such as aplasia cutis and methimazole embryopathy in the setting of first trimester maternal methimazole use. The use of treatment modalities for hyperthyroidism during pregnancy such as surgery is also discussed. Studies of maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications of hyperthyroidism are examined in this article. Moreover, the evidence regarding antithyroid drugs, specifically methimazole and propylthiouracil, during lactation is considered. Other disease conditions that can take place during pregnancy and the postpartum period such as hyperemesis gravidarum, subclinical hyperthyroidism, gestational trophoblastic disease, and postpartum thyroiditis and their treatments are also presented. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. [Influence of hypocaloric diet with addition of a vitamin-mineral complex on status of patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Zykina, V V; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Sokol'nikov, A A; Kaganov, B S

    2011-01-01

    Addition of a vitamin-mineral complex (VMC) to a standard hypocaloric diet leads to a positive dynamics of antropometric characteristics in patients with obesity 1st and 2nd degrees which is comparable to effectiveness of standard dietotherapy (dietary treatment) traditionally used in complex treatment of obesity. Addition of 1,8 mg of vitamin B2 as part of VMC to a hypocaloric diet is shown to be inadequate in eradication of marginal provision of riboflavin when using diets reduced in calories.

  8. Influence of diets to Wistar rats supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine products treated by lactofermentation to improve their gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, E; Juodeikiene, G; Vidmantiene, D; Zdunczyk, Z; Zdunczyk, P; Juskiewicz, J; Cizeikiene, D; Matusevicius, P

    2013-09-01

    The present study proposes the contribution of lactic acid bacteria and plants rich in bioactive substances and high-quality proteins as alternative products for human diets in improving the gut environment as potential against pathogenic bacteria. The effect of diets supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine flours fermented with a Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 probiotic strain in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Wistar rats were analyzed. In vivo experiments showed a positive effect of long time lactofermentation of plant material on the body weight of rats. Diets with fermented yellow lupine resulted in enhanced activities of α-glucosidase, β-galactosidases, as well as high levels of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enterococci in the GIT were determined. Lactofermentation of analyzed plant products had a significantly lowering effect on Escherichia coli compared with the control group. The dominant flora of large intestines like Bifidobacterium and anaerobic cocci were found in high levels after diets with fermented lupine.

  9. Preconception care policy, guidelines, recommendations and services across six European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Jill; Delbaere, Ilse; Ekstrand, Maria; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Larsson, Margareta; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Stern, Jenny; Steegers, Eric; Stephenson, Judith; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    Preconception care is important for the screening, prevention and management of risk factors that affect pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to investigate pre-pregnancy care policies, guidelines, recommendations and services in six European countries. In 2013, an electronic search and investigation was undertaken of preconception policy, guidelines, recommendations and services available to healthcare professionals and the general public in six European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Findings were compared within five categories: Governmental policy and legislation; Professional bodies and organisations; Healthcare providers; Charitable organisations; Web-based public information and internet sites. All countries had preconception recommendations for women with chronic diseases, such as diabetes and epilepsy. Recommendations for healthy women and men were fragmented and inconsistent. Preconception guidance was often included in antenatal and pregnancy guidelines. Differences between countries were seen with regard to nutritional and lifestyle advice particularly in relation to fish, caffeine and alcohol consumption, and vitamin supplementation. Current guidelines are heterogeneous. Collaborative research across Europe is required in order to develop evidence-based guidelines for preconception health and care. There is a need to establish a clear strategy for promoting advice and guidance within the European childbearing population.

  10. Influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on egg production and eggs quality of brown egg laying hens from 33 to 65 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Berrocoso, J D; Mateos, G G

    2018-04-17

    The influence of grinding size of the main cereal of the diet on production and egg quality traits was studied in brown hens from 33 to 65 wk of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial with 3 main cereals (barley, corn, and wheat) and 2 grinding size of the cereal (6 and 10 mm screen). Each treatment was replicated 11 times (10 hens/replicate). Diets were isonutritive and contained 2,740 kcal/kg AMEn and 16.8% CP. Egg production, ADFI, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined by period (4 wk) and for the entire experiment. Egg quality traits (percentage of undergrades, Haugh units, thickness, strength, color of the shell, and proportion of albumen, yolk, and shell) were measured also by period. No interactions between main cereal and grinding size of the main cereal of the diet were observed for any of the traits studied. Feed intake, egg production, and BW gain were not affected by diet or grinding size. Eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) in hens fed barley than in hens fed corn or wheat, probably because of the higher fat content of the barley diets. Also, FCR tended to improve in hens fed barley compared with hens fed corn or wheat (P = 0.07). Diet did not affect any of the egg quality traits studied. In summary, barley and wheat conveniently supplemented with enzymes, can be used in substitution of corn at levels of up to 55% in diets for laying hens, without any adverse effect on egg production or egg quality traits. Moreover, the substitution of corn by a combination of barley and supplemental fat increased egg size. Consequently, the inclusion of one or other cereal in the diet will depend primarily on their relative cost. Within the range studied, screen size (6 vs. 10 mm) of the cereal had limited effects on hen production.

  11. Diets high in corn oil or extra-virgin olive oil differentially modify the gene expression profile of the mammary gland and influence experimental breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Vela, Elena; Ruiz de Villa, M Carme; Escrich, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    Nutritional factors, especially dietary lipids, may have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. We aimed to analyze the effects of high-fat diets on the susceptibility of the mammary gland to experimental malignant transformation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, high-corn-oil, or high-extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction. Animals were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene at 53 days and euthanized at 36, 51, 100 and 246 days. Gene expression profiles of mammary glands were determined by microarrays. Further molecular analyses were performed by real-time PCR, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry. Carcinogenesis parameters were determined at 105 and 246 days. High-corn-oil diet increased body weight and mass when administered from weaning. The EVOO diet did not modify these parameters and increased the hepatic expression of UCP2, suggesting a decrease in intake/expenditure balance. Both diets differentially modified the gene expression profile of the mammary gland, especially after short dietary intervention. Corn oil down-regulated the expression of genes related to immune system and apoptosis, whereas EVOO modified the expression of metabolism genes. Further analysis suggested an increase in proliferation and lower apoptosis in the mammary glands by effect of the high-corn-oil diet, which may be one of the mechanisms of its clear stimulating effect on carcinogenesis. The high-corn-oil diet strongly stimulates mammary tumorigenesis in association with modifications in the expression profile and an increased proliferation/apoptosis balance of the mammary gland.

  12. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  13. Influence of supplementing vitamin C to yearling steers fed a high sulfur diet during the finishing period on meat color, tenderness and protein degradation, and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of vitamin C (VC) supplemented for approximately 102 d during the finishing period on color, tenderness, and fatty acid profile of longissimus thoracis (LT; n=136) from steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet. Treatments included 4 supplemental VC concentrations: 1) 0 (CON), 2) 5 (5VC), 3) 10 (10VC), or 4) 20 (20VC) gVC·h(-1)∙d(-1) in a common diet. Increasing supplemental VC decreased (Pvitamin E and tended to increase (P≤0.07) calcium and iron content of steaks. No VC (P≥0.25) effect was noted for WBSF, calpain-1 autolysis, troponin T degradation, or most fatty acid profiles. A quadratic effect (P≤0.03) was observed for cholesterol and CLA content of LT. Under the conditions of our study, supplementing VC to steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet late in the finishing period did not influence color or tenderness, but increased the vitamin E content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preconception counselling initiated by general practitioners in the Netherlands: reaching couples contemplating pregnancy [ISRCTN53942912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove-Vanhorick SP

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maximise the potential for reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, preconception counselling (PCC is used to inform couples contemplating pregnancy about general and personal risk factors. Many initiatives have been developed to provide PCC, but none offers it routinely in a presumed low-risk population. The objective of the study was to investigate the extent to which women contemplating pregnancy can be reached when a PCC programme is routinely offered by general practitioners (GPs. Methods 30 GPs actively offered PCC to all women aged 18 to 40 over a three-year period. GPs reviewed lists of these women and excluded women with adverse social circumstances. The remaining women received an invitation for PCC. They were requested to indicate whether they were interested in PCC, and if so, when they were contemplating pregnancy. Those both interested and contemplating pregnancy within one year were invited for PCC. All pregnancies occurring within one year of an invitation were monitored. Response rates and percentages of pregnancies preceded by an invitation or actual attendance to PCC were calculated. Results Overall, 72–75% of the interested responders, who returned the risk-assessment questionnaire (80%, actually attended PCC. However, the GPs excluded a large number of women. In 2002 27% of all pregnancies occurred in the group of women who had been interested and had indicated that they hoped to get pregnant within one year. Another 33% of the pregnancies occurred in the group of women who had been excluded, 13% in the group who had not responded, and 14% in the group who had not been interested. Conclusion A quarter of the women who became pregnant in the year after the invitation were reached in time. In order to increase this number, methods should be developed to decrease the exclusion of women by the GPs and to increase women's response.

  15. Eating disorders in the context of preconception care: fertility specialists' knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodino, Iolanda S; Byrne, Susan M; Sanders, Katherine A

    2017-02-01

    To gauge fertility specialists' knowledge, clinical practices, and training needs in regard to eating disorders. Cross-sectional study. Fertility clinics. Eighty Australian and New Zealand fertility specialists who were members of the Fertility Society of Australia. None. Responses to an anonymously completed online questionnaire. Approximately 54% of doctors correctly identified the body mass index relevant to anorexia nervosa, and 30% identified menstrual disturbances for anorexia, while 63.8% of doctors incorrectly nominated maladaptive weight control behaviors as a characteristic of binge eating disorder. While clinicians (83.7%) agreed it was important to screen for eating disorders during preconception assessments, 35% routinely screened for eating disorders and 8.8% indicated that their clinics had clinical practice guidelines for management of eating disorders. A minority of participants (13.8%) felt satisfied with their level of university training in eating disorders, 37.5% of doctors felt confident in their ability to recognize symptoms of an eating disorder, and 96.2% indicated a need for further education and clinical guidelines. On most items examined, knowledge and clinical practices regarding eating disorders did not differ according to doctor gender or years of clinical experience working as a fertility specialist. Knowledge about eating disorders in the context of fertility treatment is important. This study highlights the uncertainty among fertility specialists in detecting features of eating disorders. The findings point to the importance of further education and training, including the development of clinical guidelines specific to fertility health care providers. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing social marketed individual preconception care consultations: Which consumer preferences should it meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Voorst, Sabine F; Ten Kate, Chantal A; de Jong-Potjer, Lieke C; Steegers, Eric A P; Denktaş, Semiha

    2017-10-01

    Preconception care (PCC) is care that aims to improve the health of offspring by addressing risk factors in the pre-pregnancy period. Consultations are recognized as a method to promote perinatal health. However, prospective parents underutilize PCC services. Uptake can improve if delivery approaches satisfy consumer preferences. Aim of this study was to identify preferences of women (consumers) as a first step to social marketed individual PCC consultations. In depth, semi-structured interviews were performed to identify women's views regarding the four components of the social marketing model: product (individual PCC consultation), place (setting), promotion (how women are made aware of the product) and price (costs). Participants were recruited from general practices and a midwife's practice. Content analysis was performed by systematic coding with NVIVO software. The 39 participants reflected a multiethnic intermediately educated population. Product: Many participants had little knowledge of the need and the benefits of the product. Regarding the content of PCC, they wish to address fertility concerns and social aspects of parenthood. PCC was seen as an informing and coaching service with a predominant role for health-care professionals. the general practitioner and midwife setting was the most mentioned setting. Promotion: A professional led promotion approach was preferred. Price: Introduction of a fee for PCC consultations will make people reconsider their need for a consultation and could exclude vulnerable patients from utilization. This study provides consumer orientated data to design a social marketed delivery approach for individual PCC consultations. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Couples’ Notions About Preconception Health: Implications for Framing Social Marketing Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Megan A.; Mitchell, Elizabeth W.; Levis, Denise M.; Isenberg, Karen; Kish-Doto, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To understand couples’ notions of preconception health (PCH) and to inform the development of social marketing plans focused on PCH. Approach/Design We used a social marketing perspective to understand how couples considered PCH as a product, its potential price, how it should be promoted, and in what type of places it should be promoted. These variables are typically referred to as the four social marketing P’s. Setting Telephone interviews with couples recruited from a national database. Participants A total of 58 couples (116 individuals) were segmented by five couple segments based on pregnancy planning intention and current parental status in which the wife or partner was 18 to 44 years of age. The five segments were combined into three categories: couples who were planning pregnancies, couples who were not planning pregnancies, or couples who were recent parents (interconception). Method Couple-based structured interviews lasting approximately 45 to 60 minutes were conducted via telephone. Questions inquired about couples’ experience with PCH and the four social marketing P’s. Results Commonalities existed across the four social marketing P’s for the different couple segments. Notable couple-related themes that emerged included the importance of couple communication, support, and relationship quality. PCH was more relevant for couples planning a pregnancy, but nonplanning couples understood the benefits of PCH and related behaviors. Conclusion Couples may be an important target audience when considering social marketing approaches for PCH. Many couples perceived the relevance of the issue to important aspects of their lives, such as health, family, and their relationships. PMID:23286659

  18. Preconception maternal and paternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and birth size: the LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Candace A; Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M Buck

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84-195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98-170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring.

  19. Influence of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Pokora

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular (F and luteal (L phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten subjects performed a graded bicycle exercise in a thermoneutral environment (23oC, 52-60% relative humidity. Women were tested after consuming, for 3 days, a control diet (C: 60% carbohydrates, 20% fat, 20% protein and after that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCHO: 50% fat, 35% protein and 5% carbohydrates, in each phase of the menstrual cycle. Tympanic temperature (Tty, mean skin temperature (Tsk, electrical skin resistance (ESR, oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR as well as blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid (β-HB, glucose (Glu and lactate (LA concentrations were measured. On the basis of ESR, dynamics of sweating was estimated. No differences in Tty and Tsk were found between the C and LCHO during exercise tests. However, Tty was significantly higher during L than F phase. Delay time for sweating was shorter after LCHO (F: 10.8 vs 9.4 min, P<0.05, L: 9.9 vs 9.3 N.S., but temperature threshold for this reaction was unchanged (L: 37.22 vs 37.37 and F: 36.91 vs 36.94 oC. Sweating sensitivity was greater after LCHO during both F and L. Resting blood Glu and LA concentrations were similar in women after C and LCHO diet. Before exercise β-HB level was F: 0.45, L: 0.35 mM after LCHO and F: 0.08, L: 0.09 mM after C diet (P<0.05, respectively. At rest and during exercise HR was significantly higher after LCHO diet in women during F phase. In submaximal exercise loads VO2 after LCHO diet were significantly higher than after C diet in all women. It was concluded that the low-carbohydrate diet ingested by young women in both phases of the menstrual cycle have no effect on body temperature, however, it affects heat dissipation mechanism during exercise.

  20. Mineral and Skeletal Homeostasis Influence the Manner of Bone Loss in Metabolic Osteoporosis due to Calcium-Deprived Diet in Different Sites of Rat Vertebra and Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Ferretti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats fed calcium-deprived diet develop osteoporosis due to enhanced bone resorption, secondary to parathyroid overactivity resulting from nutritional hypocalcemia. Therefore, rats provide a good experimental animal model for studying bone modelling alterations during biochemical osteoporosis. Three-month-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: (1 baseline, (2 normal diet for 4 weeks, (3 calcium-deprived diet for 4 weeks, and (4 calcium-deprived diet for 4 weeks and concomitant administration of PTH (1-34 40 µg/Kg/day. Histomorphometrical analyses were made on cortical and trabecular bone of lumbar vertebral body as well as of mid-diaphysis and distal metaphysis of femur. In all rats fed calcium-deprived diet, despite the reduction of trabecular number (due to the maintenance of mineral homeostasis, an intense activity of bone deposition occurs on the surface of the few remaining trabeculae (in answering to mechanical stresses and, consequently, to maintain the skeletal homeostasis. Different responses were detected in different sites of cortical bone, depending on their main function in answering mineral or skeletal homeostasis. This study represents the starting point for work-in-progress researches, with the aim of defining in detail timing and manners of evolution and recovery of biochemical osteoporosis.

  1. The influence of different diets on metabolism and atherosclerosis processes-A porcine model: Blood serum, urine and tissues 1H NMR metabolomics targeted analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zabek

    Full Text Available The global epidemic of cardiovascular diseases leads to increased morbidity and mortality caused mainly by myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is the major pathological process behind this epidemic. We designed a novel model of atherosclerosis in swine. Briefly, the first group (11 pigs received normal pig feed (balanced diet group-BDG for 12 months, the second group (9 pigs was fed a Western high-calorie diet (unbalanced diet group-UDG for 12 months, the third group (8 pigs received a Western type high-calorie diet for 9 months later replaced by a normal diet for 3 months (regression group-RG. Clinical measurements included zoometric data, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and ultrasonographic evaluation of femoral arteries. Then, the animals were sacrificed and the blood serum, urine and skeletal muscle tissue were collected and 1H NMR based metabolomics studies with the application of fingerprinting PLS-DA and univariate analysis were done. Our results have shown that the molecular disturbances might overlap with other diseases such as onset of diabetes, sleep apnea and other obesity accompanied diseases. Moreover, we revealed that once initiated, molecular changes did not return to homeostatic equilibrium, at least for the duration of this experiment.

  2. Adaptive changes of pancreatic protease secretion to a short-term vegan diet: influence of reduced intake and modification of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Mądry, Edyta; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna; Grzymisławski, Marian; Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Przysławski, Juliusz

    2012-01-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that abstaining from meat, for 1 month, by healthy omnivores (lacto-ovovegetarian model) resulted in a statistical decrease in pancreatic secretion as measured by faecal elastase-1 output. However, no correlation between relative and non-relative changes of energy and nutrient consumption and pancreatic secretion was documented. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to assess the changes of exocrine pancreatic secretion with a more restrictive dietetic modification, by applying a vegan diet. A total of twenty-one healthy omnivores (sixteen females and five males) participated in the prospective study lasting for 6 weeks. The nutrient intake and faecal output of pancreatic enzymes (elastase-1, chymotrypsin and lipase) were assessed twice during the study. Each assessment period lasted for 7 d: the first before the transition to the vegan diet (omnivore diet) and the second during the last week of the study (vegan diet). The dietary modification resulted in a significant decrease in faecal elastase-1 (P vegan diet resulted in an adaptation of pancreatic protease secretion in healthy volunteers.

  3. Does the Mediterranean dietary pattern or the Healthy Diet Index influence the risk of breast cancer in a large British cohort of women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, J E; Taylor, E F; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C

    2011-08-01

    To assess the risk of developing breast cancer associated with consumption of two common dietary patterns: a Mediterranean dietary pattern and a dietary pattern, which conforms to the World Health Organization Healthy Diet Index (WHO HDI). Dietary data from a 217-item food frequency questionnaire were used to generate two dietary patterns according to pre-defined criteria in women from the UK Women's Cohort Study. Survival analysis using Cox regression was used to estimate hazards ratios for risk of breast cancer adjusted for known confounders. This analysis included 828 incident cases of breast cancer in 33,731 women with a mean follow-up of 9 years. There were no statistically significant associations between either the Mediterranean dietary pattern or the WHO HDI and risk of breast cancer. In premenopausal women, there was a nonsignificant trend suggesting that increasing compliance with the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of breast cancer. Maximal adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with hazards ratio=0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.42-1.02, P trend=0.09) compared with minimal adherence. In postmenopausal women, no clear trends were observed. In this study, no strong association between the risk of breast cancer and the consumption of either a Mediterranean-type diet or one characterized by adherence to the WHO HDI was observed. In premenopausal, but not postmenopausal women, there was a nonsignificant inverse association with increasing adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern.

  4. Influence of diets with silage from forage plants adapted to the semi-arid conditions on lamb quality and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Carvalho, G G P; Santos, E M; Araújo, G G L; Gois, G C; Rebouças, R A; Leão, A G; Santos, S A; Oliveira, J S; Leite, L C; Araújo, M L G M L; Cirne, L G A; Silva, R R; Carvalho, B M A

    2017-02-01

    Quality and sensory attributes of meat from 32 mixed-breed Santa Inês lambs fed diets composed of four silages with old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), and Pornunça (Manihot sp.) were evaluated. Meat from lambs fed diet containing old man saltbush silage (Pcooking loss. Of the sensory attributes evaluated in the Longissimus lumborum muscle of the lambs, color and juiciness did not differ (P>0.05). However, the silages led to differences (Plambs that consumed old man saltbush silage and lower in the meat from those fed buffelgrass silage. Diets formulated with buffelgrass silage for sheep reduce meat production. Based on the results for carcass weight and meat quality, old man saltbush and pornunça are better silages for finishing sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of caffeine consumption on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female rats fed a chemically defined diet containing standard and high levels of unsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, C W; DeHoog, J V

    1988-04-15

    mammary tumor appearance. Thus, in female rats fed a chemically defined standard or high fat diet, caffeine consumption can significantly influence chemical carcinogenesis of the mammary gland; an effect that is dependent upon the duration and time-span of caffeine administration.

  6. Influence of the incorporation mode of sugar beet pulp in the finishing diet on the digestive tract and performances of geese reared for foie gras production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, J; Lavigne, F; Bannelier, C; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of incorporating sugar beet pulp (SBP) into the diet of geese in two feeding systems (complete pelleted feed or loose-mix feeding system) on crop development and performance. A total of 480 1-d-old male geese were divided into three groups whose diet differed from d 56 to 90: a complete pelleted diet containing 50% corn (control diet: AMEn 11.5 MJ/kg; CP 161 g/kg), and no SBP; a complete pelleted diet containing 50% corn and 10% SBP (SBPcp diet: AMEn: 11.5 MJ/kg; CP: 161 g/kg); and a mix in the same feeder (SBPlm diet) of 500 g/kg of protein-rich pellets containing 20% SBP (SBPprp: AMEn: 9.0 MJ/kg; CP: 250 g/kg) and 500 g/kg of whole corn (WC: AMEn: 14.0 MJ/kg; CP: 72 g/kg). Body traits, including crop volume, were measured at d 91. From d 91 to 106, 88 birds/group were overfed with a mixture containing mainly corn and water before slaughter to measure fatty liver performance. Feed intake from d 56 to 90 was higher (+10%; P = 0.004) in the SBPcp group than the other two, but at d 90, the body weight (BW) of the birds was higher (+7%; P = 0.002) in the SBPlm group than the other two. At d 91, the volume of the crop was greater in the SBPcp group (80.4 mL/kg of BW, P 0.05) between the three groups. In conclusion, the use of sugar beet pulp in the diet of finishing geese helps the adaptation of the digestive tract to the overfeeding period, even in a loose-mix feeding system based on whole corn. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. An Algorithmic Diversity Diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Schmidt, Jan-Hinrik

    2016-01-01

    With the growing influence of personalized algorithmic recommender systems on the exposure of media content to users, the relevance of discussing the diversity of recommendations increases, particularly as far as public service media (PSM) is concerned. An imagined implementation of a diversity...... diet system however triggers not only the classic discussion of the reach – distinctiveness balance for PSM, but also shows that ‘diversity’ is understood very differently in algorithmic recommender system communities than it is editorially and politically in the context of PSM. The design...... of a diversity diet system generates questions not just about editorial power, personal freedom and techno-paternalism, but also about the embedded politics of recommender systems as well as the human skills affiliated with PSM editorial work and the nature of PSM content....

  8. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (Pgoats. The GM muscle from the oil-supplemented goats had lower (Pgoats. Nonetheless, diet did not affect (Pgoats. Regardless of the diet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001

  9. Beneficial effect of CETP gene polymorphism in combination with a Mediterranean diet influencing lipid metabolism in metabolic syndrome patients: CORDIOPREV study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene has been implicated in high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) metabolism. However, little is known about the impact of this gene on metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and its interaction with diet. Here, we evaluate whether the consumption of a Mediterran...

  10. Influence of diet or intrarectal bile acid injections on colon epithelial cell proliferation in rats previously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauert, H.P.; Bennink, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of varying colon bile acid concentrations on rat colon epithelial cell proliferation were studied. Bile acid concentrations were altered by intrarectally injecting either deoxycholic or lithocholic acid for 4 weeks or by increasing the dietary fat or fiber (wheat bran, agar, or carrageenan) intake for 4 weeks. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was s.c. injected into half of the rats 1 week before treatments began. Colon epithelial cell proliferation was measured by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography of colon crypts. Rats injected with DMH had more DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. Neither bile acid injection nor any of the diets altered the number of DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. DMH injections, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid intrarectal injections, and dietary agar and wheat bran all increased the total number of cells per crypt. High fat diets and dietary carrageenan did not affect cell number. All diets containing fiber lowered total fecal bile acid concentrations, but increasing the fat content of the diet did not affect them. These results indicate that the bile acid injections and dietary agar and wheat bran induce a slight hyperplasia in the colon

  11. Changes in body composition of high competition rugby players during the phases of a regular season; influence of diet and exercise load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M; Martínez-Moreno, J M; Reyes-Ortiz, A; Suarez Moreno-Arrones, L; García A, A; Garcíacaballero, M

    2014-04-01

    Top athletes are subjected to intense training to achieve high performance. There are factors such as diet and strenuous exercise that affects body composition and can modify the performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a personalized plan of diet and training on body composition. We studied the body composition of 18 professional rugby players using Kinanthropometry parameters. The study was conducted from the preseason to the end of the season taking into account the position of the player for measuring exercise intensity, and developing a personalized nutritional and training plan to each player. At baseline the players were away from the internationally recommended body composition, with high percentages of body fat. Appropriate and personalized diet plans and training custom achieved fat percentages close to those recommended. The personalized program of diet and training directed has adequate leverage to improve all parameters studied them bringing them as close to the ideal. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid, selenium, and vitamin E, with or without animal protein, on the composition of pork from female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morel, P.C.; Janz, J.A.; Zou, M.; Purchas, R.W.; Hendriks, W.H.; Wilkinson, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary manipulations on the fatty acid composition, Se content, and vitamin E content of pork. Sixty Duroc-cross gilts were randomly allocated at weaning to 1 of 4 dietary treatment groups (n = 15 per group). The 4 experimental diets were

  13. The influence of diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid, selenium, and vitamin E, with or without animal protein, on the quality of pork from female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janz, J.A.; Morel, P.C.; Purchas, R.W.; Corrigan, V.K.; Cumarasamy, S.; Wilkinson, B.H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Pork from the LM and semimembranosus muscle (SM) of 59 female Duroc-cross pigs with a mean carcass weight of 80.1 kg (SD = 3.2) were assessed for quality. The pigs were grown on diets containing either animal and plant products (the animal group) or plant products only (the plant group), with or

  14. High fat diet and in utero exposure to maternal obesity disrupts circadian rhythm and leads to metabolic programming of liver in rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Borengasser

    Full Text Available The risk of obesity in adulthood is subject to programming beginning at conception. In animal models, exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diets influences the risk of obesity in the offspring. Among other long-term changes, offspring from obese rats develop hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and lipogenic gene expression in the liver at weaning. However, the precise underlying mechanisms leading to metabolic dysregulation in the offspring remains unclear. Using a rat model of overfeeding-induced obesity, we previously demonstrated that exposure to maternal obesity from pre-conception to birth, is sufficient to program increased obesity risk in the offspring. Offspring of obese rat dams gain greater body weight and fat mass when fed high fat diet (HFD as compared to lean dam. Since, disruptions of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver, we examined the hypothesis that maternal obesity leads to perturbations of core clock components and thus energy metabolism in offspring liver. Offspring from lean and obese dams were examined at post-natal day 35, following a short (2 wk HFD challenge. Hepatic mRNA expression of circadian (CLOCK, BMAL1, REV-ERBα, CRY, PER and metabolic (PPARα, SIRT1 genes were strongly suppressed in offspring exposed to both maternal obesity and HFD. Using a mathematical model, we identified two distinct biological mechanisms that modulate PPARα mRNA expression: i decreased mRNA synthesis rates; and ii increased non-specific mRNA degradation rate. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that changes in PPARα transcription were associated with epigenomic alterations in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 histone marks near the PPARα transcription start site. Our findings indicated that offspring from obese rat dams have detrimental alternations to circadian machinery that may contribute to impaired liver metabolism in response to HFD, specifically via reduced PPAR

  15. Influence of the inclusion of cooked cereals and pea starch in diets based on soy or pea protein concentrate on nutrient digestibility and performance of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parera, N; Lázaro, R P; Serrano, M P; Valencia, D G; Mateos, G G

    2010-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare different dietary vegetable sources of starch and protein on the coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of energy and nutrients and performance of piglets from 29 to 60 d of age. The experiment was completely randomized with 6 treatments arranged factorially with 3 sources of starch (cooked-flaked corn, cooked-flaked rice, and pea starch) and 2 sources of protein [soy protein concentrate (SPC) and pea protein concentrate (PPC)]. The pea starch and the PPC used were obtained by dehulling and grinding pea seeds to a mean particle size of 30 microm. Each treatment was replicated 6 times (6 pigs per pen). For the entire experiment, piglets fed cooked rice had greater ADG than piglets fed pea starch with piglets fed cooked corn being intermediate (471, 403, and 430 g/d, respectively; P Protein source did not have any effect on piglet performance. The CATTD of DM, OM, and GE were greater (P pea starch being intermediate. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by source of starch but was greater for the diets based on SPC than for diets based on PPC (0.836 vs. 0.821; P Protein source did not affect the digestibility of any of the other dietary components. It is concluded that cooked rice is an energy source of choice in diets for young pigs. The inclusion of PPC in the diet reduced protein digestibility but had no effects on energy digestibility or piglet performance. Therefore, the finely ground starch and protein fractions of peas can be used in substitution of cooked corn or SPC, respectively, in diets for young pigs.

  16. Eating carbohydrate mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner within a covert hypocaloric diet influences morning glucose homeostasis in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Raquel Duarte Moreira; de Oliveira, Fernanda Cristina Esteves; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Abete, Itziar; Zulet, María Angeles; Martínez, José Alfredo; Bressan, Josefina

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of two dietary patterns in which carbohydrates and proteins were eaten mostly at lunch or dinner on body weight and composition, energy metabolism, and biochemical markers in overweight/obese men. Fifty-eight men (30.0 ± 7.4 years; 30.8 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) followed a covert hypocaloric balanced diet (-10 % of daily energy requirements) during 8 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: control diet (CT); diurnal carbohydrate/nocturnal protein (DCNP); and nocturnal carbohydrate/diurnal protein (NCDP). Main analyzed outcomes were weight loss, body composition, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), and glucose/lipid profile. In all groups, a significant decrease in body weight, BMI, and fat mass (kg and %) was verified, without differences between groups. Interestingly, within group analyses showed that the fat-free mass (kg) significantly decreased in NCDP and in CT after 8-week intervention, but not in DCNP. A detrimental increase in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) was verified only in DCNP, while NCDP and CT groups presented a non-significant reduction. Moreover, significant differences between DCNP and the other groups were detected for fasting insulin and HOMAIR. After the adjustments, NCDP presented a significantly higher DIT and energy expenditure after lunch, compared with DCNP, but after dinner, there were no differences among groups. Eating carbohydrates mostly at dinner and protein mostly at lunch within a hypocaloric balanced diet had similar effect on body composition and biochemical markers, but higher effect on DIT compared with control diet. Moreover, eating carbohydrates mostly at lunch and protein mostly at dinner had a deleterious impact on glucose homeostasis.

  17. Digital Inequalities in the Use of Self-Tracking Diet and Fitness Apps: Interview Study on the Influence of Social, Economic, and Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Louis

    2018-01-01

    Background Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major societal challenge. Objective We aimed to determine under which social, economic, and cultural conditions individuals in France were more likely to be actively invested in the use of self-tracking diet and fitness apps for better health behaviors. Methods Existing users of 3 diet and fitness self-tracking apps (Weight Watchers, MyFitnessPal, and sport apps) were recruited from 3 regions of France. We interviewed 79 individuals (Weight Watchers, n=37; MyFitnessPal, n=20; sport apps, n=22). In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant, using open-ended questions about their use of diet and fitness apps. A triangulation of methods (content, textual, and quantitative analyses) was performed. Results We found 3 clusters of interviewees who differed by social background and curative goal linked to use under constraint versus preventive goal linked to chosen use, and intensity of their self-quantification efforts and participation in social networks. Interviewees used the apps for a diversity of uses, including measurement, tracking, quantification, and participation in digital communities. A digital divide was highlighted, comprising a major social gap. Social conditions for appropriation of self-tracking devices included sociodemographic factors, life course stages, and cross-cutting factors of heterogeneity. Conclusions Individuals from affluent or intermediate social milieus were most likely to use the apps and to participate in the associated online social networks. These interviewees also demonstrated a preventive approach to a healthy lifestyle. Individuals from lower milieus were more reluctant to use digital devices relating to diet and physical activity or to participate in self-quantification. The results of the study have major implications

  18. Effect of Preconception Care Education by Health Volunteers on Knowledge and Attitudes of Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Fazeli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Preconception care identifies and modifies the risk factors for pregnancy and childbirth. The present study aimed to determine the effects a preconception care education program, which was based on the Health Belief Model (HBM and implemented by health volunteers, on knowledge and attitudes of women. A semi-experimental study was conducted using 22 health volunteers and 110 women aged 15-49 years selected from two comprehensive health centers of Mashhad, Iran, in 2016. The convenience sampling method was employed for selecting the volunteers and the regular random sampling method for choosing the women. For data collection, we applied a researcher-made tool with verified validity and reliability. HBM-based education was implemented by the volunteers during three sessions. Data analysis was performed in SPSS using Mann-Whitney test, Friedman, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient; repeated measures data analysis was carried out at the significance level of 0.05. The mean age of the women was 30.6±6.6 years in the intervention group and 31.6±6.5 years in the control group. The mean levels of knowledge and attitude increased significantly after the intervention (P

  19. Amor y Salud (Love and Health): a preconception health campaign for second-generation Latinas in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gray, Lesa A; Mobley, Allison; McFarlane, Julie M; Rosenberg, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    To develop, and implement, a social marketing campaign to increase preconception health knowledge among second-generation Latinas in Oregon. Social marketing demonstration project. Latino communities in five Oregon counties. Target populations included young Latinas (18-29 years old) born in the United States of immigrant parents in five Oregon counties, and their family members. Intervention. A radionovela, Amor y Salud, was developed that featured a Latina and her fiancé preparing for marriage and family. Social media, Web sites, and culturally relevant print materials promoted the radio campaign. Process data, social media metrics, Google analytics, online and intercept surveys were collected. Basic frequencies and descriptive statistics were used. Twelve episodes were produced in English and Spanish and played on nine radio stations a total of 2098 times. The Facebook page was viewed 11,000 times, and radionovela episodes were played a total of 776 times. Amor y Salud used mixed media--radio, social media, print materials--to encourage Latinas to consider their preconception health. Anecdotally, we heard positive comments from community members and local media regarding the radionovela; however, evaluation challenges prevent us from saying conclusively that knowledge on this topic increased.

  20. Failed surrogate conceptions: social and ethical aspects of preconception disruptions during commercial surrogacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sayani; Schicktanz, Silke

    2016-09-19

    During a commercial surrogacy arrangement, the event of embryo transfer can be seen as the formal starting point of the arrangement. However, it is common for surrogates to undergo a failed attempt at pregnancy conception or missed conception after an embryo transfer. This paper attempts to argue that such failed attempts can be understood as a loss. It aims to reconstruct the experiences of loss and grief of the surrogates and the intended parents as a consequence of their collective failure to conceive a surrogate pregnancy. Drawing on a qualitative study conducted over a period of eight months between 2014 and 2015 at two fertility clinics in Delhi and two in Kolkata, India, this paper examines the experiences of the surrogates and the intended parents when faced with missed conceptions or failed conceptions during a surrogacy arrangement. We argue that while the surrogate grieves the non-arrival of a 'good news' as an uncertain loss, the intended parents experience yet another, failure in addition to the losses they might have incurred during their previous fertility treatments. The body of the surrogate becomes a site of 'a lost opportunity'. The surrogate embodies a loss in her quest to achieve social mobility and the intended parents experience a disembodied pregnancy loss. This very emotional experience stands in stark contrast to the conceptualisation of such failed attempts as non-events within the discourse of the surrogacy industry. The experience of loss of the intended parents is recognised but their grief is given no space. We argue that such ambiguity around the nature of losses resulting out of a missed or failed conception during surrogacy is an outcome of lack of interpersonal relationship between the surrogate and the intended parents. Since commercial surrogacy is a relational process, the only way in which the experiences of losses and failures of the actors at the preconception stage can be better addressed is through developing close

  1. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0463 TITLE: The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Geoffrey Murphy...NUMBER The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0463 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Murphy...The overall objective of this Discovery Award was to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet (KD) regulates neuronal excitability by influencing

  2. Maternal Diet and Nutrient Requirements in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. An Italian Consensus Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Franca; Cetin, Irene; Verduci, Elvira; Canzone, Giuseppe; Giovannini, Marcello; Scollo, Paolo; Corsello, Giovanni; Poli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The importance of lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy and breastfeeding, for health of mothers and their offspring, is widely supported by the most recent scientific literature. The consumption of a varied and balanced diet from the preconceptional period is essential to ensure both maternal well-being and pregnancy outcomes. However, the risk of inadequate intakes of specific micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation is high even in the most industrialized countries. This particularly applies to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin D, also in the Italian population. Moreover, the risk of not reaching the adequate nutrient supply is increased for selected groups of women of childbearing age: those following exclusion diets, underweight or overweight/obese, smokers, adolescents, mothers who have had multiple or close pregnancies, and those with previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27754423

  3. Maternal Diet and Nutrient Requirements in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. An Italian Consensus Document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Marangoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy and breastfeeding, for health of mothers and their offspring, is widely supported by the most recent scientific literature. The consumption of a varied and balanced diet from the preconceptional period is essential to ensure both maternal well-being and pregnancy outcomes. However, the risk of inadequate intakes of specific micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation is high even in the most industrialized countries. This particularly applies to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin D, also in the Italian population. Moreover, the risk of not reaching the adequate nutrient supply is increased for selected groups of women of childbearing age: those following exclusion diets, underweight or overweight/obese, smokers, adolescents, mothers who have had multiple or close pregnancies, and those with previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes.

  4. The influence of some additives to the highly carbohydrate diet on the distribution of Al, Ca, Mg, Mn and Na in teeth enamel and bones of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakyrdzhiev, P.

    1985-01-01

    An instrument neutron activation analysis had been used for the investigation of diets with different salt and permanent basic composition. The diets with MgCl 2 and methylene blue additives were used. Three groups of animals Wistar, Hamster and S. Dawley with different genetic reactivity had been fed on adlibidum for 45 days. After killing the animals the teeth enamel, mandibula and tibia had been sampled and content of Al, Mg, Mn, Na and Cl 2 was determined by means of INAA. The samples were irradiated for 1 min in the rabbit system of the experimental reactor IRT-2000. Two measurements were carried out - after a cooling time of 1 min for the determination of Al, Ca, Cl 2 , Mg, and after 2 h cooling time - for Na and Mn. The precision of the analysis was between 4 and 12%

  5. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  6. A comparison of the risks of childhood leukaemia from parental pre-conception exposure to radiation in the Sellafield and Dounreay workforces and the Japanese bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The cases of childhood leukemia found among children of the Sellafield (West Cumbria) and Dounreay (Caithness) workforces and those observed in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors are analysed using exponential and linear forms of a relative risk model and employing dose estimates both for the period 6 months pre-conception and also for total pre-conception doses. The leukemia relative risk coefficients for paternal (whole-body) exposure in these pre-conception periods for children in Caithness are found to be statistically compatible with those of the children of Sellafield workers but also with the (gonadal dose) coefficients applying to the offspring of the bomb survivors. There remains the need to explain adequately the absence of a discernibly raised risk of childhood leukaemia in the offspring of the Japanese bomb survivors if the statistical association between paternal pre-conception radiation and the raised incidence of childhood leukaemia found in the West Cumbria study represents a causal relationship. (author)

  7. Child diet and healthy growth in the context of rural poverty in the peruvian andes: what influences primary caregivers' opportunities and choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga B; Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2013-09-01

    This study explored opportunities and choices related to child feeding among women living in a remote and low-income district in the Andean highlands. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with mothers (N = 7) with reputations for providing good child care, and who participated in an NGO-run social and health programme. The aim of this study was to learn about women's positive experience with child feeding, in the context of living in low-income communities. Such knowledge could be of substantial practical value to health promotion practitioners, in illuminating existing local circumstances and practices that produce good child nutrition. The women who were most knowledgeable about child health and diet were better educated and had relatively higher social positions in the community. Regarding contextual factors related to child feeding, numerous references were made to the extensive use of own crops and food stuffs, seen to provide a better diet than that available in cities where people buy their food. In discussing food and meal preparation habits, there were clear references to child welfare and health as motivating factors in the choices that were made. The NGO programme was not mentioned by the interviewer, to avoid prompting, yet the respondents referred to it explicitly, and attributed improved health-related knowledge and skills to the NGO education interventions (e.g. education about nutritious meal preparation, child care skills, and sanitation practices). It is concluded that the women were concerned about providing a good diet to their children, they were aware of the impact of feeding practices on child health, and that education about health and diet helped them to improved feeding practices.

  8. Involvement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in the influence of timed high-fat evening diet on the hepatic clock and lipogenic gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Zengyan; Xie, Meilin; Xue, Jie

    2015-09-01

    A high-fat diet may result in changes in hepatic clock gene expression, but potential mechanisms are not yet elucidated. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recognized as a key regulator of energy metabolism and certain clock genes. Therefore, we hypothesized that AMPK may be involved in the alteration of hepatic clock gene expression under a high-fat environment. This study aimed to examine the effects of timed high-fat evening diet on the activity of hepatic AMPK, clock genes, and lipogenic genes. Mice with hyperlipidemic fatty livers were induced by orally administering high-fat milk via gavage every evening (19:00-20:00) for 6 weeks. Results showed that timed high-fat diet in the evening not only decreased the hepatic AMPK protein expression and activity but also disturbed its circadian rhythm. Accordingly, the hepatic clock genes, including clock, brain-muscle-Arnt-like 1, cryptochrome 2, and period 2, exhibited prominent changes in their expression rhythms and/or amplitudes. The diurnal rhythms of the messenger RNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorα, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1α, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 were also disrupted; the amplitude of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγcoactivator 1α was significantly decreased at 3 time points, and fatty liver was observed. These findings demonstrate that timed high-fat diet at night can change hepatic AMPK protein levels, activity, and circadian rhythm, which may subsequently alter the circadian expression of several hepatic clock genes and finally result in the disorder of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and the formation of fatty liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques for analysing the influence of diet on ruminal bacterial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saro, Cristina; Molina-Alcaide, Eduarda; Abecia, Leticia; Ranilla, María José; Carro, María Dolores

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques for analysing the effects of diet on diversity in bacterial pellets isolated from the liquid (liquid-associated bacteria (LAB)) and solid (solid-associated bacteria (SAB)) phase of the rumen. The four experimental diets contained forage to concentrate ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 and had either alfalfa hay or grass hay as forage. Four rumen-fistulated animals (two sheep and two goats) received the diets in a Latin square design. Bacterial pellets (LAB and SAB) were isolated at 2 h post-feeding for DNA extraction and analysed by ARISA and DGGE. The number of peaks in individual samples ranged from 48 to 99 for LAB and from 41 to 95 for SAB with ARISA, and values of DGGE-bands ranged from 27 to 50 for LAB and from 18 to 45 for SAB. The LAB samples from high concentrate-fed animals tended (p forage-fed animals with ARISA, but no differences were identified with DGGE. The SAB samples from high concentrate-fed animals had lower (p forage diets with ARISA, but only a trend was noticed for these parameters with DGGE (p forage type on LAB diversity was detected by any technique. In this study, ARISA detected some changes in ruminal bacterial communities that were not detected by DGGE, and therefore ARISA was considered more appropriate for assessing bacterial diversity of ruminal bacterial pellets. The results highlight the impact of the fingerprinting technique used to draw conclusions on dietary factors affecting bacterial diversity in ruminal bacterial pellets.

  10. Influence of a healthy Nordic diet on serum fatty acid composition and associations with blood lipoproteins – results from the NORDIET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Adamsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fatty acid (FA composition of serum lipids is related to the quality of dietary fat intake. Objective: To investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND on the FA composition of serum cholesterol esters (CE-FA and assess the associations between changes in the serum CE-FA composition and blood lipoproteins during a controlled dietary intervention. Design: The NORDIET trial was a 6-week randomised, controlled, parallel-group dietary intervention study that included 86 adults (53±8 years with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. Serum CE-FA composition was measured using gas chromatography. Diet history interviews were conducted, and daily intake was assessed using checklists. Results: Food and nutrient intake data indicated that there was a reduction in the intake of fat from dairy and meat products and an increase in the consumption of fatty fish with the ND. The levels of saturated fatty acids in cholesterol esters (CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0, and 18:0, but not 16:0, showed a significant decrease after intake of ND compared to the control diet (p<0.01. Also, a significant increase in serum 22:6n – 3 was observed compared with the control diet (p<0.01. The changes in CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0, and 18:0 correlated positively with changes in LDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoB (p<0.01, respectively, whereas the changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in cholesterol esters (CE-PUFA 22:6n – 3 were negatively correlated with changes in the corresponding serum lipids. Conclusions: The decreased intake of saturated fat and increased intake of n-3 PUFA in a healthy ND is partly reflected by changes in the serum CE-FA composition, which are associated with an improved serum lipoprotein pattern.

  11. Influence of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and diet quality in childhood on the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, XiuYun; Bastian, Kerry; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul

    2018-02-01

    Studies among youth suggest that physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors, and poor diet quality are associated with poor mental health. Few population-based studies have investigated these relationships longitudinally. We examined the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet quality in childhood and the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders throughout adolescence. We linked health behavior survey data from 2003 among 10- to 11-year-old children across Nova Scotia, Canada, with administrative health care data from 2003 to 2011. Students' diet quality was assessed using the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were self-reported, and internalizing and externalizing disorders were diagnosed by a physician. We applied Cox regression to examine the associations of the health behaviors with the incidence of internalizing and externalizing disorders between 2003 and 2011. Of the 4861 participating students, 23.7% and 9.4% had a diagnosis of internalizing and externalizing disorders, respectively. The incidences of internalizing and externalizing disorders were higher among students who were less physically active and spent more time using computers and video games. These findings suggest that promoting an active lifestyle in childhood may contribute to the prevention of both internalizing and externalizing disorders during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of a meal-replacement diet on quality of life in women with obesity and knee osteoarthritis before orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Juan José; Izaola-Jáuregui, Olatz; Torres-Torres, Beatriz; Gómez-Hoyos, Emilia; Castro Lozano, María Ángeles; Ortolá-Buigues, Ana; Martín Ferrero, Miguel Ángel; De Luis-Román, Daniel Antonio

    2018-01-16

    Knee osteoarthritis is a disease with a high prevalence in our environment, especially in women. Weight loss can improve the quality of life of these patients before surgery. To evaluate the effect of a meal-replacement diet on weight loss, body composition, and the improvement of the quality of life in obese women with knee osteoarthritis pending surgery. One branch intervention study was performed over three months on 81 women with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2 with knee osteoarthritis before surgery. Patients received a hyperproteic meal-replacement diet with two bottles of an oral nutrition supplement in lunch and dinner (1,035 kcal). Anthropometric parameters, and body composition were measured. The quality of life was assessed by WOMAC and SF-36 test. The mean age of the patients was 62.23 (8.50) years. The percentage of weight loss was 8.23% (4.04). An improvement in the SF-36 total score was observed (basal: 49.35 [20.41], three months: 58.71 [17.07], p diet, there is a significant decrease in weight and fat mass with a relative increase of the latter. There is an improvement in the quality of life according to SF-36 and WOMAC. There is an independent relationship between weight loss and SF-36 improvement.

  13. Influences of the Tamarisk Leaf Beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on the diet of insectivorous birds along the Dolores River in Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Sarah L.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of a biologic control agent, the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata), on native avifauna in southwestern Colorado, specifically, addressing whether and to what degree birds eat tamarisk leaf beetles. In 2010, we documented avian foraging behavior, characterized the arthropod community, sampled bird diets, and undertook an experiment to determine whether tamarisk leaf beetles are palatable to birds. We observed that tamarisk leaf beetles compose 24.0 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 19.9-27.4 percent) and 35.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 32.4-45.1 percent) of arthropod abundance and biomass in the study area, respectively. Birds ate few tamarisk leaf beetles, despite a superabundance of D. carinulata in the environment. The frequency of occurrence of tamarisk leaf beetles in bird diets was 2.1 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 1.3- 2.9 percent) by abundance and 3.4 percent (95-percent-confidence interval, 2.6-4.2 percent) by biomass. Thus, tamarisk leaf beetles probably do not contribute significantly to the diets of birds in areas where biologic control of tamarisk is being applied.

  14. Digital Inequalities in the Use of Self-Tracking Diet and Fitness Apps: Interview Study on the Influence of Social, Economic, and Cultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnier, Faustine; Chauvel, Louis

    2018-04-20

    Digital devices are driving economic and social transformations, but assessing the uses, perceptions, and impact of these new technologies on diet and physical activity remains a major societal challenge. We aimed to determine under which social, economic, and cultural conditions individuals in France were more likely to be actively invested in the use of self-tracking diet and fitness apps for better health behaviors. Existing users of 3 diet and fitness self-tracking apps (Weight Watchers, MyFitnessPal, and sport apps) were recruited from 3 regions of France. We interviewed 79 individuals (Weight Watchers, n=37; MyFitnessPal, n=20; sport apps, n=22). In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant, using open-ended questions about their use of diet and fitness apps. A triangulation of methods (content, textual, and quantitative analyses) was performed. We found 3 clusters of interviewees who differed by social background and curative goal linked to use under constraint versus preventive goal linked to chosen use, and intensity of their self-quantification efforts and participation in social networks. Interviewees used the apps for a diversity of uses, including measurement, tracking, quantification, and participation in digital communities. A digital divide was highlighted, comprising a major social gap. Social conditions for appropriation of self-tracking devices included sociodemographic factors, life course stages, and cross-cutting factors of heterogeneity. Individuals from affluent or intermediate social milieus were most likely to use the apps and to participate in the associated online social networks. These interviewees also demonstrated a preventive approach to a healthy lifestyle. Individuals from lower milieus were more reluctant to use digital devices relating to diet and physical activity or to participate in self-quantification. The results of the study have major implications for public health: the digital self

  15. Perissodactyla diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2018-01-01

    Perissodactyla (Schoch 1989) includes tapirs, rhinoceros, wild asses, horses, and zebras. It is the order of hoofed mammals referred to as “odd-toed ungulates” because its members have one to three weight-bearing toes and walk on hoofs or “ungules.” They are herbivores that are specialized to exploit grasslands and brushy habitat (rhinos, horses, asses, zebras) or dense tropical forests (tapirs). All share a common digestive system called hindgut fermentation, or cecal digestion (in the cecum), and can consume relatively tough, coarse forage. Some perissodactyls are “browsers” that forage primarily on woody shrubs and trees, whereas others are “grazers” with a graminoid-dominated diet. They are all predominantly opportunistic feeders and select for quantity over quality of forage; that is, they consume more abundant low-quality forage instead of searching and selecting for higher-quality forage because it gives them the advantage of reducing search effort, which conserves energy.

  16. The Effects of the Preconception Endurance Exercise Training and Voluntary Exercise Activity during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice on Lipid Profile of the Adult Offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Gaeini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of preconception endurance exercise training with voluntary exercise activity during pregnancy in mother mice on lipid profile in adult offsprings. Materials and Methods: Twenty four C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into four subgroups: trained in preconception period and exercised during pregnancy (TE(20.3±1.02g; trained in preconception periods but unexercised during pregnancy (TC(21.58±0.4g; untrained in preconception periods but exercised during pregnancy (CE(21.02±0.23g; untrained and unexercised (CC(19.23±0.45g. Trained mice were subjected to a protocol of moderate endurance exercise training over a period of 4 weeks for 5 days before pregnancy. The fasting blood samples were collected from adult mice(8 weeks old and serum levels of glucose and lipid profile were measured. Data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: The Glucose test results in offspring showed that there was a significant interaction between group and sex and group main effect (p<0.001 Glucose levels of male offspring were significantly lower in TC and TE groups. Results on LDL also showed that the sex main effect was significant (p<0.001, and LDL levels of male born to TE and TC dams lower than in female offspring. Conclusion: Improving the mother's physical fitness by providing regular endurance training in the preconception period and maintaining it by exercise activty throughout pregnancy may have potential for eliciting positive changes in lipid profile of offspring, specially males.

  17. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  18. Low Tyramine Headache Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 25 Oct Low-Tyramine Diet for Migraine Posted at 17:16h ... and Diamond Headache Clinic Headache Diet Tags: headache , low tyramine diet , MAOI , tyramine No Comments Post A ...

  19. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  20. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  1. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  2. Influências de dietas ricas em ácidos graxos saturados e insaturados sobre o miocárdio de ratos Influences of rich in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids diets in rat myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fécchio Pinotti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O estudo avaliou a influência de dietas ricas em ácidos graxos saturados (AGS e ácidos graxos insaturados (AGI sobre a função mecânica, a morfologia e o estresse oxidativo do miocárdio de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar com 60 dias de idade foram alimentados com dieta padrão (n = 8 ou dietas ricas em AGS (n = 8 ou AGI (n = 8 durante 60 dias. A função mecânica foi avaliada em músculo papilar isolado do ventrículo esquerdo (VE por meio de contrações isométrica e isotônica, em condição basal (1,25 mM de cálcio, após elevação da concentração extracelular de cálcio para 5,2 mM e estimulação beta-adrenérgica com isoproterenol 1,0 µM. Fragmentos do VE foram usados para estudo de estresse oxidativo e microscopias óptica e eletrônica. RESULTADOS: As dietas suplementadas com AGS e AGI não alteraram a função mecânica do músculo cardíaco. Entretanto, ambas provocaram estresse oxidativo, com aumento do hidroperóxido de lipídio e redução da concentração de superóxido dismutase. A dieta AGI diminuiu a expressão da catalase e a AGS reduziu a quantidade de glutationa peroxidase miocárdica. Ambas as dietas promoveram discretas alterações morfológicas visualizadas ultra-estruturalmente, como depósitos lipídicos e lesões das membranas celulares. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que dietas enriquecidas com AGS e AGI não acarretam alteração da função mecânica do músculo cardíaco isolado, mas causam discretas lesões estruturais e estresse oxidativo no miocárdio.OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of saturated (SFA and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA rich diets on mechanical function, morphology and oxidative stress in rat myocardium. METHODS: Male, 60-day-old Wistar rats were fed a control (n=8, a SFA (n=8, or a UFA-rich diet (n=8 for sixty days. Mechanical function was studied in isolated left ventricle papillary muscle under isometric and isotonic contractions, in basal conditions (1.25mM calcium

  3. Genetic variation in the endocannabinoid degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and their influence on weight loss and insulin resistance under a high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel; Aller, Rocio; Izaola, Olatz; Conde, Rosa; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The C385A polymorphism of FAAH gene (rs324420C>A) has been associated with obesity. We investigate the role of this polymorphism on anthropometric and metabolic responses after an enriched monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet. A sample of 95 obese individuals was analyzed at baseline and after 3 months of an enriched monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet. Sixty two patients (65.3%) had the genotype C385C and 33 (34.7%) patients had C385A genotype (30 patients, 31.6%) or A358A (3 patients, 3.2%) (A carriers group). In subjects with C385C genotype, insulin (-1.9±5.3 mUI/l) and HOMA-R (-0.48±0.75 U) decreased. In A carriers subjects, the decreases in weight were 3.7±3.4 kg (decrease in C385C genotype group 4.4±3.6 kg), fat mass 2.7±3.2 kg (decrease in C385C genotype group 3.4±3.2 kg) and waist circumference 3.1±3.4cm (decrease in C385 genotype group 4.4±4.6 cm). These changes were significantly higher in the C385C genotype group than the A carriers subjects. After weight loss, noncarriers of the allele A385 of FAAH had an improvement on insulin and HOMA-R levels with an enriched monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet. A better response of weight, fat mass and waist circumference was observed in C385 genotype subjects than A carriers participants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary patterns in obese pregnant women; influence of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity in the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Angela C; Seed, Paul T; Patel, Nashita; Barr, Suzanne; Bell, Ruth; Briley, Annette L; Godfrey, Keith M; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Robinson, Sian M; Sanders, Thomas A; Sattar, Naveed; Wardle, Jane; Poston, Lucilla; Goff, Louise M

    2016-11-29

    Understanding dietary patterns in obese pregnant women will inform future intervention strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes and the health of the child. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a behavioral intervention of diet and physical activity advice on dietary patterns in obese pregnant woman participating in the UPBEAT study, and to explore associations of dietary patterns with pregnancy outcomes. In the UPBEAT randomized controlled trial, pregnant obese women from eight UK multi-ethnic, inner-city populations were randomly assigned to receive a diet/physical activity intervention or standard antenatal care. The dietary intervention aimed to reduce glycemic load and saturated fat intake. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline (15 +0 -18 +6 weeks' gestation), post intervention (27 +0 -28 +6 weeks) and in late pregnancy (34 +0 -36 +0 weeks). Dietary patterns were characterized using factor analysis of the baseline FFQ data, and changes compared in the control and intervention arms. Patterns were related to pregnancy outcomes in the combined control/intervention cohort (n = 1023). Four distinct baseline dietary patterns were defined; Fruit and vegetables, African/Caribbean, Processed, and Snacks, which were differently associated with social and demographic factors. The UPBEAT intervention significantly reduced the Processed (-0.14; 95% CI -0.19, -0.08, P obese pregnant women an intensive dietary intervention improved Processed and Snack dietary pattern scores. African/Caribbean and Processed patterns were associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes, and provide potential targets for future interventions. Current controlled trials; ISRCTN89971375.

  5. Protein quality and the protein to carbohydrate ratio within a high fat diet influences energy balance and the gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllan, Liam; Skuse, Peter; Cotter, Paul D; O'Connor, Paula; Cryan, John F; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald; Roche, Helen M; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2014-01-01

    Macronutrient quality and composition are important determinants of energy balance and the gut microbiota. Here, we investigated how changes to protein quality (casein versus whey protein isolate; WPI) and the protein to carbohydrate (P/C) ratio within a high fat diet (HFD) impacts on these parameters. Mice were fed a low fat diet (10% kJ) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kJ) for 21 weeks with either casein (20% kJ, HFD) or WPI at 20%, 30% or 40% kJ. In comparison to casein, WPI at a similar energy content normalised energy intake, increased lean mass and caused a trend towards a reduction in fat mass (P = 0.08), but the protein challenge did not alter oxygen consumption or locomotor activity. WPI reduced HFD-induced plasma leptin and liver triacylglycerol, and partially attenuated the reduction in adipose FASN mRNA in HFD-fed mice. High throughput sequence-based analysis of faecal microbial populations revealed microbiota in the HFD-20% WPI group clustering closely with HFD controls, although WPI specifically increased Lactobacillaceae/Lactobacillus and decreased Clostridiaceae/Clostridium in HFD-fed mice. There was no effect of increasing the P/C ratio on energy intake, but the highest ratio reduced HFD-induced weight gain, fat mass and plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and leptin levels, while it increased lean mass and oxygen consumption. Similar effects were observed on adipose mRNA expression, where the highest ratio reduced HFD-associated expression of UCP-2, TNFα and CD68 and increased the diet-associated expression of β3-AR, LPL, IR, IRS-1 and GLUT4. The P/C ratio also impacted on gut microbiota, with populations in the 30/40% WPI groups clustering together and away from the 20% WPI group. Taken together, our data show that increasing the P/C ratio has a dramatic effect on energy balance and the composition of gut microbiota, which is distinct from that caused by changes to protein quality.

  6. Circulating progenitor and angiogenic cell frequencies are abnormally static over pregnancy in women with preconception diabetes: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Patricia D A; Chen, Zhilin; Tayab, Aysha; Murphy, Malia S Q; Pudwell, Jessica; Smith, Graeme N; Croy, B Anne

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 and 2 diabetes decrease the frequencies and functional capacities of circulating angiogenic cells (CAC). Diabetes also elevates gestational complications. These observations may be interrelated. We undertook pilot studies to address the hypothesis that preconception diabetes deviates known gestational increases in CACs. Cross-sectional study of type 1 diabetic, type 2 diabetic and normoglycemic pregnant women was conducted at 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester and compared to a 6mo postpartum surrogate baseline. Circulating progenitor cells (CPC; CD34+CD45dimSSlow) and CACs (CD34+CD45dimSSlow expressing CD133 without or with KDR) were quantified by flow cytometry and by colony assay (CFU-Hill). In pregnant normoglycemic women, CD34+CD45dimSSlow cell frequency was greater in 1st and 3rd trimester than postpartum but frequency of these cells was static over type 1 or 2 diabetic pregnancies. Type 1 and type 2 diabetic women showed CACs variance versus normal controls. Type 1 diabetic women had more total CD34+KDR+ CACs in 1st trimester and a higher ratio of CD133+KDR+ to total CD133+ cells in 1st and 2nd trimesters than control women, demonstrating an unbalance in CD133+KDR+ CACs. Type 2 diabetic women had more CD133+KDR+ CACs in 1st trimester and fewer CD133+KDR- CACs at mid-late pregnancy than normal pregnant women. Thus, pregnancy stage-specific physiological fluctuation in CPCs (CD34+) and CACs (CD133+KDR+ and CD133+KDR-) did not occur in type 1 and type 2 diabetic women. Early outgrowth colonies were stable across normal and diabetic pregnancies. Therefore, preconception diabetes blocks the normal dynamic pattern of CAC frequencies across gestation but does not alter colony growth. The differences between diabetic and typical women were seen at specific gestational stages that may be critical for initiation of the uterine vascular pathologies characterizing diabetic gestations.

  7. Circulating progenitor and angiogenic cell frequencies are abnormally static over pregnancy in women with preconception diabetes: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia D A Lima

    Full Text Available Type 1 and 2 diabetes decrease the frequencies and functional capacities of circulating angiogenic cells (CAC. Diabetes also elevates gestational complications. These observations may be interrelated. We undertook pilot studies to address the hypothesis that preconception diabetes deviates known gestational increases in CACs. Cross-sectional study of type 1 diabetic, type 2 diabetic and normoglycemic pregnant women was conducted at 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester and compared to a 6mo postpartum surrogate baseline. Circulating progenitor cells (CPC; CD34+CD45dimSSlow and CACs (CD34+CD45dimSSlow expressing CD133 without or with KDR were quantified by flow cytometry and by colony assay (CFU-Hill. In pregnant normoglycemic women, CD34+CD45dimSSlow cell frequency was greater in 1st and 3rd trimester than postpartum but frequency of these cells was static over type 1 or 2 diabetic pregnancies. Type 1 and type 2 diabetic women showed CACs variance versus normal controls. Type 1 diabetic women had more total CD34+KDR+ CACs in 1st trimester and a higher ratio of CD133+KDR+ to total CD133+ cells in 1st and 2nd trimesters than control women, demonstrating an unbalance in CD133+KDR+ CACs. Type 2 diabetic women had more CD133+KDR+ CACs in 1st trimester and fewer CD133+KDR- CACs at mid-late pregnancy than normal pregnant women. Thus, pregnancy stage-specific physiological fluctuation in CPCs (CD34+ and CACs (CD133+KDR+ and CD133+KDR- did not occur in type 1 and type 2 diabetic women. Early outgrowth colonies were stable across normal and diabetic pregnancies. Therefore, preconception diabetes blocks the normal dynamic pattern of CAC frequencies across gestation but does not alter colony growth. The differences between diabetic and typical women were seen at specific gestational stages that may be critical for initiation of the uterine vascular pathologies characterizing diabetic gestations.

  8. Design and conduct of an internet-based preconception cohort study in North America: Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Wesselink, Amelia K.; McKinnon, Craig; Gruschow, Siobhan M.; Horgan, Casie E.; Wiley, Aleta S.; Hahn, Kristen A.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Hatch, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    Background We launched the Boston University Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO) to assess the feasibility of carrying out an internet-based preconception cohort study in the U.S. and Canada. Methods We recruited female participants age 21–45 and their male partners through internet advertisements, word of mouth, and flyers. Female participants were randomized with 50% probability to receive a subscription to FertilityFriend.com (FF), a web-based program that collects real-time data on menstrual characteristics. We compared recruitment methods within PRESTO, assessed the cost-efficiency of PRESTO relative to its Danish counterpart (Snart-Gravid), and validated retrospectively-reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) against FF data. Results After 99 weeks of recruitment (2013–2015), 2,421 women enrolled; 1,384 (57%) invited their male partners to participate, of whom 693 (50%) enrolled. Baseline characteristics were balanced across randomization groups. Cohort retention was similar among those randomized vs. not randomized to FF (84% vs. 81%). At study enrollment, 56%, 22%, and 22% couples had been trying to conceive for cost per subject enrolled was $146 (2013 $US), which was similar to our companion Danish study and half that of a traditional cohort study. Among FF users who conceived, >97% reported their LMP on the PRESTO questionnaire within 1 day of the LMP recorded via FF. Conclusions Use of the internet as a method of recruitment and follow-up in a North American preconception cohort study was feasible and cost-effective. PMID:26111445

  9. Morphological Features of Regurgitate and Defecatory Stains Deposited by Five Species of Necrophagous Flies are Influenced by Adult Diets and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, David B; McGregor, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of artifacts from five species of necrophagous flies were examined following feeding on several types of diets. Four types of insect stains were produced by each species: regurgitate, defecatory, translocation, and tarsal tracks. Regurgitate was the most frequent type deposited (70.9 ± 2.4%), followed by defecatory (19.8 ± 4.0%), tarsal tracks (8.6 ± 1.2%), and translocation (0.7 ± 0.1%). Artifact shapes, sizes, and color were highly variable and species and diet specific. Calliphora vicina and Sarcophaga bullata consistently deposited the largest artifacts after feeding, whereas Chrysomya rufifacies and Ch. megacephala produced more tarsal tracks than the other species examined. Artifacts with tails were infrequently observed (4.1 ± 0.6% of all stains) but occurred as either defecatory or regurgitate stains. The widely variable morphologies of all types of fly artifacts underscores the view that insect stains cannot be distinguished from human bloodstains based on morphology alone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Can a genetically-modified organism-containing diet influence embryo development? A preliminary study on pre-implantation mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Cisterna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNAs undergo several transformation steps to generate mature mRNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that a diet containing a genetically modified (GM soybean can induce modifications of nuclear constituents involved in RNA processing in some tissues of young, adult and old mice. On this basis, we have investigated the ultrastructural and immunocytochemical features of pre-implantation embryos from mice fed either GM or non- GM soybean in order to verify whether the parental diet can affect the morpho-functional development of the embryonic ribonucleoprotein structural constituents involved in premRNA pathways. Morphological observations revealed that the general aspect of embryo nuclear components is similar in the two experimental groups. However, immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization results suggest a temporary decrease of pre-mRNA transcription and splicing in 2-cell embryos and a resumption in 4-8-cell embryos from mice fed GM soybean; moreover, pre-mRNA maturation seems to be less efficient in both 2-cell and 4-8-cell embryos from GM-fed mice than in controls. Although our results are still preliminary and limited to the pre-implantation phases, the results of this study encourage deepening on the effects of food components and/or contaminants on embryo development.

  11. Can a genetically-modified organism-containing diet influence embryo development? A preliminary study on pre-implantation mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisterna, B; Flach, F; Vecchio, L; Barabino, S M L; Battistelli, S; Martin, T E; Malatesta, M; Biggiogera, M

    2008-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, pre-mRNAs undergo several transformation