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Sample records for preapplication safety evaluation

  1. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Associate Directorate for Advanced Reactors and License Renewal

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC`s ``Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants`` (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC`s preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant`s research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified.

  2. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A.

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC's ''Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC's preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant's research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified

  3. IRIS pre-application licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, Mario D.; Kling, Charles L.; Ritterbusch, Stanley E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the approach to pre-application licensing by the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), and advanced, integral reactor design with a thermal power of 1000 MW. The rationale for the pre-application licensing is discussed. Since IRIS technology is based on proven LWR experience, the project will rely on AP600/AP1000 precedent and will focus during the pre-application on long lead and novel items. A discussion of the evolution of the project to significantly reduce licensing issues is provided, followed by a summary of the IRIS safety-by-design which provides a formidable first step in the Defense in Depth approach. The effects of the safety-by-design, as well as of passive systems, on the IRIS safety will be investigated in a proposed testing program that will be reviewed by NRC during the pre-application. Documentation to be provided to NRC is discussed. Early design analyses indicate that the benefits of the IRIS safety-by-design approach are so significant that the basic premise of current emergency planning regulations (i.e., likelihood of core damage) will be reduced to the extent that special emergency response planning beyond the exclusion area boundary may not be needed. How this very significant outcome can be effected through a highly risk-informed licensing is discussed. (author)

  4. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) liquid-metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.L.; Landry, R.R.; Throm, E.D.; Wilson, J.N.

    1991-12-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) presents the final results of a preapplication design review for the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) liquid metal reactor (Project 673). The SAFR conceptual design was submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) ''Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (51 FR 24643 which provides for the early Commission review and interaction). The standard SAFR plant design consists of four identical reactor modules, referred to as ''paks,'' each with a thermal output rating of 900 MWt, coupled with four steam turbine-generator sets. The total electrical output was held to be 1400 MWe. This SER represents the NRC staff's preliminary technical evaluation of the safety features in the SAFR design. It must be recognized that final conclusions in all matters discussed in this SER require approval by the Commission. During the NRC staff review of the SAFR conceptual design, DOE terminated work on this design in September 1988. This SER documents the work done to that date and no additional work is planned for the SAFR

  5. 14 CFR 414.9 - Pre-application consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-application consultation. 414.9 Section 414.9 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Application Procedures § 414.9 Pre-application...

  6. Draft pre-application safety evaluation report for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; King, T.L.; Wilson, J.N.

    1989-03-01

    This draft safety evaluation report (SER) presents the preliminary results of a pre-application design review for the standard modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) (Project 672). The MHTGR conceptual design was submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC) 'Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants' (51 FR 24643), which provides for early Commission review and interaction. The standard MHTGR consists of four identical reactor modules, each with a thermal output of 350 MWt, coupled with two steam turbine-generator sets to produce a total plant electrical output of 540 MWe. The reactors are helium cooled and graphite moderated and utilize ceramically coated particle-type nuclear fuel. The design includes passive reactor-shutdown and decay-heat-removal features. The staff and its contractors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Brookhaven National Laboratory have reviewed this design with emphasis on those unique provisions in the design that accomplish the key safety functions of reactor shutdown, decay-heat removal, and containment of radioactive material. This report presents the NRC staff's technical evaluation of those features in the MHTGR design important to safety, including their proposed research and testing needs. In addition this report presents the criteria proposed by the NRC staff to judge the acceptability of the MHTGR design and, where possible, includes statements on the potential of the MHTGR to meet these criteria. However, it should be recognized that final conclusions in all matters discussed in this report require approval by the Commission. Final determination on the acceptability of the MHTGR standard design is contingent on receipt and evaluation of additional information requested from DOE pertaining to the adequacy of the containment design and on the following: (1) satisfactory resolution of open safety issues identified

  7. 10 CFR 609.5 - Evaluation of Pre-Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Sponsor (including personal and/or business credit information of the principal(s)). (d) After the... other feedback that DOE may provide in response to the Pre-Application eliminates the requirement for an...

  8. 49 CFR 260.19 - Preapplication meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preapplication meeting. 260.19 Section 260.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Financial Assistance § 260.19 Preapplication meeting. Potential Applicants may request a meeting with the...

  9. 14 CFR 413.5 - Pre-application consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-application consultation. 413.5 Section 413.5 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.5 Pre-application consultation. A...

  10. 40 CFR 40.135-1 - Preapplication coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preapplication coordination. 40.135-1 Section 40.135-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.135-1 Preapplication coordination. (a) All applicants. (1...

  11. U.S. ALMR safety approach and licensing status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, J.W.; Hardy, R.W.; Gyorey, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) in the United States is based on the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) concept originated by the General Electric Company (GE). This concept features a compact modular system suitable for factory fabrication, and a high degree of passive and natural safety characteristics. The safety approach emphasizes accident prevention, backed up by accident mitigation. First-round safety evaluations by U.S. regulators have found that the design provides passive, natural, and other desirable features enhancing the safety of the power plant. A Preapplication Safety Evaluation Report (PSER) from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is anticipated in early 1993. (author)

  12. 7 CFR 4279.161 - Filing preapplications and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... preapplications nor applications will be accepted or processed unless a lender has agreed to finance the proposal... description of collateral, with estimated values, to be offered as security for the loan. (vii) If a corporate...) Current personal and corporate financial statements of any guarantors. (11) A proposed Loan Agreement or a...

  13. Gas-cooled fast reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, C.L.; Simon, R.H.; Buttemer, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Initial conceptual design work on the GCFR began in the USA in the early 1960s and since the later 1960s has proceeded with considerable international cooperation. A 300 MWe GCFR demonstration plant employing three main cooling loops is currently being developed at General Atomic. A major preapplication licensing review of this demonstration plant was initiated in 1971 leading in 1974 to publication of a Safety Evaluation Report by the USAEC Directorate of Licensing. The preapplication review is continuing by addressing areas of concern identified in this report such that a major part of the work necessary to support the actual licensing of a GCFR demonstration plant has been established. The safety performance of the GCFR demonstration plant is based upon its inherent safety characteristics among which are the single phase and chemically inert coolant which is not activated and has a low reactivity worth, the negative core power and temperature reactivity coefficients and the small and negative steam reactivity worth. Recent studies of larger core designs indicate that as the reactor size increases central fuel, clad and coolant reactivity worths decrease and the Doppler coefficient becomes more negative. These inherent safety characteristics are complemented by safety design features such as enclosing the entire primary coolant system within a prestressed concrete pressure vessel (PCRV), providing two independent and diverse shutdown systems and residual heat removal (RHR) systems, limiting the worth of control rods to less than $1, employing pressure-equalized fuel rods, a core supported rigidly at its upper end and otherwise unrestrained and coolant downflow within the core to enhance debris removal should local melting occur. The structurally redundant PCRV design allows the potential depressurization leak area to be controlled and, since the PCRV is located within a containment building, coolant is present even after a depressurization accident and each RHR

  14. 78 FR 21930 - Aquenergy Systems, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Systems, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document, and Approving Use of the Traditional Licensing Process a. Type of Filing: Notice of Intent to File License...: November 11, 2012. d. Submitted by: Aquenergy Systems, Inc., a fully owned subsidiaries of Enel Green Power...

  15. 75 FR 61474 - Juneau Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document, and....: 13563-001. c. Dated Filed: July 28, 2010. d. Submitted By: Juneau Hydropower, Inc. e. Name of Project... Commission's regulations. h. Potential Applicant Contact: Duff W. Mitchell, Juneau Hydropower, Inc., P.O. Box...

  16. 77 FR 6552 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document, and...: December 7, 2011. d. Submitted By: Mahoning Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Berlin Lake Hydroelectric... Hydropower, LLC, 11365 Normandy Lane, Chagrin Falls, OH 44023; (440) 804-6627; [email protected] i. FERC...

  17. 77 FR 34030 - BOST1 Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Hydroelectric LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document, and.... Date Filed: March 21, 2012. d. Submitted By: BOST1 Hydroelectric LLC (BOST1). e. Name of Project: Coon Rapids Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: Mississippi River in Hennepin and Anoka counties...

  18. Preliminary Safety Information Document for the Standard MHTGR. Volume 1, (includes latest Amendments)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-01-01

    With NRC concurrence, the Licensing Plan for the Standard HTGR describes an application program consistent with 10CFR50, Appendix O to support a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review and design certification of an advanced Standard modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design. Consistent with the NRC's Advanced Reactor Policy, the Plan also outlines a series of preapplication activities which have as an objective the early issuance of an NRC Licensability Statement on the Standard MHTGR conceptual design. This Preliminary Safety Information Document (PSID) has been prepared as one of the submittals to the NRC by the US Department of Energy in support of preapplication activities on the Standard MHTGR. Other submittals to be provided include a Probabilistic Risk Assessment, a Regulatory Technology Development Plan, and an Emergency Planning Bases Report.

  19. Safety evaluations required in the safety regulations for Monju and the validity confirmation of safety evaluation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to perform the safety evaluations of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju' and to confirm the validity of the safety evaluation methods. In JFY 2012, the following results were obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination achieved for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes, such as a core damage analysis code, were carried out according to the plan. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied. (author)

  20. 10CFR50.59 safety evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grime, L.; Page, E.

    1987-01-01

    As a plant changes from the design phase to the operational phase, new regulations and standards apply. One such regulation is 10CFR50.59 on safety evaluations. Once an operating license is issued, it is mandatory to submit all applicable changes, tests, and experiments to the safety evaluation process. As preparation for this transition, Detroit Edison had procedures in place and conducted personnel training. Reviews of the safety engineering were conducted by the on-site review board. The off-site board delegated detailed reviews of most safety evaluations to the independent safety evaluation group (ISEG). The on-site group review included presentation of complete design packages by engineers. The ISEG and off-site review group's activity focused on safety evaluation. This paper addresses industry trends that were studied, Detroit Edison's recent actions, and industry issues related to 10CFR50.59 safety evaluations

  1. PWR reload safety evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; Chapin, D.L.; Love, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    The current practice for WWER safety analysis is to prepare the plant Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for initial plant operation. However, the existing safety analysis is typically not evaluated for reload cycles to confirm that all safety limits are met. In addition, there is no systematic reanalysis or reevaluation of the safety analyses after there have been changes made to the plant. The Westinghouse process is discussed which is in contrast to this and in which the SAR conclusions are re-validated through evaluation and/or analysis of each reload cycle. (Z.S.)

  2. Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research summary of advanced reactors activities, June 4, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Pre-application interactions with potential licensee applicants will help NRC prepare for future submittals, through the development of the infrastructure necessary for licensing application reviews. RES has the lead for non-LWR advanced reactor pre-application initiatives and longer-range new technology initiatives. An advanced reactor group has been formed in REAHFB, and is currently performing a pre-application review of Exelon's Pebble Bed Modular Reactor. Recent industry requests for future pre application interaction include General Atomics' Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) and Westinghouse International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) design. RES advanced reactors activities also include participation as an observer in DOE's Generation IV initiative. Pre-Application review objectives include the development of regulatory guidance, licensing approach, and technology-basis expectations for licensing advanced designs, including identifying significant technology, design, safety, licensing and policy issues that would need to be addressed in the licensing process. The presentation described the pre-application process for the Exelon PBMR. NRC first identifies additional information following topical meetings with Exelon, and Exelon formally documents and submits required topical Information. The staff then develops a preliminary assessment and drafts a response which is followed by stakeholder input and comments at a public workshop. Preliminary assessments are discussed with ACRS and ACNW, and Commission papers are written which provide staff positions and recommendations on proposed policy decisions. Some of the significant areas for the PBMR include: Process Issues, Legal and Financial Issues; Regulatory Framework; Fuel Performance and Qualification; Traditional Engineering Design (e.g, Nuclear, Thermal-Fluid, Materials); Fuel Cycle Safety Areas; PRA, SSC Safety Classification; PBMR Prototype Testing

  3. Evaluation of periodic safety status analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, C.; Staub, G.

    1997-01-01

    In order to carry out the evaluation of safety status analyses by the safety assessor within the periodical safety reviews of nuclear power plants safety goal oriented requirements have been formulated together with complementary evaluation criteria. Their application in an inter-disciplinary coopertion covering the subject areas involved facilitates a complete safety goal oriented assessment of the plant status. The procedure is outlined briefly by an example for the safety goal 'reactivity control' for BWRs. (orig.) [de

  4. Safety climate and attitude as evaluation measures of organizational safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Díaz, R; Díaz Cabrera, D

    1997-09-01

    The main aim of this research is to develop a set of evaluation measures for safety attitudes and safety climate. Specifically it is intended: (a) to test the instruments; (b) to identify the essential dimensions of the safety climate in the airport ground handling companies; (c) to assess the quality of the differences in the safety climate for each company and its relation to the accident rate; (d) to analyse the relationship between attitudes and safety climate; and (e) to evaluate the influences of situational and personal factors on both safety climate and attitude. The study sample consisted of 166 subjects from three airport companies. Specifically, this research was centered on ground handling departments. The factor analysis of the safety climate instrument resulted in six factors which explained 69.8% of the total variance. We found significant differences in safety attitudes and climate in relation to type of enterprise.

  5. Evaluation on safety issues of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. S.; Seol, K. W.; Yoon, Y. K.; Lee, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Safety issues on the SMART were evaluated in the light of the compliance with the Ministerial Ordinance of Technical Requirements applying to Nuclear Installations, which was recently revised. Evaluation concludes that regulatory requirements associated with following items have to be developed as the licensing criteria for the SMART: (1) proving the safety of design or materials different form existing reactors; (2) coping with beyond design basis accidents; (3) rulemaking on the safety of reactor safeguard vessel ; (4) ensuring integrity of steam generator tubes; and (5) classifying equipment based on their safety significance. Appropriate actions including implementation of new requirements under development should be taken for safety issues such as diversity of reactivity control and in-service inspection of steam generator tubes that are not complied with the current Technical Requirements. Safety level of the SMART design will be evaluated further by the more detailed assessment according to the Technical Requirements, and additional safety issues will be identified and resolved, if it necessary

  6. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  7. Safety design features of the IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light water cooled reactor of medium generating capacity (335 MW(e)), that features an integral reactor vessel containing all the reactor primary system components, including steam generators, coolant pumps, pressurizer and heaters, and control rod drive mechanisms; in addition to the typical core, internals, control rods and neutron reflector. This integral configuration allows for the use of a small, high design pressure, spherical steel containment which results in a significant reduction in the size of the nuclear island. Other IRIS innovations include a simplified passive safety system concept and equipment features that derive from the 'safety-by-design' philosophy. This design approach allows for elimination of certain accident initiators at the design stage, or when outright elimination is not possible, decreases accident consequences and/or their probability of occurrence. Major design characteristics of the IRIS are given. As part of the IRIS pre-application licensing review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the IRIS design team has developed a test plan that will provide the necessary data for safety analysis computer model verification, as well as for verifying the manufacturing feasibility, operability, and durability of new component designs

  8. 21 CFR 315.6 - Evaluation of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of safety. 315.6 Section 315.6 Food and... USE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS § 315.6 Evaluation of safety. (a) Factors considered in the safety...)(1) To establish the safety of a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, FDA may require, among other...

  9. Criticality safety evaluation in Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Nobutoshi; Nakajima, Masayoshi; Takaya, Akikazu; Ohnuma, Hideyuki; Shirouzu, Hidetomo; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Yoshikawa, Koji; Suto, Toshiyuki

    2000-04-01

    Criticality limits for equipments in Tokai Reprocessing Plant which handle fissile material solution and are under shape and dimension control were reevaluated based on the guideline No.10 'Criticality safety of single unit' in the regulatory guide for reprocessing plant safety. This report presents criticality safety evaluation of each equipment as single unit. Criticality safety of multiple units in a cell or a room was also evaluated. The evaluated equipments were ones in dissolution, separation, purification, denitration, Pu product storage, and Pu conversion processes. As a result, it was reconfirmed that the equipments were safe enough from a view point of criticality safety of single unit and multiple units. (author)

  10. Site evaluation for nuclear installations. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-S (Rev. 1). It takes account of developments relating to site evaluations for nuclear installations since the Code on Siting was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication on The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for site evaluation are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear installations. It is recognized that there are steady advances in technology and scientific knowledge, in nuclear safety and in what is considered adequate protection. Safety requirements change with these advances and this publication reflects the present consensus among States. This Safety Requirements publication was prepared under the IAEA programme on safety standards for nuclear installations. It establishes requirements and provides criteria for ensuring safety in site evaluation for nuclear installations. The Safety Guides on site evaluation listed in the references provide recommendations on how to meet the requirements established in this Safety Requirements publication. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements for the elements of a site evaluation for a nuclear installation so as to characterize fully the site specific conditions pertinent to the safety of a nuclear installation. The purpose is to establish requirements for criteria, to be applied as appropriate to site and site-installation interaction in operational states and accident conditions, including those that could lead to emergency measures for: (a) Defining the extent of information on a proposed site to be presented by the applicant; (b) Evaluating a proposed site to ensure that the site

  11. Guide for understanding and evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report was the guide of understanding and evaluation of safety culture. Operator's activities for enhancement of safety culture in nuclear installations became an object of safety regulation in the management system. Evaluation of operator's activities (including top management's involvement) to prevent degradation of safety culture and organization climate in daily works needed understanding of safety culture and diversity of operator's activities. This guide was prepared to check indications of degradation of safety culture and organization climate in operator's activities in daily works and encourage operator's activities to enhance safety culture improvement and good practice. Comprehensive evaluation of operator's activities to prevent degradation of safety culture and organization climate would be performed from the standpoints of 14 safety culture elements such as top management commitment, clear plan and implementation of upper manager, measures to avoid wrong decision making, questioning attitude, reporting culture, good communications, accountability and openness, compliance, learning system, activities to prevent accidents or incidents beforehand, self-assessment or third party evaluation, work management, change management and attitudes/motivation. Element-wise examples and targets for evaluation were attached with evaluation check tables. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Survey and evaluation of inherent safety characteristics and passive safety systems for use in probabilistic safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, N.; Scharfe, A.

    1998-01-01

    The present report examines the possibilities and limits of a probabilistic safety analysis to evaluate passive safety systems and inherent safety characteristics. The inherent safety characteristics are based on physical principles, that together with the safety system lead to no damage. A probabilistic evaluation of the inherent safety characteristic is not made. An inventory of passive safety systems of accomplished nuclear power plant types in the Federal Republic of Germany was drawn up. The evaluation of the passive safety system in the analysis of the accomplished nuclear power plant types was examined. The analysis showed that the passive manner of working was always assumed to be successful. A probabilistic evaluation was not performed. The unavailability of the passive safety system was determined by the failure of active components which are necessary in order to activate the passive safety system. To evaluate the passive safety features in new concepts of nuclear power plants the AP600 from Westinghouse, the SBWR from General Electric and the SWR 600 from Siemens, were selected. Under these three reactor concepts, the SWR 600 is specially attractive because the safety features need no energy sources and instrumentation in this concept. First approaches for the assessment of the reliability of passively operating systems are summarized. Generally it can be established that the core melt frequency for the passive concepts AP600 and SBWR is advantageous in comparison to the probabilistic objectives from the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). Under the passive concepts is the SWR 600 particularly interesting. In this concept the passive systems need no energy sources and instrumentation, and has active operational systems and active safety equipment. Siemens argues that with this concept the frequency of a core melt will be two orders of magnitude lower than for the conventional reactors. (orig.) [de

  13. Nuclear safety culture evaluation model based on SSE-CMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohua; Liu Zhenghai; Liu Zhiming; Wan Yaping; Peng Guojian

    2012-01-01

    Safety culture, which is of great significance to establish safety objectives, characterizes level of enterprise safety production and development. Traditional safety culture evaluation models emphasis on thinking and behavior of individual and organization, and pay attention to evaluation results while ignore process. Moreover, determining evaluation indicators lacks objective evidence. A novel multidimensional safety culture evaluation model, which has scientific and completeness, is addressed by building an preliminary mapping between safety culture and SSE-CMM's (Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model) process area and generic practice. The model focuses on enterprise system security engineering process evaluation and provides new ideas and scientific evidences for the study of safety culture. (authors)

  14. Safety features and research needs of westinghouse advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Winters, J.W.; Cummins, W.E.; Bruschi, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The three Westinghouse advanced reactors - AP600, AP1000 and IRIS - are at different levels of readiness. AP600 has received a Design Certification, its larger size version AP1000 is currently in the design certification process and IRIS has just completed its conceptual design and will initiate soon a licensing pre-application. The safety features of the passive designs AP600/AP1000 are presented, followed by the features of the more revolutionary IRIS, a small size modular integral reactor. A discussion of the IRIS safety by design approach is given. The AP600/AP1000 design certification is backed by completed testing and development which is summarized, together with a research program currently in progress which will extend AP600 severe accident test data to AP1000 conditions. While IRIS will of course rely on applicable AP600/1000 data, a very extensive testing campaign is being planned to address all the unique aspects of its design. Finally, IRIS plans to use a risk-informed approach in its licensing process. (authors)

  15. Squale: evaluation criteria of functioning safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deswarte, Y.; Kaaniche, M.; Benoit, P.

    1998-05-01

    The SQUALE (security, safety and quality evaluation for dependable systems) project is part of the ACTS (advanced communications, technologies and services) European program. Its aim is to develop confidence evaluation criteria to test the functioning safety of systems. All industrial sectors that use critical applications (nuclear, railway, aerospace..) are concerned. SQUALE evaluation criteria differ from the classical evaluation methods: they are independent of the application domains and industrial sectors, they take into account the overall functioning safety attributes, and they can progressively change according to the level of severity required. In order to validate the approach and to refine the criteria, a first experiment is in progress with the METEOR automatic underground railway and another will be carried out on a telecommunication system developed by Bouygues company. (J.S.)

  16. Researches on nuclear criticality safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-10-01

    For criticality safety evaluation of burnup fuel, the general-purpose burnup calculation code, SWAT, was revised, and its precision was confirmed through comparison with other results from OECD/NEA's burnup credit benchmarks. Effect by replacing the evaluated nuclear data from JENDL-3.2 to ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 was also studied. Correction factors were derived for conservative evaluation of nuclide concentrations obtained with the simplified burnup code ORIGEN2.1. The critical masses of curium were calculated and evaluated for nuclear criticality safety management of minor actinides. (author)

  17. Researches on nuclear criticality safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    For criticality safety evaluation of burnup fuel, the general-purpose burnup calculation code, SWAT, was revised, and its precision was confirmed through comparison with other results from OECD/NEA's burnup credit benchmarks. Effect by replacing the evaluated nuclear data from JENDL-3.2 to ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 was also studied. Correction factors were derived for conservative evaluation of nuclide concentrations obtained with the simplified burnup code ORIGEN2.1. The critical masses of curium were calculated and evaluated for nuclear criticality safety management of minor actinides. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Safety Culture Implementation and Socialization Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of safety culture implementation and socialization results has been perform. Evaluation is carried out with specifying safety culture indicators, namely: Meeting between management and employee, system for incidents analysis, training activities related to improving safety, meeting with regulator, contractors, surveys on behavioural attitudes, and resources allocated to promote safety culture. Evaluation is based on observation and visiting the facilities to show the compliance indicator in term of good practices in the frame of safety culture implementation. For three facilities of research reactors, Kartini Yogyakarta, TRIGA Mark II Bandung and MPR-GAS Serpong, implementation of safety culture is considered good enough and progressive. Furthermore some indicator should be considered more intensive, for example the allocated resources, self assesment based on own questionnaire in the frame of improving the safety culture implementation. (author)

  19. Safety evaluation of large ventilation networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrocas, M.; Pruchon, P.; Robin, J.P.; Rouyer, J.L.; Salmon, P.

    1981-01-01

    For large ventilation networks, it is necessary to make a safety evaluation of their responses to perturbations such as blower failure, unexpected transfers, local pressurization. This evaluation is not easy to perform because of the many interrelationships between the different parts of the networks, interrelationships coming from the circulations of workers and matetials between cells and rooms and from the usefulness of air transfers through zones of different classifications. This evaluation is all the more necessary since new imperatives in energy savings push for minimizing the air flows, which tends to render the network more sensitive to perturbations. A program to evaluate safety has been developed by the Service de Protection Technique in cooperation with operators and designers of big nuclear facilities and the first applications presented here show the weak points of the installation studied from the safety view point

  20. Status of Nuclear Safety evaluation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jiashu

    1999-01-01

    Chinese nuclear safety management and control follows international practice, the regulations are mainly from IAEA with the Chinese condition. The regulatory body is National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA). The nuclear safety management, surveillance, safety review and evaluation are guided by NNSA with technical support by several units. Beijing Review Center of Nuclear Safety is one of these units, which was founded in 1987 within Beijing Institute of nuclear Engineering (BINE), co-directed by NNSA and BINE, it is the first technical support team to NNSA. Most of the safety reviews and evaluations of Chinese nuclear installations has been finished by this unit. It is described briefly in this paper that the NNSA's main function and organization, regulations on the nuclear safety, procedure of application and issuing of license, the main activities performed by Beijing Review Center of Nuclear Safety, the situation of severe accident analyses in China, etc. (author)

  1. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  2. Safety evaluation of Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP). Report of safety evaluation of Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Takamichi; Maki, Akira; Nojiri, Ichiro

    1999-02-01

    The fire and explosion incident of the bituminization facility happened in March 1997 although JNC had taken enough care of the safety of TRP. JNC reflected on it and decided to evaluate the safety of TRP voluntarily. This evaluation has included five activities, that is, (1) confirmation of the structure and organization of TRP, (2) research of the data for operation, radiation and maintenance of TRP, (3) research of reflection of the accidents and troubles which have happened at the past, (4) evaluation on the prevention system, (5) evaluation on the mitigation system. We publish this report to contribute to inheritance of accumulated knowledge and techniques from generation to generation, and remind us of lesson from the fire and explosion incident of the bituminization. (author)

  3. Safety Evaluation Approach with Security Controls for Safety I and C Systems on Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, H. S.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses concepts of safety and security and relations between them for assessing effects of security features in safety systems. Also, evaluation approach for avoiding confliction with safety requirements and cyber security features which may be adopted in safety-related digital I and C system will be described. In this paper, safety-security life cycle model based confliction avoidance method was proposed to evaluate the effects when the cyber security control features are implemented in the safety I and C system. Also, safety effect evaluation results using the proposed evaluation method were described. In case of technical security controls, many of them are expected to conflict with safety requirements, otherwise operational and managerial controls are not relatively. Safety measures and cyber security measures for nuclear power plants should be implemented not to conflict with one another. Where safety function and security features are both required within the systems, and also where security features are implemented within safety systems, they should be justified

  4. Safety Evaluation Approach with Security Controls for Safety I and C Systems on Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Kim, Y. M.; Park, H. S. [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H. [Formal Works Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper addresses concepts of safety and security and relations between them for assessing effects of security features in safety systems. Also, evaluation approach for avoiding confliction with safety requirements and cyber security features which may be adopted in safety-related digital I and C system will be described. In this paper, safety-security life cycle model based confliction avoidance method was proposed to evaluate the effects when the cyber security control features are implemented in the safety I and C system. Also, safety effect evaluation results using the proposed evaluation method were described. In case of technical security controls, many of them are expected to conflict with safety requirements, otherwise operational and managerial controls are not relatively. Safety measures and cyber security measures for nuclear power plants should be implemented not to conflict with one another. Where safety function and security features are both required within the systems, and also where security features are implemented within safety systems, they should be justified.

  5. Philosophy of safety evaluation on fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is the report submitted from the special subcommittee on reactor safety standard to the Nuclear Safety Commission on October 14, 1980, and it was decided to temporarily apply this concept to the safety examination on fast breeder reactors. The examination and discussion of this report were performed by taking the prototype reactor ''Monju'' into consideration, which is to be the present target, referring to the philosophy of the safety evaluation on fast breeder reactors in foreign countries and based on the experiences in the fast experimental reactor ''Joyo''. The items applicable to the safety evaluation for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) as they are among the existing safety examination guidelines are applied. In addition to the existing guidelines, the report describes the matters to be considered specifically for core, fuel, sodium, sodium void, reactor shut-down system, reactor coolant boundary, cover gas boundary and others, intermediate cooling system, removal of decay heat, containment vessels, high temperature structures, and aseismatic property in the safety design of LMFBR's. For the safety evaluation for LMFBR's, the abnormal transient changes in operation and the phenomena to be evaluated as accidents are enumerated. In order to judge the propriety of the criteria of locating LMFBR facilities, the serious and hypothetical accidents are decided to be evaluated in accordance with the guideline for reactor location investigation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. TAPS safety evaluation criteria for reload fueling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendra Nath; Veeraraghavan, N.

    1976-01-01

    To improve operating performance of Tarapur reactors, several proposals are under consideration such as core expansion, change-over to an improved fuel design with lower heat rating, extension of fuel cycle lengths etc., which have a bearing on overall plant operating characteristics and reactor safety. For evaluating safety implications of the various proposals, it is necessary to formulate safety evaluation criteria for reload fuelling. Salient features of these criteria are discussed. (author)

  7. Experiment to evaluate software safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubies, B.; Henry, J.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The process of licensing nuclear power plants for operation consists of mandatory steps featuring detailed examination of the instrumentation and control system by the safety authorities, including softwares. The criticality of these softwares obliges the manufacturer to develop in accordance with the IEC 880 standard 'Computer software in nuclear power plant safety systems' issued by the International Electronic Commission. The evaluation approach, a two-stage assessment is described in detail. In this context, the IPSN (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety), the technical support body of the safety authority uses the MALPAS tool to analyse the quality of the programs. (R.P.). 4 refs

  8. Method of safety evaluation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuraszkiewicz, P.; Zahn, P.

    1988-01-01

    A novel quantitative technique for evaluating safety of subsystems of nuclear power plants based on expert estimations is presented. It includes methods of mathematical psychology recognizing the effect of subjective factors in the expert estimates and, consequently, contributes to further objectification of evaluation. It may be applied to complementing probabilistic safety assessment. As a result of such evaluations a characteristic 'safety of nuclear power plants' is obtained. (author)

  9. CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMIT EVALUATION PROGRAM (CSLEP's) AND QUICK SCREENS: ANSWERS TO EXPEDITED PROCESSING LEGACY CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMITS AND EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war, the need for operating weapons production facilities has faded. Criticality Safety Limits and controls supporting production modes in these facilities became outdated and furthermore lacked the procedure based rigor dictated by present day requirements. In the past, in many instances, the formalism of present day criticality safety evaluations was not applied. Some of the safety evaluations amounted to a paragraph in a notebook with no safety basis and questionable arguments with respect to double contingency criteria. When material stabilization, clean out, and deactivation activities commenced, large numbers of these older criticality safety evaluations were uncovered with limits and controls backed up by tenuous arguments. A dilemma developed: on the one hand, cleanup activities were placed on very aggressive schedules; on the other hand, a highly structured approach to limits development was required and applied to the cleanup operations. Some creative approaches were needed to cope with the limits development process

  10. Safety evaluation of food flavorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrankel, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Food flavorings are an essential element in foods. Flavorings are a unique class of food ingredients and excluded from the legislative definition of a food additive because they are regulated by flavor legislation and not food additive legislation. Flavoring ingredients naturally present in foods, have simple chemical structures, low toxicity, and are used in very low levels in foods and beverages resulting in very low levels of human exposure or consumption. Today, the overwhelming regulatory trend is a positive list of flavoring substances, e.g. substances not listed are prohibited. Flavoring substances are added to the list following a safety evaluation based on the conditions of intended use by qualified experts. The basic principles for assessing the safety of flavoring ingredients will be discussed with emphasis on the safety evaluation of flavoring ingredients by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the US Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Expert Panel (FEXPAN). The main components of the JECFA evaluation process include chemical structure, human intake (exposure), metabolism to innocuous or harmless substances, and toxicity concerns consistent with JECFA principles. The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) evaluation is very similar to the JECFA procedure. Both the JECFA and FEMA evaluation procedures are widely recognized and the results are accepted by many countries. This implies that there is no need for developing countries to conduct their own toxicological assessment of flavoring ingredients unless it is an unique ingredient in one country, but it is helpful to survey intake or exposure assessment. The global safety program established by the International Organization of Flavor Industry (IOFI) resulting in one worldwide open positive list of flavoring substances will be reviewed

  11. Safety evaluation of advance street name signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) organized a pooled fund study of 26 States to evaluate low-cost safety strategies as part of its strategic highway safety effort. The objective of the pooled fund study was to estimate the safety effectivenes...

  12. The approaches of safety design and safety evaluation at HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saikusa, Akio; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Honma, Fumitaka; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Kawasaki, Kozo; Baba, Osamu

    2006-06-01

    Gas Cooled Reactor has long history of nuclear development, and High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been expected that it can be supply high temperature energy to chemical industry and to power generation from the points of view of the safety, the efficiency, the environment and the economy. The HTGR design is tried to installed passive safety equipment. The current licensing review guideline was made for a Low Water Reactor (LWR) on safety evaluation therefore if it would be directly utilized in the HTGR it needs the special consideration for the HTGR. This paper describes that investigation result of the safety design and the safety evaluation traditions for the HTGR, comparison the safety design and safety evaluation feature for the HTGT with it's the LWR, and reflection for next HTGR based on HTTR operational experiment. (author)

  13. Safety indicators as a tool for operational safety evaluation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges; Melo, Paulo Fernando Ferreira Frutuoso e; Schirru, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Performance indicators have found a wide use in the conventional and nuclear industries. For the conventional industry, the goal is to optimize production, reducing loss of time with accidents, human error and equipment downtimes. In the nuclear industry, nuclear safety is an additional goal. This paper presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The use of performance indicators is not new. The NRC has its own methodology and the IAEA presents methodology suggestions, but there is no detailed documentation about indicators selection, criteria and bases used. Additionally, only the NRC methodology performs a limited integrated evaluation. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. On the establishment of the intervals and boundaries, a probabilistic safety study, operational experience, international and national standards and technical specifications were used. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This evaluation uses well-defined and clear rules and weights for each indicator to be considered. These rules were implemented by means of a computational language, on a friendly interface, so that it is possible to obtain a quick response about operational safety. This methodology can be used to identify situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can

  14. Approach to uncertainty evaluation for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Katsunori

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety used to be verified and confirmed through accident simulations using computer codes generally because it is very difficult to perform integrated experiments or tests for the verification and validation of the plant safety due to radioactive consequence, cost, and scaling to the actual plant. Traditionally the plant safety had been secured owing to the sufficient safety margin through the conservative assumptions and models to be applied to those simulations. Meanwhile the best-estimate analysis based on the realistic assumptions and models in support of the accumulated insights could be performed recently, inducing the reduction of safety margin in the analysis results and the increase of necessity to evaluate the reliability or uncertainty of the analysis results. This paper introduces an approach to evaluate the uncertainty of accident simulation and its results. (Note: This research had been done not in the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization but in the Tokyo Institute of Technology.) (author)

  15. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Tank Farms Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEISS, E.V.

    2000-12-15

    Data and calculations from previous criticality safety evaluations and analyses were used to evaluate criticality safety for the entire Tank Farms facility to support the continued waste storage mission. This criticality safety evaluation concludes that a criticality accident at the Tank Farms facility is an incredible event due to the existing form (chemistry) and distribution (neutron absorbers) of tank waste. Limits and controls for receipt of waste from other facilities and maintenance of tank waste condition are set forth to maintain the margin subcriticality in tank waste.

  16. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Tank Farms Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEISS, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    Data and calculations from previous criticality safety evaluations and analyses were used to evaluate criticality safety for the entire Tank Farms facility to support the continued waste storage mission. This criticality safety evaluation concludes that a criticality accident at the Tank Farms facility is an incredible event due to the existing form (chemistry) and distribution (neutron absorbers) of tank waste. Limits and controls for receipt of waste from other facilities and maintenance of tank waste condition are set forth to maintain the margin subcriticality in tank waste

  17. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  18. Evaluation of repository safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  19. Evaluation of repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S.

    2002-01-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  20. A Guidebook for Evaluating Organizations in the Nuclear Industry - an example of safety culture evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedewald, Pia; Pietikaeinen, Elina; Reiman, Teemu

    2011-06-01

    Organizations in the nuclear industry need to maintain an overview on their vulnerabilities and strengths with respect to safety. Systematic periodical self assessments are necessary to achieve this overview. This guidebook provides suggestions and examples to assist power companies but also external evaluators and regulators in carrying out organizational evaluations. Organizational evaluation process is divided into five main steps. These are: 1) planning the evaluation framework and the practicalities of the evaluation process, 2) selecting data collection methods and conducting the data acquisition, 3) structuring and analysing the data, 4) interpreting the findings and 5) reporting the evaluation results with possible recommendations. The guidebook emphasises the importance of a solid background framework when dealing with multifaceted phenomena like organisational activities and system safety. The validity and credibility of the evaluation stem largely from the evaluation team's ability to crystallize what they mean by organization and safety when they conduct organisational safety evaluations - and thus, what are the criteria for the evaluation. Another important and often under-considered phase in organizational evaluation is interpretation of the findings. In this guidebook a safety culture evaluation in a Nordic nuclear power plant is presented as an example of organizational evaluation. With the help of the example, challenges of each step in the organizational evaluation process are described. Suggestions for dealing with them are presented. In the case example, the DISC (Design for Integrated Safety culture) model is used as the evaluation framework. The DISC model describes the criteria for a good safety culture and the organizational functions necessary to develop a good safety culture in the organization

  1. A Methodology for Evaluating Quantitative Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Through several accidents of NPPs including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, nuclear safety culture has been emphasized in reactor safety world-widely. In Korea, KHNP evaluates the safety culture of NPP itself. KHNP developed the principles of the safety culture in consideration of the international standards. A questionnaire and interview questions are also developed based on these principles and it is used for evaluating the safety culture. However, existing methodology to evaluate the safety culture has some disadvantages. First, it is difficult to maintain the consistency of the assessment. Second, the period of safety culture assessment is too long (every two years) so it has limitations in preventing accidents occurred by a lack of safety culture. Third, it is not possible to measure the change in the risk of NPPs by weak safety culture since it is not clearly explains the effect of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. In this study, Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) is developed overcoming these disadvantages. In this study, SCIAM which overcoming disadvantages of exiting safety culture assessment method is developed. SCIAM uses SCII to monitor the statues of the safety culture periodically and also uses RCDF to quantify the safety culture impact on NPP's safety. It is significant that SCIAM represents the standard of the healthy nuclear safety culture, while the exiting safety culture assessment presented only vulnerability of the safety culture of organization. SCIAM might contribute to monitoring the level of safety culture periodically and, to improving the safety of NPP.

  2. A Methodology for Evaluating Quantitative Nuclear Safety Culture Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Jae, Moosung

    2015-01-01

    Through several accidents of NPPs including the Fukushima Daiichi in 2011 and Chernobyl accidents in 1986, nuclear safety culture has been emphasized in reactor safety world-widely. In Korea, KHNP evaluates the safety culture of NPP itself. KHNP developed the principles of the safety culture in consideration of the international standards. A questionnaire and interview questions are also developed based on these principles and it is used for evaluating the safety culture. However, existing methodology to evaluate the safety culture has some disadvantages. First, it is difficult to maintain the consistency of the assessment. Second, the period of safety culture assessment is too long (every two years) so it has limitations in preventing accidents occurred by a lack of safety culture. Third, it is not possible to measure the change in the risk of NPPs by weak safety culture since it is not clearly explains the effect of safety culture on the safety of NPPs. In this study, Safety Culture Impact Assessment Model (SCIAM) is developed overcoming these disadvantages. In this study, SCIAM which overcoming disadvantages of exiting safety culture assessment method is developed. SCIAM uses SCII to monitor the statues of the safety culture periodically and also uses RCDF to quantify the safety culture impact on NPP's safety. It is significant that SCIAM represents the standard of the healthy nuclear safety culture, while the exiting safety culture assessment presented only vulnerability of the safety culture of organization. SCIAM might contribute to monitoring the level of safety culture periodically and, to improving the safety of NPP

  3. Parameters Evaluation of PLC Dependability and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Zdansky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on evaluation of dependability and safety parameters of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller. Achievement of requested level of these parameters is an application assumption for using PLC in control of safety critical processes. Evaluation of these parameters can be made on the base of suitable model and it can be influenced by system architecture when necessary.

  4. Safety evaluation status report for the prototype license application safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and consultants reviewed a Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste disposal. The NRC reviewers relied extensively on the Standard Review Plan (SRP), Rev.1 (NUREG-1200), to evaluate the acceptability of the information provided in the EMCB PLASAR. The NRC staff selected certain review areas in the PLASAR for development of safety evaluation report input to provide examples of safety assessments that are necessary as part of a licensing review. Because of the fictitious nature of the assumed disposal site, and the decision to limit the review to essentially first-round review status, the NRC staff report is labeled a ''Safety Evaluation Status Report'' (SESR). Appendix A comprises the NRC review comments and questions on the information that DOE submitted in the PLASAR. The NRC concentrated its review on the design and operations-related portions of the EMCB PLASAR

  5. Safety culture management and quantitative indicator evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandula, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report discuses a relationship between safety culture and evaluation of quantitative indicators. It shows how a systematic use of generally shared operational safety indicators may contribute to formation and reinforcement of safety culture characteristics in routine plant operation. The report also briefly describes the system of operational safety indicators used at the Dukovany plant. It is a PC database application enabling an effective work with the indicators and providing all users with an efficient tool for making synoptic overviews of indicator values in their links and hierarchical structure. Using color coding, the system allows quick indicator evaluation against predefined limits considering indicator value trends. The system, which has resulted from several-year development, was completely established at the plant during the years 2001 and 2002. (author)

  6. A tool for safety evaluations of road improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Harri; Rajamäki, Riikka; Luoma, Juha

    2013-11-01

    Road safety impact assessments are requested in general, and the directive on road infrastructure safety management makes them compulsory for Member States of the European Union. However, there is no widely used, science-based safety evaluation tool available. We demonstrate a safety evaluation tool called TARVA. It uses EB safety predictions as the basis for selecting locations for implementing road-safety improvements and provides estimates of safety benefits of selected improvements. Comparing different road accident prediction methods, we demonstrate that the most accurate estimates are produced by EB models, followed by simple accident prediction models, the same average number of accidents for every entity and accident record only. Consequently, advanced model-based estimates should be used. Furthermore, we demonstrate regional comparisons that benefit substantially from such tools. Comparisons between districts have revealed significant differences. However, comparisons like these produce useful improvement ideas only after taking into account the differences in road characteristics between areas. Estimates on crash modification factors can be transferred from other countries but their benefit is greatly limited if the number of target accidents is not properly predicted. Our experience suggests that making predictions and evaluations using the same principle and tools will remarkably improve the quality and comparability of safety estimations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aging evaluation methodology of periodic safety review in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung-Bae; Jung, Sung-Gyu; Jin, Tae-Eun; Jeong, Ill-Seok

    2002-01-01

    In Korea plant lifetime management (PLIM) study for Kori Unit 1 has been performed since 1993. Meanwhile, periodic safety review (PSR) for all operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been started with Kori Unit 1 since 2000 per IAEA recommendation. The evaluation period is 10 years, and safety (evaluation) factors are 11 per IAEA guidelines as represented in table 1. The relationship between PSR factors and PLIM is also represented. Among these factors evaluation of 'management of aging' is one of the most important and difficult factor. This factor is related to 'actual condition of the NPP', 'use of experience from other nuclear NPPs and of research findings', and 'management of aging'. The object of 'management of aging' is to obtain plant safety through identifying actual condition of system, structure and components (SSCs) and evaluating aging phenomena and residual life of SSCs using operating experience and research findings. The paper describes the scope and procedure of valuation of 'management of aging', such as, screening criteria of SSCs, Code and Standards, evaluation of SSCs and safety issues as represented. Evaluating SSCs are determined using final safety analysis report (FSAR) and power unit maintenance system for Nuclear Ver. III (PUMAS/N-III). The screening criteria of SSCs are safety-related items (quality class Q), safety-impact items (quality class T), backfitting rule items (fire protection (10CFR50.48), environmental qualification (10CFR50.49), pressurized thermal shock (10CFR50.61), anticipated transient without scram (10CFR50.62), and station blackout (10CFR50.63)) and regulating authority requiring items[1∼3]. The purpose of review of Code and Standards is identifying actual condition of the NPP and evaluating aging management using effective Code and Standards corresponding to reactor facilities. Code and Standards is composed of regulating laws, FSAR items, administrative actions, regulating actions, agreement items, and other

  8. Safety Culture Evaluation at Research Reactors of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.A.; Saeed, A.; Shah, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of safety culture was presented by IAEA in document INSAG-4 (1991), delineated as “assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establish that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance”. The purpose of this paper is to describe the evaluation of safety culture at research reactors of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). Evaluating the safety culture of a particular organization poses some challenges which can be resolved by using safety culture evaluation models like those of Sachein (1992) and Harber-Barrier(1998). In PAEC, safety culture is the integral part of management system which not only promotes safety culture throughout the organization but also enhances its significance. To strengthen the safety culture, PAEC is also participating in a number of international and regional meetings of IAEA regarding safety culture. PAEC and the national regulator Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) are also arranging workshops, peer reviews, sharing operational experiences and interacting with IAEA missions to enhance its capabilities in the field of safety culture. The Directorate General of Safety (DOS) is a corporate office of PAEC for safety and regulatory matters. DOS is in the process of implementing a program to evaluate safety culture at nuclear installations of PAEC to ensure that safety culture is included as a vital segment of the Integral Management System of the establishment. In this regard, training sessions and lectures on safety culture evaluation are normally conducted in PAEC for awareness and enhancement of the safety culture program. Safety culture is also addressed in PNRA Regulations like PAK-909 and PAK-913. In this paper we will focus on the safety culture evaluation in our research reactors, i.e., PARR-1 and PARR-2. The evaluation results will be based on observations, interviews of employees, group discussions

  9. The Evaluation of the Safety Benefits of Combined Passive and On-Board Active Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Zangmeister, Tobias; Kreiss, Jens-Peter; Hermitte, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of the European TRACE project (TRaffic Accident Causation in Europe, 2006–2008) was to estimate the proportion of injury accidents that could be avoided and/or the proportion of injury accidents where the severity could be mitigated for on-the-market safety applications, if 100 % of the car fleet would be equipped with them. We have selected for evaluation the Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and the Emergency Brake Assist (EBA) applications. As for passive safety systems, recent cars are designed to offer overall safety protection. Car structure, load limiters, front airbags, side airbags, knee airbags, pretensioners, padding and non aggressive structures in the door panel, the dashboard, the windshield, the seats, and the head rest also contribute to applying more protection. The whole safety package is very difficult to evaluate separately, one element independently segmented from the others. We decided to consider evaluating the effectivenessof the whole passive safety package, This package,, for the sake of simplicity, was the number of stars awarded at the Euro NCAP testing. The challenges were to compare the effectiveness of some safety configuration SC I, with the effectiveness of a different safety configuration SC II. A safety configuration is understood as a package of safety functions. Ten comparisons have been carried out such as the evaluation of the safety benefit of a fifth star given that the car has four stars and an EBA. The main outcome of this analysis is that any addition of a passive or active safety function selected in this analysis is producing increased safety benefits. For example, if all cars were five stars fitted with EBA and ESC, instead of four stars without ESC and EBA, injury accidents would be reduced by 47.2% for severe injuries and 69.5% for fatal injuries. PMID:20184838

  10. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia (VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2009-04-15

    An organizational evaluation plays a key role in the monitoring, as well as controlling and steering, of the organizational safety culture. If left unattended, organizations have a tendency to gradually drift into a condition where they have trouble identifying their vulnerabilities and mechanisms or practices that create or maintain these vulnerabilities. The aim of an organizational evaluation should be to promote increased understanding of the sociotechnical system and its changing vulnerabilities. Evaluation contributes to organizational development and management. Evaluations are used in various situations, but when the aim is to learn about possible new vulnerabilities, identify organizational reasons for problems, or prepare for future challenges, the organization is most open to genuine surprises and new findings. It is recommended that organizational evaluations should be conducted when - there are changes in the organizational structures - new tools are implemented - when the people report increased workplace stress or a decreased working climate - when incidents and near-misses increase - when work starts to become routine - when weak signals (such as employees voicing safety concerns or other worries, the organization 'feels' different, organizational climate has changed) are perceived. In organizations that already have a high safety level, safety managers work for their successors. This means that they seldom see the results of their successful efforts to improve safety. This is due to the fact that it takes time for the improvement to become noticeable in terms of increased measurable safety levels. The most challenging issue in an organizational evaluation is the definition of criteria for safety. We have adopted a system safety perspective and we state that an organization has a high potential for safety when - safety is genuinely valued and the members of the organization are motivated to put effort on achieving high levels of safety

  11. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia

    2009-04-01

    An organizational evaluation plays a key role in the monitoring, as well as controlling and steering, of the organizational safety culture. If left unattended, organizations have a tendency to gradually drift into a condition where they have trouble identifying their vulnerabilities and mechanisms or practices that create or maintain these vulnerabilities. The aim of an organizational evaluation should be to promote increased understanding of the sociotechnical system and its changing vulnerabilities. Evaluation contributes to organizational development and management. Evaluations are used in various situations, but when the aim is to learn about possible new vulnerabilities, identify organizational reasons for problems, or prepare for future challenges, the organization is most open to genuine surprises and new findings. It is recommended that organizational evaluations should be conducted when - there are changes in the organizational structures - new tools are implemented - when the people report increased workplace stress or a decreased working climate - when incidents and near-misses increase - when work starts to become routine - when weak signals (such as employees voicing safety concerns or other worries, the organization 'feels' different, organizational climate has changed) are perceived. In organizations that already have a high safety level, safety managers work for their successors. This means that they seldom see the results of their successful efforts to improve safety. This is due to the fact that it takes time for the improvement to become noticeable in terms of increased measurable safety levels. The most challenging issue in an organizational evaluation is the definition of criteria for safety. We have adopted a system safety perspective and we state that an organization has a high potential for safety when - safety is genuinely valued and the members of the organization are motivated to put effort on achieving high levels of safety - it is

  12. The US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor and the Fast Flux Test Facility Phase IIA passive safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, P.K.; Harris, R.A.; Campbell, L.R.; Dautel, W.A.; Dubberley, A.E.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses the safety approach of the Advanced Liquid Metal reactor program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, which relies upon passive reactor responses to off-normal condition to limit power and temperature excursions to levels that allow safety margins. Gas expansion modules (GEM) have included in the design to provide negative reactivity to enhance these margins in the extremely unlikely event that pumping power is lost and the highly reliable scram system fails to operate. The feasibility and beneficial features of these devices were first demonstrated in the core of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in 1986. Preapplication safety evaluations by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have identified areas that must be addressed if these devices are to be relied on. One of these areas is the response of the reactor when it is critical and the pumps are turned on, resulting in positive reactivity being added to the core. Tests to examine such transients have been performed as part of the continuing FFTF program to confirm the passive safety characteristics of liquid metal reactors (LMR). The primary tests consisted of starting the main coolant pumps, which forced sodium coolant into the GEMS, decreasing neutron leakage and adding positive reactivity. The resulting transients were shown to be benign and easily mitigated by the reactivity feedbacks inherent in the FFTF and all LMRs. Steady-state auxiliary tests of the GEM and feedback reactivity worths accurately predicted the transient results. The auxiliary GEM worth tests also demonstrated that the worth can be determined at a subcritical state, which allows for a verification of the GEM's availability prior to ascending to power

  13. International handbook of evaluated criticality safety benchmark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA) in 1995. This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various nuclear critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculational techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirement and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross section data. The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. These volumes span over 55,000 pages and contain 516 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4,405 critical, near critical, or subcritical configurations, 24 criticality alarm placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 200 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications. Experiments that are found unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmark experiments are discussed in these evaluations; however, benchmark specifications are not derived for such experiments (in some cases models are provided in an appendix). Approximately 770 experimental configurations are categorized as unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmark experiments. Additional evaluations are in progress and will be

  14. Safety evaluation of the Dalat research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, V.H.; Lam, P.V.; An, T.K.

    1989-01-01

    After an introduction presenting the essential characteristics of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor, the document presents i) The safety assurance condition of the reactor, ii) Its safety behaviour after 5 years of operation, iii) Safety research being realized on the reactor. Following is questionnaire of safety evaluation and a list of attachments, which concern the reactor

  15. FLIGHT SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AND EVALUATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY LEVEL OF AN AVIATION ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Zubkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to studying the problem of safety management system (SMS and evaluating safety level of an aviation enterprise.This article discusses the problems of SMS, presented at the 41st meeting of the Russian Aviation Production Commanders Club in June 2014 in St. Petersburg in connection with the verification of the status of the CA of the Russian Federation by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO in the same year, a set of urgent measures to eliminate the deficiencies identified in the current safety management system by participants of this meeting were proposed.In addition, the problems of evaluating flight safety level based on operation data of an aviation enterprise were analyzed. This analysis made it possible to take into account the problems listed in this article as a tool for a comprehensive study of SMS parameters and allows to analyze the quantitative indicators of the flights safety level.The concepts of Acceptable Safety Level (ASL indicators are interpreted differently depending on the available/applicable methods of their evaluation and how to implement them in SMS. However, the indicators for assessing ASL under operational condition at the aviation enterprise should become universal. Currently, defined safety levels and safety indicators are not yet established functionally and often with distorted underrepresented models describing their contextual contents, as well as ways of integrating them into SMS aviation enterprise.The results obtained can be used for better implementation of SMS and solving problems determining the aviation enterprise technical level of flight safety.

  16. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea.

  17. Development of a Novel Nuclear Safety Culture Evaluation Method for an Operating Team Using Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sangmin; Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    IAEA defined safety culture as follows: 'Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. Also, celebrated behavioral scientist, Cooper, defined safety culture as,'safety culture is that observable degree of effort by which all organizational members direct their attention and actions toward improving safety on a daily basis' with his internal psychological, situational, and behavioral context model. With these various definitions and criteria of safety culture, several safety culture assessment methods have been developed to improve and manage safety culture. To develop a new quantitative safety culture evaluation method for an operating team, we unified and redefined safety culture assessment items. Then we modeled a new safety culture evaluation by adopting level 1 PSA concept. Finally, we suggested the criteria to obtain nominal success probabilities of assessment items by using 'operational definition'. To validate the suggested evaluation method, we analyzed the collected audio-visual recording data collected from a full scope main control room simulator of a NPP in Korea

  18. Prospective safety performance evaluation on construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianguo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Limao; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J; Wang, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based approach for Prospective Safety Performance Evaluation (PSPE) on construction sites, with causal relationships and interactions between enablers and the goals of PSPE taken into account. According to a sample of 450 valid questionnaire surveys from 30 Chinese construction enterprises, a SEM model with 26 items included for PSPE in the context of Chinese construction industry is established and then verified through the goodness-of-fit test. Three typical types of construction enterprises, namely the state-owned enterprise, private enterprise and Sino-foreign joint venture, are selected as samples to measure the level of safety performance given the enterprise scale, ownership and business strategy are different. Results provide a full understanding of safety performance practice in the construction industry, and indicate that the level of overall safety performance situation on working sites is rated at least a level of III (Fair) or above. This phenomenon can be explained that the construction industry has gradually matured with the norms, and construction enterprises should improve the level of safety performance as not to be eliminated from the government-led construction industry. The differences existing in the safety performance practice regarding different construction enterprise categories are compared and analyzed according to evaluation results. This research provides insights into cause-effect relationships among safety performance factors and goals, which, in turn, can facilitate the improvement of high safety performance in the construction industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on the Evaluation System for Rural Public Safety Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Jianxin; YAN

    2014-01-01

    The indicator evaluation system is introduced to the study of rural public safety planning in this article.By researching the current rural public safety planning and environmental carrying capacity,we select some carrying capacity indicators influencing the rural public safety,such as land,population,ecological environment,water resources,infrastructure,economy and society,to establish the environmental carrying capacity indicator system.We standardize the indicators,use gray correlation analysis method to determine the weight of indicators,and make DEA evaluation of the indicator system,to obtain the evaluation results as the basis for decision making in rural safety planning,and provide scientific and quantified technical support for rural public safety planning.

  20. Criticality safety benchmark evaluation project: Recovering the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, E.F.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of the Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company is provided in this paper. The purpose of the project is to provide a source of evaluated criticality safety experiments in an easily usable format. Another project goal is to search for any experiments that may have been lost or contain discrepancies, and to determine if they can be used. Results of evaluated experiments are being published as US DOE handbooks.

  1. Safety evaluation of synthetic β-carotene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Appel, M.J.; Berg, H. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    1999-01-01

    The safety of β-carotene was reassessed by evaluating the relevant literature on the beneficial and adverse effects of β-carotene on cancer and, in particular, by evaluating the results of toxicity studies. β- Carotene appeared neither genotoxic nor reprotoxic or teratogenic, and no signs of organ

  2. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: safety evaluation of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of an argilite-type geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goals, general safety principles, specificity of the argilite repository safety approach, general approach; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, geologic context of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, repository architecture; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: time and space scales, safety approach by functions, functional analysis methodology, analysis of safety functions during the construction, exploitation and observation phases, safety functions analysis during post-closure phase; 4 - operational safety: dosimetric evaluation, risk analysis (explosible gases, fire hazards, lift cage drop, container drop); 5 - long-term efficiency of the disposal facility: normal evolution scenario, from conceptual models to the safety calculation model, description of the safety model, quantitative evaluation of the normal evolution scenario, main lessons learnt from the efficiency analysis; 6 - management of uncertainties: identification, building up of altered situations, mastery of uncertainties; 7 - evaluation of altered evolution scenarios: sealing defect scenario, container defect scenario, drilling scenario, strongly degraded operation scenario; 8 - conclusions: lessons learnt, possible improvements. (J.S.)

  3. Evaluation of reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Although the operation of nuclear reactors has a remarkably good record of safety, the prevention of possible reactor accidents is one of the major factors that atomic planners have to contend with. At the same time, excessive caution may breed an attitude that hampers progress, either by resisting new development or by demanding unnecessarily elaborate and expensive precautions out of proportion to the actual hazards involved. The best course obviously is to determine the possible dangers and adopt adequate measures for their prevention, providing of course, for a reasonable margin of error in judging the hazards and the effectiveness of the measures. The greater the expert understanding and thoroughness with which this is done, the narrower need the margin be. This is the basic idea behind the evaluation of reactor safety

  4. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, B. J.; Dean, V. F.; Pesic, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    In order to properly manage the risk of a nuclear criticality accident, it is important to establish the conditions for which such an accident becomes possible for any activity involving fissile material. Only when this information is known is it possible to establish the likelihood of actually achieving such conditions. It is therefore important that criticality safety analysts have confidence in the accuracy of their calculations. Confidence in analytical results can only be gained through comparison of those results with experimental data. The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the US Department of Energy. The project was managed through the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), but involved nationally known criticality safety experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Savannah River Technology Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 Plant, Hanford, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Rocky Flats Plant. An International Criticality Safety Data Exchange component was added to the project during 1994 and the project became what is currently known as the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP). Representatives from the United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Korea, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, Spain, and Israel are now participating on the project In December of 1994, the ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - Nuclear Energy Agency's (OECD-NEA) Nuclear Science Committee. The United States currently remains the lead country, providing most of the administrative support. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to: (1) identify and evaluate a comprehensive set of critical benchmark data; (2) verify the data, to the extent possible, by reviewing original and subsequently revised documentation, and by talking with the

  5. Economic evaluation in patient safety: a literature review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Bruna Alves; Or, Zeynep; Com-Ruelle, Laure; Michel, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    Patient safety practices, targeting organisational changes for improving patient safety, are implemented worldwide but their costs are rarely evaluated. This paper provides a review of the methods used in economic evaluation of such practices. International medical and economics databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications on economic evaluations of patient safety between 2000 and 2010 in English and French. This was complemented by a manual search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Grey literature was excluded. Studies were described using a standardised template and assessed independently by two researchers according to six quality criteria. 33 articles were reviewed that were representative of different patient safety domains, data types and evaluation methods. 18 estimated the economic burden of adverse events, 3 measured the costs of patient safety practices and 12 provided complete economic evaluations. Healthcare-associated infections were the most common subject of evaluation, followed by medication-related errors and all types of adverse events. Of these, 10 were selected that had adequately fulfilled one or several key quality criteria for illustration. This review shows that full cost-benefit/utility evaluations are rarely completed as they are resource intensive and often require unavailable data; some overcome these difficulties by performing stochastic modelling and by using secondary sources. Low methodological transparency can be a problem for building evidence from available economic evaluations. Investing in the economic design and reporting of studies with more emphasis on defining study perspectives, data collection and methodological choices could be helpful for strengthening our knowledge base on practices for improving patient safety.

  6. Safety evaluation of cation-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    Results are presented of a study to evaluate whether sufficient information is available to establish conservative limits for the safe use of cation-exchange resins in separating radionuclides and, if not, to recommend what new data should be acquired. The study was also an attempt to identify in-line analytical techniques for the evaluation of resin degradation during radionuclide processing. The report is based upon a review of the published literature and upon discussions with many people engaged in the use of these resins. It was concluded that the chief hazard in the use of cation-exchange resins for separating radionuclides is a thermal explosion if nitric acid or other strong oxidants are present in the process solution. Thermal explosions can be avoided by limiting process parameters so that the rates of heat and gas generation in the system do not exceed the rates for their transfer to the surroundings. Such parameters include temperature, oxidant concentration, the amounts of possible catalysts, the radiation dose absorbed by the resin and the diameter of the resin column. Current information is not sufficient to define safe upper limits for these parameters. They can be evaluated, however, from equations derived from the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of thermal explosions provided the heat capacities, thermal conductivities and rates of heat evolution in the relevant resin-oxidant mixtures are known. It is recommended that such measurements be made and the appropriate limits be evaluated. A list of additional safety precautions are also presented to aid in the application of these limits and to provide additional margins of safety. In-line evaluation of resin degradation to assess its safety hazard is considered impractical. Rather, it is recommended that the resin be removed from use before it has received the limiting radiation dose, evaluated as described above

  7. Nuclear criticality safety parameter evaluation for uranium metallic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andrea; Abe, Alfredo, E-mail: andreasdpz@hotmail.com, E-mail: abye@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear criticality safety during fuel fabrication process, transport and storage of fissile and fissionable materials requires criticality safety analysis. Normally the analysis involves computer calculations and safety parameters determination. There are many different Criticality Safety Handbooks where such safety parameters for several different fissile mixtures are presented. The handbooks have been published to provide data and safety principles for the design, safety evaluation and licensing of operations, transport and storage of fissile and fissionable materials. The data often comprise not only critical values, but also subcritical limits and safe parameters obtained for specific conditions using criticality safety calculation codes such as SCALE system. Although many data are available for different fissile and fissionable materials, compounds, mixtures, different enrichment level, there are a lack of information regarding a uranium metal alloy, specifically UMo and UNbZr. Nowadays uranium metal alloy as fuel have been investigated under RERTR program as possible candidate to became a new fuel for research reactor due to high density. This work aim to evaluate a set of criticality safety parameters for uranium metal alloy using SCALE system and MCNP Monte Carlo code. (author)

  8. Occupational safety of different industrial sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Part 1: Safety performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; H Deign El-Nor, Yasser; Nofal, Faten H; Zakaria, Adel M

    2012-12-01

    Safety performance evaluation enables decision makers improve safety acts. In Sudan, accident records, statistics, and safety performance were not evaluated before maintenance of accident records became mandatory in 2005. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing safety performance by accident records among different cities and industrial sectors in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from 2005 to 2007. This was a retrospective study, the sample in which represented all industrial enterprises in Khartoum state employing 50 workers or more. All industrial accident records of the Ministry of Manpower and Health and those of different enterprises during the period from 2005 to 2007 were reviewed. The safety performance indicators used within this study were the frequency-severity index (FSI) and fatal and disabling accident frequency rates (DAFR). In Khartoum city, the FSI [0.10 (0.17)] was lower than that in Bahari [0.11 (0.21)] and Omdurman [0.84 (0.34)]. It was the maximum in the chemical sector [0.33 (0.64)] and minimum in the metallurgic sector [0.09 (0.19)]. The highest DAFR was observed in Omdurman [5.6 (3.5)] and in the chemical sector [2.5 (4.0)]. The fatal accident frequency rate in the mechanical and electrical engineering industry was the highest [0.0 (0.69)]. Male workers who were older, divorced, and had lower levels of education had the lowest safety performance indicators. The safety performance of the industrial enterprises in Khartoum city was the best. The safety performance in the chemical sector was the worst with regard to FSI and DAFR. The age, sex, and educational level of injured workers greatly affect safety performance.

  9. Problems of nuclear power plant safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is discussed with regard to external effects on the containment and to the human factor. As for external effects, attention is focused on shock waves which may be due to explosions or accidents in flammable material transport and storage, to missiles, and to earthquake effects. The criteria for evaluating nuclear power plant safety in different countries are shown. Factors are discussed affecting the reliability of man with regard to his behaviour in a loss-of-coolant accident in the power plant. Different types of PWR containments and their functions are analyzed, mainly in case of accident. Views are discussed on the role of destructive accidents in the overall evaluation of fast reactor safety. Experiences are summed up gained with the operation of WWER reactors with respect to the environmental impact of the nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  10. Evaluation and Customization of WHO Safety Checklist for Patient Safety in Otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Yogesh; Velankar, Haritosh; Suryanarayan, Sneha; Dabholkar, Twinkle Y; Saberwal, Akanksha A; Verma, Bhavika

    2018-03-01

    The WHO has designed a safe surgery checklist to enhance communication and awareness of patient safety during surgery and to minimise complications. WHO recommends that the check-list be evaluated and customised by end users as a tool to promote safe surgery. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of WHO safety checklist on patient safety awareness in otorhinolaryngology and to customise it for the speciality. A prospective structured questionnaire based study was done in ENT operating room for duration of 1 month each for cases, before and after implementation of safe surgery checklist. The feedback from respondents (surgeons, nurses and anaesthetists) was used to arrive at a customised checklist for otolaryngology as per WHO guidelines. The checklist significantly improved team member's awareness of patient's identity (from 17 to 86%) and each other's identity and roles (from 46 to 94%) and improved team communication (from 73 to 92%) in operation theatre. There was a significant improvement in preoperative check of equipment and critical events were discussed more frequently. The checklist could be effectively customised to suit otolaryngology needs as per WHO guidelines. The modified checklist needs to be validated by otolaryngology associations. We conclude from our study that the WHO Surgical safety check-list has a favourable impact on patient safety awareness, team-work and communication of operating team and can be customised for otolaryngology setting.

  11. A guideline for comprehensive evaluation of a licensee's effort to cultivate safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Maomi; Ishii, Yoichi

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Japan had held excellent performance in safety in the world during 90's. However recent events stem from organizational factors and defects of safety culture are pointed out in their contexts. In order to reduce accidents caused by organizational factors, the Japanese Regulatory body NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency) decided to evaluate a licensee's effort for the cultivation of safety culture, and to order all licensses to add the provision of cultivating safety culture to their safety preservation rules. The inspection for the new safety preservation rules started in December, 2007. For a measure of evaluation by resident inspectors, NISA and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) prepared a guideline for the prevention of degradation of safety culture and organizational climate. In this guideline, 14 items were defined as the components of the safety culture or as the viewpoints to evaluate the effort made to prevent any degradation of safety culture and organizational climate in the daily safety preservation activities. The 14 items are also used to establish the method to comprehensively evaluate the effort to prevent degradation of safety culture and organizational climate. This method consists of 10 steps: two steps to taken prior to start of the evaluation, two steps to be taken during the evaluation period, 5 steps to be taken during a comprehensive evaluation period and a final step to be taken for comprehensive findings for safety culture. This paper mainly describes the viewpoints to evaluate comprehensively a licensee's effort for cultivation of safety culture. (author)

  12. Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Briasco; Priscilla Capra; Arianna Cecilia Cozzi; Barbara Mannucci; Paola Perugini

    2016-01-01

    In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packag...

  13. Systematic safety evaluation of old nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dredemis, G.; Fourest, B.

    1984-01-01

    The French safety authorities have undertaken a systematic evaluation of the safety of old nuclear power plants. Apart from a complete revision of safety documents (safety analysis report, general operating rules, incident and accident procedures, internal emergency plan, quality organisation manual), this examination consisted of analysing the operating experience of systems frequently challenged and a systematic examination of the safety-related systems. This paper is based on an exercise at the Ardennes Nuclear Power Plant which has been in operation for 15 years. This paper also summarizes the main surveys and modifications relating to this power plant. (orig.)

  14. The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's Galileo safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.C.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The safety evaluation report (SER) for Galileo was prepared by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) coordinators in accordance with Presidential directive/National Security Council memorandum 25. The INSRP consists of three coordinators appointed by their respective agencies, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These individuals are independent of the program being evaluated and depend on independent experts drawn from the national technical community to serve on the five INSRP subpanels. The Galileo SER is based on input provided by the NASA Galileo Program Office, review and assessment of the final safety analysis report prepared by the Office of Special Applications of the DOE under a memorandum of understanding between NASA and the DOE, as well as other related data and analyses. The SER was prepared for use by the agencies and the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the Present for use in their launch decision-making process. Although more than 20 nuclear-powered space missions have been previously reviewed via the INSRP process, the Galileo review constituted the first review of a nuclear power source associated with launch aboard the Space Transportation System

  15. Evaluating Performance of Safety Management and Occupational Health Using Total Quality Safety Management Model (TQSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadfam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: All organizations, whether public or private, necessitate performance evaluation systems in regard with growth, stability, and development in the competitive fields. One of the existing models for performance evaluation of occupational health and safety management is Total Quality Safety Management model (TQSM. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate performance of safety management and occupational health utilizing TQSM model. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, the population consisted of 16 individuals, including managers, supervisors, and members of technical protection and work health committee. Then the participants were asked to respond to TQSM questionnaire before and after the implementation of Occupational Health & Safety Advisory Services 18001 (OHSAS18001. Ultimately, the level of each program as well as the TQSM status were determined before and after the implementation of OHSAS18001. Results: The study results showed that the scores obtained by the company before OHSAS 18001’s implementation, was 43.7 out of 312. After implementing OHSAS 18001 in the company and receiving the related certificate, the total score of safety program that company could obtain was 127.12 out of 312 demonstrating a rise of 83.42 scores (26.8%. The paired t-test revealed that mean difference of TQSM scores before and after OHSAS 18001 implementation was proved to be significant (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that TQSM can be regarded as an appropriate model in order to monitor the performance of safety management system and occupational health, since it possesses the ability to quantitatively evaluate the system performance.

  16. 29 CFR 1960.80 - Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs § 1960.80 Secretary's evaluations of agency occupational safety and health... evaluating an agency's occupational safety and health program. To accomplish this, the Secretary shall...

  17. 29 CFR 1960.11 - Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation of occupational safety and health performance. 1960.11 Section 1960.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Administration § 1960.11 Evaluation of occupational safety and...

  18. A reliability evaluation method for NPP safety DCS application software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunjian; Zhang Lei; Liu Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) digital i and c application, reliability evaluation for safety DCS application software is a key obstacle to be removed. In order to quantitatively evaluate reliability of NPP safety DCS application software, this paper propose a reliability evaluating method based on software development life cycle every stage's v and v defects density characteristics, by which the operating reliability level of the software can be predicted before its delivery, and helps to improve the reliability of NPP safety important software. (authors)

  19. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) - Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, Kazakhstan, Israel, Spain, and Brazil are now participating. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments.' The 2003 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark model specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for validating computer codes that calculate effective neutron multiplication and for testing basic nuclear data. (author)

  20. Operational safety evaluation for minor reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address a concern of applying conservatism in analysing minor reactor incidents. A so-called ''conservative'' safety analysis may exaggerate the system responses and result in a reactor scram tripped by the reactor protective system (RPS). In reality, a minor incident may lead the reactor to a new thermal hydraulic steady-state without scram, and the mitigation or termination of the incident may entirely depend on operator actions. An example on a small steamline break evaluation for a pressurized water reactor recently investigated by the staff at the Washington Public Power Supply System is presented to illustrate this point. A safety evaluation using mainly the safety-related systems to be consistent with the conservative assumptions used in the Safety Analysis Report was conducted. For comparison, a realistic analysis was also performed using both the safety- and control-related systems. The analyses were performed using the RETRAN plant simulation computer code. The ''conservative'' safety analysis predicts that the incident can be turned over by the RPS scram trips without operator intervention. However, the realistic analysis concludes that the reactor will reach a new steady-state at a different plant thermal hydraulic condition. As a result, the termination of the incident at this stage depends entirely on proper operator action. On the basis of this investigation it is concluded that, for minor incidents, ''conservative'' assumptions are not necessary, sometimes not justifiable. A realistic investigation from the operational safety point of view is more appropriate. It is essential to highlight the key transient indications for specific incident recognition in the operator training program

  1. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chang, Hye-Ja

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaur...

  2. Construction of Earthquake-Proof Safety Evaluation Methods for Pipes with Wall Thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Sekimura, Naoto; Takizawa, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the extreme importance of 'system safety' evaluation has been recognized. In this study, some fundamental ways of thinking about the concept of 'system safety' for operating plants is shown, and concrete evaluation structures of system safety are proposed. System safety for nuclear power plants and safety assessment for aging plants are constructed. (author)

  3. FFTF railroad tank car Safety Evaluation for Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides evaluations considered necessary to approve transfer of the 8,000 gallon Liquid Waste Tank Car (LWTC) from Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to the 200 Areas. This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the LWTC will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements. This fulfills onsite transportation requirements implemented in the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, WHC-CM-2-14

  4. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.; Briggs, J. Blair; Nigg, David W.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  5. Reactor safety; Description and evaluation of safety activities in Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Gunsell, L.

    1998-03-01

    The report gives a description of safety activities in the nuclear power industry. The study has been carried out as a part of the four year programme in Nordic Safety Research (NKS) which was completed in 1997. The objective of the NKS/RAK-1.1 project 'A survey and an evaluation of safety activities in nuclear power' was to make a broad description of various activities important for safety and to make an assessment of their efficiency. A special consideration was placed on a comparison of practices in Finland and Sweden, and between their nuclear utilities. The study has been divided into two parts, one theoretical part in which a model of the relationships between various activities important for safety has been constructed and one practical part where a total of 62 persons have been interviewed at the authorities, the nuclear utilities and one reactor vendor. To restrict the amount of work two activities, safety analysis and experience feedback, were selected. A few cases connected to incidents at nuclear power plants were discussed in more detail. The report has been structured around a simple model of nuclear safety consisting of the concepts of goals, means and outcomes. This model illustrates the importance of goal formulation, systematic planning and feedback of operational experience as major components in nuclear safety. In assessing organisation and management at authorities and the power utilities there is a clear trend of decentralisation and delegation of authority. The general impression from the study is that the safety activities in Finland and Sweden are efficient and well targeted. The experience from the methodology is favourable and the comparison of practices gives a good ground for a discussion of contents and targeting of safety activities. (EG) activities. (EG)

  6. Application of Mixed Group Decision Making to Safety Evaluation of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In view of the gravity of issues concerning safety of agricultural products and urgency of resolving these issues,after analyzing the problems existing in safety of agricultural products,this article offers a method for evaluating safety of agricultural products on the basis of mixed group decision making.First of all,it introduces the factors influencing safety evaluation of agricultural products;subsequently,given that the judgment matrices offered by the group of experts contain both reciprocal and complementary judgment matrices in the process of jointly participating in evaluation arising from personal preference,it proposes to assemble expert information in order to obtain indicator weight using the OWA operator;finally,the process of evaluating safety of agricultural products is given.

  7. Evaluating fuel cycle safety for CITa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Reilly, H.J.; Piet, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    A safety concern in the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) currently being designed in the U. S. is the accidental release of tritium. To evaluate the basis for that concern, an assessment of the risk to the public posed by CIT was conducted that made use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques. These include both frequency and consequence elements of risk. This analysis concluded that the tritium systems on the CIT could be designed and operated as planned with negligible safety impact, well within the established guidelines. (author)

  8. Optimized Evaluation System to Athletic Food Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Shanshan Li

    2015-01-01

    This study presented a new method of optimizing evaluation function in athletic food safety information programming by particle swarm optimization. The process of food information evaluation function is to automatically adjust these parameters in the evaluation function by self-optimizing method accomplished through competition, which is a food information system plays against itself with different evaluation functions. The results show that the particle swarm optimization is successfully app...

  9. Safety and cost evaluation of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Hautojaervi, A.; Korhonen, R.

    1989-11-01

    The report introduces the results of the nuclear waste management safety and cost evaluation research carried out in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) during the years 1984-1988. The emphasis is on the description of the state-of-art of performance and cost evaluation methods. The report describes VTT's most important assessment models. Development, verification and validation of the models has largely taken place within international projects, including the Stripa, HYDROCOIN, INTRACOIN, INTRAVAL, PSACOIN and BIOMOVS projects. Furthermore, VTT's other laboratories are participating in the Natural Analogue Working Group,k the CHEMVAL project and the CoCo group. Resent safety analyses carried out in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory include a concept feasibility study of spent fuel disposal, safety analyses for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Reports (PSAR's) of the repositories to be constructed for low and medium level operational reactor waste at the Olkiluoto and Loviisa power plants as well as safety analyses of disposal of decommissioning wastes. Appendix 1 contains a comprehensive list of the most important publications and technical reports produced. They present the content and results of the research in detail

  10. Evaluation for nuclear safety-critical software reliability of DCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying

    2015-01-01

    With the development of control and information technology at NPPs, software reliability is important because software failure is usually considered as one form of common cause failures in Digital I and C Systems (DCS). The reliability analysis of DCS, particularly qualitative and quantitative evaluation on the nuclear safety-critical software reliability belongs to a great challenge. To solve this problem, not only comprehensive evaluation model and stage evaluation models are built in this paper, but also prediction and sensibility analysis are given to the models. It can make besement for evaluating the reliability and safety of DCS. (author)

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol

    2017-03-01

    Advanced vehicle safety systems have been widely introduced in transportation systems and are expected to enhance traffic safety. However, these technologies mainly focus on assisting individual vehicles that are equipped with them, and less effort has been made to identify the effect of vehicular technologies on the traffic stream. This study proposed a methodology to assess the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems (AVSSs), which represent a promising technology to prevent traffic crashes and mitigate injury severity. The proposed AVSS consists of longitudinal and lateral vehicle control systems, which corresponds to the Level 2 vehicle automation presented by the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA). The effectiveness evaluation for the proposed technology was conducted in terms of crash potential reduction and congestion mitigation. A microscopic traffic simulator, VISSIM, was used to simulate freeway traffic stream and collect vehicle-maneuvering data. In addition, an external application program interface, VISSIM's COM-interface, was used to implement the AVSS. A surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM) was used to derive indirect safety measures to evaluate the effectiveness of the AVSS. A 16.7-km freeway stretch between the Nakdong and Seonsan interchanges on Korean freeway 45 was selected for the simulation experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of AVSS. A total of five simulation runs for each evaluation scenario were conducted. For the non-incident conditions, the rear-end and lane-change conflicts were reduced by 78.8% and 17.3%, respectively, under the level of service (LOS) D traffic conditions. In addition, the average delay was reduced by 55.5%. However, the system's effectiveness was weakened in the LOS A-C categories. Under incident traffic conditions, the number of rear-end conflicts was reduced by approximately 9.7%. Vehicle delays were reduced by approximately 43.9% with 100% of market penetration rate (MPR). These results

  12. International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) - ICSBEP 2015 Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.

    2015-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) became an official activity of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculation techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirements and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data. The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. These volumes span approximately 69000 pages and contain 567 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4874 critical, near-critical or subcritical configurations, 31 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 207 configurations that have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications. New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for neutron activation foil and thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements performed at the SILENE critical assembly in Valduc, France as part of a joint venture in 2010 between the US DOE and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). A photograph of this experiment is shown on the front cover. Experiments that are found unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmark experiments are discussed in these

  13. The impact of WASH-1400 on reactor safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Trends in reactor safety evaluation in France following the publication of WASH-1400 (the Rasmussen Report) are presented. What is called 'the meteorite case' is first schematically presented as follows: WASH-1400 shows nuclear risk equivalent to meteorite risk and reasonable corrections cannot make many orders of magnitude, consequently present safety rules are adequate. The very impact of WASH-1400 on safety approach is then discussed as for: assistance to deterministic safety analysis, introduction of probabilistic safety criteria, acceptable level of risk, and the use of results in research and reactor operating experience

  14. Criticality safety evaluations - a open-quotes stalking horseclose quotes for integrated safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility of the Westinghouse Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division manufactures low-enriched uranium fuel and associated components for use in commercial pressurized water power reactors. To support development of a comprehensive integrated safety assessment (ISA) for the facility, as well as to address increasing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expectations regarding such a facility's criticality safety assessments, a project is under way to complete criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) of all plant systems used in processing nuclear materials. Each CSE is made up of seven sections, prepared by a multidisciplinary team of process engineers, systems engineers, safety engineers, maintenance representatives, and operators. This paper provides a cursory outline of the type of information presented in a CSE

  15. Evaluating and Predicting Patient Safety for Medical Devices With Integral Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    323 Evaluating and Predicting Patient Safety for Medical Devices with Integral Information Technology Jiajie Zhang, Vimla L. Patel, Todd R...errors are due to inappropriate designs for user interactions, rather than mechanical failures. Evaluating and predicting patient safety in medical ...the users on the identified trouble spots in the devices. We developed two methods for evaluating and predicting patient safety in medical devices

  16. The discussion on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kefu

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental methods for safely culture evaluation are described. Combining with the practice of the quantitative evaluation of safety culture in Daya Bay NPP, the quantitative evaluation method for safety culture are discussed. (author)

  17. Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve Cosmetic Product Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Briasco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packaging; furthermore, different from food packaging, the cosmetic packaging is not regulated and, to date, appropriate guidelines are still missing. The aim of this work was to propose a practical approach to investigate commercial polymeric containers used in cosmetic field, especially through mechanical properties’ evaluation, from a safety point of view. First of all, it is essential to obtain complete information about raw materials. Subsequently, using an appropriate full factorial experimental design, it is possible to investigate the variables, like polymeric density, treatment, or type of formulation involved in changes to packaging properties or in formulation-packaging interaction. The variation of these properties can greatly affect cosmetic safety. In particular, mechanical properties can be used as an indicator of pack performances and safety. As an example, containers made of two types of polyethylene with different density, low-density polyethylene (LDPE and high-density polyethylene (HDPE, are investigated. Regarding the substances potentially extractable from the packaging, in this work the headspace solid-phase microextraction method (HSSPME was used because this technique was reported in the literature as suitable to detect extractables from the polymeric material here employed.

  18. Squale: evaluation criteria of functioning safety; Squale: criteres d`evaluation de la surete de fonctionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deswarte, Y; Kaaniche, M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d` Analyse et d` Architecture des Systemes; Corneillie, P [CE2A-DI, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Benoit, P [Matra Transport International, 92 - Montrouge (France)

    1998-05-01

    The SQUALE (security, safety and quality evaluation for dependable systems) project is part of the ACTS (advanced communications, technologies and services) European program. Its aim is to develop confidence evaluation criteria to test the functioning safety of systems. All industrial sectors that use critical applications (nuclear, railway, aerospace..) are concerned. SQUALE evaluation criteria differ from the classical evaluation methods: they are independent of the application domains and industrial sectors, they take into account the overall functioning safety attributes, and they can progressively change according to the level of severity required. In order to validate the approach and to refine the criteria, a first experiment is in progress with the METEOR automatic underground railway and another will be carried out on a telecommunication system developed by Bouygues company. (J.S.) 15 refs.

  19. An evaluation of sharp safety blood evacuation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Joanna; Phillips, Peter

    This article describes an evaluation of three sharp safety blood evacuation devices in seven Welsh NHS boards and the Welsh Blood Service. Products consisted of two phlebotomy needles possessing safety shields and one phlebotomy device with wings, tubing and a retractable needle. The device companies provided the devices and appropriate training. Participating healthcare workers used the safety device instead of the conventional device to sample blood during the evaluation period and each type of device was evaluated in random order. Participants filled in a questionnaire for each type of device and then a further questionnaire comparing the two shielded evacuation needles with each other Results showed that responses to all three products were fairly positive, although each device was not liked by everyone who used it. When the two shielded evacuation devices were compared with each other, most users preferred the device with the shield positioned directly above the needle to the device with the shield at the side. However, in laboratory tests, the preferred device produced more fluid splatter than the other shielded device on activation.

  20. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  1. Dynamic probability evaluation of safety levels of earth-rockfill dams using Bayesian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-wu Fan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict and control the aging process of dams, new information should be collected continuously to renew the quantitative evaluation of dam safety levels. Owing to the complex structural characteristics of dams, it is quite difficult to predict the time-varying factors affecting their safety levels. It is not feasible to employ dynamic reliability indices to evaluate the actual safety levels of dams. Based on the relevant regulations for dam safety classification in China, a dynamic probability description of dam safety levels was developed. Using the Bayesian approach and effective information mining, as well as real-time information, this study achieved more rational evaluation and prediction of dam safety levels. With the Bayesian expression of discrete stochastic variables, the a priori probabilities of the dam safety levels determined by experts were combined with the likelihood probability of the real-time check information, and the probability information for the evaluation of dam safety levels was renewed. The probability index was then applied to dam rehabilitation decision-making. This method helps reduce the difficulty and uncertainty of the evaluation of dam safety levels and complies with the current safe decision-making regulations for dams in China. It also enhances the application of current risk analysis methods for dam safety levels.

  2. 29 CFR 1960.79 - Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Self-evaluations of occupational safety and health programs. 1960.79 Section 1960.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Evaluation of Federal Occupational Safety and Health Programs...

  3. Development of evaluation method for software safety analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tu, W.; Shih, C.; Chen, C.; Yang, W.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C.; Chen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Following the massive adoption of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system for nuclear power plant (NPP), various Software Safety Analysis (SSA) techniques are used to evaluate the NPP safety for adopting appropriate digital I and C system, and then to reduce risk to acceptable level. However, each technique has its specific advantage and disadvantage. If the two or more techniques can be complementarily incorporated, the SSA combination would be more acceptable. As a result, if proper evaluation criteria are available, the analyst can then choose appropriate technique combination to perform analysis on the basis of resources. This research evaluated the applicable software safety analysis techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/ noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. These indexes may help the decision makers and the software safety analysts to choose the best SSA combination arrange their own software safety plan. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various SSA combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (without transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and Simulation-based model analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantage are the completeness complexity

  4. The use of living PSA in safety management, a procedure developed in the nordic project ''safety evaluation, NKS/SIK-1''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, G.; Holmberg, J.

    1994-01-01

    The essential objective with the development of a living PSA concept is to bring the use of the plant specific PSA model out to the daily safety work to allow operational risk experience feedback and to increase the risk awareness of the intended users. This paper will present results of the Nordic project ''Safety Evaluation, NKS/SIK-1''. The SIK-1 project has defined and demonstrated the practical use of living PSA for safety evaluation and for identification of possible improvements in operational safety. Subjects discussed in this paper are dealing with the practical implementation and use of PSA to make proper safety related decisions and evaluation. (author). 24 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. [External therapy of plasma cell mastitis by jiuyi powder using partial least-squares discriminant analysis: a safety analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mei-na; Yang, Ming; Cheng, Yi-qin; Wang, Bing; Zhu, Ying; Xia, Ya-ru; Meng, Tian; Chen, Hao; Chen, Li-ying; Cheng, Hong-feng

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the safety and the clinical value of external use of jiuyi Powder (JP) in treating plasma cell mastitis using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). Totally 50 patients with plasma cell mastitis treated by external use of JP were observed and biochemical examinations of blood and urine detected before application, at day 4 after application, at day 1 and 14 after discontinuation. Blood mercury and urinary mercury were detected before application, at day 1, 4, and 7 after application, at day 1 and 14 after discontinuation. Urinary mercury was also detected at 28 after discontinuation and 3 months after discontinuation. The information of wound, days of external application and the total dosage of external application were recorded before application, at day 1, 4, and 7 after application, as well as at day 1 after discontinuation. Then a discriminant model covering potential safety factors was set up by PLSDA after screening safety indices with important effects. The applicability of the model was assessed using area under ROC curve. Potential safety factors were assessed using variable importance in the projection (VIP). Urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), 24 h urinary protein, and urinary α1-microglobulin (α1-MG) were greatly affected by external use of JP in treating plasma cell mastitis. The accuracy rate of PLSDA discriminate model was 74. 00%. The sensitivity, specificity, and the area under ROC curve was 0. 7826, 0. 7037, and 0. 8084, respectively. Three factors with greater effect on the potential safety were screened as follows: pre-application volume of the sore cavity, days of external application, and the total dosage of external application. PLSDA method could be used in analyzing bioinformation of clinical Chinese medicine. Urinary β2-MG and urinary NAG were two main safety monitoring indices. Days of external application and the total dosage of external application were main

  6. Evaluation of reliability assurance approaches to operational nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the results of research to evaluate existing and/or recommended safety/reliability assurance activities among nuclear and other high technology industries for potential nuclear industry implementation. Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, there has been increased interest in the use of reliability programs (RP) to assure the performance of nuclear safety systems throughout the plant's lifetime. Recently, several Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) task forces or safety issue review groups have recommended RPs for assuring the continuing safety of nuclear reactor plants. 18 references

  7. Evaluation of atmospheric dispersion/consequence models supporting safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Lazaro, M.A.; Woodard, K.

    1996-01-01

    Two DOE Working Groups have completed evaluation of accident phenomenology and consequence methodologies used to support DOE facility safety documentation. The independent evaluations each concluded that no one computer model adequately addresses all accident and atmospheric release conditions. MACCS2, MATHEW/ADPIC, TRAC RA/HA, and COSYMA are adequate for most radiological dispersion and consequence needs. ALOHA, DEGADIS, HGSYSTEM, TSCREEN, and SLAB are recommended for chemical dispersion and consequence applications. Additional work is suggested, principally in evaluation of new models, targeting certain models for continued development, training, and establishing a Web page for guidance to safety analysts

  8. Periodic safety re-evaluations in NPPs in EC member states, Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The work on periodic safety re-evaluations summarized in this report was performed by a Task Force of the CEC Working Group on the Safety of Thermal Reactors. The periodic safety re-evaluations under review in this study were those that are carried out in addition to other reviews which represent the primary means of safety assurance. The periodic safety re-evaluation is broader and more comprehensive in nature. The cumulative effects of experience (national and international), advances in knowledge and analysis techniques, improvements in safety standards and operating practices, overall effects of plant ageing, and the totality of all modifications over the period in question need to be taken into account. All countries have recognized the value of such periodic reviews, and licensees, either as a regulatory requirement or as a voluntary action, are carrying them out. The scope and contents of each country's review showed many similarities of approach, any differences being explained by the age and type of reactor in operation. Many similarities emerged in the topics selected for re-evaluation and in the approach to re-evaluation itself. The overall conclusion was that while approaches may differ in some respects, for practical purposes comparable levels of safety are achieved in the periodic safety re-evaluation of nuclear power plants

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Edward G.; Fleming, Karl N.; Burns, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  10. Development of Basic Key Technologies for Gen IV SFR Safety Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Yong; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Tae Woon; Park, Soo Yong; Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Kwi Lim; Lee, Yong Bum; Chang, Won Pyo; Ha, Kwi Seok; Hahn, Sang Hoon

    2010-07-01

    Safety issues and design requirements on control rod worth were identified through the evaluation of safety design characteristics and the preliminary safety evaluation. This results will be taken into account for the conceptual design studies of the demonstration reactor in the next stage. The Level-1 Pasa has been performed and a quantitative Cdf value was produced for the selected design from the several candidates. The inherent safety characteristics of the selected design were evaluated through the DBE and ATWS analyses. A surrogate material for Tru has been selected which is applicable to the study of liquidus/solidus temperature test for the metallic fuel containing Tru. A methodology for the regression analysis with surrogate material has been developed and valuable data on metal fuel liquidus/solidus temperature have been measured. A simple mechanistic model describing a bending of subassemblies has been formulated based on the foreign test data and existing models. Its applicability has been evaluated for the Phenix design. New criteria of the core damage for the SFR PSA were identified. The list of initiating events, system response event tree, and core response event tree, which constitute a PSA methodology for an SFR, have been introduced. By developing the SFR PIRT, phenomenological model features, which have to be satisfied in a safety code, were defined and the PIRT results were applied to the design of the PDRC test facility. Bases for a safety evaluation methodology for the SFR DBEs have been also prepared. A draft version of the topical report on the code for local fault analysis has been completed. Since 2007, the MARS-LMR code has been developed and assessments for model validation with the test data from EBR-II and Phenix reactor have been continued. The code has been applied to the evaluation of passive safety of a conceptual design of Gen IV SFR

  11. Advanced CANDU reactor pre-licensing progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, N.K.; West, J.; Snell, V.G.; Ion, R.; Archinoff, G.; Xu, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) is an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor, aimed at producing electrical power for a capital cost and at a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current reactor designs. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) staff are currently reviewing the ACR design to determine whether, in their opinion, there are any fundamental barriers that would prevent the licensing of the design in Canada. This CNSC licensability review will not constitute a licence, but is expected to reduce regulatory risk. The CNSC pre-licensing review started in September 2003, and was focused on identifying topics and issues for ACR-700 that will require a more detailed review. CNSC staff reviewed about 120 reports, and issued to AECL 65 packages of questions and comments. Currently CNSC staff is reviewing AECL responses to all packages of comments. AECL has recently refocused the design efforts to the ACR-1000, which is a larger version of the ACR design. During the remainder of the pre-licensing review, the CNSC review will be focused on the ACR-1000. AECL Technologies Inc. (AECLT), a wholly-owned US subsidiary of AECL, is engaged in a pre-application process for the ACR-700 with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and resolve major issues prior to entering a formal process to obtain standard design certification. To date, the USNRC has produced a Pre-Application Safety Assessment Report (PASAR), which contains their reviews of key focus topics. During the remainder of the pre-application phase, AECLT will address the issues identified in the PASAR. Pursuant to the bilateral agreement between AECL and the Chinese nuclear regulator, the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) and its Nuclear Safety Center (NSC), NNSA/NSC are reviewing the ACR in seven focus areas. The review started in September 2004, and will take three years. The main objective of the review is to determine how the ACR complies

  12. Criticality Safety Evaluation for the TACS at DAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percher, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heinrichs, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Hands-on experimental training in the physical behavior of multiplying systems is one of ten key areas of training required for practitioners to become qualified in the discipline of criticality safety as identified in DOE-STD-1135-99, Guidance for Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training and Qualification. This document is a criticality safety evaluation of the training activities and operations associated with HS-3201-P, Nuclear Criticality 4-Day Training Course (Practical). This course was designed to also address the training needs of nuclear criticality safety professionals under the auspices of the NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program1. The hands-on, or laboratory, portion of the course will utilize the Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS) and will be conducted in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The training activities will be conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory following the requirements of an Integrated Work Sheet (IWS) and associated Safety Plan. Students will be allowed to handle the fissile material under the supervision of an LLNL Certified Fissile Material Handler.

  13. An Evaluation Tool for Agricultural Health and Safety Mobile Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Iris; Ellis, Tammy; Yoder, Aaron; Keifer, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    As the use of mobile devices and their software applications, or apps, becomes ubiquitous, use amongst agricultural working populations is expanding as well. The smart device paired with a well-designed app has potential for improving workplace health and safety in the hands of those who can act upon the information provided. Many apps designed to assess workplace hazards and implementation of worker protections already exist. However, the abundance and diversity of such applications also presents challenges regarding evaluation practices and assignation of value. This is particularly true in the agricultural workspace, as there is currently little information on the value of these apps for agricultural safety and health. This project proposes a framework for developing and evaluating apps that have potential usefulness in agricultural health and safety. The evaluation framework is easily transferable, with little modification for evaluation of apps in several agriculture-specific areas.

  14. Criticality safety evaluations - a {open_quotes}stalking horse{close_quotes} for integrated safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility of the Westinghouse Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division manufactures low-enriched uranium fuel and associated components for use in commercial pressurized water power reactors. To support development of a comprehensive integrated safety assessment (ISA) for the facility, as well as to address increasing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expectations regarding such a facility`s criticality safety assessments, a project is under way to complete criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) of all plant systems used in processing nuclear materials. Each CSE is made up of seven sections, prepared by a multidisciplinary team of process engineers, systems engineers, safety engineers, maintenance representatives, and operators. This paper provides a cursory outline of the type of information presented in a CSE.

  15. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The safety evaluation report covers design of structures, components, equipment, and systems; nuclear criticality safety; radiological safety; accident analysis; conduct of operations; quality assurance; common defense and security; financial qualifications; financial protection and indemnity requirements; and technical specifications

  16. Development of safety evaluation guidelines for base-isolated buildings in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the safety evaluation guidelines and the review process for non-nuclear base-isolated buildings proposed for construction in Japan. The paper discusses the guidelines application for two types of soil: hard soil and intermediate soil (soft soil was excluded.); safety evaluation items included in the level C design review; and safety margin of base isolation. Lessons learned through these design review efforts have potential applicability to design of seismic base isolation for nuclear power plants

  17. Summary of NRR future licensing activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In response to a renewed interest in building nuclear power plants, the NRC has created organizations within its major program offices to prepare the NRC staff for new applications (early site permits [ESPs], design certifications, and combined licenses) and to manage special task groups and pro-application reviews of new reactor designs. Activities planned in FY2001 and FY2002 include: (1) evaluating the ability of the NRC staff to support future application reviews under 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52; (2) performing pre-application reviews of the API 000 (a light-water reactor design with passive safety systems), Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR - a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor design), ESPs, IRIS (an advanced light-water reactor design), and GT-MHR (a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor design); (3) initiating and/or performing related rulemakings that will update 10 CPR Part 52 to reflect lessons learned from certifying three nuclear plant designs, update Tables S-3 and S-4 of 10 CFR Part 51 to address higher burnup fuel considerations and non-LWR advanced designs, and address alternative siting considerations; (4) reactivating the construction inspection program; and, (5) interacting with stakeholders to ensure there is a clear understanding of upcoming activities related to future applications and to solicit stakeholder input. In FY2002 and FY200S, activities are expected to include: (1) managing the reviews of fine new applications resulting from the pre-application reviews (including one design certification, one combined license, and three ESP reviews); (2) managing two pre-application reviews (IRIS and QT-MHR); (3) updating regulatory and review guidance for new applications, i.e., Standard Review Plans (SRPs), Regulatory Guides, and referenced codes and standards, and identifying where enhancements are needed; (4) developing independent codes to analyze the safety of non-LWR designs, with supporting validation testing; and, (5) addressing regulatory

  18. Scale development of safety management system evaluation for the airline industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Shu-Chuan

    2012-07-01

    The airline industry relies on the implementation of Safety Management System (SMS) to integrate safety policies and augment safety performance at both organizational and individual levels. Although there are various degrees of SMS implementation in practice, a comprehensive scale measuring the essential dimensions of SMS is still lacking. This paper thus aims to develop an SMS measurement scale from the perspective of aviation experts and airline managers to evaluate the performance of company's safety management system, by adopting Schwab's (1980) three-stage scale development procedure. The results reveal a five-factor structure consisting of 23 items. The five factors include documentation and commands, safety promotion and training, executive management commitment, emergency preparedness and response plan and safety management policy. The implications of this SMS evaluation scale for practitioners and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Review of studies on criticality safety evaluation and criticality experiment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamane, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, many studies on criticality safety evaluation have been conducted in Japan. Computer code systems were developed initially by employing finite difference methods, and more recently by using Monte Carlo methods. Criticality experiments have also been carried out in many laboratories in Japan as well as overseas. By effectively using these study results, the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook was published in 1988, almost the intermediate point of the last 50 years. An increased interest has been shown in criticality safety studies, and a Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS) was set up by the Nuclear Science Committee of Organisation Economic Co-operation and Development in 1997. WPNCS has several task forces in charge of each of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program (ICSBEP), Subcritical Measurement, Experimental Needs, Burn-up Credit Studies and Minimum Critical Values. Criticality safety studies in Japan have been carried out in cooperation with WPNCS. This paper describes criticality safety study activities in Japan along with the contents of the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook and the tasks of WPNCS. (author)

  20. Addressing the fundamental issues in reliability evaluation of passive safety of AP1000 for a comparison with active safety of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim Muhammad; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Yang Ming

    2013-01-01

    Passive safety systems adopted in advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), such as AP1000 and EPR, should attain higher reliability than the existing active safety systems of the conventional PWR. The objective of this study is to discuss the fundamental issues relating to the reliability evaluation of AP1000 passive safety systems for a comparison with the active safety systems of conventional PWR, based on several aspects. First, comparisons between conventional PWR and AP1000 are made from the both aspects of safety design and cost reduction. The main differences between these PWR plants exist in the configurations of safety systems: AP1000 employs the passive safety system while reducing the number of active systems. Second, the safety of AP1000 is discussed from the aspect of severe accident prevention in the event of large break loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Third, detailed fundamental issues on reliability evaluation of AP1000 passive safety systems are discussed qualitatively by using single loop models of safety systems of both PWRs plants. Lastly, methodology to conduct quantitative estimation of dynamic reliability for AP1000 passive safety systems in LOCA condition is discussed, in order to evaluate the reliability of AP1000 in future by a success-path-based reliability analysis method (i.e., GO-FLOW). (author)

  1. Evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on how to determine the ground motion hazards for a plant at a particular site and the potential for surface faulting, which could affect the feasibility of construction and safe operation of a plant at that site. The guidelines and procedures presented in this Safety Guide can appropriately be used in evaluations of site suitability and seismic hazards for nuclear power plants in any seismotectonic environment. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis recommended in this Safety Guide also addresses the needs for seismic hazard analysis of external event PSAs conducted for nuclear power plants. Many of the methods and processes described may also be applicable to nuclear facilities other than power plants. Other phenomena of permanent ground displacement (liquefaction, slope instability, subsidence and collapse) as well as the topic of seismically induced flooding are treated in Safety Guides relating to foundation safety and coastal flooding. Recommendations of a general nature are given in Section 2. Section 3 discusses the acquisition of a database containing the information needed to evaluate and address all hazards associated with earthquakes. Section 4 covers the use of this database for construction of a seismotectonic model. Sections 5 and 6 review ground motion hazards and evaluations of the potential for surface faulting, respectively. Section 7 addresses quality assurance in the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants

  2. Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear installations. It supplements the Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The present publication provides guidance and recommends procedures for the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations. It supersedes Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3 (2002). In this publication, the following was taken into account: the need for seismic hazard curves and ground motion spectra for the probabilistic safety assessment of external events for new and existing nuclear installations; feedback of information from IAEA reviews of seismic safety studies for nuclear installations performed over the previous decade; collective knowledge gained from recent significant earthquakes; and new approaches in methods of analysis, particularly in the areas of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and strong motion simulation. In the evaluation of a site for a nuclear installation, engineering solutions will generally be available to mitigate, by means of certain design features, the potential vibratory effects of earthquakes. However, such solutions cannot always be demonstrated to be adequate for mitigating the effects of phenomena of significant permanent ground displacement such as surface faulting, subsidence, ground collapse or fault creep. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance on evaluating seismic hazards at a nuclear installation site and, in particular, on how to determine: (a) the vibratory ground motion hazards, in order to establish the design basis ground motions and other relevant parameters for both new and existing nuclear installations; and (b) the potential for fault displacement and the rate of fault displacement that could affect the feasibility of the site or the safe operation of the installation at

  3. Development of the evaluation methods in reactor safety analyses and core characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    In order to support the safety reviews by NRA on reactor safety design including the phenomena with multiple failures, the computer codes are developed and the safety evaluations with analyses are performed in the areas of thermal hydraulics and core characteristics evaluation. In the code preparation of safety analyses, the TRACE and RELAP5 code were prepared to conduct the safety analyses of LOCA and beyond design basis accidents with multiple failures. In the core physics code preparation, the functions of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis were incorporated in the lattice physics code CASMO-4. The verification of improved CASMO-4 /SIMULATE-3 was continued by using core physics data. (author)

  4. Safety performance evaluation using proactive indicators in a selected industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Barkhordari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Quality and effectiveness of safety systems are critical factors in achieving their goals. This study was aimed to represent a method for performance evaluation of safety systems by proactive indicators using different updated models in the field of safety which will be tested in a selected industry. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Proactive indicators used in this study were: Unsafe acts rate, Safety Climate, Accident Proneness, and Near-miss incident rate. The number of in 1473 safety climate questionnaires and 543 Accident Proneness questionnaires was completed. Results: The minimum and maximum safety climate score were 56.88 and 58.2, respectively, and the minimum and maximum scores of Accident Proneness were 98.2 and 140.7, respectively. The maximum number of Near-miss incident rate were 408 and the minimum of that was 196. The maximum number of unsafe acts rate was 43.8 percent and the minimum of that was 27.2 percent. In nine dimensions of Safety climate the eighth dimension (personal perception of risk with the score of 4.07 has the lowest score and the fourth (laws and safety regulations dimension with 8.05 has the highest score. According to expert opinions, the most important indicator in the assessment of safety performance was unsafe acts rate, while near-miss incident rate was the least important one. Conclusion: The results of this survey reveal that using proactive (Prospective indicators could be an appropriate method in organizations safety performance evaluation.

  5. 10CFR50.59 safety evaluation training and expert system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, S.W.; Dickinson, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    10CFR50.59 permits utilities to make changes to and conduct tests or experiments on operating nuclear power plants without prior US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NCR) approval unless the proposed change, test, or experiment (i.e, the proposed activity) involves a change to the plant technical specifications or an unreviewed safety question (USQ). To provide guidance to their engineers for making the determination of whether a proposed activity involves a USQ. Bechtel has developed a safety evaluation training program. This training program incorporates the guidance in and NRC comments to the November 1987 draft Nuclear Management and Resources Council safety evaluation guidance document, NRC statements contained in inspection reports and other documents, and the experience of senior Bechtel engineers. To further develop the question and concerns that need to be addressed in a safety evaluation in a systematic manner, Bechtel is incorporating the training program guidance and other information into an IBM PC-AT-based working model of an expert system using the NEXPERT expert system development tool. The development and use of this expert system working model are being undertaken to provide consistency and completeness to the thought process used and the output provided by Bechtel engineers when performing a safety evaluation

  6. Evaluation procedure of software safety plan for digital I and C of KNGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Park, Jong Kyun; Lee, Ki Young; Kwon, Ki Choon; Kim, Jang Yeol; Cheon, Se Woo

    2000-05-01

    The development, use, and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor instrumentation and control (I and C) systems to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Korean next generation reactor (KNGR) software safety verification and validation (SSVV) task, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, which investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor I and C systems, and describes the engineering procedures for developing such a software. The purpose of this guideline is to give the software safety evaluator the trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer for the software important to safety in nuclear power plants. Recently, the safety planning for safety-critical software systems is being recognized as the most important phase in the software life cycle, and being developed new regulatory positions and standards by the regulatory and the standardization organizations. The requirements for software important to safety of nuclear reactor are described in such positions and standards, for example, the new standard review plan (SRP), IEC 880 supplements, IEEE standard 1228-1994, IEEE standard 7-4.3.2-1993, and IAEA safety series No. 50-SG-D3 and D8. We presented the guidance for evaluating the safety plan of the software in the KNGR protection systems. The guideline consists of the regulatory requirements for software safety in chapter 2, the evaluation checklist of software safety plan in chapter3, and the evaluation results of KNGR software safety plan in chapter 4

  7. Evaluation procedure of software safety plan for digital I and C of KNGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Park, Jong Kyun; Lee, Ki Young; Kwon, Ki Choon; Kim, Jang Yeol; Cheon, Se Woo

    2000-05-01

    The development, use, and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor instrumentation and control (I and C) systems to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Korean next generation reactor (KNGR) software safety verification and validation (SSVV) task, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, which investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor I and C systems, and describes the engineering procedures for developing such a software. The purpose of this guideline is to give the software safety evaluator the trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer for the software important to safety in nuclear power plants. Recently, the safety planning for safety-critical software systems is being recognized as the most important phase in the software life cycle, and being developed new regulatory positions and standards by the regulatory and the standardization organizations. The requirements for software important to safety of nuclear reactor are described in such positions and standards, for example, the new standard review plan (SRP), IEC 880 supplements, IEEE standard 1228-1994, IEEE standard 7-4.3.2-1993, and IAEA safety series No. 50-SG-D3 and D8. We presented the guidance for evaluating the safety plan of the software in the KNGR protection systems. The guideline consists of the regulatory requirements for software safety in chapter 2, the evaluation checklist of software safety plan in chapter3, and the evaluation results of KNGR software safety plan in chapter 4.

  8. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Complementary evaluations of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neall, Fiona; Pastina, Barbara; Snellman, Margit; Smith, Paul; Gribi, P.; Johnson, Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    The KBS-3H design is a variant of the more general KBS-3 method for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland and Sweden. In the KBS-3H design, multiple assemblies containing spent fuel are emplaced horizontally in parallel, approximately 300 m long, slightly inclined deposition drifts. The copper canisters, each with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, are placed in perforated steel shells prior to deposition in the drifts; the assembly is called the 'supercontainer'. The other KBS-3 variant is the KBS-3V design, in which the copper canisters are emplaced vertically in individual deposition holes surrounded by bentonite clay but without steel supercontainer shells. SKB and Posiva have conducted a Research, Development and Demonstration programme over the period 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to KBS-3V. As part of this programme, the long-term safety of a KBS-3H repository has been assessed in the KBS-3H safety studies. In order to focus the safety studies, the Olkiluoto site in the municipality of Eurajoki, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland, was used as a hypothetical site for a KBS-3H repository. The present report is part of a portfolio of reports discussing the long-term safety of the KBS-3H repository. The overall outcome of the KBS-3H safety studies is documented in the summary report, 'Safety assessment for a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto'. The purpose and scope of the KBS-3H complementary evaluations of safety report is provided in Posiva's Safety Case Plan, which is based on Regulatory Guide YVL 8.4 and on international guidelines on complementary lines of argument to long-term safety that are considered an important element of a post-closure safety case for geological repositories. Complementary evaluations of safety require the use of evaluations, evidence and qualitative supporting arguments that lie outside the

  9. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research. Result evaluation in fiscal year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 14 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the R and D accomplishments achieved for five years from Fiscal Year 1995 to Fiscal Year 1999 at Department of Reactor Safety Research, Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Department of Environmental Safety Research and Department of Safety Research Technical Support in Tokai Research Establishment at JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of 11 specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from December 2000 to February 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on December 11, 2000, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on March 16, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research. (author)

  10. Second Meeting for Evaluation of the Nuclear Safety Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Second Meeting for Evaluation of the Nuclear Safety Convention. the CSN. as the only competent Government organism on nuclear safety, represented Spain in the preparation of the national report and at the Review Meeting, acquiring a set of obligations for the next three years, until the holding of third meeting. (Author)

  11. Evaluating Safety Culture Under the Socio-Technical Complex Systems Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, F. L. de

    2016-01-01

    Since the term “safety culture” was coined, it has gained more and more attention as an effort to achieve higher levels of system safety. A good deal of effort has been done in order to better define, evaluate and implement safety culture programs in organizations throughout all industries, and especially in the Nuclear Industry. Unfortunately, despite all those efforts, we continue to witness accidents that are, in great part, attributed to flaws in the safety culture of the organization. Fukushima nuclear accident is one example of a serious accident in which flaws in the safety culture has been pointed to as one of the main contributors. In general, the definitions of safety culture emphasise the social aspect of the system. While the definitions also include the relations with the technical aspects, it does so in a general sense. For example, the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) defines safety culture as: “The assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receives the attention warranted by their significance.” By the way safety culture is defined we can infer that it represents a property of a social system, or a property of the social aspect of the system. In this sense, the social system is a component of the whole system. Where, “system” is understood to be comprised of a social (humans) and technical (equipment) aspects, as a Nuclear Power Plant, for example. Therefore, treating safety culture as an identity on its own right, finding and fixing flaws in the safety culture may not be enough to improve safety of the system. We also needed to evaluate all the interactions between the components that comprise all the aspects of the system. In some cases a flaw in the safety culture can easily be detected, such as an employee not wearing appropriate individual protection equipment, e.g., dosimeter, or when basic safety

  12. Safety design and evaluation policy for future FBRs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Kiyoto

    1991-01-01

    The safety policy for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) has gradually matured in accordance with the development of FBRs. The safety assessment of the Japanese prototype FBR, Monju during the licensing process accelerated the maturity and the integration of knowledge and databases. Results are expected to be reflected in the establishment of the safety design and evaluation policy for FBRs. Although the methodologies and safety policies developed for LWRs are applicable in principle to future FBRs, it is neither rational nor realistic to treat safety only with these policies. It is recommended that one should develop the methodologies and safety policies starting from understanding of the inherent safety characteristics of FBR's through safety research, plant operating experience and design work. In the last few years, some technical committees were organized in Japan and have discussed key safety issues which are specific to FBRs in order to provide preparatory reports and to establish safety standards and guidelines for future commercial FBRs. (author)

  13. Study on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for the Safety of Mine Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the situation of the frequent failures of mine belt conveyor during operation, a model was used to evaluate the safety of mine belt conveyor. Based on the foundation of collecting and analyzing a large quantity of fault information of belt conveyor in the nationwide coal mine, the fault tree model of belt conveyor has been built, then the safety evaluation index system was established by analyzing and removing some secondary indicators. Furthermore, the weighted value of safety evaluation indexs was determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP, and the single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix was constructed by experts grading method. Additionally, the model was applied in evaluating the security of belt conveyor in Nanliang coal mine. The results shows the security level is recognized to the “general”, which means that this model can be adopted widely in evaluating the safety of mine belt conveyor.

  14. Review on the Evaluation System of Public Safety Carrying Capacity about Small Town Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Tianyu; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Recently,small town community public safety problem has been increasingly highlighted,but its research is short on public safety carrying capacity. Through the investigation and study of community public safety carrying capacity,this paper analyzes the problem of community public safety in our country,to construct index evaluation system of public safety carrying capacity in small town community. DEA method is used to evaluate public safety carrying capacity in small town community,to provide scientific basis for the design of support and standardization theory about small town community in public safety planning.

  15. Expert evaluation in NPP safety important systems licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, A Yastrebenetsky; Vasilchenko, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    Expert evaluation of nuclear power plant safety important systems modernization is an integral part of these systems licensing process. The paper contains some aspects of this evaluation which are based on Ukrainian experience of VVER-1000 and VVER-440 modernization. (authors)

  16. Expert evaluation in NPP safety important systems licensing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhail, A Yastrebenetsky; Vasilchenko, V.N. [Ukrainian State Scientific Technical Center of Nuclear and Radiation Safety (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    Expert evaluation of nuclear power plant safety important systems modernization is an integral part of these systems licensing process. The paper contains some aspects of this evaluation which are based on Ukrainian experience of VVER-1000 and VVER-440 modernization. (authors)

  17. Meteorological events in site evaluation for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on conducting hazard assessments of extreme and rare meteorological phenomena. It is of interest to safety assessors and regulators involved in the licensing process as well as to designers of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements the IAEA Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Facilities which is to supersede the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Siting, Safety Series No. 50-C-S (Rev. 1), IAEA, Vienna (1988). The present Safety Guide supersedes two earlier Safety Guides: Safety Series No. 50-SG-S11A (1981) on Extreme Meteorological Events in Nuclear Power Plant Siting, Excluding Tropical Cyclones and Safety Series No. 50-SG-S11B (1984) on Design Basis Tropical Cyclone for Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance on conducting hazard assessments of extreme and rare meteorological phenomena. This Safety Guide provides interpretation of the Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Facilities and guidance on how to fulfil these requirements. It is aimed at safety assessors or regulators involved in the licensing process as well as designers of nuclear power plants, and provides them with guidance on the methods and procedures for analyses that support the assessment of the hazards associated with extreme and rare meteorological events. This Safety Guide discusses the extreme values of meteorological variables and rare meteorological phenomena, as well as their rates of occurrence, according to the following definitions: (a) Extreme values of meteorological variables such as air temperature and wind speed characterize the meteorological or climatological environment. And (b) Rare meteorological phenomena

  18. Report of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research. Result evaluation in fiscal year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee, which consisted of 14 members from outside of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), set up an Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research in accordance with the Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations in order to evaluate the R and D accomplishments achieved for five years from Fiscal Year 1995 to Fiscal Year 1999 at Department of Reactor Safety Research, Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, Department of Environmental Safety Research and Department of Safety Research Technical Support in Tokai Research Establishment at JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee consisted of 11 specialists from outside of JAERI. The Ad Hoc Review Committee conducted its activities from December 2000 to February 2001. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advance and of the oral presentations made at the Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting which was held on December 11, 2000, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on March 16, 2001. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research. (author)

  19. Expert opinions on the acceptance of alternative methods in food safety evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Ans; Bouwmeester, Hans; Schiffelers, Marie Jeanne W.A.; Peijnenburg, Ad A.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Inclusion of alternative methods that replace, reduce, or refine (3R) animal testing within regulatory safety evaluations of chemicals generally faces many hurdles. The goal of the current work is to i) collect responses from key stakeholders involved in food safety evaluations on what they consider

  20. Development of safety evaluation methods and analysis codes applied to the safety regulations for the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study are to develop the safety evaluation methods and analysis codes needed in the design and construction stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). In JFY 2012, the following results are obtained. As for the development of safety evaluation methods needed in the safety examination conducted for the reactor establishment permission, development of the analysis codes, such as core damage analysis code, were carried out following the planned schedule. As for the development of the safety evaluation method needed for the risk informed safety regulation, the quantification technique of the event tree using the Continuous Markov chain Monte Carlo method (CMMC method) were studied. (author)

  1. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Complementary evaluations of safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neall, Fiona; Pastina, Barbara; Snellman, Margit; Smith, Paul; Gribi, P.; Johnson, Lawrence

    2008-12-15

    The KBS-3H design is a variant of the more general KBS-3 method for the geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland and Sweden. In the KBS-3H design, multiple assemblies containing spent fuel are emplaced horizontally in parallel, approximately 300 m long, slightly inclined deposition drifts. The copper canisters, each with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, are placed in perforated steel shells prior to deposition in the drifts; the assembly is called the 'supercontainer'. The other KBS-3 variant is the KBS-3V design, in which the copper canisters are emplaced vertically in individual deposition holes surrounded by bentonite clay but without steel supercontainer shells. SKB and Posiva have conducted a Research, Development and Demonstration programme over the period 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to KBS-3V. As part of this programme, the long-term safety of a KBS-3H repository has been assessed in the KBS-3H safety studies. In order to focus the safety studies, the Olkiluoto site in the municipality of Eurajoki, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland, was used as a hypothetical site for a KBS-3H repository. The present report is part of a portfolio of reports discussing the long-term safety of the KBS-3H repository. The overall outcome of the KBS-3H safety studies is documented in the summary report, 'Safety assessment for a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto'. The purpose and scope of the KBS-3H complementary evaluations of safety report is provided in Posiva's Safety Case Plan, which is based on Regulatory Guide YVL 8.4 and on international guidelines on complementary lines of argument to long-term safety that are considered an important element of a post-closure safety case for geological repositories. Complementary evaluations of safety require the use of evaluations, evidence and qualitative supporting arguments

  2. FLIGHT SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AND EVALUATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY LEVEL OF AN AVIATION ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Zubkov; H. E. Fourar

    2017-01-01

    This article is devoted to studying the problem of safety management system (SMS) and evaluating safety level of an aviation enterprise.This article discusses the problems of SMS, presented at the 41st meeting of the Russian Aviation Production Commanders Club in June 2014 in St. Petersburg in connection with the verification of the status of the CA of the Russian Federation by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in the same year, a set of urgent measures to eliminate the def...

  3. Multimethods approach to safety-parameter-display evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, W.W.; Blackman, H.S.; Gertman, D.I.; Petersen, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Human Factors Engineering Office of EG and G Idaho performed this NRC-funded study to assist the NRC in objectively assessing licensee-developed safety parameter display (SPD) formats and designs. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the degree to which a tachistoscopic method of display evaluation would correlate with the results of a multidimensional rating approach to display evaluation. Results of the following three experiments will be presented; (a) tachistoscopic, (b) multidimensional rating scale, and (c) the combined results of a and b. The test material for all experiments consisted of three multivariate data display formats all under development as SPDs for reactor control rooms presenting safety parameter display data at the loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) facility. The three display formats studied were stars, deviation bar graphs, and meters. Eighteen adult volunteers were used as subjects. All were currently qualified reactor operators from the LOFT reactor plant, with a mean of 9.4 years reactor operating experience

  4. Development of an evaluation framework for African-European hospital patient safety partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Paul; Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Bagheri-Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward; Pittet, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Patient safety is recognised as a significant healthcare problem worldwide, and healthcare-associated infections are an important aspect. African Partnerships for Patient Safety is a WHO programme that pairs hospitals in Africa with hospitals in Europe with the objective to work together to improve patient safety. To describe the development of an evaluation framework for hospital-to-hospital partnerships participating in the programme. The framework was structured around the programme's three core objectives: facilitate strong interhospital partnerships, improve in-hospital patient safety and spread best practices nationally. Africa-based clinicians, their European partners and experts in patient safety were closely involved in developing the evaluation framework in an iterative process. The process defined six domains of partnership strength, each with measurable subdomains. We developed a questionnaire to measure these subdomains. Participants selected six indicators of hospital patient safety improvement from a short-list of 22 based on their relevance, sensitivity to intervention and measurement feasibility. Participants proposed 20 measures of spread, which were refined into a two-part conceptual framework, and a data capture tool created. Taking a highly participatory approach that closely involved its end users, we developed an evaluation framework and tools to measure partnership strength, patient safety improvements and the spread of best practice.

  5. Development of safety analysis technology for integral reactor; evaluation on safety concerns of integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Chul; Kim, Woong Sik; Lee, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The Nuclear Desalination Plant (NDP) is being developed to produce electricity and fresh water, and is expected to locate near population zone. In the aspect of safety, it is required to protect the public and environment from the possible releases of fission products and to prevent the fresh water from the contamination of radioactivity. Thus, in this study, the safety characteristics of the integral reactor adopting passive and inherent safety features significantly different from existing nuclear power plants were investigated. Also, safety requirements applicable to the NDP were analyzed based on the regulatory requirements for current light water reactor and advanced reactor designs, and user requirements for small-medium size reactors. Based on these analyses, some safety concerns to be considered in the design stage have been identified and discussed. They include the use of proven technology for new safety features, systematic event classification and selection, strengthening containment function, and the safety impacts on desalination-related systems. The study presents the general safety requirements applicable to licensing of an integral reactor and suggests additional regulatory requirements, which need to be developed, based on the direction to resolution of the safety concerns. The efforts to identify and technically resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide the early confidence of SMART safety and the technical basis to evaluate the safety to designers and reviewers in the future. Suggestion on the development of additional regulatory requirements will contribute for the regulator to taking actions for licensing of an integral reactor. 66 refs., 5 figs., 24 tabs. (Author)

  6. A paradigm shift in organisational safety culture evaluation and training

    OpenAIRE

    Cram, Robert; Sime, Julie-Ann

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research is to explore the issues surrounding traditional approaches towards understanding the safety culture of an organisation operating in a high risk environment and to identify an effective technique to educate corporate management in how to measure and evaluate the underlying safety culture of their own organisations. The results of the first part of the research highlight the concerns being expressed by both academic and industrial communities that current safety cult...

  7. The use of non-animal alternatives in the safety evaluations of cosmetics ingredients by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinardell, M P

    2015-03-01

    In Europe, the safety evaluation of cosmetics is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient. Article 3 of the Cosmetics Regulation specifies that a cosmetic product made available on the market is to be safe for human health when used normally or under reasonably foreseeable conditions. For substances that cause some concern with respect to human health (e.g., colourants, preservatives, UV-filters), safety is evaluated at the Commission level by a scientific committee, presently called the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). According to the Cosmetics Regulations, in the EU, the marketing of cosmetics products and their ingredients that have been tested on animals for most of their human health effects, including acute toxicity, is prohibited. Nevertheless, any study dating from before this prohibition took effect is accepted for the safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The in vitro methods reported in the dossiers submitted to the SCCS are here evaluated from the published reports issued by the scientific committee of the Directorate General of Health and Consumers (DG SANCO); responsible for the safety of cosmetics ingredients. The number of studies submitted to the SCCS that do not involve animals is still low and in general the safety of cosmetics ingredients is based on in vivo studies performed before the prohibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Taipower's reload safety evaluation methodology for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ping-Hue; Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    For Westinghouse pressurized water reactors (PWRs) such as Taiwan Power Company's (TPC's) Maanshan Units 1 and 2, each of the safety analysis is performed with conservative reload related parameters such that reanalysis is not expected for all subsequent cycles. For each reload cycle design, it is required to perform a reload safety evaluation (RSE) to confirm the validity of the existing safety analysis for fuel cycle changes. The TPC's reload safety evaluation methodology for PWRs is based on 'Core Design and Safety Analysis Package' developed by the TPC and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), and is an important portion of the 'Taipower's Reload Design and Transient Analysis Methodologies for Light Water Reactors'. The Core Management System (CMS) developed by Studsvik of America, the one-dimensional code AXINER developed by TPC, National Tsinghua University and INER, and a modified version of the well-known subchannel core thermal-hydraulic code COBRAIIIC are the major computer codes utilized. Each of the computer models is extensively validated by comparing with measured data and/or vendor's calculational results. Moreover, parallel calculations have been performed for two Maanshan reload cycles to validate the RSE methods. The TPC's in-house RSE tools have been applied to resolve many important plant operational issues and plant improvements, as well as to verify the vendor's fuel and core design data. (author)

  9. Evaluation of BOR-60 operation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakov, A.A.; Antipin, G.K.; Efimov, V.N.; Kuzin, G.G.; Eschenko, L.V.; Eschenko, S.N.

    1987-12-01

    In this communication, BOR-60 reactor operation anomalies capable to produce a dangerous overheating of the core (SDC) is examined. On bases of calculations and reactor operation experience an event tree for SDC is built. Evaluations of probable anomalies entering in the event tree and reactor parameters modifications in case of anomalies are presented. In conclusion BOR-60 agree with the sovietic nuclear safety [fr

  10. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  11. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions

  12. Research on safety evaluation model for in-vehicle secondary task driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lisheng; Xian, Huacai; Niu, Qingning; Bie, Jing

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new method for evaluating in-vehicle secondary task driving safety. There are five in-vehicle distracter tasks: tuning the radio to a local station, touching the touch-screen telephone menu to a certain song, talking with laboratory assistant, answering a telephone via Bluetooth headset, and finding the navigation system from Ipad4 computer. Forty young drivers completed the driving experiment on a driving simulator. Measures of fixations, saccades, and blinks are collected and analyzed. Based on the measures of driver eye movements which have significant difference between the baseline and secondary task driving conditions, the evaluation index system is built. The Analytic Network Process (ANP) theory is applied for determining the importance weight of the evaluation index in a fuzzy environment. On the basis of the importance weight of the evaluation index, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE) method is utilized to evaluate the secondary task driving safety. Results show that driving with secondary tasks greatly distracts the driver's attention from road and the evaluation model built in this study could estimate driving safety effectively under different driving conditions. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of safety management in an Appliances manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention of accidents and work related diseases, are not allowed regardless of the safety of employees, customers, contractors and other persons. Assessment of individual safety management activities could reduce many losses. Present study aimed to evaluate the safety management of a household appliance manufacturing company.  .Material and Method: This study has done in a household appliance manufacturing company in Damavand city. Two questionnaires were firstly designed based on the weighted scores. The questionnaire 1 consisted of 4 indicators: Safety of machinery, Electrical safety, Risk assessment and Fire safety. Questionnaire 2 consisted of 11 sub indicators. Both questionnaires were completed by 30 HSE experts and supervisors. Reliability of questionnaires was based on cronbachs alpha coefficient. the safety status of each unit was determined and scored using information acquired by the questionnaires. Lastly, the safety of the entire company was determined.  .Result: Results showed that in safety management: the pressing and store house were in a good range of 66.66 and 60.12 points. Powder painting, enameling, laboratory were in a average range of 56.25, 55.92 and 54.15 points. Assembling and door storage were in a week range of 46.06 points.  .Conclusion: The findings showed that the safety status in the studied appliances company is in average range with 55.45 points. Therefore, it is recommended that the safety indicators should be improved for the betterment of the safety management in the company.

  14. A probabilistic bridge safety evaluation against floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Wei; Muto, Yasunori; Chen, Wei-Lun; Wu, Bang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To further capture the influences of uncertain factors on river bridge safety evaluation, a probabilistic approach is adopted. Because this is a systematic and nonlinear problem, MPP-based reliability analyses are not suitable. A sampling approach such as a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) or importance sampling is often adopted. To enhance the efficiency of the sampling approach, this study utilizes Bayesian least squares support vector machines to construct a response surface followed by an MCS, providing a more precise safety index. Although there are several factors impacting the flood-resistant reliability of a bridge, previous experiences and studies show that the reliability of the bridge itself plays a key role. Thus, the goal of this study is to analyze the system reliability of a selected bridge that includes five limit states. The random variables considered here include the water surface elevation, water velocity, local scour depth, soil property and wind load. Because the first three variables are deeply affected by river hydraulics, a probabilistic HEC-RAS-based simulation is performed to capture the uncertainties in those random variables. The accuracy and variation of our solutions are confirmed by a direct MCS to ensure the applicability of the proposed approach. The results of a numerical example indicate that the proposed approach can efficiently provide an accurate bridge safety evaluation and maintain satisfactory variation.

  15. Radiological safety evaluation report for NUWAX-79 exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.C.

    1979-03-01

    An analysis of the radiological safety of the NUWAX-79 exercise to be conducted on the Nevada Test Site in April 1979 is given. An evaluation of the radiological safety to the participants is made using depleted uranium (D-38) in mock weapons parts, and 223 Ra and its daughters as a radioactive contaminant of equipment and terrain. The radiological impact to offsite persons is also discussed, particularly for people living at Lathrop Wells, Nevada, which is located 7 miles south of the site proposed for the exercise. It is the conclusion of this evaluation that the potential radiological risk of this exercise is very low, and that no individual should receive exposure to radioactivity greater than one-tenth of the level permitted under current federal radiation exposure guidelines

  16. Safety evaluation report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant safety analysis report: Contact-handled transuranic waste disposal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    DOE 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, requires that the US Department of Energy conduct an independent, defensible, review in order to approve a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). That review and the SAR approval basis is documented in this formal Safety Evaluation Report (SER). This SER documents the DOE's review of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant SAR and provides the Carlsbad Area Office Manager, the WIPP SAR approval authority, with the basis for approving the safety document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP SAR is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with planned waste disposal operations

  17. Safety analysis and evaluation methodology for fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii-e, Y.; Kozawa, Y.; Namba, C.

    1987-03-01

    Fusion systems which are under development as future energy systems have reached a stage that the break even is expected to be realized in the near future. It is desirable to demonstrate that fusion systems are well acceptable to the societal environment. There are three crucial viewpoints to measure the acceptability, that is, technological feasibility, economy and safety. These three points have close interrelation. The safety problem is more important since three large scale tokamaks, JET, TFTR and JT-60, start experiment, and tritium will be introduced into some of them as the fusion fuel. It is desirable to establish a methodology to resolve the safety-related issues in harmony with the technological evolution. The promising fusion system toward reactors is not yet settled. This study has the objective to develop and adequate methodology which promotes the safety design of general fusion systems and to present a basis for proposing the R and D themes and establishing the data base. A framework of the methodology, the understanding and modeling of fusion systems, the principle of ensuring safety, the safety analysis based on the function and the application of the methodology are discussed. As the result of this study, the methodology for the safety analysis and evaluation of fusion systems was developed. New idea and approach were presented in the course of the methodology development. (Kako, I.)

  18. SAFETY EVALUATION OF OXALIC ACID WASTE RETRIEVAL IN SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) 241-C-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the safety evaluation of the process of retrieving sludge waste from single-shell tank 241-C-106 using oxalic acid. The results of the HAZOP, safety evaluation, and control allocation/decision are part of the report. This safety evaluation considers the use of oxalic acid to recover residual waste in single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This is an activity not addressed in the current tank farm safety basis. This evaluation has five specific purposes: (1) Identifying the key configuration and operating assumptions needed to evaluate oxalic acid dissolution in SST 241-C-106. (2) Documenting the hazardous conditions identified during the oxalic acid dissolution hazard and operability study (HAZOP). (3) Documenting the comparison of the HAZOP results to the hazardous conditions and associated analyzed accident currently included in the safety basis, as documented in HNF-SD-WM-TI-764, Hazard Analysis Database Report. (4) Documenting the evaluation of the oxalic acid dissolution activity with respect to: (A) Accident analyses described in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), and (B) Controls specified in HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (TSR). (5) Documenting the process and results of control decisions as well as the applicability of preventive and/or mitigative controls to each oxalic acid addition hazardous condition. This safety evaluation is not intended to be a request to authorize the activity. Authorization issues are addressed by the unreviewed safety question (USQ) evaluation process. This report constitutes an accident analysis

  19. First investigations on the safety evaluation of smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousquet, S.; Elsensohn, O. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Benoit, G. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique DRT, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-10-01

    IPSN (Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety) is the technical support for the French nuclear safety authority and thus involved in the safety evaluation of new I and C technologies and particularly of smart sensors. Smart sensors are characterized by the use of a microprocessor that converts the process variable into digital signals and exchanges other information with I and C control systems. There are two types of smart sensors: HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) sensors, which provide both analogue (4 to 20 mA) and digital signals, and network sensors, which provide only digital signals. The expected benefits for operators are improved accuracy and reliability and cost savings in installation, commissioning, testing and maintenance. Safety evaluation of these smart sensors raises new issues: How does the sensor react to unknown commands? How to avoid unexpected changes in configuration? What is its sensitivity to electromagnetic interferences (EMI), to radiations...? In order to evaluate whether these sensors can be qualified for a safety application and to define the qualification tests to be done, IPSN has planned some functional and hardware tests (EMI, radiations) on 'HART' and field bus sensors. During the functional tests, we were not able to disrupt the HART tested sensors by invalid commands. However, these results cannot be extended to other sensors, because of the use of different technology, of different versions of hardware and software and of constructors' specific commands. Furthermore, easy modifications of configuration parameters can cause additional failures. Environmental tests are in progress on HART sensors and will be followed by experiments on field bus sensors. These preliminary investigations and the latest incident initiated by an incorrect computing algorithm of digital switchgear at Ringhals NPP, clearly illustrate that testing and verification programmes for smart equipment must be meticulously designed

  20. First investigations on the safety evaluation of smart sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, S.; Elsensohn, O.

    2001-10-01

    IPSN (Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety) is the technical support for the French nuclear safety authority and thus involved in the safety evaluation of new I and C technologies and particularly of smart sensors. Smart sensors are characterized by the use of a microprocessor that converts the process variable into digital signals and exchanges other information with I and C control systems. There are two types of smart sensors: HART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) sensors, which provide both analogue (4 to 20 mA) and digital signals, and network sensors, which provide only digital signals. The expected benefits for operators are improved accuracy and reliability and cost savings in installation, commissioning, testing and maintenance. Safety evaluation of these smart sensors raises new issues: How does the sensor react to unknown commands? How to avoid unexpected changes in configuration? What is its sensitivity to electromagnetic interferences (EMI), to radiations...? In order to evaluate whether these sensors can be qualified for a safety application and to define the qualification tests to be done, IPSN has planned some functional and hardware tests (EMI, radiations) on 'HART' and field bus sensors. During the functional tests, we were not able to disrupt the HART tested sensors by invalid commands. However, these results cannot be extended to other sensors, because of the use of different technology, of different versions of hardware and software and of constructors' specific commands. Furthermore, easy modifications of configuration parameters can cause additional failures. Environmental tests are in progress on HART sensors and will be followed by experiments on field bus sensors. These preliminary investigations and the latest incident initiated by an incorrect computing algorithm of digital switchgear at Ringhals NPP, clearly illustrate that testing and verification programmes for smart equipment must be meticulously designed and reviewed

  1. Evaluation of the food safety training for food handlers in restaurant operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hee; Kwak, Tong-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent of improvement of food safety knowledge and practices of employee through food safety training. Employee knowledge and practice for food safety were evaluated before and after the food safety training program. The training program and questionnaires for evaluating employee knowledge and practices concerning food safety, and a checklist for determining food safety performance of restaurants were developed. Data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Twelve restaurants participated in this study. We split them into two groups: the intervention group with training, and the control group without food safety training. Employee knowledge of the intervention group also showed a significant improvement in their score, increasing from 49.3 before the training to 66.6 after training. But in terms of employee practices and the sanitation performance, there were no significant increases after the training. From these results, we recommended that the more job-specific and hand-on training materials for restaurant employees should be developed and more continuous implementation of the food safety training and integration of employee appraisal program with the outcome of safety training were needed. PMID:20198210

  2. Development and application of an integrated evaluation framework for preventive safety applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J.; Joshi, S.; Gemou, M.; Hendriks, F.; Ljung Aust, M.; Luoma, J.; Netto, M.; Engstrom, J.; Leanderson Olsson, S.; Kutzner, R.; Tango, F.; Amditis, A.J.; Blosseville, J.M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2011-01-01

    Preventive safety functions help drivers avoid or mitigate accidents. No quantitative methods have been available to evaluate the safety impact of these systems. This paper describes a framework for the assessment of preventive and active safety functions, which integrates procedures for technical

  3. Evaluating an Entertainment–Education Telenovela to Promote Workplace Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Castaneda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Occupational safety and health professionals worked with health communication experts to collaborate with a major Spanish language television network to develop and implement a construction workplace safety media intervention targeting Latino/Hispanic audiences. An Entertainment–Education (EE health communication strategy was used to create a worksite safety storyline weaved into the main plot of a nationally televised Telenovela (Spanish language soap opera. A secondary analysis of audience survey data in a pre/posttest cross-sectional equivalent group design was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of this EE media intervention to change knowledge, attitudes, and intention outcomes related to the prevention of fatal falls at construction worksites. Results indicate that using culturally relevant mediums can be an effective way of reaching and educating audiences about specific fall prevention information. This is aligned with recommendations by the Institute of Medicine (IOM to increase interventions and evaluations of culturally relevant and competent health communication.

  4. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  5. Evaluation of safety practices and performance in a brewery industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of safety practices and performance in a brewery industry in Nigeria between 2000 – 2007. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The study revealed that a total of 156 accidents were prevented in the period of the safety programme which translates to an average of 19.45 per year.

  6. Safety evaluation of BWR off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.J.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the results of a safety evaluation performed on current generic types of BWR off-gas treatment systems including cooled and ambient temperature adsorber beds and cryogenics are presented. The evaluation covered the four generic types of off-gas systems and the systems of five major vendors. This study was part of original work performed under AEC contract for the Directorate of Regulatory Standards. The analysis techniques employed for the safety evaluation of these systems include: Fault Tree Analysis; FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis); general system comparisons, contaminant, system control, and design adequacy evaluations; and resultant Off-Site Dose Calculations. The salient areas presented are some of the potential problem areas, the approach that industry has taken to mitigate or design against potential upset conditions, and areas where possible deficiencies still exist. Potential problem areas discussed include hydrogen detonation, hydrogen release to equipment areas, operator/automatic control interface, and needed engineering evaluation to insure safe system operation. Of the systems reviewed, most were in the category of advanced or improved over that commonly in use today, and a conclusion from the study was that these systems offer excellent potential for noble gas control for BWR power plants where more stringent controls may be specified -- now or in the future. (U.S.)

  7. Safety evaluation of the Greifswald nuclear power plant, unit 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The first interim report primarily deals with an evaluation of the pressurized components of the primary loops, especially with the embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel material. In addition, first estimates concerning the safety design of the plants are made. The second interim report reflects the state of further studies relating to the safety design and the evaluation of operational experiences. The report includes a summarized assessment in which the recommendations cited in the technical chapters are evaluated and subdivided into three categories of backfitting measures. (orig.) [de

  8. Development of safety factors to be used for evaluation of cracked nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brickstad, B.; Bergman, M.

    1996-10-01

    A modified concept for safety evaluation is introduced which separately accounts for the failure mechanisms fracture and plastic collapse. For application on nuclear components a set of safety factors are also proposed that retain the safety margins expressed in ASME, section III and XI. By performing comparative studies of the acceptance levels for surface cracks in pipes and a pressure vessel, it is shown that some of the anomalies connected with the old safety procedures are removed. It is the authors belief that the outlined safety evaluation procedure has the capability of treating cracks in a consistent way and that the procedure together with the proposed safety factors fulfill the basic safety requirements for nuclear components. Hopefully, it is possible in the near future to develop a probabilistic safety assessment procedure in Sweden, which enables a systematic treatment of uncertainties in the involved data. 14 refs

  9. Safety evaluation by living probabilistic safety assessment. Procedures and applications for planning of operational activities and analysis of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Gunnar; Holmberg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a daily safety management system and it is based on a plant-specific PSA and supporting information systems. In the living use of PSA, plant status knowledge is used to represent actual plant safety status in monitoring or follow-up perspective. The PSA model must be able to express the risk at a given time and plant configuration. The process, to update the PSA model to represent the current or planned configuration and to use the model to evaluate and direct the changes in the configuration, is called living PSA programme. The main purposes to develop and increase the usefulness of living PSA are: Long term safety planning: To continue the risk assessment process started with the basic PSA by extending and improving the basic models and data to provide a general risk evaluation tool for analyzing the safety effects of changes in plant design and procedures. Risk planning of operational activities: To support the operational management by providing means for searching optimal operational maintenance and testing strategies from the safety point of view. The results provide support for risk decision making in the short term or in a planning mode. The operational limits and conditions given by technical specifications can be analyzed by evaluating the risk effects of alternative requirements in order to balance the requirements with respect to operational flexibility and plant economy. Risk analysis of operating experience: To provide a general risk evaluation tool for analyzing the safety effects of incidents and plant status changes. The analyses are used to: identify possible high risk situations, rank the occurred events from safety point of view, and get feedback from operational events for the identification of risk contributors. This report describes the methods, models and applications required to continue the process towards a living use of PSA. 19 tabs, 20 figs

  10. Safety insights from forensics evaluations at Daiichi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rempe

    2017-01-01

    Information obtained from Daiichi is required to inform Decontamination and Decommissioning activities, improving the ability of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO to characterize potential hazards and to ensure the safety of workers involved with cleanup activities. This paper reports initial results from the US Forensics Effort to utilize examination information obtained by TEPCO to enhance the safety of existing and future nuclear power plant designs. In this paper, three examples are presented in which examination information, such as visual images, dose surveys, sample evaluations, and muon tomography examinations, along with data from plant instrumentation, are used to obtain significant safety insights in the areas of component performance, fission product release and transport, debris end-state location, and combustible gas generation and transport. In addition to reducing uncertainties related to severe accident modeling progression, these insights confirm actions, such as the importance of water addition and containment venting, that are emphasized in updated guidance for severe accident prevention, mitigation, and emergency planning.

  11. A study on the development of the computerized safety evaluation system of the motor operated valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. C.; Park, S. G.; Lee, D. H.; Ahn, N. S.; Bae, H. J.; Hong, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The MOVIDIK (Motor-Operated Valves Integrated Database and Information of KEPCO) system was developed to assist the design basis safety evaluation and to manage the overall data made by evaluation on the safety-related Motor-operated Valves(MOV) in the nuclear power plant. The huge amount of safety evaluation data of the MOV is being piled up as the safety evaluation work goes on. Much time and manpower was needed to do safety evaluation works without computerized system and it was not easy to obtain the statistic information from the evaluation data. The MOVIDIK will improve the efficiency of safety evaluation works and standardize the analysis process. But the some process which needs specific evaluation codes and engineering calculation by the specialists was not computerized. The MOVIDIK was developed by JAVA/JSP language known by the flexibility of language and the easiness of transplantation between operating systems. The Oracle 8i which is the world's most popular database was used for MOVIDIK database

  12. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project on the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.B.; Brennan, S.A.; Scott, L.

    2000-01-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in October 1992 by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) defense programs and is documented in the Transactions of numerous American Nuclear Society and International Criticality Safety Conferences. The work of the ICSBEP is documented as an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) handbook, International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The ICSBEP Internet site was established in 1996 and its address is http://icsbep.inel.gov/icsbep. A copy of the ICSBEP home page is shown in Fig. 1. The ICSBEP Internet site contains the five primary links. Internal sublinks to other relevant sites are also provided within the ICSBEP Internet site. A brief description of each of the five primary ICSBEP Internet site links is given

  13. Software Dependability and Safety Evaluations ESA's Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernek, M.

    ESA has allocated funds for an initiative to evaluate Dependability and Safety methods of Software. The objectives of this initiative are; · More extensive validation of Safety and Dependability techniques for Software · Provide valuable results to improve the quality of the Software thus promoting the application of Dependability and Safety methods and techniques. ESA space systems are being developed according to defined PA requirement specifications. These requirements may be implemented through various design concepts, e.g. redundancy, diversity etc. varying from project to project. Analysis methods (FMECA. FTA, HA, etc) are frequently used during requirements analysis and design activities to assure the correct implementation of system PA requirements. The criticality level of failures, functions and systems is determined and by doing that the critical sub-systems are identified, on which dependability and safety techniques are to be applied during development. Proper performance of the software development requires the development of a technical specification for the products at the beginning of the life cycle. Such technical specification comprises both functional and non-functional requirements. These non-functional requirements address characteristics of the product such as quality, dependability, safety and maintainability. Software in space systems is more and more used in critical functions. Also the trend towards more frequent use of COTS and reusable components pose new difficulties in terms of assuring reliable and safe systems. Because of this, its dependability and safety must be carefully analysed. ESA identified and documented techniques, methods and procedures to ensure that software dependability and safety requirements are specified and taken into account during the design and development of a software system and to verify/validate that the implemented software systems comply with these requirements [R1].

  14. High Speed Railway Environment Safety Evaluation Based on Measurement Attribute Recognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizhou Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety.

  15. Food Safety Evaluation Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaping; Ying, Yibin

    2016-08-17

    In recent years, due to the increasing consciousness of food safety and human health, much progress has been made in developing rapid and nondestructive techniques for the evaluation of food hazards, food authentication, and traceability. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and imaging techniques have gained wide acceptance in many fields because of their advantages over other analytical techniques. Following a brief introduction of NIR spectroscopy and imaging basics, this review mainly focuses on recent NIR spectroscopy and imaging applications for food safety evaluation, including (1) chemical hazards detection; (2) microbiological hazards detection; (3) physical hazards detection; (4) new technology-induced food safety concerns; and (5) food traceability. The review shows NIR spectroscopy and imaging to be effective tools that will play indispensable roles for food safety evaluation. In addition, on-line/real-time applications of these techniques promise to be a huge growth field in the near future.

  16. Evaluation of common mode failure of safety functions for limiting fault events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, J.P.; Hyde, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    The draft U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) policy on digital protection system software requires all Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) to be evaluated assuming a hypothetical common mode failure (CMF) which incapacitates the normal automatic initiation of safety functions. The System 80 + ALWR has been evaluated for such hypothetical conditions. The results show that the diverse automatic and manual protective systems in System 80 + provide ample safety performance margins relative to core coolability, offsite radiological releases. Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressurization and containment integrity. This deterministic evaluation served to quantify the significant inherent safety margins in the System 80 + Standard Plant design even in the event of this extremely low probability scenario of a common mode failure. (author)

  17. A safety evaluation of fire and explosion in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Gunji; Takada, Junichi; Tukamoto, Michio; Watanabe, Kouji; Miyata, Teijirou

    1996-01-01

    The demonstration test was performed in JAERI to prove the adequacy of a safety evaluation for an air-ventilation system in the case of solvent fire and red-oil explosion in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The test objectives were to obtain data of the safety evaluation on a thermofluid behavior and a confinement effect of radioactive materials during fire and explosion while the system is operating in a cell. The computer code was developed to evaluate the safety of associated network in the ventilation system and to estimate the confinement of radioactive materials in the system. The code was verified by comparison of code calculations with results of the demonstration test. (author)

  18. Report of the summative evaluation by the advisory committee on nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The Research Evaluation Committee of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) set up an Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety Research in accordance with the 'Fundamental Guideline for the Evaluation of Research and Development (R and D) at JAERI' and its subsidiary regulations. The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety Research evaluated the adequacy of the plans of nuclear safety research to be succeeded from JAERI to a new research institute which will be established by integration of JAERI and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). The Advisory Committee consisted of eight specialists from outside the JAERI conducted its activities from June 2004 to August 2004. The evaluation was performed on the basis of the materials submitted in advanced and of the oral presentations made at the Advisory Committee meeting which was held on July 27, 2004, in line with the items, viewpoints, and criteria for the evaluation specified by the Research Evaluation Committee. The result of the evaluation by the Advisory Committee was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee, and was judged to be appropriate at its meeting held on December 1, 2004. This report describes the result of the evaluation by the Advisory Committee on Safety Research. (author)

  19. Evaluation model for safety capacity of chemical industrial park based on acceptable regional risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Chen; Shukun Wang; Xiaoqun Tan

    2015-01-01

    The paper defines the Safety Capacity of Chemical Industrial Park (SCCIP) from the perspective of acceptable regional risk. For the purpose of exploring the evaluation model for the SCCIP, a method based on quantitative risk assessment was adopted for evaluating transport risk and to confirm reasonable safety transport capacity of chemical industrial park, and then by combining with the safety storage capacity, a SCCIP evaluation model was put forward. The SCCIP was decided by the smaller one between the largest safety storage capacity and the maximum safety transport capacity, or else, the regional risk of the park will exceed the acceptable level. The developed method was applied to a chemical industrial park in Guangdong province to obtain the maximum safety transport capacity and the SCCIP. The results can be realized in the regional risk control of the park effectively.

  20. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T 800 degrees C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B 4 C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B 4 C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs

  1. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) product removal can containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Six Product Removal (PR) Cans and Containers are located within the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Each can is expected to contain a maximum of 3 g of residual radioactive material, consisting mainly of plutonium isotopes. The PR Can Containers were previously authorized by HNF-SD-TP-SEP-064, Rev. 0 (Boettger 1997), for the interarea transport of up to 3 g of plutonium. The purpose of this safety evaluation for packaging is to allow the transport of six PR Cans with their Containers from the Plutonium Finishing Plant to the 233 S Evaporator Facility. This safety evaluation for packaging is authorized for use until April 29, 1999, or until the shipment is made, whichever happens first

  2. Evaluation of Hazardous Material Management Safety in the Chemical Laboratory in BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur-Rahmah-Hidayati

    2005-01-01

    The management safety of the hazardous material (B3) in the chemical laboratory of BATAN was evaluated. The evaluation is necessary to be done because B3 is often used together with radioactive materials in the laboratory, but the attention to the safety aspect of B3 is not paid sufficiently in spite of its big potential hazard. The potential hazard generated from the nature of B3 could be flammable, explosive, oxidative, corrosive and poisonous. The handling of B3 could be conducted by enforcing the labelling and classification in the usage and disposal processes. Some observations of the chemical laboratory of BATAN show that the management safety of hazardous material in compliance with the government regulation no. 74 year 2001 has not been dully conducted. The management safety of B3 could be improved by, designating one who has adequate skill in hazardous material safety specially as the B3 safety officer, providing the Material Safety Data Sheet that is updated periodically to use in the laboratory and storage room, updating periodically the inventory of B3, performing training in work safety periodically, and monitoring the ventilation system intensively in laboratory and storage room. (author)

  3. An Evaluation Method for Team Competencies to Enhance Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, S. M.; Seong, P. H.; Kim, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Safety culture has received attention in safety-critical industries, including nuclear power plants (NPPs), due to various prominent accidents such as concealment of a Station Blackout (SBO) of Kori NPP unit 1 in 2012, the Sewol ferry accident in 2014, and the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Analysis reports have pointed out that one of the major contributors to the cause of the accidents is ‘the lack of safety culture’. The term, nuclear safety culture, was firstly defined after the Chernobyl accident by the IAEA in INSAG report no. 4, as follows “Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted their significance.” Afterwards, a wide consensus grew among researchers and nuclear-related organizations, that safety culture should be evaluated and managed in a certain manner. Consequently, each nuclear-related organization defined and developed their own safety culture definitions and assessment methods. However, none of these methods provides a way for an individual or a team to enhance the safety culture of an organization. Especially for a team, which is the smallest working unit in NPPs, team members easily overlook their required practices to improve nuclear safety culture. Therefore in this study, we suggested a method to estimate nuclear safety culture of a team, by approaching with the ‘competency’ point of view. The competency is commonly focused on individuals, and defined as, “underlying characteristics of an individual that are causally related to effective or superior performance in a job.” Similar to safety culture, the definition of competency focuses on characteristics and attitudes of individuals. Thus, we defined ‘safety culture competency’ as “underlying characteristics and outward attitudes of individuals that are causally related to a healthy and strong nuclear safety

  4. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, Mirelle; Zegers, Marieke; Boeijen, Wilma; Westert, Gert P; van Gurp, Petra J; Wollersheim, Hub

    2013-06-22

    Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little is known about their effects on the behaviour of healthcare professionals and patient safety outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care and to explore the processes and mechanisms underlying these effects. Our study aims to evaluate an audit system to monitor and improve patient safety in a hospital setting. We are using a mixed-method evaluation with a before-and-after study design in eight departments of one university hospital in the period October 2011-July 2014. We measure several outcomes 3 months before the audit and 15 months after the audit. The primary outcomes are adverse events and complications. The secondary outcomes are experiences of patients, the standardised mortality ratio, prolonged hospital stay, patient safety culture, and team climate. We use medical record reviews, questionnaires, hospital administrative data, and observations to assess the outcomes. A process evaluation will be used to find out which components of internal auditing determine the effects. We report a study protocol of an effect and process evaluation to determine whether auditing improves patient safety in hospital care. Because auditing is a complex intervention targeted on several levels, we are using a combination of methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data about patient safety at the patient, professional, and department levels. This study is relevant for hospitals that want to early detect unsafe care and improve patient

  5. Evaluation of the Finnish nuclear safety research program 'SAFIR2010'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A panel of three members has been asked by the Ministry of Employment and the Economy (MEE) to evaluate SAFIR2010, the Finnish research program on nuclear power plant safety. The program was established for the period 2007-2010 to help maintain expertise in nuclear safety, to integrate young people into the research in order to help assure the future availability of expertise, and to support international collaborations. The program is directed by a Steering Group, appointed by MEE, with representatives from all organizations involved with nuclear safety in Finland. SAFIR2010 has consisted of approximately 30 projects from year to year that fall into eight subject areas: 1. Organization and human factors 2. Automation and control room 3. Fuel and reactor physics 4. Thermal hydraulics 5. Severe accidents 6. Structural safety of reactor circuit 7. Construction safety 8. Probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) For each of these areas there are Reference Groups that provide oversight of the projects within their jurisdiction. The panel carried out its evaluation by reviewing copies of relevant documents and, during a one-week period 17-22 January 2010, meeting with key individuals. The results of the panel are provided as general conclusions, responses to questions posed by MEE, challenges and recommendations and comments on specific projects in each subject area. The general conclusions reflect the panel's view that SAFIR2010 is meeting its objectives and carrying out quality research. The questions addressed are: (a.) Are the achieved results in balance with the funding? Are the results exploited efficiently in practice? (b.) How well does the expertise cover the field? Is the entire SAFIR2010 programme balanced to all different fields in nuclear safety? Does it raise efficiently new experts? (c.) Have the 2006 evaluation results been implemented successfully into SAFIR2010 program? (d.) Challenges and recommendations. In general the panel was very positive about SAFIR

  6. Postearthquake safety evaluation of buildings at DOE (Department of Energy) facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, R.

    1989-01-01

    New postearthquake building safety evaluation procedures have been developed. The procedures cover inspection and safety assessment of the principal types of building construction found in the US, including wood, masonry, tilt-up, concrete, and steel frame structures. Guidelines are also provided for appraising the structural safety significance of ground movements resulting from geologic hazards and for the inspection of nonstructural elements for falling and other hazards

  7. Conceptual design study for the demonstration reactor of JSFR. (3) Safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Akihiro; Shimakawa, Yoshio; Kubo, Shigenobu; Fujimura, Ken; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the result of conceptual safety design and evaluation for the demonstration plant of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR), which was preliminarily conducted for providing information necessary to decide the plant specification for further design study. The plant major specifications except for output power and safety design concept are almost the same as those of the commercial JSFR. A set of safety evaluation for typical design basis events (DBEs) is mainly focused here, which was conducted for the 750 MWe design. Safety analyses for DBEs evaluation were performed on the basis of conservative assumptions using a one-dimensional flow network code with point kinetics. For representative DBEs, transient over power type events and loss of flow type events were analyzed. The long-term loss-of-offsite power event was also calculated to evaluate the natural circulation decay heat removal system. All analytical results showed to meet tentative safety criteria, thus it was confirmed that the safety design concept of JSFR is feasible against DBEs. (author)

  8. Toward an integrated system concept for monitoring and evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Maomi; Sakaue, Takeharu

    2004-01-01

    The concept of ''nuclear safety culture'' has been advocated and has been much discussed internationally by INSAG (The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) under IAEA (the International Atomic Energy Agency) and other institutions since Chernobyl accident. On the safety front, Japan had maintained an excellent track record in nuclear power operations throughout the 1990s. However, there have been a series of new type of problems strongly implying degradation of safety culture, e.g., Monju accident, fire and explosion accident at an Asphalt Solidification Process Facility at Tokai, falsification of annealing data at nuclear power plants (NPP), another data falsification for transport cask of spent fuel and JCO criticality accident. Then the TEPCO (Tokyo Electric Power Company) issue was revealed in 2002. Triggered by this issue, the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) has been implementing a variety of improvements, one of which was the establishment of a study group in 2003, which invited experts from other fields as well as from nuclear-related industries, to study on how to implement safety culture sufficiently and possible recommendations. Subjects such as the followings piled in the study report will indicate leading keys in case it is going to realize such efforts: ''Foundation of safety culture is a quality management'' and ''Realistic and scientific technique is necessary for the evaluation of safety culture''. In order to respond to these requests, JNES have been advancing the development toward an Integrated System Concept for Monitoring and Evaluation of Safety Culture. This paper describes the outline of the study results reported by the study group and then introduces one of subsystems, SCEST, structuring the integrated system concept for Monitoring and Evaluation of Safety Culture. (author)

  9. Contribution of maintainability and maintenance to problems of safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnot, Serge; Meriaux, Pierre.

    1977-10-01

    A method has been developed for defining the contribution of Maintainability and the Maintenance Studies to Safety evaluation problems. The efficiency of this method is shown and results obtained are given for two theoretical examples approximating reality. For repairable systems, the risk defined according to such given safety criterion, becomes a characteristic of the systems in operation [fr

  10. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This document contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE non-reactor nuclear facilities. Adherence to these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24

  11. Research on Evaluation Model for Secondary Task Driving Safety Based on Driver Eye Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of performing different types of secondary task while driving on driver eye movements and to build a safety evaluation model for secondary task driving. Eighteen young drivers were selected and completed the driving experiment on a driving simulator. Measures of fixations, saccades, and blinks were analyzed. Based on measures which had significant difference between the baseline and secondary tasks driving conditions, the evaluation index system was built. Method of principal component analysis (PCA was applied to analyze evaluation indexes data in order to obtain the coefficient weights of indexes and build the safety evaluation model. Based on evaluation scores, the driving safety was grouped into five levels (very high, high, average, low, and very low using K-means clustering algorithm. Results showed that secondary task driving severely distracts the driver and the evaluation model built in this study could estimate driving safety effectively under different driving conditions.

  12. Safety Evaluation Report Restart of K-Reactor Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    In April 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued DOE/DP-0084T, ''Safety Evaluation Report Restart of K-Reactor Savannah River Site.'' The Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the results of DOE reviews and evaluations of the programmatic aspects of a large number of issues necessary to be satisfactorily addressed before restart. The issues were evaluated for compliance with the restart criteria included in the SER. The results of those evaluations determined that the restart criteria had been satisfied for some of the issues. However, for most of the issues at least part of the applicable restart criteria had not been found to be satisfied at the time the evaluations were prepared. For those issues, open or confirmatory items were identified that required resolution. In August 1991, DOE issued DOE/DP-0090T, ''Safety Evaluation Report Restart of K-Reactor Savannah River Site Supplement 1.'' That document was the first Supplement to the April 1991 SER, and documented the resolution of 62 of the open items identified in the SER. This document is the second Supplement to the April 1991 SER. This second SER Supplement documents the resolution of additional open times identified in the SER, and includes a complete list of all remaining SER open items. The resolution of those remaining open items will be documented in future SER Supplements. Resolution of all open items for an issue indicates that its associated restart criteria have been satisfied, and that DOE concludes that the programmatic aspects of the issue have been satisfactorily addressed

  13. 76 FR 8403 - Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... provide additional venues, such as webinars and teleconferences, to periodically host collaborative... evaluation scoring (Sec. 4279.265) into a preapplication process. Screening and filtering out ineligible or...

  14. International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments - ICSBEP (DVD), Version 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) became an official activity of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various nuclear critical experiment facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculational techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirement and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross section data. The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. These volumes span nearly 66,000 pages and contain 558 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4,798 critical, near critical or subcritical configurations, 24 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each and 200 configurations that have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications. New to the Handbook are benchmark specifications for Critical, Bare, HEU(93.2)- Metal Sphere experiments referred to as ORSphere that were performed by a team of experimenters at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the early 1970's. A photograph of this assembly is shown on the front cover

  15. On Some Methods in Safety Evaluation in Geotechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puła, Wojciech; Zaskórski, Łukasz

    2015-06-01

    The paper demonstrates how the reliability methods can be utilised in order to evaluate safety in geotechnics. Special attention is paid to the so-called reliability based design that can play a useful and complementary role to Eurocode 7. In the first part, a brief review of first- and second-order reliability methods is given. Next, two examples of reliability-based design are demonstrated. The first one is focussed on bearing capacity calculation and is dedicated to comparison with EC7 requirements. The second one analyses a rigid pile subjected to lateral load and is oriented towards working stress design method. In the second part, applications of random field to safety evaluations in geotechnics are addressed. After a short review of the theory a Random Finite Element algorithm to reliability based design of shallow strip foundation is given. Finally, two illustrative examples for cohesive and cohesionless soils are demonstrated.

  16. [Establish research model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-ke; Liu, Zhi; Lei, Xiang; Tian, Ran; Zheng, Rui; Li, Nan; Ren, Jing-tian; Du, Xiao-xi; Shang, Hong-cai

    2015-09-01

    The safety of Chinese patent medicine has become a focus of social. It is necessary to carry out work on post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. However, there have no criterions to guide the related research, it is urgent to set up a model and method to guide the practice for related research. According to a series of clinical research, we put forward some views, which contained clear and definite the objective and content of clinical safety evaluation, the work flow should be determined, make a list of items for safety evaluation project, and put forward the three level classification of risk control. We set up a model of post-marketing clinical safety evaluation for Chinese patent medicine. Based this model, the list of items can be used for ranking medicine risks, and then take steps for different risks, aims to lower the app:ds:risksrisk level. At last, the medicine can be managed by five steps in sequence. The five steps are, collect risk signal, risk recognition, risk assessment, risk management, and aftereffect assessment. We hope to provide new ideas for the future research.

  17. Uncertainty and conservatism in safety evaluations based on a BEPU approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Mizokami, S.; Kudo, Y.; Hotta, A.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Energy Society of Japan has published 'Standard Method for Safety Evaluation using Best Estimate Code Based on Uncertainty and Scaling Analyses with Statistical Approach' to be applied to accidents and AOOs in the safety evaluation of LWRs. In this method, hereafter named as the AESJ-SSE (Statistical Safety Evaluation) method, identification and quantification of uncertainties will be performed and then a combination of the best estimate code and the evaluation of uncertainty propagation will be performed. Uncertainties are categorized into bias and variability. In general, bias is related to our state-of-knowledge on uncertainty objects (modeling, scaling, input data, etc.) while variability reflects stochastic features involved in these objects. Considering many kinds of uncertainties in thermal-hydraulics models and experimental databases show variabilities that will be strongly influenced by our state of knowledge, it seems reasonable that these variabilities are also related to state-of-knowledge. The design basis events (DBEs) that are employed for licensing analyses form a main part of the given or prior conservatism. The regulatory acceptance criterion is also regarded as the prior conservatism. In addition to these prior conservatisms, a certain amount of the posterior conservatism is added with maintaining intimate relationships with state-of-knowledge. In the AESJ-SSE method, this posterior conservatism can be incorporated into the safety evaluation in a combination of the following three ways, (1) broadening ranges of variability relevant to uncertainty objects, (2) employing more disadvantageous biases relevant to uncertainty objects and (3) adding an extra bias to the safety evaluation results. Knowing implemented quantitative bases of uncertainties and conservatism, the AESJ-SSE method provides a useful ground for rational decision-making. In order to seek for 'the best estimation' as well as reasonably setting the analytical margin, a degree

  18. Electronic clinical safety reporting system: a benefits evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Pamela; Martin, Desmond; Neville, Doreen

    2014-06-11

    Eastern Health, a large health care organization in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), started a staged implementation of an electronic occurrence reporting system (used interchangeably with "clinical safety reporting system") in 2008, completing Phase One in 2009. The electronic clinical safety reporting system (CSRS) was designed to replace a paper-based system. The CSRS involves reporting on occurrences such as falls, safety/security issues, medication errors, treatment and procedural mishaps, medical equipment malfunctions, and close calls. The electronic system was purchased from a vendor in the United Kingdom that had implemented the system in the United Kingdom and other places, such as British Columbia. The main objective of the new system was to improve the reporting process with the goal of improving clinical safety. The project was funded jointly by Eastern Health and Canada Health Infoway. The objectives of the evaluation were to: (1) assess the CSRS on achieving its stated objectives (particularly, the benefits realized and lessons learned), and (2) identify contributions, if any, that can be made to the emerging field of electronic clinical safety reporting. The evaluation involved mixed methods, including extensive stakeholder participation, pre/post comparative study design, and triangulation of data where possible. The data were collected from several sources, such as project documentation, occurrence reporting records, stakeholder workshops, surveys, focus groups, and key informant interviews. The findings provided evidence that frontline staff and managers support the CSRS, identifying both benefits and areas for improvement. Many benefits were realized, such as increases in the number of occurrences reported, in occurrences reported within 48 hours, in occurrences reported by staff other than registered nurses, in close calls reported, and improved timelines for notification. There was also user satisfaction with the tool regarding ease of use

  19. Barrier performance researches for the safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibori, Yuichi

    2004-01-01

    So far, many researches were conducted to propose a scientific evidence (a safety case) for the realization of geological disposal in Japan. In order to regulate the geological disposal system of radioactive wastes, on the other hand, we need also a holistic approach to integrate various data related for the performance evaluations of the engineered barrier system and the natural barrier system. However, the scientific bases are not sufficient to establish the safety regulation for such a natural system. For example, we often apply the specific probability density function (PDF) to the uncertainty of barrier system due to the essential heterogeneity. However, the applicability is not clear in the regulation point of view. A viewpoint to understand such an applicability of PDFs has been presented. (author)

  20. Geotechnical aspects of site evaluation and foundations for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication is a revision of the former safety standards of IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-S8. The scope has been extended to cover not only foundations but also design questions related to geotechnical science and engineering, such as the bearing capacity of foundations, design of earth structures and design of buried structures. Seismic aspects also play an important role in this field, and consequently the Safety Guide on Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3, which discusses the determination of seismic input motion, is referenced on several occasions. The present Safety Guide provides an interpretation of the Safety Requirements on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations and guidance on how to implement them. It is intended for the use of safety assessors or regulators involved in the licensing process as well as the designers of nuclear power plants, and it provides them with guidance on the methods and procedures for analyses to support the assessment of the geotechnical aspects of the safety of nuclear power plants

  1. Geotechnical aspects of site evaluation and foundations for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publication is a revision of the former safety standards of IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-S8. The scope has been extended to cover not only foundations but also design questions related to geotechnical science and engineering, such as the bearing capacity of foundations, design of earth structures and design of buried structures Seismic aspects also play an important role in this field, and consequently the Safety Guide on Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3, which discusses the determination of seismic input motion, is referenced on several occasions. The present Safety Guide provides an interpretation of the Safety Requirements on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations and guidance on how to implement them. It is intended for the use of safety assessors or regulators involved in the licensing process as well as the designers of nuclear power plants, and it provides them with guidance on the methods and procedures for analyses to support the assessment of the geotechnical aspects of the safety of nuclear power plants

  2. A toolbox for safety instrumented system evaluation based on improved continuous-time Markov chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardana, Awang N. I.; Kurniady, Rahman; Pambudi, Galih; Purnama, Jaka; Suryopratomo, Kutut

    2017-08-01

    Safety instrumented system (SIS) is designed to restore a plant into a safe condition when pre-hazardous event is occur. It has a vital role especially in process industries. A SIS shall be meet with safety requirement specifications. To confirm it, SIS shall be evaluated. Typically, the evaluation is calculated by hand. This paper presents a toolbox for SIS evaluation. It is developed based on improved continuous-time Markov chain. The toolbox supports to detailed approach of evaluation. This paper also illustrates an industrial application of the toolbox to evaluate arch burner safety system of primary reformer. The results of the case study demonstrates that the toolbox can be used to evaluate industrial SIS in detail and to plan the maintenance strategy.

  3. Occupational health and safety: Designing and building with MACBETH a value risk-matrix for evaluating health and safety risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. F.; Oliveira, M. D.; Costa, C. A. Bana e.

    2015-05-01

    Risk matrices (RMs) are commonly used to evaluate health and safety risks. Nonetheless, they violate some theoretical principles that compromise their feasibility and use. This study describes how multiple criteria decision analysis methods have been used to improve the design and the deployment of RMs to evaluate health and safety risks at the Occupational Health and Safety Unit (OHSU) of the Regional Health Administration of Lisbon and Tagus Valley. ‘Value risk-matrices’ (VRMs) are built with the MACBETH approach in four modelling steps: a) structuring risk impacts, involving the construction of descriptors of impact that link risk events with health impacts and are informed by scientific evidence; b) generating a value measurement scale of risk impacts, by applying the MACBETH-Choquet procedure; c) building a system for eliciting subjective probabilities that makes use of a numerical probability scale that was constructed with MACBETH qualitative judgments on likelihood; d) and defining a classification colouring scheme for the VRM. A VRM built with OHSU members was implemented in a decision support system which will be used by OHSU members to evaluate health and safety risks and to identify risk mitigation actions.

  4. Study on development of education model and its evaluation system for radiation safety

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, K W; Nam, Y M

    2002-01-01

    As one of the detailed action strategy of multi object preparedness for strengthening of radiation safety management by MOST, this project was performed, in order to promote the safety culture for user and radiation worker through effective education program. For the prevention of radiological accident and effective implementation of radiation safety education and training, this project has been carried out the development of education model and its evaluation system on radiation safety. In the development of new education model, education course was classified; new and old radiation worker, temporary worker, lecturer and manager. The education model includes the contents of expanding the education opportunity and workplace training. In the development of evaluation system, the recognition criteria for commission-education institute and inside-education institute which should establish by law were suggested for evaluation program. The recognition criteria contains classification, student, method, facilities, ...

  5. General re-evaluation of the safety on the nuclear ship 'Mutsu' and its repair work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    According to the proposition by the Committee for Investigation Radiation Leak on Mutsu, the works of the general re-evaluation of safety were started after the approval by the Committee for Investigating General Re-evaluation and Repair Techniques for Mutsu. The contents of the general re-evaluation of safety are the inspection of the machines and equipments in the nuclear reactor plant, the review of the design of the nuclear reactor plant, the analysis of the nuclear reactor plant behavior in accidents, and the related experimental researches. These works have been carried out for five years, and problem did not arise at all regarding the nuclear reactor so far, but from the viewpoint of improving the safety and reliability further, it was decided to carry out the repair work based on the general re-evaluation of safety. The contents of the repair work are the improvement of the emergency core-cooling system, the improvement of the safety protection system, the improvement of the radiation monitoring equipments, the improvement of the containment vessel boundary, the improvement of the actuators for technological safety facilities, the improvement of the method controlling secondary water quality, and other repair works. The progress of the general re-evaluation of safety is reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) - Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the aims of the NEA's Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is to work towards greater harmonisation of regulatory requirements. To achieve this aim, it is necessary that there is a degree of convergence on the safety goals that are required to be met by designers and operators. The term 'safety goals' is defined to cover all health and safety requirements which must be met: these may be deterministic rules and/or probabilistic targets. They should cover the safety of workers, public and the environment in line with the IAEA's Basic Safety Objective; encompassing safety in normal operation through to severe accidents. MDEP is also interested in how its work can be extended to future reactors, which may use significantly different technology to the almost ubiquitous LWRs used today and in the next generation, building on the close co-operation within MDEP between the regulators who are currently engaged in constructing or carrying out design reviews on new designs. For two designs this work has involved several regulators sharing their safety assessments and in some cases issuing statements on issues that need to be addressed. Work is also progressing towards joint regulatory position statements on specific assessment areas. Harmonisation of safety goals will enhance the cooperation between regulators as further developments in design and technology occur. All regulators have safety goals, but these are expressed in many different ways and exercises in comparing them frequently are done at a very low level eg specific temperatures in the reactor vessel of a specific reactor type. The differences in the requirements from different regulators are difficult to resolve as the goals are derived using different principles and assumptions and are often for a specific technology. Therefore a different approach is being investigated, starting with the top-level safety goals and try to derive a structure and means of deriving lower tier

  7. Safety evaluation of zotepine for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Michael; Musil, Richard; Seemüller, Florian; Spellmann, Ilja; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Schennach-Wolff, Rebecca

    2010-07-01

    Atypical antipsychotics have become the first-line treatment for patients suffering from schizophrenia in the industrialized world. Given the frequent necessity of a life-long enduring antipsychotic treatment, the compounds' safety profile is of great importance for patients and caregivers. Zotepine is an antipsychotic with atypical properties and previous data have suggested a very favorable side effect profile. The aim of this review is to provide a broad knowledge base on the safety profile of zotepine deriving from currently available research results published in English medical databases. The focus of this research reports starts in the 1990s with zotepine's approval in Europe. This paper incorporates data on placebo-controlled studies of zotepine as well as studies with comparator compounds also beyond the diagnostic boarder of schizophrenia regarding zotepine's safety. The take home message of this safety evaluation of zotepine is that compared to typical compounds zotepine induces less extrapyramidal side effects; however, in terms of comparing zotepine's safety with other atypical antipsychotics more studies are needed to draw final conclusions.

  8. Safety evaluation review of the prototype license application safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and consultants reviewed a Prototype License Application Safety Analysis Report (PLASAR) submitted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the belowground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste disposal. In Volume 1 of NUREG-1375, the NRC staff provided the safety review results for an earth-mounded concrete bunker PLASAR. In the current report, the staff focused its review on the design, construction, and operational aspects of the BGV PLASAR. The staff developed review comments and questions using the Standard Review Plan (SRP), Rev. 1 (NUREG-1200) as the basis for evaluating the acceptability of the information provided in the BGV PLASAR. The detailed review comments provided in this report are intended to be useful guidance to facility developers and State regulators in addressing issues likely to be encountered in the review of a license application for a low-level-waste disposal facility. 44 refs

  9. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little is known about their effects on the behaviour of healthcare professionals and patient safety outcomes. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care and to explore the processes and mechanisms underlying these effects. Methods and design Our study aims to evaluate an audit system to monitor and improve patient safety in a hospital setting. We are using a mixed-method evaluation with a before-and-after study design in eight departments of one university hospital in the period October 2011–July 2014. We measure several outcomes 3 months before the audit and 15 months after the audit. The primary outcomes are adverse events and complications. The secondary outcomes are experiences of patients, the standardised mortality ratio, prolonged hospital stay, patient safety culture, and team climate. We use medical record reviews, questionnaires, hospital administrative data, and observations to assess the outcomes. A process evaluation will be used to find out which components of internal auditing determine the effects. Discussion We report a study protocol of an effect and process evaluation to determine whether auditing improves patient safety in hospital care. Because auditing is a complex intervention targeted on several levels, we are using a combination of methods to collect qualitative and quantitative data about patient safety at the patient, professional, and department levels. This study is relevant for hospitals that want to

  10. A bicycle safety index for evaluating urban street facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Shekari, Zohreh; Moeinaddini, Mehdi; Zaly Shah, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to conceptualize the Bicycle Safety Index (BSI) that considers all parts of the street and to propose a universal guideline with microscale details. A point system method comparing existing safety facilities to a defined standard is proposed to estimate the BSI. Two streets in Singapore and Malaysia are chosen to examine this model. The majority of previous measurements to evaluate street conditions for cyclists usually cannot cover all parts of streets, including segments and intersections. Previous models also did not consider all safety indicators and cycling facilities at a microlevel in particular. This study introduces a new concept of a practical BSI to complete previous studies using its practical, easy-to-follow, point system-based outputs. This practical model can be used in different urban settings to estimate the level of safety for cycling and suggest some improvements based on the standards.

  11. The integrated criticality safety evaluation for the Hanford tank waste treatment and immobilization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losey, D. C.; Miles, R. E.; Perks, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) has been developed as a single, integrated evaluation with a scope that covers all of the planned WTP operations. This integrated approach is atypical, as the scopes of criticality evaluations are usually more narrowly defined. Several adjustments were made in developing the WTP CSER, but the primary changes were to provide introductory overview for the criticality safety control strategy and to provide in-depth analysis of the underlying physical and chemical mechanisms that contribute to ensuring safety. The integrated approach for the CSER allowed a more consistent evaluation of safety and avoided redundancies that occur when evaluation is distributed over multiple documents. While the approach used with the WTP CSER necessitated more coordination and teamwork, it has yielded a report is that more integrated and concise than is typical. The integrated approach with the CSER produced a simple criticality control scheme that uses relatively few controls. (authors)

  12. Restart of K-Reactor, Savannah River Site: Safety evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) focuses on those issues required to support the restart of the K-Reactor at the Savannah River Plant. This SER provides the safety criteria for restart and documents the results of the staff reviews of the DOE and operating contractor activities to meet these criteria. To develop the restart criteria for the issues discussed in this SER, the Savannah River Restart Office and Savannah River Special Projects Office staffs relied, when possible, on commercial industry codes and standards and on NRC requirements and guidelines for the commercial nuclear industry. However, because of the age and uniqueness of the Savannah River reactors, criteria for the commercial plants were not always applicable. In these cases, alternate criteria were developed. The restart criteria applicable to each of the issues are identified in the safety evaluations for each issue. The restart criteria identified in this report are intended to apply only to restart of the Savannah River reactors. Following the development of the acceptance criteria, the DOE staff and their support contractors evaluated the results of the DOE and operating contractor (WSRC) activities to meet these criteria. The results of those evaluations are documented in this report. Deviations or failures to meet the requirements are either justified in the report or carried as open or confirmatory items to be completed and evaluated in supplements to this report before restart. 62 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Restart of K-Reactor, Savannah River Site: Safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) focuses on those issues required to support the restart of the K-Reactor at the Savannah River Plant. This SER provides the safety criteria for restart and documents the results of the staff reviews of the DOE and operating contractor activities to meet these criteria. To develop the restart criteria for the issues discussed in this SER, the Savannah River Restart Office and Savannah River Special Projects Office staffs relied, when possible, on commercial industry codes and standards and on NRC requirements and guidelines for the commercial nuclear industry. However, because of the age and uniqueness of the Savannah River reactors, criteria for the commercial plants were not always applicable. In these cases, alternate criteria were developed. The restart criteria applicable to each of the issues are identified in the safety evaluations for each issue. The restart criteria identified in this report are intended to apply only to restart of the Savannah River reactors. Following the development of the acceptance criteria, the DOE staff and their support contractors evaluated the results of the DOE and operating contractor (WSRC) activities to meet these criteria. The results of those evaluations are documented in this report. Deviations or failures to meet the requirements are either justified in the report or carried as open or confirmatory items to be completed and evaluated in supplements to this report before restart. 62 refs., 1 fig

  14. Guideline for examination concerning the evaluation of safety in light water power reactor installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This guideline was drawn up as the guide for examination when the safety evaluation of nuclear reactors is carried out at the time of approving the installation of light water power reactors. Accordingly in case of the examination of safety, it must be confirmed that the contents of application are in conformity with this guideline. If they are in conformity, it is judged that the safety evaluation of the policy in the basic design of a reactor facility is adequate, and also that the evaluation concerning the separation from the public in surroundings is adequate as the condition of location of the reactor facility. This guideline is concerned with light water power reactors now in use, but the basic concept may be the reference for the examination of the other types of reactors. If such a case occurs that the safety evaluation does not conform to this guideline, it is not excluded when the appropriate reason is clarified. The purpose of safety evaluation, the scope to be evaluated, the selection of the events to be evaluated, the criteria for judgement, the matters taken into consideration at the time of analysis, the concrete events of abnormal transient change and accident in operation, and the concrete events of serious accident and hypothetic accident are stipulated. The explanation and two appendices are attached. (Kako, I.)

  15. On Some Methods in Safety Evaluation in Geotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puła Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates how the reliability methods can be utilised in order to evaluate safety in geotechnics. Special attention is paid to the so-called reliability based design that can play a useful and complementary role to Eurocode 7. In the first part, a brief review of first- and second-order reliability methods is given. Next, two examples of reliability-based design are demonstrated. The first one is focussed on bearing capacity calculation and is dedicated to comparison with EC7 requirements. The second one analyses a rigid pile subjected to lateral load and is oriented towards working stress design method. In the second part, applications of random field to safety evaluations in geotechnics are addressed. After a short review of the theory a Random Finite Element algorithm to reliability based design of shallow strip foundation is given. Finally, two illustrative examples for cohesive and cohesionless soils are demonstrated.

  16. Safety evaluation report related to operation of Fast Flux Test Facility. Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    This supplement provides (1) the staff's evaluation of additional information received since issuance of the Safety Evaluation Report regarding previously identified uncompleted review items, (2) a discussion of comments made by the ACRS in its report of November 8, 1978, and (3) the staff's evaluation of additional or revised information related to new or old issues that have arisen since the issuance of the Safety Evaluation Report

  17. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  18. Evaluation of safety-parameter display concepts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Wise, J.A.; Hanes, L.F.

    1982-02-01

    New control room equipment designed to improve operator performance must be evaluated before adoption and installation. Two experimental concepts for a Safety Parameters Display System (SPDS) were evaluated to assess benefits and potential problems associated with the SPDS concept and its integration into control room operations. Participants were licensed utility operators undergoing retraining on a nuclear power plant simulator. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed on crew response to seven simulated accident conditions

  19. Efficient improvement of nuclear power plant safety by reorganization of risk-informed safety importance evaluation methods for piping welded portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, Takashi; Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Suyama, Takeshi [Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Morota, Hidetsugu; Kojima, Sigeo; Mizuno, Yoshinobu [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    In this work, risk information was used to evaluate the safety importance of piping welded portions which were important for plant operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. There are two types of risk-informed safety importance evaluation methods, namely the ASME method and the EPRI method. Since both methods have advantages and disadvantages, elements of each method were combined and reorganized. Considerations included whether the degradation mechanisms would be objectively evaluated and whether plant safety would be efficiently improved. The most objective and efficient method was as follows. Piping failure potential is quantitatively and objectively evaluated for failure with probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) and for other degradation mechanisms with empirical failure rates, and conditional core damage probability (CCDP) is calculated with PSA. This method reduces the inspected segment numbers to 1/4 of the deterministic method and increases the ratio of risk, which is covered by the inspected segments, to total risk from 80% of the deterministic method to 95%. Piping inspection numbers decreased for safety injection systems that were required the inspections by the deterministic method. Piping inspections were required for part of main feed water and main steam systems that were not required the inspections by the deterministic method. (author)

  20. Safety Evaluation of Osun River Water Containing Heavy Metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study evaluated the pH, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Osun river water. It also evaluated its safety in rats. Heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) while VOCs were determined by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector ...

  1. Evaluation Of Fire Safety And Protection At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nabil Ab Rahim; Alfred Sanggau Ligam; Nurhayati Ramli; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Phongsakorn Prak; Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Zarina Masood

    2014-01-01

    Fire hazard is one of many risks that can affect the safety operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Reactor building in Malaysian Nuclear Agency was built in 1980s and the fire system has been introduced since then. The evaluation of the fire safety system at this time is important to ensure the efficiency of fire prevention, fighting and mitigation task that probably occurs. This evaluation involves with the fire fighting system and equipment, integrity of the system from the perspective of management and equipment, fire fighting procedure and fire fighting response team. (author)

  2. Development of an Evaluation Tool for Online Food Safety Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jack A., Jr.; Murphy, Cheryl A.; Crandall, Philip G.; O'Bryan, Corliss A.; Keifer, Elizabeth; Ricke, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide the person in charge and food safety instructors an assessment tool to help characterize, identify strengths and weaknesses, determine the completeness of the knowledge gained by the employee, and evaluate the level of content presentation and usability of current retail food safety training platforms. An…

  3. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being

  4. Evaluation of the League General Insurance Company child safety seat distribution program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the child safety seat distribution initiated by the League General Insurance Company in June 1979. The program provides child safety seats as a benefit under the company's auto insurance policies to policy-holder...

  5. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs.

  6. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs

  7. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested

  8. Safety evaluation of a conceptual fuel recycle complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design integration study for an integrated Fuel Recycle Complex (FRC) has been completed. A safety evaluation of the radiation shielding, fire precautions, handling of nonradioactive hazardous materials, criticality hazards, operating errors, and the influence of natural phenomena on the FRC shows that all federal regulations are met or exceeded

  9. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (Dematel) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) for Safety Management System Evaluation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolita, Lisa; Surarso, Bayu; Gernowo, Rahmat

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve airport safety management system (SMS) performance, an evaluation system is required to improve on current shortcomings and maximize safety. This study suggests the integration of the DEMATEL and ANP methods in decision making processes by analyzing causal relations between the relevant criteria and taking effective analysis-based decision. The DEMATEL method builds on the ANP method in identifying the interdependencies between criteria. The input data consists of questionnaire data obtained online and then stored in an online database. Furthermore, the questionnaire data is processed using DEMATEL and ANP methods to obtain the results of determining the relationship between criteria and criteria that need to be evaluated. The study cases on this evaluation system were Adi Sutjipto International Airport, Yogyakarta (JOG); Ahmad Yani International Airport, Semarang (SRG); and Adi Sumarmo International Airport, Surakarta (SOC). The integration grades SMS performance criterion weights in a descending order as follow: safety and destination policy, safety risk management, healthcare, and safety awareness. Sturges' formula classified the results into nine grades. JOG and SMG airports were in grade 8, while SOG airport was in grade 7.

  10. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment, Systematic Evaluation Program, Palisades Plant (Docket No. 50-255)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    This report documents the review completed under the SEP for those issues that required refined engineering evaluations or the continuation of ongoing evaluations after the Final IPSAR for the Palisades Plant was issued. The review has provided for (1) an assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on selected safety issues and those that existed when the Palisades Plant was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety when the supplement to the Final IPSAR and the Safety Evaluation Report for converting the license from a provisional to a full-term license have been issued. The Final IPSAR and its supplement will form part of the bases for considering the conversion of the provisional operating license to a full-term operating license

  11. Evaluating safety management system implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, M.

    2009-01-01

    Canada is committed to not only maintaining, but also improving upon our record of having one of the safest aviation systems in the world. The development, implementation and maintenance of safety management systems is a significant step towards improving safety performance. Canada is considered a world leader in this area and we are fully engaged in implementation. By integrating risk management systems and business practices, the aviation industry stands to gain better safety performance with less regulatory intervention. These are important steps towards improving safety and enhancing the public's confidence in the safety of Canada's aviation system. (author)

  12. From extended integrity monitoring to the safety evaluation of satellite-based localisation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Cyril; Beugin, Julie; Marais, Juliette; Conrard, Blaise; El-Koursi, El-Miloudi; Berbineau, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS, already used in aeronautics for safety-related applications, can play a major role in railway safety by allowing a train to locate itself safely. However, in order to implement this positioning solution in any embedded system, its performances must be evaluated according to railway standards. The evaluation of GNSS performances is not based on the same attributes class than RAMS evaluation. Face to these diffculties, we propose to express the integrity attribute, performance of satellite-based localisation. This attribute comes from aeronautical standards and for a hybridised GNSS with inertial system. To achieve this objective, the integrity attribute must be extended to this kind of system and algorithms initially devoted to GNSS integrity monitoring only must be adapted. Thereafter, the formalisation of this integrity attribute permits us to analyse the safety quantitatively through the probabilities of integrity risk and wrong-side failure. In this paper, after an introductory discussion about the use of localisation systems in railway safety context together with integrity issues, a particular integrity monitoring is proposed and described. The detection events of this algorithm permit us to conclude about safety level of satellite-based localisation system.

  13. Safety evaluation in the development of medical devices and combination products

    CERN Document Server

    Gad, Shayne C

    2008-01-01

    Capturing the growth of the global medical device market in recent years, this practical new guide is essential for all who are responsible for ensuring safety in the use and manufacture of medical devices. It has been extensively updated to reflect significant advances, incorporating combination products and helpful case examples of current real-life problems in the field.The Third Edition explores these key current trends:global device marketscontinually advancing technologythe increasing harmonization of device safety regulation worldwideEach aspect of safety evaluation is considered in ter

  14. An evaluation of the uranium mine radiation safety course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The report evaluates the Uranium Mine Radiation Safety Course focussing on the following areas: effectivenss of the course; course content; instructional quality; course administration. It notes strengths and weaknesses in these areas and offers preliminary recommendations for future action

  15. Trial evaluations in comparison with the 1983 safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggs, R.; Sege, G.

    1985-06-01

    This report provides retrospective comparisons of selected generic regulatory actions to the 1983 NRC safety goals, which had been issued for evaluation during a two-year period. The issues covered are those analyzed by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) (assisted in some cases by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory). The issues include auxiliary feedwater reliability, pressurized thermal shock, power-operated relief valve isolation, asymmetric blowdown loads on PWR primary systems, pool dynamic loads for BWR containments, and steam generator tube rupture. Calculated core-melt frequencies, mortality risks, and cost-benefit ratios are compared with the corresponding safety-goal quantitative design objectives. Considerations that should influence interpretation of the comparisons are discussed. Comments are included on whether and how the safety goals may have helped in the regulatory decision process and on problems encountered

  16. Preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) for Sodium Storage Facility at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This evaluation was performed for the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) which will be constructed at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the area adjacent to the South and West Dump Heat Exchanger (DHX) pits. The purpose of the facility is to allow unloading the sodium from the FFTF plant tanks and piping. The significant conclusion of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) is that the only Safety Class 2 components are the four sodium storage tanks and their foundations. The building, because of its imminent risk to the tanks under an earthquake or high winds, will be Safety Class 3/2, which means the building has a Safety Class 3 function with the Safety Class 2 loads of seismic and wind factored into the design

  17. Does lean management improve patient safety culture? An extensive evaluation of safety culture in a radiotherapy institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Pascale A M; Houben, Ruud; Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2015-02-01

    The importance of a safety culture to maximize safety is no longer questioned. However, achieving sustainable culture improvements are less evident. Evidence is growing for a multifaceted approach, where multiple safety interventions are combined. Lean management is such an integral approach to improve safety, quality and efficiency and therefore, could be expected to improve the safety culture. This paper presents the effects of lean management activities on the patient safety culture in a radiotherapy institute. Patient safety culture was evaluated over a three year period using triangulation of methodologies. Two surveys were distributed three times, workshops were performed twice, data from an incident reporting system (IRS) was monitored and results were explored using structured interviews with professionals. Averages, chi-square, logistical and multi-level regression were used for analysis. The workshops showed no changes in safety culture, whereas the surveys showed improvements on six out of twelve dimensions of safety climate. The intention to report incidents not reaching patient-level decreased in accordance with the decreasing number of reports in the IRS. However, the intention to take action in order to prevent future incidents improved (factorial survey presented β: 1.19 with p: 0.01). Due to increased problem solving and improvements in equipment, the number of incidents decreased. Although the intention to report incidents not reaching patient-level decreased, employees experienced sustained safety awareness and an increased intention to structurally improve. The patient safety culture improved due to the lean activities combined with an organizational restructure, and actual patient safety outcomes might have improved as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tensile and burst tests in support of the cadmium safety rod failure evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.

    1992-02-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. This report discusses confirmatory separate effects tests conducted to support the evaluation of failures observed in the safety rod thermal tests. As part of the failure evaluation, the potential for liquid metal embrittlement (LME) of the safety rod cladding by cadmium (Cd) -- aluminum (Al) solutions was examined. Based on the test conditions, literature data, and U-Bend tests, its was concluded that the SS304 safety rod cladding would not be subject to LME by liquid Cd-Al solutions under conditions relevant to the safety rod thermal tests or gamma heating accident. To confirm this conclusion, tensile tests on SS304 specimens were performed in both air and liquid Cd-Al solutions with the range of strain rates, temperatures, and loading conditions spanning the range relevant to the safety rod thermal tests and gamma heating accident

  19. Safety evaluation for the prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU as a Japanese TSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    In the safety field of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), JNES is conducting an evaluation work of the safety regulation by Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA) for the re-start of a prototype FBR MONJU. MONJU has been stopped over 14 years since 1995 due to a sodium leakage accident at a secondary heat transport system, and is now reached to the criticality on 8th of May, 2010. JNES is supporting the safety regulation work conducted by NISA based on the following activities: i) Support of the technical evaluation of the application for the establishment license prepared by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), ii) Support of the description of the safety review report by NISA based on independent safety analyses for the major accident events such as unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) by employing the latest findings on the study of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) independently conducted by JNES, iii) Support of the risk-informed-regulation (RIR) such as an accident management (AM) review, iv), and Consideration on the safety regulation policy from the points of severe accidents and source-term behaviors including the cesium (Cs). The objective of this paper is to introduce the major activities of JNES in the safety domain of MONJU regulations. (author)

  20. Evaluation of a Radiation Worker Safety Training Program at a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements.

  1. Evaluation of a Radiation Worker Safety Training Program at a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements

  2. Licensing the ACR-700 in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langman, V.; Ion, R.; Reid, C.; Snell, V.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), via its 100% owned US subsidiary AECL Technologies Inc., is performing a pre-application review of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Completion of this pre-application review by mid-2004, is in support of an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification that is targeted for the fall of 2004. The intent of the pre-application review is to deal up-front with potential issues associated with the CANDU reactor genealogy of the ACR that are different from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) regulatory framework in the USA. The focus of the paper will be to describe the pre-application review process currently underway with the NRC staff. In the context of the pre-application review this paper will provide an overview of the licensing approach being used to introduce the ACR-700 to the USA. (author)

  3. Licensing the ACR-700 in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langman, V.; Ion, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Reid, C. [Bechtel Power Corporation, San Fransisco, California (United States); Snell, V. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), via its 100% owned US subsidiary AECL Technologies Inc., is performing a pre-application review of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Completion of this pre-application review by mid-2004, is in support of an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification that is targeted for the fall of 2004. The intent of the pre-application review is to deal up-front with potential issues associated with the CANDU reactor genealogy of the ACR that are different from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) regulatory framework in the USA. The focus of the paper will be to describe the pre-application review process currently underway with the NRC staff. In the context of the pre-application review this paper will provide an overview of the licensing approach being used to introduce the ACR-700 to the USA. (author)

  4. Triangulation and the importance of establishing valid methods for food safety culture evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Lone; Wallace, Carol A

    2017-10-01

    The research evaluates maturity of food safety culture in five multi-national food companies using method triangulation, specifically self-assessment scale, performance documents, and semi-structured interviews. Weaknesses associated with each individual method are known but there are few studies in food safety where a method triangulation approach is used for both data collection and data analysis. Significantly, this research shows that individual results taken in isolation can lead to wrong conclusions, resulting in potentially failing tactics and wasted investments. However, by applying method triangulation and reviewing results from a range of culture measurement tools it is possible to better direct investments and interventions. The findings add to the food safety culture paradigm beyond a single evaluation of food safety culture using generic culture surveys. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Ecological Safety Evaluation of Land Use in Ji’an City Based on the Principal Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the ecological safety evaluation index data of land-use change in Ji’an City from 1999 to 2008,positive treatment on selected reverse indices is conducted by Reciprocal Method.Meanwhile,Index Method is used to standardize the selected indices,and Principal Component Analysis is applied by using year as a unit.FB is obtained,which is related with the ecological safety of land-use change from 1999 to 2008.According to the scientific,integrative,hierarchical,practical and dynamic principles,ecological safety evaluation index system of land-use change in Ji’an City is established.Principal Component Analysis and evaluation model are used to calculate four parameters,including the natural resources safety index of land use,the socio-economic safety indicators of land use,the eco-environmental safety index of land use,and the ecological safety degree of land use in Ji’an City.Result indicates that the ecological safety degree of land use in Ji’an City shows a slow upward trend as a whole.At the same time,ecological safety degree of land-use change is relatively low in Ji’an City with the safety value of 0.645,which is at a weak safety zone and needs further monitoring and maintenance.

  6. A framework of risk-informed seismic safety evaluation of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, S.; Sakagami, M.; Hirano, M.; Shiba, M.

    2001-01-01

    A framework of risk-informed seismic design and safety evaluation of nuclear power plants is under consideration in Japan so as to utilize the progress in the seismic probabilistic safety assessment methodology. Issues resolved to introduce this framework are discussed after the concept, evaluation process and characteristics of the framework are described. (author)

  7. Risk assessment of medical devices: evaluation of microbiological and toxicological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorpema, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Safety assessment of medical devices includes sterilization and biological evaluation or biocompatability testing. Sterilization by ETO gas is criticised for their carcinogenic potency or even banned. Mutual acceptance of biological evaluation test results is promoted by a laboratory accreditation and qualification program. (Author)

  8. Home safe home: Evaluation of a childhood home safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tanya Charyk; Clark, Andrew; Gilliland, Jason; Miller, Michael R; Edwards, Jane; Haidar, Tania; Batey, Brandon; Vogt, Kelly N; Parry, Neil G; Fraser, Douglas D; Merritt, Neil

    2016-09-01

    The London Health Sciences Centre Home Safety Program (HSP) provides safety devices, education, a safety video, and home safety checklist to all first-time parents for the reduction of childhood home injuries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the HSP for the prevention of home injuries in children up to 2 years of age. A program evaluation was performed with follow-up survey, along with an interrupted time series analysis of emergency department (ED) visits for home injuries 5 years before (2007-2013) and 2 years after (2013-2015) implementation. Spatial analysis of ED visits was undertaken to assess differences in home injury rates by dissemination areas controlling differences in socioeconomic status (i.e., income, education, and lone-parent status) at the neighborhood level. A total of 3,458 first-time parents participated in the HSP (a 74% compliance rate). Of these, 20% (n = 696) of parents responded to our questionnaire, with 94% reporting the program to be useful (median, 6; interquartile range, 2 on a 7-point Likert scale) and 81% learning new strategies for preventing home injuries. The median age of the respondent's babies were 12 months (interquartile range, 1). The home safety check list was used by 87% of respondents to identify hazards in their home, with 95% taking action to minimize the risk. The time series analysis demonstrated a significant decline in ED visits for home injuries in toddlers younger than2 years of age after HSP implementation. The declines in ED visits for home injuries remained significant over and above each socioeconomic status covariate. Removing hazards, supervision, and installing safety devices are key facilitators in the reduction of home injuries. Parents found the HSP useful to identify hazards, learn new strategies, build confidence, and provide safety products. Initial finding suggests that the program is effective in reducing home injuries in children up to 2 years of age. Therapeutic/care management study

  9. Safety assurance logic techniques for evaluation of accident prevention and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.; Hagan, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Safety assurance methods have been developed and applied in reactor safety assessments of FFTF. These methods promote visibility of the total safety provided by the plant, both in prevention of off-normal or accident conditions as well as provision of various features which terminate conditions within acceptable bounds if such conditions should occur. One of the primary techniques applied in safety assurance is the development of safety assurance diagrams. These diagrams explicitly identify the multiple lines of defense which prevent accident progression. The diagrams graphically demonstrate the defense-in-depth provided by the plant for each postulated occurrence. Lines of defense are shown against ever having an occurrence in the first place; thus giving appropriate emphasis on accident prevention, and visibility to the designer's role in promoting this level of safety. These diagrams, or accident process trees, also show graphically the various paths of postulated accident progression to their logical termination. Evaluation of the importance and strength of each line-of-defense assures fulfillment of the safety objectives of the overall plant system

  10. Embedding technology into inter-professional best practices in home safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Suzanne Perea; Pickens, Noralyn Davel

    2017-08-01

    To explore inter-professional home evaluators' perspectives and needs for building useful and acceptable decision-support tools for the field of home modifications. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of home modification professionals from different regions of the United States. The interview transcripts were analyzed with a qualitative, descriptive, perspective approach. Technology supports current best practice and has potential to inform decision making through features that could enhance home evaluation processes, quality, efficiency and inter-professional communication. Technological advances with app design have created numerous opportunities for the field of home modifications. Integrating technology and inter-professional best practices will improve home safety evaluation and intervention development to meet client-centred and societal needs. Implications for rehabilitation Understanding home evaluators technology needs for home safety evaluations contributes to the development of app-based assessments. Integrating inter-professional perspectives of best practice and technological needs in an app for home assessments improves processes. Novice and expert home evaluators would benefit from decision support systems embedded in app-based assessments. Adoption of app-based assessment would improve efficiency while remaining client-centred.

  11. Evaluating the Long-Term Safety of a Repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luik, Abe Van

    2002-01-01

    Regulations require that the repository be evaluated for its health and safety effects for 10,000 years for the Site Recommendation process. Regulations also require potential impacts to be evaluated for up to a million years in an Environmental Impact Statement. The Yucca Mountain Project is in the midst of the Site Recommendation process. The Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) that supports the Site Recommendation evaluated safety for these required periods of time. Results showed it likely that a repository at this site could meet the licensing requirements promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The TSPA is the tool that integrates the results of many years of scientific investigations with design information to allow evaluations of potential far-future impacts of building a Yucca Mountain repository. Knowledge created in several branches of physics is part of the scientific basis of the TSPA that supports the Site Recommendation process.

  12. Safety evaluation for packaging CPC metal boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1995-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides authorization for the use of Container Products Corporation (CPC) metal boxes, as described in this document, for the interarea shipment of radioactive contaminated equipment and debris for storage in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or T Plant located in the 200 West Area. Authorization is granted until November 30, 1995. The CPC boxes included in this SEP were originally procured as US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A Type A boxes. A review of the documentation provided by the manufacturer revealed the documentation did not adequately demonstrate compliance to the 4 ft drop test requirement of 49 CFR 173.465(c). Preparation of a SEP is necessary to document the equivalent safety of the onsite shipment in lieu of meeting DOT packaging requirements until adequate documentation is received. The equivalent safety of the shipment is based on the fact that the radioactive contents consist of contaminated equipment and debris which are not dispersible. Each piece is wrapped in two layers of no less than 4 mil plastic prior to being placed in the box which has an additional 10 mil liner. Pointed objects and sharp edges are padded to prevent puncture of the plastic liner and wrapping

  13. Use of the event tree method for evaluate the safety of radioactive facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, A.; Cornejo D, N.; Callis F, E.

    2006-01-01

    The work shows the validity of the use of Trees of Events like a quantitative method appropriate to carry out evaluations of radiological safety. Its were took like base the evaluations of safety of five Radiotherapy Departments, carried out in the mark of the process of authorization of these facilities. The risk values were obtained by means of the combination of the probabilities of occurrence of the events with its consequences. The use of the method allowed to suggest improvements to the existent safety systems, as well as to confirm that the current regulator requirements for this type of facilities to lead to practices with acceptable risk levels. (Author)

  14. Technical guidelines for the seismic safety re-evaluation at Eastern European NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, A.R.; Guerpinar, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes one of the outcomes of the Engineering Safety Review Services (ESRS) that the IAEA provides as an element of the Agency's national, regional and interregional technical assistance and co-operation programmes and other extrabudgetary programmes to assess the safety of nuclear facilities. This refers to the establishment of detailed guidelines for conducting the seismic safety re-evaluation of existing nuclear power plants in Eastern European countries in line with updated criteria and current international practice. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the patient safety Leadership Walkabout programme of a hospital in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Ng, Benjamin Boon Lui; Ng, Kok Mun

    2014-02-01

    The Patient Safety Leadership Walkabout (PSLWA) programme is a commonly employed tool in the West, in which senior leaders visit sites within the hospital that are involved in patient care to talk to healthcare staff about patient safety issues. As there is a lack of perspective regarding PSLWA in Asia, we carried out an evaluation of its effectiveness in improving the patient safety culture in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. A mixed methods analysis approach was used to review and evaluate all documents, protocols, meeting minutes, post-walkabout surveys, action plans and verbal feedback pertaining to the walkabouts conducted from January 2005 to October 2012. A total of 321 patient safety issues were identified during the study period. Of these, 308 (96.0%) issues were resolved as of November 2012. Among the various categories of issues raised, issues related to work environment were the most common (45.2%). Of all the issues raised during the walkabouts, 72.9% were not identified through other conventional methods of error detection. With respect to the hospital's patient safety culture, 94.8% of the participants reported an increased awareness in patient safety and 90.2% expressed comfort in openly and honestly discussing patient safety issues. PSLWA serves as a good tool to uncover latent errors before actual harm reaches the patient. If properly implemented, it is an effective method for engaging leadership, identifying patient safety issues, and supporting a culture of patient safety in the hospital setting.

  16. Evaluation of a survey tool to measure safety climate in Australian hospital pharmacy staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Chen, Timothy F; Fois, Romano A; Ashcroft, Darren M; Lalor, Daniel J

    Safety climate evaluation is increasingly used by hospitals as part of quality improvement initiatives. Consequently, it is necessary to have validated tools to measure changes. To evaluate the construct validity and internal consistency of a survey tool to measure Australian hospital pharmacy patient safety climate. A 42 item cross-sectional survey was used to evaluate the patient safety climate of 607 Australian hospital pharmacy staff. Survey responses were initially mapped to the factor structure previously identified in European community pharmacy. However, as the data did not adequately fit the community pharmacy model, participants were randomly split into two groups with exploratory factor analysis performed on the first group (n = 302) and confirmatory factor analyses performed on the second group (n = 305). Following exploratory factor analysis (59.3% variance explained) and confirmatory factor analysis, a 6-factor model containing 28 items was obtained with satisfactory model fit (χ 2 (335) = 664.61 p  0.643) and model nesting between the groups (Δχ 2 (22) = 30.87, p = 0.10). Three factors (blame culture, organisational learning and working conditions) were similar to those identified in European community pharmacy and labelled identically. Three additional factors (preoccupation with improvement; comfort to question authority; and safety issues being swept under the carpet) highlight hierarchical issues present in hospital settings. This study has demonstrated the validity of a survey to evaluate patient safety climate of Australian hospital pharmacy staff. Importantly, this validated factor structure may be used to evaluate changes in safety climate over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Monopolar radiofrequency treatment of the eyelids: a safety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesman, Brian S; Pope, Karl

    2007-07-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) energy has been used to successfully accomplish noninvasive skin tightening of the face, abdomen, and extremities. Owing to concerns about injury to the eye itself, monopolar RF treatment of the eyelids has not been feasible. The objective was to evaluate the safety of a novel 0.25-cm(2)"shallow" treatment tip for noninvasive tightening of eyelid skin. This was a tripartite study that began with an animal model to evaluate soft tissue effects and temperature change at the ocular surface. Findings were then extrapolated to ex vivo evaluation of human eyelids and ultimately to an in vivo human eyelid safety study. The animal studies demonstrated that the 0.25-cm(2) treatment tip could be used safely on eyelids in conjunction with appropriate ocular protection. The ex vivo human eyelid studies confirmed that, at typical treatment settings, the shallow treatment tip did not produce frank eyelid injury. The in vivo human studies confirmed that, at the tested settings, the novel treatment tip did not injure the eyelids or eyes. If used properly, the 0.25-cm(2) treatment tip can be safely used on human eyelids.

  18. Safety evaluation of substituted thiophenes used as flavoring ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Samuel M.; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Guengerich, F.P.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Smith, Robert L.; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L.; McGowen, Margaret M.; Valerio, Luis G.; Taylor, Sean V.

    2017-01-01

    This publication is the second in a series by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association summarizing the conclusions of its third systematic re-evaluation of the safety of flavorings previously considered to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of

  19. A Study on the Safety Evaluation of Real-Time Operating System in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Tae; Jeong, Choong Heui; Kim, Dail Il

    2008-01-01

    Along with the digitalisation of the nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system, Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) is being widely used. The RTOS used in nuclear I and C system should satisfy strict performance requirements and resolve various technical issues under complicated conditions. In this regard a careful safety evaluation of RTOS is important for the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this study is to provide a guideline for safety evaluation of RTOS appropriate to the nuclear I and C system. In this paper, we suggest evaluation approach for the RTOS

  20. A Study on the Safety Evaluation of Real-Time Operating System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Tae; Jeong, Choong Heui; Kim, Dail Il [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Along with the digitalisation of the nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system, Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) is being widely used. The RTOS used in nuclear I and C system should satisfy strict performance requirements and resolve various technical issues under complicated conditions. In this regard a careful safety evaluation of RTOS is important for the safety of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this study is to provide a guideline for safety evaluation of RTOS appropriate to the nuclear I and C system. In this paper, we suggest evaluation approach for the RTOS.

  1. Preliminary safety evaluation for CSR1000 with passive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Pan; Gou, Junli; Shan, Jianqiang; Zhang, Bo; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The basic information of a Chinese SCWR concept CSR1000 is introduced. • An innovative passive safety system is proposed for CSR1000. • 6 Transients and 3 accidents are analysed with system code SCTRAN. • The passive safety systems greatly mitigate the consequences of these incidents. • The inherent safety of CSR1000 is enhanced. - Abstract: This paper describes the preliminary safety analysis of the Chinese Supercritical water cooled Reactor (CSR1000), which is proposed by Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC). The two-pass core design applied to CSR1000 decreases the fuel cladding temperature and flattens the power distribution of the core at normal operation condition. Each fuel assembly is made up of four sub-assemblies with downward-flow water rods, which is favorable to the core cooling during abnormal conditions due to the large water inventory of the water rods. Additionally, a passive safety system is proposed for CSR1000 to increase the safety reliability at abnormal conditions. In this paper, accidents of “pump seizure”, “loss of coolant flow accidents (LOFA)”, “core depressurization”, as well as some typical transients are analysed with code SCTRAN, which is a one-dimensional safety analysis code for SCWRs. The results indicate that the maximum cladding surface temperatures (MCST), which is the most important safety criterion, of the both passes in the mentioned incidents are all below the safety criterion by a large margin. The sensitivity analyses of the delay time of RCPs trip in “loss of offsite power” and the delay time of RMT actuation in “loss of coolant flowrate” were also included in this paper. The analyses have shown that the core design of CSR1000 is feasible and the proposed passive safety system is capable of mitigating the consequences of the selected abnormalities

  2. Reload safety evaluation report for Kori nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Moon, Bok Ja; Cho, Byeong Ho; Nam, Kee Il; Kim, Oh Hwan; Chang, Doo Soo; Yoon, Han Young; Kim, Du Ill; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Kori-1, Cycle 13 and demonstrates that the reactor core being composed of various fuel assembly types applied in this evaluation will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 13 core and results are described in this report. (Author)

  3. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1 cycle 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Kim, Yong Rae; Son, Sang Rin; Oh, Dong Seok; Kim, Hong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Yoon, Han Young; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Dong Uk

    1992-12-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Ulchin 1, Cycle 5 and demonstrates that the reactor core being composed of various fuel assembly types applied in this evaluation will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 5 core and results are described in this report. (Author)

  4. Stakeholders' Perspectives About and Priorities for Economic Evaluation of Health and Safety Programs in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; de Boer, Henriette; Macdonald, Sara; Alamgir, Hasanat; Koehoorn, Mieke; Guzman, Jaime

    2016-04-01

    This study identified and prioritized resources and outcomes that should be considered in more comprehensive and scientifically rigorous health and safety economic evaluations according to healthcare sector stakeholders. A literature review and stakeholder interviews identified candidate resources and outcomes and then a Delphi panel ranked them. According to the panel, the top five resources were (a) health and safety staff time; (b) training workers; (c) program planning, promotion, and evaluation costs; (d) equipment purchases and upgrades; and (e) administration costs. The top five outcomes were (a) number of injuries, illnesses, and general sickness absences; (b) safety climate; (c) days lost due to injuries, illnesses, and general sickness absences; (d) job satisfaction and engagement; and (e) quality of care and patient safety. These findings emphasize stakeholders' stated priorities and are useful as a benchmark for assessing the quality of health and safety economic evaluations and the comprehensiveness of these findings. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. GROWTH OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY AND REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford

    2011-09-01

    Since the International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC) 2007, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) have continued to expand their efforts and broaden their scope. Eighteen countries participated on the ICSBEP in 2007. Now, there are 20, with recent contributions from Sweden and Argentina. The IRPhEP has also expanded from eight contributing countries in 2007 to 16 in 2011. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments1' have increased from 442 evaluations (38000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 3955 critical or subcritical configurations to 516 evaluations (nearly 55000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 4405 critical or subcritical configurations in the 2010 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. The contents of the Handbook have also increased from 21 to 24 criticality-alarm-placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and from 20 to 200 configurations categorized as fundamental physics measurements relevant to criticality safety applications. Approximately 25 new evaluations and 150 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments2' have increased from 16 different experimental series that were performed at 12 different reactor facilities to 53 experimental series that were performed at 30 different reactor facilities in the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Considerable effort has also been made to improve the functionality of the searchable database, DICE (Database for the International Criticality Benchmark Evaluation Project) and verify the accuracy of the data contained therein. DICE will be discussed in separate papers at ICNC 2011. The status of the

  6. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments

  7. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  8. Evaluation of safety, an unavoidable requirement in the applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jova Sed, Luis Andres

    2013-01-01

    The safety assessments should be conducted as a means to evaluate compliance with safety requirements (and thus the application of fundamental safety principles) for all facilities and activities in order to determine the measures to be taken to ensure safety. It is an essential tool in decision making. For long time we have linked the safety assessment to nuclear facilities and not to all practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in daily life. However, the main purpose of the safety assessment is to determine if it has reached an appropriate level of safety for an installation or activity and if it has fulfilled the objectives of safety and basic safety criteria set by the designer, operating organization and the regulatory body under the protection and safety requirements set out in the International Basic safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. This paper presents some criteria and personal experiences with the new international recommendations on this subject and its practical application in the region and demonstrates the importance of this requirement. Reflects the need to train personnel of the operator and the regulatory body in the proportional application of this requirement in practice with ionizing radiation

  9. The role of the regulator in promoting and evaluating safety culture. Operating experience feedback programme approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Promoting and Evaluating Safety Culture (S.C.) in Operating Organizations must be one of the main Nuclear Regulator goals to achieve. This can be possible only if each and every one of the regulatory activities inherently involves S.C. It can be seen throughout attitudes, values, uses and practices in both individuals and the whole regulatory organization. One among all the regulatory tools commonly used by regulators to promote and evaluate the commitment of the licensees with safety culture as a whole involves organizational factors and particular attention is directed to the operating organization. This entailed a wide range of activities, including all those related with management of safety performance. Operating Experience Feedback Programme as a tool to enhance safety operation is particularly useful for regulators in the evaluation of the role of S.C. in operating organization. Safety Culture is recognized as a subset of the wider Organizational Culture. Practices that improve organizational effectiveness can also contribute to enhance safety. An effective event investigation methodology is a specific practice, which contributes to a healthy Safety Culture. (author)

  10. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment, Systematic Evaluation Program: Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Docket No. 50-29)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared Supplement 1 to the final Integrated Plant Safety Assessment Report (IPSAR) (NUREG-0825), under the scope of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP), for Yankee Atomic Electric Company's Yankee Nuclear Power Station located in Rowe, Massachusetts. The SEP was initiated by the NRC to review the design of older operating nuclear power plants to reconfirm and document their safety. This report documents the review completed under the SEP for those issues that required refined engineering evaluations or the continuation of ongoing evaluations after the Final IPSAR for the Yankee plant was issued. The review has provided for (1) an assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on selected safety issues and those that existed when Yankee was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. 2 tabs

  11. Safety of Research Reactors. Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Requirements publication is to provide a basis for safety and a basis for safety assessment for all stages in the lifetime of a research reactor. Another objective is to establish requirements on aspects relating to regulatory control, the management of safety, site evaluation, design, operation and decommissioning. Technical and administrative requirements for the safety of research reactors are established in accordance with these objectives. This Safety Requirements publication is intended for use by organizations engaged in the site evaluation, design, manufacturing, construction, operation and decommissioning of research reactors as well as by regulatory bodies

  12. A Public-Private Consortium Advances Cardiac Safety Evaluation: Achievements of the HESI Cardiac Safety Technical Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evaluation of cardiovascular side-effects is a critical element in the development of all new drugs and chemicals. Cardiac safety issues have been and continue to be a major cause of attrition and withdrawal due to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in pharmaceutical drug developm...

  13. Evaluation of pesticide safety measures adopted by potato farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to increase productivity and quality, farmers use pesticides and other agrochemicals. These pesticides if improperly handled impact negatively on the health of the users. The objective of the study was to evaluate the pesticide safety measures adopted by potato farmers in Chebiemit Division of Elgeyo/Marakwet ...

  14. Meat Safety: An Evaluation of Portuguese Butcher Shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca; Costa, José M Correia da; Gomes-Neves, Eduarda

    2017-07-01

    Butcher shops are end points in the meat chain, and they can have a determinant role in cross-contamination control. This study aims to determine whether Portuguese butcher shops comply with European and Portuguese law regarding the sale of fresh meat and meat products. Butcher shops (n = 73) were assessed for meat handler and facility hygiene and for maintenance of the premises. Handlers (n = 88) were given a questionnaire composed of questions about knowledge and practice, including hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and good practice in food industry, to assess their knowledge of and compliance with food safety practices. A checklist of 27 items was used to evaluate facility and meat handler hygiene and butcher shop maintenance. Our results revealed some lack of compliance in all the areas evaluated. The mean knowledge and practice score among the operators was 68.0%, and the mean "visual inspection" score for the butcher shops was 64.0%. Severe deficiencies were observed in the mandatory implementation of HACCP principles in this type of small food business. These findings indicate a need to modify training to enhance compliance with European food safety regulations at this step of the meat chain.

  15. Development of the safety evaluation system in the respects of organizational factors and workers' consciousness. Pt. 1. Study of validities of functions for necessary evaluation and results obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Tsuge, Tadafumi; Hasegawa, Naoko; Hirose, Ayako; Sasou, Kunihide

    2002-01-01

    CRIEPI decided to develop the safety evaluation system to investigate the safety level of the industrial sites due to questionnaires of organizational climate, safety managements, and workers' safety consciousness to workers. This report describes the questionnaire survey to apply to the domestic nuclear power plant for using obtained results as a fundamental data in order to construct the safety evaluation system. This system will be used for promoting safety culture in organizations of nuclear power plants. The questionnaire survey was conducted to 14 nuclear power stations for understanding the present status relating to safety issues. This questionnaire involves 122 items classified into following three categories: (1) safety awareness and behavior of plant personnel; (2) safety management; (3) organizational climate, based on the model considering contributing factor groups to safety culture. Obtained results were analyzed by statistical method to prepare functions of evaluation. Additionally, by applying a multivariate analysis, it was possible to extract several crucial factors influencing safety performance and to find a comprehensive safety indicator representing total organizational safety level. Significant relations were identified between accident rates (both labor accidents and facility failures) and above comprehensive safety indicator. Next, 122 questionnaire items were classified into 20 major safety factors to grasp the safety profiles of each site. This profile is considered as indicating the features of each site and also indicating the direction of progress for improvement of safety situation in the site. These findings can be reflected in developing the safety evaluation system, by confirming the validity of the evaluation method and giving specific functions. (author)

  16. Safety Evaluation of Kartini Reactor Based on Instrumentation System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjipta Suhaemi; Djen Djen Dj; Itjeu K; Johnny S; Setyono

    2003-01-01

    The safety of Kartini reactor has been evaluated based on instrumentation system aspect. The Kartini reactor is designed by BATAN. Design power of the reactor is 250 kW, but it is currently operated at 100 kW. Instrumentation and control system function is to monitor and control the reactor operation. Instrumentation and control system consists of safety system, start-up and automatic power control, and process information system. The linear power channel and logarithmic power channel are used for measuring power. There are 3 types of control rod for controlling the power, i.e. safety rod, shim rod, and regulating rod. The trip and interlock system are used for safety. There are instrumentation equipment used for measuring radiation exposure, flow rate, temperature and conductivity of fluid The system of Kartini reactor has been developed by introducing a process information system, start-up system, and automatic power control. It is concluded that the instrumentation of Kartini reactor has followed the requirement and standard of IAEA. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the Community's nuclear reactor safety research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, A.; Goedkoop, J.A.; Jaumotte, A.; Malhouitre, G.; Tomkins, B.; Zorzoli, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of the 1980-85 CEC reactor safety programme prepared, at the invitation of the Commission, by a panel of six independent experts by means of examining the relevant document and by holding hearings with the responsible CEC staff. It contains the recommendations made by the panel on the following topics: the need for the JRC to continue to make its competence in the reactor safety field available to the Community; the importance of continuity in the JRC and shared-cost action programmes; the difficulty of developing reactor safety research programmes which satisfy the needs of users with diverse needs; the monitoring of the utilization of the research results; the maintenance of the JRC computer codes used by the Member States; the spin-off from research results being made available to other industrial sectors; the continued contact between the JRC researchers and the national experts; the coordination of LWR safety research with that of the Member States; and, the JRC work on fast breeders to be planned with regard to the R and D programmes of the Fast Reactor European Consortium

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation for the spent nuclear fuel project`s cold vacuum drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) considers only the Cold Vacuum Drying System (CVDS) facility and its mission as it relates to the integrated process strategy (WHC 1995). The purpose of the PSE is to identify those CBDS design functions that may require safety- class and safety-significant accident prevention and mitigation features.

  19. Evaluation of Influence Factors within Implementing of Nuclear Safety Culture in Embarking Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, J.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the implementation nuclear safety culture at BATAN has been performed. BATAN is Indonesia’s national nuclear energy agency. Nowadays, BATAN is planning to develop an experimental power reactor. To implement the nuclear safety culture BATAN has issued BATAN chairman regulation (Perka BATAN 200). Perka BATAN is the reference for individuals and organizations to implement nuclear safety culture which includes basic principles, mechanisms, assessment, as well as the implementation of the application of safety culture. It covers the establishment of safety policies, program development, program implementation, development and measurement of safety culture. Each facilities within BATAN is expected to well implement a safety culture. The implementation of safety culture is developed by considering the characteristics, attributes and indicators. The characteristics, attributes and indicators referenced are elaborated from the IAEA. The activities to strengthen safety culture are monthly workshop with participants is head of every facilities, safety leadership training and workshop for safety division manager in every facilities. It is also issued a handbook of safety that is distributed to all employees BATAN.

  20. Unreviewed safety question evaluation of 100 K West fuel canister gas and liquid sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for answers to an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) safety evaluation for the gas and liquid sampling activities associated with the fuel characterization program at the 100 K West (KW) fuel storage basin. The scope of this safety evaluation is limited to the movement of canisters between the main storage basin, weasel pit, and south loadout pit transfer channel (also known as the decapping station); gas and liquid sampling of fuel canisters in the weasel pit; mobile laboratory preliminary sample analysis in or near the 105 KW basin building; and the placement of sample containers in an approved shipping container. It was concluded that the activities and potential accident consequences associated with the gas and liquid sampling of 100 KW fuel canisters are bounded by the current safety basis documents and do not constitute an Unreviewed Safety Question

  1. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the Make Safe Happen® app-a mobile technology-based safety behavior change intervention for increasing parents' safety knowledge and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Clark, Roxanne; McAdams, Rebecca; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Klein, Elizabeth G; Keim, Sarah A; Kristel, Orie; Szymanski, Alison; Cotton, Christopher G; Shields, Wendy C

    2018-03-12

    Many unintentional injuries that occur in and around the home can be prevented through the use of safety equipment and by consistently following existing safety recommendations. Unfortunately, uptake of these safety behaviors is unacceptably low. This paper describes the design of the Make Safe Happen® smartphone application evaluation study, which aims to evaluate a mobile technology-based safety behavior change intervention on parents' safety knowledge and actions. Make Safe Happen® app evaluation study is a randomized controlled trial. Participants will be parents of children aged 0-12 years who are recruited from national consumer online survey panels. Parents will complete a pretest survey, and will be randomized to receive the Make Safe Happen® app or a non-injury-related app, and then complete a posttest follow-up survey after 1 week. Primary outcomes are: (1) safety knowledge; (2) safety behaviors; (3) safety device acquisition and use, and (4) behavioral intention to take safety actions. Anticipated study results are presented. Wide-reaching interventions, to reach substantial parent and caregiver audiences, to effectively reduce childhood injuries are needed. This study will contribute to the evidence-base about how to increase safety knowledge and actions to prevent home-related injuries in children. NCT02751203 ; Pre-results.

  2. Novel modular natural circulation BWR design and safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Shi, Shanbin; Yang, Won Sik; Wu, Zeyun; Rassame, Somboon; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduction of BWR-type natural circulation small modular reactor preliminary design (NMR-50). • Design of long fuel cycle length for the NMR-50. • Design of double passive safety systems for the NMR-50. • RELAP5 analyses of design basis accidents for the NMR-50. - Abstract: The Purdue NMR (Novel Modular Reactor) represents a BWR-type small modular reactor with a significantly reduced reactor pressure vessel (RPV) height. Specifically, it has one third the height of a conventional BWR RPV with an electrical output of 50 MWe. The preliminary design of the NMR-50 including reactor, fuel cycle, and safety systems is described and discussed. The improved neutronics design of the NMR-50 extends the fuel cycle length up to 10 years. The NMR-50 is designed with double passive engineering safety system, which is intended to withstand a prolonged station black out with loss of ultimate heat sink accident such as experienced at Fukushima. In order to evaluate the safety features of the NMR-50, two representative design basis accidents, i.e. main steam line break (MSLB) and bottom drain line break (BDLB), are simulated by using the best-estimate thermal–hydraulic code RELAP5. The RPV water inventory, containment pressure, and the performance of engineering safety systems are investigated for about 33 h after the initiation of the accidents

  3. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... of these changes in risk factors on accident occurrence cannot be predicted. On the whole, the research that has been reported so far regarding road safety effects of porous asphalt is inconclusive. The studies are not of high quality and the findings are inconsistent.......This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...

  4. Preliminary safety evaluation, based on initial site investigation data. Planning document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, Allan

    2002-12-01

    This report is a planning document for the preliminary safety evaluations (PSE) to be carried out at the end of the initial stage of SKBs ongoing site investigations for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The main purposes of the evaluations are to determine whether earlier judgements of the suitability of the candidate area for a deep repository with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of borehole data and to provide feed-back to continued site investigations and site specific repository design. The preliminary safety evaluations will be carried out by a safety assessment group, based on a site model, being part of a site description, provided by a site modelling group and a repository layout within that model suggested by a repository engineering group. The site model contains the geometric features of the site as well as properties of the host rock. Several alternative interpretations of the site data will likely be suggested. Also the biosphere is included in the site model. A first task for the PSE will be to compare the rock properties described in the site model to previously established criteria for a suitable host rock. This report gives an example of such a comparison. In order to provide more detailed feedback, a number of thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical analyses of the site will also be included in the evaluation. The selection of analyses is derived from the set of geosphere and biosphere analyses preliminarily planned for the comprehensive safety assessment named SR-SITE, which will be based on a complete site investigation. The selection is dictated primarily by the expected feedback to continued site investigations and by the availability of data after the PSE. The repository engineering group will consider several safety related factors in suggesting a repository layout: Thermal calculations will be made to determine a minimum distance between canisters avoiding canister surface temperatures above 100 deg C

  5. Quantitative dynamic reliability evaluation of AP1000 passive safety systems by using FMEA and GO-FLOW methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim Muhammad; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Yang Ming

    2014-01-01

    The passive safety systems utilized in advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) design such as AP1000 should be more reliable than that of active safety systems of conventional PWR by less possible opportunities of hardware failures and human errors (less human intervention). The objectives of present study are to evaluate the dynamic reliability of AP1000 plant in order to check the effectiveness of passive safety systems by comparing the reliability-related issues with that of active safety systems in the event of the big accidents. How should the dynamic reliability of passive safety systems properly evaluated? And then what will be the comparison of reliability results of AP1000 passive safety systems with the active safety systems of conventional PWR. For this purpose, a single loop model of AP1000 passive core cooling system (PXS) and passive containment cooling system (PCCS) are assumed separately for quantitative reliability evaluation. The transient behaviors of these passive safety systems are taken under the large break loss-of-coolant accident in the cold leg. The analysis is made by utilizing the qualitative method failure mode and effect analysis in order to identify the potential failure mode and success-oriented reliability analysis tool called GO-FLOW for quantitative reliability evaluation. The GO-FLOW analysis has been conducted separately for PXS and PCCS systems under the same accident. The analysis results show that reliability of AP1000 passive safety systems (PXS and PCCS) is increased due to redundancies and diversity of passive safety subsystems and components, and four stages automatic depressurization system is the key subsystem for successful actuation of PXS and PCCS system. The reliability results of PCCS system of AP1000 are more reliable than that of the containment spray system of conventional PWR. And also GO-FLOW method can be utilized for reliability evaluation of passive safety systems. (author)

  6. Objectives of safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1980-01-01

    An examination of the safety aspects of exported nuclear power plants demonstrates that additional and somewhat special considerations exist for these plants. In view of this and the generally small regulatory staffs of importing coutnries, suggestions are given for measures which should be taken by various organizations involved in the export and import of nuclear power facilities to raise the level of the very essential safety assessment. (orig.)

  7. External human induced events in site evaluation for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance for the examination of the region considered for site evaluation for a plant in order to identity hazardous phenomena associated with human induced events initiated by sources external to the plant. In some cases it also presents preliminary guidance for deriving values of relevant parameters for the design basis. This Safety Guide is also applicable for periodic site evaluation and site evaluation following a major human induced event, and for the design and operation of the site's environmental monitoring system. Site evaluation includes site characterization. Consideration of external events that could lead to a degradation of the safety features of the plant and cause a release of radioactive material from the plant and/or affect the dispersion of such material in the environment. And consideration of population issues and access issues significant to safety (such as the feasibility of evacuation, the population distribution and the location of resources). The process of site evaluation continues throughout the lifetime of the facility, from siting to design, construction, operation and decommissioning. The external human induced events considered in this Safety Guide are all of accidental origin. Considerations relating to the physical protection of the plant against wilful actions by third parties are outside its scope. However, the methods described herein may also have some application for the purposes of such physical protection. The present Safety Guide may also be used for events that may originate within the boundaries of the site, but from sources which are not directly involved in the operational states of the nuclear power plant units, such as fuel depots or areas for the storage of hazardous materials for the construction of other facilities at the same site. Special consideration should be given to the hazardous material handled during the construction, operation and

  8. Evaluation of intelligent transport systems impact on school transport safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated system of safe transport of children to school using Intelligent Transport Systems was developed and implemented in four locations across Europe under the Safeway2School (SW2S project, funded by the EU. The SW2S system evaluation included speed measurements and an eye-tracking experiment carried out among drivers who used the school bus route, where selected elements of the system were tested. The subject of the evaluation were the following system elements: pedestrian safety system at the bus stop (Intelligent Bus Stop and tags for children, Driver Support System, applications for parents’ and students’ mobile phones, bus stop inventory tool and data server. A new sign designed for buses and bus stops to inform about child transportation/children waiting at the bus stop was added to the system. Training schemes for system users were also provided. The article presents evaluation results of the impact of selected elements of the SW2S system on school transport safety in Poland.

  9. Considerations for the nonclinical safety evaluation of antibody drug conjugates for oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stanley A; Andrews, Paul A; Blanset, Diann; Flagella, Kelly M; Gorovits, Boris; Lynch, Carmel M; Martin, Pauline L; Kramer-Stickland, Kimberly; Thibault, Stephane; Warner, Garvin

    2013-12-01

    Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) include monoclonal antibodies that are linked to cytotoxic small molecules. A number of these agents are currently being developed as anti-cancer agents designed to improve the therapeutic index of the cytotoxin (i.e., cytotoxic small molecule or cytotoxic agent) by specifically delivering it to tumor cells. This paper presents primary considerations for the nonclinical safety evaluation of ADCs and includes strategies for the evaluation of the entire ADC or the various individual components (i.e., antibody, linker or the cytotoxin). Considerations are presented on how to design a nonclinical safety assessment program to identify the on- and off-target toxicities to enable first-in-human (FIH) studies. Specific discussions are also included that provide details as to the need and how to conduct the studies for evaluating ADCs in genetic toxicology, tissue cross-reactivity, safety pharmacology, carcinogenicity, developmental and reproductive toxicology, biotransformation, toxicokinetic monitoring, bioanalytical assays, immunogenicity testing, test article stability and the selection of the FIH dose. Given the complexity of these molecules and our evolving understanding of their properties, there is no single all-encompassing nonclinical strategy. Instead, each ADC should be evaluated on a case-by-case scientifically-based approach that is consistent with ICH and animal research guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Safety evaluation of niuhuang jiedu tablet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Ling; Miao, Jia-wei; Li, Jing; Sung, An-Sheng; Liu, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Realgar-containing Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJD) has been applied in clinic for more than 800 years. However, because realgar contains arsenic (As), it has aroused wide concerns and controversies both at home and abroad. Currently, there are two misunderstandings about realgar-containing Chinese patent medicines. First, some people exaggerated realgar's toxicity as that of arsenic. Second, they recommended to remove realgar from traditional Chinese medicine compounds. In this paper, the authors summarized the advance in studies on NHJD, and proposed different opinions: (1) It is inappropriate to take total As as the index in safety evaluation of NHJD. (2) The toxicity of NHJD is dependent on the dose and duration of administration. (3) Realgar is an active ingredient of NHJD, and shall be deeply studied. Classic realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions, such as Niuhuang Jiedu tablet, shall be evaluated with rigorous modern scientific basis, with the aim to guide rational and safe application.

  11. 21 CFR 170.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 170.20 Section 170.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 170.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  12. The art of appropriate evaluation : a guide for highway safety program managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The guide, updated from its original release in 1999, is intended for project managers who will oversee the evaluation of traffic safety programs. It describes the benefits of evaluation and provides an overview of the steps involved. The guide inclu...

  13. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does external evaluation of laboratories improve patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory accreditation and External Quality Assessment (also called proficiency testing) are mainstays of laboratory quality assessment and performance. Both practices are associated with examples of improved laboratory performance. The relationship between laboratory performance and improved patient safety is more difficult to assess because of the many variables that are involved with patient outcome. Despite this difficulty, the argument to continue external evaluation of laboratories is too compelling to consider the alternative.

  15. Evaluation of safety parameter display concepts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Wise, J.A.; Hanes, L.F.

    1982-02-01

    New control room equipment designed to improve operator performance must be evaluated before adoption and installation. Two experimental concept for a Safety Parameters Display System (SPDS) were evaluated to assess benefits and potential problems associated with the SPDS concept and its integration into control room operations. Participants were licensed utility operators undergoing retraining on a nuclear power plant simulator. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed on crew response to seven simulated accident conditions. Data on operator decisions and actions have been organized into timelines. Analysis of the timelines and observations collected during testing provide important insights about the potential impact of the SPDS concept on control room operations

  16. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  17. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Standard Criticality Safety Requirements #1-520 g Operations in PF-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Alan Joseph Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Guidance has been requested from the Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) regarding processes that involve 520 grams of fissionable material or less. This Level-3 evaluation was conducted and documented in accordance with NCS-AP-004 (Ref. 1), formerly NCS-GUIDE-01. This evaluation is being written as a generic evaluation for all operations that will be able to operate using a 520-gram mass limit. Implementation for specific operations will be performed using a Level 1 CSED, which will confirm and document that this CSED can be used for the specific operation as discussed in NCS-MEMO-17-007 (Ref. 2). This Level 3 CSED updates and supersedes the analysis performed in NCS-TECH-14-014 (Ref. 3).

  18. 21 CFR 570.20 - General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food additives. 570.20 Section 570.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES Food Additive Safety § 570.20 General principles for evaluating the safety of food additives. (a) In reaching a...

  19. Safety Evaluation for Packaging 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides analysis and considered necessary to approve a one-time transfer of the 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump (HMMP). This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the HMMP in a new shipping container will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting US Department of Transportation (DOT)/US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. This fulfills onsite, transportation requirements implemented by WHC-CM-2-14

  20. Safety Evaluation for Packaging 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1994-10-05

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides analysis and considered necessary to approve a one-time transfer of the 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump (HMMP). This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the HMMP in a new shipping container will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting US Department of Transportation (DOT)/US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. This fulfills onsite, transportation requirements implemented by WHC-CM-2-14.

  1. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) plutonium recycle test reactor graphite cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Graphite Cask meets the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B, fissile, non-highway route controlled quantities of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The scope of this SEP includes risk, shieldling, criticality, and.tiedown analyses to demonstrate that onsite transportation safety requirements are satisfied. This SEP also establishes operational and maintenance guidelines to ensure that transport of the PRTR Graphite Cask is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

  2. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) plutonium recycle test reactor graphite cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Graphite Cask meets the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B, fissile, non-highway route controlled quantities of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The scope of this SEP includes risk, shieldling, criticality, and.tiedown analyses to demonstrate that onsite transportation safety requirements are satisfied. This SEP also establishes operational and maintenance guidelines to ensure that transport of the PRTR Graphite Cask is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required

  3. [Evaluating training programs on occupational health and safety: questionnaire development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Mian-Zhen

    2006-03-01

    To develop a questionnaire to evaluate the quality of training programs on occupational health and safety. A questionnaire comprising five subscales and 21 items was developed. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was tested. Final validation of the questionnaire was undertaken in 700 workers in an oil refining company. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the five subscales ranged from 0.6194 to 0.6611. The subscale-scale Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.568 to 0.834 . The theta coefficients of the five subscales were greater than 0.7. The factor loadings of the five subscales in the principal component analysis ranged from 0.731 to 0.855. Use of the questionnaire in the 700 workers produced a good discriminability, with excellent, good, fair and poor comprising 22.2%, 31.2%, 32.4% and 14.1 respectively. Given the fact that 18.7% of workers had never been trained and 29.7% of workers got one-off training only, the training program scored an average of 57.2. The questionnaire is suitable to be used in evaluating the quality of training programs on occupational health and safety. The oil refining company needs to improve training for their workers on occupational health and safety.

  4. A progressive methodology for seismic safety evaluation of gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghrib, F.; Leger, P.; Tinawi, R.; Lupien, R.; Veilleux, M.

    1995-01-01

    A progressive methodology for the seismic safety evaluation of existing concrete gravity dams was described. The methodology was based on five structural analysis levels with increasing complexity to represent inertia forces, dam-foundation and dam-interaction mechanisms, as well as concrete cracking. The five levels were (1) preliminary screening, (2) pseudo-static method, (3) pseudo-dynamic method, (4) linear time history analysis, and (5) non-linear history analysis. The first four levels of analysis were applied for the seismic safety evaluation of Paugan gravity dam (Quebec). Results showed that internal forces from pseudo-dynamic, response spectra and transient finite element analyses could be used to interpret the dynamic stability of dams from familiar strength-based criteria. However, as soon as the base was cracked, the seismically induced forces were modified, and level IV analyses proved more suitable to handle rationally these complexities. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. Insights from the U.S. department of Energy plant safety evaluation program of VVER and RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, M.C.; Binder, J.L.; Pasedag, W.F.

    2001-01-01

    Throughout the years 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy has worked build capability in countries of the former Soviet Union to assess the safety of their VVER and RBMK reactors. Through this Plant Safety Evaluation Program, deterministic and probabilistic analyses have been used to provide a documented plant risk profile to support safe plant operation and to set priorities for safety upgrades. Work has been sponsored at thirteen nuclear power plant sites in eight countries. The Plant Safety Evaluation Program has resulted in immediate and long-term safety benefits for the Soviet-designed nuclear plants. (author)

  6. Drug safety evaluation of defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Paul G; Corbacioglu, Selim; Ho, Vincent Trien-Vinh; Kernan, Nancy A; Lehmann, Leslie; Maguire, Craig; Maglio, Michelle; Hoyle, Margaret; Sardella, Marco; Giralt, Sergio; Holler, Ernst; Carreras, Enric; Niederwieser, Dietger; Soiffer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also known as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a potentially life-threatening complication of chemotherapeutic conditioning used in preparation for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT). Defibrotide (DF) has been shown in Phase II and III trials to improve complete response in patients with severe VOD (sVOD). None of the articles, to date, provide a comprehensive review of the safety of DF in VOD and/or a range of other conditions. This article reviews current clinical findings on DF, primarily in terms of safety for use in treatment and prophylaxis of VOD, and relevant safety data for its use in other diseases. The literature review was conducted using a PubMed search with the fixed term 'defibrotide' in combination with ≥ 1 of 'safety', 'veno-occlusive disease' (with and without 'treatment', 'prevention'), 'oncology', 'myeloma', 'microangiopathy', 'anti-thrombotic' and 'peripheral vascular disorder'. Related articles from the EBMT and ASH conference websites were also included. DF was well tolerated in majority of the studies. The safety profile of DF is largely favourable with toxicities comparable to control populations in the setting of SCT complicated by sVOD.

  7. Problem of evaluating the safety of an explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Some general considerations on the problem of evaluating the safety of an explosive lead to the reasons why the much-criticized drop-weight impact machine remains an important tool in most explosive research and development laboratories. Problems related to the design, calibration, and use of such machines, and certain misconceptions concerning the interpretation of the test data, are discussed. The results of an unsuccessful attempt to construct a more comprehensive hazards scale also are described

  8. An evaluation of safety-critical Java on a Java processor

    OpenAIRE

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The safety-critical Java (SCJ) specification provides a restricted set of the Java language intended for applications that require certification. In order to test the specification, implementations are emerging and the need to evaluate those implementations in a systematic way is becoming important. In this paper we evaluate our SCJ implementation which is based on the Java Optimized Processor JOP and we measure different performance and timeliness criteria relevant to hard real-time systems....

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of a logger safety training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jennifer L; Grushecky, Shawn T

    2006-01-01

    Logger safety training programs are rarely, if ever, evaluated as to their effectiveness in reducing injuries. Workers' compensation claim rates were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a logger safety training program, the West Virginia Loggers' Safety Initiative (LSI). There was no claim rate decline detected in the majority (67%) of companies that participated in all 4 years of the LSI. Furthermore, their rate did not differ from the rest of the WV logging industry that did not participate in the LSI. Worker turnover was significantly related to claim rates; companies with higher turnover of employees had higher claim rates. Companies using feller bunchers to harvest trees at least part of the time had a significantly lower claim rate than companies not using them. Companies that had more inspections per year had lower claim rates. High injury rates persist even in companies that receive safety training; high employee turnover may affect the efficacy of training programs. The logging industry should be encouraged to facilitate the mechanization of logging tasks, to address barriers to employee retention, and to increase the number of in-the-field performance monitoring inspections. Impact on industry There are many states whose logger safety programs include only about 4-8 hours of safe work practices training. These states may look to West Virginia's expanded training program (the LSI) as a model for their own programs. However, the LSI training may not be reaching loggers due to the delay in administering training to new employees and high levels of employee turnover. Regardless of training status, loggers' claim rates decline significantly the longer they work for a company. It may be that high injury rates in the state of West Virginia would be best addressed by finding ways to encourage and facilitate companies to become more mechanized in their harvesting practices, and to increase employee tenure. Increasing the number of yearly performance inspections

  10. Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Rural Drinking Water Safety Project——A Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaorong

    2017-04-01

    Water is the basic condition for human survival and development. As China is the most populous country, rural drinking water safety problems are most conspicuous. Therefore, the Chinese government keeps increasing investment and has built a large number of rural drinking water safety projects. Scientific evaluation of project performance is of great significance to promote the sustainable operation of the project and the sustainable development of rural economy. Previous studies mainly focus on the economic benefits of the project, while ignoring the fact that the rural drinking water safety project is quasi-public goods, which has economic, social and ecological benefits. This paper establishes a comprehensive evaluation model for rural drinking water safety performance, which adapts the rules of "5E" (economy, efficiency, effectiveness, equity and environment) as the value orientation, and selects a rural drinking water safety project as object in case study at K District, which is in the north of Jiangsu Province, China. The results shows: 1) the comprehensive performance of K project is in good condition; 2) The performance of every part shows that the scores of criteria "efficiency", "environment" and "effect" are higher than the mean performance, while the "economy" is slightly lower than the mean and the "equity" is the lowest. 3) The performance of indicator layer shows that: the planned completion rate of project, the reduction rate of project cost and the penetration rate of water-use population are significantly lower than other indicators. Based on the achievements of previous studies and the characteristics of rural drinking water safety project, this study integrates the evaluation dimensions of equity and environment, which can contribute to a more comprehensive and systematic assessment of project performance and provide empirical data for performance evaluation and management of rural drinking water safety project. Key Words: Rural drinking water

  11. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved

  12. Development of an Evaluation Method for Team Safety Culture Competencies using Social Network Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Min; Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, team safety culture competency of a team was estimated through SNA, as a team safety culture index. To overcome the limit of existing safety culture evaluation methods, the concept of competency and SNA were adopted. To estimate team safety culture competency, we defined the definition, range and goal of team safety culture competencies. Derivation of core team safety culture competencies is performed and its behavioral characteristics were derived for each safety culture competency, from the procedures used in NPPs and existing criteria to assess safety culture. Then observation was chosen as a method to provide the input data for the SNA matrix of team members versus insufficient team safety culture competencies. Then through matrix operation, the matrix was converted into the two meaningful values, which are density of team members and degree centralities of each team safety culture competency. Density of tem members and degree centrality of each team safety culture competency represent the team safety culture index and the priority of team safety culture competency to be improved.

  13. Economics of the specification 6M safety re-evaluation and regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the potential economic impact of the DOT Specification 6M criticality safety re-evaluation and regulatory requirements. The examination was based upon comparative analyses of current authorized fissile material load limits for the 6M, current Federal regulations (and interpretations) limiting the contents of Type B fissile material packages, limiting aggregates of fissile material packages, and recent proposed fissile material mass limits derived from specialized criticality safety analyses of the 6M package. The work examines influences on cost in transportation, handling, and storage of fissile materials. Depending upon facility throughput requirements (and assumed incremental costs of fissile material packaging, storage, and transport), operating, facility storage capacity, and transportation costs can be reduced significantly. As an example of the pricing algorithm application based upon reasonable cost influences, the magnitude of the first year cost reductions could extend beyond four times the cost of the packaging nuclear criticality safety re-evaluation. 1 tab

  14. Evaluation of Four Bedside Test Systems for Card Performance, Handling and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Felix; Picker, Susanne M; Gathof, Birgit S

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: OBJECTIVE: Pretransfusion ABO compatibility testing is a simple and required precaution against ABO-incompatible transfusion, which is one of the greatest threats in transfusion medicine. While distinct agglutination is most important for correct test interpretation, protection against infectious diseases and ease of handling are crucial for accurate test performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate differences in test card design, handling, and user safety. DESIGN: Four different bedside test cards with pre-applied antibodies were evaluated by 100 medical students using packed red blood cells of different ABO blood groups. Criteria of evaluation were: agglutination, labelling, handling, and safety regarding possible user injuries. Criteria were rated subjectively according to German school notes ranging from 1 = very good to 6 = very bad/insufficient. RESULTS: Overall, all cards received very good/good marks. The ABO blood group was identified correctly in all cases. Three cards (no. 1, no. 3, no. 4) received statistically significant (p labelling (1.5 vs. 2.2-2.4), handling (1.9-2.0 vs. 2.5), and user safety (2.5 vs. 3.4). Analysis of card self-explanation revealed no remarkable differences. CONCLUSION: Despite good performance of all card systems tested, the best results when including all criteria evaluated were obtained with card no. 4 (particularly concerning clear agglutination), followed by cards no. 2, no. 1, and no. 3.

  15. Mark I containment, short term program. Safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Presented is a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation addressing the Short Term Program (STP) reassessment of the containment systems of operating Boiler Water Reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark I containment system design. The information presented in this SER establishes the basis for the NRC staff's conclusion that licensed Mark I BWR facilities can continue to operate safely, without undue risk to the health and safety of the public, during an interim period of approximately two years while a methodical, comprehensive Long Term Program (LTP) is conducted. This SER also provides one of the basic foundations for the NRC staff review of the Mark I containment systems for facilities not yet licensed for operation

  16. Development of Nuclear Safety Culture evaluation method for an operation team based on the probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Min; Lee, Seung Min; Yim, Ho Bin; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •We proposed a Probabilistic Safety Culture Healthiness Evaluation Method. •Positive relationship between the ‘success’ states of NSC and performance was shown. •The state probability profile showed a unique ratio regardless of the scenarios. •Cutset analysis provided not only root causes but also the latent causes of failures. •Pro-SCHEMe was found to be applicable to Korea NPPs. -- Abstract: The aim of this study is to propose a new quantitative evaluation method for Nuclear Safety Culture (NSC) in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation teams based on the probabilistic approach. Various NSC evaluation methods have been developed, and the Korea NPP utility company has conducted the NSC assessment according to international practice. However, most of methods are conducted by interviews, observations, and the self-assessment. Consequently, the results are often qualitative, subjective, and mainly dependent on evaluator’s judgement, so the assessment results can be interpreted from different perspectives. To resolve limitations of present evaluation methods, the concept of Safety Culture Healthiness was suggested to produce quantitative results and provide faster evaluation process. This paper presents Probabilistic Safety Culture Healthiness Evaluation Method (Pro-SCHEMe) to generate quantitative inputs for Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) in Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Evaluation items which correspond to a basic event in PSA are derived in the first part of the paper through the literature survey; mostly from nuclear-related organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC), and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Event trees (ETs) and fault trees (FTs) are devised to apply evaluation items to PSA based on the relationships among such items. The Modeling Guidelines are also suggested to classify and calculate NSC characteristics of

  17. A New Method for the Evaluation of Vaccine Safety Based on Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Momose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years, quality control and safety tests have been used to evaluate vaccine safety. However, conventional animal safety tests need to be improved in several aspects. For example, the number of test animals used needs to be reduced and the test period shortened. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a new vaccine evaluation system. In this review, we show that gene expression patterns are well correlated to biological responses in vaccinated rats. Our findings and methods using experimental biology and genome science provide an important means of assessment for vaccine toxicity.

  18. Evaluating a smartphone application to improve child passenger safety and fire safety knowledge and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaki, Elise; Shields, Wendy C; McDonald, Eileen; Aitken, Mary E; Bishai, David; Case, James; Gielen, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Although proven measures for reducing injury due to motor vehicle collision and residential fires exist, the number of families properly and consistently using child passenger restraints and smoke alarms remains low. This paper describes the design of the Safety In Seconds (SIS) 2.0 study, which aims to evaluate the impact of a smartphone app on parents' use of child restraints and smoke alarms. SIS is a multisite randomised controlled trial. Participants are parents of children aged 4-7 years who are visiting the Pediatric Emergency Department or Pediatric Trauma Service. Parents are randomised to receive tailored education about child passenger safety or about fire safety via the SIS smartphone app. A baseline and two follow-up surveys at 3 months and 6 months are conducted. Primary outcomes are: (1) having the correct child restraint for the child's age and size; (2) restraining the child in the back seat of the car; (3) buckling the child up for every ride; (4) having the restraint inspected by a child passenger safety technician; (5) having a working smoke alarm on every level of the home; (6) having hard-wired or lithium battery smoke alarms; (7) having and (8) practising a fire escape plan. Finding ways to communicate with parents about child passenger and fire safety continues to be a research priority. This study will contribute to the evidence about how to promote benefits of proper and consistent child restraint and smoke alarm use. NCT02345941; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Road network safety evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical joint model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Huang, Helai

    2016-05-01

    Safety and efficiency are commonly regarded as two significant performance indicators of transportation systems. In practice, road network planning has focused on road capacity and transport efficiency whereas the safety level of a road network has received little attention in the planning stage. This study develops a Bayesian hierarchical joint model for road network safety evaluation to help planners take traffic safety into account when planning a road network. The proposed model establishes relationships between road network risk and micro-level variables related to road entities and traffic volume, as well as socioeconomic, trip generation and network density variables at macro level which are generally used for long term transportation plans. In addition, network spatial correlation between intersections and their connected road segments is also considered in the model. A road network is elaborately selected in order to compare the proposed hierarchical joint model with a previous joint model and a negative binomial model. According to the results of the model comparison, the hierarchical joint model outperforms the joint model and negative binomial model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance, which indicates the reasonableness of considering the hierarchical data structure in crash prediction and analysis. Moreover, both random effects at the TAZ level and the spatial correlation between intersections and their adjacent segments are found to be significant, supporting the employment of the hierarchical joint model as an alternative in road-network-level safety modeling as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of patient safety auditing in hospital care: results of a mixed-method evaluation (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, Mirelle; Zegers, Marieke; Westert, Gert P; Boeijen, Wilma; Teerenstra, Steven; van Gurp, Petra J; Wollersheim, Hub

    2018-06-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of internal auditing in hospital care focussed on improving patient safety. A before-and-after mixed-method evaluation study was carried out in eight departments of a university medical center in the Netherlands. Internal auditing and feedback focussed on improving patient safety. The effect of internal auditing was assessed 15 months after the audit, using linear mixed models, on the patient, professional, team and departmental levels. The measurement methods were patient record review on adverse events (AEs), surveys regarding patient experiences, safety culture and team climate, analysis of administrative hospital data (standardized mortality rate, SMR) and safety walk rounds (SWRs) to observe frontline care processes on safety. The AE rate decreased from 36.1% to 31.3% and the preventable AE rate from 5.5% to 3.6%; however, the differences before and after auditing were not statistically significant. The patient-reported experience measures regarding patient safety improved slightly over time (P audit. The SWRs showed that medication safety and information security were improved (P auditing was associated with improved patient experiences and observed safety on wards. No effects were found on adverse outcomes, safety culture and team climate 15 months after the internal audit.

  1. Preliminary safety evaluation for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the Preliminary Safety Evaluation for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The US DOE has been mandated to develop plans for response to safety issues associated with the waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, and to report the progress of implementing those plans to Congress. The objectives of Project W-230 are to design, fabricate, develop, test, and operate a new retrieval system capable of removing a minimum of about 75% of the high-heat waste contained in C-106. It is anticipated that sluicing operations can remove enough waste to reduce the remaining radiogenic heat load to levels low enough to resolve the high-heat safety issue as well as allow closure of the tank safety issue

  2. Safety evaluation report on Tennessee Valley Authority: Browns Ferry nuclear performance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) on the information submitted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in its Nuclear Performance Plan, through Revision 2, for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant and in supporting documents has been prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory commission staff. The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant consists of three boiling-water reactors at a site in Limestone County, Alabama. The plan addresses the plant-specific concerns requiring resolution before the startup of Unit 2. The staff will inspect implementation of those TVA programs that address these concerns. Where systems are common to Units 1 and 2 or to Units 2 and 3, the staff safety evaluations of those systems are included herein. 85 refs

  3. Safety evaluation report on Tennessee Valley Authority: Watts Bar Nuclear Performance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This safety evaluation report on the information submitted by the Tennessee Valley Authority in its Nuclear Performance Plan for the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant and in supporting documents has been prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff. The plan addresses the plant-specific corrective actions as part of the recovery program for licensing of Unit 1. The staff will be monitoring and inspecting the implementation of the programs. The plan does not address all licensing matters that will be required for fuel load and operation of Unit 1. Those remaining licensing matters have been addressed in previous safety evaluations or will be addressed in accordance with routing NRC licensing practices. 97 refs

  4. Research on the measurement technology and evaluation method of photobiological safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cai-hong; Wu, Zhi-feng; Chen, Bin-hua; Wang, Yan-fei; Li, Xiang-zhao; Fu, Lei

    2013-12-01

    Lamps and lamp system are widely used in large quantities in an era. The evaluation and control of optical radiation hazards of lamps and lamp systems is far more complicated. A special measurement and traceability facility was set up at NIM (National Institute of Metrology, China) to evaluate the optical radiation safety of lamp and lamp system, which includes a double grating spectroradiometer OL750D with two different entrance systems of spectral radiance and spectral irradiance traceable to the national primary standard of spectral irradiance by a 1000W spectral irradiance standard lamp, 40W deuterium lamp and a standard diffuser plate. The technical requirements of the measurement instrumentation used for optical radiation safety evaluation including monochromator type, wavelength accuracy, input optics, spectral scan interval and calibration sources are recommended also in this paper. Spectral radiance of a series of LED electric torches and infrared sources were measured by using the new developed system, and potential radiation hazards of retinal blue light hazard and retinal thermal hazard are calculated and evaluated. The optical radiation hazards of some samples are listed in Risk Group 2 (Moderate-Risk).

  5. Reload safety evaluation report for kori nuclear power plant unit 2 cycle 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Beom Jin; Kim, Si Yong; Kim, Oh Hwan; Nam, Kee Il; Um, Gil Sup; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk; Yoon, Kyung Ho

    1992-04-01

    The Kori Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 (Kori-2) is anticipated to be refuelled with 16x16 Korean Fuel Assemblies (KOFA), which are based on the KAERI design starting from Cycle 8. This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Kori-2, Cycle 9 and demonstrates that the reactor core being composed of various fuel assembly types as described below will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. The evaluation of Kori-2, Cycle 9 was accomplished utilizing the methodology described in 'Reload Transition Safety Report for KORI 2' (Ref. /1-1/). The reload core for Kori-2, Cycle 9 is entirely comprised of 16x16 KOFA. In the Kori-2 licensing documentation to KEPCO the reference safety evaluation was provided for the operation of a reactor core fully loaded with KOFA as well as associated proposed changes to the Kori-2 Technical Specifications. The reload for Kori-2, Cycle 9 also introduces UO 2 /Gd 2 O 3 containing fuel rods. The use of fuel rods with Gd 2 O 3 poisoning of the fuel has been approved as a part of the above mentioned licensing documentation. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 9 core design described herein. (Author)

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) SERF cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) documents the ability of the Special Environmental Radiometallurgy Facility (SERF) Cask to meet the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B quantities (up to highway route controlled quantities) of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This document shall be used to ensure that loading, tie down, transport, and unloading of the SERF Cask are performed in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required

  7. Safety evaluation report on Tennessee Valley Authority: Browns Ferry Nuclear Performance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This safety evaluation report (SER) was prepared by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and represents the second and last supplement (SSER 2) to the staff's original SER published as Volume 3 of NUREG-1232 in April 1989. Supplement 1 of Volume 3 of NUREG-1232 (SSER 1) was published in October 1989. Like its predecessors, SSER 2 is composed of numerous safety evaluations by the staff regarding specific elements contained in the Browns Ferry Nuclear Performance Plan (BFNPP), Volume 3 (up to and including Revision 2), submitted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN). The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant consists of three boiling-water reactors (BWRs) at a site in Limestone County, Alabama. The BFNPP describes the corrective action plans and commitments made by TVA to resolve deficiencies with its nuclear programs before the startup of Unit 2. The staff has inspected and will continue to inspect TVA's implementation of these BFNPP corrective action plans that address staff concerns about TVA's nuclear program. SSER 2 documents the NRC staff's safety evaluations and conclusions for those elements of the BFNPP that were not previously addressed by the staff or that remained open as a result of unresolved issues identified by the staff in previous SERs and inspections

  8. Critical enrichment and critical density of infinite systems for nuclear criticality safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Koyama, Takashi; Komuro, Yuichi

    1986-03-01

    Critical enrichment and critical density of homogenous infinite systems, such as U-H 2 O, UO 2 -H 2 O, UO 2 F 2 aqueous solution, UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 aqueous solution, Pu-H 2 O, PuO 2 -H 2 O, Pu(NO 3 ) 4 aqueous solution and PuO 2 ·UO 2 -H 2 O, were calculated with the criticality safety evaluation computer code system JACS for nuclear criticality safety evaluation on fuel facilities. The computed results were compared with the data described in European and American criticality handbooks and showed good agreement with each other. (author)

  9. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, close quotes was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  10. Reload safety evaluation report for Kori nuclear power unit 1, cycle 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Oh Hwan; Nam, Kee Il; Kim, Du Ill; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk

    1994-05-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Kori-1, Cycle 14 and demonstrate that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 14 core design described herein. (Author) 1 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Evaluation of the safety culture in the regulatory activity in Camaguey province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo Lopez, A.M.; Barreras Caballero, A.; Damera Martinez, A.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studied accomplished in the country have permitted to evaluate the activity of the regulatory body in nuclear safety matter in part of the national territory. These studies did not encompass the Camaguey province. In the work are shown the results of the study in this part of the territory, accomplished as of the survey elaborated by the National Nuclear Safety Center using guides it ASCOT and other documents of the IAEA

  12. IRIS Licensing Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, Charles L.; Carelli, Mario D.

    2006-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant is well into the pre-application review process with the US NRC and has accomplished its first near term goal of obtaining US NRC feedback on the long term testing program. To date, the IRIS team has submitted to the US NRC a number of documents patterned after the Evaluation Model Development and Assessment Process (EMDAP) outlined in Regulatory Guide 1,203. They have covered a detailed description of IRIS, initial safety analysis results, PIRT development for limiting transients, scaling analysis and a description of the test program. The IRIS Safety-by-Desing TM intrinsically eliminates and/or significantly reduces the consequences of traditional LWR accidents. In addition, the fewer passive safety systems are similar in principle to those of the US NRC approved AP1000 design. For these reasons, the IRIS testing program only needs to include those features unique to the IRIS design. NRC feedback was that the planned test program appeared to be complete and could generate sufficient information to support a Design Certification (DC) submittal. The US NRC has also stated that a DC application must include complete information regarding the test program. On this basis the IRIS team has initiated an aggressive program to conduct IRIS testing to support a DC submittal by the end of 2008. Subsequent US NRC review should be expeditious because of the AP1000 precedent, allowing IRIS to obtain its Final Design Approval (FDA) in 2012; thereby, maintaining its goal of deployment in the 2015-2017 time frame. The next steps in the pre-application review process will be to provide the US NRC with a road map of the anticipated IRIS licensing process, a review of current licensing requirements showing that IRIS meets or exceeds all current criteria and information to support the long term goal of redefining the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ)

  13. Safety equipment and methods for evaluating its effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, F I; Nadtoka, T B [DPI (Ukraine)

    1993-05-01

    Analyzes relations between technologies (especially for roof support) used in black coal mining and work safety in mines. The share of manual work and accident rate are compared for mining by narrow and wide web shearer loaders and by coal plows with powered and individual support. Protection from occupational injury is discussed at three levels: safety engineering, work organization and the human factor. A method of evaluating the social and economic effectiveness of protection from occupational injury developed at the DPI institute is presented. The method uses the knowledge of probability distribution of failure situations, failures and protective means to determine the probabilistic characteristics of the functioning of protection systems and to calculate, for a given period, the occurrence probability and mean number of accidents. Each state of the system is characterized by determined social and/or economic results. The method was used in designing equipment intended for protective power cut-off in electric mine networks.

  14. Guideline on evaluation and acceptance of commercial grade digital equipment for nuclear safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are increasingly upgrading their instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems with commercial digital equipment, which allows them to continue meeting safety and reliability requirements while controlling operating costs. However, the use of commercial software-based devices for safety related applications has raised new issues that impact design, procurement, and licensing activities. This guideline describes a consistent, comprehensive approach for the evaluation and acceptance of commercial digital equipment for nuclear safety systems

  15. Economic evaluation of occupational health and safety programmes in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, J; Tompa, E; Koehoorn, M; de Boer, H; Macdonald, S; Alamgir, H

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based resource allocation in the public health care sector requires reliable economic evaluations that are different from those needed in the commercial sector. To describe a framework for conducting economic evaluations of occupational health and safety (OHS) programmes in health care developed with sector stakeholders. To define key resources and outcomes to be considered in economic evaluations of OHS programmes and to integrate these into a comprehensive framework. Participatory action research supported by mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, including a multi-stakeholder working group, 25 key informant interviews, a 41-member Delphi panel and structured nominal group discussions. We found three resources had top priority: OHS staff time, training the workers and programme planning, promotion and evaluation. Similarly, five outcomes had top priority: number of injuries, safety climate, job satisfaction, quality of care and work days lost. The resulting framework was built around seven principles of good practice that stakeholders can use to assist them in conducting economic evaluations of OHS programmes. Use of a framework resulting from this participatory action research approach may increase the quality of economic evaluations of OHS programmes and facilitate programme comparisons for evidence-based resource allocation decisions. The principles may be applicable to other service sectors funded from general taxes and more broadly to economic evaluations of OHS programmes in general. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Safety margin evaluation concepts for plant Up rates and life extension. Results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belac, J

    2006-01-01

    This presentation summarizes results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP) aimed to develop generalized safety margin concept and means of its quantification for the process of evaluating plant safety in the frame of plant life extension and power up rating activities to be used by OECD member countries. (author)

  17. Safety evaluation of ventilation networks in case of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdriau, P.; Pourprix, M.; Raboin, S.; Rouyer, J.L.; Tarrago, X.

    1983-01-01

    Several teams from CEA have cooperated to produce a code for modeling ventilation networks under accidental conditions in nuclear facilities. The objective is to study responses to a network to perturbations which are either mechanical or thermal. Such a tool was necessary for safety and protection studies because ventilation network performances are difficult to evaluate when the network gets complex. There was no requirement for a very sophisticated code, considering the margin of error which generally characterizes the ventilation measurements, but this code should be well validated to become a reliable tool for pointing out safety problems at the design stage and during the operating life of the ventilation system. The code has been called PIAF. It solves a set of equations which simulate a ventilation network in a permanent regime

  18. Evaluating North Carolina Food Pantry Food Safety-Related Operating Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaifetz, Ashley; Chapman, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Almost one in seven American households were food insecure in 2012, experiencing difficulty in providing enough food for all family members due to a lack of resources. Food pantries assist a food-insecure population through emergency food provision, but there is a paucity of information on the food safety-related operating procedures used in the pantries. Food pantries operate in a variable regulatory landscape; in some jurisdictions, they are treated equivalent to restaurants, while in others, they operate outside of inspection regimes. By using a mixed methods approach to catalog the standard operating procedures related to food in 105 food pantries from 12 North Carolina counties, we evaluated their potential impact on food safety. Data collected through interviews with pantry managers were supplemented with observed food safety practices scored against a modified version of the North Carolina Food Establishment Inspection Report. Pantries partnered with organized food bank networks were compared with those that operated independently. In this exploratory research, additional comparisons were examined for pantries in metropolitan areas versus nonmetropolitan areas and pantries with managers who had received food safety training versus managers who had not. The results provide a snapshot of how North Carolina food pantries operate and document risk mitigation strategies for foodborne illness for the vulnerable populations they serve. Data analysis reveals gaps in food safety knowledge and practice, indicating that pantries would benefit from more effective food safety training, especially focusing on formalizing risk management strategies. In addition, new tools, procedures, or policy interventions might improve information actualization by food pantry personnel.

  19. Technical evaluation of seismic qualification of safety-related equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yang Hui; Park, Heong Gee; Park, Yeong Seok [Univ. of Incheon, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    This study is purposed to evaluate the technical acceptability of the procedures and techniques of seismic qualifications which were performed for the YGN 3 and 4 safety-related equipment.This study is also targeted to suggest a systematized technical procedure guide for the effective performance and review of the seismic qualification, which reflects the most up-to-date licensing requirements and state-of the-art.

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  1. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  2. Occupational Safety and Health Professionals' Training in Italy: Qualitative Evaluation Using T-LAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Bruno; Cangiano, Giovanna; Calicchia, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the evaluation of a training course on chemicals for occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals. The study aims were to assess the effectiveness of the course; to find out what type of training met these workers' needs best, as their role is vital in the management of safety at work; and to…

  3. Development of Non-safety System Architecture and Evaluation of Components/Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, I. S.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, D. Y.; Park, W. M.; Hwang, I. K.; Hur, S.; Kim, J. T.; Park, J. C.; Lee, J. W.

    2007-10-01

    We describe in this report the works performed for a technical evaluation of the non-safety digital control system of the KNICS, the non-safety process control system of the KNICS, a communication load analysis for the MMIS (including both the non-safety and the safety systems) of the KNICS, the development of MMI and an implementation of the logic for the CVCS, and the works performed to support writing a proposal needed for bidding an I and C system based on the KNICS. The technical evaluation results were aimed to be used by the designers to detect parts needed to be corrected or to be newly inserted, and also by the developers during the development phase. The requirement specifications and the data requirement characteristics have been identified for each subsystem of the determined KNICS structure. For each communication node, the specifications related to the data transfer including the data capacity for interfaces, delay time for the data transfer, and the marginal availability of its performance capabilities have been analyzed to identify the amount of data transfer and hence to verify that both of the designed structures for the safety related communications network and for the digital communications network are appropriate. The results of the supporting work performed for writing the technical specifications related to each subsystem of the KNICS structure, are expected to be useful in writing a proposal for the expected Uljin new units 1 and 2, and in the I and C upgrade for any of the existing nuclear power plants under operation. Also included in this report are the descriptions on a design of the chemical volume control system (CVCS), on the supporting work performed to draw the logic diagrams for CVCS using the tool ISaGRAF, and on the generation of a set of system displays to be used as references

  4. Development of Non-safety System Architecture and Evaluation of Components/Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I. S.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, D. Y.; Park, W. M.; Hwang, I. K.; Hur, S.; Kim, J. T.; Park, J. C.; Lee, J. W

    2007-10-15

    We describe in this report the works performed for a technical evaluation of the non-safety digital control system of the KNICS, the non-safety process control system of the KNICS, a communication load analysis for the MMIS (including both the non-safety and the safety systems) of the KNICS, the development of MMI and an implementation of the logic for the CVCS, and the works performed to support writing a proposal needed for bidding an I and C system based on the KNICS. The technical evaluation results were aimed to be used by the designers to detect parts needed to be corrected or to be newly inserted, and also by the developers during the development phase. The requirement specifications and the data requirement characteristics have been identified for each subsystem of the determined KNICS structure. For each communication node, the specifications related to the data transfer including the data capacity for interfaces, delay time for the data transfer, and the marginal availability of its performance capabilities have been analyzed to identify the amount of data transfer and hence to verify that both of the designed structures for the safety related communications network and for the digital communications network are appropriate. The results of the supporting work performed for writing the technical specifications related to each subsystem of the KNICS structure, are expected to be useful in writing a proposal for the expected Uljin new units 1 and 2, and in the I and C upgrade for any of the existing nuclear power plants under operation. Also included in this report are the descriptions on a design of the chemical volume control system (CVCS), on the supporting work performed to draw the logic diagrams for CVCS using the tool ISaGRAF, and on the generation of a set of system displays to be used as references.

  5. Accident prediction models for rural junctions on four European countries. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 6.1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azeredo Lopes, S. de & Lourenço Cardoso, J.

    2014-01-01

    The "Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET)" project targets objective A (Development of evaluation tools) of the Joint Call for Proposals for Safety at the Heart of Road Design ("The Call"). This project aims at developing suitable road safety engineering evaluation tools

  6. Development of safety evaluation methods applied to the safety regulations for the operation stage of fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The purposes of this study is to establish the safety evaluation methods needed in the operation stage of fast breeder reactor (FBR). Related the above purpose of this study, some investigation studies for the technical standard applied to Monju were achieved in JFY 2012. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire in European community pharmacies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phipps, D.L.; Bie, J. de; Herborg, H.; Guerreiro, M.; Eickhoff, C.; Fernandes-Llimos, F.; Bouvy, M.L.; Rossing, C.; Mueller, U.; Ashcroft, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the internal reliability, factor structure and construct validity of the Pharmacy Safety Climate Questionnaire (PSCQ) when applied to a pan-European sample of community pharmacies. Design: A cross-sectional survey design was used. Setting: Community pharmacies in Denmark,

  8. Nuclear safety. How is it evaluated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Andersson, Johan; Carlsson, Lennart; Olsson, Richard; Ericsson, A.M.; Gunsell, L.; Wene, C.O.

    1996-09-01

    A working group with representatives for the three subject areas reactor safety, disposal of spent fuels and transport of radioactive materials has performed a project aiming to clarify similarities and differences of the three areas concerning methods for safety analysis, criteria, risks etc; and to develop contacts between experts in the areas in order to facilitate transfer of methods. Some of the more precise objectives were: To identify common problems that could be solved jointly, to discuss prospects for a 'meta-method' that can support safety analysis in the entire field of nuclear safety, and to discuss possibilities for a homogeneous attitude towards risk management

  9. Analysis on evaluation ability of nonlinear safety assessment model of coal mines based on artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-liang; LIU Hai-bo; LIU Ai-hua

    2004-01-01

    Based on the integration analysis of goods and shortcomings of various methods used in safety assessment of coal mines, combining nonlinear feature of mine safety sub-system, this paper establishes the neural network assessment model of mine safety, analyzes the ability of artificial neural network to evaluate mine safety state, and lays the theoretical foundation of artificial neural network using in the systematic optimization of mine safety assessment and getting reasonable accurate safety assessment result.

  10. [Enlightenment of adverse reaction monitoring on safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-xin; Pang, Yu

    2015-04-01

    The adverse reaction monitoring is important in warning the risks of traditional Chinese medicines at an early stage, finding potential quality problems and ensuring the safe clinical medication. In the study, efforts were made to investigate the risk signal mining techniques in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines, particularly the complexity in component, processing, compatibility, preparation and clinical medication, find early risk signals of traditional Chinese medicines and establish a traditional Chinese medicine safety evaluation system based on adverse reaction risk signals, in order to improve the target studies on traditional Chinese medicine safety, effective and timely control risks and solve the existing frequent safety issue in traditional Chinese medicines.

  11. Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J.; Monahon, T.M.; Ketcham, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table testing which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its ''Generic Safety Evaluation Report'' approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the United States and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluating program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology

  12. Seismic evaluation of safety systems at the Savannah River reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, G.S.; Johnson, J.J.; Eder, S.J.; Monahon, T.; Ketcham, D.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough review of all safety related systems in commercial nuclear power plants was prompted by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant. As a consequence of this review, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) focused its attention on the environmental and seismic qualification of the industry's electrical and mechanical equipment. In 1980, the NRC issued Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 to verify the seismic adequacy of the equipment required to safely shut down a plant and maintain a stable condition for 72 hours. After extensive research by the NRC, it became apparent that traditional analysis and testing methods would not be a feasible mechanism to address this USI A-46 issue. The costs associated with utilizing the standard analytical and testing qualification approaches were exorbitant and could not be justified. In addition, the only equipment available to be shake table tested which is similar to the item being qualified is typically the nuclear plant component itself. After 8 years of studies and data collection, the NRC issued its Generic Safety Evaluation Report approving an alternate seismic qualification approach based on the use of seismic experience data. This experience-based seismic assessment approach will be the basis for evaluating each of the 70 pre-1972 commercial nuclear power units in the US and for an undetermined number of nuclear plants located in foreign countries. This same cost-effective approach developed for the commercial nuclear power industry is currently being applied to the Savannah River Production Reactors to address similar seismic adequacy issues. This paper documents the results of the Savannah River Plant seismic evaluation program. This effort marks the first complete (non-trial) application of this state-of-the-art USI A-46 resolution methodology

  13. An Evaluation Methodology Development and Application Process for Severe Accident Safety Issue Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A general evaluation methodology development and application process (EMDAP paradigm is described for the resolution of severe accident safety issues. For the broader objective of complete and comprehensive design validation, severe accident safety issues are resolved by demonstrating comprehensive severe-accident-related engineering through applicable testing programs, process studies demonstrating certain deterministic elements, probabilistic risk assessment, and severe accident management guidelines. The basic framework described in this paper extends the top-down, bottom-up strategy described in the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.203 to severe accident evaluations addressing U.S. NRC expectation for plant design certification applications.

  14. [Validation of a questionnaire to evaluate patient safety in clinical laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez Marín, Ángeles; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare, pilot and validate a questionnaire to evaluate patient safety in the specific context of clinical laboratories. A specific questionnaire on patient safety in the laboratory, with 62 items grouped into six areas, was developed, taking into consideration the diverse human and laboratory contextual factors which may contribute to producing errors. A pilot study of 30 interviews was carried out, including validity and reliability analyses using principal components factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. Subsequently, 240 questionnaires were sent to 21 hospitals, followed by a test-retest of 41 questionnaires with the definitive version. The sample analyzed was composed of 225 questionnaires (an overall response rate of 80%). Of the 62 items initially assessed, 17 were eliminated due to non-compliance with the criteria established before the principal components factor analysis was performed. For the 45 remaining items, 12 components were identified, with an cumulative variance of 69.5%. In seven of the 10 components with two or more items, Cronbach's alpha was higher than 0.7. The questionnaire items assessed in the test-retest were found to be stable. We present the first questionnaire with sufficiently proven validity and reliability for evaluating patient safety in the specific context of clinical laboratories. This questionnaire provides a useful instrument to perform a subsequent macrostudy of hospital clinical laboratories in Spain. The questionnaire can also be used to monitor and promote commitment to patient safety within the search for continuous quality improvement. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI Evaluation and Safety in the Developing Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocchio, Shannon; Kline-Fath, Beth; Kanal, Emanuel; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the developing brain has dramatically increased over the last decade. Faster acquisitions and the development of advanced MRI sequences such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion imaging, functional MR imaging (fMRI), and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), as well as the use of higher magnetic field strengths has made MRI an invaluable tool for detailed evaluation of the developing brain. This article will provide an overview of the use and challenges associated with 1.5T and 3T static magnetic fields for evaluation of the developing brain. This review will also summarize the advantages, clinical challenges and safety concerns specifically related to MRI in the fetus and newborn, including the implications of increased magnetic field strength, logistics related to transporting and monitoring of neonates during scanning, sedation considerations and a discussion of current technologies such as MRI-conditional neonatal incubators and dedicated small-foot print neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) scanners. PMID:25743582

  16. Safety-evaluation report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3. Docket No. 50-382

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Supplement 5 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Louisiana Power and Light Company for a license to operate the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation Report by providing the staff's evaluation of information submitted by the applicant since the Safety Evaluation Report and its four previous Supplements were issued

  17. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-382)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    Supplement 10 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Louisiana Power and Light Company for a license to operate the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation Report by providing the staff's evaluation of information submitted by the licensee since the Safety Evaluation Report and its nine previous supplements were issued

  18. Assessing the validity of road safety evaluation studies by analysing causal chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2003-09-01

    This paper discusses how the validity of road safety evaluation studies can be assessed by analysing causal chains. A causal chain denotes the path through which a road safety measure influences the number of accidents. Two cases are examined. One involves chemical de-icing of roads (salting). The intended causal chain of this measure is: spread of salt --> removal of snow and ice from the road surface --> improved friction --> shorter stopping distance --> fewer accidents. A Norwegian study that evaluated the effects of salting on accident rate provides information that describes this causal chain. This information indicates that the study overestimated the effect of salting on accident rate, and suggests that this estimate is influenced by confounding variables the study did not control for. The other case involves a traffic club for children. The intended causal chain in this study was: join the club --> improve knowledge --> improve behaviour --> reduce accident rate. In this case, results are rather messy, which suggests that the observed difference in accident rate between members and non-members of the traffic club is not primarily attributable to membership in the club. The two cases show that by analysing causal chains, one may uncover confounding factors that were not adequately controlled in a study. Lack of control for confounding factors remains the most serious threat to the validity of road safety evaluation studies.

  19. Study on criticality safety evaluation of a system where flood will never occur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Komuro, Yuichi; Itahara, Kuniyuki.

    1995-03-01

    Criticality safety evaluation for a single unit containing nuclear fuel has usually been performed on the assumption that there is a fully thick water reflector around the unit. For a system where flood will never occur, however, the thick reflector assumption is usually not applied recently. In such cases, a method is proposed, which models surrounding structural material and branch pipes as 2.5cm thick water reflector. This report shows that reactivity worth of structural material and branch pipes is, in many cases, less than that of 2.5cm thick water reflector. Further, another method is shown to evaluate criticality safety for a multiple unit system, using computed results with surrounding structural material and branch pipes neglected. And it is shown with many sample calculations that the method with 2.5cm thick water reflector in place of structural material and pipes gives safety side results to similar systems to real reprocessing plants. (author)

  20. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  1. Evaluation of Patient Safety Culture and Organizational Culture as a Step in Patient Safety Improvement in a Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrisya Iriviranty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Establishment of patient safety culture is the first step in the improvement of patient safety. As such, assessment of patient safety culture in hospitals is of paramount importance. Patient safety culture is an inherent component of organizational culture, so that the study of organizational culture is required in developing patient safety. This study aimed to evaluate patient safety culture among the clinical staff of a hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia and identify organizational culture profile. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive, qualitative study was conducted in a hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2014. Sample population consisted of nurses, midwives, physicians, pediatricians, obstetrics and gynecology specialists, laboratory personnel, and pharmacy staff (n=152. Data were collected using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ and Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI. Results: Teamwork within units” was the strongest dimension of patient safety culture (91.7%, while “staffing” and “non-punitive response to error” were the weakest dimensions (22.7%. Moreover, clan culture was the most dominant type of organizational culture in the studied hospital. This culture serves as a guide for the changes in the healthcare organization, especially in the development of patient safety culture. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, healthcare providers were positively inclined toward the patient safety culture within the organization. As such, the action plan was designed through consensus decision-making and deemed effective in articulating patient safety in the vision and mission of the organization.

  2. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of River Bend Station (Docket No. 50-458)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Supplement No. 1 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Gulf States Utilities Company as applicant and for itself and Cajun Electric Power Cooperative, as owners, for a license to operate River Bend Station has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report

  3. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 605 - The Energy Research Program Office Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mathematics, statistics, and computer science underlying the complex mathematical models of the key physical... submit, and the length of the preapplication/application; applicants are encouraged to contact the office... a point where they can be evaluated for commercial applications. Other activities of the ER...

  4. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents

  5. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengolini, A.; Debarberis, L.

    2008-01-01

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well

  6. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  7. An evaluation of safety-critical Java on a Java processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The safety-critical Java (SCJ) specification provides a restricted set of the Java language intended for applications that require certification. In order to test the specification, implementations are emerging and the need to evaluate those implementations in a systematic way is becoming important....... In this paper we evaluate our SCJ implementation which is based on the Java Optimized Processor JOP and we measure different performance and timeliness criteria relevant to hard real-time systems. Our implementation targets Level 0 and Level1 of the specification and to test it we use a series of micro...

  8. Reload safety evaluation report for yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 2 cycle 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Kyun; Choi, Gyoo Hwan; Lee, Ki Bog; Park, Sang Yoon

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for YGN-2, Cycle 7 and demonstrates that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as described below will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which would potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 7 core design described herein. (Author)

  9. Reload safety evaluation report for kori nuclear power plant unit 4, cycle 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Jung, Yil Sup; Kim, Si Yong; Kim, Ki Hang; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Oh, Dong Seok; Kim, Du Ill; Ban, Chang Hwan; Choi, Dong Uk

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for Kori-4, Cycle 8 and demonstrate that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licening bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 8 core design described herein. (Author)

  10. Application of a structural model for advanced analysis in the evaluation of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landesmann, Alexandre; Barros, Francisco Claudio Pereira de; Batista, Eduardo de Miranda

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Analysis concept, which means the direct consideration of both physical and geometric nonlinear effects in the analysis and design of steel buildings structures, represents the state-of-art in the field of structural analysis by this beginning of the 21 st century. In this context, the present paper presents an Advanced Analysis methodology applied to the Safety Evaluation of high hazardous civil structures. This Safety Evaluation plays an important part in the regulators position as a step in the licensing process performed by CNEN - Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. The proposed Advance Analysis procedure is implemented by a refined second-order plastic hinge model. The application of this model allows to carry out: the description of the inelastic structural behavior; the identification of the collapse mechanism; the ultimate load level; structural safety's level and the service ability limit. (author)

  11. West Valley UF6 Facility. Environmental report and safety evaluation, supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Revised pages are provided for the Environmental Report and the Safety Evaluation Report which reflect design changes and more detailed information on the items requested in the USAEC letter to NFS dated September 6, 1974

  12. Safety Evaluation Report: Restart of K-Reactor, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    In April 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued DOE/DP-0084T, ''Safety Evaluation Report Restart of K-Reactor Savannah River Site.'' The Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the results of DOE reviews and evaluations of the programmatic aspects of a large number of issues which need to be satisfactorily addressed before restart. The issues were evaluated for compliance with the restart criteria included in the SER. The results of those evaluations determined that the restart criteria had been satisfied for some of the issues. However, for most of the issues at least part of the applicable restart criteria had not been found to be satisfied a the time the evaluations were prepared. For those issues, open or confirmatory items were identified that required resolution. This document supplements the April 1991 SER. The SER Supplement documents the resolution of several of the open items identified in the SER. Only those issues (sections) for which at least one open item identified in the SER has now been closed are addressed in this Supplement. Additionally, some SER sections had no open items identified. Therefore, this Supplement does not include all sections that were addressed in the SER. If there are any open items remaining to be resolved for the sections included in this Supplement, that is so identified at the end of the section. The resolution of those remaining open times, and all remaining open items for those SER sections not included in this first Supplement, will be documented in future SER Supplements. Resolution of all open items for an issue indicates that its associated restart criteria have been satisfied, and that DOE concludes that the programmatic aspects of the issue have been satisfactorily addressed

  13. Safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU. Reality and challenges for the toxicologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2004-06-15

    Council Directive 76/768/EEC, its seven amendments and 30 adaptations to technical progress form the basis of the cosmetic EU legislation today. There are actually four key principles for safety in the cosmetic legislation. (i) The full responsibility for the safety of cosmetics for human health is placed on the manufacturer, first importer in the EU or marketer. (ii) The safety evaluation of finished products is based on safety of individual ingredients, more specifically on their chemical structure, toxicological profile and their level of exposure. (iii) A compilation of information on each cosmetic product (dossier) must be kept readily available for inspection by the competent authorities of the Member State concerned. This information source, usually called a technical information file (TIF) or product information file/requirements (PIF(R)), contains, as the most important part, the safety assessment of the product undersigned by a competent safety assessor. (iv) The use of validated replacement alternative methods instead of animal testing forms the 4th key principle for safety of cosmetic products on the EU market. The 7th amendment imposes strict deadlines for the abolition of animal in vivo studies on cosmetic ingredients. These legal requirements induce a number of important challenges for the cosmetic industry and more specifically for the toxicologist involved as safety assessor.

  14. Evaluation of Patient and Family Engagement Strategies to Improve Medication Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Julia M; Suarez-Cuervo, Catalina; Berger, Zackary; Lee, Joy; Gayleard, Jessica; Rosenberg, Carol; Nagy, Natalia; Weeks, Kristina; Dy, Sydney

    2018-04-01

    Patient and family engagement (PFE) is critical for patient safety. We systematically reviewed types of PFE strategies implemented and their impact on medication safety. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, reference lists and websites to August 2016. Two investigators independently reviewed all abstracts and articles, and articles were additionally reviewed by two senior investigators for selection. One investigator abstracted data and two investigators reviewed the data for accuracy. Study quality was determined by consensus. Investigators developed a framework for defining the level of patient engagement: informing patients about medications (Level 1), informing about engagement with health care providers (Level 2), empowering patients with communication tools and skills (Level 3), partnering with patients in their care (Level 4), and integrating patients as full care team members (Level 5). We included 19 studies that mostly targeted older adults taking multiple medications. The median level of engagement was 2, ranging from 2-4. We identified no level 5 studies. Key themes for patient engagement strategies impacting medication safety were patient education and medication reconciliation, with a subtheme of patient portals. Most studies (84%) reported implementation outcomes. The most commonly reported medication safety outcomes were medication errors, including near misses and discrepancies (47%), and medication safety knowledge (37%). Most studies (63%) were of medium to low quality, and risk of bias was generally moderate. Among the 11 studies with control groups, 55% (n = 6) reported statistically significant improvement on at least one medication safety outcome. Further synthesis of medication safety measures was limited due to intervention and outcome heterogeneity. Key strategies for engaging patients in medication safety are education and medication reconciliation. Patient engagement levels were generally low, as defined by a novel framework for determining

  15. Methodology of safety evaluation about land disposal of low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    1986-01-01

    Accompanying the progress of the construction project of low level radioactive waste storage facilities in Aomori Prefecture, the full scale land disposal of low level radioactive wastes shows its symptom also in Japan. In this report, the scientific methodology to explain the safety about the land disposal of low level radioactive wastes is discussed. The land disposal of general wastes by shallow burying has already had sufficient results. In the case of low level radioactive wastes, also the land disposal by shallow burying is considered. Low level radioactive wastes can be regarded as one form of industrial wastes, as there are many common parts in the scientific and theoretical base of the safety. Attention is paid most to the contamination of ground water. Low level radioactive wastes are solid wastes, accordingly the degree of contamination should be less. The space in which ground water existes, the phenomena of ground water movement, the phenomena of ground water dispersion and Fick's law, the adsorption effect of strata, and the evaluation of source term are explained. These are the method to analyze the degree of contamination from safety evaluation viewpoint. (Kako, I.)

  16. Evaluating the Clinical Learning Environment: Resident and Fellow Perceptions of Patient Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Gregory M; Calabria, Jaclyn; Gosman, Gabriella; Eckart, Catherine; Metro, David G; Jasti, Harish; McCausland, Julie B; Itri, Jason N; Patel, Rita M; Buchert, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has begun to evaluate teaching institutions' learning environments with Clinical Learning Environment Review visits, including trainee involvement in institutions' patient safety and quality improvement efforts. We sought to address the dearth of metrics that assess trainee patient safety perceptions of the clinical environment. Using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC), we measured resident and fellow perceptions of patient safety culture in 50 graduate medical education programs at 10 hospitals within an integrated health system. As institution-specific physician scores were not available, resident and fellow scores on the HSOPSC were compared with national data from 29 162 practicing providers at 543 hospitals. Of the 1337 residents and fellows surveyed, 955 (71.4%) responded. Compared with national practicing providers, trainees had lower perceptions of patient safety culture in 6 of 12 domains, including teamwork within units, organizational learning, management support for patient safety, overall perceptions of patient safety, feedback and communication about error, and communication openness. Higher perceptions were observed for manager/supervisor actions promoting patient safety and for staffing. Perceptions equaled national norms in 4 domains. Perceptions of patient safety culture did not improve with advancing postgraduate year. Trainees in a large integrated health system have variable perceptions of patient safety culture, as compared with national norms for some practicing providers. Administration of the HSOPSC was feasible and acceptable to trainees, and may be used to track perceptions over time.

  17. Safety Evaluation of Roundabouts in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Several previous studies have documented significant safety benefits of roundabouts in the United Sates. However, the safety benefits for a given roundabout may vary depending on factors such as the familiarity of the driving population to roundabout...

  18. Observational Pharmacoepidemiology in the Drug Safety and Effectiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cabrita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Observational epidemiological studies have been used in the medicines context for more than 40 years, contributing to characterize drug use patterns and safety, efficacy and effectiveness profiles. Its use has been increased in recognition of the clinical trials limitations to assess the therapeutic and iatrogenic potential of the medicines after its commercialization. The evolution of the regulatory framework for pharmacovigilance, requiring post-marketing studies, post-authorization safety studies (PASS and the post-authorization efficacy studies (PAES to approve certain drugs, reinforced the importance of observational pharmacoepidemiology for the characterization of the medicines safety and effectiveness profiles. Pharmacoepidemiological research can be carried out from field studies designed to obtain the necessary information or in databases with health records of population samples that already contain the information. This 2nd option is more efficient and more and more frequent. Although, observational research from field studies continues to have its space, the increasing availability of databases allowed a new development to observational pharmacoepidemiology. Indeed, access to automated records databases with up-to-date information on medical prescriptions and global health care to representative population samples with long follow-up periods is a valuable tool for the study of drug use patterns and therapeutic and iatrogenic potential in routine clinical practice. In this context, observational pharmacoepidemiology reinforces its role as a scientific area particularly suitable for evaluating the safety and the effectiveness of the medicines in the “real world”, making a relevant contribution to overcome the gap in translating the evidence from the clinical trials for clinical practice.

  19. Recommendations for preparing the criticality safety evaluation of transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, H.R.; Parks, C.V.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides recommendations on preparing the criticality safety section of an application for approval of a transportation package containing fissile material. The analytical approach to the evaluation is emphasized rather than the performance standards that the package must meet. Where performance standards are addressed, this report incorporates the requirements of 10 CFR Part 71. 12 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Longitudinal safety evaluation of electric vehicles with the partial wireless charging lane on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu; Fan, Qi; Wang, Hao

    2018-02-01

    As an environment friendly transportation mode, the electric vehicle (EV) has drawn an increasing amount of attention from governments, vehicle manufactories and researchers recently. One of the biggest issue impeding EV's popularization associates with the charging process. The wireless charging lane (WCL) has been proposed as a convenient charging facility for EVs. Due to the high costs, the application of WCL on the entire freeways is impractical in the near future, while the partial WCL (PWCL) may be a feasible solution. This study aims to evaluate longitudinal safety of EVs with PWCL on freeways based on simulations. The simulation experiments are firstly designed, including deployment of PWCL on freeways and distribution of state of charge (SOC) of EVs. Then, a vehicle behavior model for EVs is proposed based on the intelligent driver model (IDM). Two surrogate safety measures, derived from time-to-collision (TTC), are utilized as indicators for safety evaluations. Sensitivity analysis is also conducted for related factors. Results show that the distribution of EVs' SOC significantly affect longitudinal safety when the PWCL is utilized. The low SOC in traffic consisting of EVs has the negative effect on longitudinal safety. The randomness and incompliance of EV drivers worsens the safety performance. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the larger maximum deceleration rate results in the higher longitudinal crash risks of EVs, while the length of PWCL has no monotonous effect. Different TTC thresholds also show no impact on results. A case study shows the consistent results. Based on the findings, several suggestions are discussed for EVs' safety improvement. Results of this study provide useful information for freeway safety when EVs are applied in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A SIL quantification approach based on an operating situation model for safety evaluation in complex guided transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beugin, J.; Renaux, D.; Cauffriez, L.

    2007-01-01

    Safety analysis in guided transportation systems is essential to avoid rare but potentially catastrophic accidents. This article presents a quantitative probabilistic model that integrates Safety Integrity Levels (SIL) for evaluating the safety of such systems. The standardized SIL indicator allows the safety requirements of each safety subsystem, function and/or piece of equipment to be specified, making SILs pivotal parameters in safety evaluation. However, different interpretations of SIL exist, and faced with the complexity of guided transportation systems, the current SIL allocation methods are inadequate for the task of safety assessment. To remedy these problems, the model developed in this paper seeks to verify, during the design phase of guided transportation system, whether or not the safety specifications established by the transport authorities allow the overall safety target to be attained (i.e., if the SIL allocated to the different safety functions are sufficient to ensure the required level of safety). To meet this objective, the model is based both on the operating situation concept and on Monte Carlo simulation. The former allows safety systems to be formalized and their dynamics to be analyzed in order to show the evolution of the system in time and space, and the latter make it possible to perform probabilistic calculations based on the scenario structure obtained

  2. Reload safety evaluation report for yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1 cycle 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Kwon, Tae Je; Park, Sang Yoon; Sung, Kang Sik; Kim, Ki Hang; Yim, Jeong Sik; Kim, Du Ill; Choi, Han Rim; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1992-06-01

    This report presents the reload safety evaluation for YGN-1, Cycle 7 and demonstrates that the reactor core being entirely composed of KOFA as discribed below will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the reload fuel assemblies have been reviewed for the Cycle 7 core and results are described in this report. (Author)

  3. Reload safety evaluation report for ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2, cycle 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Oh; Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Hong Jin; Kim, Il Kon; Oh, Dong Seok; Yoon, Han Yong; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Dong Uk; Lee, Chung Chan; Zee, Sung Kyun

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin-2, Cycle 4 and demonstrates that the core being composed of various fuel types as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 4 core and results are described in the report. (Author)

  4. Report of the review committee on evaluation of the R and D subjects in the field of nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    On the basis of the JAERI's Basic Guidelines for the Research Evaluation Methods and the Practices Manuals of the Institution Evaluation Committee and Research Evaluation Committee, the Ad Hoc Review Committee on Nuclear Safety Research composed of twelve experts was set up under the Research Evaluation Committee of the JAERI in order to review the R and D subjects to be implemented for five years starting in FY2000 in the Nuclear Safety Research Center (Department of Reactor Safety Research, Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research and Department of Safety Research Technical Support). The Ad Hoc Review Committee meeting was held on January 20, 2000. According to the review methods including review items, points of review and review criteria, determined by the Research Evaluation Committee, the review was conducted based on the research plan documents submitted in advance and presentations by the Department Directors. The review report was submitted to the Research Evaluation Committee for further review and discussions in its meeting held on August 31, 2000. The Research Evaluation Committee recognized the review results as appropriate. This report describes the review results. (author)

  5. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Richard L.; Niemi, Belinda J.; Paik, Ingle K.; Buczek, Jeffrey A.; Lietzow, J.; McCoy, F.; Beranek, F.; Gupta, M.

    2013-01-01

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved

  6. Safety Justification and Safety Case for Safety-critical Software in Digital Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee-Choon; Lee, Jang-Soo; Jee, Eunkyoung

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety-critical software is under strict regulatory requirements and these regulatory requirements are essential for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. The verification & validation (V and V) and hazard analysis of the safety-critical software are required to follow regulatory requirements through the entire software life cycle. In order to obtain a license from the regulatory body through the development and validation of safety-critical software, it is essential to meet the standards which are required by the regulatory body throughout the software development process. Generally, large amounts of documents, which demonstrate safety justification including standard compliance, V and V, hazard analysis, and vulnerability assessment activities, are submitted to the regulatory body during the licensing process. It is not easy to accurately read and evaluate the whole documentation for the development activities, implementation technology, and validation activities. The safety case methodology has been kwon a promising approach to evaluate the level and depth of the development and validation results. A safety case is a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence that provides a compelling, comprehensible, and valid case that a system is safe for a given application in a given operating environment. It is suggested to evaluate the level and depth of the results of development and validation by applying safety case methodology to achieve software safety demonstration. A lot of documents provided as evidence are connected to claim that corresponds to the topic for safety demonstration. We demonstrated a case study in which more systematic safety demonstration for the target system software is performed via safety case construction than simply listing the documents

  7. Safety Justification and Safety Case for Safety-critical Software in Digital Reactor Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kee-Choon; Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Eunkyoung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Nuclear safety-critical software is under strict regulatory requirements and these regulatory requirements are essential for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. The verification & validation (V and V) and hazard analysis of the safety-critical software are required to follow regulatory requirements through the entire software life cycle. In order to obtain a license from the regulatory body through the development and validation of safety-critical software, it is essential to meet the standards which are required by the regulatory body throughout the software development process. Generally, large amounts of documents, which demonstrate safety justification including standard compliance, V and V, hazard analysis, and vulnerability assessment activities, are submitted to the regulatory body during the licensing process. It is not easy to accurately read and evaluate the whole documentation for the development activities, implementation technology, and validation activities. The safety case methodology has been kwon a promising approach to evaluate the level and depth of the development and validation results. A safety case is a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence that provides a compelling, comprehensible, and valid case that a system is safe for a given application in a given operating environment. It is suggested to evaluate the level and depth of the results of development and validation by applying safety case methodology to achieve software safety demonstration. A lot of documents provided as evidence are connected to claim that corresponds to the topic for safety demonstration. We demonstrated a case study in which more systematic safety demonstration for the target system software is performed via safety case construction than simply listing the documents.

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, T.D.; Lommers, L.J.; Tangirala, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    A qualitative comparison between the safety characteristics of the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) and those of the steam cycle shows that the two designs achieve equivalent levels of overall safety performance. This comparison is obtained by applying the scaling laws to detailed steam-cycle computations as well as the conclusions obtained from preliminary GT-MHR model simulations. The gas turbine design is predicted to be superior for some event categories, while the steam cycle design is better for others. From a safety perspective, the GT-MHR has a modest advantage for pressurized conduction cooldown events. Recent computational simulations of 102 column, 550 MW(t) GT-MHR during a depressurized conduction cooldown show that peak fuel temperatures are within the limits. The GT-MHR has a significantly lower risk due to water ingress events under operating conditions. Two additional scenarios, namely loss of load event and turbine deblading event that are specific to the GT-MHR design are discussed. Preliminary evaluation of the GT-MHR's safety characteristics indicate that the GT-MHR can be expected to satisfy or exceed its safety requirements

  9. Evaluation of methods and tools to develop safety concepts and to demonstrate safety for an HLW repository in salt. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollingerfehr, W.; Buhmann, D.; Doerr, S.; and others

    2017-03-15

    Salt formations have been the preferred option as host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive waste in Germany for more than 40 years. During this period comprehensive geological investigations have been carried out together with a broad spectrum of concept and safety related R and D work. The behaviour of an HLW repository in salt formations, particularly in salt domes, has been analysed in terms of assessment of the total system performance. This was first carried out for concepts of generic waste repositories in salt and, since 1998, for a repository concept with specific boundary conditions, taking the geology of the Gorleben salt dome as an example. Suitable repository concepts and designs were developed, the technical feasibility has been proven and operational and long-term safety evaluated. Numerical modelling is an important input into the development of a comprehensive safety case for a waste repository. Significant progress in the development of numerical tools and their application for long-term safe ty assessment has been made in the last two decades. An integrated approach has been used in which the repository concept and relevant scientific and engineering data are combined with the results from iterative safety assessments to increase the clarity and the traceability of the evaluation. A safety concept that takes full credit of the favourable properties of salt formations was developed in the course of the R and D project ISIBEL, which started in 2005. This concept is based on the safe containment of radioactive waste in a specific part of the host rock formation, termed the containment providing rock zone, which comprises the geological barrier, the geotechnical barriers and the compacted backfill. The future evolution of the repository system will be analysed using a catalogue of Features, Events and Processes (FEP), scenario development and numerical analysis, all of which are adapted to suit the safety concept. Key elements of the

  10. Evaluation of methods and tools to develop safety concepts and to demonstrate safety for an HLW repository in salt. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollingerfehr, W.; Buhmann, D.; Doerr, S.

    2017-03-01

    Salt formations have been the preferred option as host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive waste in Germany for more than 40 years. During this period comprehensive geological investigations have been carried out together with a broad spectrum of concept and safety related R and D work. The behaviour of an HLW repository in salt formations, particularly in salt domes, has been analysed in terms of assessment of the total system performance. This was first carried out for concepts of generic waste repositories in salt and, since 1998, for a repository concept with specific boundary conditions, taking the geology of the Gorleben salt dome as an example. Suitable repository concepts and designs were developed, the technical feasibility has been proven and operational and long-term safety evaluated. Numerical modelling is an important input into the development of a comprehensive safety case for a waste repository. Significant progress in the development of numerical tools and their application for long-term safe ty assessment has been made in the last two decades. An integrated approach has been used in which the repository concept and relevant scientific and engineering data are combined with the results from iterative safety assessments to increase the clarity and the traceability of the evaluation. A safety concept that takes full credit of the favourable properties of salt formations was developed in the course of the R and D project ISIBEL, which started in 2005. This concept is based on the safe containment of radioactive waste in a specific part of the host rock formation, termed the containment providing rock zone, which comprises the geological barrier, the geotechnical barriers and the compacted backfill. The future evolution of the repository system will be analysed using a catalogue of Features, Events and Processes (FEP), scenario development and numerical analysis, all of which are adapted to suit the safety concept. Key elements of the

  11. Study on a quantitative evaluation method of equipment maintenance level and plant safety level for giant complex plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a quantitative method on maintenance level which is determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability by maintenance crew is discussed. And also a quantitative evaluation method on safety level for giant complex plant system is discussed. As a result of consideration, the following results were obtained. (1) It was considered that equipment condition after maintenance work was determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability possessed by maintenance crew. The equipment condition determined by the two factors was named as 'equipment maintenance level' and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (2) It was considered that CDF in a nuclear power plant, evaluated by using a failure rate counting the above maintenance level was quite different from CDF evaluated by using existing failure rates including a safety margin. Then, the former CDF was named as 'plant safety level' of plant system and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (3) Enhancing equipment maintenance level means an improvement of maintenance quality. That results in the enhancement of plant safety level. Therefore, plant safety level should be always watched as a plant performance indicator. (author)

  12. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  13. An evaluation of an airline cabin safety education program for elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meng-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge, attitude, and behavior intentions of elementary school students about airline cabin safety before and after they took a specially designed safety education course were examined. A safety education program was designed for school-age children based on the cabin safety briefings airlines given to their passengers, as well as on lessons learned from emergency evacuations. The course is presented in three modes: a lecture, a demonstration, and then a film. A two-step survey was used for this empirical study: an illustrated multiple-choice questionnaire before the program, and, upon completion, the same questionnaire to assess its effectiveness. Before the program, there were significant differences in knowledge and attitude based on school locations and the frequency that students had traveled by air. After the course, students showed significant improvement in safety knowledge, attitude, and their behavior intention toward safety. Demographic factors, such as gender and grade, also affected the effectiveness of safety education. The study also showed that having the instructor directly interact with students by lecturing is far more effective than presenting the information using only video media. A long-term evaluation, the effectiveness of the program, using TV or video accessible on the Internet to deliver a cabin safety program, and a control group to eliminate potential extraneous factors are suggested for future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodegradation of dispersed marine fuel oil in sediment under engineered pre-spill application strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradation of marine fuel oil was studied by monitoring changes in residual oil and populations of microorganisms in marine sediments. Biodegradation rates for dispersant and soap water were 2.09 and 2.27 g/kg per day, respectively, under pre-application strategy, suggesting that the strategy may promote MFO dispersion and provide with sufficient source of food. The effect of temperature on the effectiveness of pre-application strategy is particularly obvious for the growth of fungi and Pseudomonas maltophilia. The effect of pre-application of soap water on the tolerance of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and P. maltophilia, was gradually diminished within 25-33 days. (author)

  15. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Yong Rae; Kim, Oh Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Yoon, Han Young; Choi, Han Rim; Ku, Dong Uk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin 1, cycle 6 and demonstrates that the reactor core being fully composed of KOFA as described in this report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 6 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 ref., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Reload safety evaluation report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Cho, Young Chul; Kim, Jae Hak; Um, Kil Sup; Choi, Han Rim; Kim, Ki Hang; Sung, Kang Sik

    1993-09-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for YGN-1, cycle 8 and demonstrates that the core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 8 core and results are described in the report. (Author) 1 ref., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Yong Rae; Kim, Oh Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Yoon, Han Young; Choi, Han Rim; Ku, Dong Uk

    1993-11-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin 1, cycle 6 and demonstrates that the reactor core being fully composed of KOFA as described in this report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 6 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 ref., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Reload safety evaluation report for Yonggwang nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Chul; Nam, Kee Il; Kim, Ki Hang; Suh, Jung Min; Um, Kil Sup; Ban, Chang Hwan; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1995-02-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for YGN-1, Cycle 9 and demonstrates that the core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 9 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 2, cycle 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Gon; Park, Jin Ha; Kim, Oh Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kim, Du Ill; Choi, Han Rim; Ku, Dong Uk; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1994-07-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for Ulchin-2, cycle 6 and demonstrates that the core being composed of various fuel types as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the cycle 6 core and results are described in the report. (Author) 1 ref., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Reload safety evaluation report for Ulchin nuclear power plant unit 1, cycle 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Rae; Kwon, Hyuk Sung; Kim, Oh Hwan; Choi, Han Rim; Yoon, Han Young; Ku, Dong Uk; Suh, Jung Min; Bae, Hoo Gun

    1995-02-01

    This report presents a reload safety evaluation for UCN-2, Cycle 7 and demonstrates that the core being entirely composed of KOFA as described in the report will not adversely affect the safety of the public and the plant. All of the accidents comprising the licensing bases which could potentially be affected by the fuel reload have been reviewed for the Cycle 7 core and results are described in this report. (Author) 1 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Formal Safety versus Real Safety: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Safety Culture – Evidence from Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Järvis Marina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines differences between formal safety and real safety in Estonian small and medium-sized enterprises. The results reveal key issues in safety culture assessment. Statistical analysis of safety culture questionnaires showed many organisations with an outstanding safety culture and positive safety attitudes. However, qualitative data indicated some important safety weaknesses and aspects that should be included in the process of evaluation of safety culture in organisations.

  2. INTEGRAL BENCHMARKS AVAILABLE THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY BENCHMARK EVALUATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Enrico Sartori; Yolanda Rugama

    2008-09-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) continue to expand their efforts and broaden their scope to identify, evaluate, and provide integral benchmark data for method and data validation. Benchmark model specifications provided by these two projects are used heavily by the international reactor physics, nuclear data, and criticality safety communities. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. The status of the IRPhEP and ICSBEP is discussed in this paper, and the future of the two projects is outlined and discussed. Selected benchmarks that have been added to the IRPhEP and ICSBEP handbooks since PHYSOR’06 are highlighted, and the future of the two projects is discussed.

  3. INTEGRAL BENCHMARKS AVAILABLE THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY BENCHMARK EVALUATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Enrico Sartori; Yolanda Rugama

    2008-01-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) continue to expand their efforts and broaden their scope to identify, evaluate, and provide integral benchmark data for method and data validation. Benchmark model specifications provided by these two projects are used heavily by the international reactor physics, nuclear data, and criticality safety communities. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. The status of the IRPhEP and ICSBEP is discussed in this paper, and the future of the two projects is outlined and discussed. Selected benchmarks that have been added to the IRPhEP and ICSBEP handbooks since PHYSOR-06 are highlighted, and the future of the two projects is discussed

  4. Evaluating the safety impact of adaptive cruise control in traffic oscillations on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu

    2017-07-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been considered one of the critical components of automated driving. ACC adjusts vehicle speeds automatically by measuring the status of the ego-vehicle and leading vehicle. Current commercial ACCs are designed to be comfortable and convenient driving systems. Little attention is paid to the safety impacts of ACC, especially in traffic oscillations when crash risks are the highest. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of ACC parameter settings on rear-end collisions on freeways. First, the occurrence of a rear-end collision in a stop-and-go wave was analyzed. A car-following model in an integrated ACC was developed for a simulation analysis. The time-to-collision based factors were calculated as surrogate safety measures of the collision risk. We also evaluated different market penetration rates considering that the application of ACC will be a gradual process. The results showed that the safety impacts of ACC were largely affected by the parameters. Smaller time delays and larger time gaps improved safety performance, but inappropriate parameter settings increased the collision risks and caused traffic disturbances. A higher reduction of the collision risk was achieved as the ACC vehicle penetration rate increased, especially in the initial stage with penetration rates of less than 30%. This study also showed that in the initial stage, the combination of ACC and a variable speed limit achieved better safety improvements on congested freeways than each single technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of River Bend Station (Docket No. 50-458)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Gulf States Utilities Company as applicant and for itself and Cajun Electric Power cooperative, as owners, for a license to operate River Bend Station has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in West Feliciana Parish, near St. Francisville, Louisiana. This supplement reports the status of certain items that had not been resolved at the time of publication of the Safety Evaluation Report, Supplement No. 1, and Supplement No. 2

  6. Evaluation of the Quality of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems Based on Key Performance Indicators in Certified Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Kamalinia, Mojtaba; Momeni, Mansour; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Hamidi, Yadollah; Soltanian, Alireza

    2017-06-01

    Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems are becoming more widespread in organizations. Consequently, their effectiveness has become a core topic for researchers. This paper evaluates the performance of the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 specification in certified companies in Iran. The evaluation is based on a comparison of specific criteria and indictors related to occupational health and safety management practices in three certified and three noncertified companies. Findings indicate that the performance of certified companies with respect to occupational health and safety management practices is significantly better than that of noncertified companies. Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001-certified companies have a better level of occupational health and safety; this supports the argument that Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems play an important strategic role in health and safety in the workplace.

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Reference System, RESAR-414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The safety evaluation for the Westinghouse Standard Reactor includes information on general reactor characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analyses; and quality assurance

  8. A plan for safety evaluation of tsunamis at the Uljin nuclear power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. K.; Lee, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The sites of many nuclear and thermal power plants are located along the coast line to obtain necessary cooling water. Therefore, they are vulnerable to coastal disasters like tsunamis. The safety evaluation on tsunamis of the site of Uljin nuclear power plants was performed with the maximum potential earthquake magnitude and related fault parameters in 1986. But according to the results of recent research, the possibility was suggested that the earthquake which has bigger magnitude than was expected is likely to happen in the seismic gaps near Akita, Japan. Therefore, a plan for safety evaluation of tsunamis at the Uljin nuclear power plants was laid out

  9. Safety-evaluation report related to the final design of the Standard Nuclear Steam Supply Reference System - CESSAR System 80. Docket No. STN 50-470

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Supplement No. 1 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. for a Final Design Approval for the Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report (STN 50-470) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation by providing: (1) the evaluation of additional information submitted by the applicant since the Safety Evaluation Report was issued, (2) the evaluation of the matters the staff had under review when the Safety Evaluation Report was issued, and (3) the response to comments made by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

  10. Safety analysis and evaluation of the next fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigetada; Honda, Tsutomu; Ohmura, Hiroshi; Kawai, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Nakahara, Katsuhiko; Seki, Yasushi.

    1988-12-01

    As a part of safety evaluation, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been attempted for the Next Fusion Device system. Among the various events related to safety, a number of representative events have been selected for assessment, from the events in normal operation state, repair and maintenance state and accidental state. In the first chapter, in order to conduct the probabilistic risk assessment of the whole Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), the data base required for the analysis was investigated in 1.1, the results on the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), accident sequence, radioactive inventory leakage flow path, event tree analysis (ETA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) were summarized in 1.2 to 1.5, respectively. Based on these results, accident initiating events were evaluated in 1.6, and overall risk was assessed in 1.7 and the tasks for the future were summarized in 1.8. It is important to analyze and evaluate various events during normal operations, repair and maintenance and accidents. However, due to the large uncertainties in the modeling of phenomena or the data base, there are many events for which realistic analyses are difficult. Three such events were selected and studied in chapter two. In 2.1, the temperature rise in the reactor structure after the Loss-of-Coolant-Accident caused by the decay heat under various heat removal conditions were investigated. In 2.2, the radiation dose of personnel during repair and maintenance period caused by the release of activated dust were estimated. Lastly, in 2.3 tritium behavior in the stainless steel first wall and graphite armour were studied. (author)

  11. Rad waste disposal safety analysis / Integrated safety assessment of a waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jongtae; Choi, Jongwon; Kang, Chulhyung

    2012-04-01

    We developed CYPRUS+and adopted PID and RES method for the development of scenario. Safety performance assessment program was developed using GoldSim for the safety assessment of disposal system for the disposal of spnet fuels and wastes resulting from the pyrpoprocessing. Biosphere model was developed and verified in cooperation with JAEA. The capability to evaluate post-closure performance and safety was added to the previously developed program. And, nuclide migration and release to the biosphere considering site characteristics was evaluated by using deterministic and probabilistic approach. Operational safety assessment for drop, fire, and earthquake was also statistically evaluated considering well-established input parameter distribution. Conservative assessment showed that dose rate is below the limit value of low- and intermediate-level repository. Gas generation mechanism within engineered barrier was defined and its influence on safety was evaluated. We made probabilistic safety assessment by obtaining the probability distribution functions of important input variables and also made a sensitivity analysis. The maximum annual dose rate was shown to be below the safety limit value of 10 mSv/yr. The structure and element of safety case was developed to increase reliability of safety assessment methodology for a deep geological repository. Finally, milestone for safety case development and implementation strategy for each safety case element was also proposed

  12. Accelerated safety analyses - structural analyses Phase I - structural sensitivity evaluation of single- and double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Accelerated Safety Analyses - Phase I (ASA-Phase I) have been conducted to assess the appropriateness of existing tank farm operational controls and/or limits as now stipulated in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Operating Specification Documents, and to establish a technical basis for the waste tank operating safety envelope. Structural sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the response of the different waste tank configurations to variations in loading conditions, uncertainties in loading parameters, and uncertainties in material characteristics. Extensive documentation of the sensitivity analyses conducted and results obtained are provided in the detailed ASA-Phase I report, Structural Sensitivity Evaluation of Single- and Double-Shell Waste Tanks for Accelerated Safety Analysis - Phase I. This document provides a summary of the accelerated safety analyses sensitivity evaluations and the resulting findings

  13. Institut Laue Langevin. Complementary safety evaluation in the light of the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report proposes a complementary safety evaluation of Laue Langevin Institute (ILL) in Grenoble, one of the French basic nuclear installations (BNI, in French INB) in the light of the Fukushima accident. This evaluation takes the following risks into account: risks of flooding, earthquake, loss of power supply and loss of cooling, in addition to operational management of accident situations. It presents some characteristics of the installation (location, operator, industrial environment, installation characteristics), reports a macroscopic safety study focused of installation structures, systems and components, evaluates the seismic risk (installation sizing, margin evaluation, reinforcement propositions, possible ground acceleration levels, reactivity, cooling and confinement control), evaluates the flooding risk (installation sizing, margin evaluation), briefly examines other extreme natural phenomena (extreme meteorological conditions related to flooding, earthquake with flooding). It analyzes the risk of a loss of power supply and of cooling (loss of external and internal electric sources, loss of the ultimate cooling system). It analyzes the management of severe accidents: core cooling management, confinement management after fuel damage, cooling management of irradiated fuel element in pool, cliff effect for these three types of accident. It discusses the conditions of the use of subcontractors. In conclusion, reinforcement and strengthening measures are proposed and discussed

  14. The safety evaluation guide for laboratories and plants a tool for enhancing safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhomme, Veronique; Daubard, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) acts as technical support for the French government Authorities competent in nuclear safety and radiation protection for civil and defence activities. In this frame, the Institute's performs safety assessments of the safety cases submitted by operators to these Authorities for each stage in the life cycle of a nuclear facility, including dismantling operations, which is subjected to a licensing procedure. In the fuel cycle field, this concerns a large variety of facilities. Very often, depending on facilities and on safety cases, safety assessment to be performed is multidisciplinary and involves the supervisor in charge of the facility and several safety experts, particularly to cover the whole set of risks (criticality, exposure to radiation, fire, handling, containment, human and organisational factors...) encountered during facility's operations. Taking these into account, and in order to formalize the assessment process of the fuel cycle facilities, laboratories, irradiators, particle accelerators, under-decommissioning reactors and radioactive waste management, the 'Plants, Laboratories, Transports and Waste Safety' Division of IRSN has developed an internal guide, as a tool: - To present the methodological framework, and possible specificities, for the assessment according to the 'Defence in Depth Concept' (Part 1); - To provide key questions associated to the necessary contradictory technical review of the safety cases (Part 2); - To capitalise on experience on the basis of technical examples (coming from incident reports, previous safety assessments...) demonstrating the questioning (Part 3). The guide is divided in chapters, each dedicated to a type of risk (dissemination of radioactive material, external or internal exposure from ionising radiation, criticality, radiolysis mechanisms, handling operations, earthquake, human or organisational factors...) or to a type

  15. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong

    2015-01-01

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening

  16. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening.

  17. Evaluation of Portable Multi-Gas Analyzers for use by Safety Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, D. E.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Bardel, D. N.

    1998-01-01

    During confined space entry operations as well as Shuttle-safing operations, United Space Alliance (USA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) safety personnel use a variety of portable instrumentation to monitor for hazardous levels of compounds such as nitrogen dioxide (N%), monomethylhydrazine (NMM), FREON 21, ammonia (NH3), oxygen (O2), and combustibles (as hydrogen (H2)). Except for O2 and H2, each compound is monitored using a single analyzer. In many cases these analyzers are 5 to 10 years old and require frequent maintenance. In addition, they are cumbersome to carry and tend to make the job of personnel monitoring physically taxing. As part of an effort to upgrade the sensor technology background information was requested from a total of 27 manufacturers of portable multi-gas instruments. A set of criteria was established to determine which vendors would be selected for laboratory evaluation. These criteria were based on requests made by USA/NASA Safety personnel in order to meet requirements within their respective areas for confined-space and Shuttle-safing operations. Each of the 27 manufacturers of multi-gas analyzers was sent a copy of the criteria and asked to fill in the appropriate information pertaining to their instrumentation. Based on the results of the sensor criteria worksheets, a total of 9 vendors out of 27 surveyed manufacturers were chosen for evaluation. Each vendor included in the final evaluation process was requested to configure each of two analyzers with NO2, NH3, O2, and combustible sensors. A set of lab tests was designed in order to determine which of the multi-gas instruments under evaluation was best suited for use in both shuttle and confined space operations. These tests included linearity/repeatability, zero/span drift response/recovery, humidity, interference, and maintenance. At the conclusion of lab testing three vendors were selected for additional field testing. Based on the results of both the lab and

  18. Lessons Learned from a Five-year Evaluation of the Belgian Safety Culture Oversight Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Belgian Regulatory Body has implemented a Safety Culture oversight process since 2010. In a nutshell, this process is based on field observations provided by inspectors or safety analysts during any contact with a licencee (inspections, meetings, phone calls, etc). These observations are recorded within an observation (excel) sheet—aiming at describing factual and contextual issues — and are linked to IAEA Safety Culture attributes. It should be stressed that the purpose of the process is not to give a comprehensive view of a licencee safety culture but to address findings that require attention or action on the part of a licencee. In other words, gathering safety culture observations aims at identifying cultural, organizational or behavioural issues in order to feed a regulatory response to potential problems. Safety Culture Observations (SCO) are then fully integrated in routine inspection activities and must be seen as an input of the overall oversight process. As a result, the assessment of the SCO is inserted within the yearly safety evaluation report performed by Bel V and transmitted to the licencee. However, observing safety culture is not a natural approach for engineers. Guidance, training and coaching must be provided in order to open up safety dimensions to be captured. In other words, a SCO process requires a continuous support in order to promote a holistic and systemic view of safety.

  19. Safety significance of ATR passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: 1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, 2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and 3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond to most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models and results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system)

  20. Safety climate and safety behaviors in the construction industry: The importance of co-workers commitment to safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwatka, Natalie V; Rosecrance, John C

    2016-06-16

    There is growing empirical evidence that as safety climate improves work site safety practice improve. Safety climate is often measured by asking workers about their perceptions of management commitment to safety. However, it is less common to include perceptions of their co-workers commitment to safety. While the involvement of management in safety is essential, working with co-workers who value and prioritize safety may be just as important. To evaluate a concept of safety climate that focuses on top management, supervisors and co-workers commitment to safety, which is relatively new and untested in the United States construction industry. Survey data was collected from a cohort of 300 unionized construction workers in the United States. The significance of direct and indirect (mediation) effects among safety climate and safety behavior factors were evaluated via structural equation modeling. Results indicated that safety climate was associated with safety behaviors on the job. More specifically, perceptions of co-workers commitment to safety was a mediator between both management commitment to safety climate factors and safety behaviors. These results support workplace health and safety interventions that build and sustain safety climate and a commitment to safety amongst work teams.

  1. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit No. 2. Docket No. 50-341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, provides the staff's evaluation of additional information submitted by the applicant regarding outstanding review issues identified in Supplement No. 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report, dated January 1982

  2. Development Perspective of Regulatory Audit Code System for SFR Nuclear Safety Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Moo Hoon; Lee, Gil Soo; Shin, An Dong; Suh, Nam Duk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) in Korea is based on the KALIMER-600 concept developed by KAERI. Based on 'Long-term R and D Plan for Future Reactor Systems' which was approved by the Korea Atomic Energy Commission in 2008, the KAERI designer is scheduled to apply the design certification of the prototype SFR in 2017. In order to establish regulatory infrastructure for the licensing of a prototype SFR, KINS has develop the regulatory requirements for the demonstration SFR since 2010, and are scheduled to develop the regulatory audit code systems in regard to core, fuel, and system, etc. since 2012. In this study, the domestic code systems used for core design and safety evaluation of PWRs and the nuclear physics and code system for SFRs were briefly reviewed, and the development perspective of regulatory audit code system for SFR nuclear safety evaluation were derived

  3. Evaluation of operating experience with safety values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bung, W.; Hoemke, P.; Oberender, W.; Paul, H.; Rueter, W.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes statistical investigations of 2076 functional tests carried out on power operated safety valves in conventional power plants in 1972 until 1983 with special regard to Common Mode-Failures. The results clearly show that Common Mode-Failures play an important part of non-availability for the controlled safety valves, especially in the control system. The 'Deutsche Risikostudie' does not consider any Common Mode-Failures of the primary safety valves. However there is no significant increase of the risk resulted by the primary safety valves in the 'Referenzanlage' if the calculated Common Mode-Failures probabilities are considered. (orig.) [de

  4. Consequence based safety evaluation of an earth dam for floods and earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, D.N.D.; Lou, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment is a sophisticated technique for assessing the potential for failure of complex, hazardous facilities and thereby to identify ways to reduce risks. B.C. Hydro is introducing probabilistic risk assessment to supplement conventional dam safety assessments. A test is described of a dam safety evaluation procedure, whereby the procedure is applied to the Alouette Dam, a 21 m earthfill structure constructed in 1926. Risks derived from extreme loadings due to floods and earthquakes are evaluated, while other potential failure modes are not considered. Event tree construction and the subjective probability assessment to evaluate failure probability are outlined. The assessment: examined application of procedures for estimating potential loss of life and economic losses resulting from failure of the dam; tested the feasibility of applying developing B.C. Hydro procedures for estimating dam failure probability; established a framework that can be used to carry out high level probabilistic risk assessment of a dam; and tested the procedures to evaluate the risks associated with hydrologic and seismic events, as well as combined risks. Significant reductions in risk can be achieved by addressing conditions more likely but less severe than the those associated with the probable maximum flood or maximum design earthquake. 9 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Safety Evakuation Of Triga-2000 Reactor Operation Viewed From Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karliana, Itjeu

    2001-01-01

    The safety evaluation activities of TRIGA-2000 operation viewed from safety culture performed by questioners data collected from the operators and supervisor site of TRIGA-2000 P3TN, Bandung. There are 9 activity aspects surveyed, for instant to avail the policy of safety from their chairman, safety management, education and training, emergency aids planning, safety consultancy, accident information, safety analysis, safety devices, safety and occupational health. The surveying undertaken by filling the questioner that containing of 9 activity aspects and 20 samples of employees. The safety evaluation results' of the operation personnel in TRIGA-2000 P3TN are good implemented by both the operators and supervisors should be improve and attention need to provide the equipment's. The education and training especially for safety refreshment must be performing

  6. Evaluation of C-reactive protein as an inflammatory biomarker in rabbits for vaccine nonclinical safety studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Destexhe, E.; Prinsen, M.K.; Schöll, I. van; Kuper, C.F.; Garçon, N.; Veenstra, S.; Segal, L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammatory reactions are one of the potential safety concerns that are evaluated in the framework of vaccine safety testing. In nonclinical studies, the assessment of the inflammation relies notably on the measurement of biomarkers. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase plasma

  7. Current Activities on Nuclear Safety Culture in Korea. How to meet the challenges for Safety and Safety Culture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chaewoon [International Policy Department Policy and Standard Division, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Gusung-Dong Yuseong-Ku, 305-338 DAEJEON (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    'Statement of Nuclear Safety Policy' declared by the Korean Government elucidates adherence to the principle of 'priority to safety'. The 3. Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) more specifically addressed the necessity to develop and apply 'safety culture evaluation criteria' and to strengthen safety management of concerned organizations in an autonomous way. Putting these policies as a backdrop, Korean Government has taken diverse safety culture initiatives and has encouraged the relevant organizations to develop safety culture practices of their own accord. Accordingly, KHNP, the operating organization in Korea, developed a 'safety culture performance indicator', which has been used to evaluate safety mind of employees and the evaluation results have been continuously reflected in operational management and training programs. Furthermore, KHNP inserted 'nuclear safety culture subject' into every course of more than two week length, and provided employees with special lectures on safety culture. KINS, the regulatory organization, developed indicators for the safety culture evaluation based on the IAEA Guidelines. Also, KINS has hosted an annual Nuclear Safety Technology Information Meeting to share information between regulatory organizations and industries. Furthermore, KINS provided a nuclear safety culture class to the new employees and they are given a chance to participate in performance of a role-reversal socio-drama. Additionally, KINS developed a safety culture training program, published training materials and conducted a 'Nuclear Safety Culture Basic Course' in October 2007, 4 times of which are planed this year. In conclusion, from Government to relevant organizations, 'nuclear safety culture' concept is embraced as important and has been put into practice on a variety of forms. Specifically, 'education and training' is a starting line and sharing

  8. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-423)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Safety Evaluation Report issued in August 1984 provided the results of the NRC staff review of Northeast Nuclear Energy Company's application for a license to operate the Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 3. Supplement No. 1 to that report, issued in March 1985 updated the information contained in the Safety Evaluation Report and addressed the ACRS Report issued on September 10, 1984. The Report, Supplement No. 2 updates the information contained in the Safety Evaluation Report and Supplement No. 1 and addresses prior unresolved items. The facility is located in Waterford Township, New London, Connecticut. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  9. Development of Safety Significance Evaluation Program for Accidents and Events in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui Chang; Hong, Seok Jin; Cho, Nam Chul; Chung, Dae Wook; Lee, Chang Joo

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the significance in terms of safety for the accidents and events occurred in nuclear power plants using probabilistic safety assessment techniques can provide useful insights to the regulator. Based on the quantified risk information of accident or event occurred, regulators can decide which regulatory areas should be focused than the others. To support these regulatory analysis activities, KINS-ASP program was developed. KINS-ASP program can supports the risk increase due to the occurred accidents or events by providing the graphic interfaces and linked quantification engines for the PSA experts and non- PSA acquainted regulators both

  10. Drug Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  11. Effects of auditing patient safety in hospital care: design of a mixed-method evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hanskamp-Sebregts, M.E.; Zegers, M.; Boeijen, W.M.J.; Westert, G.P.; Gurp, P.J.M. van; Wollersheim, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auditing of patient safety aims at early detection of risks of adverse events and is intended to encourage the continuous improvement of patient safety. The auditing should be an independent, objective assurance and consulting system. Auditing helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluating and improving the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance. Audits are broadly conducted in hospitals, but little i...

  12. The Sheep as a Model of Preclinical Safety and Pharmacokinetic Evaluations of Candidate Microbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Jonathon D. S.; Cameron, David; Dias, Nicola; Holding, Jeremy; Muntendam, Alex; Oostebring, Freddy; Dreier, Peter; Rohan, Lisa; Nuttall, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    When developing novel microbicide products for the prevention of HIV infection, the preclinical safety program must evaluate not only the active pharmaceutical ingredient but also the product itself. To that end, we applied several relatively standard toxicology study methodologies to female sheep, incorporating an assessment of the pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, and local toxicity of a dapivirine-containing human vaginal ring formulation (Dapivirine Vaginal Ring-004). We performed a...

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention to Improve the Patient Safety Attitudes of Intern Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Fois, Romano A; McLachlan, Andrew J; Chen, Timothy F

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a face-to-face educational intervention in improving the patient safety attitudes of intern pharmacists. Methods. A patient safety education program was delivered to intern pharmacists undertaking The University of Sydney Intern Training Program in 2014. Their patient safety attitudes were evaluated immediately prior to, immediately after, and three-months post-intervention. Underlying attitudinal factors were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Changes in factor scores were examined using analysis of variance. Results. Of the 120 interns enrolled, 95 (78.7%) completed all three surveys. Four underlying attitudinal factors were identified: attitudes towards addressing errors, questioning behaviors, blaming individuals, and reporting errors. Improvements in all attitudinal factors were evident immediately after the intervention. However, only improvements in attitudes towards blaming individuals involved in errors were sustained at three months post-intervention. Conclusion. The educational intervention was associated with short-term improvements in pharmacist interns' patient safety attitudes. However, other factors likely influenced their attitudes in the longer term.

  14. Evaluation of the Quality of Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems Based on Key Performance Indicators in Certified Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Mohammadfam; Mojtaba Kamalinia; Mansour Momeni; Rostam Golmohammadi; Yadollah Hamidi; Alireza Soltanian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems are becoming more widespread in organizations. Consequently, their effectiveness has become a core topic for researchers. This paper evaluates the performance of the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18001 specification in certified companies in Iran. Methods: The evaluation is based on a comparison of specific criteria and indictors related to occupational health and safety management practices in three certified...

  15. Evaluation of the Radiological Safety of 192 Ir Apparatus for Industrial Gamma Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, J. O.; Silva, F. C. A. da; Ramalho, A. T.; Godoy, J. M. O.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of the 192Ir apparatus for industrial gamma radiography have been in usage in Brazil for more than 20 years. They are portable, and almost all operate according to category II. The main objective of this work was to assess the radiological safety of the 11 models of 192Ir apparatus most used in Brazil. The 11 models of 192Ir apparatus were studied with respect to compliance with the main safety requirements of three editions of international Standards ISO 3999. Six models were already manufactured incorporating the safety devices specified in the first edition of ISO 3999, issued in 1977. However, five models were not. The validity of their type B certificates for transport packages was also evaluated. (Author) 8 refs

  16. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-01-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm/shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm/shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the ''International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments'' have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency

  17. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-382). Suppl.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    Supplement 6 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Louisiana Power and Light Company for a license to operate the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation Report by providing the staff's evaluation of information submitted by the applicant since the Safety Evaluation Report and its five previous supplements were issued

  18. Ethnomedical survey and safety evaluation of traditional eye medicines used in Misungwi district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maregesi, Sheila M; Messo, Charles W; Mathias, Juma

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at documenting products used as traditional eye medicine (TEM) in Misungwi district, Tanzania, and performing preliminary analysis on safety status. Ethnomedical study was conducted in Misungwi district. Information was sourced by face-to-face interview with traditional healers, traditional medicine vendors, and knowledgeable people guided by a well-structured questionnaire. Safety was evaluated by determining pH using pH meter and mineral analysis using the Delta, Portable X-ray fluorescence equipment, and qualitative chemical tests. A total of 23 TEM products were recorded from botanical (79%) and zoological (21%) sources including animal excreta. Liquid preparation ranked highest among dosage forms. Safety evaluation showed that only one product possessed the pH value of 7.4 as recommended for topical ophthalmic medicines. Fourteen minerals were detected and quantified in three samples; some of these minerals are known for their negative effects to the eyes, of medical interest is strontium used for the management of benign eye tumors. Information providers were unaware of health risks associated with the use of TEM. This study has revealed the common use of TEM in Misungwi district. The majority of the products are from the botanical source. Although literature provides supporting data for the application to some of the recorded TEM, safety evaluation by pH and mineral analysis in this study have indicated possible ophthalmological medical problems that could result from using such products. Extensive scientific studies including animal experiments and identification of bioactive compounds are essential to develop safe TEMs.

  19. A lattice-based Monte Carlo evaluation of Canada Deuterium Uranium-6 safety parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Hee; Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Woo Song

    2016-01-01

    Important safety parameters such as the fuel temperature coefficient (FTC) and the power coefficient of reactivity (PCR) of the CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU-6) reactor have been evaluated using the Monte Carlo method. For accurate analysis of the parameters, the Doppler broadening rejection correction scheme was implemented in the MCNPX code to account for the thermal motion of the heavy uranium-238 nucleus in the neutron-U scattering reactions. In this work, a standard fuel lattice has been modeled and the fuel is depleted using MCNPX. The FTC value is evaluated for several burnup points including the mid-burnup representing a near-equilibrium core. The Doppler effect has been evaluated using several cross-section libraries such as ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1.1, and JENDL-4.0. The PCR value is also evaluated at mid-burnup conditions to characterize the safety features of an equilibrium CANDU-6 reactor. To improve the reliability of the Monte Carlo calculations, we considered a huge number of neutron histories in this work and the standard deviation of the k-infinity values is only 0.5-1 pcm

  20. Applying risk insights in US NRC reviews of integral pressurized water reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, M.A.; Hilsmeier, T.; Kevern, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    In its Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) on COMGBJ-10-0004/COMGEA-10-0001, 'Use of Risk Insights to Enhance Safety Focus of Small Modular Reactor Reviews,' dated August 31, 2010 (ML102510405), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) directed the NRC staff to more fully integrate the use of risk insights into pre-application activities and the review of small modular reactor (SMR) applications with near-term focus on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) designs. The Commission's objective is to align the review focus and resources with the risk-significant systems, structures, and components (SSCs) and other aspects of the design, that contribute most to safety in order to enhance the efficiency of the review process while still enabling a decision of reasonable assurance of the design's safety. The staff was directed to develop a design-specific, risk-informed review plan for each SMR to address pre-application and application review activities. The NRC staff submitted a response to the Commission which describes its approach for (1) using risk insights, consistent with current regulatory requirements, to assign SSCs to one of a limited set of graded categories, and (2) adjusting the scope and depth of current review plans--where possible--consistent with regulatory requirements and consistent with the applicable graded category. Because the staff's review constitutes an independent audit of the application, the staff may emphasize or de-emphasize particular aspects of its review guidance (i.e., Standard Review Plan), as appropriate and consistent with regulatory requirements, for the application being reviewed. The staff may propose justifications for not performing certain sections of the reviews called for by the applicable review plan. Examples of acceptable variations in the scope of a review can include reduced emphasis on SSC attributes such as reliability, availability, or functional performance when the SSC will be in the scope of a program

  1. Research on the evaluation model of the software reliability in nuclear safety class digital instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Yang Ming; Li Fengjun; Ma Zhanguo; Zeng Hai

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the software reliability (SR) in nuclear safety class digital instrumentation and control system (D-I and C), firstly, the international software design standards were analyzed, the standards' framework was built, and we found that the D-I and C software standards should follow the NUREG-0800 BTP7-14, according to the NRC NUREG-0800 review of requirements. Secondly, the quantitative evaluation model of SR using Bayesian Belief Network and thirteen sub-model frameworks were established. Thirdly, each sub-models and the weight of corresponding indexes in the evaluation model were analyzed. Finally, the safety case was introduced. The models lay a foundation for review and quantitative evaluation on the SR in nuclear safety class D-I and C. (authors)

  2. A safety-critical decision support system evaluation using situation awareness and workload measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the safety of operations in safety-critical systems, it is necessary to maintain operators' situation awareness (SA) at a high level. A situation awareness support system (SASS) has therefore been developed to handle uncertain situations [1]. This paper aims to systematically evaluate the enhancement of SA in SASS by applying a multi-perspective approach. The approach consists of two SA metrics, SAGAT and SART, and one workload metric, NASA-TLX. The first two metrics are used for the direct objective and subjective measurement of SA, while the third is used to estimate operator workload. The approach is applied in a safety-critical environment called residue treater, located at a chemical plant in which a poor human-system interface reduced the operator's SA and caused one of the worst accidents in US history. A counterbalanced within-subjects experiment is performed using a virtual environment interface with and without the support of SASS. The results indicate that SASS improves operators' SA, and specifically has benefits for SA levels 2 and 3. In addition, it is concluded that SASS reduces operator workload, although further investigations in different environments with a larger number of participants have been suggested. - Highlights: • The suitability of a cognitive decision support system is investigated. • An evaluation approach considering situation awareness and workload measures is proposed. • A computerized system based on the proposed approach is implemented. • The implemented system is used in a safety-critical environment.

  3. Intergrated plant safety assessment. Systematic evaluation program. Palisades plant, Consumers Power Company, Docket No. 50-255. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published its Final Integrated Plant Safety Assessment Report (IPSAR) (NUREG-0820), under the scope of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP), for Consumers Power Company's Palisades Plant located in Covert, Van Buren County, Michigan. The SEP was initiated by the NRC to review the design of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. This report documents the review completed under the SEP for the Palisades Plant. The review has provided for (1) as assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on selected safety issues and those that existed when the Palisades Plant was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety when all supplements to the Final IPSAR and the Safety Evaluation Report for converting the license from a provisional to a full-term license have been issued. The report also addresses the comments and recommendations made by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in connection with its review of the Draft Report, issued in April 1982

  4. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: A legally imposed challenge to science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, M.; Rogiers, V.

    2010-01-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  5. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: a legally imposed challenge to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, M; Rogiers, V

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  6. Study on the nuclear heat application system with a high temperature gas-cooled reactor and its safety evaluation (Thesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Yoshitomo

    2008-03-01

    Aiming at the realization of the nuclear heat application system with a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR), research and development on the whole evaluation of the system, the connection technology between the HTGR and a chemical plant such as the safety evaluation against the fire and explosion and the control technology, and the vessel cooling system of the HTGR were carried out. In the whole evaluation of the nuclear heat application system, an ammonia production system using nuclear heat was examined, and the technical subjects caused by the connection of the chemical plant to the HTGR were distilled. After distilling the subjects, the safety evaluation method against the fire and explosion to the reactor, the mitigation technology of thermal disturbance to the reactor, and the reactor core cooling by the vessel cooling system were discussed. These subjects are very important in terms of safety. About the fire and explosion, the safety evaluation method was established by developing the process and the numerical analysis code system. About the mitigation technology of the thermal disturbance, it was demonstrated that the steam generator, which was installed at the downstream of the chemical reactor in the chemical plant, could mitigate the thermal disturbance to the reactor. In order to enhance the safety of the reactor in accidents, the heat transfer characteristic of the passive indirect core cooling system was investigated, and the heat transfer equation considering both thermal radiation and natural convection was developed for the system design. As a result, some technical subjects related to safety in the nuclear heat application system were solved. (author)

  7. Evaluation of aviation-based safety team training in a hospital in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Korne, Dirk F; Van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D H; Van Dyck, Cathy; Hiddema, U Francis; Klazinga, Niek S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the implementation of a broad-scale team resource management (TRM) program on safety culture in a Dutch eye hospital, detailing the program's content and procedures. Aviation-based TRM training is recognized as a useful approach to increase patient safety, but little is known about how it affects safety culture. Pre- and post-assessments of the hospitals' safety culture was based on interviews with ophthalmologists, anesthesiologists, residents, nurses, and support staff. Interim observations were made at training sessions and in daily hospital practice. The program consisted of safety audits of processes and (team) activities, interactive classroom training sessions by aviation experts, a flight simulator session, and video recording of team activities with subsequent feedback. Medical professionals considered aviation experts inspiring role models and respected their non-hierarchical external perspective and focus on medical-technical issues. The post-assessment showed that ophthalmologists and other hospital staff had become increasingly aware of safety issues. The multidisciplinary approach promoted social (team) orientation that replaced the former functionally-oriented culture. The number of reported near-incidents greatly increased; the number of wrong-side surgeries stabilized to a minimum after an initial substantial reduction. The study was observational and the hospital's variety of efforts to improve safety culture prevented us from establishing a causal relation between improvement and any one specific intervention. Aviation-based TRM training can be a useful to stimulate safety culture in hospitals. Safety and quality improvements are not single treatment interventions but complex socio-technical interventions. A multidisciplinary system approach and focus on "team" instead of "profession" seems both necessary and difficult in hospital care.

  8. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  9. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2006-03-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  10. Conduct and results of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's evaluation of the Ulysses space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholtis, J.A. Jr.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.; Klug, N.P.; Winchester, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    The recent 6 October 1990 launch and deployment of the nuclear-powered Ulysses spacecraft from the Space Shuttle Discovery culminated an extensive safety review and evaluation effort by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP). After more than a year of detailed independent review, study, and analysis, the INSRP prepared a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) on the Ulysses mission, in accordance with Presidential Directive-National Security Council memorandum 25. The SER, which included a review of the Ulysses Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and an independent characterization of the mission risks, was used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in its decision to request launch approval as well as by the Executive Office of the President in arriving at a launch decision based on risk-benefit considerations. This paper provides an overview of the Ulysses mission and the conduct as well as the results of the INSRP evaluation. While the mission risk determined by the INSRP in the SER was higher than that characterized by the Ulysses project in the FSAR, both reports indicated that the radiological risks were relatively small. In the final analysis, the SER proved to be supportive of a positive launch decision. The INSRP evaluation process has demonstrated its effectiveness numerous times since the 1960s. In every case, it has provided the essential ingredients and perspective to permit an informed launch decision at the highest level of our Government

  11. A risk assessment approach to evaluating food safety based on product surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notermans, S.; Nauta, M.J.; Jansen, J.; Jouve, J.L.; Mead, G.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines a risk assessment approach to food safety evaluation, which is based on testing a particular type of food, or group of similar foods, for relevant microbial pathogens. The results obtained are related to possible adverse effects on the health of consumers. The paper also gives an

  12. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology.

  13. The awareness of employees in safety culture through the improved nuclear safety culture evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ga; Sung, Chan Ho; Jung, Yeon Sub

    2012-01-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, nuclear safety culture terminology was at first introduced emphasizing the importance of employees' attitude and organizational safety. The concept of safety culture was spread by INSAG 4 published in 1991. From that time, IAEA had provided the service of ASCOT for the safety culture assessment. However, many people still are thinking that safety culture is abstract and is not clear. It is why the systematic and reliable assessment methodology was not developed. Assessing safety culture is to identify what is the basic assumption for any organization to accept unconsciously. Therefore, it is very difficult to reach a meaningful conclusion by a superficial investigation alone. KHNP had been doing the safety culture assessment which was based on ASCOT methodology every 2 years. And this result had contributed to improving safety culture. But this result could not represent the level of organization's safety culture due to the limitation of method. So, KHNP has improved the safety culture method by benchmarking the over sea assessment techniques in 2011. The effectiveness of this improved methodology was validated through a pilot assessment. In this paper, the level of employees' safety culture awareness was analyzed by the improved method and reviewed what is necessary for the completeness and objectivity of the nuclear safety culture assessment methodology

  14. Evaluation of criteria for developing traffic safety materials for Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit-Kaplan, Erica L; Miara, Christine; Formica, Scott W; Gallagher, Susan Scavo

    2011-03-01

    This quantitative study assessed the validity of guidelines that identified four key characteristics of culturally appropriate Spanish-language traffic safety materials: language, translation, formative evaluation, and credible source material. From a sample of 190, the authors randomly selected 12 Spanish-language educational materials for analysis by 15 experts. Hypotheses included that the experts would rate materials with more of the key characteristics as more effective (likely to affect behavioral change) and rate materials originally developed in Spanish and those that utilized formative evaluation (e.g., pilot tests, focus groups) as more culturally appropriate. Although results revealed a weak association between the number of key characteristics in a material and the rating of its effectiveness, reviewers rated materials originally created in Spanish and those utilizing formative evaluation as significantly more culturally appropriate. The findings and methodology demonstrated important implications for developers and evaluators of any health-related materials for Spanish speakers and other population groups.

  15. Deterministic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide harmonized guidance to designers, operators, regulators and providers of technical support on deterministic safety analysis for nuclear power plants. It provides information on the utilization of the results of such analysis for safety and reliability improvements. The Safety Guide addresses conservative, best estimate and uncertainty evaluation approaches to deterministic safety analysis and is applicable to current and future designs. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Grouping of initiating events and associated transients relating to plant states; 3. Deterministic safety analysis and acceptance criteria; 4. Conservative deterministic safety analysis; 5. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis; 6. Verification and validation of computer codes; 7. Relation of deterministic safety analysis to engineering aspects of safety and probabilistic safety analysis; 8. Application of deterministic safety analysis; 9. Source term evaluation for operational states and accident conditions; References

  16. Probabilistic safety assessment technology for commercial nuclear power plant security evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liming, J.K.; Johnson, D.H.; Dykes, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power plant physical security has received much more intensive treatment and regulatory attention since September 11, 2001. In light of advancements made by the nuclear power industry in the field of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for its power plants over that last 30 years, and given the many examples of successful applications of risk-informed regulation at U. S. nuclear power plants during recent years, it may well be advisable to apply a 'risk-informed' approach to security management at nuclear power plants from now into the future. In fact, plant PSAs developed in response to NRC Generic Letter 88-20 and related requirements are used to help define target sets of critical plant safety equipment in our current security exercises for the industry. With reasonable refinements, plant PSAs can be used to identify, analyze, and evaluate reasonable and prudent approaches to address security issues and associated defensive strategies at nuclear power plants. PSA is the ultimate scenario-based approach to risk assessment, and thus provides a most powerful tool in identifying and evaluating potential risk management decisions. This paper provides a summary of observations of factors that are influencing or could influence cost-effective or 'cost-reasonable' security management decision-making in the current political environment, and provides recommendations for the application of PSA tools and techniques to the nuclear power plant operational safety response exercise process. The paper presents a proposed framework for nuclear power plant probabilistic terrorist risk assessment that applies these tools and techniques. (authors)

  17. Findings by the Commission Evaluating Nuclear Safety and Repository Research in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandtner, W.; Closs, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Commission Evaluating Nuclear Safety and Repository Research in Germany, which had been appointed by the German Federal Ministry of Economics on September 24, 1999, submitted its report. Here is the gist of the Commission's findings: Irrespective of the criteria established with the political decision to terminate the use of nuclear power in Germany, competence in nuclear safety must be maintained over the next few decades. Only in this way can the government perform its duty and make provisions for the future, and can the safety of nuclear facilities and waste management pathways be ensured in accordance with the international state of the art. In view of the considerable reduction in funding in recent years and also in future, measures must be taken to ensure that further decreases in-roject funding and institutionalized government financing are excluded so as to avoid further declines in terms of manpower and competence in this field. Reactor safety and repository research must be financed at a level allowing the federal government to discharge its legal duties. The full report by the Commission, with its annexes, is available on the GRS web site (http://www.grs.de) as a PDF file. (orig.) [de

  18. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.; Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1985-02-01

    Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

  19. Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Costa, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    Bal-Price AK, Coecke S, Costa L, Crofton KM, Fritsche E, Goldberg A, Grandjean P, Lein PJ, Li A, Lucchini R, Mundy WR, Padilla S, Persico A, Seiler AEM, Kreysa J. Conference Report: Advancing the Science of Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing for Better Safety Evaluation. Altex 2012: 29: 202-15....

  20. Bringing structure into road safety evaluation: a hierarchy of indicators

    OpenAIRE

    HERMANS, Elke; BRIJS, Tom; WETS, Geert; SHEN, Yongjun

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of interest in indicators in several domains. This reflects growing recognition of the important role indicators can play as a tool for enhancing the quality of decision making. Indicators express an aspect of a phenomenon in an understandable and relevant way and are useful in terms of monitoring, evaluation and communication. Like other policies, road safety policy could benefit from the use of indicators able to measure changes and progress towa...

  1. Bringing structure into road safety evaluation: a hierarchy of indicators

    OpenAIRE

    HERMANS, Elke; BRIJS, Tom; WETS, Geert

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosion of interest in indicators in several domains. This reflects growing recognition of the important role indicators can play as a tool for enhancing the quality of decision making. Indicators express an aspect of a phenomenom in an understandable and relevant way and are useful in terms of monitoring, evaluation and communication. Like other policies, road safety policy could benefit from the use of indicators able to measure changes and progress towa...

  2. Evaluation of experience and trends in international co-operation in nuclear safety and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadie, K.B.; Strohl, P.

    1977-01-01

    The paper traces the development of co-operation in nuclear safety technology between the OECD Member countries which began as early as 1965 and is now organised under the auspices of the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The principal objective is to exchange and evaluate information on relevant R and D and hence broaden the technical basis for decision-making by licensing authorities in the different countries. The membership of the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations combines expertise in nuclear safety R and D and in licensing questions so that licensing procedures in the different countries may be exposed continuously to the influence of overall technological progress. The Committee actively seeks to narrow the differences between administrative procedures and traditional legal practices in Member countries as these affect the licensing of nuclear installations, primarily by assessing and comparing the methods employed. The paper shows how the Committee's working arrangements provide for maximum flexibility: the various co-ordinated programmes are selected after in-depth evaluation of potential areas of priority and are implemented through ad hoc Working Groups, specialist meetings or task forces, or in the form of special studies involving all interested countries. The results, conclusions and recommendations emerging from each programme are reviewed by the Committee before dissemination. Hitherto the greater part of the Committee's activities has been concerned with the safety of light water reactors and related subjects, but more attention is now being given to other topics such as LMFBR safety technology and the safety of fuel cycle facilities, particularly those at the end of the process, the so-called ''back-end'' plants. The paper discusses certain problems and constraints encountered in implementing the programme, some of which stem from Member countries' different degrees of penetration

  3. Mochovce NPP safety measures evaluation from point of view of operational safety enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cillik, I.; Vrtik, L.

    2000-01-01

    Mochovce NPP consists of four reactor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present first unit operated and the second one under the construction finishing. As these units represent second generation of WWER reactor design, the additional safety measures (SM) were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of performed international audits and operational experience based on exploitation of other similar units (as Dukovany and J. Bohunice NPPs). These requirements result into a number of SMs grouped according to their purpose to reach recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for safety measures establishing including their grouping into the comprehensive tasks covering different areas of safety goals as well as structural organization of a project management of including participating companies and work performance. More, results are given regarding contribution of selected SMs to the total core damage frequency decreasing. (author)

  4. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-05-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm / shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm / shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments” have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy

  5. Deepening om Safety culture Auto evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Churruca, I.; Buedo Jimenez, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of safety culture used in nuclear forums refers to the series of actions aimed at guaranteeing that safety issues in nuclear power plants are adequately addressed. The activities to which this concept refers have been gradually extended over the years so that, today, they encompass the whole organizations structure. In other words, the safety culture implies that all positions in the organizational structure perform their tasks with a level of attention such that all their senses are focused on them. And this performance is what leads us to excellence in plant operation. In addition, the implementation of a self-assessment system in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant of its activities and processes has resulted in the identification of expectations on the basis of which we can identify strengths and weaknesses, enabling us to leverage the former and correct the latter. (Author)

  6. The Dynamic Safety Evaluation Model of the Safety Control Theory and Its Application%安全控制论的动态安全评价模型及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, on the principle of the modern control theory, the safety state equation of the safety systems was established and the dynamic model of the safety evaluation was put out. And finally, the example of its application in an iron and steel corporation was given.

  7. Safety Evaluation Report for the Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3070)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review and safety evaluation of the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (LES, the applicant) application for a license to possess and use byproduct, source, and special nuclear material and to enrich natural uranium to a maximum of 5 percent U-235 by the gas centrifuge process. The plant, to be known as the Claiborne Enrichment Center (CEC), would be constructed near the town of Homer in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana. At full production in a given year, the plant will receive approximately 4,700 tonnes of feed UF{sub 6} and produce 870 tonnes of low-enriched UF{sub 6}, and 3,830 tonnes of depleted UF{sub 6} tails. Facility construction, operation, and decommissioning are expected to last 5, 30, and 7 years, respectively. The objective of the review is to evaluate the potential adverse impacts of operation of the facility on worker and public health and safety under both normal operating and accident conditions. The review also considers the management organization, administrative programs, and financial qualifications provided to assure safe design and operation of the facility. The NRC staff concludes that the applicant`s descriptions, specifications, and analyses provide an adequate basis for safety review of facility operations and that construction and operation of the facility does not pose an undue risk to public health and safety.

  8. Safety Evaluation Report for the Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3070)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review and safety evaluation of the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (LES, the applicant) application for a license to possess and use byproduct, source, and special nuclear material and to enrich natural uranium to a maximum of 5 percent U-235 by the gas centrifuge process. The plant, to be known as the Claiborne Enrichment Center (CEC), would be constructed near the town of Homer in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana. At full production in a given year, the plant will receive approximately 4,700 tonnes of feed UF 6 and produce 870 tonnes of low-enriched UF 6 , and 3,830 tonnes of depleted UF 6 tails. Facility construction, operation, and decommissioning are expected to last 5, 30, and 7 years, respectively. The objective of the review is to evaluate the potential adverse impacts of operation of the facility on worker and public health and safety under both normal operating and accident conditions. The review also considers the management organization, administrative programs, and financial qualifications provided to assure safe design and operation of the facility. The NRC staff concludes that the applicant's descriptions, specifications, and analyses provide an adequate basis for safety review of facility operations and that construction and operation of the facility does not pose an undue risk to public health and safety

  9. Test and evaluation on safety relating to biotechnology; Biotechnology ni kansuru anzensei no shiken to hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, M. [Bio-Oriented Technology Research Advancement Inst., Saitama (Japan)

    1996-09-05

    This paper describes the current status and how works are being carried out on safety tests and evaluation of gene recombinants in plants and microorganisms. In the field of plants, Flavr Savr tomato which has been improved in fully ripe fruit distribution and keeping quality was commercialized as the world`s first recombinant food in May 1994 by Calgene, Inc. of America. Other vegetables, such as soybean, corn, potato, and pumpkin have been completed of all items of safety evaluation, and are approaching the commercialization phase. The safety evaluation system for living organisms created by using recombinant DNA technologies has been established internationally with regard to its general framework and contents based on accumulated knowledeges and experiences as a result of utilization of over twenty years. Industrial utilization guidelines for recombinants in Japan have been established in correspondence with the OECD recommendation in 1986. Experiments to verify recombinants to be safe in environment, and cultivation of the recombinants for utilization are performed based on the experimental guidelines and utilization guidelines. 15 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. Road safety risk evaluation and target setting using data envelopment analysis and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Vanhoof, Koen

    2012-09-01

    Currently, comparison between countries in terms of their road safety performance is widely conducted in order to better understand one's own safety situation and to learn from those best-performing countries by indicating practical targets and formulating action programmes. In this respect, crash data such as the number of road fatalities and casualties are mostly investigated. However, the absolute numbers are not directly comparable between countries. Therefore, the concept of risk, which is defined as the ratio of road safety outcomes and some measure of exposure (e.g., the population size, the number of registered vehicles, or distance travelled), is often used in the context of benchmarking. Nevertheless, these risk indicators are not consistent in most cases. In other words, countries may have different evaluation results or ranking positions using different exposure information. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a performance measurement technique is investigated to provide an overall perspective on a country's road safety situation, and further assess whether the road safety outcomes registered in a country correspond to the numbers that can be expected based on the level of exposure. In doing so, three model extensions are considered, which are the DEA based road safety model (DEA-RS), the cross-efficiency method, and the categorical DEA model. Using the measures of exposure to risk as the model's input and the number of road fatalities as output, an overall road safety efficiency score is computed for the 27 European Union (EU) countries based on the DEA-RS model, and the ranking of countries in accordance with their cross-efficiency scores is evaluated. Furthermore, after applying clustering analysis to group countries with inherent similarity in their practices, the categorical DEA-RS model is adopted to identify best-performing and underperforming countries in each cluster, as well as the reference sets or benchmarks for those

  11. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-382). Supplement No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Supplement 8 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by Louisiana Power and Light Company for a license to operate the Waterford Steam Electric Station, Unit 3 (Docket No. 50-382), located in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation Report by providing the staff's evaluation of information submitted by the applicant since the Safety Evaluation Report and its seven previous supplements were issued

  12. Study on the KALIMER safety approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Han, Do Hee; Kim, Young Cheol.

    1997-01-01

    This study describes KALIMER's safety approach, how to establish the safety criteria and temperature limit, how to define safety evaluation events, and some safety research and development needs items. It is recommended that the KALIMER's approach to safety use seven levels of safety design and a defense-in-depth design approach with particular emphasis on inherent passive features. In order to establish as set DBEs for KALIMER safety evaluation, the procedure is explained how to define safety evaluation events. Final selection is to be determined later with the final establishment of design concepts. On the basis of preliminary studies and evaluation of the plant safety related areas, the KALIMER and PRISM have following three main difference that may require special research and development for KALIMER. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Evaluation of seven in vitro alternatives for ocular safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, L H; Kain, D J; Roberts, D A; Parker, R D

    1991-07-01

    Seven in vitro assays were evaluated to determine if any were useful as screening procedures in ocular safety assessment. Seventeen test materials (chemicals, household cleaners, hand soaps, dishwashing liquids, shampoos, and liquid laundry detergents) were tested in each assay. In vivo ocular irritation scores for the materials were obtained from existing rabbit low volume eye test (LVET) data. The seven assays evaluated included the silicon microphysiometer (SM), luminescent bacteria toxicity test (LBT), neutral red assay (NR), total protein assay (TP), Tetrahymena thermophila motility assay (TTMA), bovine eye/chorioallantoic membrane assay (BE/CAM), and the EYTEX system (ETS). For the seventeen materials used in this study there was a significant correlation between the in vivo irritant potential and in vitro data for all the tests except the EYTEX System (SM, r = -0.87; LBT, r = -0.91; NR, r = -0.85; TTMA, r = 0.78; TP, r = -0.86; ETS, r = 0.29). The irritation classifications provided by the BE/CAM also did not correspond with the actual in vivo irritancy potential of the test materials. The result of this study suggested it may be possible to classify materials into broad irritancy categories with some of the assays. This would allow their use as screens prior to limited in vivo confirmation in the ocular safety assessment process.

  14. Reliability and safety of functional capacity evaluation in patients with whiplash associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippolini, M A; Reneman, M F; Jansen, B; Dijkstra, P U; Geertzen, J H B

    2013-09-01

    Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) are a burden for both individuals and society. It is recommended to evaluate patients with WAD at risk of chronification to enhance rehabilitation and promote an early return to work. In patients with low back pain (LBP), functional capacity evaluation (FCE) contributes to clinical decisions regarding fitness-for-work. FCE should have demonstrated sufficient clinimetric properties. Reliability and safety of FCE for patients with WAD is unknown. Thirty-two participants (11 females and 21 males; mean age 39.6 years) with WAD (Grade I or II) were included. The FCE consisted of 12 tests, including material handling, hand grip strength, repetitive arm movements, static arm activities, walking speed, and a 3 min step test. Overall the FCE duration was 60 min. The test-retest interval was 7 days. Interclass correlations (model 1) (ICCs) and limits of agreement (LoA) were calculated. Safety was assessed by a Pain Response Questionnaire, observation criteria and heart rate monitoring. ICCs ranged between 0.57 (3 min step test) and 0.96 (short two-handed carry). LoA relative to mean performance ranged between 15 % (50 m walking test) and 57 % (lifting waist to overhead). Pain reactions after WAD FCE decreased within days. Observations and heart rate measurements fell within the safety criteria. The reliability of the WAD FCE was moderate in two tests, good in five tests and excellent in five tests. Safety-criteria were fulfilled. Interpretation at the patient level should be performed with care because LoA were substantial.

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of Behavior-Based Safety education methods for commercial vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Xing, Yilun; Luo, Lian; Yu, Rongjie

    2018-08-01

    Risky driving behavior is one of the main causes of commercial vehicle related crashes. In order to achieve safer vehicle operation, safety education for drivers is often provided. However, the education programs vary in quality and may not always be successful in reducing crash rates. Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) education is a popular approach found effective by numerous studies, but even this approach varies as to the combination of frequency, mode and content used by different education providers. This study therefore evaluates and compares the effectiveness of BBS education methods. Thirty-five drivers in Shanghai, China, were coached with one of three different BBS education methods for 13 weeks following a 13-week baseline phase with no education. A random-effects negative binomial (NB) model was built and calibrated to investigate the relationship between BBS education and the driver at-fault safety-related event rate. Based on the results of the random-effects NB model, event modification factors (EMF) were calculated to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of the methods. Results show that (1) BBS education was confirmed to be effective in safety-related event reduction; (2) the most effective method among the three applied monthly face-to-face coaching, including feedback with video and statistical data, and training on strategies to avoid driver-specific unsafe behaviors; (3) weekly telephone coaching using statistics and strategies was rated by drivers as the most convenient delivery mode, and was also significantly effective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Economic Evaluation of Food Safety Education Interventions: Estimates and Critical Data Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Hua; Lambea, Maria; McDowell, Joyce; Scharff, Robert L

    2017-08-01

    The economic evaluation of food safety interventions is an important tool that practitioners and policy makers use to assess the efficacy of their efforts. These evaluations are built on models that are dependent on accurate estimation of numerous input variables. In many cases, however, there is no data available to determine input values and expert opinion is used to generate estimates. This study uses a benefit-cost analysis of the food safety component of the adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) in Ohio as a vehicle for demonstrating how results based on variable values that are not objectively determined may be sensitive to alternative assumptions. In particular, the focus here is on how reported behavioral change is translated into economic benefits. Current gaps in the literature make it impossible to know with certainty how many people are protected by the education (what are the spillover effects?), the length of time education remains effective, and the level of risk reduction from change in behavior. Based on EFNEP survey data, food safety education led 37.4% of participants to improve their food safety behaviors. Under reasonable default assumptions, benefits from this improvement significantly outweigh costs, yielding a benefit-cost ratio of between 6.2 and 10.0. Incorporation of a sensitivity analysis using alternative estimates yields a greater range of estimates (0.2 to 56.3), which highlights the importance of future research aimed at filling these research gaps. Nevertheless, most reasonable assumptions lead to estimates of benefits that justify their costs.

  17. Evaluation of natural phenomena hazards as part of safety assessments for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.; Srinivasan, M.G.; Shin, Y.W.

    1995-02-01

    The continued operation of existing US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and laboratories requires a safety reassessment based on current criteria and guidelines. This also includes evaluations for the effects of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH), for which these facilities may not have been designed. The NPH evaluations follow the requirements of DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation (1993) which establishes NPH Performance Categories (PCs) for DOE facilities and associated target probabilistic performance goals. These goals are expressed as the mean annual probability of exceedance of acceptable behavior for structures, systems and components (SSCs) subjected to NPH effects. The assignment of an NPH Performance Category is based on the overall hazard categorization (low, moderate, high) of a facility and on the function of an SSC under evaluation (DOE-STD-1021, 1992). Detailed guidance for the NPH analysis and evaluation criteria are also provided (DOE-STD-1020, 1994). These analyses can be very resource intensive, and may not be necessary for the evaluation of all SSCs in existing facilities, in particular for low hazard category facilities. An approach relying heavily on screening inspections, engineering judgment and use of NPH experience data (S. J. Eder et al., 1993), can minimize the analytical effort, give reasonable estimates of the NPH susceptibilities, and yield adequate information for an overall safety evaluation of the facility. In the following sections this approach is described in more detail and is illustrated by an application to a nuclear laboratory complex

  18. Multi-criteria analysis for evaluating the radiological and ecological safety measures in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazykina, T.G.; Kryshev, I.I.

    2006-01-01

    A methodological approach is presented for multicriterial evaluating the effectiveness of radiation ecological safety measures during radioactive waste management. The approach is based on multicriterial analysis with consideration of radiological, ecological, social, economical consequences of various safety measures. The application of the multicriterial approach is demonstrated taking as an example of decision-making on the most effective actions for rehabilitation of a water subject, contaminated with radionuclides [ru

  19. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandy, Palanisamy; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Wei, Tan Tyng; Loon, Tan Wee; Yee, Lim Chong

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use. Objective To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. Methods A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted. Results The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of “staff training and skills” were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup. Conclusion The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety. PMID:27524887

  20. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandy, Palanisamy; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Wei, Tan Tyng; Loon, Tan Wee; Yee, Lim Chong

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledg