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Sample records for pre-war nazi germany

  1. Hitler's bible: an analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Throughout the last century the wellbeing of those with disability has been threatened by the idea of eugenics. The most notable and extreme example of this could be considered to have been carried out during World WarTwo, within Nazi eugenic programmes. These resulted in the sterilisation and killing of hundreds of thousands of disabled people. Through research of a wide range of sources it has been established that much of the inspiration and encouragement for this rapidly progressing movement in Germany initially came from America, most notably from California. American eugenicists expressed interest, and at times jealousy, at the speed of the progression in German eugenics. German Sterilisation laws were drafted following careful study of American experiments and research, while financial support from a number of American individuals encouraged further German research. Correspondence between influential leaders, including Hitler, Grant and Whitney, Verschuer and Popenoe, on both sides also added to the developing relationship. In conclusion, although there are a number of vital differences between the progress of the eugenics programme in America and in pre-war Nazi Germany, and eugenics in America never produced the massive genocide that occurred in Germany, it is clear that the research, encouragement and enthusiasm from America had a profound influence on the rapidly growing Nazi eugenics movement.

  2. The visual arts influence in Nazi Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will discuss the influence of visual art in Nazi Germany from two parts of visual arts, which are political photography and poster propaganda, analyzing the unique social and historical stage of Nazi Germany. And it emphasizes the ideology of the Nazis, which in Nazi Germany inflamed the political sentiment of the masses and took the visual art as their important instrument of political propaganda, while Nazi party used visual art on anti-society and war which is worth warning and criticizing for later generation.

  3. Sick heil: self and illness in Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    Illness in Nazi Germany was a site of contestation around the existing modem self. The Nazis mobilized the professions of medicine and psychology, two disciplines built around self, to exploit physical and mental capacity. Nazi projects thus instrumentalized the individual and essentialized a self of race and will. A cruel and anxious obsession with health as a means of racial exclusion was a monstrous form of the modern turn inward to agency of body and mind. The Nazis regulated the individual through family and factory (social control), areas of ordinary life in which modernity located human activity and meaning, and propagandized traditional values the populace internalized (social discipline). A Nazi premodern warrior ethos was served by a liberal ethic of productivity and an absolutist tradition of state control. Medicalization and commodification of health was continuous with modern trends and became a wartime site of attempted well-being of the self at the expense of the Nazi ethnic community.

  4. Resensies: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa. Book Author: Steven Robins. Cape Town: Penguin, 2016. 314 pp. ISBN 978 1 77609 024 2. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/tvl.v.54i1.18.

  5. Mathematicians fleeing from Nazi Germany individual fates and global impact

    CERN Document Server

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The emigration of mathematicians from Europe during the Nazi era signaled an irrevocable and important historical shift for the international mathematics world. Mathematicians Fleeing from Nazi Germany is the first thoroughly documented account of this exodus. In this greatly expanded translation of the 1998 German edition, Reinhard Siegmund-Schultze describes the flight of more than 140 mathematicians, their reasons for leaving, the political and economic issues involved, the reception of these emigrants by various countries, and the emigrants' continuing contributions to mathematics. The inf

  6. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. Letters of Stone. From Nazi Germany to South Africa. Steven Robins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    merely hint at the gruesome reality in Nazi Germany. With the hindsight granted to present-day readers, we know the fate that awaited these men and women as an elongated and agonising social death reached its culmination in systematic mass murder. In describing his journeys to Germany,. Poland, Israel and the United ...

  8. Much Ado about Something? James Bryant Conant, Harvard University, and Nazi Germany in the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Wayne J.; Smith, Marybeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the actions of noted Harvard University president James Bryant Conant, taken in regard to the Nazi government in Germany, from the time of Conant's becoming president of Harvard University in 1933 to the time of the widespread pogrom in Germany of 9-10 November 1938, known as Kristallnacht. Conant's attitudes and actions…

  9. Jung's views of Nazi Germany: the first year and Jung's transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenl, William; Schoenl, Linda

    2016-09-01

    This article first considers Jung's response to the coming to power of the Nazis in Germany. It brings forth evidence that, besides wanting to preserve psychotherapy in Germany and maintain the international connection between the German and other communities of psychotherapists, he wanted to advance Jungian psychology - his psychology - in Germany. It also presents evidence that, although he occasionally made some anti-Semitic statements during this early period, he was not anti-Semitic in the way the Nazis were. The paper then argues that after Gustav Bally's criticisms in the Neue Zuercher Zeitung in February 1934, Jung entered into a transitional period that spring during which he became warier both of the Nazis and of making any statements that could be construed as being anti-Semitic. Schoenl and Peck (2012) have shown how Jung's views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. This present article demonstrates very significant changes in Jung's views during the important early part of this period, that is from January 1933 - when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany - through to the spring of 1934. It draws on evidence from archival and other primary sources. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  10. Nazi indoctrination and anti-Semitic beliefs in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtländer, Nico; Voth, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Attempts at modifying public opinions, attitudes, and beliefs range from advertising and schooling to “brainwashing.” Their effectiveness is highly controversial. In this paper, we use survey data on anti-Semitic beliefs and attitudes in a representative sample of Germans surveyed in 1996 and 2006 to show that Nazi indoctrination––with its singular focus on fostering racial hatred––was highly effective. Between 1933 and 1945, young Germans were exposed to anti-Semitic ideology in schools, in the (extracurricular) Hitler Youth, and through radio, print, and film. As a result, Germans who grew up under the Nazi regime are much more anti-Semitic than those born before or after that period: the share of committed anti-Semites, who answer a host of questions about attitudes toward Jews in an extreme fashion, is 2–3 times higher than in the population as a whole. Results also hold for average beliefs, and not just the share of extremists; average views of Jews are much more negative among those born in the 1920s and 1930s. Nazi indoctrination was most effective where it could tap into preexisting prejudices; those born in districts that supported anti-Semitic parties before 1914 show the greatest increases in anti-Jewish attitudes. These findings demonstrate the extent to which beliefs can be modified through policy intervention. We also identify parameters amplifying the effectiveness of such measures, such as preexisting prejudices. PMID:26080394

  11. Nazi indoctrination and anti-Semitic beliefs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtländer, Nico; Voth, Hans-Joachim

    2015-06-30

    Attempts at modifying public opinions, attitudes, and beliefs range from advertising and schooling to "brainwashing." Their effectiveness is highly controversial. In this paper, we use survey data on anti-Semitic beliefs and attitudes in a representative sample of Germans surveyed in 1996 and 2006 to show that Nazi indoctrination--with its singular focus on fostering racial hatred--was highly effective. Between 1933 and 1945, young Germans were exposed to anti-Semitic ideology in schools, in the (extracurricular) Hitler Youth, and through radio, print, and film. As a result, Germans who grew up under the Nazi regime are much more anti-Semitic than those born before or after that period: the share of committed anti-Semites, who answer a host of questions about attitudes toward Jews in an extreme fashion, is 2-3 times higher than in the population as a whole. Results also hold for average beliefs, and not just the share of extremists; average views of Jews are much more negative among those born in the 1920s and 1930s. Nazi indoctrination was most effective where it could tap into preexisting prejudices; those born in districts that supported anti-Semitic parties before 1914 show the greatest increases in anti-Jewish attitudes. These findings demonstrate the extent to which beliefs can be modified through policy intervention. We also identify parameters amplifying the effectiveness of such measures, such as preexisting prejudices.

  12. Constitutional Therapy and Clinical Racial Hygiene in Weimar and Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The paper examines the history of constitutional therapy in Weimar and Nazi Germany. Focusing on Walther Jaensch's "Institute for Constitutional Research" at the Charité in Berlin, it shows how an entrepreneurial scientist successfully negotiated the changing social and political landscape of two very different political regimes and mobilized considerable public and private resources for his projects. During the Weimar period, his work received funding from various state agencies as well as the Rockefeller foundation, because it fit well with contemporary approaches in public hygiene and social medicine that emphasized the need to restore the physical and mental health of children and youths. Jaensch successfully positioned himself as a researcher on the verge of developing new therapies for feeble-minded people, who threatened to become an intolerable burden on the Weimar welfare state. During the Nazi period, he successfully reinvented himself as a racial hygienist by convincing influential medical leaders that his ideas were a valuable complement to the negative eugenics of Nazi bio-politics. "Constitutional therapy," he claimed, could turn genetically healthy people with "inhibited mental development" (geistigen Entwicklungshemmungen) into fully productive citizens and therefore made a valuable contribution to Nazi performance medicine (Leistungsmedizin) with its emphasis on productivity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Rebuilding Physical Education in the Western Occupation Zones of Germany, 1945-1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    After the Second World War, the British, American and French believed education could be used to promote democracy in Germany. The Western powers faced particular difficulties with the field of physical education because of the strong Nazi influence in this area during the Third Reich. The premier pre-war physical education teacher training…

  14. Cultural Relations in the «New Order»: Nazi Germany and Franco’s Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marició Janué i Miret

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role that culture played in German-Spanish relations during National-Socialism. This is a relevant historiographical question for two main reasons. The first, that we still lack an overall approach on the cultural relations between the two countries in that period. The second, that when the national-socialists came to power in 1933, culture had already become for a long time an essential part of foreign politics of the most important European powers, and consequently also of Germany. The article explains the motivations for intensifying cultural relations for both countries. Its ultimate objective is to get a clearer idea about the affinities between Nazi Germany and the Francoist regime. We base the analysis in our own research in archives as well as in the already existing literature on partial aspects of the cultural relations between the two countries. We conclude that the tensions between the different political sectors which looked for hegemony inside the francoist regime were not the decisive factor to explain the variations in the intensity of the cultural relations between the two countries. The decisive element was the negative evolution of the Second World War for Germany. Finally, the research proves that the ideological coincidences between the two regimes and the level of fascistization of Franco’s dictatorship in its first stages should not be underestimated.

  15. "In pursuit of the Nazi mind?" The deployment of psychoanalysis in the Allied struggle against Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how psychoanalytic ideas were brought to bear in the Allied struggle against the Third Reich and explores some of the claims that were made about this endeavour. It shows how a variety of studies of Fascist psychopathology, centered on the concept of superego, were mobilized in military intelligence, postwar planning and policy recommendations for "denazification." Freud's ideas were sometimes championed by particular army doctors and government planners; at other times they were combined with, or displaced by, competing, psychiatric and psychological forms of treatment and diverse studies of the Fascist "personality." This is illustrated through a discussion of the treatment and interpretation of the deputy leader of the Nazi Party, Rudolf Hess, after his arrival in Britain in 1941.

  16. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy: Totalitarian Menace or Monolithic Illusion? An Analysis of the Axis Coalition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burch, James

    2004-01-01

    .... After 1935, Mussolini would come increasingly under Hitler's influence. Hitler would also begin to free Germany from the restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles and Anglo-French encirclement...

  17. Eugenics--a side effect of progressivism? analysis of the role of scientific and medical elites in the rise and fall of eugenics in pre-war Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Olga

    2010-06-01

    The eminent geneticist, Benno Muller-Hill, described eugenics as"explosive mixture between something we might call hard science, that is, human genetics, and the sphere of political action. On the one hand, geneticists needed politicians to implement their ideas. On the other hand, Hitler and the Nazis needed scientists who could say that anti-Semitism has scientific theoretical foundations." For some Polish eugenicists, the Third Reich was not the home of the Nuremberg Laws, but a country that "boldly embarked on racial hygiene." This enthusiastic attitude of Polish intellectual circles towards Nazi eugenic laws was characteristic of the status of pre-war science in Poland, which in many areas, such as anthropology and psychiatry, remained strongly influenced by the paradigm of German science. While the professional and scientific context of the day promoted eugenic and racist ideas within the framework of the academic milieu and the curriculum of the medical and scientific community, eugenicists in Poland tended to refrain from anti-Semitic and racist phraseology. Indeed, the Polish eugenic movement was class- rather than race-orientated. The hybrid language of eugenics, combining social sensitivity with repulsion and contempt for the sick and the weak, illustrated the ambiguous stance of the Polish eugenicists on politics and science in Nazi Germany, for the Third Reich provided the German eugenicists with what had always been an unfulfilled dream to the Polish eugenicists--political power and the ability to implement their ideas.

  18. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy: Totalitarian Menace or Monolithic Illusion? An Analysis of the Axis Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-17

    no confidence in against Chancellor Franz von Papen . This led to new elections on 6 November which had unintended consequences--the Nazi’s lost 2...their living space and to maintain peace.1 Preamble to the Pact of Steel On 22 May 1939, the German Reich Minister for Foreign Affairs, Joachim von ...alliance and war. 5 In Germany, Hitler continued to accumulate power after January 1933. With the death of President Paul von Hindenburg, Hitler

  19. The Argument for Genocide in Nazi Propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytwerk, Randall L.

    2005-01-01

    The Nazis justified their attempt to exterminate the Jews by claiming that they were only defending themselves against Jewish plans to destroy Germany and its population. I show how the Nazis used the same words to discuss both claims, and how they argued that just as the Jews were serious about exterminating Germany, they were equally serious…

  20. Nurses, medical records and the killing of sick persons before, during and after the Nazi regime in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    During the Nazi regime (1933-1945), more than 300,000 psychiatric patients were killed. The well-calculated killing of chronic mentally 'ill' patients was part of a huge biopolitical program of well-established scientific, eugenic standards of the time. Among the medical personnel implicated in these assassinations were nurses, who carried out this program through their everyday practice. However, newer research raises suspicions that psychiatric patients were being assassinated before and after the Nazi regime, which, I hypothesize, implies that the motives for these killings must be investigated within psychiatric practice itself. An investigation of the impact of the interplay between the notes left by nurses and those by psychiatrists illustrates the active role of the psychiatric medical record in the killing of these patients. Using theoretical insights from Michel Foucault and philosopher Giorgio Agamben and analyzing one part of a particularly rich patient file found in the Langenhorn Psychiatric Asylum in the city of Hamburg, I demonstrate the role of the record in both constructing and deconstructing patient subjectivities. De-subjectifying patients condemned them to specific zones in the asylum within which they were reduced to their 'bare life'--a precondition for their physical assassination. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. ‘IN PURSUIT OF THE NAZI MIND?’ THE DEPLOYMENT OF PSYCHOANALYSIS IN THE ALLIED STRUGGLE AGAINST GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how psychoanalytic ideas were brought to bear in the Allied struggle against the Third Reich and explores some of the claims that were made about this endeavour. It shows how a variety of studies of Fascist psychopathology, centred on the concept of superego, were mobilized in military intelligence, postwar planning and policy recommendations for ‘denazification’. Freud’s ideas were sometimes championed by particular army doctors and government planners; at other times they were combined with, or displaced by, competing, psychiatric and psychological forms of treatment and diverse studies of the Fascist ‘personality’. This is illustrated through a discussion of the treatment and interpretation of the deputy leader of the Nazi Party, Rudolf Hess, after his arrival in Britain in 1941. PMID:19791314

  2. CONCEPTUAL DIMENSION OF CONTEXT OF USING SOVIET CITEZENS’ LABOUR IN THE NAZI GERMANY ECONOMY (1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н А Гаража

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the offi cial and personal characteristics and thoughts concerning the conceptual component of the phenomenon of using thelabour of Soviet people in the Third Reich economy. There were formulated the basic concepts, which characterize all the stages of the use of labour of eastern workers. The results of the research showed that the refl ection on the analysis of the new posi-tion was typical of eastern workers regardless of their gender, age or social characteristics. It took a key place in their conversations and texts on a par with the discussions of house-hold burdens.At the same time, the feelings of Ostarbeiters and their thoughts about the fundamental changes in life were refl ected in the desire of the adequate defi nition of their position, the concise formulation of the major aspects of the German authorities’ and civilians’ attitude towards them, as well as their own perception of the new life. Being convinced of the fairness of the servile nature of the use of Soviet people’s labour, the population of Germany naturally enriched their vocabulary by the concepts of “owner”, “buy”, etc.It also caused a whole range of emotions of Ostarbeiters. Despite the challenges that the Soviet people faced while working in Germany, this harsh experience couldnot break their faith in themselves, in the human and humanity; it strengthened their spirit, and the ability to focus on the positive emotions and getting pleasure from small events helped them to survive.From the point of view of evaluation features, the socio-cultural connotations and ma-nipulative potential of the conceptual fi eld of the phenomenon of using Soviet people’s labour in the Third Reich economy were characterized by integrity and by diversity at the same time.

  3. Suicide in Nazi concentration camps, 1933-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeschel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Too often histories of the concentration camps tend to be ignorant of the wider political context of nazi repression and control. This article tries to overcome this problem. Combining legal, social and political history, it contributes to a more thorough understanding of the changing relationship between the camps as places of extra-legal terror and the judiciary, between nazi terror and the law. It argues that the conflict between the judiciary and the SS was not a conflict between "good" and "evil," as existing accounts claim. Rather, it was a power struggle for jurisdiction over the camps. Concentration camp authorities covered up the murders of prisoners as suicides to prevent judicial investigations. This article also looks at actual suicides in the pre-war camps, to highlight individual inmates' reactions to life within the camps. The article concludes that the history of the concentration camps needs to be firmly integrated into the history of nazi terror and the Third Reich.

  4. Nutrition in pre-war Sarajevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zec, S; Telebak, B; Sljepcevic, O; Filipovic-Hadziomeragic, A

    1995-10-01

    To assess nutritional status, dietary intake and lifestyle habits of non-manual workers in Sarajevo. Healthy employees in non-manual occupations from four large companies were invited to participate in a nutrition and health survey during 1990 and 1991. All the subjects were working in the city centre of Sarajevo. 1860 subjects (1120 men and 740 women) aged from 20-65 years of age participated. Nutritional status was evaluated through anthropometric measurements (weights and heights) and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Data on health status, diet and lifestyle were gathered through individual questionnaires. Overall, 4.3% of the sample was found to be underweight (BMI 30.5). The majority of the obese men were in responsible positions (for example, directors, heads of departments). The majority of obese women were in the 35-45 years old age group in the post-maternity period. Intakes of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate exceeded former Yugoslavian recommended dietary allowances. About one third of participants (34.3% men and 27.3% women) smoked heavily and 18.1% of men drank alcohol. A total of 16.2% of men and 11.6% of women suffered from hypertension. The food intake of the population of Sarajevo before the war was generally high. There was high consumption of meat, fatty foods and alcoholic drinks (particularly among men) and low levels of physical activity. This resulted in high levels of obesity and chronic degenerative diseases such as hypertension. Thus, high living standards and physical inactivity had a damaging effect on the health of non-manual workers in pre-war Sarajevo.

  5. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.

  6. To what extent were ideas and beliefs about eugenics held in Nazi Germany shared in Britain and the United States prior to the second world war?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Emily

    2004-06-01

    The term eugenics was first coined by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton, in 1883. The eugenic movement gained public popularity across Europe and North America at the end of the Victorian era, fuelled by the concept of 'social Darwinism' and public fear of a decline in the number of ideal citizens. The origins of eugenic legislation can be found in the USA's immigration acts of the early 1880's. Indiana was the first state to pass sterilisation laws, in 1907. The laws that followed were used as templates by the Nazis, thirty years later. In Britain the Wood Committee (1924) and the Brock Committee (1931) both put pressure on parliament to introduce eugenic laws but were defeated. The anti-eugenics movement was stronger than in other protestant European countries and eugenics fell out of favour as the 1930's progressed. In the USA however, support remained strong, leading one activist to comment in 1934, 'The Germans are beating us at our own game'. There appears to have been little emphasis on eugenics in the Weimar Parliament, but the Nazi's legislation, on coming to power in 1933, surpassed anything conceived on either side of the Atlantic at the outbreak of war in 1939.

  7. Nazis on the State Payroll in 1930s Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O’Donoghue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Austro-German population of Ireland in 1936 was 529. Approximately 25% of the adult male cohort were, or became, members of Hitler’s Nazi Party (NSDAP. A small cadre of senior figures in the party were active in recruiting new members as Nazi Germany’s fortunes rose from 1933 to 1939. Some 32 Germans and Austrians resident in pre-war Ireland have been identified as Nazi Party members, although a small number of these were exchange students rather than full-time residents. This paper examines the six NSDAP members who held senior positions in the Irish public service. As Irish state employees they were in a contradictory position: swearing loyalty to Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich while attempting to hold down important jobs on the Irish state payroll. Dr. David O’Donoghue’s article scrutinises the activities of these six men, as well as explaining how they tried, by varying degrees, to serve two masters. The paper also examines their wartime and post-war lives.

  8. Functional Detachment of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper describes the systematization process of architectural styles in use during Nazi period in Germany between 1933-45. In the results of the research some regularity about strict concern between function & styling has been observed. Using comparison & case study as well as analytical methods there were pointed out characteristic features of more than 500 objects’ architectural appearance that helped to specify their styling & group them into architectural trends. Ultimately the paper proves that the found trends of architectural styling could be collected by functional detachment key. This observation explains easy to recognize even nowadays traceability - so characteristic to Nazi German architecture. Facing today pluralism in architecture, the findings could be a helpful key in the organization of spatial architectural identification process.

  9. Nazi interne propaganda in die tweede wêreldoorlog | Kotze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolf Hitler considered propaganda as a tactical weapon which should be used in warfare. The Second World War proved that it was no super weapon, and that it could not be used in isolation, but it is generally agreed that Nazi internal propaganda played a prominent part in upholding solidarity of morale in Germany ...

  10. Manipulations of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper takes under considerations controversies surrounding German architecture designed during Nazi period between 1933-45. This architecture is commonly criticized for being out of innovation, taste & elementary sense of beauty. Moreover, it has been consequently wiped out from architectural manuals, probably for its undoubted associations with the totalitarian system considered as the most maleficent in the whole history. But in the meantime the architecture of another totalitarian system which appeared to be not less sinister than Nazi one is not stigmatized with such verve. It is Socrealism architecture, developed especially in East Europe & reportedly containing lots of similarities with Nazi architecture. Socrealism totalitarian architecture was never condemned like Nazi one, probably due to politically manipulated propaganda that influenced postwar public opinion. This observation leads to reflection that maybe in the same propaganda way some values of Nazi architecture are still consciously dissembled in order to hide the fact that some rules used by Nazi German architects have been also consciously used after the war. Those are especially manipulations that allegedly Nazi architecture consisted of. The paper provides some definitions around totalitarian manipulations as well as ideological assumptions for their implementation. Finally, the register of confirmed manipulations is provided with use of photo case study.

  11. Nazi Education: A Case of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Herbert

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the German Nazi party arranged for the political socialization of German children through public education in the 1930s. Topics include philosophy of the Nazi party, political socialization of teachers, and teaching materials for Nazi education. Implications for education's role in politics are explored. (CH)

  12. The Nazi Physicians as Leaders in Eugenics and "Euthanasia": Lessons for Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodin, Michael A; Miller, Erin L; Kelly, Johnathan I

    2018-01-01

    This article, in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg, reflects on the Nazi eugenics and "euthanasia" programs and their relevance for today. The Nazi doctors used eugenic ideals to justify sterilizations, child and adult "euthanasia," and, ultimately, genocide. Contemporary euthanasia has experienced a progression from voluntary to nonvoluntary and from passive to active killing. Modern eugenics has included both positive and negative selective activities. The 70th anniversary of the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg provides an important opportunity to reflect on the implications of the Nazi eugenics and "euthanasia" programs for contemporary health law, bioethics, and human rights. In this article, we will examine the role that health practitioners played in the promotion and implementation of State-sponsored eugenics and "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany, followed by an exploration of contemporary parallels and debates in modern bioethics. 1 .

  13. Nurses Writing about Psychiatric Nurses' Involvement in Killings during the Nazi Era: A Preliminary Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Colin A; McAllister, Margaret; Crowther, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nurses actively killed people in Nazi Europe between 1939 and 1945. The so-called ‘science of eugenics’ underpinned Nazi ideology, used to further the Nazi racist agenda. Edicts sanctioned selection and medically supervised killing of people, and nurses, principally in mental hospitals, participated in the killing of between 100–300 thousand patients. Erroneously termed ‘euthanasia', there were three phases: the initial programme involving children, the T4 adult programme, and ‘wild euthanasia'. Unofficial killings also took place before 1939. This paper uses discourse analysis to map and analyse published texts which explore the role of nurses in Nazi Germany. The aim is to identify its characteristics as a body of literature, to note strengths and weaknesses, emphases and silences, and to note aspects that need further exploration. It acknowledges that how these events are to be understood and represented in contemporary discourse constitutes a significant problem for historians of nursing.

  14. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Mathúna Dónal P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Discussion Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans. A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Summary Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi

  15. Human dignity in the Nazi era: implications for contemporary bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2006-03-14

    The justification for Nazi programs involving involuntary euthanasia, forced sterilisation, eugenics and human experimentation were strongly influenced by views about human dignity. The historical development of these views should be examined today because discussions of human worth and value are integral to medical ethics and bioethics. We should learn lessons from how human dignity came to be so distorted to avoid repetition of similar distortions. Social Darwinism was foremost amongst the philosophies impacting views of human dignity in the decades leading up to Nazi power in Germany. Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory was quickly applied to human beings and social structure. The term 'survival of the fittest' was coined and seen to be applicable to humans. Belief in the inherent dignity of all humans was rejected by social Darwinists. Influential authors of the day proclaimed that an individual's worth and value were to be determined functionally and materialistically. The popularity of such views ideologically prepared German doctors and nurses to accept Nazi social policies promoting survival of only the fittest humans.A historical survey reveals five general presuppositions that strongly impacted medical ethics in the Nazi era. These same five beliefs are being promoted in different ways in contemporary bioethical discourse. Ethical controversies surrounding human embryos revolve around determinations of their moral status. Economic pressures force individuals and societies to examine whether some people's lives are no longer worth living. Human dignity is again being seen as a relative trait found in certain humans, not something inherent. These views strongly impact what is taken to be acceptable within medical ethics. Five beliefs central to social Darwinism will be examined in light of their influence on current discussions in medical ethics and bioethics. Acceptance of these during the Nazi era proved destructive to many humans. Their widespread

  16. The Other Victims of the Nazis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ina R.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, 50 years after World War II, few people are aware that Jews were not the only Nazi victims. Describes Nazi persecution against Gypsies, homosexuals, blacks, political dissenters, and other groups. Contends that every new generation of students should learn about the devastating effects of prejudice. (CFR)

  17. Peter Becker and his Nazi past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Peter Becker was a German neurologist who helped classify the muscular dystrophies, and described Becker muscular dystrophy and Becker myotonia. His involvement in National Socialism began in 1933, when he was compelled by his peers to join the SA (brown shirts). He later joined the Nazi party......, the Nazi Doctors Association, and the Nazi Lecturers' Association. He renewed his SA membership to maintain his position at a genetics institute. Colleagues stated postwar that he was not an active Nazi, and he was de-Nazified in 1947, able to continue his career. Later, Becker admitted to most......, but not all, of his Nazi memberships in his autobiography, and wrote 2 books exploring the origins of Nazism and racial hygiene. The "neurologic court of opinion" must weigh in on how we should best remember Becker, and at the very least, we as neurologists must learn the dangers of career opportunism at any...

  18. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe part I: eugenics, human experimentation, and mass murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2011-09-01

    The Nazi regime in Germany from 1933 to 1945 waged a veritable war throughout Europe to eliminate neurologic disease from the gene pool. Fueled by eugenic policies on racial hygiene, the Nazis first undertook a sterilization campaign against "mental defectives," which included neurologic patients with epilepsy and other disorders, as well as psychiatric patients. From 1939-41 the Nazis instead resorted to "euthanasia" of many of the same patients. Some neuroscientists were collaborators in this program, using patients for research, or using extracted brains following their murder. Other reviews have focused on Hallervorden, Spatz, Schaltenbrand, Scherer, and Gross, but in this review the focus is on neuroscientists not well described in the neurology literature, including Scholz, Ostertag, Schneider, Nachtsheim, and von Weizsäcker. Only by understanding the actions of neuroscientists during this dark period can we learn from the slippery slope down which they traveled, and prevent history from repeating itself.

  19. Study of deaths by suicide of homosexual prisoners in Nazi Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuerda-Galindo, Esther; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Krischel, Matthis; Ley, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Living conditions in Nazi concentration camps were harsh and inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg, Germany) was a concentration camp that operated from 1936 to 1945. More than 200,000 people were detained there under Nazi rule. This study analyzes deaths classified as suicides by inmates in this camp, classified as homosexuals, both according to the surviving Nazi files. This collective was especially repressed by the Nazi authorities. Data was collected from the archives of Sachsenhausen Memorial and the International Tracing Service in Bad Arolsen. Original death certificates and autopsy reports were reviewed. Until the end of World War II, there are 14 death certificates which state "suicide" as cause of death of prisoners classified as homosexuals, all of them men aged between 23 and 59 years and of various religions and social strata. Based on a population of 1,200 prisoners classified as homosexuals, this allows us to calculate a suicide rate of 1,167/100,000 (over the period of eight years) for this population, a rate 10 times higher than for global inmates (111/100,000). However, our study has several limitations: not all suicides are registered; some murders were covered-up as suicides; most documents were lost during the war or destroyed by the Nazis when leaving the camps and not much data is available from other camps to compare. We conclude that committing suicides in Sachsenhausen was a common practice, although accurate data may be impossible to obtain.

  20. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    OpenAIRE

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev; Leon М. Bagdasaryan

    2011-01-01

    The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle’, the 25 Point Program.

  1. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate...... of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself....

  2. The "Demetrios": Trotskyists, Peronist Nazis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Denaday

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The “Encuadramiento” of Peronist Youth was one of the most important militant groups of boiling political youths during the second half of the 1960s and the first of the 1970s. A political and intellectual experience that was absent in most of the historiography of the period, since mid-2012 have appeared the first studies. The “Demetrios” defined their actions inside of what was called "objective and doctrinal loyalty" to General Peron, thus enabling us to locate them within "orthodox" peronism, on a path similar to the Iron Guard. However, its origins and certain theoretical-political formulations made them receive diferent nicknames that, in the militant jargon, went from the "troskos" to "hitlerites". In this paper we analyze this political career focusing on the ideological aspects. To do this we examined their origins of transition from Trotskyism to Peronism, its peculiar considerations about the nazi phenomenon and its political and ideological location in 1973. That year was a key moment of definitions within the Peronist Youth, which included a debate and a dispute with the revolutionary tendency on the meaning of "national socialism" publicly endorsed by Perón in the preceding years.

  3. [Werner Catel--a protagonist in Nazi "pediatric euthanasia" and his post-war career].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hans-Christian; Zankel, Sönke

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with the biography of Werner Catel, a German paediatrician and protagonist of the Nazi programme for "euthanasia of children". Based on original research into recently discovered source materials, two aspects of Catel's life are considered. Firstly, Catel's attitude towards "euthanasia" is analysed. This analysis is not limited to the period of National Socialism, but focuses also on the phase before 1933 and especially on the era after 1945. Secondly, the authors explore Catel's academic career. What effects on his career in the later Federal Republic of Germany had his exposed role in the Nazi programme for "euthanasia of children"? In this context it is also examined how the Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel/Germany, which employed Catel until 1960 in a leading position, judged the work of its former professor after his death.

  4. Nazi terror system and its practical use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar M. Mamadaliev

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article tells about reasons and consequences of Adolf Hitler’s terror. Special attention is attached to mechanism of Nazi dictatorship and its ideological bases, set in Hitler’s work ‘My Struggle’, the 25 Point Program.

  5. Scandinavian neuroscience during the Nazi era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Hansen, Klaus; Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    Although Scandinavian neuroscience has a proud history, its status during the Nazi era has been overlooked. In fact, prominent neuroscientists in German-occupied Denmark and Norway, as well as in neutral Sweden, were directly affected. Mogens Fog, Poul Thygesen (Denmark) and Haakon Sæthre (Norway...

  6. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  7. Medical studies and Nazi medicine: Nazi medicine as perceived by Austrian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Stefan; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Austrian medical universities have not covered the topic of Nazi medicine in their curricula to any satisfactory degree to date. In the context of medical-ethical education and on-going medical ethics debates, it seems indispensable to be confronted also with the dark chapters of medical history, and especially Nazi medicine. Students should learn to understand controversial discussions, e.g. about euthanasia, in a historical context. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether students had, during their studies, been confronted with Nazi medical crime and whether they considered such a confrontation as important. The survey also focused on extant knowledge about this topic. From late 2012 to May 2013, 341 late semester students of the medical universities in Vienna, Graz, and Innsbruck were questioned about the coverage of Nazi medicine during their courses, using multiple choice questionnaires. The data were evaluated using a descriptive-statistical approach. The study has shown a low level of knowledge of students about Nazi medicine in the three universities. Only a third of the students had ever heard about "Aktion T4". About 65% of the participants found it important to be comprehensively informed about Nazi medicine during their studies, e.g. with a view to their future career. On average across the three universities, only 43% of the students had been confronted with this topic. The study found a clear wish for more information about Nazi medicine. Universities should, therefore, offer students various opportunities and ways of discussing this issue in the university context.

  8. Scandinavian neuroscience during the Nazi era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Hansen, Klaus; Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2013-07-01

    Although Scandinavian neuroscience has a proud history, its status during the Nazi era has been overlooked. In fact, prominent neuroscientists in German-occupied Denmark and Norway, as well as in neutral Sweden, were directly affected. Mogens Fog, Poul Thygesen (Denmark) and Haakon Sæthre (Norway) were resistance fighters, tortured by the Gestapo: Thygesen was imprisoned in concentration camps and Sæthre executed. Jan Jansen (Norway), another neuroscientist resistor, escaped to Sweden, returning under disguise to continue fighting. Fritz Buchthal (Denmark) was one of almost 8000 Jews escaping deportation by fleeing from Copenhagen to Sweden. In contrast, Carl Værnet (Denmark) became a collaborator, conducting inhuman experiments in Buchenwald concentration camp, and Herman Lundborg (Sweden) and Thorleif Østrem (Norway) advanced racial hygiene in order to maintain the "superior genetic pool of the Nordic race." Compared to other Nazi-occupied countries, there was a high ratio of resistance fighters to collaborators and victims among the neuroscientists in Scandinavia.

  9. The abolition of 'the person' as a legal category in nazi philosophy of law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    2007-01-01

    philosophy, the work of philosopher and professor of law, Karl Larenz (1903-1993), during the Nazi regime in Germany (1933-1945). Larenz and others strove to reform private law (Zivilrecht or bürgeriches Recht) in conformity with National Socialism. Central to that - racist, to be sure - project...... 1945. Extensive historical research exists on these philosophical ideas and their relationship to the jurisprudence, legislation, and legal practice during the Third Reich. However, I would like to use a periodical characterisation, with focus on Karl Larenz and his works, as a backdrop for discussing...

  10. Genetic drift. Overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-03-01

    An overview of German, Nazi, and Holocaust medicine brings together a group of subjects discussed separately elsewhere. Topics considered include German medicine before and during the Nazi era, such as advanced concepts in epidemiology, preventive medicine, public health policy, screening programs, occupational health laws, compensation for certain medical conditions, and two remarkable guidelines for informed consent for medical procedures; also considered are the Nuremberg Code; American models for early Nazi programs, including compulsory sterilization, abusive medical experiments on prison inmates, and discrimination against black people; two ironies in US and Nazi laws; social Darwinism and racial hygiene; complicity of Nazi physicians, including the acts of sterilization, human experimentation, and genocide; Nazi persecution of Jewish physicians; eponyms of unethical German physicians with particular emphasis on Reiter, Hallervorden, and Pernkopf; eponyms of famous physicians who were Nazi victims, including Pick and van Creveld; and finally, a recommendation for convening an international committee of physicians and ethicists to deal with five issues: (a) to propose alternative names for eponyms of physicians who exhibited complicity during the Nazi era; (b) to honor the eponyms and stories of physicians who were victims of Nazi atrocities and genocide; (c) to apply vigorous pressure to those German and Austrian Institutes that have not yet undertaken investigations to determine if the bodies of Nazi victims remain in their collections; (d) to recommend holding annual commemorations in medical schools and research institutes worldwide to remember and to reflect on the victims of compromised medical practice, particularly, but not exclusively, during the Nazi era because atrocities and acts of genocide have occurred elsewhere; and (e) to examine the influence of any political ideology that compromises the practice of medicine. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  11. Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Karwowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps is an attempt to discuss difficult issues of human sexuality and sexually marked behaviors in the context of the concentration camps, and their descriptions in the memoirs of the survivors. Using notions and concepts of the so called "black American feminism" the author (referring extensively to books by Stanisław Grzesiuk and Zofia Romanowiczowa shows how in the concentration camp the human body became the only space of a relative privacy of the prisoner. At the same time the body becomes a territory on which all - both biological and socially constructed - human fates cross.

  12. OPERATION ODESSA: THE FLIGHT OF NAZI WAR CRIMINALS TO LATIN AMERICA AFTER WORLD WAR II AND THE NAZI HUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eduardo Meinerz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze why Latin America, especially Argentina, was the region of the world that harbored the most Nazi war criminals—for example, Josef Mengele, Adolf Eichmann and Klaus Barbie—after World War II. It also aims to analyze how this fact has set the tone for the appearance of literary works about the fantastic adventures of “Nazi hunters” seeking the whereabouts of those individuals. For this purpose, in the first part of the article we will address Nazis’ escape to Latin America. Next, we analyze some literary works by authors who called themselves Nazi hunters.

  13. The social base of NSDAP: Reasons for Nazis success in 1928-1933 elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Shults

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on four key questions that, in the author’s opinion, help to explain the results of 1928-1933’s elections in Germany, although there are no definite answers to these questions among scientists: 1 was the electoral growth of NSDAP exhausted in the Reichstag’s elections in July 1932; 2 did the German working class vote for NSDAP; 3 what was the role of the protest electorate and its chances to mobilize supporters; 4 what was the role of young voters. The author concludes that the electoral potential of NSDAP had not been exhausted by the July elections of 1932, and the Nazis lost voices in November 1932 not just in several lands, but nationwide due to the drop of voters’ turnout. Among NSDAP supporters, perhaps, the share of workers was less than among SPD or KPG voters, and the share of peasants less that among the Centre Party or the right-wing parties, but the number of these NSDAP voters in absolute terms was too big to deny their role in the results of 1928-1933’s elections. The analysis of these election campaigns confirms that NSDAP successfully “saddled” protest and young voters, however, these groups alone were not enough to provide the party such an electoral support that made it dominant. Nazis managed to create “a huge national front” opposed to “right” and “labor” parties and to replace all class slogans. That is why young voters (under 30 years and the most active voters (age groups from 30 to 45 years in all social classes voted for NSDAP, thus ensuring the Nazi Party such an incredible success.

  14. NAZI REGIME IN THE PERIODICAL A NOTÍ­CIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Luíza Barcellos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The periodical A Notícia, of Joinville, city colonized for Germans, supported the nazi regime since the ascension of Adolf Hitler to the power. Between 1932 and 1944, some editions had printed the figure of Hitler and the nazi symbol, beyond dither messages to that regime. Based in the Análise de conteúdo (BARDIN, 1977, this article searchs to understand the representation made for the periodical A Notícia on this historical landmark, in other words, bring to the light the consequences of a part of occured world-wide history in catarinense territory.

  15. Nazi biopolitics and the dark geographies of the selva

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giaccaria, P.; Minca, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the spatialities of Nazi genocidial practices. It does so by engaging with the concepts of selva and città, as inspired by Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben and drawing upon a broader tradition in human geography. Although the historical events that we recall have been

  16. Understanding 'caring' through biopolitics: the case of nurses under the Nazi regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    These days, discussions of what might be the 'essence' or the 'core' of nursing and nursing practice sooner or later end in a discussion about the concept of care. Most of the 'newer' nursing theories use this concept as a theoretical core concept. Even though these theoretical approaches use the concept of care with very different philosophical foundations and theoretical consistency, they concur in defining care as the essence of nursing and thereby glorify goodness as the decisive characteristic of nursing. These theoretical approaches neglect the fact that nursing is above all a profession with a societal task and is characterized by an asymmetrical power relation between nurses and their patients. Based on the results of a research project that analysed the role nurses played in the killing of psychiatric patients in Germany during the Nazi regime, I demonstrate that an approach based on the concept of care is not able to explain how nurses were able to commit crimes of such atrocity. These crimes were bound to an emotional investment that sustained the production of 'life unworthy of living'. In the case of nurses under the Nazi regime, certainly a kind of sadism was at issue that can only be explained if we recognize that the social bond is characterized by a certain tension; 'goodness' that caring theories assign to the social bond always coexists with the capacity for destruction. Using the Foucauldian theoretical framework of biopower and biopolitics enables one to analyse violence and power as integral parts of nurses' practice. Seen from this perspective, the killing of patients was part of a biopolitical programme and not a relapse into barbarism. The concept of care obscures the political agenda of nursing and does not provide a critical and political framework to analysing nursing practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Costs of war: excess health care burdens during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (relative to the health care experience pre-war).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report estimates the health care burden related to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan by calculating the difference between the total health care delivered to U.S. military members during wartime (October 2001 to June 2012) and that which would have been delivered if pre-war (January 1998 to August 2001) rates of ambulatory visits, hospitalizations, and hospital bed days of active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces had persisted during the war. Overall, there were estimated excesses of 17,023,491 ambulatory visits, 66,768 hospitalizations, and 634,720 hospital bed days during the war period relative to that expected based on pre-war experience. Army and Marine Corps members and service members older than 30 accounted for the majority of excess medical care during the war period. The illness/injury-specific category of mental disorders was the single largest contributor to the total estimated excesses of ambulatory visits, hospitalizations, and bed days. The total health care burdens associated with the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq are undoubtedly greater than those enumerated in this report because this analysis did not address care delivered in deployment locations or at sea, care rendered by civilian providers to reserve component members in their home communities, care of veterans by the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, preventive care for the sake of force health protection, and future health care associated with wartime injuries and illnesses.

  18. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  19. [Widows of victims of Nazi concentration camps: their pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryn, Z J

    1992-09-01

    The psychosocial situation of widows and orphans of victims of the Nazi concentration camps in Poland are presented. In 1984, 74 widows of victims from the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp were interviewed. This article describes widows' emotional-behavioral reactions when facing the imprisonment and death of their husbands, their difficulties in adapting themselves to widowhood, different adaptative forms of memories of their married life, and consequences relevant to widows' mental health and family, and social consequences of widowhood.

  20. Music in Nazi-Occupied Poland between 1939 and 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naliwajek-Mazurek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of research on music in territories of occupied Poland conducted by the author in recent years, as well as a review of selected existing literature on this topic. A case study illustrates a principal thesis of this essay according to which music was used by the German Nazis in the General Government as a key elements of propaganda and in appropriation of conquered territories as both physical and symbolic spaces.

  1. Details of Nazis' A-Bomb program surface

    CERN Multimedia

    Glanz, J

    2002-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg, leader of the Nazi atomic bomb program, revealed the projects existence to Niels Bohr in a meeting in Copenhagen in 1941. But contrary to several historical accounts of the meeting, Heisenberg never expressed moral qualms about building a bomb for Hitler nor hinted that he might be willing to sabotage the project, according to secret documents cited in a London newspaper yesterday (2 pages).

  2. Did Raw Material Shortages Decide World War Two? New Data for the Example of Nazi Rubber Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ferdinand Schmelzing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a well-established literature on the economics of World War Two, to this day reliable statistics on overall raw material supplies for Nazi Germany are lacking. The operations of shell companies, the special de jure status of occupied areas, and the Wehrmacht practice to “live off the land” have led to a significant underestimation of de facto resource endowments of the Third Reich. For the example of rubber—one of the prime “scarce war commodities”—this article demonstrates the extent and sources of deficiencies, and offers new data. On this basis, and in contrast to recent arguments that view raw materials as a “basic constraint” of the German economy, it is shown that surprisingly comfortable supplies existed between December 1941 and May 1944, during which Nazi-controlled Europe seemed ready to allow a realization of Hitler’s ‘Lebensraum’ designs. The failure to realize those designs originated in military setbacks—which subsequently impacted economic performance as a secondary effect.

  3. Making Sunday what it actually should be: Sunday radio programming and the re-invention of tradition in occupied Germany, 1945-1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badenoch, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Germany at the end of the Second World War was not only a shattered place, but also a shattered time.1 The physical scattering of populations through the mass movements of war and the atomisation of individuals through the oppressive Nazi regime, followed by occupation and the division of Germany

  4. Transnational Police Networks and the Fight Against Communism in Germany and Denmark, 1933-1940

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    such cohesion. In Denmark measures were taken to protect democracy against subversive efforts of Communists and National Socialists, while in Germany, the Nazi dictatorship was ridding itself of the ‘Marxists’ – Communists, Social Democrats, Union activists etc.; in other words enemies that were considered...

  5. Louis Aragon: (Re writing the Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela KIMYONGÜR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available At the time of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939, Louis Aragon was a member of the French Communist Party (PCF, a well known novelist and poet and a journalist. Whilst his writing career had undergone several notable transformations, not least that from surrealist to socialist realist, his political commitment to the left and, from 1927 to the PCF, remained steadfast for much of his life. Indeed, unlike the PCF’s interpretation of the Second World War, which underwent a number of s...

  6. SCREENING THE SOCIAL FACE OF DENMARK TO THE NAZIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørskov, Frederik Forrai

    2018-01-01

    Looking into the state-sponsored creation and presentation of a German-language film on the Danish social state, this article discusses the complexities of Danish–German relations during the German occupation of Denmark, 1940–1945. The film, Das soziale Gesicht Dänemarks, was screened in Berlin...... to a full house, including a number of Nazi notables, and followed by a presentation by the Danish Minister of Labor and Social Affairs. Based on archival research and film analysis, the article argues that the screening in Berlin informs an understanding of an asymmetrical power relationship between...

  7. Mothers of the Race: The Elite Schools for German Girls under the Nazi Dictatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gregory Paul

    2004-01-01

    In a seeming contradiction of earlier education policy and ideology, the Nazi regime opened three elite schools for girls beginning in 1938. These relatively short-lived and little known institutions symbolized a Nazi penchant for the schooling of females as a preparation for motherhood and a means of preserving racial bloodlines. Drawing from…

  8. Peter Becker and his Nazi past: the man behind Becker muscular dystrophy and Becker myotonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Peter Becker was a German neurologist who helped classify the muscular dystrophies, and described Becker muscular dystrophy and Becker myotonia. His involvement in National Socialism began in 1933, when he was compelled by his peers to join the SA (brown shirts). He later joined the Nazi party, the Nazi Doctors Association, and the Nazi Lecturers' Association. He renewed his SA membership to maintain his position at a genetics institute. Colleagues stated postwar that he was not an active Nazi, and he was de-Nazified in 1947, able to continue his career. Later, Becker admitted to most, but not all, of his Nazi memberships in his autobiography, and wrote 2 books exploring the origins of Nazism and racial hygiene. The "neurologic court of opinion" must weigh in on how we should best remember Becker, and at the very least, we as neurologists must learn the dangers of career opportunism at any cost.

  9. Nazi Soundscapes : Sound, Technology and Urban Space in Germany, 1933-1945

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Na de formatie van de NSDAP in de jaren '20 werden verschillende vormen van geluid (stem, ruis, stilte, populaire muziek) en mediatechnologieën (radio- en luidsprekersystemen) ingezet voor hun politieke programma. Vanuit de historisch invalshoek van het stedelijke 'soundscape' van Düsseldorf,

  10. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy: Totalitarian Menace or Monolithic Illusion? An Analysis of the Axis Coalition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burch, James

    2004-01-01

    .... The advance of Italo-German interests during from 1935 to the beginning of the Second World War--an era characterized by the Great Depression and appeasement--also created an aura of totalitarian...

  11. Choice of food and food traditions in pre-war Bosnia-Herzegovina: focus group interviews with immigrant women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Inger M; Wallin, Anne-Marie; Hallberg, Lillemor R-M; Gustafsson, Inga-Britt

    2002-08-01

    Immigrants in Sweden have on average poorer health than native Swedes, including the risk of nutritional problems. In Sweden's multicultural society there is a need for increased knowledge about eating habits in public health work within health and education. A survey of refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina living in Sweden was undertaken to describe the choice of food and food traditions in pre-war Bosnia. The purpose was to introduce the subject of food, health and migration into public health work and develop culture-adapted food and health advice. Focus-group interviews were undertaken with a total of 20 women refugees from Bosnia-Herzegovina. Qualitative data analysis identified a large consumption of bread as a staple food with meat, vegetables, milk, cheese, legumes, egg and fish as additions. Self-sufficiency was noted with milk souring, jam making and the production of sweet fruit drinks. Home made cheese and drying or smoking of meat were common methods of food storage. In child rearing, breast-feeding for 6-8 months was most common. Home made breast milk replacements were made from semolina, rice and 'petit biscuits'. Several important factors need to be taken into account when giving culturally adapted food and health advice to Bosnian families, such as encouraging bread, vegetable and legume consumption and giving advice on substituting sweet fruit drinks for natural fruit. One should be conscious of how religious beliefs as well as socio-cultural, historical, ecological, economical and psychological influences may guide food choices.

  12. Neighbourship and Friendship among Returnees and Immigrants in the Pre-War, Wartime and Post-War Social Setting of the Brod-Posavina County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić

    2000-06-01

    migrants were queried: refugees-immigrants, returnees-Croats and returnees-Serbs. A comparison was made of their attitudes in regard to neighbourship and friendship between Croats and Serbs in the pre-war, wartime and post-war periods. Their responses indicated a favourable or mostly favourable level of social interaction between Croats and Serbs in the pre-war period. Amiable coexistence was a very much value in parts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Even during the war, although there was different and also aggressive behaviour among friends and neighbours of the other ethnicity (Croats or Serbs, primary social interaction continued to function at least in small segments. Friends, somewhat more often than neighbours, protected persons of the other ethnicity during the war. Primary social relationships were not destroyed even during the worst war periods. It would be expected that this would be an alleviating factor during the post-war (reconstruction of primary social structures. Yet the post-war situation is burdened with problems. Apart from material and financial difficulties, the most grievous ones are psychological. Memories of the war, of the dead and wounded, aggravate communication or make it impossible. Nevertheless, despite even this, difficult circumstances, communication between the three groups of respondents (especially between Croats and Serbs exists, at least in a nuclear form. Thus, if favourable macro-circumstances prevail (primarily a democratic state policy, one can expect a gradual, although slow, regeneration of primary relationship networks in the local community.

  13. The Rhetoric of Defeat: Nazi Propaganda in 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytwerk, Randall L.

    1978-01-01

    The rhetoric of the final four months of Hitler's Reich is examined, including arguments that Germany could still win the war based on moral and logical grounds, and later appeals based on source credibility, historical analogy, and terror. (JF)

  14. Nazi Medical Research in Neuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra; Weindling, Paul J

    Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.

  15. Sleep disturbances in survivors of the Nazi Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J; Reynolds, C F; Yeager, A L; Houck, P R; Hurwitz, L F

    1991-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are commonly reported by victims of extraordinary stress and can persist for decades. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that survivors of the Nazi Holocaust would have significantly more and different sleep problems than depressed and healthy comparison subjects and that the severity of the survivors' problems would be correlated with length of time spent in a concentration camp. Forty-two survivors, 37 depressed patients, and 54 healthy subjects of about the same age, all living in the community, described their sleep patterns over the preceding month on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a self-rating instrument that inquires about quality, latency, duration, efficiency, and disturbances of sleep, use of sleep medication, and daytime dysfunction. The survivors had significantly greater sleep impairment than the healthy comparison subjects, as measured by all subscales of the index, but had less impairment than the depressed patients except on the sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction subscales. However, for specific items within these subscales, survivors had significantly more frequent awakenings due to bad dreams and had less loss of enthusiasm than the depressed subjects. Sleep disturbances and frequency of nightmares were significantly and positively correlated with the duration of the survivors' internment in concentration camps. These findings suggest that for some Holocaust survivors, impaired sleep and frequent nightmares are considerable problems even 45 years after liberation.

  16. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the framework of limited and open access orders. Germany had developed into a mature limited access order before World War I, with rule of law and open economic access but only limited access to politics. After the war, Germany developed toward an open access...... order; this process was, however, not sustainable. Two interpretations are discussed, which both pose a challenge to the limited access-open access framework: (1.) Weimar Germany was the first open access order that failed; (2.) sufficiency conditions of the sustainability of open access are not yet...

  17. Why did so many German doctors join the Nazi Party early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Omar S; De Freitas, Julian; Viani, Ivana; Niederschulte, Bradley; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2012-01-01

    During the Weimar Republic in the mid-twentieth century, more than half of all German physicians became early joiners of the Nazi Party, surpassing the party enrollments of all other professions. From early on, the German Medical Society played the most instrumental role in the Nazi medical program, beginning with the marginalization of Jewish physicians, proceeding to coerced "experimentation," "euthanization," and sterilization, and culminating in genocide via the medicalization of mass murder of Jews and others caricatured and demonized by Nazi ideology. Given the medical oath to "do no harm," many postwar ethical analyses have strained to make sense of these seemingly paradoxical atrocities. Why did physicians act in such a manner? Yet few have tried to explain the self-selected Nazi enrollment of such an overwhelming proportion of the German Medical Society in the first place. This article lends insight into this paradox by exploring some major vulnerabilities, motives, and rationalizations that may have predisposed German physicians to Nazi membership-professional vulnerabilities among physicians in general (valuing conformity and obedience to authority, valuing the prevention of contamination and fighting against mortality, and possessing a basic interest in biomedical knowledge and research), economic factors and motives (related to physician economic insecurity and incentives for economic advancement), and Nazi ideological and historical rationalizations (beliefs about Social Darwinism, eugenics, and the social organism as sacred). Of particular significance for future research and education is the manner in which the persecution of Jewish physician colleagues was rationalized in the name of medical ethics itself. Giving proper consideration to the forces that fueled "Nazi Medicine" is of great importance, as it can highlight the conditions and motivations that make physicians susceptible to misapplications of medicine, and guide us toward prevention of

  18. Propaganda of the Occupation Regime of National Socialistic Germany in Latvia (1941-1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspars Zellis

    2011-01-01

    Annotation Doctoral thesis „Propaganda of the Occupation Regime of National Socialistic Germany in Latvia (1941-1945)” presents analysis of Nazi propaganda towards people of Latvia during the World War II. The analysis covers the institutions of propaganda and the main channels of propaganda – media, radio, cinema etc. The content of propaganda has been analyzed in the research as well. The thesis deals with the issue of propaganda of integration, the main goal of which was creating a n...

  19. Opportunities for mourning when grief is disenfranchised: descendants of Nazi perpetrators in dialogue with Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the concepts of unmourned and disenfranchised grief as a way to understand the experiences of adult children of Nazi perpetrators, who grew up with cultural norms of grieving alone or in silence. The scholarly literature on descendants of Nazis reflects a group unlikely to warrant empathy or support from others because of the stigma surrounding their family's possible involvement in the Holocaust atrocities. This article uses, as a case study approach, the testimony given by Monika Hertwig, the adult daughter of a high ranking Nazi, who appears in the documentary film, Inheritance. From the perspective of disenfranchised grief, defined as grief that is not socially recognized or supported, the article links Monika's testimony with existing research from in-depth interviews with other descendants of Nazis to suggest that, as a group, they lacked permission to grieve their deceased parents, acknowledgment of their grief, and opportunities to mourn. Based on the theory that the effects of grief can be transgenerational, the disenfranchisement experienced by the "children of the Third Reich" does not have to pass to subsequent generations if opportunities for mourning are made possible and some resolution of grief occurs. Studies have shown that ongoing dialogue groups between Holocaust survivors and descendants of Nazis provide opportunities for mourning to both groups.

  20. Wanda Ossowska (1912-2001) and Stanisława Leszczyńska (1896-1974): Polish nurses working under Nazi occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolska, Barbara; Hoch, Stefania; Jabkowska-Sochanska, Aniela; Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda

    2011-11-01

    Poland was invaded by Nazi Germany on 1 September 1939 and World War II began on 3 September. Polish nurses have their place in this difficult history. In the first months of occupation, nurses focused on caring for wounded soldiers. In order to protect them from prisoner-of-war camps and execution, nurses sought safe havens for the wounded in private homes and transported them there. After their regular jobs, the nurses visited them, changed their dressings and provided them with civilian clothes so that soldiers could eventually escape. This paper describes the work of two of these nurses, Wanda Ossowska and Stanisława Leszczyńska. The first three authors (BD, SH, AJS) were nurses in Poland at that time and they present some of the information in this paper as primary source data.

  1. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III: victims of the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscientists survived Nazi concentration camps, but most were murdered. We discuss the circumstances and environment which stripped these neuroscientists of their profession, then of their personal rights and freedom, and then of their lives. We include a background analysis of anti-Semitism and Nazism in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself.

  2. Marking Time: Women and Nazi Propaganda Art during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara McCloskey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available "Marking Time" considers the relative scarcity of woman's image in Nazi propaganda posters during World War II. This scarcity departs from the ubiquity of women in paintings and sculptures of the same period. In the fine arts, woman served to solidify the "Nazi myth" and its claim to the timeless time of an Aryan order simultaneously achieved and yet to come. Looking at poster art and using Ernst Bloch's notion of the nonsynchronous, this essay explores the extent to which women as signifiers of the modern – and thus as markers of time – threatened to expose the limits of this Nazi myth especially as the regime's war effort ground to its catastrophic end.

  3. Weimar Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The Weimar Republic is analysed within the concept of limited and open access orders. Before World War I, Imperial Germany had developed into a mature limited access order with rule of law and open economic access but lack of competition in politics. After World War I and inflation, Weimar Germany...... developed toward an open access order; open access was not, however, sustainable and collapsed in 1930–31. This case of a failed open access order suggests refining the framework of limited and open access orders in further work. It shows that the political process of “creative destruction” might result...

  4. The mythic foundation of National Socialism and the contemporary claim that the Nazis were Christians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hexham

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ideas of Alfred Rosenberg, the “chief ideologue” of German National Socialism. Its aim is to show that, contrary to the claims of a growing number of people encouraged by the so-called “new atheism”, the Nazis held a coherent worldview that was vehemently anti-Christian. To deal with criticism of Christianity by these writers and speakers, it is necessary for Christians to become aware of the Nazi worldview and how deeply it was rooted in modern paganism.

  5. When neo-Nazis march and anti-fascists demonstrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumayer, Christina

    ) and critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2010; van Dijk 2001; van Dijk 1998a). Due to the historical significance of the events and taking into account the continuity of the role of media technologies in articulating counter publicity, the case is contextualised through a discussion of the radical right...... and radical left in present-day Germany as well as an analysis of archived publications from the anti-fascist counter movements to the National Socialist regime in World War II Germany. An empirical and theoretical exploration contributes to the discussion of counterpublics framed by conflictual ideologies...... in the digital age and to the ongoing discussion concerning the role of digital media technologies in political protest. The author concludes by suggesting a protean and relational perspective on counterpublics in the digital age and the role of radical politics in the mediated environments of contemporary...

  6. Nudging Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnhagen, Kai; Reisch, Lucia A.

    Since 2015 behavioural scientists investigate at the German chancellery how one could regulate better. This piece illustrates the background of this new strategy and possible concequences for regulation and Rechtswissenschaft in Germany. We first discuss the concept of behaviourally informed regu...

  7. El papel de España en la derrota de la Alemania nazi durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram M. GORDON

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La importancia del papel jugado por España en la derrota de la Alemania nazi muy a menudo ha sido infravalorada por los historiadores. Con su victoria sobre Francia, en junio de 1940, Alemania tuvo la oportunidad de extender su poder por España, Gibraltar, a través del Mediterráneo hacia el norte de África, por la costa occidental africana, y posiblemente hacia el Atlántico sur y hacia Sudamérica. De este modo, Gran Bretaña podría haberse visto obligada a retirarse de la guerra. Sin embargo, Hitler y su mando militar se vieron sorprendidos por su rápida y completa victoria en Francia, y no contaban con un plan de continuación que no fuese esperar la rendición del Reino Unido. Cuando de forma gradual, en los meses de julio y agosto, Hitler y sus consejeros empezaron a considerar las ventajas que les supondría conquistar Gibraltar e incorporar a España en la guerra, ya habían firmado el armisticio con Francia, seducidos por la idea de futuros emplazamientos en África, a expensas de los intereses españoles. Ello hizo que Hitler no tuviese mucho que ofrecer a Franco cuando se reunieron en Hendaya en octubre de 1940. El papel jugado por Franco en Hendaya para mantener a España fuera de la guerra fue menos significativo de lo que se ha sugerido. De hecho, Franco se comprometió en Hendaya a entrar en la guerra, y sólo después de febrero de 1941 hizo todo lo posible para mantener a España fuera del conflicto. La historia de las oportunidades perdidas por Alemania en 1940 resalta la importancia que tuvo España en la dirección que tomó la guerra. Palabras Clave: Segunda Guerra Mundial, estrategia de guerra, España, Francisco Franco, Adolfo Hitler. ABSTRACT: The importance of Spain's role in the defeat of Nazi Germany has been too frequently overlooked by historians. With their victory over France in June 1940, Germany gained an opportunity to extend its power into Spain, Gibraltar, across the Mediterranean into North

  8. Life in space, space in life: Nazi topographies, geographical imaginations, and Lebensraum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giaccaria, Paolo; Minca, C.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the pivotal role the notion of Lebensraum played within the Nazi spatial mindscape. Tracing the complex and contradictory genealogies of Lebensraum, we note how geographers’ engagement with Geopolitik has only made modest reference to the role Lebensraum played in shaping the

  9. [Psychoanalysis during the Nazi era. Contemporary consequences of a historical controversy: the Wilhelm Reich "case"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzschke, B

    1999-01-01

    The paper sheds light on the extent of collaboration between the pre-World War II German Psychoanalytic Society (DPG) and the Nazi regime. This is shown by the story of the expulsion of Wilhelm Reich from membership in the DPG, at Freud's own bid. A leading German psychoanalyst, Carl Müller-Braunschweig, published the paper "Psychoanalysis and Weltanschauung" in the fanatically "national" (so-called "völkisch") Nazi propaganda organ Reichswart in 1993 following consultations with officials of the International Psychoanalytic Association (IPA) who endorsed these policies. This paper by Müller-Braunschweig was used both to prevent the possible outlawing of psychoanalysis by the Nazis and to deny official DPG support to Wilhelm Reich and the group of leftist-oriented IPA analysts who joined forces with him in opposing Nazi ideology. The paper concludes with examples from post-1945 historiography showing how the exclusion of Reich and the related DPG/IPA compromise and "appeasement" policy were either ignored or disclaimed.

  10. Nazi spatial theory : the dark geographies of Carl Schmitt and Walter Christaller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, T.J.; Minca, C.

    2013-01-01

    The concern with space and, more fundamentally, the formulation of a larger, guiding spatial theory, was central to achieving Nazi objectives during the Third Reich. We disclose critical elements of that theory, focusing on two contributions: the first by the jurist and international legal and

  11. Cegelec Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cegelec is a group of companies acting internationally and one of Europe's biggest plant engineering firms in the fields of power generation and distribution with the focus on engineering and technical services. Cegelec's competences in Germany are mainly in planning, installation and maintenance of plants and facilities in all key industries and for public clients. The main areas of activity are industry, infrastructure and power, for which Cegelec offers comprehensive project and service work. While the Industry business area covers chemistry, steel, paper, automotive, re-engineering, and mining industries, Cegelec's Infrastructure unit performs services to airports, in tunnel construction, for railways and waterways. The Power market segment comprises gas, refuse incineration, power supply, sugar, power plants, and nuclear final storage. Cegelec is represented in Germany on roughly 30 locations with a staff of 1,700. The origins of Cegelec are in Germany, i.e. in AEG founded 1896. The Plant and Automation Technology sector was divested in 1996 and moved to Alstom where, in 2001, a management buyout led to the independent Cegelec group of companies. When the strategic partnership between Qatari Diar and Vinci took shape, Cegelec became a subsidiary of the Vinci group in April 2010. (orig.)

  12. Ethnic Factor in Nazi Occupation Policy During the First Stage of the Great Patriotic War (June 1941 - November 1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Федор Леонидович Синицын

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the main aspects of the Nazi government ethnic policy implemented on the occupied territory of the Soviet Union during the first stage of the Great Patriotic War (June 1941 - November 1942 in the «civic» sphere (local administering, regulating ethno-cultural activities, mobilizing labor force, etc.. The authour shows the peculiarities of using the «ethnic factor» by Nazi occupants, and identifies its main trends, including promotion of nationalism, separatism, and russophobia, as well as the contradictions of the Nazi policies in the matter of granting self-government to the peoples of the Soviet Union.

  13. Legal-Historical Aspects of Punishment of Nazi Criminals on the Background of the Adolf Eichmann Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kohout, David

    2013-01-01

    in English Dissertation Thesis David Kohout: Legal-Historical Aspects of Punishment of Nazi Criminals on the Background of the Adolf Eichmann Trial This Dissertation on the topic of "Legal-Historical Aspects of Punishment of Nazi Criminals on the Background of the Adolf Eichmann Trial" seeks to analyze the main approaches to the prosecution and punishment of the Nazi crimes. It was chosen to use the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem in years 1961 - 1962 as a connecting thread of this whole...

  14. [An objective of the education of mankind: delegated destructiveness. Mass murder of psychiatric patients in Hitler Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfetter, C

    1984-01-01

    The extermination of 100,000 inpatients of mental hospitals and 5,000 mentally retarded children in NAZI-Germany under the Hitler régime between 1939 and 1941 is reported. The ideological precursors of these actions are traced. The ethological and anthropological aspects of inner-species destruction in the phylogenesis of mankind are traced. Psychological and social conditions of social destructiveness under "normal" and exceptional conditions are discussed and the consequences for education drawn.

  15. Hans Asperger, National Socialism, and "race hygiene" in Nazi-era Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Herwig

    2018-01-01

    Hans Asperger (1906-1980) first designated a group of children with distinct psychological characteristics as 'autistic psychopaths' in 1938, several years before Leo Kanner's famous 1943 paper on autism. In 1944, Asperger published a comprehensive study on the topic (submitted to Vienna University in 1942 as his postdoctoral thesis), which would only find international acknowledgement in the 1980s. From then on, the eponym 'Asperger's syndrome' increasingly gained currency in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the conceptualization of the condition. At the time, the fact that Asperger had spent pivotal years of his career in Nazi Vienna caused some controversy regarding his potential ties to National Socialism and its race hygiene policies. Documentary evidence was scarce, however, and over time a narrative of Asperger as an active opponent of National Socialism took hold. The main goal of this paper is to re-evaluate this narrative, which is based to a large extent on statements made by Asperger himself and on a small segment of his published work. Drawing on a vast array of contemporary publications and previously unexplored archival documents (including Asperger's personnel files and the clinical assessments he wrote on his patients), this paper offers a critical examination of Asperger's life, politics, and career before and during the Nazi period in Austria. Asperger managed to accommodate himself to the Nazi regime and was rewarded for his affirmations of loyalty with career opportunities. He joined several organizations affiliated with the NSDAP (although not the Nazi party itself), publicly legitimized race hygiene policies including forced sterilizations and, on several occasions, actively cooperated with the child 'euthanasia' program. The language he employed to diagnose his patients was often remarkably harsh (even in comparison with assessments written by the staff at Vienna's notorious Spiegelgrund 'euthanasia' institution), belying the

  16. Nazis y Matemáticas. Crónica de una Barbarie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se pretende dar una visión de las matemáticas durante el periodo en el que el partido nazi gobernó en Alemania y tuvo pretensiones de gobernar casi toda Europa. Desde 1933, año en el que los nazis subieron al poder, se produjo en Alemania una huida,deportación, expulsión, ingreso masivo en campos de concentración y el asesinato o suicidio de profesores e investigadores en su mayoría de origen étnico judío que por supuesto no dejó a las matemáticas indiferentes.

  17. German science and black racism--roots of the Nazi Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, François

    2008-02-01

    The Nazi's cornerstone precept of "racial hygiene" gave birth to their policy of "racial cleansing" that led to the murders of millions. It was developed by German physicians and scientists in the late 19th century and is rooted in the period's Social Darwinism that placed blacks at the bottom of the racial ladder. This program was first manifested in the near-extermination of the African Herero people during the German colonial period. After WWI, the fear among the German populace that occupying African troops and their Afro-German children would lead to "bastardization" of the German people formed a unifying racial principle that the Nazis exploited. They extended this mind-set to a variety of "unworthy" groups, leading to the physician-administered racial Nuremberg laws, the Sterilization laws, the secret sterilization of Afro-Germans, and the German euthanasia program. This culminated in the extermination camps.

  18. Criptología Nazi. Los Códigos Secretos de Hitler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata la importancia de la desencriptación de los Códigos Enigma y Lorenz alemanes por parte de los aliados gracias al trabajo analítico de multitud de matemáticos, cuyo resultado fue vital para la derrota de los nazis en la 2ª Guerra Mundial, acortando ésta al menos en dos años.

  19. Vervolging, verbanning en het nazi-regime in het tijdschrift Het fundament (1934-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Kröger

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Het socialistische maandblad Het fundament verscheen in de zes jaren voorafgaande aan de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Het tijdschrift besteedde opvallend veel aandacht aan de vluchtelingenstroom die na de machtsovername door Hitler vanuit Duitsland op gang was gekomen. Veel linkse Duitse intellectuelen, die in Nederland hun toevlucht zochten voor het nazi-regime, behoorden tot de medewerkers van Het fundament. Een eerste verkenning.

  20. Secondary Guilt Syndrome May Have Led Nazi-persecuted Jewish Writers to Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Feelings of guilt have tormented Holocaust survivors, ranging from immediately after the liberation to later in life, for shorter or longer periods, and persisting for some throughout their entire post-war lives. Descriptions of the guilt experienced by survivors of the Nazi camps occupy an impressive amount of literature: “Why me?” was the question, when a younger and more able family member perished; “Why me?” when more productive members of the community perished; “Why me?” when a million and a half children were deprived of their lives. Many found the answer by retelling their stories, witnesses of what happened. This type of guilt is much different from the recently described phenomenon of survivor syndrome, namely the secondary guilt felt by Nazi-persecuted Jewish writers. Despite successes in all aspects of their life, these writers developed a self-incriminating guilt due to their perceived inadequacy of communicating, particularly in light of the resurging anti-Semitism worldwide. This paper deals with the survival and suicides of Nazi-persecuted Jewish writers and offers a possible explanation for their late selfdestructive acts

  1. Suicide in inmates in Nazis and Soviet concentration camps: historical overview and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eLopez-Munoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL, Soviet special camps and gulags, providing some preliminary data of our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population, and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty, while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover up the murder victims as suicides. Most of suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behavior when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison. In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain.

  2. Children Mental Disorder Through The Nazi Invasion Portrayed In Louise Murphy’s Novel The True Story Of Hansel And Gretel

    OpenAIRE

    Damanik, Evi Nora

    2016-01-01

    This thesis entitled CHILDREN MENTAL DISORDER THROUGH THE NAZI INVASION PORTRAYED IN LOUISE MURPHY’S NOVEL THE TRUE STORY OF HANSEL AND GRETEL. This analysis focuses on the life of the children during the Nazi invasion in Poland. The objectives of this thesis are in order to describe the suffering that the children face during the invasion and to describe the psychological impact of the Nazi Invasion on the children. The theory used in this thesis is the Psychoanalysis- Indi...

  3. from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Azizi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The first and most important principle of marketing is focusing on the customer needs and wants, because regardless of that, companies will not be able to survive in today's competitive environment. These days, companies know that providing products and services according to customer needs and demands, is an important competitive advantage to gain more sales and benefit, so identifying customer needs and demands, and adopting appropriate strategies for supplying customers' desires are the most important activities in competitive markets. Considering the competitive environment in e-commerce and importance of focus on customer expectations in electronic markets, this study has been aimed to identify and prioritize the factors affecting customer satisfaction in electronic commerce. For data collection and final testing of the E-SAT model, questionnaire was designed and distributed between 221 people in Germany. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. The research model had found out that from six main factors and 25 sub factors, six factors and 17 sub factors affect satisfaction in online shopping. Also in this study, the type of goods, prices of purchased goods and age range of online buyers are investigated.

  4. Achieving Operational Flexibility Through Task Organization: How the American Forces in Europe Beat Nazi Germany by Making the Difficult Routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    the ABied invasion of Southern France). August 19: Resistance uprising in Paris . 20: Allies encircle Germans in the Falaise Pocket. Key Changes I...34 Army Group) for 1\\.farker-Garden (note Ridgeway bad no tactical cmd) August 25: Liberation of Paris . ~ Eisenhower Assumes Command on Continent...A.irborne Divisions) September 17-25: Operntioo Market Garden (A.Died aibome assault on HoDand). September 18: The U.S. Ninth Army finally takes Brest

  5. The national socialism of the group valhalla 88: construction of a nazi movement in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ignácio Franco de Andrade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the racial issues present in the national-socialist ideology professed by the group Valhalla 88 are investigated. The primary element of Nazi ideology is Aryanism (eugenics, i.e., “race purification,” because the “chosen people” have the “right” to rule the world due to their “racial superiority” as understood by Adolf Hitler. The group Valhalla 88 seeks to spread national-socialist ideology, and the group’s interpretation of this ideology seeks to manipulate and adapt these ideas to provide a political alternative.

  6. Staging the Nazi Assault on Reason: Hanns Johst's "Schlageter" and the 'Theatre of Inner Experience'

    OpenAIRE

    Strobl, Gerwin

    2005-01-01

    Hanns Johst’s play Schlageter is generally regarded as the most successful piece of Nazi\\ud theatre. Following its first performance in the early months of the Third Reich, it dominated\\ud German theatrical life throughout 1933 and 1934. This has traditionally been regarded as\\ud evidence of the essential conformity of the Third Reich’s stage; yet since no other play\\ud achieved a similar prominence in the period, Gerwin Strobl finds that line of argument\\ud unconvincing, arguing that the suc...

  7. Germany's Women under the Policy of Racism of Nazi Germany%纳粹种族主义政策下的德国妇女

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞贝

    2008-01-01

    纳粹德国社会是一个具有种族主义特征的社会.希特勒及其党徒期望建立一个纯洁而健康的雅利安民族,所以妇女在纳粹实现其种族主义理想的过程中将扮演十分重要的角色.纳粹宣称妇女是民族的母亲,给予她们极高的社会地位.然而,在实际的角色扮演中,德国妇女的命运却由于其种族和阶层上的差异而有很大不同.

  8. El lugar del pasado en la ideología nazi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Uribe Botero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La idea propuesta en este artículo se lleva a cabo a partir del análisis conceptual del término ''ideología'', tal como es usado por Hannah Arendt en Los orígenes del totalitarismo. El contexto semántico que se impone con el uso que hace Arendt de este término es revisado a la luz de la siguiente objeción propuesta por Phillippe Lacoue-Labarthe y Jean-Luc Nancy: el término ideología, tal como lo usa esta autora, no da cuenta de una de las características más importantes de la ideología nazi: el mito. Con el propósito de ilustrar esta idea, se aplica el sentido del término ''mito político'' propuesto por Roberto Esposito a algunas palabras contenidas en los discursos de Heinrich Himmler. Esto conduce, en la parte final del texto, a proponer, también en discusión con Arendt, un giro en la forma como podría llegar a ser entendida la relación con el pasado en la ideología nazi.

  9. Tungsten in the Second World War: China, Japan, Germany, the Allies and Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Maria Thomàs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the production, legal and illegal trade, and provisioning of strategic mineral wolfram/tungsten both by the Allies and the Axis during World War II. It analyzes the case the world’s largest producer of this mineral, China, the trade agreements signed by Chiang Kai-shek before the war with Nazi Germany, the USSR and Britain and their evolution during the global conflict. It also analyzes Japan, its difficulties in obtaining Chinese wolfram and its dependence on Korea. As for Nazi Germany, it studies its supply of Chinese ore until 1941 and later in the Iberian Peninsula, a trade made difficult by the Allied preventive purchases in Spain and Portugal. The article also studies the case of the US, its progressive auto provisioning in the Western Hemisphere, the airlift established between China and India to extract tungsten and distribution of amounts of it in Britain and the USSR. Finally, the article includes an assessment of the importance of tungsten within the set of strategic materials used by the contenders in the war and concludes that the Allied strategy hinder or prevent the provision of the enemy helped to reduce use and negatively affected the effectiveness of its machinery of war.

  10. Neo-Nazis Sympathizers on the Forums of the Romanian Online Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Irina Macovei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to highlight how the forums of the Romanian online publications may often become spaces for right-wing extremist propaganda. The case study includes about 1.000 comments of the readers, expressed on the articles about a protest of several intellectuals against a TV program of the Romanian public Television (TVR, where Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, the founder of the Iron Guard, a Nazi organization created in 1927, was presented as a romantic hero. The results of the content analysis of comments revealed the stigmatizing themes, the stereotypes and the extremist ideas identified on the forums of these articles. In addition, the comparison between the electronic platforms of the publications showed the importance of their features and of the characteristics of audiences regarding the content of the comments.

  11. Questioning dehumanization: intersubjective dimensions of violence in the Nazi concentration and death camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Using the violence in Nazi concentration and death camps as its case study, this article explores the theoretical and empirical limits of the concept of dehumanization-the process by which the perpetrators come to perceive their victims as "not human" or "subhuman"-and delineates appropriate alternatives to the concept. The author argues that excessive violence is commonly misunderstood and misrepresented as dehumanization because it seems to aim at effacing the victim's human appearance. Yet, it is more accurate to see such violence as a ploy to extend the perpetrator's sense of power over another human being; it is precisely the human quality of the interaction that provides the violence with much of its meaning. The argument has a moral edge, demonstrating that the concept ultimately reduces, or displaces, the true horror of the killer-victim interaction.

  12. The politics of choice: roles of the medical profession under Nazi rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekisch, K; McDonald, J H

    1989-06-01

    In 1933, when Adolf Hitler took power, the German medical community was faced with intense crisis and change. Because social processes become more clearly defined in times of crisis, the days of Nazi rule offer an excellent opportunity to examine health care and moral issues. This article describes historical events that illustrate physicians' and medical students' role in the political process. In addition, we detail four types of responses made by physicians and students: flight, conformism, individual resistance, and group resistance. We conclude that if the role of physicians is to aid and protect patients against disease or experimentation on humans, then he or she must maintain heightened political awareness in order to deal with social crises before they overwhelm any response.

  13. Therapeutic Fascism: re-educating communists in Nazi-occupied Serbia, 1942-44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    This article probes the relationship between psychoanalysis and right-wing authoritarianism, and analyses a unique psychotherapeutic institution established by Serbia's World War II collaborationist regime. The extraordinary Institute for compulsory re-education of high-school and university students affiliated with the Communist resistance movement emerged in the context of a brutal civil war and violent retaliations against Communist activists, but its openly psychoanalytic orientation was even more astonishing. In order to stem the rapid spread of Communism, the collaborationist state, led by its most extreme fascistic elements, officially embraced psychotherapy, the 'talking cure' and Freudianism, and conjured up its own theory of mental pathology and trauma - one that directly contradicted the Nazi concepts of society and the individual. In the course of the experiment, Serbia's collaborationists moved away from the hitherto prevailing organicist, biomedical model of mental illness, and critiqued traditional psychiatry's therapeutic pessimism.

  14. The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust: Part 2: Under Nazi rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Julia; Burgdorf, Walter H C; Hoenig, Leonard J; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    At least 564,500 Hungarian Jews perished during the Holocaust, including many physicians. Exactly how many Jewish dermatologists were killed is not known. We have identified 62 Hungarian Jewish dermatologists from this period: 19 of these dermatologists died in concentration camps or were shot in Hungary, 3 committed suicide, and 1 died shortly after the Holocaust, exhausted by the War. Fortunately, many Hungarian Jewish dermatologists survived the Holocaust. Some had fled Europe before the Nazi takeover, as was described in Part 1 of this contribution. Two Holocaust survivors, Ferenc Földvári and Ödön Rajka, became presidents of the Hungarian Dermatologic Society and helped rebuild the profession of dermatology in Hungary after the War. This contribution provides one of the first accounts of the fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust and serves as a remembrance of their suffering and ordeal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Biomass in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    This document provides, first, an overview of biomass industry in Germany: energy consumption and renewable energy production, the French and German electricity mix, the 2003-2013 evolution of renewable electricity production and the 2020 forecasts, the biomass power plants, plantations, biofuels production and consumption in Germany. Then, the legal framework of biofuels development in Germany is addressed (financial incentives, tariffs, direct electricity selling). Next, a focus is made on biogas production both in France and in Germany (facilities, resources). Finally, the French-German cooperation in the biomass industry and the research actors are presented

  16. Genetics as a modernization program: biological research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes and the political economy of the Nazi State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    During the Third Reich, the biological institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) underwent a substantial reorganization and modernization. This paper discusses the development of projects in the fields of biochemical genetics, virus research, radiation genetics, and plant genetics that were initiated in those years. These cases exemplify, on the one hand, the political conditions for biological research in the Nazi state. They highlight how leading scientists advanced their projects by building close ties with politicians and science-funding organizations and companies. On the other hand, the study examines how the contents of research were shaped by, and how they contributed to, the aims and needs of the political economy of the Nazi system. This paper therefore aims not only to highlight basic aspects of scientific development under Nazism, but also to provide general insights into the structure of the Third Reich and the dynamics of its war economy.

  17. Apology, responsibility, memory. Coming to terms with Nazi medical crimes: the example of the Max Planck Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-11-01

    In June 2001, the then president of the Max Planck Society addressed a formal apology to survivors of Nazi medical crimes. Starting from this ritual of repentance, the paper examines the participants' diverse views of how to deal with the medical crimes of National Socialism. In comparison with the DGPPN, it asks about possibilities of going beyond historical retrospection to fulfil the imperative of remembrance.

  18. Drugs in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  19. We await for the F¨uhrer’s orders: the Nazi perversion in cinematography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Frigeri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the ideological and intertextual parallels between Triumph of the Will, the movie, produced by Leni Riefenstahl and the book Mein Kampf, by Adolf Hitler. Triumph of the Will is the film registry of the National Socialist Party in 1934, at the city of Nuremberg and Mein Kampf was written by Hitler in 1924 while He was in jail; the book aims to guide the members of the Nazi party. For this, the research resumes History by the Nazi’s rise using authors like Elias Canetti (1995 and Hannah Arendt (1989; we also study German film production by Siegrief Kracauer (1988. After, this work investigates the movies made by Riefenstahl from Ray Müller’s documentary (1993, and also by the book from Steven Bach (2008 and Riefenstahl’s autobiography (1991. This research constitutes as metodology the books by Mikhail Bakhtin (2010, Robert Stam (1992 and Jacques Durand (1973, to make the movie’s découpage we use Laurent Jullier and Michel Marie (2009. We separated sixteen movie scenes and they were compared between each other to investigate if the movie was made to be seen by all of the german people, to convince them about the Nazi’s ideal – originally present and described in Mein Kampf.

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder in Polish stroke patients who survived Nazi concentration camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachalska, Maria; Grochmal-Bach, Bozena; MacQueen, Bruce Duncan; Frańczuk, Bogusław

    2006-04-01

    Many persons who survived Nazi concentration camps are now in advanced age, so that rehabilitation centers in Poland are seeing increasing numbers of such patients, especially after strokes. In many cases, the process of rehabilitation is severely hampered by Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), while the neuropsychological consequences of the stroke itself often evoke traumatic memories and simultaneously disorganize or destroy the patient's previous coping mechanisms. The present study describes the program developed by the authors for concentration camp survivors in post-stroke rehabilitation, including the use of art therapy and specially prepared films to help the patients cope with PTSD. The experimental group (KL) consisted of 8 such patients (4 men, 4 women, average age 79.1+/-4.28) with mild post-stroke aphasia who went through the PTSD program, while the comparison group (C) included 8 post-stroke patients, matched for age and gender, who were not concentration camp survivors and showed no premorbid symptoms of PTSD. All subjects were tested at baseline and again 3 months later, using structured interview and observation, self-rating scales for three basic negative emotions (anger, anxiety and sadness) and the Frustration and Aggression Test for the Disabled. The results showed significant differences between the groups at baseline, while at follow-up the differences between groups had changed in both extent and distribution. Qualitative analysis of the results allows for some important observations about the etiology and course of PTSD in these persons.

  1. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Kolman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values—life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention—will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich’s corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession’s identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices.

  2. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Jacob M.; Miller, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values—life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention—will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich’s corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession’s identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices. PMID:29406846

  3. [The meaning of "apology": the survivors of Nazi medical crimes and the Max Planck Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-09-01

    Around the turn of the twenty-first century a new practice in international politics became established: representatives of political, economic and religious organisations apologised for the historical and political crimes of their own collectives, addressing the victims or the victims' descendants. At a public event in June 2001, a formal apology of this kind was made by the president of the Max Planck Society (MPS), who had previously launched an extensive programme of research into the National Socialist history of what was then the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The majority of the eight invited survivors of human experimentation in Nazi concentration camps refused forgiveness. Instead, they called for the MPS not to content itself with historical research and analysis, but to ensure the continued remembrance of the victims and their suffering. Starting from this 2001 ritual of repentance, the paper examines the participants' diverse views of how to deal with the medical crimes of National Socialism, and asks about possibilities of going beyond historical retrospection to fulfil the imperative of remembrance.

  4. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Jacob M; Miller, Susan M

    2018-01-29

    An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values-life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention-will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich's corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession's identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices.

  5. Des tranchées au NSDAP. Culture de guerre et politisation des députés nazis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Patin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Quel fut le facteur décisif dans l’engagement politique des nazis ? Dans la littérature concernant la Grande Guerre, le conflit est dépeint comme un facteur essentiel : il aurait été créateur d’une “culture de guerre” qui expliquerait en grande partie la mobilisation de beaucoup de nazis. L’analyse de la fraction nationale-socialiste du Reichstag entre 1919 et 1933 ne dément pas ce résultat : elle comptait 80% d’anciens-combattants. Cependant, les autres partis, eux aussi, rassemblaient une proportion énorme de vétérans. Il est possible d’isoler un certain nombre d’attributs spécifiques aux parlementaires nazis, qui, combinées entre eux et avec le poids de l’héritage guerrier, donne une vision plus complexe : si la fraction du NSDAP avait un monopole, ce n’était pas celui de l’expérience guerrière, mais bien de la jeunesse et de l’expérience du front. Ses députés avaient dix ans de moins que les autres parlementaires. Par ailleurs, elle comptait dans ses rangs une proportion plus élevée de militaires de carrière, ou de fils de militaires, ainsi qu’un nombre important d’hommes attachés au monde rural, que ce soit par leur naissance, la profession de leur père ou les études qu’ils choisirent. Tous ces critères permettent de relativiser le poids de la guerre pour établir des profils plus diversifiés d’engagement politique.What was the main reason for German people to join the Nazi Party? In historical literature, First World War has been often depicted as a major explanation: the conflict is supposed to have created a “war culture” that would have led to the political mobilization of many Nazis. An analyze of the national-socialist members of the Reichstag between 1919 and 1933 does not contradict this hypothesis. Indeed, 80% of NSDAP MP’s were war veterans. Nevertheless, in other parties too, an enormous proportion of delegates were veterans. Actually other particularities can

  6. Germany, Russia, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  7. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  8. EMI in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Felix; Schindler, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses effectively maintained inequality considering two different examples from the Germany education system: secondary school attainment and enrolment in highly ranked universities among freshmen. In our analyses of secondary school attainment, we investigate whether considering...

  9. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  10. Germany at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The Eighth Exhibition of German Industry, "Germany at CERN" started this week and offers German companies the opportunity to establish professional contacts with CERN. From left to right in the foreground: Maximilian Metzger (BMBF), Bettinna Schöneseffen (BMBF), Karl-Heinz Kissler (SPL division leader), Horst Wenninger, and Hans Hoffman. Behind and to the right of Karl-Heinz Kissler is His Excellency Mr Walter Lewalter, Ambassador and permanent representative of Germany to the UN office in Geneva.

  11. Should commercial organ donation be legalized in Germany? An ethical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, F; Winkler, U; Mayer, J; Stracke, S

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated the arguments pro and con concerning kidney sales from a German perspective. At present, we see social, medical, and ethical reasons why organ selling should not be legalized in Germany. Legalization of organ selling would weaken the principle of solidarity within the German health system. Conversely, profit making will undermine the principle of social justice. Within the present social system in Germany, there is no economic pressure to sell an organ to save life, and there is no medical need to buy a kidney. Also, there exists the risk that opening the market for organ sales will de-motivate potential directed organ donors. Relatives would have more doubts about giving their consent to donate organs of their deceased. Moreover, the historical experience with the "action T4" of the Nazi regime sensitized German society for the categorical imperative set forth by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), namely that man is not a means, but an end to himself. By selling one's kidney, the donor uses himself as a means and as an instrument for the end result of gaining money. With directed organ donation, the welfare of the recipient is the end result. The pending reform of the German health system needs a more communitarian sense, which will be eroded should organs be sold and no longer donated as gifts. Germany's special historical experience and a deeply embedded consent toward ethical values give reason for the prohibition of organ selling in Germany.

  12. Multiculturalism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts out from the recent statement by the German Chancellor Angela Merkel that multiculturalism in Germany is dead. The author draws attention to the unfavourable conditions for the development of multiculturalism in Germany. The reasons are historical, especially the experience of Nazism as well as the German social state. Namely, foreign workers in Germany, although without political rights and socially non-integrated, enjoyed a high degree of working and social rights, including high employment security. In this respect their position significantly differed from that of American workers (immigrants, which is why the struggle for civil rights was not in the foreground for German immigrants. Therefore, “the crisis of multiculturalism” appeared with the immigrants’ “second generation” (children, who have been first hit in the current times of crisis and the increasing deregulation of the labour market. They have remained socially non-integrated and without civil and political rights. It is interesting that the churches, particularly the Protestant one, lead in Germany in the efforts to begin to look at immigrants in a cultural (human sense as well, and have thus been the first to acknowledge that Germany has become a multicultural society. But this term and concept in Germany have remained sketchy, both in the theoretical and political sense. However, they have gained certain sympathy, mainly in parts of liberal-democratic circles – the Green Party leading the way – but more in a symbolic sense in countering xenophobia and cultural exclusion in German society. When multiculturalism was accused of developing “parallel society”, both the right and the left renounced it in favour of the (seemingly neutral concept of integration. The author proves that Germany has become and has remained multicultural, although not a multiculturalist country.

  13. [The infectious diseases experiments conducted on human guinea pigs by Nazis in concentration camps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    The author systematically examined all available publications and web documents, with regard to scientifically documented experiments carried out by Nazi physicians in their concentration camps during World War II. This research focused on human experiments dealing with: malaria, tuberculosis, petechial typhus, viral hepatitis, and those regarding sulphonamides as antimicrobial agents. The concentration camps involved by experimental programmes on human guinea pigs were: Natzweiler Struthof, Dachau, Mauthausen, Buchenwald, Neuengamme, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen and Auschwitz. Overall, around 7,200 deported prisoners went to their deaths during or because of these experiments (also considering human trials other than previously quoted ones). At the end of the war several physicians were charged with war crimes in two trials (Nuremberg and Dachau), and those found guilty were sentenced to death, or years of imprisonment. Some of them, including the notorious Josef Mengele, succeeded in escaping capture and being brought to justice. Thanks to these trials, partial light has been shed on these crimes, which not infrequently had children as designated victims, selected with excruciating cruelty in special segregation sections. The SS was the key structure which ensured maximum efficiency for these experimental programmes, from both logistic planning through to an operative control system carried out in concentration camps, and thanks to an autonomous, dedicated medical structure, which included a rigid hierarchy of physicians directly dependent on the head of SS forces (Reichsführer), i.e. Dr. Heinrich Himmler. Moreover, it is worth noting that also physicians who were not part of the SS corps collaborated in the above experiments on human guinea pigs: these included military personnel belonging to the Wehrmacht, academic physicians from German universities, and researchers who worked in some German pharmaceutical industries, such as IG Farben, Bayer and Boehring.

  14. Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrmann, F.; Brennecke, P.; Koch, W.; Kugel, K.; Steyer, S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible

  15. Orígenes histórico-conceptuales de la teoría de la propaganda nazi

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo trata sobre algunos factores que influyeron en la concepción nazi de la propaganda, básicamente formulada por Adolf Hitler. Tales factores son teóricos e históricos. Entre los factores teóricos o conceptuales podemos citar la psicología de las masas y la teoría clásica de la comunicación de masas. Los factores históricos son relativos a la práctica de la propaganda, ejercida por los aliados en la Primera Guerra Mundial, el movimiento socialista, el fascismo italiano y otras fuen...

  16. Nuclear energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Since September 1998 the Federal Government formed by a Red/Green Coalition declared its goal: irreversible phase out of nuclear power plants. The first attempt to stop reprocessing as well as the first attempt to change nuclear law failed. The present situation is as follows: existing nuclear power plants operate in a most satisfying way producing 170 TWh/a. i.e. 35% of total production; transport license is not granted; no new NPP is planned, but Germany will participate in the French European Power Reactor (EPR) project. Concerning fast reactors, no industrial activities exist in Germany. There is no intention to build a facility, but Germany participates in the European CAPRA project. Existing research items are related to neutronics, safety analysis, irradiation experiment TRABANT, accelerator driven systems, thermohydraulics, safety

  17. Germany after Federal elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzballa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

  18. El huevo de la serpiente al sur del mundo: desarrollo y supervivencia de la ciencia nazi en Chile (1908 -1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyton, César

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents, mainly through the figure of Dr. Max Westenhoffer and in a work of Drs. Barrientos and Schirmer (1937, the connections between the development of medicine and anthropology in Chile with the development of the biological determinist thought and racism in Europe. Chilean Physicians and anthropologists as Otto Aichel, Aureliano Oyarzún, Edgardo Schirmer and Juvenal Barrientos indicate the direct relationship of the Chilean scientific program of the early twentieth century with the hereditarian and racist program, which reached its climax with the Nazi eugenics.El trabajo aborda, principalmente a partir de la figura del Dr. Max Westenhoffer y de un trabajo de los Drs. Barrientos y Schirmer de 1937, las conexiones que presenta el desarrollo de la medicina y la antropología en Chile con el pensamiento determinista biológico y racista en Europa. Médicos y antropólogos chilenos como Otto Aichel, Aureliano Oyarzún, Edgardo Schirmer y Juvenal Barrientos dan cuenta de la relación directa de una parte del programa científico chileno de la primera mitad del siglo XX con el programa hereditarista y racista, que alcanzó su punto cúlmine con la eugenesia y la antropología nazi.

  19. [Tularemia in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee. For three days, CERN's Main Building was transformed into a showcase for German industry. Twenty-nine companies from sectors related to particle physics (electrical engineering, vacuum and low temperature technology, radiation protection, etc.) were here for the ninth "Germany at CERN" exhibition, organised by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), which gave them the opportunity to meet scientists and administrators from the Laboratory. On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.

  1. Library Consortia in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Reinhardt

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the present situation in Germany consortia show a considerable variety of organizational forms. Only in the case of the Friedrich-Althoff-Consortium in Berlin-Brandenburg a corporate body with deed of partnership does exist. In other German states consortia have been formed which are represented by an individual library (e.g. Baden-Württemberg or by a central institution such as the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Bavaria or the Hochschulbibliothekszentrum NRW in North Rhine-Westphalia. Rarely contracts for nationwide consortia have been signed; resulting from an initiative of a professional society, the „Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker“, an agreement was reached allowing for the use of the Beilstein-Crossfire-database in participating universities all over Germany.

  2. The Practice of "Grammar Naziness" on Facebook in Relation to Generating Grammar Learning: A Motivation or Demotivation in Updating Statuses in English on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noraziah Mohd; Abdul Rahman, Noor Azam; Sharipudin, Mohamad-Noor; Abu Bakar, Mohd Saifulnizam

    2016-01-01

    It is common for learners of English to make grammatical errors in their English Facebook posts that can be noticeable on their walls, which this perhaps as a result, influences the other Facebook users who know about the language to perform the unofficial duty as grammar Nazis and correct the errors. Thus, this research aims to examine if Malay…

  3. Picturing anti-Semitism in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands : Anti-Jewish Stereotyping in a racist Second World War Comic Strip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribbens, Kees

    In 1942, the Dutch weekly magazine Volk en Vaderland, which propagated the political opinions of the Dutch National Socialists in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands, published a comic strip, “Rare, maar ware commentaren” (Odd, but true comments). In it, the illustrator, Peter Beekman (1911–1959) depicted

  4. Germany bars nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaullier, V.

    1999-01-01

    Germany wants a future without nuclear energy, the different steps about the going out of nuclear programs are recalled. The real choice is either fossil energies with their unquestionable safety levels but with an increase of the greenhouse effect or nuclear energy with its safety concerns and waste management problems but without pollutant emission. The debate will have to be set in most European countries. (A.C.)

  5. Analysis of the "Scientific, Legal" Policy of Racism of Nazi Germany%试析纳粹德国种族主义政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑爽

    2006-01-01

    种族主义是纳粹思想体系的重要组成部分.19世纪以来,科学技术的发展,为纳粹实施其种族政策提供了"科学"的手段.纳粹掌权后,借用国家政权的力量,以"法律"保障来推行其种族政策.纳粹种族主义"科学、合法"的欺人之谈,实质上为其实施对犹太民族进行灭绝人性的大屠杀寻找借口.

  6. Banal no more: an essay on the film Hannah Arendt, with special reference to Eichmann and the Nazi killing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Bennett

    2015-04-01

    This movie review and essay about the recent film Hannah Arendt by director Margarethe von Trotta seeks to examine Arendt's controversial term "banality of evil" as well as the nature of Arendt's misperception of Adolph Eichmann as thoughtless, and to situate Eichmann's personality within recent understandings of totalitarian group behavior and organizational killers. What emerges is that Arendt was unable to understand Eichmann's ruthless indifference to others as well as his attraction to being a Nazi and to organized mass killing. This paper examines Mann's (2005) formulation of different levels of functional attraction to totalitarian perpetrators, in which a racial morality is imposed and restrictions to eliminist violence are removed. Under such group conditions, violent "sleeper" needs emerge and are rationalized by political beliefs. In conclusion, the term "banality of evil" has little explanative value, while violent mass murder continues to this day as a totalitarian solution.

  7. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, A.

    1990-01-01

    I want to give some ideas on the situation of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and perhaps a little bit on Europe. Let me start with public perception. I think in Germany we have a general trend in the public perception of technology during the last decade that has been investigated in a systematic manner in a recent study. It is clear that the general acceptance of technology decreased substantially during the last twenty years. We can also observe during this time that aspects of the benefits of technology are much less reported in the media, that most reporting by the media now is related to the consequences of technologies, such as negative environmental consequences. hat development has led to a general opposition against new technological projects, in particular unusual and large. That trend is related not only to nuclear power, we see it also for new airports, trains, coal-fired plants. here is almost no new technological project in Germany where there is not very strong opposition against it, at least locally. What is the current public opinion concerning nuclear power? Nuclear power certainly received a big shock after Chernobyl, but actually, about two thirds of the German population wants to keep the operating plants running. Some people want to phase the plants out as they reach the end-of-life, some want to substitute newer nuclear technology, and a smaller part want to increase the use of nuclear power. But only a minority of the German public would really like to abandon nuclear energy

  8. Rewriting Germany's nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Germany, the private use of nuclear energy for peaceful uses is strictly regulated by a Nuclear Energy Act. Since its enactment back in 1959, this legislation has been overhauled five times - most recently in 1985. Now Klaus Toepfer, Germany's Federal Minister for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Nuclear Safety, has set out to revise the Act for the sixth time. The present draft bill is intended to reorganise the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle; eliminate public promotion of nuclear power; clarify points of legal dispute. Of the draft bill's three aims, the last two are more parochial. The real novelty lies in the changes to the rules for the back end of the fuel cycle. First, the Federal Government proposes to abandon the priority given to spent fuel recycling. In future, direct disposal will be an equivalent option, and waste avoidance will have top priority. Intimately linked to the back end proposal is the Government's plan to load on the shoulders of nuclear operators the full responsibility for building and operating repositories for the final disposal of nuclear waste. The third aspect of Government's back end plans concerns decommissioning. At present, operators accumulate provisions over the plant lifetime, which for that purpose is estimated at 19 years. The provisions vary from plant to plant but are generally around DM1 billion and are tax free. Under the proposed regulations, this sum must be available from the first day of operation to cover the case of an early shutdown. In practice, this will increase the initial investment for a nuclear power plant in Germany by 10-20% and so make nuclear power less competitive. (author)

  9. Country report for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusener, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    The status of the nuclear energy in Germany can be summarised as follows: 19 operating NPPs (22 GWe); electricity production in 200 amounted to 170 TWh (one third of the total production); average availability 91%; goal of the Federal Government is to phase out nuclear energy without paying to the utilities. Fast reactor activities involve participation of FZK in the European Project 'Burning of Pu and MAs in Critical Fast Reactors'; shifting to burning of actinides in subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS). This includes neutronics, safety analysis, Pb-Bi technology, development of spallation target, corrosion in Pb and Pb-Bi

  10. Environmental policy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wey, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    Previous forms, emergence, and development of German environ-politics from 1900 to the present day are looked into by means of so far disregarded sources. The main lines of ecological and technological environ-politics are described and the difficulties in formulating and getting through adequate state measures of environment protection are shown quoting cases. The influence of structural pre-conditions, of the constitutional state, political culture and global development of Germany is examined as to its influence on environ-politics. The work must be understood as a historical argument in favor of a more conscious, reasonable political formation of environment in the sense of an ecological concept. (orig.) [de

  11. ECFA SURVEY: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Few nations can match the scope of German basic physics contributions. Earlier this century, illustrious names (Rontgen, Franck, von Laue, Planck, Sommerfeld, Heisenberg, ) kept Germany among the front runners. Subsequent history has given German physics a very different profile - the country now participates massively in international projects and is the largest single contributing nation in CERN's research programme. At the same time, an impressive high energy programme at the German national Laboratory at DESY, Hamburg, centred around the 6.3 kilometre HERA ring, the world's only high energy electron-proton collider, attracts scientists from all over the world

  12. Are we 'Nazi Germans' or 'Lazy Greeks'? Negotiating International Hierarchies in the Euro Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This chapter argues that to understand international hierarchies, we need to examine not only the type of hierarchy, but also processes of internalization of – and resistance to – hierarchies. We will then discover that many hierarchies are not simply imposed from above, but that subordinate actors....... Scholars, politicians and media see Germany as the leader and economic power-house of Europe, while Greece is represented as ‘bankrupt’ and ‘dysfunctional’ with high levels of unemployment. What we often overlook, however, is that it was not inevitable that these particular countries would occupy......’ and ‘moral sinner’. Each label positions the state very differently. Based on an in-depth analysis and contextualization of the stereotyping of self and other, the chapter suggests that rather than merely consolidating Germany’s (and Northern Europe’s) economic and political superiority and sustaining...

  13. Germany, Pacifism and Peace Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    This book is about the transformation of Germany's security and defence policy in the time between the 1991 Gulf War and the 2003 war against Iraq. It traces and explains the reaction of Europe's biggest and potentially most powerful country to the ethnic wars of the 1990s, the emergence of large...... the 1990s. The book debates the implications of Germany's transformation for Germany's partners and neighbours, and explains why Germany said ‘yes’ to the war in Afghanistan, but ‘no’ to the Iraq War. Based on a comprehensive study of the debates of the German Bundestag and actual German policy responses...

  14. Fusarium Keratitis in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasch, Serena; Kaerger, Kerstin; Hamprecht, Axel; Roth, Mathias; Cornely, Oliver A.; Geerling, Gerd; Mackenzie, Colin R.; Kurzai, Oliver; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium keratitis is a destructive eye infection that is difficult to treat and results in poor outcome. In tropical and subtropical areas, the infection is relatively common and associated with trauma or chronic eye diseases. However, in recent years, an increased incidence has been reported in temperate climate regions. At the German National Reference Center, we have observed a steady increase in case numbers since 2014. Here, we present the first German case series of eye infections with Fusarium species. We identified Fusarium isolates from the eye or eye-related material from 22 patients in 2014 and 2015. Thirteen isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), 6 isolates belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), and three isolates belonged to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). FSSC was isolated in 13 of 15 (85%) definite infections and FOSC in 3 of 4 (75%) definite contaminations. Furthermore, diagnosis from contact lens swabs or a culture of contact lens solution turned out to be highly unreliable. FSSC isolates differed from FOSC and FFSC by a distinctly higher MIC for terbinafine. Outcome was often adverse, with 10 patients requiring keratoplasty or enucleation. The use of natamycin as the most effective agent against keratitis caused by filamentous fungi was rare in Germany, possibly due to restricted availability. Keratitis caused by Fusarium spp. (usually FSSC) appears to be a relevant clinical problem in Germany, with the use of contact lenses as the predominant risk factor. Its outcome is often adverse. PMID:28747368

  15. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  16. Comment on E.F. Torrey and R.H. Yolken: “Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia” (Schizophr Bull. 2010;36/1:26–32) and R.D. Strous: “Psychiatric Genocide: Reflections and Responsibilities” (Schizophr Bull. Advance Access Publication on February 4, 2010; doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Torrey and Yolken wonder whether the killing of mentally ill persons in Nazi Germany reduced the risk for schizophrenia in the following generation. Epidemiological data from Germany do not permit reliable comparisons. Torrey and Yolken point out that horrible crime is still only little known. Strous and several contributors on the Schizophrenia Research Forum confirm that view. The history of ideas shows that social Darwinism in the educated classes and the doctrine of degeneration in psychiatry widely influenced thinking prior to World War II. Psychiatrists, lacking effective treatment for steadily growing numbers of the mentally ill, were susceptible to these ideologies. In a first step, several countries introduced compulsory sterilization as a genetic means of preventing diseases believed to be hereditary. Hitler's megalomaniac idea of creating a new human species by steering human evolution through the elimination of “unfit” genes in the mentally ill and inferior races led to the breach of human rights. His euthanasia program—the biggest crime ever perpetrated on the sick—turned out to usher in the gas chambers of the Holocaust. PMID:20421336

  17. Comment on E.F. Torrey and R.H. Yolken: "Psychiatric genocide: Nazi attempts to eradicate schizophrenia" (Schizophr Bull. 2010;36/1:26-32) and R.D. Strous: "psychiatric genocide: reflections and responsibilities" (Schizophr Bull. Advance access publication on February 4, 2010; doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Heinz

    2010-05-01

    Torrey and Yolken wonder whether the killing of mentally ill persons in Nazi Germany reduced the risk for schizophrenia in the following generation. Epidemiological data from Germany do not permit reliable comparisons. Torrey and Yolken point out that horrible crime is still only little known. Strous and several contributors on the Schizophrenia Research Forum confirm that view. The history of ideas shows that social Darwinism in the educated classes and the doctrine of degeneration in psychiatry widely influenced thinking prior to World War II. Psychiatrists, lacking effective treatment for steadily growing numbers of the mentally ill, were susceptible to these ideologies. In a first step, several countries introduced compulsory sterilization as a genetic means of preventing diseases believed to be hereditary. Hitler's megalomaniac idea of creating a new human species by steering human evolution through the elimination of "unfit" genes in the mentally ill and inferior races led to the breach of human rights. His euthanasia program-the biggest crime ever perpetrated on the sick-turned out to usher in the gas chambers of the Holocaust.

  18. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  19. CAS School in Germany

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH (GSI) and the Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt) jointly organised a course on General Accelerator Physics, at intermediate level, at TU Darmstadt from 27 September to 9 October 2009.   Participants in the CERN Accelerator School in Darmstadt, Germany. The Intermediate-level course followed established practice, with lectures on core topics in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided "hands-on" education and experience in the three selected topics: "RF Measurement Techniques", "Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics" and "Optics Design and Correction". These proved to be highly successful, with participants choosing one course and following the topic throughout the school. Guided studies, tutorials, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. A visit to GSI and the F...

  20. Germany at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty eight companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. The main subjects are: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows: the list of exhibitors A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Departemental secretariat, the reception information desk, Building 33, the exhibition. A detailed list of firms is available under the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elektromechanik GmbH BABCOCK NOELL Nucle...

  1. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Laignel / FI-DI

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 3 march 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  2. Germany AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    From 1 to 2 March 2005 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09:30 - 17:30 Twenty nine companies will present their latest technology at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. German industry will exhibit products and technologies related to the field of particle physics. The main sectors represented will be: mechanical engineering, particle detectors, electrical engineering, electronics, data processing, radiation protection and vacuum and low temperature techonology. The exhibition is organised by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. The exhibitors are listed below. A detailed programme will be available in due course: from your Departemental secretariat, from the reception information desk, Building 33, at the exhibition itself. A detailed list of the participating firms is already available at the following FI link: http://fi-dep.web.cern.ch/fi-dep/structure/memberstates/exhibitions_visits.htm LIST OF EXHIBITORS ACCEL Instruments GmbH APRA-NORM Elekt...

  3. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmayer, D.

    1978-01-01

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Environmental Foundations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krikser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.

  5. Nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    On the occasion of the retirement of the Editor-in-chief of 'atomwirtschaft', the author gave a keynote speech on the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany at the headquarters of the Handelsblatt Verlag in Duesseldorf on October 30, 1984. He subdivided the period under discussion into five phases, the first of which comprises the 'founding years' of 1955 to 1960. This was the time when activities in nuclear research and nuclear technology in Germany, which were permitted again in mid-1955, began with the establishment of the national research centers, the first Atomic Power Program, the promulgation of the Atomic Energy Act, the foundation of government organizations, including the Federal Ministry for Atomic Energy, etc. In the second phase, between 1960 and 1970, a solid foundation was laid for the industrial peaceful uses of nuclear power in the construction of the first LWR experimental nuclear power stations, the first successful export contracts, the beginnings of the first nuclear fuel cycle plants, such as the WAK reprocessing plant, the Asse experimental repository, the Almelo agreement on centrifuge enrichment. The third phase, between 1970 and 1975, was a period of euphoria, full of programs and forecasts of a tremendous boom in nuclear generating capacities, which were further enhanced by the 1973 oil squeeze. In 1973 and 1974, construction permits for ten nuclear power plants were applied for. The fourth phase, between 1975 and 1980, became a period of crisis. The fifth phase, the eighties, give rise to hope for a return to reason. (orig./UA) [de

  6. Anatomical practice at Göttingen University since the Age of Enlightenment and the fate of victims from Wolfenbüttel prison under Nazi rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude-Koeller, Susanne; Knauer, Wilfried; Viebahn, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    This report briefly summarises anatomical practice at Göttingen University from its founding in 1737 until the Nazi period and gives a detailed account of how Nazi death penalty legislation and execution practice at Wolfenbüttel prison influenced the decision-making of the anatomists in charge at that time. Problems in the procurement of corpses, encountered almost continuously throughout Europe since the broad introduction of dissection into medical training in the early 18th century, were absent in Göttingen during periods of overt progress in anatomical sciences, e.g. under Albrecht von Haller (in office 1736-1753) and Jacob Henle (1853-1885), and at times when existing regulations were rigorously enforced by the authorities (1814-1851). Ample availability of corpses in the wake of more than 600 executions in Wolfenbüttel between 1935 and 1945 was curtailed only by transportation fuel shortages and resulted in the dissection of more than 200 Nazi victim corpses in the Göttingen anatomy course. Apparently, neither individual offers of voluntary body donation (dating from 1932 to 1937 and published here as the earliest documents of this kind), nor the strong tradition of high-level anatomical research, nor even the awareness of the University's Age of Enlightenment origin, prevented the unethical use of corpses of Nazi victims for medical teaching. The Göttingen example may add "historical and moral detachment" under unusual political and wartime pressures to the "clinical and emotional detachment" thought to prevail amongst anatomy personnel (Hildebrandt, in this issue); together with the other reports it calls for all anatomists to bear in mind their ever present ethical obligations in respect to activities involving the use of corpses, both in medical schools and in the public domain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. GERMANY AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    13 - 15 November 2001 Administration Building Bldg 60 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs OPENING CEREMONY 10h00 - 13 November GERMANY AT CERN Thirty-three German companies will be demonstrating their supplies and services offered for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other key CERN programmes. The Industrial exhibition will be enriched with a display of objects of contemporary German art. The official German presentation is under the patronage of the Federal Minister of Education and Research (BMBF), Bonn. There follows : the list of exhibitors, the list of lectures to be given at the exhibition. A detailed programme will be available in due course at : your Divisional Secretariat, the Reception information desk, building 33, the exhibition. LIST OF EXHIBITORS Accel Instruments GmbH Representative: 1.1 Accel Instruments GmbH/CH-8754 Netsal apra-norm Elektromechanik GmbH Representative: 2.1 apra-norm s.n.c./F-67500 Haguenau Babcock Noell Nuclear GmbH Balcke-D&u...

  8. Propaganda y publicidad nazis en España durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial : algunas características

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velasco Murviedro

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del título de este trabajo, lo cierto es que el período exacto en que la propaganda nazi propiamente dicha se extendió en nuestro país fue mucho más concreto y menor en extensión: los casi tres años que van desde comienzos de 1941 hasta finales del 43; ambas fechas no son, a nada que se analice, fortuitas, ni mucho menos, pues la primera coincide con el auge y extensión militar de Alemania por Europa y parte de África, mientras que en el año 1943, si aún no está clara y definida la fecha de la derrota de ios germanos, sí está ya echada la suerte de la guerra, y ésta no es desde luego favorable a éstos, por lo que el esfuerzo propagandístico devino cada vez más superfluo.

  9. Gerhart Panning (1900-1944): a German forensic pathologist and his involvement in Nazi crimes during Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Johanna; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-03-01

    Twenty years after the Second World War the public were made aware of War Crimes committed by the German forensic pathologist, Gerhart Panning (1900-1944). From 1942 till 1944, Panning was professor at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Bonn. Panning died of tuberculosis on 22 March 1944. After the Second World War, Panning's widow tried to obtain denazification for her husband. There were no particularly serious doubts. In 1965, Konrad Graf von Moltke, the son of Helmuth James Graf von Moltke (1907-1944), presented to the court a private letter from his father to his mother. In this letter, written in 1941, Panning's experiments on Soviet prisoners are described. In the so-called Callsen trial in the court of Darmstadt from 1960 to 1968, the experiments were confirmed by witnesses. In 1941, Panning performed experiments in cooperation with the Sicherheitsstaffel (Nazi special police) in the Ukraine to prove that captured ammunition of the soviet infantry violated international law. For this purpose, different parts of the bodies of living Soviets were used as firing targets. He published the results of these experiments in a scientific journal without any evidence of the origin of these observations. In this article, Panning's life and crimes have been described.

  10. [Ernst Rüdin--a Swiss psychiatrist as the leader of Nazi psychiatry--the final solution as a goal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, U H

    1996-09-01

    The study of work and life of the Swiss-German psychiatrist Ernst Rüdin, honoured up to our time as "father of psychiatric genealogy", lead to different views. Rüdin early in his life became a racial fanatic, and as a propagandist for the purity of the "Germanic people" he constantly demanded preventive coercive measures against the reproduction of the mentally ill and other, in the racist's view, undesirable persons. With this objective in mind he started his psychiatric research. The results of Rüdin's monograph about the genetics of dementia precox do not withstand scientific criticism but confirmed his preexisting opinions. They served however as scientific reasoning for the forced sterilisation by the Nazis, for which Rüdin's comments were obligatory. The next step, to the holocaust of the mentally ill and the undesirable, was not only tacitly agreed with by Rüdin. Max Weber, Karl Jaspers and others realised at an early time the dangers arising from racial hygienics and voiced their warnings in a plain language. The surviving victims are still waiting for compensation.

  11. The Lincoln Image in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Nagler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay investigates the enduring fascination with the sixteenth President of the United States in Germany. In general, his legacy and its evaluation changed in relation to the determinate historical contexts, beginning with the monarchial system, extending through the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and now the Federal Republic of Germany. Certain social and political individuals/groups in Germany used the image and iconography of Lincoln as a projection screen to support their own political objectives. Although there were always multiple layers of Lincoln representations in Germany, the dominant images were: the national unifier, the libertarian universalist, the emancipator, the defender of moral values, the modernizer, the democrat who used the power of the democratic state, the egalitarian self-made man from humble origins, and the defender of social justice and workingmen’s rights.

  12. Wind energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molly, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    End of June 1994 429 MW in about 2100 wind energy converters (WECs) have been installed in Germany, able to produce 1.1% of the electrical energy demand of the five German coastal states Lower Saxony, Bremen, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Determining factor for the again increased installation rate, compared with 1993, is the new 500/600-kW-class which now dominates the market. Dramatically reduced WEC prices during the last two years now allow an economic operation in good wind speed regions even without any subsidy. The goal to reach a total of 2000 MW WEC installations in the year 2000 is suddenly near at hand. In the course of the next seven years an installation rate of 250 MW/year will be necessary, a value which could be reached already in 1994. Nevertheless, there still is a long way to go, if the 2000 MW shall be achieved in the year 2000. New obstacles have arisen due to the increasingly restrictive handling of WEC site permission by conservationists, often in discrepancy with the generally recognized global ideas of the eco-organizations. After more than two years of experience, the WEC quality dependent subsidy as applied in Lower Saxony proofs to be a very effective stimulation for the technical development. WECs are now optimized for maximum energy production and minimum noise emission. The new 500/600-kW class is only half as noisy as could be expected from an extrapolation based on smaller WEC units. The energy cost reduction with the size of the WECs is still going on, indicating that the new Megawatt-WECs in development can offer again an economic advantage for the operator. (orig.)

  13. La sexualidad como frontera entre presas políticas y presas comunes bajo los nazis y el franquismo La sexualidad como frontera entre presas políticas y presas comunes bajo los nazis y el franquismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAQUEL Osborne

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Female common and political prisoners lived together in the heart of the crowded postwar Francoist prisons, thus sharing a close intimacy. In an environment of unavoidable promiscuity, many female common prisoners were keen on self-eroticism and lesbian displays, which were the only ones that were possible within that context of internment. The official morality and the intolerant social mentality of that time towards those kinds of expressions of sexuality went hand in hand. The same circumstances ruled Nazi concentration camps, where a lot of female political exiles and some former prisoners from Franco’s jails ended up. We are interested here in the analysis of the reasons for the development of a rigid sexual morality by female political prisoners, most of them communist, within both kinds of “total institutions”, as they showed rejection towards the aforementioned expressions. This had to do with the tendency that the authorities of the centers had of turning laissez faire policies into a bargaining chip in order to attain greater control of the prisoners, especially of the female political prisoners. The strategy that was chosen to avoid the vulnerability against policies ultimately doomed to extermination, was a life of militancy based on an iron discipline. This included keeping at a distance from the female common prisoners and the denial of every single display of sexual pleasure within the internment centers.En el seno de las atestadas prisiones franquistas de posguerra, presas comunes y políticas convivían en estrecha intimidad. En un entorno de promiscuidad inevitable, no pocas presas comunes, se prodigaban en manifestaciones de autoerotismo y lesbianismo, únicas posibles en ese contexto de internamiento. La moralidad oficial y la intolerante mentalidad social propia de la época hacia ese tipo de expresiones de la sexualidad se daban la mano. Parecidas circunstancias regían en los campos de concentración nazis, adonde

  14. Arthroplasty register for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen, Anja

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific background: The annual number of joint replacement operations in Germany is high. The introduction of an arthroplasty register promises an important contribution to the improvement of the quality of patient’s care. Research questions: The presented report addresses the questions on organization and functioning, benefits and cost-benefits as well as on legal, ethical and social aspects of the arthroplasty registers. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in September 2008 in the medical databases MEDLINE, EMBASE etc. and was complemented with a hand search. Documents describing arthroplasty registers and/or their relevance as well as papers on legal, ethical and social aspects of such registers were included in the evaluation. The most important information was extracted and analysed. Results: Data concerning 30 arthroplasty registers in 19 countries as well as one international arthroplasty register were identified. Most of the arthroplasty registers are maintained by national orthopedic societies, others by health authorities or by their cooperation. Mostly, registries are financially supported by governments and rarely by other sources.The participation of the orthopedists in the data collection process of the arthroplasty registry is voluntary in most countries. The consent of the patients is usually required. The unique patient identification is ensured in nearly all registers.Each data set consists of patient and clinic identification numbers, data on diagnosis, the performed intervention, the operation date and implanted prostheses. The use of clinical scores, patient-reported questionnaires and radiological documentation is rare. Methods for data documentation and transfer are paper form, electronic entry as well as scanning of the data using bar codes. The data are mostly being checked for their completeness and validity. Most registers offer results of the data evaluation to the treating orthopedists and

  15. “Heute gehört uns die Galaxie”: Music and historical credibility in Wolfenstein: The New Order’s Nazi dystopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fede Peñate Domínguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the use of “Nazi rock ‘n’ roll” in Wolfenstein: The New Order (2014 as a strategy to reinforce a historically selective sense of verisimilitude of the game’s dystopian setting. In W:TNO’s production, cover replicas of US popular music classics from the second half of the 20th century were composed in ‘Nazi mode’, with German themes and language, with the intent of creating a sense of stereotyped and mythicized knowledge of World War II that also imagined an outcome of the war in which the Nazis had won. The diegetic embedding of songs in this style could have supported the game’s atmosphere in a way that is comparable to the use of licensed works in games such as Grand Theft Auto and Fallout. However, the soundtrack composition was constrained by controversies around the representation of the Third Reich in computer games, a factor that also limited the role of the songs within the game world. The narrative potential of the original score thus remained untapped, as the songs were used mostly for marketing purposes. This paper highlights how music partly contributed to the creation of a myth-historical alternate timeline of post-WW2, and how the use of these songs could have turned the game’s story into a more complex and multifaceted discourse than what production allowed, contributing to a nuanced representation of Nazism, a theme that has remained controversial in the medium of the videogame.

  16. The red atom. The help at USSR of German scientists between 1945 and 1961. how did USSR recover the nazi uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andurand, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the previous chapters was exposed the saga of German scientists that worked for Soviet scientists from 1945 to 1961 and allowed these ones to make up for the delay in a record time they had on the American people. However, without the help of German scientists, that were at exceptional level they would succeed regardless but they would take the same time than the others ones to reach the same result. To be complete, one should, in this fourth chapter, precise how the Soviet people succeeded to recover the uranium from the nazi nuclear programme. (N.C.)

  17. 'Affirmative resonances' in the city? Sound, imagination and urban space in early 1930s Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Mieszkowski, S.; Smith, J.; de Valck, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of sound in producing urban space and reworking identity formations in the early years of the Nazi regime. I analyze a case study about the mythology created around the Nazi party martyr Albert Leo Schlageter in the German city of Düsseldorf. By tracing the cultural

  18. Music in Germany during the Third Reich: The Use of Music for Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Lynn E.

    1980-01-01

    As they did with all mass media, the Nazis used music as a propaganda tool to mold popular feelings. This article traces the Nazi takeover of German music in the 1930s and its use of broadcast music during World War II. (One of three articles on music in the 1930s.) (SJL)

  19. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German reu...

  20. The changing consumer in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Glatzer, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Changes in economic, demographic, and cultural factors in West Germany during the past decades are briefly described, as well as changes in consumption patterns and the way the major marketing variables have been used and implemented. Special atte is paid to the upheavals caused by the German...

  1. Physician assistant education in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dierks; L. Kuilman; C. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    The first physician assistant (PA) program in Germany began in 2005. As of 2013 there are three PA programs operational, with a fourth to be inaugurated in the fall of 2013. The programs have produced approximately 100 graduates, all with a nursing background. The PA model of shifting tasks from

  2. Photovoltaic energy generation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the current state of the art regarding photovoltaic research and demonstration programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also attention is paid to the companies and research institutes involved, and the long-term economical and technical prospects of photovoltaic energy. 13 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  3. The human and the inhuman: visual culture, political culture, and the images produced by George Rodger and Henri Cartier-Bresson in the Nazi concentration camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cazzonatto Zerwes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to grasp some aspects of the notion of humanism in photography and its closeness to the political culture and the visual culture in the period, through the specific experiences of George Rodger and Henri Cartier-Bresson, two photographers who were first-hand witnesses and provided accounts of horror in the Nazi concentration camps at the end of World War II. George Rodger photographed the Bergen-Belsen camp as soon as it was liberated by the British troops. Henri Cartier-Bresson was there with a film crew recording the deported masses newly freed from the Nazi concentration and extermination camps. These experiences came to have profound impact on the biography and work of both of them. In the two cases, there is a notion of humanism linked to World War II events, which is observed in photography and photographic representation, and it has a significant consequence for the contemporary visual culture.   Keywords: Visual Culture; Political Culture; War Photography; Photojournalism; Concentration Camps.   Original title: O humano e o desumano: cultura visual, cultura política e as imagens feitas por George Rodger e Henri Cartier-Bresson nos campos de concentração nazistas.

  4. Professional psychology in Germany, National Socialism, and the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönpflug, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Hundreds of positions for psychologists were established after the National Socialists seized power in 1933. It has accordingly been asserted that professional psychology in Germany experienced significant growth during the National Socialist period. An analysis of archival materials and of a recent collection of biographies indicates otherwise, however. German psychology, in fact, declined because of systematic persecution and a surge of emigration, a deficit that subsequent cohorts were barely able to make up until 1945. The new positions for psychologists were mainly in the military testing service, and could only be filled after manpower was shifted from the civilian to the military sector. In 1941, the Ministry of Science and Education released regulations for an innovative practice-oriented national curriculum for psychology. The move was in line with Nazi policy, but it was initiated by a group of protagonists from psychology under the aegis of the German Psychological Association, not the National Socialist German Workers Party, the government, or the military. The present article elaborates how the conception of practice-oriented, state-approved studies was part of the traditional German dual system of academic and professional qualification, and thus actually predated 1933. The new curriculum was largely not implemented because of the exigencies of the war. However, as a regulatory framework it marked a turning point in the merging of academic and professional psychology in Germany. The relationship between academic and professional psychology is also discussed, along with the role of German psychology vis-à-vis National Socialism and the German military. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  6. Nuclear power perspectives for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Approximately 300 experts from the power industries, of research and politics, from Germany and abroad followed the invitation of the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) to meet at the traditional winter meeting held in Bonn on January 28 and 29, 1992, in order to discuss topical political issues, not only relating to nuclear power, but to primary energy supply in general. Bonn having been chosen as the place for the 1992 meeting, there were unusually many members of Parliament and members of the Federal German Government attending the conference. The four sessions of the conference were devoted to the following aspects: Perspectives, the world energy market, current issues of energy policy in Germany, and preventive risk management. (orig.) [de

  7. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  8. Energy supply in East Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Tsutomu

    1988-07-10

    East Germany has abundant brown coal, about 90.4% of primary energy production in 1986. The high dependence upon brown coal has been established since its reevaluation in 1980 and the production is reaching a peak. Its share in power generation is also as high as 83.3% in the year. Therefore, the energy sufficiency of East Germany is about 80%. Problems are arising, however, in deterioration of excavation conditions and coal quality. Domestic energy resources such as the uranium and natural gas are also used to the maximum extent. The nuclear power has about 10% of share in the power generation. The share expansion policy is seemingly maintained even after the accident of Chernoble. Exploration, excavation and reprocessing of the uranium are conducted under the leadership of USSR. The country depends upon the oil in a very low level, less than 1%, as a result of the energy conservation policy in 1980's. (1 fig, 5 tabs)

  9. Germany: energy transition or revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Germany has decided to phase out nuclear power by 2022 but it wants also to get rid of fossil energies by 2050. Those ambitious goals imply to be able to cut by half the demand for primary energy by 2050 which will be only possible if the need for building heating is cut by 80%, the constraint on transport is less important: one million of electrical vehicles will have to be on the road by 2020 and 3 millions 10 years later. In 2012 the production of electricity was made mainly from coal (44.7%), renewable energies (21.9%), nuclear energy (16%), natural gas (11.3%) and other energies (fuel...) (6.1%). Today the renewable energy sector is a major industrial sector in Germany, it represents about 382000 jobs directly or indirectly, it means more than the sector of conventional energies. (A.C.)

  10. International Student Migration to Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Donata Bessey

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents first empirical evidence on international student migration to Germany. I use a novel approach that analyzes student mobility using an augmented gravity equation and find evidence of strong network effects and of the importance of distance - results familiar from the empirical migration literature. However, the importance of disposable income in the home country does not seem to be too big for students, while the fact of being a politically unfree country decreases migrati...

  11. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  13. Promotion de la prostitution et lutte contre l’homosexualité dans les camps de concentration nazis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Schlagdenhauffen-Maïka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Les camps de concentration nazis, n’étaient pas des institutions mixtes. En 1942, un nouveau Kommando fut créé au camp de femmes de Ravensbrück : le Sonderbau. Les femmes qui y furent affectées étaient ensuite transférées vers les grands camps de concentration pour hommes (Buchenwald, Neuengamme, Sachsenhausen, Dachau, etc. afin d’y travailler pour une durée de six mois, en tant que prostituée. L’accès au Sonderbau, au « bordel » était réservé à une minorité d’internés. Seuls les détenus (hommes les plus méritants, avaient le droit de s’y rendre. Cette mesure avait officiellement pour objectif d’augmenter la productivité des internés. Dans cet article de synthèse, nous mettrons en lumière les conditions sociales de réapparition du « bordel » dans la mémoire des camps. D’un point de vue théorique, les paradigmes sociologiques de la mémoire collective seront employés. Aussi, nous verrons dans quelle mesure les bordels s’inscrivent dans le cadre d’une politique étatique de régulation de la sexualité dont les camps de concentration sont parties liées, nous examinerons le sort des femmes déportées affectées au Sonderbau, enfin, nous considérerons l’hypothèse selon laquelle les bordels ont aussi été créés en tant que mesure de lutte contre les relations homosexuelles dans les camps.Die nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager (KZ waren keine gemischtgeschlechtlichen Institutionen. 1942 wurde im Frauen-KZ Ravensbrück ein neues Kommando eingerichtet: der sog. „Sonderbau“. Hier wurden Frauen ausgewählt, die anschließend auf Männer-KZs wie Buchenwald, Neuengamme, Sachsenhausen oder Dachau, wo ebenfalls solche „Sonderbaue“ eröffnet worden waren, verteilt wurden, um dort sechs Monate lang als Prostituierte zu arbeiten. Nur ein ausgewählter Kreis von Männern hatte Zugang zum Sonderbau, d. h.  zum Lagerbordell. Offiziell als Leistungsanreiz und Maßnahme zur Steigerung

  14. Wind power report Germany 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Record year 2014. In Germany, the expansion figures attained were so high on land and at sea that the overall new installation figure of 5,188 MW surpassed the previous maximum (from 2002) by more than 60%. With an overall capacity of 39,259 MW, for the first time, wind energy in Germany covers 9.7% of gross power consumption. On the global scale a capacity of more than 51,000 MW has been added - another record high for wind energy installations. Power mix. At 161 TWh, renewable energies in Germany covered 27.8% of gross power consumption and provided for the first time more energy than any other energy source. Coming into force of the new REA in August 2014, modified support schemes caused the expansion of biogas plants and large-scale PV installations to falter. The record expansion seen for wind energy can be interpreted as a pull-forward effect due to the tender procedures coming into force in 2017. Grid integration. Loss of production caused by feed-in management measures rose by 44% to 555 GWh as compared to 2012. Wind turbines were affected in 87% of cases but the impact on PV installations is increasing. Power generation must be more flexible and grids expanded to limit loss of production. Of the 23 expansion projects (1,887 km) in the Electricity Grid Expansion Act, just a quarter of them had been realized by the end of 2014 (463 km). In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 grid development plan, the extent of grid upgrading and conversion was 3050 km. Offshore, the HelWin 1 grid link with a capacity of 580 MW went online. SylWin 1 and BorWin 2, with a total capacity of 1660 MW, are currently being tested in a trial. In the preliminary analysis results for the 2014 offshore grid development plan, grid connections having an overall capacity of 10.3 GW are planned. Onshore. 2014 saw a total of 44 different turbine types installed in Germany. For the first time, virtually the same number of turbines were added in the 3-4 MW class, as in the 2-3 MW

  15. Country report for Germany [Fast reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The primary energy consumption in Germany in 2005 was about 492.6 MtSKE in total. The distribution on the main energy sources is: mineral oil: 36.4%, natural gas 22.4%, black coal 13.5%, brown coal 11.4%, nuclear energy 12.6%, water and wind 1.2%, others 2.5%. The net electricity production in Germany in 2005 was about 495.9 billion kWh. The distribution is: nuclear energy 32%, lignite coal 28.9%, black coal 23.1%, oil 0.2%, natural gas 9.1%, water 4.7%, others (being biomass, photovoltaics, wind) 2.0%. In 2005, 18 nuclear power plants were in operation in Germany. In May 2005 the KWO Obrigheim was closed due to the new Atomic law which fixes the phase out of nuclear power production. The net installed nuclear power was 20.7GWel, the net nuclear electricity production was 163TWh, the time availability was 88%. Nuclear makes up for about 50% of the base-load electricity production in Germany. In absolute numbers, Germany is number 5 in nuclear electricity production. Among the top ten nuclear power plants world-wide, in 2005 there were 7 German plants including the plant with the highest amount of electricity produced, being NPP Brokdorf with 1440MWel and 11.98TWhel. The net electricity output of the nuclear power plants is constantly increasing due to power upgrading and higher time availabilities. As for the renewable energies, there is no significant absolute increase except for wind. About 50% of the government support for renewable energies from the Environmental Ministry goes to photovoltaics. The Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF), summarising 15 national research centres, 24.000 employees and a yearly budget of about 2,1 billion Euro is the largest research organisation in Germany. The HGF identifies and works on complex and urgent questions of society, science and economy, especially concentrating on systems of high complexity. There are six research areas, being energy, earth and environment, health, key technologies, structure of matter, traffic and

  16. The Federal Republic of Germany and Left Wing Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    the Beatles ! Historically speaking, the soon to be dubbed “68ers”, were extremely conscious of the suppressive and authoritarian Nazi regime that...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction

  17. The red atom. The help at USSR of German scientists between 1945 and 1961. how did USSR recover the nazi uranium; L'atome rouge. L'aide a l'Urss des savants allemands entre 1945 et 1961. Comment l'Urss a recupere l'uranium nazi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andurand, R

    2009-07-15

    In the previous chapters was exposed the saga of German scientists that worked for Soviet scientists from 1945 to 1961 and allowed these ones to make up for the delay in a record time they had on the American people. However, without the help of German scientists, that were at exceptional level they would succeed regardless but they would take the same time than the others ones to reach the same result. To be complete, one should, in this fourth chapter, precise how the Soviet people succeeded to recover the uranium from the nazi nuclear programme. (N.C.)

  18. Los medios impresos como recurso para la difusión del nacionalsocialismo: sobre boletines y magazines nazis circulando en el Caribe colombiano, 1935-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIÁN ANDRÉS LÁZARO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se ocupa de analizar la manera como, en el marco de la estrategia de propaganda y construcción de imaginarios ideada y desarrollada en los años treinta por el gobierno nacionalsocialista alemán, orientada hacia los ciudada - nos del Reich dentro y fuera del país, los alemanes residentes en la ciudad de Barranquilla, en el Caribe colombiano, se convirtieron en receptores, generado - res y difusores de contenidos a través de revistas elaboradas localmente pero de circulación nacional; contribuyendo con ello a la construcción de una imagen positiva del régimen de Hitler y articulándose con el proyecto nazi de uso de medios masivos de comunicación.

  19. A case study of an unknown mass grave - Hostages killed 70 years ago by a Nazi firing squad identified thanks to genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossowski, Andrzej; Diepenbroek, Marta; Zwolski, Marcin; Falis, Adam; Wróbel, Maria; Bykowska-Witowska, Milena; Zielińska, Grażyna; Szargut, Maria; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Almost 6 million people died in Poland during the Nazi occupation and about 570 thousand during the Soviet occupation. But the end of the war was not the end of the trauma. Historians estimate that at least 30 thousand people were killed during the Stalinist regime in Poland. In 2012 the Institute of National Remembrance started to search for hidden burials of victims of communism. Many exhumations were carried out under the project. One of them took place in Białystok, eastern Poland. According to information gathered by local historians, a detention centre in the heart of city was the place of secret burials of victims of the communist regime. During the exhumation work a burial pit with the remains of 24 victims was found. It's characteristics supported the hypothesis that these people were shot on the spot, in a mass execution during the Nazi occupation. Historians knew of only one such execution, but its victims - according to the available records - were supposed to have been exhumed at the end of the war. Exhumation works and the discovery of the discussed mass grave put in question the events of 1944, which would have been impossible without the field work. The first identifications confirmed the doubts of historians, since both the results of genetic profiling and the conducted anthropological analysis revealed that at the end of the war a mistake was made, and bodies other than those suspected had been exhumed. Having established this fact, the mass grave created at that time should be investigated to reveal the identity of the remains uncovered then. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Germany: the electricity bill soars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    As Germany is already one of the European countries where electricity prices are the highest for households (twice more than in France), the author comments the past evolution of these prices and shows that they will probably increase again in 2017 to finance energy transition. This increase is notably due to higher taxes (a comparison with the French CSPE tax is presented and commented), and to a costly grid renewal. As the energy transition appears to be very expensive (about 500 billions euros by 2025), the cost-benefit rate of the German energy transition is disastrous and the de-carbonation of the electricity sector does not progress

  1. Germany after March 11th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, A.

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective since March 11th is presented with stress on the Fukushima accident, political situation in Germany, media and public opinion. Fukushima has devastated the trust in expert opinions about safety of NPPs. Germany’s Turn in Energy - consensus for nuclear phase-out exists between All political parties. The government has already announced adoption of the recommendations of the ethics commission. The 7 oldest units will remain shut-down. Further 7 units will be shut down until 2021. The youngest 3 units will be permanently shut down until 2022

  2. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  3. Air crew monitoring in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, R.; Frasch, G.; Kammerer, L.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

  4. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Germany the basis for the management of radioactive residues is the polluter-pays principle. All steps of treatment of radioactive waste arising from operation, decommissioning and dismantling including conditioning, interim storage and disposal of radioactive waste have to be financed by the waste producers. The waste producers are responsible for the harmless recycling of the residues or for their orderly management as radioactive waste. The Federal Government is responsible for establishing disposal facilities. Accordingly the waste producers are constructing and operating facilities in which the radioactive residues can be treated and stored until their disposal. As far as the radioactive waste cannot be stored by the producer, waste originating from research, medicine and industry can be stored in surface storage facilities of the federal states. Spent fuel from German NPPs is partly reprocessed in France and UK. The rest has to be disposed off directly in deep geologic formations. Until a repository for spent fuel is available in Germany spent fuel will be stored in interim storage facilities on the sites of the NPPs. The storage will take place in casks in a dry way. In exceptional cases, if the storage at a NPP site is not possible, there are two central storages at Ahaus and Gorleben which are in operation and can be made available as reserve. Radioactive waste returning from the reprocessing of German spent fuel in France and UK is stored in the Gorleben central storage. The Federal Government is aiming to establish a repository in deep geological formations about the year 2030 which shall be available for all types and quantities of radioactive waste. The necessary expenses for the planning and construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities are initially carried by the Federal Government. The Government recovers the costs by contributions or advance payments from the waste producers. The use of storage and disposal facilities is financed by

  5. Neurosurgical Resident Training in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Gempt, Jens; Gautschi, Oliver P; Demetriades, Andreas K; Netuka, David; Kuhlen, Dominique E; Schaller, Karl; Ringel, Florian

    2017-07-01

    Introduction  Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. In this era of law-enforced working hour restrictions, however, maintaining high-quality training can be a challenge and requires some restructuring. We evaluated the current status of resident training in Germany. Methods  An electronic survey was sent to European neurosurgical trainees between June 2014 and March 2015. The responses of German trainees were compared with those of trainees from other European countries. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect size of the relationship between a trainee being from Germany and the outcome (e.g., satisfaction, working time). Results  Of 532 responses, 95 were from German trainees (17.8%). In a multivariate analysis corrected for baseline group differences, German trainees were 29% as likely as non-German trainees to be satisfied with clinical lectures given at their teaching facility (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.49; p  hours as requested from the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC, and in an international comparison, German trainees were twice as likely to work > 50 hours per week (OR: 2.13; 95% CI, 1.25-3.61; p  = 0.005). This working time, however, is less spent in the operating suite (OR: 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.59; p  = 0.001) and more doing administrative work (OR: 1.83; 95% CI, 1.13-2.96; p  = 0.015). Conclusion  Some theoretical and practical aspects of neurosurgical training are superior, but a considerable proportion of relevant aspects are inferior in Germany compared with other European countries. The present analyses provide the opportunity for a critical review of the local conditions in German training facilities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Integrated solid waste management in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report covers Germany`s experience with integrated solid waste management programs. The municipal solid waste practices of four cities include practices and procedures that waste facility managers with local or state governments may consider for managing their own day-to-day operations.

  7. Mental health of Turkish women in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromand, Z; Temur-Erman, S; Yesil, R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany.......The purpose of the present study was to examine the protective and risk factors of mental distress among Turkish women living in Germany....

  8. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  9. A Case of Successful Transitional Justice: Fritz Bauer and his Late Recognition in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gortat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Germany is an example of a country which has been implementing transitional justice for decades and is still active in this field. What is more, contemporary Germans have recently come to terms with their not-so-distant past and their negligence in this area by showing the falsehood, backwardness, and injustice as negative foundations of the young Federal Republic. This article evokes the person of Fritz Bauer, the prosecutor in the state of Hessen. His struggle for human dignity and the memory of his achievements after his death exemplify an accomplished case of transitional justice and the memory of it. During his lifetime he contributed to bringing to trial numerous Nazi criminals, even at the cost of habitual threats and disregard. Forgotten for a few decades, Bauer and his legacy have been recently rediscovered and studied. Eventually, Bauer became a movie character and was finally brought back to the collective memory of Germans. The belated, but a well-deserved wave of popularity of Fritz Bauer in the German culture memory proves that reflections on the transitional justice are still topical and important.

  10. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Politicians and scholars alike praise the significant benefits associated with employee share ownership (ESO). However, little is known about the concrete motives of firms to provide ESO to their employees. In particular, it is unknown how these motives correlate with firms’ contexts. Drawing...... on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  11. Renewable Energy CSOPs in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Lowitzsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy-CSOP facilitates broad equity participation of citizens without assets or savings in a regulated public energy utility. As the CSOP is designed for regulated markets with guaranteed prices, regulated market access and long-term relationships between producer and consumer, the energy market is predestined. A CSOP trust can be set up for a renewable energy plant (e.g., a biogas reactor, a solar panel, a windmill or a geothermic drill. European states have set an ambitious target to reach 20% share of energy from renewable sources by 2020. Germany as Europe’s green energy leader could become a pioneer in CSOP implementation. Small communities in Europe would benefit from the increased share of renewable energy resources.

  12. Nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.; Stuermer, W.

    1993-01-01

    Under the influence of the polarization between belief in progress, on the one hand, and the moral rigorism of our society, on the other hand, the risks of modern large technical systems have helped the highest level of technical safety to be attained in Germany. It has been reached especially by opting for maximum quality, maximum utility and reliability, complete documentation, continuous in-service checks during operation and, last but not least, by including man and human fallibility. Our concern should be that this strategy pursued in the Western industrialized countries becomes the rule, at least in its main characteristics, also in the Eastern countries. The hazards associated with reactors in Eastern countries affect us all, and it is especially the safety of those reactors which is causing concern. The experience accumulated with the 417 nuclear power plants now in operation, especially the incidents and accidents, shows that hazard potential management is admissible only with a highly developed safety strategy. (orig.) [de

  13. Eastern Germany Ahead in Employment of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Holst; Anna Wieber

    2014-01-01

    Almost a quarter of a century after the fall of the Wall, there are still more women in employment in eastern Germany than in the west. Although the disparity is marginal now, the two regions started from dramatically different levels. In 1991, immediately after reunification, the employment rate for women in western Germany was 54.6 percent, but since then it has increased year on year, reaching 67.5 percent in 2012. In eastern Germany, female employment initially plummeted after the fall of...

  14. Farming for Health: Aspects from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Neuberger, Konrad; Stephan, Ingrid; Hermanowski, Robert; Flake, Albrecht; Post, Franz-Joseph; van Elsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Until now, the term ‘Farming for Health’ is unknown in Germany but it would cover a wide spectrum of different kinds of social agriculture already existing in Germany, such as farms that integrate disabled people or drug therapy into their farming system, or farms that integrate children, pupils or older people. Relevant work in Germany is done in ‘Sheltered Workshops’, where supporting and healing powers of farming and gardening are used for disabled people with a diversity of work possibili...

  15. Electricity prices differences between France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensing, I.; Nolden, A.; Riechmann, Ch.; Schulz, W.

    1998-01-01

    High electricity prices in Germany especially as compared to France have played an important role in the electricity liberalization debate in Germany. The price differences can largely be explained by cost differences in electricity generation, the electricity grids, personnel cost and local taxes. Further analysis suggests that efficiency improvements upon market liberalization will only partly remove these price and cost differentials. Parts of the cost differentials are attributable to politically-motivated regulations and the (future) regulation of network functions. This implies that Germany can only expect to arrive at internationally comparable electricity prices if it advances with a reform of political and monopoly regulations alongside liberalizing electricity generation and trade. (author)

  16. Depression, anxiety and loss of resilience after multiple traumas: an illustration of a mediated moderation model of sensitization in a group of children who survived the Nazi Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossion, Pierre; Leys, Christophe; Kempenaers, Chantal; Braun, Stephanie; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Depressive and anxiety disorders (DAD) have become a major public health problem. Multiple trauma is known to increase the risk of DAD through a sensitization mechanism. We investigate the hypothesis that resilience is a mediator of this mechanism. Former Hidden Children (FHC), the Jewish youths who spent World War II in various hideaway shelters across Nazi-occupied Europe, were compared with a control group. In each group, we measured the presence of multiple traumas, the resilience with the Resilience Scale for Adults, which has a six factors solution, and the DAD with the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. We test a mediated moderation model with childhood trauma as the predictor; Later trauma as the moderator; Resilience as the mediator; and DAD as the outcome variable. Results are consistent with a sensitization model of DAD mediated by resilience: confrontation with a primary trauma during childhood followed by secondary trauma(s) after childhood damages resilience, which, in turn, results in higher level of DAD. We are unable to differentiate if the sensitization process is a consequence of the nature of the trauma endured by FHC (long-standing exposure to extreme external events) or a consequence of the fact that this first trauma occurred during childhood. Resilience construct is multi-factorial and a limited damaging of some of the factors is sufficient to lead to DAD even if other factors remain unaltered. Resilience can be altered by multiple traumas and, therefore, needs to be bolstered in therapy sessions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    2010-10-01

    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles. [nl

  18. Wind power in Germany - a success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, T.

    1996-01-01

    The successful introduction of wind power to the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany is described using graphic representations to illustrate the industry's growth over the last twenty years. The history of the wind market is discussed, together with the importance of stakeholders as a way of funding the industry. The author concludes that public support for environmentally sensitive power generation was the key factor leading to the success of the wind power industry in Germany. (UK)

  19. Managing ageing workforces: Empirical evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, H.

    2013-01-01

    Demographic change (ageing populations and falling birth rates) affects all industrialised nations, including Germany. Traditionally, the problems associated with managing numbers of older workers were mitigated by the Altersteilzeitgesetz in Germany. Under this law, firms were offered financial support by the government to offer early retirement (Müller-Camen et al. 2009). As these provisions came to an end in 2010, the need to find alternative solutions to displacing older workers, as well ...

  20. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuebler, Knut

    2014-01-01

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO 2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Housing Markets in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Schneider; Karin Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Running counter to the sharp rise in house prices and housing wealth observed since the mid- 1990s in the vast majority of European countries, real house prices in Germany and Austria were going down in this period and did not start to rise until 2010 or 2007, respectively. This reflects national idiosyncracies in housing markets and motivated the discussion of relevant peculiarities in, and similarities among, Austria and Germany as well as Switzerland. Among the most important structural fe...

  2. Maternal Employment and Childhood Overweight in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie-Charlotte Meyer

    2015-01-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from European countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. Moreover, we explore potential underlying mechanisms that mi...

  3. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  4. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  5. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  6. Germany, high-tech country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG) [de

  7. [Cochlear implant treatment in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, R; Stelzig, Y

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of impaired auditory function through cochlear implant is possible, with high reliably and great success. Nevertheless, there are regular disputes between patients and insurance companies due to high costs. In Germany, approx. 1.9 Mio. people are severely hearing impaired. It can be estimated that for adequate hearing rehabilitation about 30,000 cochlear implants/year are necessary. Currently, less than 10% of those affected are offered cochlear implant. A handicap is defined if there is deviation from normal hearing for more than 6 months. This sets a time frame for the supply with cochlear implant after sudden deafness. The professional code requires to advice all medical options to a person seeking help for hearing loss. This includes benefit-risk consideration. At this point, the economic aspect plays no role. The indication for medical treatment is only subject to the treating physician and should not be modified by non-physicians or organizations. It should be noted that a supply of hearing aids is qualitatively different to the help from a cochlear implant, which provides a restoration of lost function. In social law (SGB V and IX) doctors are requested to advise and recommend all measures which contribute to normal hearing (both sides). This indicates that doctors may be prosecuted for not offering help when medically possible, just because health insurance employees did not approve the cost balance. The current situation, with insufficient medical care for the hearing impaired, needs clarifying. To do this, patients, health insurance companies, the political institutions, legislation and professional societies need to accept their responsibilities.

  8. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  9. Atomic energy laws in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.H.P.

    1980-01-01

    The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)

  10. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)

  11. Germany. A pioneer on earthen feet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelowa, A.

    2003-01-01

    Germany is one of the two OECD countries having achieved substantial greenhouse gas reductions in the last decade. While a part was large reductions in industry after the economic crash in East Germany, a relevant share is due to the huge public infrastructure investments in East Germany. The real success of German climate policy in the past decade is the strong reduction of methane and nitrous oxide which has been almost unnoticed. German climate policy is a good example of how lobbying of interest groups leads to a complex maze of hundreds of measures whose effects are difficult to evaluate. Paradoxically, policies have focused on expensive measures and Germany clearly is a pioneer in the most expensive forms of renewable energy. Concerning cost-effective measures and market instruments, Germany is a laggard. Only slowly, policymakers start to notice this distortion and first, shaky steps towards a more cost-efficient policy are made. Several challenges such as nuclear phase-out and trends in household energy consumption will put pressure on government to embrace the Kyoto Mechanisms and to refocus domestic instruments well before the first commitment period

  12. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. Emission reduction program in the unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehr, M.; Emsperger, W.; Termuehlen, H.

    1992-01-01

    High population density and intense industrialization in both parts of Germany resulted in high specific power demands. The domestic availability of hard coal and lignite made coal-fired power plants the backbone of power generation in all of Germany. The unification of Germany has brought together two power generation systems with similar basic needs and concepts. However, forty years existence within different economic systems has resulted in a quite different status in regard to installed generating capacity, availability of various fuels and environmental standards. To bridge the existing gap in a relatively short time is a huge challenge for the utilities, the power generation and distribution industry as well as for the federal and state authorities

  14. AREVA Germany. International competence in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    AREVA NP was created in 2001 by the merger of the French nuclear technology specialist Framatome with the nuclear sector of Siemens. The company is headquartered in Paris and has regional subsidiaries in Germany and the United States. The joint venture's strength lies in its all-round competence in nuclear power plants, from reactor development to power plant services and modernization of operating plants, design and production of fuel assemblies and turn-key construction of nuclear power reactors. Major core competences are located in Germany including the test facilities which are unique in the entire group as well as electrical engineering and instrumentation and control systems. AREVA NP is part of the globally acting AREVA group which pursues a unique integrated business model. The concept covers the entire nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to reprocessing used fuel assemblies. At present, AREVA has 48,000 employees worldwide, of which 5,700 are Germany-based. (orig.)

  15. Provisions for containment venting in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1997-08-01

    In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  17. The DFG Viewer for Interoperability in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Goebel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the DFG Viewer for Interoperability, a free and open source web-based viewer for digitised books, and assesses its relevance for interoperability in Germany. First the specific situation in Germany is described, including the important role of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation. The article then moves on to the overall concept of the viewer and its technical background. It introduces the data formats and standards used, it briefly illustrates how the viewer works and includes a few examples.

  18. 40 Years MAGLEV Vehicles in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Reinhold; Guangwei, Shu

    2011-01-01

    On May 6th 1971 the worldwide first MAGLEV vehicle was presented by Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) in Ottobrunn near Munich, Germany. Till the year 2000 different test and application MAGLEV vehicles followed, but no commercial use in Germany. Since December 31st 2002 the Shang-hai MAGLEV Transportation System is successfully in operation, as the worldwide first and only one commercial used MAGLEV line. The paper in honour of Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eveline Gottzein for her 80th birthday contains in...

  19. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Rosemarie; Bernicke, Maja; Bertram, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  20. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  1. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  2. Food-related life style in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen; Bisp, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report is about an investigation of food-related lifestyle in Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 households. 2. The German consumers are described by five segments, which differ in how and to which extent they use food and cooking to attain their central l...

  3. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Alex

    1978-01-01

    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  4. Agro-environmental policies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohberg, K.; Weingarten

    1997-01-01

    Agricultural activities always have impacts on the environment. Whereas soil erosion is a minor problem in Germany water pollution due to modern and intensive agriculture is of major concern. At first the paper discusses to what extent agriculture contributes to environmental pollution in Germany, in particular to the pollution of surface waters (as well as hydroelectric power constructions on the Danube) and groundwater by nutrients and pesticides. Agro-environmental policy in Germany is dominated by command-and-control-measures. Hence, in the second section, recent developments of the most important legal and institutional settings concerning water conservation policies are surveyed with special emphasis on the Federal Water Act and the Implementation of the Nitrate Directive into German legislation by the Fertilizer Ordinance. Thirdly, impacts of alternative water conservation policies are investigated using a regionalized agricultural sector model. Information obtained by this model analysis cover the development of N-balances, potential nitrate concentrations in the recharged groundwater, costs potentially effected by this and resulting agricultural incomes on the country level of the former Federal Republic Germany. The last section focuses on programs promoting environmentally sound farming practices, which gained increasing importance in the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in the last years. It is argued that this development will also continue in the future. (author)

  5. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme in Germany: tendering scheme for RES-E, small power plants up to 100 kW are supported by a feed-in tariff. Market Incentive Programme (MAP) for RES-H, Electric Mobility Strategy for the transport sector

  6. The regulation of asset valuation in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detzen, D.; Hoffman, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the regulatory history of asset valuation in Germany from the fifteenth century to the implementation of the European Economic Community's Fourth Directive in 1986. Aiming to explain regulatory changes by reference to preceding socio-economic and political developments, we find

  7. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  8. Expansion in Germany; Expansion am Standort Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2011-05-05

    Germany is one of the key countries of the worldwide solar industry. For more than a decade, more than 100 German businesses have been active in all parts of the solar sector. During the past three years, the situation has changed dramatically, owing to increasing globalization and stronger competition.

  9. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  10. Recollections of a jewish mathematician in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Abraham A. Fraenkel was a world-renowned mathematician in pre–Second World War Germany, whose work on set theory was fundamental to the development of modern mathematics. A friend of Albert Einstein, he knew many of the era’s acclaimed mathematicians personally. He moved to Israel (then Palestine under the British Mandate) in the early 1930s. In his autobiography Fraenkel describes his early years growing up as an Orthodox Jew in Germany and his development as a mathematician at the beginning of the twentieth century. This memoir, originally written in German in the 1960s, has now been translated into English, with an additional chapter covering the period from 1933 until his death in 1965 written by the editor, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. Fraenkel describes the world of mathematics in Germany in the first half of the twentieth century, its origins and development, the systems influencing it, and its demise. He also paints a unique picture of the complex struggles within the world of Orthodox Jewry in Germany....

  11. Towards a national ecosystem assessment in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Christian; Neßhöver, Carsten; Schröter, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present options for a National Ecosystem Assessment in Germany (NEA-DE) that could inform decision-makers on the state and trends of ecosystems and ecosystem services. Characterizing a NEA-DE, we argue that its cross-sectoral, integrative approach would have the advantages of increased...

  12. Novel lyssavirus in Natterer's bat, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuling, Conrad M; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  13. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing

  14. France, Germany and the nuclear challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkish, F.

    2004-11-01

    Taking into account the french and german relations concerning the nuclear activities, the nuclear phaseout decided by the german government in 1998 presents inevitable impacts in France. The author discusses the constraints bound to this project (industrial interests, energy dependence...), the short dated phaseout project and the consequences for the relations of the two countries, Germany and France. (A.L.B.)

  15. Policies in Dementia, comparing Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2017-01-01

    In Short Germany as well as Denmark are focusing on the same issues regarding Dementia, as other European Countries are, too. The key issues in the national strategies are: timely diagnosis, self-determination for the person with dementia, unbroken “care chain”, better possibilities for the relief...

  16. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  17. Germany forms alliance for terascale physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Feder, Toni

    2007-01-01

    "Germany's high-energy particle physicists have formed a network to increase their international visibility and competitiveness as their field gears up for the start next ear of the Large Hadron Collide (LHC) at CERN and, eventually, the International Linear Collider." (1 page)

  18. Solar energy in Germany: a national commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of solar energy in Germany: national energy plan and share of solar energy in the German energy mix, the photovoltaic industry: a dynamic industry which creates jobs, 2006-2012 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, solar thermal resource potentialities and effective exploitation

  19. Germany restores funds to grant agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Schiermeier, Q

    1998-01-01

    Edelgard Bulmahn, the research minister for Germany's coalition government is to make up a shortfall in the budgets of the Max Planck Society (MPS) and the Deutsche Forshungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and will add an extra five per cent to each in 1999.

  20. Football business models: Why did Germany win the World Cup?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup.......This article looks into the managerial aspects related to why and how Germany won the 2014 FIFA World Cup....

  1. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  2. Is Germany a model for managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  3. [Performance of in vitro fertilization in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ven, Hans; Montag, Markus; van der Ven, Katrin

    2002-07-01

    In Germany the application of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is regulated by federal legislation. Compared with the international situation the "German Embryo Protection Law" is very "restrictive" and various methods of ART are prohibited, e.g. oocyte/embryo donation, embryo cryopreservation and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Furthermore, in Germany only 1 to 3 fertilized oocytes may be cultured to embryo. All these embryos then have to be transferred into the uterus of a particular patient. Additional fertilized oocytes can only be cryopreserved in a pronuclear state. The success rate of ART has increased significantly over the past few years owing to the introduction of blastocyst cultures and the selection of 1 to 2 good quality blastocysts for embryo transfer. Furthermore, the transfer of only 1 to 2 blastocysts effectively reduces the risk of high rank multiple pregnancies. In Germany, however, the selection of only a few good quality blastocysts for transfer is prohibited by law. New laboratory techniques, e.g. pronuclear scoring and polar body biopsy screening for aneuploidy are in accordance with German law. The application of these methods provides a selection of "good quality oocytes" and seems to increase the overall success rate. Further studies are required, however. The success rate, quality and cost effectiveness of ART in Germany appears compromised when compared with many other countries. What is more, in contrast to the international situation research and development in ART in Germany has been decreasing constantly over the past few years, due to the inappropriate regulations of the German health care system and the insufficient support given to university-based centers.

  4. The outlook for natural gas in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1993-01-01

    In a generally stagnant energy market, gas will be the energy with the highest growth rate in Germany, especially because of its steadily rising shares in the residential and commercial sector. In western Germany there is to be accepted that the demand forecasts, which were raised from one conference to the next, have passed their zenith. Great uncertainty exists as regards the future use of gas for power generation. In the absence of any significant expansion of this market sector, which is considered rather improbable in western Germany, it can be stated that anticipated gas demand up to the year 2005 is already covered by existing import contracts and scheduled domestic production. The picture is completely different in eastern Germany, where a doubling of consumption is quite feasible. To achieve the requisite diversification of supplies, substantial additional imports from western sources will have to be contracted. Russia can and should remain eastern Germany's main supplier in the long run, but Russian deliveries must be placed on a reliable, long-term contractual basis. As far as new gas projects are concerned, deliveries from Norway, to a limited extent from the United Kingdom and above all as part of the new Russian export initiative are under discussion. Generally speaking, transit will be an increasingly significant issue, especially for additional supplies from Russia. The efficiency and reliability of gas marketing companies will become far more important in an environment characterised by growing uncertainties. The reliable customer offering a dependable market outlet will be increasingly sought. With energy prices likely to increase only slightly, the management of uncertainties and the safeguarding of economic driving forces will be the main challenge facing our supply projects. 15 figs

  5. Poverty, health, and nutrition in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the relation between poverty and several variables describing health and nutrition behavior in East Germany and West Germany. Data are from the third National Health Survey in West Germany and the first Health Survey for the new federal states of Germany (1991/92). Both health surveys included a self-administered questionnaire ascertaining sociodemographic variables, smoking history, nutritional behavior (using a food-frequency list), physical activity, and a medical examination comprising measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and blood sampling for serum cholesterol determination. Participants included 4958 subjects in the West Survey and 2186 subjects in the East Survey aged 25-69 years, with a respective net response rate of 69.0% and 70.2%. Poverty was defined as a household equivalence income of 62.5% or less of the median income of the general population. The lowest income group (poverty or near poverty) comprised 11.6% of East German versus 15.9% of West German males and 14.8% of East German versus 19.3% of West German females. For most but not all health and nutrition parameters, less favorable results were obtained for subjects with an equivalence income below or near poverty. The most striking poverty-related differences regarding cardiovascular disease risk factors were found for lack of regular exercise for both genders and obesity in females. No poverty-related differences were found for the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, despite a much higher prevalence of obesity in persons with an income below the poverty line. Current nutritional behavior and changes in nutritional behavior during the last three years was strongly related to income status, with a more unhealthy status for low-income population groups in both East and West Germany. In Germany, poverty has strong effects on individual health status and nutritional behavior. Because of rising unemployment rates and reductions in social security payments for low

  6. “From the Soviet Information Bureau...”: on Information Confrontation of the USSR and Germany During the Great Patriotic War. 1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malysheva Elena Mikhaylovna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of information confrontation between the USSR and the Third Reich in 1941-1945 in the struggle for the mass consciousness of the civilian population and combatants, shows opposite axiological priorities and forms of propaganda and counter-propaganda of the opposing sides. Of particular interest is the analysis of the struggle for social consciousness, with emphasis on Soviet nationalities policy and the ethnic component of the German occupation regime in the Caucasus. On the one hand, the study and implementation of the thesis about the intellectual, psychosocial and physiological superiority of one people over the other as a natural, more like moral norm was largely propaganda separation of people in order to facilitate the management and maximize the impact of the labor and other forms of cooperation. On the other hand, certain conflict zones, updated by the Nazis in the period between the nations, proved to be viable due to the historical, religious or socio-cultural tension. Nevertheless, it supported the idea that the social consciousness of the peoples of the USSR was based on the belief in a just character of the war, and the victory was the main source of patriotism and interethnic community of Defenders of the Fatherland, which became the basis of resistance and the subsequent defeat of concerted action advocacy program of Nazi Germany. Soviet propaganda skillfully maintained the spirit of unity and protest accumulated effect for the benefit of the people striving for victory over the invaders of his native land. At the same time without contradiction between the spirit and the word of propaganda; the actions of the government and the people. Today, when it is necessary to overcome the historical “amnesia, revisionists try to revive and resuscitate the memory of turning historical events, to achieve their objective assessment of the integrity and historical continuity outlook of the people and adequate

  7. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  8. Potential and costs of renewables in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, K.F.; Raede, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Set off by the oil crisis in the Seventies and nurtured by the critical stance of the public towards nuclear energy and its growing awareness of the climate problem, studies on possible applications of renewables in Germany have played an increasingly important role over the years. A large number of publications have been turned out on this issue. It therefore appears worthwhile to collect the various results given in the literature and compile them for easy comparison. The authors of the present article give a short synopsis of a study to this end that was completed in the autumn of last year. The chief aim of the compilation was to enable the reader to gain a quick overview of the known results and to facilitate his orientation, thus making the problems surrounding the application of renewables in Germany more transparent. (orig.) [de

  9. Second births in western Germany and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Köppen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare second birth risks in France and western Germany using data from the Family and Fertility Survey. Second birth risks are higher for highly educated women than for women with lower education in both countries. In western Germany, the positive effect weakens after controlling for the education level of the partner. The positive effect of French women's education remains unchanged, even after controlling for the partners' characteristics. We interpret this finding in the sense that work and family life are more compatible in France, where highly educated women can turn their education more often into work opportunities and income. West German women often have to make a decision between an employment career and motherhood as two exclusive life options. In such a situation, it is primarily the partners' earning potential that influences fertility.

  10. The future of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The future of nuclear power in Germany is not only a matter of technology, economy and ecology but, above all, a matter of political leadership, the quality of interaction of all groups of society, the need to take ideology out of politico-economico-technical matters, and of firmly standing up for a style of democracy in which majorities, not minorities, decide. The power economy is agreed that nuclear power is indispensable in a powerful electricity supply scheme. These should be the criteria to be met by an energy consensus: No nuclear plants should be sacrificed by being shut down before the end of their technical and economic service life; spent fuel and waste management in Germany should be secured with sufficient interim storage and repository storage capacities. (orig.) [de

  11. [The reception of Heinz Kohut in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut.

  12. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. [Migrants of high social status in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebe, G

    1997-01-01

    "The accelerating economic globalization has created a growing demand for highly skilled labourers. As a result, there has been an increase in highly skilled and high-status migrants to Germany, especially to the urban agglomerations with global city functions. This migration process is carried mostly by the internal labour and job movement of multinational companies. In the urban centres these groups of migrants follow specific patterns of spatial organization and segregation with regard to their place of residence. But they also have other distinctive difference to the migrants with a lower social status, such as higher social acceptance in their host country, the transitory character of their stay in Germany, and their intentions to return to their home countries." (EXCERPT)

  14. Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabus, F.; Seibt, P.; Poppei, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m 2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

  15. Year 2 of Germany's Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2013-01-01

    After a decade characterised by the take-off of renewable energies, Germany decided in 2010 to make them the top priority. At the same time, it decided to make exemplary efforts in terms of energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. The audacious nature of this policy was strengthened by the 'turn' taken in 2011 to give up nuclear energy in the wake of the Fukushima accident. Given the initial results for 2012, Germany seems to be on target for reaching its national objective, of 18% renewable energy within total consumption by 2020. Germany is also well placed to reduce its planned cut in electricity consumption of 10%. The country will also meet its commitments, both international and European, concerning greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, recent trends suggest it will be increasingly difficult for Germany to meet its own, domestic goal of cutting emissions by 40%, by 2020. Furthermore, it is hard to see how Germany will be able to bring down total energy consumption by 20% by 2020 (from 2008 levels), or increase the share of renewables in electricity production above 35%. Success with this latter objective is largely dependent on reinforcing networks, both for transmission over long distances and for local distribution. It is not sure that the delays accumulated in both areas will be made up for by 2020, despite the rapid legislative adjustments that have already been made. By favouring intermittent energy sources - wind and solar power - Germany also faces problems of managing frequent production fluctuations. The long term solution to this lies in storing electricity. However, despite the considerable efforts in research and development, the technologies necessary for this will doubtless not be available on a large scale before the end of the present decade. These efforts could nevertheless provide German industry with interesting advantages in sectors of high potential, such as electric vehicles. Measures to promote renewable energies are

  16. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  17. Energy transition in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures and comparisons between the French and German energy plans: electricity mix, 2003-2013 evolution of installed power and of renewable electrical production, cost of energy transition (evolution of charges relative to contracts of renewable electricity purchasing agreement), 2004-2013 evolution employment in renewable energies industry, France-Germany power exchanges (France import balance of 9.8 TWh in 2013), electricity goals in the French and German energy transitions

  18. Supplementary income. Direct selling in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document treats, first, of the evolution of the German support mechanisms to renewable energy sources. Then, it presents the legal framework of direct electricity selling (goal, evolution, facilities in concern and eligibility criteria). Next, the operation of direct selling since August 2014 in Germany is presented (producers eligibility, over- and under-production, reference values, income, tariffs). Finally, the perspectives and conditions of direct selling success are summarized in the conclusion

  19. The Societal Integration of Immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Fertig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates whether and to what extent immigrants in Germany are integrated into German society by utilizing a variety of qualitative information and subjective data collected in the 1999 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP). To this end, leisure-time activities and attitudes of native Germans, ethnic Germans and foreign immigrants of different generations are compared. The empirical results suggest that conditional on observable characteristics the activities and attit...

  20. Nuclear licensing and supervision in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The legal instrument for implementing the licensing and supervisory procedure is specified by statutory ordinances, guidelines and provisions. The licensing requirements for nuclear power plants on the final storage of radioactive wastes in the federal republic of germany are described. The nuclear facilities are subject to continuous state supervision after they have been granted. The appendix gives a brief account of the most important ordinances relating to the AtG and extracts from the Nuclear Safety Convention. (HP)

  1. Pension Systems in Europe. Case of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Poteraj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an insight into the old age pensionsystem in Germany. The authors goal was to present both, past and present solutions employed by the Germans pension system, in search for ideas worth consideration in international comparisons. In the summary, the author highlights as a particular German approach, on the background of other countries, the fact of implementing in the German reality the special smart card system for pensioners.

  2. Monetary transmission and bank lending in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kakes, Jan; Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Philipp Maier

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of bank lending in the monetary transmission process in Germany. We follow a sectoral approach by distinguishing corporate lending and household lending. We find that banks respond to a monetary contraction by adjusting their securities holdings, rather than reducing their loans portfolio. Most lending categories even show an increase following a monetary tightening. The main implication of our results is that a bank lending channel is not an important transmissio...

  3. Photovoltaic energy in Germany: experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of photovoltaic energy in Germany: resource potential, 2000-2010 development, share in the energy mix, market, legal framework and incentives, market evolution and electricity feed-in tariffs, 2006-2011 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, households' contribution, R and D investments, industry development and employment, the German national energy plan after Fukushima, the expectations of the German photovoltaic industry

  4. Self-consumption in Germany. Experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about self-consumption from photovoltaic power plants and cogeneration plants in Germany: share of self-consumption in the overall electricity consumption, definition and economic models, legal aspects and feed-in tariffs, financial incentives for households, tertiary sector and industry, impact on grid dimensioning, challenge of storage on electric system optimisation, economic impact and 'lack of solidarity', possible future legal evolutions

  5. Experience with the SE in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Reichert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A rather significant proportion of the Societas Europaeas (the European Company, or SE formed to date have had German roots. German corporate law has been enriched by an interesting alternative which meanwhile seems to have gained momentum. This contribution focuses on SEs incorporated by German entrepreneurs and provides an interesting account concerning the use of SEs in Germany in practice, such as Allianz, Fresenius, BASF and Porsche. Has the SE been used to circumvent rigid company law provisions or is it a more flexible and effective tool, perhaps, for company mobility? The practical motives behind setting up this company form are also reflected upon. These include: the facilitation of cross-border mergers; transfer of the registered office; the ‘European’ image; a more flexible form of co-determination in large companies (reduction of the number of supervisory board members; avoidance and freezing of co-determination for medium-sized enterprises; the appeal of the one-tier system and its endangerment by German co-determination; and flat and uniform structures for company groups. The author also briefly discusses some of the problems arising from the formation of SEs in Germany. He ultimately concludes that practice has shown that it is possible to work with the legal regime of the SE in Germany, which adds a new company form to those available in that Member State.

  6. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  7. Final storage in Germany. Who is interested?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    2002-01-01

    The final storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Germany - who, in Germany, has any interest in this subject, especially now that the new Atomic Energy Act has been adopted, and who is going to read this article? The author, Professor Klaus Kuehn, examines this question, analyzing in his contribution the current situation and the points of view of those who may be interested in this topic. In Prof. Kuehn's opinion, the addresses in particular are these: - the federal government, - the opposition in the federal parliament, - the federal states, - the Federal Ministry for the Environment, - the Federal Ministry for Research, - the Federal Ministry of Economics, - the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, - the operators of nuclear power plants, - the Working Group Elaborating Procedures for Selecting Repository Sites (AkEnd). Klaus Kuehn concludes that there is little interest at the present time in the subject of Final Storage in Germany, for reasons explained in detail which result both from the political constellation and from existing constraints. (orig.) [de

  8. Peculiarities of transformation processes in East Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dathe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-economic transformation of East German lands after the German reunification in 1990 is analyzed, the term "transformation" in frames of planned and market economies is defined. The author studies the historical determinants of the transformation process in Germany. German economic and industrial history in context of the driving forces and their social values, as well as the properties of the planning and economic systems that underlie the transformation of East German mentality, are considered. Further analysis is connected with economic, social and political components of the East German transformation process, "the dominance of the West", the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, privatization etc. Finally, the outcome of already traversed path of transformation of East Germany is considered. It is concluded, that the transformation process is not only historically conditioned situations of both the merging parties in the case of Germany, but also the positive or negative perception of its results and the motivation for its further implementation.

  9. Deep Geothermal Energy Production in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Agemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Germany uses its low enthalpy hydrothermal resources predominantly for balneological applications, space and district heating, but also for power production. The German Federal government supports the development of geothermal energy in terms of project funding, market incentives and credit offers, as well as a feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity. Although new projects for district heating take on average six years, geothermal energy utilisation is growing rapidly, especially in southern Germany. From 2003 to 2013, the annual production of geothermal district heating stations increased from 60 GWh to 530 GWh. In the same time, the annual power production increased from 0 GWh to 36 GWh. Currently, almost 200 geothermal facilities are in operation or under construction in Germany. A feasibility study including detailed geological site assessment is still essential when planning a new geothermal facility. As part of this assessment, a lot of geological data, hydraulic data, and subsurface temperatures can be retrieved from the geothermal information system GeotIS, which can be accessed online [1].

  10. [25 Years After Re-Unification of Germany: An Overview on Eastern German Psychiatry. Part 1: Post-War Era, Pavlovization, Psychopharmacological Era and Social Psychiatric Reform Movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2016-04-01

    This is the first of a 2-part study on the history of psychiatry in Eastern Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. It mainly covers the years post World War II up until the beginning of the 1970s. The first post-war years were determined by the new power holders' attempts to overcome National Socialist (Nazi) heritage and to re-organize mental health and care in general. The doctrine of a strict denazifization in East Germany must, however, be regarded as a myth. Promoted by centralized organization, there was an increase in communist party-ideological influence and harassment as well as aligning scientific views and research with Soviet paradigms (Pavlovization) during the 1950s and early 1960s. This, however, led to an enormous rise in exodus of skilled labor to West Germany, which in turn further increased the notorious lack of staff. After the erection of the inner-German wall, this problem was mitigated, yet never fully solved over the 40 years of the existence of the GDR. Despite adverse conditions, East German psychiatrists made major original contributions to the development of psychiatry in general, at least up until the 1960s. Academic psychiatry was mainly based on biological concepts that were further promoted by new somatic and psychopharmacological therapeutic options. In the 1960s, social psychiatric reformist forces emerged, primarily in the large psychiatric hospitals. The improvements achieved by these forces, however, were not implemented on a nation-wide scale, but mainly restricted to one particular or several institutions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Energy R and D in Germany; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PJ Runci

    1999-01-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R and D stood at$42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R and D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R and D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R and D expenditures, public R and D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately$15 billion. The reduction in R and D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R and D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R and D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R and D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R and D fell from approximately$1.6 billion to$400 million--a 75% real decline. The$850 million reduction in Germany's fission R and D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R and D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R and D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy

  12. Energy R and D in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runci, PJ

    1999-11-01

    Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. While energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies have fared relatively well in comparison

  13. Nuclear third party liability in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the

  14. International design competition. Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb. Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-11-15

    Within the International Design Competition 2011 at the Hockenheimring (Federal Republic of Germany) the following contributions were presented: (1) Formula Student Germany - Experience the Future (Tim Hannig); (2) Live at the Hockenheimring 2011; (3) Cutaway Model of the FSC Winning Car - The GFR11c by the Global Formula Racing Team of the DHBW Ravensburg; (4) Formula Student Racecar with Selective Cylinder Deactivation (Alexander Titz); (5) Construction of a crankshaft for the RS11 (Stefan Buhl); (6) The Wheel Design of the ARG 11 (Megan Rotondo); (7) Cutaway Model of the FSE Winning Car - The DUT11 by the DUT Racing Team of the Delft University of Technology; (8) Formula Student Electric - E-Scrutineering (Ann-Christin Bartoelke); (9) Development of an E-motor for Formular Student Electric (Urs Leuthold); (10) The Battery Management System of the FHWT04e (Andreas Hagemeyer); (11) Overall Results 2011 at a Glance; (12) Show your Colours; (13) Formula Student Germany visiting China (Alia Pierce).

  15. Reordering the material of the past: gender and the morality of things in early postwar Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, N.

    2014-01-01

    The essay focuses on two rubble films The Murderers Are Among Us and Between Yesterday and Tomorrow in order to explore how these films deal with the legacy of Nazi material culture in gendered terms. The objects on screen are analyzed as ‘tangible events’ relating to the disrupted order of things

  16. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  17. The Twilight of the Public Intellectual: Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lewis

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on the questions of whether German unification resulted in a wholesale retreat of intellectuals from politics and engagement with social issues, as the rhetoric of failure would indicate, or whether the key debates of the period can be read instead as a sign that Germany is on the road to becoming a more 'normal' European nation. Before returning to these issuesat the end of this paper I first provide a broad historical and theoretical context for my discussion of the role of the concerned intellectual in Germany, before offering an overview of the respective functions of literary intellectuals in both German states in the post-war period. I then address a series of key debates and discussions in 1989 and the early nineteen-nineties that were responsible for changing the forms of engagement in intellectual debates in post-unification German society. I argue that the 1990s and early years of the new millennium hastened the disappearance of the writer as a universal intellectual and focused attention on the writer as an individualist and a professional. Today's youngest generation of writer in Germany is a specialist intellectual who intervenes in political and social matters from time to time but who is not expected to take a moral-ethical stance on most issues of national and international concern. S/he is one who frequently writes about personal subjects, but may also occasionally, as witnessed after September 11, turn his or her pen to topics of global concern as in terrorism and Islam. More often than not, however, writers now leave the work of commenting on political affairs to writers of the older guard and to other 'senior' specialist intellectuals.

  18. The energy supply situation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederer, P.

    2007-01-01

    The focus is on 4 energy supply issues of decisive relevance to energy supply in Germany, but also in other countries in Europe and worldwide: (1) How will the global energy situation develop? (2) What is the organization, and the development, of the market in which we are doing business? (3) What are the challenges facing the power industry in view of a threatening climate change? (4) Against this backdrop, how do we design the energy mix of the future? Analysis of these 4 points shows that, for a foreseeable time, all types of energy generation are necessary if Germany and Europe are to be supplied energy efficiently, securely, and in a way not polluting the environment. Hence, these concrete conclusions can be drawn: (1) We need more renewable energies in Germany, in Europe, and worldwide. (2) We need the development of 700 C coalfired power plant technology in order to first advance the development of CCS (carbon capture and storage) technology and thus minimize CO 2 emissions from fossil-fired power plants. (3) We need increases in energy efficiency which help us satisfy the steadily growing need for energy with dwindling fossil resources. (4) We need nuclear power because of its ability to produce baseload electricity free from CO 2 . For nuclear power, it is now important that politics and the power industry jointly find ways and means to reassess, in an unbiased way, the plant operating lives laid down in the current Atomic Energy Act. This is required, inter alia, because of the challenges in climate policy and because of global economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  19. An ecological tax reform in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, L.; Bleijenberg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    This study, being a part of the large research program 'External Effects of Energy Procurement' and coordinated by PROGNOS, concerns the distributional and macro-economic effects of the internalization of the external effects of the energy supply by means of an ecological tax reform. The PROGNOS study is focused on the costs and effects of energy production, procurement and consumption (in Germany), that are not taken care of by the market. Here a rough estimate is given of the macro-economic consequence and the distributional effects for the industrial sector and households in (West) Germany of an energy tax of which the revenues are 'reinjected' into the economy, mainly by lowering the financial burden on labour. First a description is given of the starting points of the study and the form of the energy tax. Subsequently attention is paid to the macro-economic effects, the sectoral effects, and the effects on the distribution of incomes for households. The model calculations for Western Germany and the Netherlands confirm the expectation that an ecological tax reform leads to the combined realization of employment and environmental objectives. Shifts in the sectoral structure may occur. Energy intensive branches of industry will have to give up a part of their market share in favour of labour-intensive sectors. The results also illustrate that there are several possibilities to prevent a change in the collective burden of regular expenses as a result of a tax or levy on energy, and that the effects of a fuel tax on the income distribution can be corrected. 5 figs., 19 tabs., 5 apps., 15 refs

  20. A Less Ambitious Energy Transition for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeker, Etienne; Yahiel, Michel; Lenglart, Fabrice; Broca, Olivier de; Senne, Valerie

    2017-08-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, the German authorities launched the country's energy transition, or Energiewende. With near unanimous support of Germany's citizens, it was seen as a society-wide project. The enthusiasm the Energiewende generated soon spread beyond the Rhine. Indeed, for many French people it became the model to follow. Replacing nuclear energy and fossil fuels with renewable energy sources that were local when possible, developing electric mobility and making progress towards a zero carbon economy were all virtuous goals. What's more, it seemed they could be attained over a relatively short period of time and at reasonable cost. Today, the Energiewende's future looks less bright. While Germany produces a third of its electricity from renewable energy, this comes at a high price. The cost of electricity for small consumers more than doubled between 2000 and 2013. At the same time, the country continues to rely on coal to produce a large share of its electricity and still has one of the highest levels of CO_2 per person in Europe. But Germany's population is divided about closing its coal-fired and lignite power plants, not to mention doing so would jeopardize its energy supply. Add to this the fact the massive development of intermittent renewable energy sources has made the German power grid unstable and has necessitated the construction of thousands of kilometers of high voltage lines amidst strong local opposition. Lastly, electrifying the transport sector could serve to compound the series of scandals that have hit the automotive industry. Against this backdrop, the coalition government formed following the September 2017 federal elections could very well lower the bar for the Energiewende. (author)

  1. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  2. 2005 primary energy consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    According to preliminar calculations by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Working Party on Energy Balances, AGEB), the consumption of an aggregate 486 million TCE of primary energy resources in Germany last year was 1.3% below the level of the year before. Energy consumption was influenced by both the high level of prices and the development of the economy. Hardly any influence was attributable to the level of temperatures, which was largely unchanged compared to the figure of the year before. Oil consumption in 2005 in Germany dropped by nearly 2% to 174.8 million TCE. On the whole, oil with its 36% share in the energy balance remained by far the most important energy resource in Germany. Natural gas consumption of 110.4 million TCE was at the level of the year before. Its share in the primary energy balance rose slightly to 22.7%. Hard coal, because of lower use in power plants and the decline in iron making, showed a 4.6% drop in consumption to 62.8 million TCE. In this way, hard coal contributed 13% to total energy consumption. Lignite consumption dropped by 3.2% to 54.4 million TCE as a result of lower deliveries to power plants. Its 11.2% share in the total consumption of primary energy continued to make lignite the most important domestic energy resource. More than 90% of the lignite produced is used for electricity generation. The contribution to primary energy consumption of nuclear power dropped by more than 2% to 60.7 million TCE. Hydroelectric plants and wind power plants increased their contribution by 3.6%. The contribution to primary energy consumption made by all renewable energy resources rose to 4.6%. AGEB evaluates statistics of all areas of the power economy on the basis of standard criteria in order to combine these data in a comprehensive picture. Since 1994, the energy balances for Germany have been compiled by DIW on behalf of AGEB. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The peculiarities and the differences in the development of nuclear energy in the two neighboring countries are described. The development in France could be promoted more easily which was also due to the government structure. Uncomplicated licensing procedures and other factors permitted a less difficult realisation of the nuclear energy programme. Serious economic consequences in our country are pointed out. In this summary, the most important results and statements of a memorandum worked out by the KWU with the headline 'Germany/France - the electricity supply in comparison' are listed. (UA) [de

  4. Detection of radioactivity in scrap in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, E.; Thierfeldt, S.; Sefzig, R.; Weimer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Although Germany's scrap export exceeds the import, the imports of scrap amount to more than one million Mg per year. Radioactivity has been found mainly in imported scrap in Germany. This radioactivity can consist of surface contamination in scrap e.g. from the oil and gas industry, nuclear and other technical applications or of radiation sources, e.g. from medical or technical irradiation devices where the source has not been removed prior to scrapping. Fortunately really large sources have been involved in only very few occasions. More serious incidents have, however, been reported from other countries. Today, measurement facilities have been installed at the entrances to virtually all German foundries and larger scrap yards. These measurement facilities allow the swift measurement of whole lorry or freight car loads. The lower limit of detection is for some devices as low as ca. 5 nSv/h (dose rate increase above background at the detector) which is achieved by very advanced hardware and software. Additionally, simplified dose rate measurements are performed by German customs officials at the eastern borders for scrap loads to be imported into Germany. When activity is detected in a load, several options exist, like e.g.: (i) sending the scrap back to the sender; (ii) allowing the whole load to be melted down; (iii) careful unloading and separating the load with the aim of localizing and removing the contamination. This paper analyses these various options after detection, discusses the role of the competent authorities and evaluates the possible radiological consequences. Realistic dose calculations show that it is possible that a person may receive doses of several mSv or even 10 mSv if precautionary measures are neglected or if a larger source is not detected at all. This paper further addresses which types and amounts of radioactivity may be detected and which conclusions can be drawn from the dose rate at the detector. The continuous increase in the number

  5. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  6. Nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.

    2009-01-01

    Off-site nuclear emergency response in Germany is divided into disaster response under the responsibility of the Laender and measures for precautionary radiation protection pursuant to the Precautionary Radiation Protection Act under the lead of federal authorities. Early countermeasures at the regional level require a different management than long-term and comprehensive actions of precautionary radiation protection. As situations may arise in which measures of both approaches overlap with regard to place and time, it is essential to make thorough preparations in order to avoid problems with implementation. (orig.)

  7. Situation concerning the HLW repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempert, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste has been defined in Germany as: maintenance-free, safe emplacement of radioactive waste, time unlimited and no intention of retrievability. The responsibility for final disposal lies in the hands of the German Federal Government, which has assigned a federal authority to plan, erect and operate the federal facilities for long-term storage of nuclear waste. The federal authority has in lack of industrial experience contracted my company DBE which is responsible for the engineering, erection and operation of all German nuclear waste repositories. (author)

  8. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coy, K.

    1998-01-01

    The regulatory programme governing the safe use of radioisotopes in Germany is based on the federal legislation enacted as Atomic Energy Control Act (Atomgesetz) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (Strahlen-schutzverordnung) and its implementation by the competent authorities of the individual states. Despite this highly decentralized infrastructure of enforcement the basic principles of regulations described in this paper such as authorization criteria, conditions imposed as well as depth and intensity of inspection balanced according to the individual radiation hazard involved are harmonized to the greatest possible extent by regular coordination among the competent authorities as well as a series of technical regulations such as standards and guidelines. (author)

  9. Raw materials policy: implications for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E

    1978-04-01

    The contribution characterizes the situation of the national mining industry in 1977, deals with international raw materials policies within the framework of the North-South dialogue and with the policies of the western industrial countries, points out the dangers of worldwide state-controlled raw materials policies and calls for a) the political risk of enterprise cooperation with developing countries to be covered and b) double taxation to be avoided. Finally, the problems of securing the Federal Republic of Germany's raw materials supplies on a long-term basis are portrayed.

  10. Fuels and alternative propulsion in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The transportation sector is one of the first responsible of the air pollution in Germany. The kyoto protocol and the european directive led the german Government to set about some measures. To encourage the petroleum industry to develop classical fuels/biofuels mixing, the government exempted from taxes until 2020 the biofuels part. The Government decided also financial incentives for diesel vehicles equipped with particles filters. Among the different fuels, the document presents the advantages and disadvantages of the hydrogen fuels and the hybrid motors. (A.L.B.)

  11. Management of nuclear liabilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The management of nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany is explored in this article. The intermediate storage and final disposal of spent fuels from the country's twenty nuclear power stations is discussed. Flexible solutions to the changing problems of nuclear fuel cycle economics are needed. Financing the back end of the nuclear power station lifetimes is currently underfunded. Monies should be accumulated during the plant's active life. The political, technical, legal and economic aspects of the nuclear industry must also be included. (UK)

  12. Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Henning Kappel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany. After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium. Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing

  13. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.

    1998-03-01

    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  14. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  15. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  16. Report on nuclear power plant instrumentation and control in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the status of the NPP control and instrumentation in Germany. The general technology underlying most aspects of NPP C and I in Germany has not altered since the last progress report although there has been many improvements in detail. Since the beginning of 1990 the GRS carried out the safety investigations of NPPs in East Germany. The USSR as the vendor of the plants and France were also involved in the project. The following fields are briefly described: Status of nuclear power in Germany; training simulators; backfitting of computers and information systems; operator support/new control rooms. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab

  17. West-East migration in Germany since 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Grit

    2011-01-01

    Not only did 2.5 million people migrate from East Germany to West Germany between 1991 and 2006, 1.5 million people also moved from West to East Germany. This counter-current movement took placed largely unnoticed by the public and researchers alike. This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative data to first of all examine how the population structure in the New Länder has changed as a result of interregional migration between Länder in East and West Germany. It goes on to study the moti...

  18. Maternal employment and childhood overweight in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sophie-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Status of wind energy in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.; Molly, J.P.; Rehfeldt, K. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    By the end of 1995 in total 3655 wind turbines (WT`s) were installed in Germany with a total capacity of 1,136 MW. In the year 1995 alone the WT installations grew by 1,070 units with 505 MW. About 40% of the 1995 installations were sold to inland states of Germany with their lower wind speed potential. This fast development occurred in parallel to continuously reduced local state and federal subsidies. The further development is based mainly on the guaranteed reimbursement due to the Electricity Feed Law. But since some time the electricity utilities fight back on all legal and political levels to get cancelled the unloved Electricity Feed Law and since two years the building construction law with the foreseen privilege for WT`s is discussed without any result. All these difficulties affect investors and credit giving banks in such a negative way, that the further annual increase in wind power installation for 1996 could be 10 to 20% less than in 1995. Many of the new commercial Megawatt WT`s have pitch control and variable rotor speed which cause better electrical power quality and lower life time loads. From statistical evaluations on technical data of WT`s a good overview of the further development is derived. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Germany, Austria and dissolution of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the causes of dissolution/breakdown of Yugoslavia. The author first analyses writing of German and Austrian press which has, at the very beginning of the crisis, taken a strong anti-Serb standing, as in 1914 and 1941. Author then analyses the reasons that led Austrian and German diplomacy and governments to actively forging the crisis and then breaking down a sovereign country. Those reasons could be summarized as follows: German and Austrian revenge for two wars lost in these territories; improvement of conditions for fulfillment of old German dream to advance toward Middle East; in order to become a world power Germany 'had to' to annul some of the consequences of the First and Second World War on the symbolic level and acquire a possibility to test its powers, and breaking down Yugoslavia, with help of its internal allies Germany broke down its army without military engagement and removed an obstacle for advancement towards East.

  1. Thuringische builds large PET plant in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    East Germany fibers producer Thuringische Faser AG Schwarza (TFS; Rudolstadt) is entering the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) business. The company, owned by India's Dalmia Group (New Delhi), is building an 80,000-m.t./year PET granulate plant, one of the largest in Europe, for completion at the end of 1995. The product will be used to make PET bottles and film for food packaging. TFS will need to buy 70,000 m.t./year of purified terephthalic acid and 27,000 m.t./year of ethylene glycol to feed the new plant. When acquiring TFS, Dalmia's chairman, Sanjay Dalmia, pledged to invest DM150 million ($95.4 million) in the Germany firm and keep 1,200 of the 3,000 workers. John Brown Deutsche Engineering (Essen) has been awarded a contract covering engineering, know-how, and turnkey supply of the complete plant, and will share of the complete plant, and will share the work with Austrian associate, Voest John Brown Industrieanlagenbau (Linz). The company, which completed against Zimmer (Frankfurt), will use its own technology. TFS, with 1992 sales of DM120 million, has capacities to produce 20,000 m.t/year of viscose staple fiber, 18,000 m.t./year of nylon-6 filament yarn, and 6,300 m.t./year of textile-grade polyester granulate, which will be converted to produce bottle-grade PET

  2. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted.

  3. Nuclear energy research in Germany 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Research and development (R and D) in the fields of nuclear reactor safety and safety of nuclear waste and spent fuel management in Germany are carried out at research centers and, in addition, some 32 universities. In addition, industrial research is conducted by plant vendors, and research in plant and operational safety of power plants in operation is organized by operators and by organizations of technical and scientific research and expert consultant organizations. This summary report presents nuclear energy research conducted at research centers and universities in Germany in 2009, including examples of research projects and descriptions of the situation of research and teaching. These are the organizations covered: - Hermann von Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers, - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, responsibility of the former Karlsruhe Research Center), - Juelich Research Center (FZJ), - Nuclear Technology Competence Center East, - Dresden-Rossendorf Research Center (FZD), - Rossendorf Nuclear Process Technology and Analysis Association (VKTA), - Dresden Technical University, - Zittau/Goerlitz University of Applied Science, - Institute of Nuclear Energy and Energy Systems (IKE) of the University of Stuttgart. (orig.)

  4. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  5. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-02-02

    After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT--first low because of strict admission criteria--increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65% to 85% in the first years, up to 50% after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10% of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. In Germany, a history of substitution treatment spanning 20 years has meanwhile

  6. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customs exemptions... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for the...

  8. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  9. Documents and legal texts: Australia, Germany, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Australia: National Radioactive Waste Management Act 2012 No. 29, 2012 (An Act to make provision in relation to the selection of a site for, and the establishment and operation of, a radioactive waste management facility, and for related purposes). Germany: Act on the Peaceful Utilisation of Atomic Energy and the Protection against its Hazards (Atomic Energy Act) of 23 December 1959, as amended and promulgated on 15 July 1985, last amendment by the Act of 8 November 2011. Sweden: The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority Regulatory Code issued on 20 October 2011, Published on 2 November 2011); The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's general advice on the application of the regulations concerning clearance of materials, rooms, buildings and land in practices involving ionising radiation (issued on 20 October 2011)

  10. Renewable energies and energy transition in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures about the German national energy plan: the 2013 coalition contract and the 2014-2017 government priorities, the security of energy supplies and the reflections about an evolution of the existing mechanism, the legal aspects of the renewable energies support mechanism (EEG law and its amendments, 2014 law reform, goals, direct selling, bids solicitation, self-consumer EEG contribution, exemptions redesigning), the energy-mix comparison between Germany and France, the 2003-2013 evolution of the renewable power generation, the German photovoltaic and wind power parks (installed power, geographical distribution, capacity), and the evolution of electricity prices for the industry and for households between 1998 and 2013

  11. Radioactive waste management in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The technologies developed in West Germany for radioactive waste management are widely reviewed. The first topic in this review paper is the disposal of low- and middle-level radioactive liquid wastes. Almost all these liquid wastes are evaporated, and the typical decontamination factor attained is 10/sup 4/ -- 10/sup 6/. The second topic is the solidification of residuals. Short explanation is given to bituminization and some new processes. The third topic is high-level liquid wastes. Degradation of glass quality due to various radiation is discussed. Embedding of small glass particles containing radioactive wastes into metal is also explained. Disposals of low-level solid wastes and the special wastes produced from reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication are explained. Final disposal of radioactive wastes in halite is discussed as the last topic. Many photographs are used to illustrate the industrial or experimental use of those management methods.

  12. Organisation of scientific research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezhnaya Galina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the structure of research system in Germany. It describes the federal and state levels of research management. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF bears primary responsibility for science and technology policy at the federal level. At the state level, this responsible is shared by the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Economy. The author emphasizes the role of the National Academy of Sciences “Leopoldina”, whose principal objective is to provide advisory services to German policymakers and present German science at the international level. Special attention is paid to the wide spectrum of German research agents: public and private research organizations, higher education institutions, R&D departments of industrial companies. The article stresses the research potential of universities that receive funding under the Excellence Initiative and describes the contribution of production in research and development activities, focusing on the top ten German companies in terms of R&D expenditure.

  13. Nuclear air cleaning activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1991-01-01

    The discussion is limited to nuclear air cleaning activities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Work is underway on containment venting with regard to filtration based on a combination of stainless steel roughing and fine filters with a decontamination factor similar to or better than that achieved with high-efficiency particulate air filters. The main point of interest is the development of relatively small filter units that can be located inside the containment. The concept of a new design for double containment having annular rooms between the steel containment and the concrete containment is discussed. Work related to the dismantling of decommissioned reactors and limited research for fuel reprocessing facilities are also noted

  14. Energy transition: how is Germany doing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In this book the author comments and discusses the content, successes and failures, uncertainties and consequences of the new German energy policy, Energiewende. The objective is to reach 80 to 95 per cent of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 while phasing out nuclear. The author denies some statements about this policy. Some say that coal will replace nuclear as in fact renewable electricity production more than compensates the reduction of nuclear electricity production. Others say that Germany will have to import French nuclear electricity as in fact France must import German electricity in case of peak consumptions. Others say that German electricity became more expensive: it's true but it is in fact compensated by much higher energy savings. Remaining issues are the financing of nuclear plant dismantling and of nuclear waste management, the organisation of a decentralised production network, and the passage to renewable energies in the heating and transport sectors

  15. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  16. Neuer Atheismus: New Atheism in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zenk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Knutzen (born 1646 – died after 1674 was the first author we know of who self-identified as an atheist (Schröder 2010: 8. Before this, the term had solely been used pejoratively to label others. While Knutzen is almost completely forgotten now, authors such as Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, or Sigmund Freud are better remembered and might even be considered classic writers in the history of the atheist criticism of religion. Whatever may be said about the influence of any one of these authors, there is no doubt that Germany looks back on a notable history in this field. About a decade ago, Germany’s capital Berlin was even dubbed ‘the world capital of atheism’ by the American sociologist Peter L. Berger (2001: 195.Given this situation, I am bewildered by the expression ‘New Atheism’. Yet, undoubtedly, the term has become a catchphrase that is commonly used in the public discourse of several countries. The most prominent authors to be labelled ‘New Atheists’ are Richard Dawkins (The God Delusion, 2006, Daniel Dennett (Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon, 2006, Sam Harris (The End of Faith: Religion, Terror, and the Future of Reason, 2004, and Letter to a Christian Nation, 2006, and Christopher Hitchens (God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Every­thing, 2007. These authors and their books – all of them international bestsellers – have been intensely discussed around the world, including in Germany. In this paper, I intend to illuminate some of the characteristics and remarkable traits of the German discourse on the ‘New Atheism’. Here we can distinguish between two phases. The German media initially characterised ‘New Atheism’ as a rather peculiarly American phenomenon. However, it soon came to be understood to be a part of German culture as well.

  17. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  18. Germany's climate policy: Facing an automobile dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gössling, Stefan; Metzler, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Germany has one of the most ambitious climate policy goals worldwide, having pledged to reduce national emissions by 40% by 2020, and 80–95% by 2050 (base year: 1990). 2015 data suggests that progress on decarbonisation has slowed, also because emissions from the transport sector have grown. Road transport, which is contributing 20.5% to Germany's CO_2 emissions, has become a major obstacle to achieving the country's policy goals. This paper analyses energy use from road transport in order to provide a better understanding of emissions from this sub-sector. Data is derived from representative longitudinal household surveys as well as mobility and fuel diaries for the period 2002–2015. Analysis reveals significant growth in energy-inefficient car choices, as well as considerable differences in mobility patterns (distances driven, driving styles) and actual fuel consumption between car segments. Findings suggest that German transport policies will fail to deliver significant emission reductions if complexities in car model choices and use patterns are ignored. Both command-and-control and market-based measures will be needed to align the transport sector with climate goals, while persisting policy inconsistencies will also have to be addressed. Findings are of central relevance for EU-wide and global climate policy in the transport sector. - Highlights: • Emissions from German road transport have remained constant between 1990 and 2015. • Non-progress on transport decarbonisation is barrier to national mitigation goals. • Analysis shows that wide range of complexities are overlooked by government. • Policies need to consider car fleet segmentation and driving patterns. • Command-and-control as well as market-based measures needed.

  19. Strategy for decommissioning of NPP's in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittscher, D.; Sterner, H.

    2003-01-01

    According to German Atomic Law, two different strategies are possible, i.e. direct dismantling and safe enclosure before dismantling. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. Taking into account the site and plant specific conditions the optimal strategy can be evaluated. Both approaches have been applied in Germany in the past. The German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Ordinance (June 2002) were adapted recently (July 2002). Additionally, the life operation time of the German NPP's was fixed in a new law (April 2002): Orderly Termination of the Commercial Production of Nuclear Electricity. These issues have made it necessary for the power utilities to review the strategies applied. As long as the final disposal in Germany is still an open issue, the construction of local Interim Stores is necessary to be able to dismantle a NPP. The basic strategies are not excluding each other and it seems clear today, that the optimal approach is a combination of these strategies, e.g. dismantling of all auxiliary systems and leaving activated parts for a longer SE period. Within this approach the advantages of both basic strategies have been integrated in one. The EWN GmbH has developed such integrated but still different approaches for the decommissioning projects of the Kernkraftwerke Greifswald (KGR) and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) Juelich. It can be stated that the decommissioning of a NPP does not present technical issues of concern, but is more a project management issue, although surrounded by sometime intricate political and juridical boundary conditions. A major strategy change is to be expected only when final disposal capacities are available in the future. (authors)

  20. Reflexions on Urban Gardening in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gustedt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany. The focus is on forms of gardening, that take place in spaces subject to land lease agreements and similar forms of tenancy or of illegal land take or squatting. The author examines various definitions taking into account the variety of practices, the development of urban gardening over time, and the respective backgrounds or values that users relate to such gardening activities. The examination of definitions led to the drawing up of a timeline of traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany and to the tentative approaching of this issue from a semantic perspective. The latter is due to the usage of many different terms mostly as yet undefined in a legal sense. Translation into English or, most likely, to any other language, further blurs the common understanding of the terms used. The author concludes with some considerations on these gardening movements in relation to urban sustainable developments. A presentation at the 5th Rencontres Internationals de Reims on Sustainability Studies, dedicated to Urban Agriculture – Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum, which took place in October 2015 in Reims/France was the starting point of this article. The basis of this article is a literature review, nourished to a certain extent by observations randomly made over many years and complemented through talks with competent young colleagues. Special thanks go to Martin Sondermann, Leibniz University Hannover, who shared his research experience in various discussions with the author, as well as to Friederike Stelter, internship student at the author’s place of work, who gave highly appreciated support to the preparation of the presentation.

  1. Persistent Educational Advantage Across Three Generations: Empirical Evidence for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ziefle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP to analyze the persistence of educational attainment across three generations in Germany. I obtain evidence of a robust effect of grandparents' education on respondents' own educational attainment in West Germany, net of parental class, education, occupational status, family income, parents' relationship history, and family size. I also test whether the grandparent effect results from resource compensation or cumulative advantage and find empirical support for both mechanisms. In comparison, the intergenerational association between grandparents' and respondents' education is considerably weaker in East Germany and is also mediated completely by parental education. There are hardly any gender differences in the role of grandparents for respondents’ educational attainment, except for the fact that resource compensation is found to be exclusively relevant for women’s attainment in both West Germany and in East Germany after German reunification and the associated transition to an open educational system.

  2. Interrelationships between mortality and fertility in Germany: rural and urban Prussia and modern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entorf, H; Zimmermann, K F

    1990-01-01

    "The paper investigates the interrelationship between fertility and infant mortality and its economic determinants by time-series methods for historical and modern Germany. It is studied whether the causal effects of infant mortality on fertility have to be considered as hoarding or replacement, and whether the costs of nutrition have an influence on family decision making about demographic variables. Results show that there are indications for replacement motives, and that economic factors matter." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) excerpt

  3. GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY SUPREME AUDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobre Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall progress recorded in contemporary society, has increased at the same time the aspirations and expectations of the population, marked by phenomena which are based on the financial policy of the Executive. Of course, for the legislature to know the financial activity carried out by the Executive Board, in each State was established a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI, whose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution, as it is in Germany, or by law, as is the case of the United Kingdom. The variety of powers of supreme audit, is the result of various economic areas, each demonstrations through specific activities and suitable approaches to organizational cultures, which gives them their distinct identities. The work is conducted under the public responsibility with an emphasis on developing and improving continuously audit methodologies to present best practices. The two supreme institutions operate according to an annual plan of action which includes financial audit or regularity and performance auditing actions, and additional Federal Court of Audit of Germany practice preventive control institutions contained in its area of activity. By tradition, the role of supreme consists of the evaluation as regards the legality and regularity of financial management and accounting, but since the 80's but it was noticeable trend internationally to audit performance or "value for money" (United Kingdom, since the latter refers to the essence of the problem and is the final attainment of the envisaged at the time of allocation of resources. The topic researched is distinguished by originality, marked being the fact that a area so important as that of external public audit is least known works, and I wish to point out the vacuum bibliographic Supreme Audit Institutions experience in the international arena and beyond. Research methodology consists in the evaluation of resources in the area, using foreign literature. For the study of the subject of

  4. Study tour to biomass gasifiers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoef, H.A.M.

    2000-12-01

    A study trip to a biomass gasification plant in Germany took place from 13-15 November 2000. The goal of the trip was to obtain information on German developments, experience, and possibilities in the field of biomass gasification. The participants were representatives of Dutch parties in the energy sector: waste sector, manufacturers, producers, policy makers and consultants. The most important feature was the visit to plants that were in operation. Due in particular to the new EEG (Emeuerbare-Energien-Gesetz/Renewable Energy) legislation, German policy makers have created an initial market for sustainable energy with a degree of success. The key feature is that EEG makes projects 'bankable' by guaranteeing a return delivery compensation. An EEG-type scheme designed to accelerate the development of sustainable energy could be an interesting instrument also for the Netherlands. The plan was to visit four plants and have a number of presentations in a period of three days. Preference was for relatively new plants with differing concepts. The following plants were visited and/or presented: 200-kWe CHP wood gasification plant, based on AHT technology, located at Domsland in Eckenfoerde; a 10,000 tonnes/year wood gasification plant, based on 'cupola furnace' technology of blast furnaces, located at Holzhausen near Leipzig; a 1-MWe wood gasification plant, based on Carbo-V technology, located at Freiberg; and finally a 23-MWe CBP wood gasification plant, also based on Juch technology, located at Siebenlehn. In clearly appears that Germany is ahead of the Netherlands in the realisation of gasification plants. Still, there are certain problems with the reliability of operation. The plants selected were relatively new (with the possible exception of Espenhain) and they are having too many teething problems. Sound insight has been obtained into the various concepts of decentralised energy generation from biomass and how this can be fitted into the existing infrastructure

  5. Rules of political communication in the pre-war Soviet countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Merl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author aims to debunk the Soviet official myth of local administration as being weak and not functioning effectively. The Soviet regime could not function in the way it pretended to, and the official picture of the economy was far from the reality though played a central role in the political discourse for the aims of legitimacy. The command economy actually functioned as a symbiosis of commands and threats ‘from above’ and corrupt practices of the majority of people including officials. However, this symbiosis worked quite successfully in industry ensuring impressive rates of growth, but not in agriculture and rural areas. Certainly, the kolkhoz system also combined severe control and treats with tolerance to corrupt practices condemned in the official slogans so as to save people from starvation. However, in the countryside the myth that rural administration was weak and wrongdoing proved to be the strongest basis of the regime for it corresponded to the firm conviction of rural people and traditional expectations that Stalin would pursue the paternalist rule as a “good tsar” by punishing local officials (as scapegoats and by removing them from office (after blaming them for regime’s shortcomings as incompetent managers. To keep people from protests und rebellions the rural officials’ task was not only to use force and intimidation during the campaigns, but also to look away allowing the kolkhozniki from time to time to betray the state as compensation. Thus, the Soviet rural administration fulfilled its functions set by the regime, such as ensuring political communication for the aims of the faith in the legitimacy of the political rule. The author also considers a vertical channel of communication between the people and the regime - petitions to the ruler. Soviet people were encouraged to write letters including complaints to “bargain” personal dissatisfaction. Soviet peasants considered such a communication as a privilege and a part of the paternalist rule. For the regime, the most important function of such letters was preventing local protests by the timely reaction so as not to let the dissatisfaction to reach a critical level. Peasant letters became an additional means of control over rural officials that put limits to their arbitrariness.

  6. Facilitating Workplace Learning and Change: Lessons Learned from the Lectores in Pre-War Cigar Factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marie-Line; Grenier, Robin S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to describe the lectores (readers) who read the world news and works of literature to workers in pre-World War II cigar factories in Tampa, Florida, and in New York City. The paper addresses the need for more examination of some neglected aspects of workplace learning by presenting a more critical approach to workplace…

  7. Militant atheism as the government policyduring the pre-war period in the Orenburg (Chkalov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SHUBKIN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the anti-religious actions of the Soviet authority, its methods and forms in the Orenburg (Chkalov region during the last fi ve years before the war. Ithighlights people’s lives reorganization according to the communist model, parish closing in the towns and in the country. It gives the facts about the violent destruction of the Orenburg eparchy church property, believer oppositiontothe Soviet authority in pursuit of their interests, repression againstchurchmen and laypeople that ended with the church organization destruction in the territory of Orenburg regionand the Orenburg eparchy liquidation as a structural unit of the Russian Orthodox Church. The article introducesbelievers’ secretchurch life in the religious persecution conditions.It examines conventuals’ life inclosed monasteries of the Orenburg eparchy in diff erent Orenburgcommunitiesand investigates the activityof the Militant Atheists Union (MAU in the regional and local levels. The publication describes the activity carried out by the central authorities of the MAU, with the aim to enliven the anti-religious campaigningamong the population before the Second World War beginning. The regional Militant Atheists Union authority tried to cover the whole territory of the region with its local organizations, but this attempt failed fi nally. The authorshows the data of the Militant Atheists Union conferences and gives the examples of the anti-religious propaganda in diff erent work collectives and educational establishments. Finally the publicationhighlightsthe anti-religious agitation in the local and regional newspapers and explores themes of the anti-religious articles published in them over the last fi ve years before the war.

  8. Market value-oriented gas pricing in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eimermacher, T.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany, natural gas faces stiff competition from other types of energy. In many applications, natural gas is capable of replacing other fuels. In addition there is a growing gas-to-gas competition in some European countries, either through pipeline construction by a competitor as in Germany or by mandatory third-party access as in UK. Competition leads to market value-oriented energy pricing, which is particularly evident in Germany. For the consumer, this competitive situation ensures that natural gas can be obtained (and remains available in the long term) at competitive prices

  9. [Research funding for rare diseases in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, Frank; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2017-05-01

    There is high need for more research in the field of rare diseases. Not only must the causes and mechanisms of the numerous and often heterogeneous diseases be delineated, but criteria must also be defined for optimal stratification of patients for individualized therapies. In this context, research and innovative diagnostics are linked together more closely than in other fields of medicine. The early stages of disease-oriented research can be performed in individual institutions but, due to low numbers of patients, late translation and transfer into clinics requires multicentric and international collaboration. In Germany research on rare diseases takes place mostly in faculties of medicine at universities. Since the institutional financial support is very low, research grants have substantial significance. The German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are the main grant agencies for national projects, but foundations and patient advocacy groups also finance research to a certain extent. The ERA-Net "E-Rare" and the programs of the EU target primarily international cross-border projects and patient trials. All of these programs need to be adapted more efficiently to the particular needs of rare disease research. For national and international research projects on rare diseases, sufficient funds are needed but also sustainable interdisciplinary platforms and centers must be established in order to share expert knowledge and to implement complex programs such as proof-of-concept studies in humans.

  10. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  11. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  12. Federal Republic of Germany: Commodities report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) has compiled the facts and figures in a commodities report for 25 years. This report summarises Germany's mineral and energy commodities trading, consumption and supply situation. After fears of shortages in the early 70s, this 25-year-period was mainly characterised by the feeling that mineral resources would always be available on the international markets in adequate quantities. And although there has been no change in the situation even up to the present day, the world markets for mineral resources are currently undergoing a structural change: the old rule of thumb that 20% of humanity in Europe, the USA and Japan consumed more than 80% of resource production is no longer valid. With India, the People's Republic of China, not to mention other heavily populated emerging countries, over half of the world's population is now involved in the demand for minerals. This means that the growth in world economic demand for natural resources is at the beginning of a new growth curve. (orig.)

  13. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  14. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klüter Helmut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  15. Country policy profile - Germany. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The German Government has initiated a long-term transformation of the entire energy system termed Energiewende. Besides the gradual phase-out of nuclear energy by 2022, one substantial element is the complete overhaul of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). On 1 August 2014 the EEG 2014 entered into force, representing a fundamental revision of the existing support scheme for renewable electricity, primarily for PV, wind and biomass. Beyond, Germany decided to phase out nuclear power from its generation mix by 2022 and to increase its share of renewable energy to 40-45% by 2025 and 55-60% by 2035. Renewable electricity is still supported through feed-in tariffs laid down in the EEG 2014 and low interest loans but from now on complemented by tendering procedures over the coming years. Renewable heating and cooling is supported by the regulations in the Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWaermeG), the Market Incentive Programme (MAP) governed by the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA) and low-interest loans offered via the KfW. Numerous support schemes are available for renewable heat on state (Laender) level. Renewable transport fuels are mainly supported by a quota system (bio-fuels Quota Act = Biokraftstoffquotengesetz - BiokraftQuG), and through fiscal regulation

  16. [The quality of chronic care in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Birgit; Nolte, Ellen; Erler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Over the last ten years changes in the legal framework of the German health care system have promoted the development of new health service models to improve chronic care. Recent innovations include the nation-wide introduction of disease management programmes (DMPs), integrated care contracts, community nurse programmes, the introduction of General Practitioner (GP)-centred care contracts, and new opportunities to offer interdisciplinary outpatient care in polyclinics. The aim of this article is to describe the recent developments regarding both the implementation of new health care models by statutory health insurance companies and their evaluation. As part of a European project on the development and validation of disease management evaluation methods (DISMEVAL), we carried out a selective literature search to identify relevant models and evaluation studies. However, on the basis of the currently available evaluation and study results it is difficult to judge whether these developments have actually led to an improvement in the quality of chronic care in Germany. Only for DMPs, evaluation is legally mandatory; its methods are inappropriate, though, for studying the effectiveness of DMPs. Further study results on the effectiveness of DMPs mostly focus on the DMP Diabetes mellitus type II and show consistent improvements regarding process parameters such as regular routine examinations, adherence to treatment guidelines, and quality of life. More research will be needed to determine whether DMPs can also help reduce the incidence of secondary disease and mortality in the long term. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Head, Jason J; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Hilger, André; Wuttke, Michael; Reisz, Robert R

    2011-05-19

    Amphisbaenia is a speciose clade of fossorial lizards characterized by a snake-like body and a strongly reinforced skull adapted for head-first burrowing. The evolutionary origins of amphisbaenians are controversial, with molecular data uniting them with lacertids, a clade of Old World terrestrial lizards, whereas morphology supports a grouping with snakes and other limbless squamates. Reports of fossil stem amphisbaenians have been falsified, and no fossils have previously tested these competing phylogenetic hypotheses or shed light on ancestral amphisbaenian ecology. Here we report the discovery of a new lacertid-like lizard from the Eocene Messel locality of Germany that provides the first morphological evidence for lacertid-amphisbaenian monophyly on the basis of a reinforced, akinetic skull roof and braincase, supporting the view that body elongation and limblessness in amphisbaenians and snakes evolved independently. Morphometric analysis of body shape and ecology in squamates indicates that the postcranial anatomy of the new taxon is most consistent with opportunistically burrowing habits, which in combination with cranial reinforcement indicates that head-first burrowing evolved before body elongation and may have been a crucial first step in the evolution of amphisbaenian fossoriality.

  18. Energy transition: how is Germany doing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    This book is an updated edition of the previous version from 2015. In this book the author comments and discusses the content, successes and failures, uncertainties and consequences of the new German energy policy, Energiewende. The objective is to reach 80 to 95 per cent of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 while phasing out nuclear. The author denies some statements about this policy. Some say that coal will replace nuclear as in fact renewable electricity production more than compensates the reduction of nuclear electricity production. Others say that Germany will have to import French nuclear electricity as in fact France must import German electricity in case of peak consumptions. Others say that German electricity became more expensive: it's true but it is in fact compensated by much higher energy savings. Remaining issues are the financing of nuclear plant dismantling and of nuclear waste management, the organisation of a decentralised production network, and the passage to renewable energies in the heating and transport sectors

  19. International design competition - Formula student Germany; Internationaler Konstruktionswettbewerb - Formula Student Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van; Siebenpfeiffer, W. (eds.)

    2007-11-15

    Following its great success last year, Formula Student Germany made an even more impressive impact at the second competition held at the Hockenheimring in 2007. This time, 1400 students from 14 nations came together to present the results of their development work to 5000 visitors and sponsors. At the end, the competition was won by the team from the University of Stuttgart - and ATZ/MTZ would like to congratulate them on their victory. The special character of Formula Student, however, means that everyone has something to celebrate. The enthusiasm and commitment of the teams not only resulted in exciting racing cars and innovative overall designs but also in a fantastic atmosphere. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syllus, C.

    1989-01-01

    The Brazil-Federal Republic of Germany Cooperation Agreement for constructing nuclear power plants, and the process of nuclear tecnology transfer in the different areas of design, are discussed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Germany versus the United States: Monetary Dominance in the Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Heong Quah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study inspects if there is greater convergence with Germany amongst the Eurozone founding members and if their relations with the hegemonic economy have been more symmetrical after “euroization”. The dimensions explored are those inspired by the optimum currency areas (OCA framework. To some extent, the findings could signify if real convergence has been significantly endogenous. At the same time, to assess the relative dominance of Germany, the features against Germany are compared to those against US. In addition, the paper also appraises some aspects of economic performance to check whether economic conditions across the states have improved and converged after unification. In some convergence aspects, findings suggest remarkable convergence with Germany and across the states but also relative convergence with US. On economic performance, results indicate substantial improvements in inflation and unemployment. Amongst the founding states, Ireland has idiosyncratically shown serious divergences in a number of the convergence and performance measures.

  2. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  3. Tax wedge in Croatia, Belgium, Estonia, Germany and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabrilo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the taxation of labour income in Croatia, Belgium,Estonia, Germany and Slovakia. Having presented an outline of tax system rules, the paper shows the decomposition of the net average tax wedge for different family types and different income levels based on the OECD methodology. The results show that all observed countries apply a progressive tax schedule, apart from Germany where taxation for higher gross wages is not progressive due to a  cap on the SIC base. When it comes to a taxpayer earning an average gross wage, a Croatian single worker without children has the lowest tax burden, followed by Estonia, Slovakia, Germany and Belgium. However, as regards taxpayers earning 400% of AGW, Estonia has the smallest tax wedge, followed by Slovakia, Germany, Croatia and Belgium. Similar results are obtained by analyzing the tax wedge for couples with two children where one spouse is out of work.

  4. Redundancy proves its worth in FR Germany [emergency power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of loss of power events at nuclear power stations in FR Germany has confirmed the data used in the German risk study and underlined the advantages of providing a high degree of redundancy in emergency power supplies. (author)

  5. NP issues in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.

    1994-01-01

    Status of nuclear energy production in Federal Republic of Germany is presented. Measures to qualify continuing operation of nuclear power plants and research activities on reactor materials aging studying are described

  6. Are CSR disclosures relevant for investors? Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Gamerschlag, R.; Möller, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether narrative corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures (the provision of textual information on companies’ environmental and social performance to external stakeholders) are associated with firm value in Germany.

  7. Germany, Japan and the De-Baathification of Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porch, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    ... since the occupations of Japan and Germany at the end of World War II." These plans include trials for Saddam's "key" senior officials, backed by a "truth and reconciliation" process to "publicly shame but not necessarily punish, human rights violators...

  8. The School-HE Interface in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithals, F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the concerns and problems associated with the secondary school-higher education interface in West Germany. Reviews reform efforts and attempts at problem resolution with specific emphasis on physics instruction. (ML)

  9. Albedo neutron dosimetry in Germany: regulations and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Zimbal, A.; Busch, F.; Jordan, M.; Eichelberger, A.; Engelhardt, J.; Martini, E.; Figel, M.; Haninger, T.; Frasch, G.; Guenther, K.; Seifert, R.; Rimpler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Personal neutron dosimetry has been performed in Germany using albedo dosemeters for >20 y. This paper describes the main principles, the national standards, regulations and recommendations, the quality management and the overall performance, giving some examples. (authors)

  10. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  11. The extent and impact of outsourcing: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Craig P. Aubuchon; Subhayu Bandyopadhyay; Sumon Bhaumik

    2012-01-01

    The authors use data from several sources, including plant-level data from the manufacturing sector in Germany, to expand the literature on outsourcing. They find that, in Germany, the extent of outsourcing among manufacturing industries is higher than among service industries and that the outsourcing intensity of these industries did not change much between 1995 and 2005. They also find a statistically significantly positive impact of industry-level outsourcing intensity on German plant-leve...

  12. Inequality-adjusted gender wage differentials in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Selezneva, Ekaterina; Van Kerm, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This paper exploits data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) to re-examine the gender wage gap in Germany on the basis of inequality-adjusted measures of wage differentials which fully account for gender differences in pay distributions. The inequality-adjusted gender pay gap measures are significantly larger than suggested by standard indicators, especially in East Germany. Women appear penalized twice, with both lower mean wages and greater wage inequality. A hypothetical risky inve...

  13. The costs of coexistence on farms in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten J.; Venus, Thomas J.; Wesseler, Justus H H

    2017-01-01

    for farmers in their cultivation decisions, and therefore it is important to measure these costs. In this article, we investigate the costs of different coexistence measures for farmers in Germany. Currently, GM crop cultivation is outlawed in Germany, but there was a short period from 2005-2008 when...... that there are important differences in farm characteristics and overall landscape configuration that influence the costs or burden of coexistence measures....

  14. Comparisons in good and bad: criminality in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, H H

    1994-12-16

    In the field of criminological comparison, Japan and Germany are very suitable subjects. A nearly identical penal law and a social structure of highly developed industrial societies after a complete destruction at the end of World War War II give a good match. At first sight, Japan's crime rate is less than 1/4 of that in Germany. The impact of organised crime on the reduction of general crime is discussed.

  15. Precaution against radioactive contamination of steel products in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewers, E.; Schulz-Klemp, V.; Steffen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Regulations for handling of radioactive materials in Germany. Engagement of the Germany Iron and Steel Institute (VDEh) since the end of the eighties and measures taken. Level of radioactivity in uncontaminated steel products. Agreements between steel industry and scrap supplying industry as well as terms of delivery. Actual status of equipment for detection of radioactivity in the German steel plants. Demands of steel users for clean steel. (author)

  16. The role of Germany in resolving the ukrainian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena L. Hilchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the participation of Germany in the matter of the Ukrainian crisis 2013-2015 and presents some approaches to the definition of the term «Ukrainian crisis». Reveals the reasons that lead Germany to take an active position in solving the Ukrainian question. Characterized the evolution of German-Russian relations from 90s to 2014, within which examined the St. Petersburg dialogue, «Pact of Putin-Schroeder», «Weimar triangle», «Partnership for modernization», Russian-Georgian conflict 2008. Available analysis of the new strategy of German foreign policy in 2012 «to support globalization – develop partnerships to share responsibility» and a new paradigm of German foreign policy presented in 2014 in the framework of the Munich conference on security policy. Examines the role of Germany in the European integration process of Ukraine during the Euromaidan events, the signing of the Association Agreement of Ukraine with the EU, ratification and future prospects of the enlargement of the European Union through the Eastern partnership countries. Presents the results of the public opinion of the population of Germany on this issue. Analyzes the position of the Germany government regarding the annexation of Crimea, the illegal referendum in Donetsk and Lugansk regions and the military aggression of Russian Federation against Ukraine. Presents description of the Germany role in the process of the diplomatic settlement of the military conflict in the East Ukraine in the framework of Norman four. On the example of polls are considered the public opinion of the population of Germany concerning possible ways of settlement the Ukrainian crisis. Presents the official position of the President of the Federal Republic of Germany. J. Gauck, Chancellor Merkel, Foreign Minister Frank-V. Steinmeier and Minister of Finance Schaeuble on certain issues of the Ukrainian crisis and the prolongations of sanctions against the Russian Federation

  17. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  18. Transport of radioactive waste in Germany - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1995-01-01

    The transport of radioactive waste is centralised and coordinated by the German Railway Company (Deutsche Bahn AG, DB) in Germany. The conditioning of radioactive waste is now centralised and carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Nucklear Service (GNS). The Germany Railway Company, DB, is totally and exclusively responsible for the transport, the GNS is totally and exclusively responsible for the conditioning of radioactive waste. The German Railway Company transports all radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, conditioning facilities and the existing intermediate storage facilities in Germany. In 1992 nearly 177 shipments of radioactive waste were carried out, in 1991 the total amount was 179 shipments. A brief description of the transport procedures, the use of different waste packages for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation and the transport routes within Germany will be given. For this purpose the inspection authorities in Germany have used a new documentation system, a special computer program for waste flow tracking and quality assurance and compliance assurance, developed by the electrical power companies in Germany. (Author)

  19. [The situation of complementary medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the amendment of the German Medicinal Products Act in 1976 and the inclusion of naturopathy and homeopathy into the German Medical Licensure Act from 1988, the German government set up a comparatively favorable framework for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). But no comprehensive integration into the academic operating systems followed, because the universities as well as the legislative body seemed to have no further interest in CAM. Therefore, research projects in the field and suitable professorships had and still have to be financed by third-party funds. Notwithstanding the success of several CAM-projects, no sustainable development could be established: When the third-party funding runs off and the protagonists retire the institutional structures are supposed to vanish as well. Although the public demand for CAM is high in Germany, the administration detached homeopathy as a compulsory subject from the German Medical Licensure Act in 2002 and restricted severely the refunding of naturopathic medicines by the statutory health insurance in 2004. Moreover, the trend for CAM bashing takes root in the media. Unfortunately the CAM scene does not close ranks and is incapable to implement fundamental data collection processes into daily clinical routine: A wide range of data could justify further efforts to the government as well as to the scientific community. To say something positive, it must be mentioned that the scientific standard of CAM research is high for the most part and that third-party funded projects deliver remarkable results ever and on. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. [Quality of surgical continuing education in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorg, J; Hassan, I; Fendrich, V; Polonius, M J; Rothmund, M; Langer, P

    2005-03-11

    One of the reasons for young doctors to leave the clinical work to go abroad or into non-clinical fields is insufficient quality of training under bad circumstances. Aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical training in Germany from the viewpoint of the residents. A questionnaire was prepared by residents and consultants and approved by the German surgical societies (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie und Berufsverband der Deutschen Chirurgen). It was sent to surgical residents between June 2003 and June 2004, published in "Der Chirurg BDC" and distributed among residents taking part in courses conducted by the BDC. It could be answered anonymously by email, mail or online. The questionnaire was sent back by 584 surgical residents (about 30 % of all). 58 % of the residents declared that they finished the training in the intended time (6 years). Rotation-systems as part of a structured residency program existed for 43 %. Standard surgical procedures were discussed or explained before the procedure in only 46 %. 61 % of the residents were not satisfied with the teaching assistance by their clinical teachers in the OR. Only 33 % had regular talks with the Chief about their progress in surgical training. 18 % of residents felt, that the hospital is interested in their progress in training. Indication-conferences took place in 52 % and mortality-conferences in only 20 % of programs. Regular seminars on recent issues took place in 62 %, and 61 % of residents did not get financial support to attend congresses. 36 % of residents had to use their holidays to attend congresses. Surgical training structures are not well established in about 50 % of the training hospitals from where we got answers to our survey. The training potential of daily surgical work is not used appropriately. It is therefore imperative to develop guidelines for surgical training, the use of log-books and rotation-programs.

  1. The use of IMRT in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is frequently used, but there are no data about current frequency regarding specific tumor sites and equipment used for quality assurance (QA). An online survey about IMRT was executed from April to October 2014 by the collaborative IMRT working group (AK IMRT) of the German Association of Medical Physicists (DGMP). A total of 23 German institutions took part in the survey. Most reports came from users working with Elekta, Varian, and Siemens treatment machines, but also from TomoTherapy and BrainLab. Most frequent IMRT technology was volumetric modulated arc therapy (58.37 %: VMAT/''rapid arc''), followed by step-and-shoot IMRT (14.66 %), dynamic MLC (dMLC: 14.53 %), TomoTherapy (9.25 %), and 3.2 % other techniques. Different commercial hard- and software solutions are available for QA, whereas many institutes still develop their own phantoms. Data of 26,779 patients were included in the survey; 44 % were treated using IMRT techniques. IMRT was most frequently used for anal cancer, (whole) craniospinal irradiation, head and neck cancer, prostate cancer, other tumors in the pelvic region, gynecological tumors (except for breast cancer), and brain tumors. An estimated 10 % of all patients treated in 2014 with radiation in Germany were included in the survey. It is representative for the members of the AK IMRT. IMRT may be on the way to replace other treatment techniques. However, many scientific questions are still open. In particular, it is unclear when the IMRT technique should not be used. (orig.) [de

  2. Germany, an industrialized country, and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wartenberg, L. v.

    2001-01-01

    The question of the future of nuclear power in Germany, and the agreement between the federal government and industry of June 14, 2000 about the future operation of plants, are important far beyond the confines of this sector of industry. In times of economic globalization and of competition among national economies, questions of location have become key issues in meeting future challenges. For this purpose, there must be more freedom for the economy; entrepreneurial action must be regarded as a positive duty to be fulfilled by society. Personal responsibility and competition, with room for self-responsibility, must not be hampered further by interventions and red tape. This applies to all sectors of the economy, in particular to the power supply sector, as is borne out by the current debate about the quota regulations for cogeneration systems (CHP). Social justice, one of the most important unifying forces in this modern society, must be interpreted as solidarity. This solidarity must be sought also in an international context. Supplying the basic necessities to all inhabitants of this earth requires all sources of energy, also in the interest of achieving sustainability. This term should be interpreted, above and beyond its meaning in environmental protection, as a concept in all areas of politics, implying that the future must be taken into account in all decisions made today. In the light of the problems associated with establishing a worldwide sustainable power supply system, inter alia meeting the objectives of climate protection, continuity of supply, and economic viability, there is no way around nuclear power. Free decisions are required in the sense of sustainable economic management, and the political boundary conditions must be created for this to be possible. (orig.) [de

  3. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  4. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2014-01-01

    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion.

  5. Germany: Exposure of Transport Workers During the Transport of Most Frequently Transported NORM in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The German national report to this CRP was focused on the following services according to the research agreement: (1) Status review, analysis and evaluation of the radiation exposure imposed by shipment and expected exposure of the shipment staff of the most relevant NORM in Germany; (2) Development of evaluation criteria and safety requirements to provide adequate safety standards for the transportation of NORM; (3) Development and application of procedures to determine the limits for exempt materials/consignments for transportation according to German Transport Regulations for all NORM. For the analysis and evaluation of the radiation exposure imposed by shipment of NORM for the following materials, a couple of transport scenarios were defined and the dose to transport workers was calculated. - Tantalum raw materials; - Raw phosphate; - Pipe scales and sludge from oil and gas exploitation; - Coal ash; - Waste rock material from uranium mining; - Zircon raw materials; - Titanium dioxide raw materials; - Filter gravel from waterworks

  6. Three aspects of the Germany-France comparison on electricity. Electricity production and consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    As a comparative overview of the French and German situation regarding electric power, a first article proposes tables and graphs illustrating data evolution, and brief comments about these evolutions. Comparison focuses on household electricity consumption, on electricity exchanges, and on the production of electricity based on renewable energies. An appendix proposes a presentation of the German policy for energy transition: principles and objectives, phasing out nuclear, implementation. Then, an article, illustrated by data tables and graphs, discusses the evolution of electric power production and consumption in Germany between 2000 and 2013. The author addresses power final consumption, power total production and exchanges, the components of electric power production, and greenhouse gas emissions (by fossil fuel, by sector, and by electricity and heat production)

  7. Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany Functional approaches in translation studies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kussmaul

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for transposition, we are faced with a translation problem. In the early phase of translation studies in Germany, contrastive linguistics played a major role. I shall briefly describe this approach so that the functional approach will become clearer by contrast. Influenced by the representatives of stylistique comparée, Vinay/Darbelnet (1968 Wolfram Wilss, for instance, in his early work (1971, 1977 makes frequent use of the notion transposition (German “Ausdrucksverschiebung“, cf. also Catford’s (1965 term shift. As a whole, of course, Wilss’ work has a much broader scope. More recently, he has investigated the role of cognition (1988 and the various factors in translator behaviour (1996. Nevertheless, transposition is still a very important and useful notion in describing the translation process. The need for transpositions arises when there is no possibility of formal one-to-one correspondence between source and target-language structures. The basic idea is that whenever there is a need for

  8. Conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohrer, Philipp; Poize, Noemie; Hanus, Dominik; Hallmann, Dieter; Jourdain, Pierre; Ruehl, Martin; Bessiere, Patrick; Guyonnet-Duperat, Philippe; Foerster, Maelle; Partetzke, Matthias; Rumolino, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on participatory wind energy in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 150 participants exchanged views on the role and involvement of citizens in wind energy projects and raised the question of the prerequisite to the construction of a participatory wind farm. In this framework, the different participatory models existing in both countries were analysed, in particular with regard to their respective advantages and drawbacks and to a legal framework which remains to be defined. Four projects, 2 in France and 2 in Germany, were presented as examples. The call for proposals model was presented and debated as well as the question of the project success, and of its financing and profitability. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Community wind farms in Germany: status quo and forecast (Philipp Vohrer); 2 - Participatory projects in France: which legal solutions, which prospects for development? (Noemie Poize); 3 - Citizen owned wind farms and their legal forms in Germany: Advantages and challenges of the different schemes (Dominik Hanus); 4 - Make wind power profitable: Citizen participation in Germany and France/Make the energy transition together. The energy co-operative participation as a model in Germany (Dieter Hallmann); 5 - Power to the people - A new model for French wind energy. Beganne community-owned wind farm (Pierre Jourdain); 6 - Making wind power profitable: civic participation in Germany and France: German utility companies rely on wind power. Direct civic participation in the municipal utility company - democratization of the turnaround in energy policy (Martin Ruehl); 7 - French municipalities get involved: calls for projects (Patrick Bessiere); 8 - Crowd-funding - French regulatory framework (Philippe Guyonnet-Duperat, Maelle Foerster); 9 - Making wind energy

  9. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  10. Germany as an energy-producing country - quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, K.

    2003-01-01

    Secure, sufficient electricity supplies available at any time, as guaranteed in Germany, are vital to the existence of our modern society. Under the conditions of deregulated markets, it must continue to be possible in Germany to offer reliable, economical and non-polluting energy supplies. These three factors should enjoy equal importance in energy policy decisions in the interest of sustainability. The skewed balance caused by political preferences as experienced at the present time can jeopardize the general objective of optimization of the three factors in the long run. As in no other country, the power industry in Germany had to make a considerable adaptation effort, inter alia, because of market deregulation, airborne pollutant reduction, and agreements on the operating life of existing nuclear power plants. Other problems are likely to arise in the near future, e.g. in connection with emission trading. The power industry is willing and able to solve these future problems. This is true in particular of the expected replacement of power plants of approx. 40 000 MW generating capacity in Germany, where the European framework must be taken into account with a replacement requirement of approx. 200 000 MW. This implies investments of euro 50 billion in Germany alone, which can be made only if there is sufficient security in planning for the operators of power plants. The choice of efficient and economically viable power generation technologies must be possible in this respect. (orig.) [de

  11. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  12. Environment and economic growth in the federal republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, F.

    1998-01-01

    After several decades of economic growth with a continuous increase of energy consumptions, a new trend is now developing in Germany: reduction of energy consumptions and of pollutant emissions. This paper analyzes first the energy supplies of Germany (consumption, sources), the consumption by sector, and the share of the different energy sources in the German consumption (petroleum, coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable energies). In a second part, the German energy policy is presented with its priorities and actions regarding the environment protection: energy savings, development of renewable energy sources, reduction of automotive fuels consumption, rational use of energy, thermal insulation of buildings, financial incentives etc.. Finally, the forecasting of future energy consumption and pollutants emission trends in Germany and at the worldwide scale are evoked. (J.S.)

  13. HTGR type reactors in West Germany. Realizations and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauenert, U.

    1978-01-01

    The framework within which the research studies on high temperature reactors have been pursued in West Germany since 1960 is recalled. The principles guiding the present policy of the country in this domain are given: choice of a single technical conception that be applied both to reactors generating electricity and reactors producing high temperature heat for industrial processes such as coal gasification; to group the technical and industrial potentials of West Germany in this domain; financial and technical participation of electricity producers in the expected realizations; international cooperation. In this technique, West Germany is at present among the most advanced nations with the realization of a prototype 300 MWe reactor, financed by the electricity producers and a contribution of government [fr

  14. Extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nydahl, Peter; Knueck, Dirk; Egerod, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    in keeping ICU diaries. CONCLUSION: Six years after the introduction of ICU diaries, ICU nurses in Germany are becoming familiar with the concept. Nursing shortage and bureaucratic challenges have impeded the process of implementation, but the adaption of ICU diaries to German conditions appears......, newsletters, newspapers, lectures and publications in German nursing journals. AIM: The aim of the study was to update our knowledge of the extent and application of ICU diaries in Germany in 2014. DESIGN: The study had a prospective mixed methods multicenter design. METHOD: All 152 ICUs in the two German...... of Germany had implemented diaries and three units were planning to do so. Interviews were conducted with nurses at 14 selected ICUs. Informants reported successful adaption of the diary concept to their culture, but variability in application. No units were identified where all nursing staff participated...

  15. The photovoltaic sector in Germany, where does it go?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Opinion polls show that photovoltaic power is very popular in Germany. This sector employs about 130.000 people and although a lot of solar modules are imported from China, other components like current inverters are fabricated in Germany and as a whole the trade balance is positive and the export rate nears 50%. In 2011 Germany invested 25 billion euros in the photovoltaic sector and now about 5% of the consumed electricity is photovoltaic power. Photovoltaic power reached grid parity in february 2012 for some consumers and the German government decided to reduce the purchase tariff drastically which may jeopardize the aim of having a photovoltaic park of 51 GWc by 2020. (A.C.)

  16. "Great Technology, Football and...": Malaysian Language Learners' Stereotypes about Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Nikitina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on stereotypes about Germany, its culture and people, held by learners of German in a big public university in Malaysia. It examines not only the stereotypical representations of the target language country but also assesses its favourability and salience, which has not been done previously. The findings revealed that the students' stereotypes about Germany were varied and diverse. Also, they were overwhelmingly positive. The top three salient categories of images about Germany were related to technology, famous personalities - for the most part football players and scientists - and cars. The findings also indicated that very few references had been made to German culture and to its great cultural figures. The results of the present study suggest that students could benefit from a wider and deeper exposure to German culture in the language classroom.

  17. Regional cost differences of hospital supply in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauterbach, Karl W.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The intended adoption of a global reimbursement system for inpatient care in Germany envisions identical payments for identical treatments at different hospitals. This may lead to losses in some hospitals and may cause problems for the supply with health care facilities in the long run if there a important regional cost differences. Cost and performance data of 1112 hospitals in Germany have been analysed for regional differences in 2001: As regional categorizations we used official classification schemes based on centrality. The investigation does not support the postulation of additional payments for selected regions in Germany accounting for level cost-differences between hospitals. Confounding influence factors like ownership and hospital size seem to be more important. We recommend further investigations to evaluate regional cost-differences on the level of medical wards and using more risk-adjusted data. The examination of the individual case is necessary.

  18. ELEMENTS OF NEOCONSERVATISM IN THE CONTEMPORARY POLITICAL SOCIETY IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М С Ладыгин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phenomenon of strengthening neoconservative sentiments, i.e. neocon actors, in Germany. The paper analyzes the aims of three neoconservative actors in Germany: the party Alternative for Germany, the social movement PEGIDA and the “Identitarian movement”. It is found that all three parties have similar aims and their cooperation could lead to a serious strengthening of neocon positions both in society and on the political landscape. One of the conclusions of the article at hand is that it is too early to judge the party's ability to work as an established party. This conclusion is accompanied with the fact that the majority of those who voted for AfG were so called “protest voters”, hence they may prevent the return of the party in the next elections to the Bundestag.

  19. Duitsland en Maillol : een onderzoek naar de invloed van Aristide Maillol op de beeldhouwkunst in de eerste helft van de 20e eeuw in Duitsland in het bijzonder in de nazi periode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Gerardus Theodorus Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Aristide Maillol (1861-1944) was the most popular foreign sculptor in Germany from 1905 to 1944. German art dealers and critics introduced Maillol’s sculptures. Till 1933 these sculptures evoked in the chaotic German society a desire for the balanced and peaceful society of ancient Greece. Many

  20. Low Wage Mobility in Denmark, Germany and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette

    In this working paper, mobility out of low wage employment in Denmark, Germany, and the United States is studied. Data used for the analysis are the Danish Longitudinal Database – a representative sample of the Danish population, and the PSID-GSOEP Equivalent File Data. Mobility is analysed...... as the transition out of low wage in 1993 and 1995 respectively, conditional on low wage in 1992. The econometric model takes selection into low wage in 1992 into account, and results clearly state the importance. At the aggregate level, mobility patterns are similar in Denmark and Germany, while mobility...

  1. Germany: INIS — 45 years of Reliable Nuclear Energy Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, Silke; Eck, Sabrina; Mutschelknauss, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany has been an official INIS member since 1970. The first 78 citations from German publications can be found in Issue 2 of Volume 1 of the INIS Atomindex. At that time, the Zentralstelle für Atomenergie-Dokumentation (ZAED) was the INIS center in Western Germany. To ensure that the documentation on nuclear energy was directly serving the interests of researchers working in this field, the ZAED had been recently moved from Frankfurt to the neighborhood of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany’s most important nuclear research institution. After 1977, the ZAED, together with other documentation centers, was merged into what is today FIZ Karlsruhe. At the same time, publications from Eastern Germany were analyzed by the Staatliches Amt für Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz in Berlin from 1974 to 1989. After the German reunification, FIZ Karlsruhe became responsible for this. The share of German contributions made to the INIS database amounts to 7% of the total number of contributions. Germany has regularly ranked among the top 5 contributing Member States in the annual statistics. Regarding cooperation in INIS, Germany — represented by FIZ Karlsruhe and its predecessors — has always been actively involved, not only in contributing publications, but also in strategic planning, organization, and technical and subject matters throughout the past five decades. Germany was part of the INIS Study Team during the planning stage of INIS. Germany also hosted two ILO meetings in Karlsruhe: one in 1979 and one on the occasion of the 30th anniversary in 2000. Staff from various INIS centers worldwide often visit FIZ Karlsruhe in order to gain insight into our INIS production or to participate in internships and training sessions on workflow management, application of rules, and FIBRE usage. FIZ Karlsruhe’s many years of participation in the Voluntary Input Program, and the editing of input provided as a service to sometimes as many as 7

  2. Traffic Mortality in Germany Before, During, and After Reunification

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Flaura K.; Menon, Rajiv; Moll, Elisa K.; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Baker, Susan P.

    1999-01-01

    Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in late 1989, the combination of sudden wealth, sudden access to cars, and a flood of new young drivers had disastrous effects on East Germans. While motor vehicle occupant death rates decreased in West Germany, motor vehicle occupant death rates in East Germany surged upward. Between 1989 and 1991, the death rate increased for all age groups but was greatest for 18–20 year olds (from 5 to 54 deaths/100,000) and 21–24 year olds (from 5 to 44). Fatality ra...

  3. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  4. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  5. Comparison of Bioenergy Policies in Denmark and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Gerald; Noe, Egon; Saggau, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This chapter compares bioenergy policy developments in Germany and Denmark to better understand the responses of EU country policy regimes to global shocks; to examine potentially emerging new trends of productivist policy models; and to explore potential land use conflicts in the context...... of a multifunctional EU agricultural policy. Design/methodology/approach – The chapter reviews the bioenergy policy development pathways taken by Germany and Denmark, highlighting key consequences for agricultural land use and rural development. Findings from both case studies are then compared in summary tables...

  6. Unlimited - nuclear liabilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, W.

    1986-01-01

    Unlimited nuclear liabilities as in force in the Federal Republic of Germany go beyond the international rules of the Paris liability agreement. The unlimited liability mainly roots in the positive operational experiences and safety balance of the 20 nuclear power plants which meanwhile are in operation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nuclear liabilities must not be confounded with scepticism as to the utilization of nuclear power. Extraordinary requirements of that kind should rather be reflecting responsibility and clear ideas and notions of the advantages and risks of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  7. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The seismic data will serve as input parameters for the construction of sensitive industrial-scale facilities and also as basic data of the general specifications for building construction (DIN 4149, part 1: Building construction in seismic regions of West Germany; assumed loads, dimensioning and design of high structures). To give a better picture, the data are presented in the form of maps showing seismic regions in West Germany (including marginal regions) and world-wide. Definitions are presented in order to facilitate reading for non-experts. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Change in the financing scheme for radioactive waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svobodová, Tereza

    2018-01-01

    Financing radioactive waste management is an issue every country using nuclear power has to deal with. A European directive even makes this binding for Euratom Member States. Germany changed its financing scheme entirely during the past year, thereby moving closer to other states' schemes. Germany replaced the funds put aside by the operators with a public fund to which the companies contribute. Now it is the government that is responsible for radioactive waste. This paper describes the regulation and information collection system on the European level and analyses the former and current German systems, their advantages and potential hazards. (orig.)

  9. [Italian immigration into Imperial Germany up to World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincia, L

    1996-09-01

    "A rapid growth, both economic and industrial, of the German Empire during the last decade of the nineteenth century...produced a major switch in Germany's status from that of a country of emigration to a country of immigration.... The essay gives a concise description of the characteristics of Italian migration flows towards Germany, integration processes and chain migration patterns. The impact of immigration on the receiving country is...analyzed, both in terms of economic development and from a social, political and legal point of view." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  10. Nuclear power phaseout policy and the economic implications for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Germany's nuclear power phaseout policy and the expected consequences are discussed in this paper, referring to environmental aspects and Germany's international commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, implications for the national economy, the required structural transformation of the energy industry, and changes in the general legal setting for the energy sector. Proposals are discussed for modifying the planned nuclear power phaseout policy so as to make the process of winding down nuclear generation more compatible with economic, social, and environmental policy conditions. (orig./CB) [de

  11. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11{sup th} March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17{sup th} March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17{sup th} May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13{sup th} May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11{sup th} October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30{sup th} June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30{sup th} June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative

  12. EU stresstest national report of Germany. Implementation of the EU stress tests in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The European Council concluded in March 2011 that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk assessment (''stress test''). In addition to the European initiative, all countries with operating nuclear power plants indicated the performance of immediate safety reviews to take into account any lessons already learned or to be learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident of 11 th March 2011. The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) called upon the German Federal Government on 17 th March 2011 to conduct a comprehensive review of the safety requirements for the German nuclear power plants. The competent Federal Ministry asked its advisory body, the RSK, to perform this review. The findings of the RSK safety review were presented to the public on 17 th May 2011. For the European stress tests, ENSREG published the scope and modalities for comprehensive risk and safety assessments of EU nuclear power plants on 13 th May 2011. This ''Declaration of ENSREG'' determines the concept, methodology and time schedule of the EU stress test. Detailed requirements on content and structure of the reports and the planned peer reviews in 2012 were developed under the leadership of ENREG and agreed at its meeting on 11 th October 2011. The BMU as the federal regulator in Germany asked the Laender nuclear regulatory authorities to initiate the EU stress tests according to the ENSREG Declaration. A joint meeting of BMU, Laender authorities, expert organisations and the licensees of the German nuclear power plants took place on 30 th June 2011 to agree on the scope and the procedure of stress tests in Germany. It was also decided to take the 30 th June 2011 as the reference date for the plants in operation, regardless future decisions on the possible limitation of the operating time by amendment to the Atomic Energy Act which were in the legislative procedure at that time. The ''stress tests'' were started by all German

  13. Duty Rosters and Workloads of Obstetricians in Germany: Results of a Germany-wide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimann, Johannes; Knabl, Julia; Puppe, Julian; Bayer, Christian Michael; Gass, Paul; Gabriel, Lena; Seelbach-Goebel, Birgit; Lermann, Johannes; Schott, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    Compiling a daily hospital roster which complies with existing laws and tariff regulations and meets the requirements for ongoing professional training while also taking the legal regulations on the health of employees into account makes planning the duty roster a challenge. The aim of this study was to obtain a realistic picture of existing duty roster systems and of the current workloads of obstetricians in Germany. This online survey was sent to 2770 physicians training to become obstetricians or specializing in specific areas of obstetric care. The survey consisted of an anonymized 95-item questionnaire which collected data on different types of duty roster systems and the workload of obstetricians in Germany for the period from 17.02.2015 to 16.05.2015. Out of a total of 2770 physicians who were contacted, 437 (16%) completed the questionnaire. Across all forms of care, the care provided outside normal working hours usually (75%) consisted of a combination of regular working times and on-call duty or even consisted entirely of standby duty. Level I perinatal centers were most likely 20% (n = 88) to have a shift system in place. Working a shift system was significantly more common in care facilities which had previously carried out a job analysis. The number of physicians in hospitals who are present during the night shift was higher in facilities with higher numbers of births and in facilities which offered higher levels of care. In addition to regularly working overtime and the fact that often not all the hours worked were recorded, it was notable that the systems used to compile duty rosters often did not comply with legal regulations or with collectively agreed working hours nor were they compatible with the staff planning requirements. The results of this study show that the conditions of work, the working times, and the organization of working times in obstetric departments are in need of improvement. Recording the actual times worked together with an

  14. Not all fascisms are created equal: a comparative perspective on the politics of nationality in interwar Germany and Italy * Nem todos os fascismos são criados iguais: uma perspectiva comparada da política de nacionalidade na Alemanha e na Itália...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATIANA VARGAS MAIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The key objective of this article is to investigate, compare and contrast the specific politics of nationality developed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during the interwar period. More than just highlighting the inherent complexities that characterize the study of nationalisms, this comparative effort aims at shedding light on social, political and institutional dynamics that helped structure and motivate the choices and actions of the European Axis powers.Keywords: Nationalism; Fascism; Nazism; World War II; Interwar. Resumo: O principal objetivo deste artigo é investigar, comparar e contrastar as políticas específicas de nacionalidade desenvolvidas pela Itália Fascista e pela Alemanha Nazista durante o entreguerras. Além de destacar as complexidades inerentes que caracterizam o estudo dos nacionalismos, este esforço comparativo visa lançar luz sobre as dinâmicas sociais, políticas e institucionais que ajudaram a estruturar e motivar as escolhas e ações das potências europeias do Eixo.Palavras-chave: Nacionalismo; Fascismo; Nazismo; Segunda Guerra Mundial; Entreguerras.

  15. Problems of Economic Development in Reunified Germany. Retrospective Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gotz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Does Eastern Germany differ significantly from Western part in economic terms? How have new Bundeslnder been developing over past twenty years? How fast has East been catching up with West? What could have hampered convergence? How today are German states equipped with factors determining future growth? How the new Bundeslnder performed do compared with the old ones? This paper seeks to address above mentioned questions. It offers a comprehensive review of key economic developments of two decades of reunited Germany. Particularly it examines current economic landscape; investigates convergence processes taking place since reunification and tries to identify most likely impediments hampering full catching up. Finally, it aims at assessing contemporary growth potential of German states. With respect to the starting point poor performance of East Germany back in 1990 the progress made and results achieved are impressive. Though, comparing the situation with Western part of the country significant discrepancies continue to exist. Certainly, assessment of the last twenty years of reunited Germany hinges much upon perspective taken. Two decades after Berlin Wall Fall opinions on economic consequences of reunification are more balanced, since much has been achieved, but much still needs to be done.

  16. School Psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietzel, Gerd; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews origins and evaluation of the present status of school psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany, emphasizing strict separation of school tracks. Notes that system has been evolving into more flexible organizational structure in recent years. Discusses roles and functions of school psychology, administration, training, relationships…

  17. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henger, M.; Leydecker, G.

    1988-01-01

    The report summarizes the regional reports of the seismological observatories for the year 1983. There was no serious earthquake so far in the F.R.G. The data are presented in the form of maps showing the seismic centers in West Germany (including marginal regions). Explanations of seismological terminology and abbreviations used are given for the general reader. (DG) [de

  18. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  19. Generation choices as influenced by costs, risks and externalities -Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, L.

    1994-01-01

    Power generation in Germany is dealing with social acceptability, cost considerations, governmental decisions and protection legislation. In the future, political and sociological factors will become more and more important: social acceptability of the energy sources choice is the most significant factor decision as the future pattern of power generation. (TEC)

  20. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  1. Radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The earliest pottery in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany, was produced by the Final Mesolithic Ertebølle culture. Radiocarbon dating of food crusts on Ertebølle pottery indicated that ceramics from inland sites were substantially older than those from the coast. Therefore, a freshwater...

  2. Kids in Germany: Comparing Students from Different Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This unit of study, intended for intermediate grade students, focuses on comparing students from different cultures: Germany and the United States. The unit addresses National Social Studies Standards (NCSS) standards; presents an introduction, such as purpose/rationale; cites a recommended grade level; states objectives; provides a time…

  3. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  4. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  5. The Division of Household Labor in Germany and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Stier, Haya; Braun, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We compare the patterns of household division of labor in Germany and Israel--two countries that share key elements of the corporatist welfare regime but differ in their gender regimes--and evaluate several hypotheses using data from the 2002 International Social Survey Program. Although time constraints and relative resources affect the division…

  6. Sustainable supply of biogas in Germany; Nachhaltige Biogasbereitstellung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, Ronny [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany). Bereich Biogastechnologie; Ball, Thomas; Kiefer, Joachim [Technologiezentrum Wasser (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden; Dresen, Boris [Fraunhofer-Institut UMSICHT (Germany). Themenbereich Ressourcenmanagement; Koeppel, Wolfgang [DVGW-Forschungsstelle Karlsruhe (Germany). Gruppe Systeme und Netze

    2013-04-15

    The supply of certain substrates for biogas production is partly controversial discussed: 'Tank-or-plate' discussions, maize cultivation of the landscape and so forth. The research project 'Potential study for the sustainable production and supply of gaseous, renewable energy in Germany (Biogas Atlas)' examines the potentials of biogas production under consideration of various sustainability factors.

  7. Dental hygiene education in Germany: Between economics and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermanns, B; Petersilka, G J

    2017-08-30

    To date, there is still no IFDH approved dental hygienist (DH) education model in Germany. Nevertheless, opportunities to complete vocational DH education courses have substantially increased within the last two decades. However, the content and quality of these courses vary greatly and are difficult to survey. The purpose of this article therefore was to present an overview of the education programmes offered in Germany as of March 2017. A formal request was sent to all education establishments for details of such courses, and a systematic internet search was performed covering the DH education topic in Germany. Ten vocational education programmes were found, most of them organized by local dental chambers. One private provider offers a Bachelor Degree in Dental Hygiene on completion of a course which runs over 2 or 3 ys. Details of contents, objectives and concise ratings or comparisons of the various courses are scarce, although in principle all should meet the same quality standards. For dental hygiene students, patients and dentists, it is hard and unsatisfactory to get a clear overview of the types and the quality of DH education which can be achieved in Germany. A solution for this dilemma would appear to be essential. However, due to the peculiarities of German legislation as well as the complex sphere of vested interests, it is impossible to predict if or when the situation will change for the better. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  9. A Model for Intercultural Training for Study Abroad in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Yvonne A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an intercultural workshop designed for American students from the University of Rhode Island's International Engineering Program who are going to Germany to work and to study. The activities and goals of the workshop are explained. The outcomes and findings show that participation in the pre-departure intercultural workshop…

  10. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  11. Germany plans 60m euro physics and medicine lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2017-09-01

    A new €60m medical-physics research lab is to be built in Erlangen, Germany, by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPL) together with the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg and the University Hospital Erlangen.

  12. Community nursing in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, J. van der; Kramer, K.; Kerkstra, A.; Stevens, F.C.J.; Derksen, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains a comparative study on community nursing in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, carried out in the region around Maastricht, where the borders of the three countries meet. The well-known problem of comparative studies (the incomparability of concepts and data) has been solved

  13. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Climatic change in Germany. Development, consequences, risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasseur, Guy; Jacob, Daniela; Schuck-Zoeller, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The book on the climatic change in Germany includes contributions to the following issues: global climate projections and regional projections in Germany and Europe: observation of the climatic change in Central Europe, regional climate modeling, limits and challenges of the regional climate modeling; climatic change in Germany - regional features and extremes: temperature and heat waves, precipitation, wind and cyclones, sea-level increase, tides, storm floods and sea state, floods, definition uncertainties, draughts, forest fires, natural risks; consequences of the climatic change in Germany: air quality, health, biodiversity, water resources, biochemical cycles, agriculture, forestry, soils, personal and commercial transport, cities and urban regions, tourism, infrastructure, energy and water supplies, cost of the climatic change and economic consequences; overall risks and uncertainties: assessment of vulnerabilities, literature review, climatic change as risk enhancement in complex systems, overall risks and uncertainties, decision making under uncertainties in complex systems; integrated strategies for the adaptation to the climatic change: the climate resilient society - transformations and system changes, adaptation to the climatic change as new political field, options for adaptation strategies.

  15. The neuropathology of morality: Germany 1930–1960

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes brain scientists' attempts to trace morality in the brain in Germany from 1930 to 1960. The debate around Karl Kleist's localization of the Gemeinschafts-Ich [community-I] in the 1930s is depicted in order to illustrate the central arguments for and against localizations of

  16. Novel Lyssavirus in Natterer’s Bat, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Freuling, Conrad M.; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J.; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P.; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer’s bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  17. Radical Social Democracy and School Reform in Wilhelmian Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, James M.

    1977-01-01

    The article describes how the German Social Democratic Party promoted educational reform in Germany before World War I. It demanded state support for a secularized school program, suggested curricular reforms to instill socialist values, and promoted adult education and socialist training in the home. (AV)

  18. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  19. The Idea of Inclusion: Conceptual and Empirical Diversities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Stefan; Dedering, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, inclusion was introduced into discussions on education; today, we still do not have a precisely defined concept of inclusion. This article focuses its attention in this context on Germany, which in ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2009 embarked on the path towards realising an inclusive…

  20. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM's needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US

  1. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  2. Overlapping Rivalries : The two Germanys, Israel and the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vita, L.

    2017-01-01

    The case of early German-Israeli relations offers unique insight into the dynamics of the German Cold War. As this article shows, the two Germanys were ideologically and geopolitically antithetical, but vis-a-vis the question of relations with Israel East and West German representatives faced a

  3. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke

    As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. The paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large and varies between occupation...

  4. Wager: GdF realizes heavy investment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2003-01-01

    Gaz De France decoded to buy Preussag Energie in east Germany. This decision fits into the gas market deregulation and will allow an increase of 50 % of the gas production. Meanwhile the decision is criticized by the syndicate CGT as a financial aberration. (A.L.B.)

  5. Restructuring power supply in Germany; Umstrukturierung der Stromversorgung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to recent calculations of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office), all German nuclear power plants can be decommissioned from 2017. This will result neither in supply shortages nor in higher electricity rates, and Germany's climate protection goals will not be in danger either. There will be no need to import nuclear power from other countries. (orig.)

  6. Cultural Life in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inter Nationes, Bonn (West Germany).

    By the nature of the subject, it is impossible to do justice to the cultural developments of more than 40 years in a brief survey. The aim of this document is to explore the diverse cultural life of West Germany complete with photographs of past and present artists, art products, and other aspects of German culture. The subject areas treated are:…

  7. Cleaning ex-uranium sites in Easter Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattsvajler, R.; Khagen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration is given to problems, related with recovery and cleaning of ground and water, damaged during intensive uranium mining in the Easter Germany. Design and reclamation works, conducted in the framework of the unique project of Vismut company, are described. The consultation department of environment recovery for experience and technology propagation was organized in this company. 2 tabs

  8. [Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany and its international context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U; Cursiefen, C

    2017-09-01

    Experimental basic research provides the foundations for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases. The objective of this contribution is to provide an overview of the international interconnection of basic research in ophthalmology in Germany. The international context of ophthalmological research conducted in Germany is presented by means of personal experiences and data published by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Union (EU). Due to the lack of organized databases this article lays no claim to completeness. Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany is mainly conducted in university eye departments and is mainly related to the etiology, pathophysiology and therapy development for various ophthalmic diseases. It is primarily funded by the DFG, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the EU plays an increasingly important role. Thus, ophthalmological research is integrated into numerous European research networks and beyond that into many international interconnections and relationships. In Germany, both clinical and basic research in ophthalmology is integrated into many international networks and is only functionally viable in an international context; however, given the increasing impact of ophthalmological research in Asian countries, future strategies require a continued focus on career development, research infrastructure, working environment and international cooperation.

  9. The "Carbon-Neutral University"--A Study from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udas, Erica; Wölk, Monique; Wilmking, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, several higher education institutions around the world are integrating sustainability topics into their daily operations, functionality and education systems. This paper presents a case study from a pilot project implemented by the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald (hereafter, Greifswald University), Germany on its way…

  10. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  11. Small scale wood combustion in Germany. Recent research and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Unterberger, S.; Hein, K.R.G. [Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    To reduce Europe`s greenhouse gas emission CO{sub 2} it is a challenging task utilising biomass fuels as there are wood or wood residues from the forest industry. The utilisation can be done either in commercially operated medium (> 50 kWth) or full scale (> 1 MWth) decentralised heat and power stations or in small scale (< 50 kWth) domestic heating systems. In small scale heating systems untreated wood logs, wood briquette or wood pellets and in few cases wood chips are used. The present market in Germany is focused on the use of wood logs. Presently, the use of wood pellets in small scale automatically operated boilers < 15 kW especially for low energy houses is discussed more and more. Since 1980 the installation of new wood fired small scale domestic heating systems reached a significant size due to the interest of the customers to have a alternative inhouse heating system and to increase the living comfort. In 1994 the amount of sold small scale heaters in Germany were in total about 133.258 units. The thermal power of in 1994 sold units is estimated of about 1350 MW which is a significant size in total with regard to domestic heating purposes. Since few years there is a clear market trend in Germany towards the installation of open fire stoves. Due to this trend in Germany and the design characteristic of open fire stoves using huge glass doors of glass windows it is very difficult to achieve a further reduction of emissions like CO and unburned volatile hydrocarbons (VOC). In the text the requirements for modern small scale wood fired stoves in Germany as well as the actual stage and trend of research and development (R and D) are discussed 4 refs.

  12. Disintegration and Violence among Migrants in Germany: Turkish and Russian Youths versus German Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Turkish and Russian immigrants are the two largest groups of immigrants in Germany, but there are some important differences regarding their legal status. Although most of the Turkish adolescents were born in Germany, few of them have German citizenship. In contrast, most of the Russian youths were born outside Germany, but they mostly possess…

  13. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade... and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it... France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  14. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to... from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314, 317, and 379 (Third Review...

  15. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ...)] Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY: United States... and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  16. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...)] Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to...

  17. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  18. Kandó-Melocco, Ferenc. 2015. An Anti-Nazi at Hitler's Table: Political Memoirs of a Hungarian Nobleman Who Dared to Oppose Both Hitler and the Communists. (trans. and ed. Esther Kando Odescalchi. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. 162 pp., Illus.; Odescalchi, Esther Kando. 2016. My Escape: Memoirs of a Hungarian Teenage Freedom Fighter. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. Illus. 148 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth G. Biro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kandó-Melocco, Ferenc. 2015. An Anti-Nazi at Hitler's Table: Political Memoirs of a Hungarian Nobleman Who Dared to Oppose Both Hitler and the Communists. (trans. and ed. Esther Kando Odescalchi. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. 162 pp., Illus.; Odescalchi, Esther Kando. 2016. My Escape: Memoirs of a Hungarian Teenage Freedom Fighter. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. Illus. 148 pp.

  19. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Fang, Yu-Xia; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Li-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2007-10-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however, China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70 000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the pAction Plan on Drugs and Addictionq in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003, China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history, population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of

  20. "No fertile soil for pathogens": rayon, advertising, and biopolitics in late Weimar Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Yvette Florio

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on twentieth-century German history has begun to re-examine the centrality of race as a category of analysis. While not discounting its importance in the shaping and enacting of Nazi policies and practices, race is seen instead as one among many factors leading to the crimes of the Nazi regime. In this paper, the author considers the role consumerist desires and fantasies played in the wider context of the inter-war European fascination with notions of technology, "hygiene," democracy, and modernity. Using advertisements that were created to promote manufactured-fiber (rayon) apparel, this article suggests that continuities across cultures and time periods necessitate a re-evaluation of race as the signal organizing principal. Instead, the author argues that by complicating the intersections between class, science and technology, and an emerging, but troubling, modernity, 1920s rayon advertising offers an especially rich site for analysis of the ways in which biopolitics and nascent consumerism both sold products and constructed ideologies before 1933, and influenced the post-war welfare state.

  1. International strategies of business incubation: the USA, Germany and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Tsaplin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine strategies of business incubation in the following countries: the USA, Germany and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies. We find that there are more differences than similarities between the strategies of business incubation in these countries. The USA prove to be far ahead of Germany and especially Russia in supporting start-ups. The study might impact a business practice in the way of clarifying the most significant characteristics and general trends of business incubation strategies in the countries mentioned to take them into account in the process of launching and developing startup companies in one or another country.

  2. Comparison of cardiothoracic surgery training in USA and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Mokashi, Suyog A; Rajab, Taufiek K; Bolman, R Morton; Chen, Frederick Y; Schmitto, Jan D

    2010-11-26

    Training of cardiothoracic surgeons in Europe and the United States has expanded to incorporate new operative techniques and requirements. The purpose of this study was to compare the current structure of training programs in the United States and Germany. We thoroughly reviewed the existing literature with particular focus on the curriculum, salary, board certification and quality of life for cardiothoracic trainees. The United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany each have different cardiothoracic surgery training programs with specific strengths and weaknesses which are compared and presented in this publication. The future of cardiothoracic surgery training will become affected by technological, demographic, economic and supply factors. Given current trends in training programs, creating an efficient training system would allow trainees to compete and grow in this constantly changing environment.

  3. Comparison of cardiothoracic surgery training in usa and germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Frederick Y

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training of cardiothoracic surgeons in Europe and the United States has expanded to incorporate new operative techniques and requirements. The purpose of this study was to compare the current structure of training programs in the United States and Germany. Methods We thoroughly reviewed the existing literature with particular focus on the curriculum, salary, board certification and quality of life for cardiothoracic trainees. Results The United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany each have different cardiothoracic surgery training programs with specific strengths and weaknesses which are compared and presented in this publication. Conclusions The future of cardiothoracic surgery training will become affected by technological, demographic, economic and supply factors. Given current trends in training programs, creating an efficient training system would allow trainees to compete and grow in this constantly changing environment.

  4. Thoughts about the future of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.

    2008-01-01

    On November 6, 2007, the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft conferred its 30 th honorary membership upon Professor Dr. Manfred Popp. The new Honorary Member has a record of outstanding achievements in the interest of nuclear power in Germany. This commitment is also apparent from his professional career, which was devoted to this high technology with impressive scientific and technical knowledge and political acumen, perseverance and stamina. The KTG is most grateful to Professor Popp for accepting its honorary membership. The article includes a revised version of the lecture given by Professor Manfred Popp at the ceremony conferring honorary membership. The author discusses some thoughts about the future of nuclear power in Germany in the light of societal, political, technical and environmental aspects. The status and perspectives of this technology are considered also within the framework of international developments. (orig.)

  5. [Culture sensitive analysis of psychosomatic complaints in migrants in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Isaac; Nicolaus, Leonhard; Kriston, Levente; Hölzel, Lars; Härter, Martin

    2012-05-01

    To ensure an adequate health care of migrants, differentiated information on the association of cultural background and migration related factors and psychosomatic complaints are necessary. Cross-sectional questionnaire based survey regarding psychosomatic complaints of migrants from Turkey (n = 77), Italy (n = 95), and Spain (n = 67) and ethnic German resettled from the states of the former Soviet Union (n = 196). Questionnaires distributed by non-health specific counselling agencies of welfare associations. The cultural background was a relevant factor for psychosomatic complaints, showing higher complaints in Turkish and ethnic German resettled migrants, also compared to a sample of age corresponding Germans. In contrast, Spanish and Italian migrants showed a lower risk for psychosomatic complaints. Also gender, feeling unwell in Germany and fatalism showed a significant association with psychosomatic complaints. Migrants in Germany do not have per se a higher risk for psychosomatic complaints. A distinct differentiation by cultural background is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A new neolithic circular enclosure in Central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzer, Olaf

    2015-08-01

    Today we know about 130 neolithic enclosures in Central Europe. About 20 of them are located in Germany. In the last years, there was a great discussion about the function of the openings: Are the openings aligned with points of the solstices? Or are the openings aligned with points of rising stars?Four years ago, a new neolithic circular enclosure was found in the northern part of Thuringia. With a diameter of about 50 meters it was not so large but it was the first evidence of a neolithic culture in Thuringia: the central part of Germany!7000 years ago, people with unknown identity built up three rings with three or four openings.With the help of various measurements we were able to determine in which directions the openings were aligned. We found a link between these directions and very interesting landmarks - an amazing connection between sky and landscape.

  7. Probabilistic methods in the field of reactor safety in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkhofer, A [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktordynamik und Reaktorsicherheit

    1979-01-01

    The present status and future prospects in Germany of reliability, as well as risk analysis, in the field of reactor safety are examined. The development of analytical methods with respect to the available data base is reviewed with consideration of the roles of reliability codes, component data, common mode failures, human influence, structural analysis and process computers. Some examples of the application of probability assessments are discussed and the extension of reliability analysis beyond the loss-of-coolant accident is considered. In the case of risk analysis, the object is to determine not only the probability of failure of systems but also the probability and extent of possible consequences. Some risk studies under investigation in Germany and the methodology of risk analysis are discussed. Reliability and risk analysis are involved to an increasing extent in safety research and licensing procedures and their influence in other fields such as the public perception of risk is also discussed.

  8. Psychology as science and as discipline: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, Horst

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the history of psychology in Germany. It directs attention to the salient role played by examination regulations in the development of psychology. To highlight this, the term "discipline" is employed not as a synonym of "science" but according to its original meaning, as denoting a social entity consisting of teachers, disciples, more or less canonised subject matters, examinations, and resulting changes of the social status of the examinee. In the early nineteenth century a succession of state rescripts and regulations introduced to university curricula an examination subject named psychology, thereby making psychology an obligatory subject of university lectures, and creating a discipline of psychology next to the science of psychology. The two were far from being identical. This situation, thus far neglected in historiography, profoundly influenced the further development of psychology in Germany.

  9. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F. [German Wind Energy Inst, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: many monitored persons = high exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation affects the entire population in Germany, and most of Germany's inhabitants are exposed to medical radiation in their lifetime. Occupational radiation exposure, however, is a kind of exposure affecting only a limited and well-defined group of the population, and this radiation exposure has been recorded and monitored as precisely as technically possible ever since the radiation protection laws made occupational radiation exposure monitoring a mandatory obligation. Official personal dosimetry applying passive dosemeters in fact does not offer direct protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, as dosemeter read-out and dose calculation is a post-exposure process. But it nevertheless is a rewarding monitoring duty under radiation protection law, as is shown by the radiation exposure statistics accumulated over decades: in spite of the number of monitored persons having been increasing over the years, the total exposure did not, due to the corresponding improvements in occupational radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  11. Conference on energy transition financing in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, Ivan; Rid, Urban; Sickenberger, Peter; Ricordeau, Damien; Schmidt, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the energy transition financing in France and in Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on the legal framework, the instruments and the role of financing institutions in the development of a low-carbon society and economy. Questions regarding the successful financing of renewable energy projects and the expectations of financiers were addressed. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Regulatory framework for investment in the 'green sector' in France (Ivan Faucheux); 2 - Overview of the financing framework for the German 'Energiewende' (Rid, Urban); 3 - Financing Renewables - KfW's Instruments and Track Record (Peter Sickenberger); 4 - French Overview on Renewable energy Financing (Damien Ricordeau); 5 - Profitability analysis of renewable energies in Germany: Which stakeholders and financing models have proven successful? (Gerrit Schmidt)

  12. Bioremediation in Germany: Markets, technologies, and leading companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, T.; Glass, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation has become an internationally accepted remediation tool. Commercial bioremediation activities take place in many European countries, but Germany and the Netherlands are the clear European leaders, with both having a long history of public and private sector activity in biological technologies. The German bioremediation market has been driven by government regulation, in particular the waste laws that apply to contaminated soils. The 1994 German market for bioremediation is estimated at $70 to 100 million (US $). There are at least 150 companies active in bioremediation in Germany, most of which practice bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, either in situ or ex situ. Because of their predominance in the current European market, German firms are well positioned to expand into those nations in the European Union (EU) currently lacking an environmental business infrastructure

  13. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  14. Problem of Production of Shale Gas in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya K. Meden

    2014-01-01

    A bstract: Our magazine publishes a series of articles on shale gas in different countries. This article is about Germany, a main importer of Russian natural gas, so a perspective of exploitation of local shale gas resources is of a clear practical importance for Russia. We discuss external and internal factors which determine position of the German government concerning the shale gas excavation: policy of the USA and the EU, positions of German political parties, influence of the lobbying co...

  15. Sphagnum farming in Germany – a review of progress

    OpenAIRE

    G. Gaudig; F. Fengler; M. Krebs; A. Prager; J. Schulz; S. Wichmann; H. Joosten

    2014-01-01

    In ombrotrophic, nutrient-poor peatlands, the cultivation of peatmoss (Sphagnum spp.) is a promising paludiculture option. Since 2001 we have been studying peatmoss cultivation (‘Sphagnum farming’) in greenhouse and field experiments, paying special attention to propagation, propagule storage, establishment, productivity and regeneration. Our studies show that Sphagnum farming in Germany may provide a sustainable high-quality alternative to fossil white peat as a raw material for horticultural...

  16. Coercive Diplomacy: Otto von Bismarck and the Unification of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    politician, he forged a German empire under Prussian leadership that was ultimately realized on January 18, 1871, when King William I was crowned Emperor...the same pressures. King Frederick William cowered in the face of conflict, ordered his military to cease fighting the revolutionaries, and agreed...parliamentary rule, and the dissolution of the Prussian state into Germany. “Bismarck made himself noteworthy by his 6 championship of Prussian superiority

  17. BUYING BEHAVIOUR RELATED TO HEATING SYSTEMS IN GERMANY

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Thomas; Zapilko, Marina; Menrad, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The decision for buying a heating system is a long-term one, as many different aspects have an influence on this choice which were analysed in a Germany-wide, written survey. The respondents (only owners of a private house) had to answer questions about their attitude towards e.g. economics, convenience or ecological aspects related to heating systems and the respective combustibles. Using a multinomial logistic regression model the choice of the heating system is mainly explained by ecologic...

  18. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  19. Energy policies in the European Union. Germany's ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfens, P.J.J.; Jungmittag, A.; Meyer, B.; Jasinski, P.

    2001-01-01

    The chapters discuss the following aspects: 1. Energy policy as a strategic element of economic policy in dynamic open economies. 2. Phasing out nuclear energy and core elements of sustainable energy strategy. 3. Ecological tax reform: Theory, modified double dividend and international aspects. 4. The policy framework in Europe and Germany. 5. Optimal ecological tax reform: Options and recommendations for an EU-action plan. 6. Conclusions. (orig./CB)

  20. Passive surveillance of Leptospira infection in swine in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutzberg-Minder, Katrin; Tschentscher, Astrid; Beyerbach, Martin; Homuth, Matthias; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    As no current data are available on the prevalence of leptospiral infection in swine in Germany, we analysed laboratory data from diagnostic examinations carried out on samples from swine all over Germany from January 2011 to September 2016. A total of 29,829 swine sera were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies against strains of eleven Leptospira serovars. Overall, 20.2% (6025) of the total sample collection tested positive for leptospiral infection. Seropositivity ranged between 16.3% (964) in 2011 and 30.9% (941) in 2016 (January to September only). Of all samples, 11.6% (57.3% of the positives) reacted with only one Leptospira serovar, and only 8.6% (42.7% of the positives) reacted simultaneously with two or more serovars. The most frequently detected serovar was Bratislava, which was found in 11.6% (3448) of all samples, followed by the serovars Australis in 7.3% (2185), Icterohaemorrhagiae in 4.0% (1191), Copenhageni in 4.0% (1182), Autumnalis in 3.7% (1054), Canicola in 2.0% (585), and Pomona in 1.2% (368). Modelling shows that both the year and the reason for testing at the laboratory had statistically strong effects on the test results; however, no interactions were determined between those factors. The results support the suggestion that the seropositivities found may be considered to indicate the state of leptospiral infections in the German swine population. Although data from passive surveillance are prone to selection bias, stratified analysis by initial reason for examination and analyses by model approaches may correct for biases. A prevalence of about 20% for a leptospiral infection is most probable for sows with reproductive problems in Germany, with an increasing trend. Swine in Germany are probably a reservoir host for serovar Bratislava, but in contrast to other studies not for Pomona and Tarassovi.

  1. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority tha...

  2. Charles Darwin's Reception in Germany and What Followed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Meyer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available 150 years ago, Heinrich Bronn provided in the first German translation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species a rather liberal interpretation, even adding his own view of Darwin's ideas in an additional 15th chapter. Ernst Haeckel widely popularized his view of Darwinian evolution based on his reading of this translation. This was long seen - probably incorrectly - as the intellectual root of social Darwinism in Germany.

  3. Reforming Family Taxation in Germany - Labor Supply vs. Insurance Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Fehr; Manuel Kallweit; Fabian Kindermann

    2013-01-01

    The present paper quantifies the economic consequences of eliminating the system of income splitting in Germany. We apply a dynamic simulation model with overlapping generations where single and married agents have to decide on labor supply and homework facing income and lifespan risk. The numerical exercise computes the resulting welfare changes across households and isolates aggregate efficiency effects of a move towards either individual taxation or family splitting. Our results indicate s...

  4. Consumer Attitude and Behaviour towards organic food in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh Thi, Ai Nhu

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was a study on the topic of consumer behavior and attitude concerning organic food in Germany. The purpose of this research paper is to present an overall view of German organic food market and to discover consumer’s behavior and attitude towards organic food. In the process, the study sought to understand the main external and internal social factors that influence purchase behavior, consumer decision making process, and explore organic consumer profile. The result also prese...

  5. Sustainable energy communities: a study contrasting Spain and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Rubio, Carmen; Andrés Díaz, José Ramón de

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several governments and organisations in the developed world have encouraged the creation of sustainable energy communities (SECs) as a strategy for achieving their energy and environmental targets. However, whereas in some of these countries (e.g., Germany), numerous SECs have been founded, there are other countries, such as Spain, where the creation and growth of SECs has been much slower. The purpose of this article is to analyse the case of Spain, to determine the causes of the lack of SECs in this country, and to propose actions adapted to the Spanish context aimed at accelerating the creation of SECs. To facilitate these tasks, we have taken the German case as a reference. The key finding is that, in contrast to Germany, in Spain, SECs have scarcely contributed to the development of RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures, despite having similar incentives for renewable electricity (until recently). Moreover, in Spain, these incentives have been drastically cut recently. Therefore, it has become even more difficult to finance a renewable electricity generation plant. That is why strategies in sectors other than renewable electricity have been suggested for the encouragement of SECs in Spain. -- Highlights: •Collective-ownership models for RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures are very widespread in Germany. •Approximately 22% of the installed renewable electricity capacity in Germany is owned by SECs. •In contrast, collective ownership of RE infrastructures is rare in Spain. •In Spain, incentives for renewable electricity have been drastically cut recently. •To encourage SECs, energy activities other than renewable electricity production are proposed

  6. Demographic Trends in Germany and their Economic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Rembrandt Scholz; Carsten Schröder

    2012-01-01

    The present paper explores demographic trends in Germany, as well as the determinants of these trends, and the economic implications of these demographic changes for the country. A detailed spatial analysis reveals substantial differences in the speed and intensity of the processes of population aging and population decline across the German regions. The results indicate that these processes are particularly pronounced in the state of Mecklenburg Western-Pomerania. As a new contribution to th...

  7. The Future of the Energy Transition in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Gawel, Erik; Lehmann, Paul; Korte, Klaas; Strunz, Sebastian; Bovet, Jana; Köck, Wolfgang; Massier, Philipp; Löschel, Andreas; Schober, Dominik; Ohlhorst, Dörte; Tews, Kerstin; Schreurs, Miranda; Reeg, Matthias; Wassermann, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Although the goals of the country ’ s energy transition ( Energiewende ) are widely accepted in Germany, the specific route to get there is itself a matter of great controversy. The individual measures that are part of the energy transition policy and the questions of how they interact and how they are embedded in the European context are objects of controversial scientific and public debate. Most recently, the consequences for the price of electricity have, in particular...

  8. Human trafficking in Germany: strengthening victim's human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Follmar-Otto, Petra; Rabe, Heike

    2009-01-01

    The first study - "A human rights approach against human trafficking - International obligations and the status of implementation in Germany" - analyses how the prohibition of human trafficking and the resulting state obligations are anchored in human rights. The more recent specialised international agreements on human trafficking and law-making in the European Union are then presented. The emphasis is on the Council of Europe Convention, which professes to treat human trafficking in a human...

  9. Bioenergy in Germany. Facts and figures. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-11

    The brochure under consideration gives statistical information about the bioenergy in Germany: Renewable energies (bioenergy) and solid fuels. For example, the structure of the primary energy consumption in the year 2010, the energy supply from renewables, gross electricity generation, the total sales of renewables, growth in number of installed pellet boilers, wood fuel equivalent prices by energy value or biofuels in comparison with heating oil are presented.

  10. Anti-Islamic PEGIDA beyond Germany : explaining differences in mobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    BERNTZEN, Lars Erik; WEISSKIRCHER, Manès

    2016-01-01

    First published online: 28 October 2016 The rise of anti-Islamic PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes) is one of the latest sustained episodes of radical right mobilisation in Western Europe outside the electoral arena. This study provides a first comparative analysis of PEGIDA beyond Germany and its core region of Saxony. Combining protest event analysis with online data and network analysis, we identify why PEGIDA mustered low-scale support in some countr...

  11. Demand response in Germany: Technical potential, benefits and regulatory challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Stede, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An increased flexibility of the electricity demand side through demand response (DR) is an opportunity to support the integration of renewable energies. By optimising the use of the generation, transmission and distribution infrastructure, DR reduces the need for costly investments and contributes to system security. There is a significant technical DR potential for load reduction from industrial production processes in Germany, as well as from cross-cutting technologies in industry and the t...

  12. Analysing inequalities in Germany a structured additive distributional regression approach

    CERN Document Server

    Silbersdorff, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book seeks new perspectives on the growing inequalities that our societies face, putting forward Structured Additive Distributional Regression as a means of statistical analysis that circumvents the common problem of analytical reduction to simple point estimators. This new approach allows the observed discrepancy between the individuals’ realities and the abstract representation of those realities to be explicitly taken into consideration using the arithmetic mean alone. In turn, the method is applied to the question of economic inequality in Germany.

  13. Germany at CERN, from 1 to 2 March 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    On 1 March the exhibition was visited by a German delegation headed by Dr Hermann Schunck, Director at BMBF.From left to right: Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, Hermann Schunck, Director at the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, talking to Wolfgang Holler from Butting, one of the companies at the "Germany at CERN" exhibition. Far right : Susanne-Corinna Langer-Greipl from BMBF, delegate to the CERN Finance Committee.

  14. Conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodineau, Luc; Menzen, Georg; Arnold, Peter Erich; Mauberger, Pascal; Roentzsch, Lars; Poggi, Philippe; Gervais, Thierry; Schneider, Guenther; Colomar, David; Buenger, Ulrich; Nieder, Babette; Zimmer, Rene; Jeanne, Fabrice; Le Grand, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on hydrogen-energy in France and Germany. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 200 participants exchanged views on the different perspectives for use of hydrogen, in particular in transportation and energy storage applications. The technical production, transport and storage means were addressed too, as well as the technological models and the conditions for a large-scale industrial deployment. The economic prospects of hydrogen-energy in tomorrow's energy mix were also considered during the conference. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Hydrogen energy and Fuel Cells in France Today, and prospective (Luc Bodineau); 2 - The situation of energy Policy in Germany and the challenges for the Hydrogen Technology (Georg Menzen); 3 - Unlocking the Hydrogen Potential for Transport and Industry (Peter Erich Arnold); 4 - Hydrogen, a new energy for our planet - Hydrogen storage possibilities: example of solid storage (Pascal Mauberger); 5 - Innovative Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for H 2 Production and H 2 Storage (Lars Roentzsch); 6 - Scientific development and industrial strategy: experience feedback from the Myrte platform and energy transition-related perspectives (Philippe Poggi, Thierry Gervais); 7 - 'Power to Gas' - Important partner for renewables with big impact potential (Guenther Schneider) 8 - Developing a Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport in France and Germany - A Comparison (David Colomar, Ulrich Buenger); 9 - H 2 and Fuel-Cells as Key Technologies for the Transition to Renewable energies - The example of Herten (Babette Nieder); 10 - Social acceptance of hydrogen mobility in Germany (Rene Zimmer); 11 - Hydrogen - A development opportunity for regions? (Fabrice Jeanne)

  15. Nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The information brochure is a survey of installed nuclear facilities in Germany, presenting on one page each a picture of a nuclear power plant together with the main relevant data, or of other type of nuclear facilities belonging to the nuclear fuel cycle (such as fuel production plant, fuel production plant, fuel element storage facilities, and facilities for spent fuel and waste management). (UA) [de

  16. Local climate change policy in the United Kingdom and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bulkeley, Harriet; Kern, Kristine

    2004-01-01

    "For over a decade climate change has been considered one of the most significant political issues facing the international community. In order to address this challenge, attention needs to be focused not only at the international level of treaties and conventions, but also on how climate protection policy is taking shape at the local level. Germany and the UK have been leading countries for international action on climate change. However, the reductions in domestic emissions of greenhouse ga...

  17. Nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, D.O.

    1978-01-01

    The way the electricity supply in West Germany is organised is outlined. A summary is given of the development of commercial reactors, of FBRs and HTRs and of their role in present and future nuclear generating capacity. The link-up between manufacturers and companies within the industry is illustrated. Procedures for licensing of plant and the role of administrative courts in dealing with public contestations following the issues of licenses is described. Reference is made to plans for reprocessing. (UK)

  18. Earthquakes in the Federal Republic of Germany 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is given on the seismic events in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 1986. Further articles deal with statistics on the earthquakes in the period from 1974 to 1986, reports on single regions as well as a list of the earthquakes world-wide and the damages resulting in the year 1986. (orig./HP) With 12 figs., 5 tabs [de

  19. Decolonial perspectives on charitable spaces of "welcome culture" in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    This article focusses on the relationships between volunteers and refugees in the German “welcome culture”. I highlight the continuities between historical and colonial notions of feminine charity and contemporary volunteering efforts in support of refugees in Germany. The “welcome culture” is conceived here as a charitable space that is historically sedimented by specific understandings of gender, racial and class difference. In particular, the difference between the modern emancipated femal...

  20. State and development of uterine myoma embolization in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobs, T.F.; Helmberger, T.K.; Reiser, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the current situation and implementation of embolization of uterine leiomyomas into the treatment concept in women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas in Germany. A questionnaire addressing the clinical background of uterine myomas, recommended treatment concepts, preclinical evaluation, technical approach and complications was sent to 164 departments of gynecology and radiology in Germany. 33 radiological departments and 19 gynecological departments submitted a completed questionnaire. Only 7 departments of radiology reported to have own experience with embolization of uterine leiomyomas, while only 2 departments of gynecology considered embolization as an alternative treatment option in patients with symptomatic leiomyomas. 18/33 radiological departments offer this treatment option but get no patient referrals. Agreement was found concerning the indications for treatment, preclinical evaluation by ultrasound and MRI, preferable location of treatable fibroids, technical approach and pain management. The embolization of uterine leiomyomas in patients with symptomatic myomas is regardless of the well documented high efficacy and low complication rate not yet an established treatment option in Germany. Interventional radiologists and gynecologists have to evaluate the indications for the embolization of uterine leiomyomas together before the procedure is advised to the patient, because it seems mandatory to add this procedure to the standard armamentarium of treatment options in uterine myomas. (orig.) [de