WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre-trip activities focus

  1. Pre-Trip Notification Database (PTNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PTNS contains pre-trip notification data from vessels participating in the Northeast Multispecies groundfish fishery from 2010 to present and the Longfin squid...

  2. Service design: pre-trip planning for international visitors attending the 2010 Soccer World Cup

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Page, OA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available media Yes Yes Some operators No Travel information via radio/TV Yes Yes No No Wi-fi media, e.g., cell phones, podcasts No No No No Word-of-mouth Yes Yes Yes Yes * Buses do display route information ** The City of Johannesburg has compiled..., are not currently engaged by any formal transport provider. The majority of minibus transport networks communicate pre-trip planning information primarily by word of mouth. However, the city of Johannesburg has taken the initiative to document minibus...

  3. Who Will Use Pre-Trip Traveler Information and How Will They Respond? Insights from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS is able to make the transportation system safer, smoother, and more sustainable. The research and practice of pre-trip traveler information (PTI, an indispensable component of ITS, is very limited in China. With data collected from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China, this empirical study revealed the socio-demographics of potential PTI users and feasible travel responses in daily trips under PTI. Young-and-middle-aged, influential, and motorized males were the most potential PTI users, while unemployed young females the least. Among the motorized potential users who habitually traveled by car, the high-income sub-group was least likely to shift travel modes under PTI. The younger white-collar or blue-collar had a lower propensity to shift to bicycle, but the younger blue-collar workers were more likely to shift to walking. The low income preferred to shift to bus rather than elevated light rail due to the difference of travel cost. The findings will facilitate our understanding of the market segments and effects of PTI, improve the system design and implementation strategy, and help address urban traffic and environmental issues throughout China.

  4. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  5. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  6. The Physical activity of persons with a focus on teachers

    OpenAIRE

    TETOUROVÁ, Marie

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the topic: "Physical activity of persons employed with a focus on the teaching profession." In the theoretical part concepts related to history and the intensity of teaching, teachers and related mental stress health risks. are characterized. We also deal with the influence of physical activity on human health, and the ability to reduce the occurrence of various health risks. The aim of the thesis is to monitor physical activity among teachers in kindergarten, Basic sch...

  7. 2017 Military Services Gender Relations Focus Groups: Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-30

    Office of People Analytics Office of People Analytics (OPA) Defense Research, Surveys, and Statistics Center 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 06E22...Relations (2017 MSGR) Focus Groups among active duty members. This is the third6 administration of gender relations focus groups. This introductory ...Enlisted, Male “It is true statistically , a majority of sexual assaults there is alcohol or drugs. In the military, it’s into the alcohol more than

  8. Dielectrophoretic focusing integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiongfeng; Kung, Yu-Chun; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2017-08-01

    We present a pulsed laser activated cell sorter (PLACS) integrated with novel sheathless size-independent dielectrophoretic (DEP) focusing. Microfluidic fluorescence activated cell sorting (μFACS) systems aim to provide a fully enclosed environment for sterile cell sorting and integration with upstream and downstream microfluidic modules. Among them, PLACS has shown a great potential in achieving comparable performance to commercial aerosol-based FACS (>90% purity at 25,000 cells sec-1). However conventional sheath flow focusing method suffers a severe sample dilution issue. Here we demonstrate a novel dielectrophoresis-integrated pulsed laser activated cell sorter (DEP-PLACS). It consists of a microfluidic channel with 3D electrodes laid out to provide a tunnel-shaped electric field profile along a 4cmlong channel for sheathlessly focusing microparticles/cells into a single stream in high-speed microfluidic flows. All focused particles pass through the fluorescence detection zone along the same streamline regardless of their sizes and types. Upon detection of target fluorescent particles, a nanosecond laser pulse is triggered and focused in a neighboring channel to generate a rapidly expanding cavitation bubble for precise sorting. DEP-PLACS has achieved a sorting purity of 91% for polystyrene beads at a throughput of 1,500 particle/sec.

  9. Medical Student Perspectives of Active Learning: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Anne; Istas, Kathryn; Bonaminio, Giulia A; Paolo, Anthony M; Fontes, Joseph D; Davis, Nancy; Berardo, Benito A

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Medical student perspectives were sought about active learning, including concerns, challenges, perceived advantages and disadvantages, and appropriate role in the educational process. Focus groups were conducted with students from all years and campuses of a large U.S. state medical school. Students had considerable experience with active learning prior to medical school and conveyed accurate understanding of the concept and its major strategies. They appreciated the potential of active learning to deepen and broaden learning and its value for long-term professional development but had significant concerns about the efficiency of the process, the clarity of expectations provided, and the importance of receiving preparatory materials. Most significantly, active learning experiences were perceived as disconnected from grading and even as impeding preparation for school and national examinations. Insights: Medical students understand the concepts of active learning and have considerable experience in several formats prior to medical school. They are generally supportive of active learning concepts but frustrated by perceived inefficiencies and lack of contribution to the urgencies of achieving optimal grades and passing United States Medical Licensing Examinations, especially Step 1.

  10. Adolescents' Views on Active and Non-Active Videogames: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; de Vet, Emely; Hoornstra, Sjoukje; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jaap; Chinapaw, Mai

    2012-06-01

    Active games require whole-body movement and may be an innovative tool to substitute sedentary pastime with more active time and may therefore contribute to adolescents' health. To inform strategies aimed at reducing sedentary behavior by replacing non-active with active gaming, perceptions and context of active and non-active gaming are explored. Six focus groups were conducted with adolescents 12-16 years old representing a range of education levels. A semistructured question route was used containing questions about perceptions and the context of gaming. The adolescents had positive attitudes toward active gaming, especially the social interactive aspect, which was greatly appreciated. A substantial number of adolescents enjoyed non-active games more than active ones, mainly because of better game controls and more diversity in non-active games. Active games were primarily played when there was a social gathering. Few game-related rules and restrictions at home were reported. Given the positive attitudes of adolescents and the limited restrictions for gaming at home, active videogames may potentially be used in a home setting as a tool to reduce sedentary behavior. However, to make active games as appealing as non-active games, attention should be paid to the quality, diversity, and sustainability of active games, as these aspects are currently inferior to those of traditional non-active games.

  11. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  12. Active facilitation of focus groups: exploring the implementation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus group research reported in this article forms part of a broader inter- ..... “scientific research in education” should “refrain from writing [and acting] as if our ..... http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/338/737.

  13. Active facilitation of focus groups: exploring the implementation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we explain how we took an “active” approach to focus group discussions with teachers in three South African schools. The topic of discussion was their views on the implementation of inclusive education. We shall also show how we sought feedback from the participants on their experiences of these ...

  14. Focus-of-attention for human activity recognition from UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a system to extract metadata about human activities from full-motion video recorded from a UAV. The pipeline consists of these components: tracking, motion features, representation of the tracks in terms of their motion features, and classification of each track as one of the

  15. Remote sub-wavelength focusing of ultrasonically activated Lorentz current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Angad S.; Arbabian, Amin

    2017-04-01

    We propose the use of a combination of ultrasonic and magnetic fields in conductive media for the creation of RF electrical current via the Lorentz force, in order to achieve current generation with extreme sub-wavelength resolution at large depth. We demonstrate the modeling, generation, and measurement of Lorentz current in a conductive solution and show that this current can be localized at a distance of 13 cm from the ultrasonic source to a region about three orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding wavelength of electromagnetic waves at the same operation frequency. Our results exhibit greater depth, tighter localization, and closer agreement with prediction than previous work on the measurement of Lorentz current in a solution of homogeneous conductivity. The proposed method of RF current excitation overcomes the trade-off between focusing and propagation that is fundamental in the use of RF electromagnetic excitation alone and has the potential to improve localization and depth of operation for RF current-based biomedical applications.

  16. Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF): isoelectric focusing pattern and tumoricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Nagasawa, Hideko; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Ken; Hori, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    Gc protein is the precursor for Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), with three phenotypes: Gc1f, Gc1s and Gc2, based on its electrophoretic mobility. The difference in electrophoretic mobility is because of the difference in its posttranslational sugar moiety composition. We compared the difference between Gc protein and GcMAF electrophoretic mobility using the isoelectric focusing (IEF) method. The tumoricidal activity of GcMAF-treated macrophage was evaluated after coculture with L-929 cell. The tumoricidal mechanism was investigated using TNF bioassay and nitric oxide (NO) release. The difference in Gc protein and GcMAF electrophoretic mobility was detected. The tumoricidal activity of GcMAF-treated macrophage was detected, but no release of TNF and NO was detected. The difference of isoelectric focusing mobility in Gc protein and GcMAF would be useful to develop a GcMAF detection method. GcMAF increased macrophage tumoricidal activity but TNF and NO release were not involved in the mechanism.

  17. Use of focused ultrasonication in activity-based profiling of deubiquitinating enzymes in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Bindu; Shack, Leslie A; Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Baumgartner, Wes; Schmidt, Ty B; Edelmann, Mariola J

    2016-12-15

    To develop a reproducible tissue lysis method that retains enzyme function for activity-based protein profiling, we compared four different methods to obtain protein extracts from bovine lung tissue: focused ultrasonication, standard sonication, mortar & pestle method, and homogenization combined with standard sonication. Focused ultrasonication and mortar & pestle methods were sufficiently effective for activity-based profiling of deubiquitinases in tissue, and focused ultrasonication also had the fastest processing time. We used focused-ultrasonicator for subsequent activity-based proteomic analysis of deubiquitinases to test the compatibility of this method in sample preparation for activity-based chemical proteomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of focused ultrasonication in activity-based profiling of deubiquitinating enzymes in tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Nanduri, Bindu; Shack, Leslie A.; Rai, Aswathy N.; Epperson, William B.; Baumgartner, Wes; Schmidt, Ty B.; Edelmann, Mariola J.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a reproducible tissue-lysis method that retains enzyme function for activity-based protein profiling, we compared four different tissue lysis methods of bovine lung tissue: focused ultrasonication, standard sonication, mortar & pestle method, and homogenization combined with standard sonication. Focused ultrasonication and mortar & pestle methods were sufficiently effective for activity-based profiling of deubiquitinases in tissue and focused ultrasonication had also the fastest pr...

  19. Behavioral activation in TFP: The role of the treatment contract in transference-focused psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Frank E; Delaney, Jill C; Levy, Kenneth N

    2017-09-01

    Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) is a manualized evidence-based treatment for borderline and other severe personality disorders that is based on psychoanalytic object relations theory. Similar to other psychodynamic psychotherapies, TFP focuses on changing psychological structures, but also focuses on symptom and behavioral change, particularly the importance of being active (e.g., obtaining a job or involvement in similar activities). In TFP, the establishment of the treatment contract, also known as the treatment frame, is where goals such as work and other activities are agreed upon. The focus on such activities is particularly relevant to the concept of behavioral activation. We provide a clinical vignette to illustrate how TFP utilizes behavioral activation in facilitating treatment outcome both at the behavioral level and at the psychological level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. 75 FR 32161 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... staff relies on its expert judgment about consumer behavior, perceptions, and similar information... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC-2010-0046] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus Groups AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety...

  1. Focused Campaign Increases Activity among Participants in "Nature's Notebook," a Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants' activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a…

  2. Petroleum activity in ice covered waters - development and operation phase. Focus of eventual consequential explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, J.; Andresen, K.H.; Moe, K.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report from a seminar relates to the petroleum activities in the Barentshavet north. The focal point was to put on petroleum activities in ice covered waters covering the drilling and operation phase, to identify discharges from various technical solutions, and to classify possible research requirements when mapping the impacts of such components. In addition to this approach, the seminar also focused on other factors regarding drilling and production activities in ice covered waters. 3 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs

  3. Introducing a checking technician allows pharmacists to spend more time on patient-focused activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Patti; Norris, Pauline; Braund, Rhiannon

    2018-04-01

    Internationally there is an increasing focus on the clinical and cognitive services that pharmacists can provide. Lack of time has been identified as a barrier to pharmacists increasing their clinical activities. Within the pharmacy workplace there are many tasks that can only be performed by a pharmacist. The final accuracy check of a dispensed prescription is currently the sole responsibility of pharmacists in New Zealand. This takes up a significant amount of time during a pharmacist's work day. The introduction of a checking technician role has been suggested to allow pharmacists more time to do more patient focused work. To investigate the amount of time pharmacy staff spend on specific activities and to establish whether the introduction of a checking technician into twelve pilot sites increased the amount of time that the pharmacists could spend on patient focused activities. This study utilised a self-reported work sampling technique in twelve pilot sites, selected from both the hospital and community settings. Work sampling using an electronic device was conducted at two time-points (before the implementation of a Pharmacy Accuracy Checking Technician (PACT) role and when the PACT was in place). Data was collected at 10 min intervals for the period of five days, a working week. Tasks were grouped into patient focused, dispensing and personal activities. The introduction of the PACT into the pilot sites saw a mean increase of 19% in pharmacists' patient focused activities and a mean 20% decrease in dispensing activities. The introduction of a checking technician role into New Zealand pharmacies demonstrated the potential to provide pharmacists with more time to spend on patient focused activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Focusing elementary students with active classrooms: exploring teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Foran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore the perceptions of elementary teachers who routinely prioritized physical activity in their classrooms. Researchers are reporting improved student academic test results following physical activity sessions, however, classroom teachers are challenged in balancing curricular and other expectations. Hence, teachers who voluntarily implement physical activity have views that are unique and important for promoting the practice to others. We interviewed seven teachers from grades 1-6, using the qualitative constructivist approach to grounded theory qualitative research. Teachers valued physical activity because it enhanced their students’ focus on classroom activities. Common attributes amongst the teachers were active lifestyles, previous employment experiencesusing physical activity, and a pedagogical approach prioritizing physical activity throughout the day. Additionally, the teachers perceived that belonging to schools with a culture of movement was important. Teachers view physical activity as a teaching asset when they perceive a positive impact on their students’ ability to focus. Specific teacher attributes and a school environment that embraces physical activity may predispose teachers to these views, and represent areas that should be further explored. Pre-service courses could be one way to provide teachers with experience and a repertoire of easy physical activities.

  5. Mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge for hydrogen production: Focusing on homoacetogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Zhang, Shicheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the mesophilic and thermophilic alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) for hydrogen production with focus on homoacetogenesis, which mediated the consumption of H2 and CO2 for acetate production. Batch experiments showed that hydrogen yield of WAS increased...

  6. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  7. Developing L2 Listening Fluency through Extended Listening-Focused Activities in an Extensive Listening Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna C-S.; Millett, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects on developing L2 listening fluency through doing extended listening-focused activities after reading and listening to audio graded readers. Seventy-six EFL university students read and listened to a total of 15 graded readers in a 15-week extensive listening programme. They were divided into three groups (Group…

  8. Comparing Neighborhood-Focused Activism and Volunteerism: Psychological Well-Being and Social Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilster, Megan E.

    2012-01-01

    Does participating in neighborhood-focused activism confer different benefits than volunteering? The engagement of community members in neighborhood civic life has been identified as an important component of safe and healthy communities. Research on community engagement has encompassed voluntary associations, volunteering, as well as…

  9. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to prioritize the children´s perceived barriers. This was verified...... barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the children´s perceptions of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly for those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have...

  10. Somali women's view of physical activity--a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Gerthi; Mahmud, Amina Jama; Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Strandberg, Eva Lena

    2014-10-23

    Physical inactivity presents a major public health challenge and is estimated to cause six to ten percent of the major non-communicable diseases. Studies show that immigrants, especially women, have an increased risk of non-communicable diseases compared to ethnic Swedes. Somali immigrant women have increased rates of overweight and obesity, low fitness levels and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness compared to non-immigrant women. These findings suggest that Somali women are at increased risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases. Few studies explore determinants of physical activity among Somali women. The aim of this study was to explore Somali women's views and experiences of physical activity after migration to Sweden. A qualitative focused ethnographic approach was used in this study. Four focus groups were conducted with twenty-six Somali women ranging from 17 to 67 years of age. Focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in four main themes and ten categories: Life in Somalia and Life in Sweden, Understanding and enhancing health and Facilitators and barriers to physical activity. Great differences were seen between living in Somalia and in Sweden but also similarities such as finding time to manage housework, the family and the health of the woman. The extended family is non-existent in Sweden, making life more difficult. Health was considered a gift from God but living a healthy life was perceived as the responsibility of the individual. Misconceptions about enhancing health occurred depending on the woman's previous life experience and traditions. There was an awareness of the importance of physical activity among the participants but lack of knowledge of how to enhance activity on an individual basis. Enhancing factors to an active lifestyle were identified as being a safe and comfortable environment. Some barriers, such as climate, lack of motivation and time

  11. Physical activity in patients with heart failure: barriers and motivations with special focus on sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klompstra L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Leonie Klompstra,1 Tiny Jaarsma,1 Anna Strömberg2,31Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing, 3Department of Cardiology, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenBackground: Adherence to recommendations for physical activity is low in both male and female patients with heart failure (HF. Men are more physically active than women. In order to successfully promote physical activity, it is therefore essential to explore how much and why HF patients are physically active and if this is related to sex. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate physical activity in HF patients, to describe the factors related to physical activity, and to examine potential barriers and motivations to physical activity with special focus on sex differences.Methods: The study had a cross-sectional survey design. HF patients living at home received a questionnaire during May–July 2014, with questions on physical activity (from the Short Form-International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and potential barriers and motivations to physical activity.Results: A total of 154 HF patients, 27% women, with a mean age of 70±10 were included. In total, 23% of the patients reported a high level of physical activity, 46% a moderate level, and 34% a low level. Higher education, self-efficacy, and motivation were significantly associated with a higher amount of physical activity. Symptoms or severity of the disease were not related to physical activity. All the potential barriers to exercise were reported to be of importance. Psychological motivations were most frequently rated as being the most important motivation (41% to be physically active. Physical motivations (33% and social motivations were rated as the least important ones (22%. Women had significantly higher total motivation to be physically active. These differences were found in social, physical, and psychological

  12. Physical activities practicing among scholar professors: focus on their quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate the practice of physical activity among scholar professors focusing on their quality of life. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 121 professors at one of the campuses of a state university in the State of Paraná, using a questionnaire created by Baecke and adapted for the study. Results: The analyzed group presented a level of inadequate physical activity of 54.4%, with mean body mass of 26.20, considered overweight. Conclusion: The study indicated that professors do not practice physical activity at the level recommended by the World Health Organization; therefore, they are, for the most part, sedentary and have complaints of anxiety. It is advisable to carry out actions aimed at the health of the professors, directed to the modification in the lifestyle, with regular practice of physical activities and balanced diet, for the improvement of the quality of life.

  13. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-06-23

    Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls' requests for more "hanging-out" facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment.

  14. Effect of a family focused active play intervention on sedentary time and physical activity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Mareesa V; Fairclough, Stuart J; Knowles, Zoe; Stratton, Gareth

    2012-10-01

    Early childhood provides a window of opportunity for the promotion of physical activity. Given the limited effectiveness of interventions to date, new approaches are needed. Socio-ecological models suggest that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier lifestyles in children. This study describes the effectiveness of a family-focused 'Active Play' intervention in decreasing sedentary time and increasing total physical activity in preschool children. Seventy-seven families were recruited from 8 randomly selected SureStart children's centres in the North West of England. Centres were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 4) or a comparison group (n = 4). Parents and children in the intervention group received a 10-week active play programme delivered by trained active play professionals; this included an activity and educational component. Families in the comparison group were asked to maintain their usual routine. Each participating parent and child wore a uni-axial accelerometer for 7 days at baseline and post-test. Week and weekend day sedentary time and total physical activity adjusted for child- and home- level covariates were analysed using multilevel analyses. Significant intervention effects were observed for sedentary time and physical activity for both week and weekend days. Children in the intervention group engaged in 1.5% and 4.3% less sedentary time during week and weekend days, respectively and 4.5% and 13.1% more physical activity during week and weekend days, respectively than children in the comparison group. Parent's participation in sport and their physical activity levels, child's sex, availability of media in the home and attendance at organised activities were significant predictors of sedentary time and physical activity in this age group. A 10-week family focused active play intervention produced positive changes in sedentary time and total physical activity levels in preschool children

  15. Physical activity in subjects with multiple sclerosis with focus on gender differences: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anens, Elisabeth; Emtner, Margareta; Zetterberg, Lena; Hellström, Karin

    2014-03-10

    There is increasing research that examines gender-issues in multiple sclerosis (MS), but little focus has been placed on gender-issues regarding physical activity. The aim of the present study was to describe levels of physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, fall-related self-efficacy, social support for physical activity, fatigue levels and the impact of MS on daily life, in addition to investigating gender differences. The sample for this cross-sectional cohort study consisted of 287 (84 men; 29.3%) adults with MS recruited from the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. A questionnaire was sent to the subjects consisting of the self-administrated measurements: Physical Activity Disability Survey - Revised, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Falls-Efficacy Scale (Swedish version), Social Influences on Physical Activity, Fatigue Severity Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Response rate was 58.2%. Men were less physically active, had lower self-efficacy for physical activity and lower fall-related self-efficacy than women. This was explained by men being more physically affected by the disease. Men also received less social support for physical activity from family members. The level of fatigue and psychological consequences of the disease were similar between the genders in the total sample, but subgroups of women with moderate MS and relapsing remitting MS experienced more fatigue than men. Men were less physically active, probably a result of being more physically affected by the disease. Men being more physically affected explained most of the gender differences found in this study. However, the number of men in the subgroup analyses was small and more research is needed. A gender perspective should be considered in strategies for promoting physical activity in subjects with MS, e.g. men may need more support to be physically active.

  16. Targeted disruption of the blood-brain barrier with focused ultrasound: association with cavitation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDannold, N; Vykhodtseva, N; Hynynen, K

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic emission was monitored during focused ultrasound exposures in conjunction with an ultrasound contrast agent (Optison (registered) ) in order to determine if cavitation activity is associated with the induction of blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD). Thirty-four locations were sonicated (frequency: 260 kHz) at targets 10 mm deep in rabbit brain (N = 9). The sonications were applied at peak pressure amplitudes ranging from 0.11 to 0.57 MPa (burst length: 10 ms; repetition frequency of 1 Hz; duration: 20 s). Acoustic emission was recorded with a focused passive cavitation detector. This emission was recorded at each location during sonications with and without Optison (registered) . Detectable wideband acoustic emission was observed only at 0.40 and 0.57 MPa. BBBD was observed in contrast MRI after sonication at 0.29-0.57 MPa. The appearance of small regions of extravasated erythrocytes appeared to be associated with this wideband emission signal. The results thus suggest that BBBD resulting from focused ultrasound pulses in the presence of Optison (registered) can occur without indicators for inertial cavitation in vivo, wideband emission and extravasation. If inertial cavitation is not responsible for the BBBD, other ultrasound/microbubble interactions are likely the source. A significant increase in the emission signal due to Optison (registered) at the second and third harmonics of the ultrasound driving frequency was found to correlate with BBBD and might be useful as an online method to indicate when the disruption occurs

  17. Noise focusing and the emergence of coherent activity in neuronal cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Javier G.; Soriano, Jordi; Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Teller, Sara; Casademunt, Jaume

    2013-09-01

    At early stages of development, neuronal cultures in vitro spontaneously reach a coherent state of collective firing in a pattern of nearly periodic global bursts. Although understanding the spontaneous activity of neuronal networks is of chief importance in neuroscience, the origin and nature of that pulsation has remained elusive. By combining high-resolution calcium imaging with modelling in silico, we show that this behaviour is controlled by the propagation of waves that nucleate randomly in a set of points that is specific to each culture and is selected by a non-trivial interplay between dynamics and topology. The phenomenon is explained by the noise focusing effect--a strong spatio-temporal localization of the noise dynamics that originates in the complex structure of avalanches of spontaneous activity. Results are relevant to neuronal tissues and to complex networks with integrate-and-fire dynamics and metric correlations, for instance, in rumour spreading on social networks.

  18. Barriers related to physical activity practice in adolescents. A focus-group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romélio Rodriguez Añez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to identify barriers to physical activity in adolescents. Focus group interviews were conducted with subjects aged 15 to 18 years (n=59, 50.8% girls and divided according to gender. Content analysis was used to classify the reports into specific dimensions. Descriptive statistics employing relative and absolute frequencies of similar reports was performed using the SPSS 11.0 software. The most frequent barriers among adolescents were those associated with “psychological, cognitive and emotional” and “cultural and social” dimensions. For boys, the most frequently reported barriers were “feeling lazy”, “lack of company” and “lack of time”. For girls, “feeling lazy”, “lack of com-pany” and “occupation” were the most common barriers. In conclusion, the perception of barriers by adolescents varies according to gender, a fact requiring specific actions for the promotion of physical activity in this group.

  19. Regulation of Calcitriol Biosynthesis and Activity: Focus on Gestational Vitamin D Deficiency and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Olmos-Ortiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years due to a global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk of a variety of human diseases. Specifically, hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is highly common and has important implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child, since it has been linked to maternal and child infections, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, as well as imprinting on the infant for life chronic diseases. Therefore, factors that regulate vitamin D metabolism are of main importance, especially during pregnancy. The hormonal form and most active metabolite of vitamin D is calcitriol. This hormone mediates its biological effects through a specific nuclear receptor, which is found in many tissues including the placenta. Calcitriol synthesis and degradation depend on the expression and activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 cytochromes, respectively, for which regulation is tissue specific. Among the factors that modify these cytochromes expression and/or activity are calcitriol itself, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium and phosphate. This review provides a current overview on the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, focusing on vitamin D deficiency during gestation and its impact on pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Injury and Hepatocarcinogenesis: Focusing on the Role of Stress-Activated MAPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Nakagawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third most common cause of cancer mortality. Short-term prognosis of patients with HCC has improved recently due to advances in early diagnosis and treatment, but long-term prognosis is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, obtaining a further understanding of the molecular carcinogenic mechanisms and the unique pathogenic biology of HCC is important. The most characteristic process in hepatocarcinogenesis is underlying chronic liver injury, which leads to repeated cycles of hepatocyte death, inflammation, and compensatory proliferation and subsequently provides a mitogenic and mutagenic environment leading to the development of HCC. Recent in vivo studies have shown that the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade converging on c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 plays a central role in these processes, and it has attracted considerable attention as a therapeutic target. However, JNK and p38 have complex functions and a wide range of cellular effects. In addition, crosstalk with each other and the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway further complicate these functions. A full understanding is essential to bring these observations into clinical settings. In this paper, we discuss the latest findings regarding the mechanisms of liver injury and hepatocarcinogenesis focusing on the role of the stress-activated MAPK pathway.

  1. Report of Committee for JAEA Internationalization Initiative. Focusing on the activities of local teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    The 'Committee for JAEA Internationalization Initiative' was established in 2010 with the view to discuss the policy and improvement plans for JAEA's achievement of an international center of excellence (ICOE), which include improving the environment to accept foreign researchers, etc. The existing issues to be solved in the effort for ICOE and recommendations for the solutions, which were discussed in the committee, and challenges in developing human resources with a global mindset were written in the report summarizing the activities conducted in the following two years. This report was compiled focusing on the efforts in respective sites made during a period of two years from 2013 to 2014 by the local teams that were set up in accordance with the situation of the R and D centers hosting a number of foreign researchers, etc. based on the above-mentioned recommendations. (author)

  2. Magnetically-focusing biochip structures for high-speed active biosensing with improved selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Haneul; Lee, Dong Jun; Kim, Daesan; Park, Juhun; Chen, Xing; Hong, Seunghun

    2018-06-01

    We report a magnetically-focusing biochip structure enabling a single layered magnetic trap-and-release cycle for biosensors with an improved detection speed and selectivity. Here, magnetic beads functionalized with specific receptor molecules were utilized to trap target molecules in a solution and transport actively to and away from the sensor surfaces to enhance the detection speed and reduce the non-specific bindings, respectively. Using our method, we demonstrated the high speed detection of IL-13 antigens with the improved detection speed by more than an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the release step in our method was found to reduce the non-specific bindings and improve the selectivity and sensitivity of biosensors. This method is a simple but powerful strategy and should open up various applications such as ultra-fast biosensors for point-of-care services.

  3. Status report on active stabilisation of a linear collider final focus quadrupole mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottin, J.; Brunetti, L.; Formosa, F.; Adloff, C.; Bastian, Y.; Bolzon, B.; Cadoux, F.; Geffroy, N.; Girard, C.; Jeremie, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Peltier, F.

    2006-01-01

    The measurements done with the sensors available in our laboratories used for ground motion analysis are presented. The first sensors studied are seismic sensors measuring ground velocity, other sensors are accelerometers available for measuring ground acceleration. The first step has been to characterize the sensors, the second step has been to model and simulate the acceleration in order to identify Eigen frequencies and to display mode shapes. The third step has been to assess the performances of a new algorithm for disturbance rejection. In order to facilitate the analysis, a reduced-size mock-up has been used. The goal was to eliminate or at least to reduce as much as possible the main frequencies of the disturbance. A new mock-up is currently being developed that will have a geometry closer to a final focus quadrupole. Measurements will be done to validate the whole system in view of active stabilization for a future linear collider

  4. Status report on active stabilisation of a linear collider final focus quadrupole mock-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottin, J.; Brunetti, L.; Formosa, F. [Universite de Savoie, ESIA, 74 - Annecy (France); Adloff, C.; Bastian, Y.; Bolzon, B.; Cadoux, F.; Geffroy, N.; Girard, C.; Jeremie, A.; Karyotakis, Y.; Peltier, F. [LAPP-IN2P3-CNRS, 74 - Annecy-le-Vieux (France)

    2006-07-01

    The measurements done with the sensors available in our laboratories used for ground motion analysis are presented. The first sensors studied are seismic sensors measuring ground velocity, other sensors are accelerometers available for measuring ground acceleration. The first step has been to characterize the sensors, the second step has been to model and simulate the acceleration in order to identify Eigen frequencies and to display mode shapes. The third step has been to assess the performances of a new algorithm for disturbance rejection. In order to facilitate the analysis, a reduced-size mock-up has been used. The goal was to eliminate or at least to reduce as much as possible the main frequencies of the disturbance. A new mock-up is currently being developed that will have a geometry closer to a final focus quadrupole. Measurements will be done to validate the whole system in view of active stabilization for a future linear collider.

  5. Focus on the Activity of a Local Ethics Committee in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Barbadoro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The continuing evolution of medical treatments and the loss of neutrality of medicine with respect to morality of human values have represented the major tracking elements towards settings of sharing of choices between society and medicine. Several concerns have been raised upon links between pharmaceutical corporations and researchers. Moreover, being in a learning environment, we must pay even more attention to these items because students appear to be at risk for unrecognized influence by marketing efforts. The aim of this study is to focus on the activities of a local ethics committee (LEC and the characteristics of the protocols discussed in an Italian LEC during a three year period (2001-2003.

    Methods: Three years of activity of a LEC were analysed by a questionnaire registering: main sponsorship, setting, technical characteristics of trials, outcome of the submission to the LEC, state of progress. Approved trials were followed-up until April 30th, 2005.

    Results: A total of 345 protocols were discussed. 67.8% (n = 198 of approved protocols were submitted by a pharmaceutical corporation. 72.6% (n = 212 of studies approved in 2001 were still in progress in 2005. 91.3% (n = 73 of closed trials had a pharmaceutical corporation as their main sponsor. None of the submitted studies focused on prevention strategies.

    Conclusions: These results show how important grants offered by pharmaceutical industries are, the efforts spent on therapy and the lack of investors in prevention.

  6. Engaging families in physical activity research: a family-based focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Schiff, Annie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-11-25

    Family-based interventions present a much-needed opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, little is known about how best to engage parents and their children in physical activity research. This study aimed to engage with the whole family to understand how best to recruit for, and retain participation in, physical activity research. Families (including a 'target' child aged between 8 and 11 years, their parents, siblings, and others) were recruited through schools and community groups. Focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured approach (informed by a pilot session). Families were asked to order cards listing the possible benefits of, and the barriers to, being involved in physical activity research and other health promotion activities, highlighting the items they consider most relevant, and suggesting additional items. Duplicate content analysis was used to identify transcript themes and develop a coding frame. Eighty-two participants from 17 families participated, including 17 'target' children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% female), 32 other children and 33 adults (including parents, grandparents, and older siblings). Social, health and educational benefits were cited as being key incentives for involvement in physical activity research, with emphasis on children experiencing new things, developing character, and increasing social contact (particularly for shy children). Children's enjoyment was also given priority. The provision of child care or financial reward was not considered sufficiently appealing. Increased time commitment or scheduling difficulties were quoted as the most pertinent barriers to involvement (especially for families with several children), but parents commented these could be overcome if the potential value for children was clear. Lessons learned from this work may contribute to the development of effective recruitment and retention strategies for children and their families. Making the wide

  7. Distinct Neural Activity Associated with Focused-Attention Meditation and Loving-Kindness Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Leung, Mei-Kei; Hou, Wai-Kai; Tang, Joey C. Y.; Yin, Jing; So, Kwok-Fai; Lee, Chack-Fan; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the dissociable neural effects of ānāpānasati (focused-attention meditation, FAM) and mettā (loving-kindness meditation, LKM) on BOLD signals during cognitive (continuous performance test, CPT) and affective (emotion-processing task, EPT, in which participants viewed affective pictures) processing. Twenty-two male Chinese expert meditators (11 FAM experts, 11 LKM experts) and 22 male Chinese novice meditators (11 FAM novices, 11 LKM novices) had their brain activity monitored by a 3T MRI scanner while performing the cognitive and affective tasks in both meditation and baseline states. We examined the interaction between state (meditation vs. baseline) and expertise (expert vs. novice) separately during LKM and FAM, using a conjunction approach to reveal common regions sensitive to the expert meditative state. Additionally, exclusive masking techniques revealed distinct interactions between state and group during LKM and FAM. Specifically, we demonstrated that the practice of FAM was associated with expertise-related behavioral improvements and neural activation differences in attention task performance. However, the effect of state LKM meditation did not carry over to attention task performance. On the other hand, both FAM and LKM practice appeared to affect the neural responses to affective pictures. For viewing sad faces, the regions activated for FAM practitioners were consistent with attention-related processing; whereas responses of LKM experts to sad pictures were more in line with differentiating emotional contagion from compassion/emotional regulation processes. Our findings provide the first report of distinct neural activity associated with forms of meditation during sustained attention and emotion processing. PMID:22905090

  8. Focused campaign increases activity among participants in Nature's Notebook, a citizen science project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants’ activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a national-scale citizen science program. The campaign that we implemented was designed to answer a compelling scientific question. We invited participants in the phenology-observing program, Nature’s Notebook, to track trees throughout the spring of 2012, to ascertain whether the season arrived as early as the anomalous spring of 2010. Consisting of a series of six electronic newsletters and costing our office slightly more than 1 week of staff resources, our effort was successful; compared with previous years, the number of observations collected in the region where the campaign was run increased by 184%, the number of participants submitting observations increased by 116%, and the number of trees registered increased by 110%. In comparison, these respective metrics grew by 25, 55, and 44%, over previous years, in the southeastern quadrant of the United States, where no such campaign was carried out. The campaign approach we describe here is a model that could be adapted by a wide variety of programs to increase engagement and thereby positively influence participant retention.

  9. Influence of attention focus on neural activity in the human spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Patrick W; Coe, Brian C; Munoz, Doug P

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of sensation and pain in healthy people are believed to be the net result of sensory input and descending modulation from brainstem and cortical regions depending on emotional and cognitive factors. Here, the influence of attention on neural activity in the spinal cord during thermal sensory stimulation of the hand was investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging by systematically varying the participants' attention focus across and within repeated studies. Attention states included (1) attention to the stimulus by rating the sensation and (2) attention away from the stimulus by performing various mental tasks of watching a movie and identifying characters, detecting the direction of coherently moving dots within a randomly moving visual field and answering mentally-challenging questions. Functional MRI results spanning the cervical spinal cord and brainstem consistently demonstrated that the attention state had a significant influence on the activity detected in the cervical spinal cord, as well as in brainstem regions involved with the descending analgesia system. These findings have important implications for the detection and study of pain, and improved characterization of the effects of injury or disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Elementary physical education: A focus on fitness activities and smaller class sizes are associated with higher levels of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Kirkham-King

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015–2016 from 281 students (1st–5th grade, 137 males, 144 females from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3days per week during physical education. A multi-level general linear mixed effects model was employed to examine the relationship among various physical education contextual factors and percent of wear time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA, accounting for clustering of observations within students and the clustering of students within classrooms. Explored contextual factors included grade level, lesson context, sex, and class size. Main effects and interactions among the factors were explored in the multi-level models. A two-way interaction of lesson context and class size on %MVPA was shown to be statistically significant. The greatest differences were found to be between fitness lessons using small class sizes compared to motor skill lessons using larger class sizes (β=14.8%, 95% C.I. 5.7%–23.9% p<0.001. Lessons that included a focus on fitness activities with class sizes that were <25 students associated with significantly higher %MVPA during elementary physical education. Keywords: Exercise, Physical education and training, Adolescents

  11. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Jackson, J A; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy s (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that

  12. Translation of lifestyle modification programs focused on physical activity and dietary habits delivered in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Stanzilis, Katie; Falcon, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) can provide individuals with behavioral skills to sustain long-term changes to their physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits. Yet, there is much work to be done in the translation of these programs to community settings. This review identified LMPs that focused on changing both PA and dietary behaviors and examined common features and barriers faced in their translation to community settings. A search of multiple online databases was conducted to identify LMPs that included participants over the age of 18 who enrolled in LMPs, offered in community settings, and had the goal of improving both PA and dietary behaviors. Data were extracted on participant demographics, study design characteristics, and study outcome variables including changes in PA, dietary habits, body weight, and clinical outcomes. We identified 27 studies that met inclusion criteria. Despite high levels of retention and adherence to the interventions, varying levels of success were observed in increasing PA levels, improving dietary habits, reducing body weight, and improving clinic outcomes. LMPs addressing issues of PA and dietary habits can be successfully implemented in a community setting. However, inconsistent reporting of key components in the translation of these studies (participant recruitment, utilization of behavioral strategies) may limit their replication and advancement of future programs. Future efforts should better address issues such as identifying barriers to participation and program implementation, utilization of community resources, and evaluating changes across multiple health behaviors.

  13. 78 FR 38993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... generally conduct further research before making important decisions such as adopting new policies and...' attitudes, beliefs, motivations, and feelings than do quantitative studies. Focus groups serve the narrowly...

  14. Getting kids active by participating in sport and doing It more often: focusing on what matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandic Sandra

    2012-07-01

    activity levels and identify target groups and areas for interventions, program design and policy development. Interventions should focus on improving accessibility to sport programs for all adolescents, providing adequate sport grounds at school, and promoting good sport management practices. Programs and policies encouraging sport participation should address in particular the needs of adolescents living in deprived neighborhoods, those attending coeducational and girls-only schools, and those who are obese.

  15. Getting kids active by participating in sport and doing It more often: focusing on what matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    physical activity levels and identify target groups and areas for interventions, program design and policy development. Interventions should focus on improving accessibility to sport programs for all adolescents, providing adequate sport grounds at school, and promoting good sport management practices. Programs and policies encouraging sport participation should address in particular the needs of adolescents living in deprived neighborhoods, those attending coeducational and girls-only schools, and those who are obese. PMID:22788577

  16. Getting kids active by participating in sport and doing it more often: focusing on what matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Sandra; Bengoechea, Enrique García; Stevens, Emily; de la Barra, Sophia Leon; Skidmore, Paula

    2012-07-12

    Reduced time dedicated to physical education and free play in recent decades emphasizes the need to promote opportunities for sport participation in adolescents in order to increase physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of sociodemographic and biological characteristics, behavioural patterns, and school-related and sport-specific variables with time spent participating in sport. A total of 1837 secondary school students (age: 14.6 ± 1.2 years; 50.9 % boys) from 19 of 23 schools in the Otago Region (New Zealand) completed an online sport survey and Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire in 2009. Using multilevel modeling, we examined the association of individual-, school- and sport-related variables on sport participation and the amount of time spent in sports. Higher rates of sport participation were associated with lower neighbourhood deprivation scores (OR (95%CI): 0.75 (0.49-1.14), 0.57 (0.38-0.86), 0.48 (0.28-0.81)), higher quintiles of physical activity (2.89 (2.10-3.96), 2.81 (1.68-4.70), 3.54 (2.24-5.57), 3.97 (1.99-7.95)), highest quintiles of screen time (1.58 (0.94-2.65), 1.99 (1.42-2.80), 2.17 (1.43-3.30), 1.88 (1.37-2.57)) and boys only school status (2.21 (1.57-3.10)). Greater amount of time spent in sports was associated with male gender (0.56 (0.43-0.74), lower neighbourhood deprivation scores (0.72 (0.59-0.93), 0.78 (0.58-1.04), 0.62 (0.39-1.00)), higher quintiles of physical activity (3.18 (2.29-4.41), 4.25 (2.91-6.20), 8.33 (5.58-12.44), 6.58 (4.07-10.64)), highest quintile of screen time (1.83 (1.31-2.56), greater availability of sports outside school (1.68 (1.22-2.32)), better sport management (2.57 (1.63-4.07)) and provision of sport courts at school (0.57 (0.40-0.81)). Conversely, obesity was associated with less time spent participating in sport (0.50 (0.31-0.80)). Results support the use of sport participation as an effective strategy to increase physical activity levels and identify target

  17. WMO's activities in gender mainstreaming in geosciences, with a special focus on integrated flood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaenkova, Elena; Caponi, Claudio; Alexieva, Assia; Poissonnier, Maud; Tripathi, Ramesh

    2017-04-01

    Statistics show that women represent a minority in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). They are significantly underrepresented in governance, management and international negotiations. They further comprise only a third of the global workforce at National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and only one out of five senior managers is a woman. This paper presents historical trends and statistics on the participation of women and men in all structures and activities of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It explores the root causes of women's underrepresentation in the meteorological, hydrological and climatological profession as well as analyzes its adverse effects in terms of the scarcity of role models for young female professionals and the lack of gender considerations in the provision of weather, hydrological and climate services. The paper presents WMO's approach to addressing these issues through the adoption of a WMO Gender Equality Policy, a comprehensive Gender Action Plan, targeted leadership training, a series of awareness raising campaigns, and specific recommendations on how to make weather, hydrological and climate services more gender-sensitive. As a specific example, the Associated Programme on Flood Management (APFM) of WMO and the Global Water Partnership (GWP) is in the process of developing a training manual for gender mainstreaming in integrated flood management. This generic, instructive, at the same time informative training manual and facilitator's guide will strive to fill gaps in practical knowledge, decision-making and further provide assistance in gender sensitive approaches for both local policy makers and communities affected by floods. The format and contents of the manual are particularly focused on every phase of the flood management cycle, incorporating gender based needs, strategies and actions/approaches. The facilitator or training instructor is encouraged to adapt the materials with local case

  18. The Effects of External Focus of Attention on Shoulder Muscle Activities during Forehand Drive in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hatami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the external focus of attention on the rotator cuff muscle activity for the timely hit forehand drive by table tennis players. Methods: Twelve professional table tennis players with mean age of 26.5 years voluntarily participated in this study. The electrical activities of the muscles of the shoulder girdle using M.A 300 machine and bipolar electrodes surface under two conditions .First with external focus of attention and then without such attention were recorded, first without any guidance blows forehand drive was carried out by subjects (without focus. Then such subject was asked to focus their attention on the area marked for the ball landing (external focus of attention.      Muscle activities in both preparation and tapping phases were analyzed the three –dimensional (200 Hz, Vicon, with four camera series T motion analysis system was used to obtain the data. Data was analyzed by running reported measures ANOVA at a significance level of p0.05 but the different between the intensity of muscle activity was meaningful. This suggests that there is a mutual influence between the two attention factors and muscles (p=0.03, that is, orientation can have a significant effect on the severity of muscle contraction. Intensities of muscle contraction in the preparation and tapping were different (p<0.05. Conclusion: On the forehand drive technique, the anterior deltoid muscle has the most activity. The type of focus and attention had a significant impact on the change of activity of muscles relative to each other, and the greatest impact is on the reduction of activity of the infraspinatus muscle. This type of focus delays fatigue and results in an increase in the efficiency of neuromuscular in the activities of skills.

  19. Tool Mediation in Focus on Form Activities: Case Studies in a Grammar-Exploring Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Petter; Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa; Lindstrom, Henrik; Knutsson, Ola

    2007-01-01

    We present two case studies of two different pedagogical tasks in a Computer Assisted Language Learning environment called Grim. The main design principle in Grim is to support "Focus on Form" in second language pedagogy. Grim contains several language technology-based features for exploring linguistic forms (static, rule-based and statistical),…

  20. 75 FR 74061 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ..., motivations, and feelings than do quantitative studies. Focus groups serve the narrowly defined need for... to test and refine their ideas but will generally conduct further research before making important decisions, such as adopting new policies and allocating or redirecting significant resources to support...

  1. Focus group interviews reveal reasons for differences in the perception of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Walter (Margot); van’t Spijker, A. (Adriaan); A. Pasma (Annelieke); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); J.J. Luime (Jolanda)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Doctors frequently see patients who have difficulties coping with their disease and rate their disease activity high, despite the fact that according to the doctors, the disease activity is low. This study explored the patients’ perspectives on this discordance that may help

  2. Lack of Active Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Northern Chiapas Focus of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Morales-Castro, Alba L.; Richards, Frank; Peña-Flores, Graciela P.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Prado-Velasco, Gibert

    2010-01-01

    The northern Chiapas onchocerciasis focus has undergone 11 years of ivermectin mass treatment. No evidence of microfilariae in the cornea and/or anterior chamber of the eye or in skin snips was seen in residents examined in 2006 in two sentinel communities (upper limit of the 95% confidence interval [UL 95% CI] = 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively). In children 10 and under, 0 of 305 were found to harbor antibodies to Ov16, a marker of parasite exposure; 0 of 4,400 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected in 2005 contained parasite DNA, giving an UL 95% CI for the infective rate of 0.9/2,000, and an UL 95% CI of the seasonal transmission potential of 1.2 L3/person. These data, assumed to be representative of the focus as a whole, suggest that there is no ongoing transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the northern Chiapas focus. Community-wide treatments with ivermectin were halted in 2008, and a post-treatment surveillance phase was initiated. PMID:20595471

  3. Abnormal transitory focus of hyperactivity revealed by gamma-angioencephalogram in patient with seizure activity. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, C.A.; Chimenes, H.; Perez, R.

    1979-01-01

    A young patient was admitted to the hospital for a neurological accident following an epileptic seizure. An important focus of hyperactivity of the frontal region was noted on the gamma-angioencephalogram, consistent with a vascular malformation or a highly vascular tumor but corresponding in fact to a focal transiroty hyperfusion, with accompanying intense neuronal activity [fr

  4. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  5. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    Full Text Available Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2 exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient

  6. Compact activation detectors for measuring of neutron emission on plasma focus installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokhin, O.N.; Nikulin, V.Ya.; Peregudova, E.V.; Volobuev, I.V.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the two compact simple systems for the measurement of the absolute neutron yield in the range 10 6 - 10 12 neutrons/pulse and higher and spatial anisotropy of neutron radiation. The systems are destined for the registration of the short duration neutron radiation of the pulsed plasma installations, such as Plasma Focus (PF), z-pinches and others plasma installations. This paper also includes the results of the neutron emission measurements on different PF installations: 'Tulip' (P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow Russia), the PF-1000 and PF-150 installations (Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland)

  7. Resilience and Brittleness in a Nuclear Emergency Response Simulation: Focusing on Team Coordination Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wagner Schenkel; Buarque, Lia; Voshell, Martin; Branlat, Matthieu; Woods, David D.; Gomes, Jose Orlando

    2008-01-01

    The current work presents results from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of a nuclear disaster simulation. Audio-visual records were collected from an emergency room team composed of individuals from 26 different agencies as they responded to multiple scenarios in a simulated nuclear disaster. This simulation was part of a national emergency response training activity for a nuclear power plant located in a developing country. The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of resilience and brittleness in these activities, identify cues of potential improvements for future emergency simulations, and leveraging the resilience of the emergency response System in case of a real disaster. Multiple CTA techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the cognitive dimensions of the activity and to identify team coordination and crisis management patterns that emerged from the simulation training. (authors)

  8. Flexibility within working memory and the focus of attention for sequential verbal information does not depend on active maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandry, Joshua; Schwark, Jeremy D; MacDonald, Justin

    2014-10-01

    The focus of attention seems to be a static element within working memory when verbal information is serially presented, unless additional time is available for processing or active maintenance. Experiment 1 manipulated the reward associated with early and medial list positions in a probe recognition paradigm and found evidence that these nonterminal list positions could be retrieved faster and more accurately if participants were appropriately motivated-without additional time for processing or active maintenance. Experiment 2 used articulatory suppression and demonstrated that the underlying maintenance mechanism cannot be attributed to rehearsal, leaving attentional refreshing as the more likely mechanism. These findings suggest that the focus of attention within working memory can flexibly maintain nonterminal early and medial list representations at the expense of other list representations even when there is not additional time for processing or active maintenance. Maintenance seems to be accomplished through an attentional refreshing mechanism.

  9. STATE INSPECTION METHODOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATORY ACTIVITY FOCUSED ON THE LIFE CYCLE PROCESSESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniey Quiala Armenteros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Environmental Regulatory Activity has on the Environmental State Inspection an instrument for control and monitoring of compliance of current legal standards regarding environmental protection and rational use of natural resources. In this research, a design methodology for effective implementation of environmental regulatory activity in Cuba directed to processes is proposed; based on the life cycle assessment and the applicable environmental management standards, including new performance indicators, which form a new tool based on scientific criterions for the Center of Environmental Inspection and Control.

  10. Chemopreventive activity of vitamin E in breast cancer: a focus on γ- and δ-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Amanda K; Suh, Nanjoo

    2011-11-01

    Vitamin E consists of eight different variants: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (saturated phytyl tail) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienols (unsaturated phytyl tail). Cancer prevention studies with vitamin E have primarily utilized the variant α-tocopherol. To no avail, a majority of these studies focused on variant α-tocopherol with inconsistent results. However, γ-tocopherol, and more recently δ-tocopherol, have shown greater ability to reduce inflammation, cell proliferation, and tumor burden. Recent results have shown that γ-enriched mixed tocopherols inhibit the development of mammary hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in animal models. In this review, we discuss the possible differences between the variant forms, molecular targets, and cancer-preventive effects of tocopherols. We recommend that a γ-enriched mixture, γ- and δ-tocopherol, but not α-tocopherol, are promising agents for breast cancer prevention and warrant further investigation.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A WATER SPOUT FOR THE ACTIVE EXTINGUISHING OF THE FOCUS OF AN INTENSE FLAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav LICHOROBIEC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the article is devoted to the experimental development of directional charges, which have a front part filled with water and are thus capable of forming a high velocity water jet, which has intense cooling effects and is accompanied by a shock wave created by the explosion of the charge. The water jet can then be used to extinguish the flame from an intense fire epicenter caused, for example, by a gas pipe failure, a tank with flammable liquid or an oil well. The text is accompanied with the visual design of the water spout prototype, including the experimental test of extinguishing the focus of an intense flame caused by various sources.

  12. Forum: Communication Activism Pedagogy. Look to Our Campuses for Focus and Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kathleen F.

    2017-01-01

    Lawrence R. Frey and David L. Palmer describe communication activism pedagogy (CAP) as "putting meat on critical pedagogy's theoretical bones" and applying theory to real-life activist movements (Frey & Palmer 2014). Their hope is to inspire students "beyond matriculation to develop their roles as activists," and Frey and…

  13. 77 FR 28894 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Policy and Strategy, 20 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington, DC 20529-2020. Comments may also be submitted...: Individuals or households; Business or other for-profit. The information collection activity will garner... directly to the improvement of program management. Feedback collected under this generic clearance will...

  14. Fatherhood in focus, sexual activity can wait: new fathers' experience about sexual life after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Ann; Robertson, Eva; Björklund, Anders; Nissen, Eva

    2010-12-01

    Becoming a parent is overwhelming for most men and women and alters the sexual relationship for many couples. To describe fathers' experience about sexual life after childbirth within the first 6 months after childbirth. A descriptive design, using content analysis with a qualitative approach, based on focus group discussions and one-to-one interviews. Eight first-time and two subsequent fathers participated. Three subthemes were identified: Struggling between stereotypes and personal perceptions of male sexuality during transition to fatherhood; new frames for negotiating sex; a need to feel safe and at ease in the new family situation. The overarching theme emerged as 'transition to fatherhood brings sexual life to a crossroads' and guided us to a deeper understanding of the difficulties men experience during the transition to fatherhood. To get sexual life working, a number of issues had to be resolved, such as getting involved in the care of the baby and the household and getting in tune with their partners in regard to sexual desire. The men needed to be reassured and prepared for this new situation by health care professionals. New fathers in our study put the baby in focus in early parenthood and were prepared to postpone sex until both parties were ready, although they needed reassurance to feel at ease with the new family situation. The fathers' perceptions of sexual life extended to include all kinds of closeness and touching, and it deviated from the stereotype of male sexuality. This is important information for health care providers and midwives to be aware of for their encounters with men (and women) during the transition to fatherhood, and parenthood and can contribute to caring science with a gender perspective on adjustment of sexual life after childbirth. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. EFNEP graduates' perspectives on social media to supplement nutrition education: focus group findings from active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Benavente, Lisa; Goodell, L Suzanne; Lassiter, Annie; Jones, Lorelei; Bowen, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To identify ways to effectively use social media to communicate nutrition-related information to low-income populations. The authors conducted 4 focus groups with female Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates who used social media at least twice a week (n = 26 total). Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify key themes. For participants, page content, page maintenance, and networking opportunities with others were important aspects of a nutrition education social media page. Trust emerged as a central theme, because participants expressed a need for reliable information from known, credible sources and safe places to share ideas. Using social media to provide nutrition-related messages may be an effective way to encourage sustained positive behavior changes resulting from educational programming and to engage participants beyond class time. Establishing the trustworthiness of the social media site is essential to its use among low-income participants. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Theory and Practice of Customer Loyalty Management and Customer Focus in the Enterprise Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kiseleva, Elena M.; Nekrasova, Marina L.; Mayorova, Marina A.; Rudenko, Marina N.; Kankhva, Vadim S.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays in Companies paid much attention to client relationship management. In modern conditions there is an unclear distinction between the terms “customer loyalty” and “brand loyalty”. They were developed at different times and within different concepts: the term “brand loyalty” was coined in the early 20-ies in the United States and was developed in the framework of the branding concept, and the term “customer loyalty” began to develop actively in the 80 -e years. Currently, brand loyalty...

  17. Structure-function relationships in reconstituted HDL: Focus on antioxidative activity and cholesterol efflux capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Alexandre M O; Therond, Patrice; Didichenko, Svetlana A; Guillas, Isabelle; Chapman, M John; Wright, Samuel D; Kontush, Anatol

    2017-09-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) contains multiple components that endow it with biological activities. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and surface phospholipids contribute to these activities; however, structure-function relationships in HDL particles remain incompletely characterised. Reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) were prepared from apoA-I and soy phosphatidylcholine (PC) at molar ratios of 1:50, 1:100 and 1:150. Oxidative status of apoA-I was varied using controlled oxidation of Met112 residue. HDL-mediated inactivation of PC hydroperoxides (PCOOH) derived from mildly pre-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was evaluated by HPLC with chemiluminescent detection in HDL+LDL mixtures and re-isolated LDL. Cellular cholesterol efflux was characterised in RAW264.7 macrophages. rHDL inactivated LDL-derived PCOOH in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The capacity of rHDL to both inactivate PCOOH and efflux cholesterol via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) increased with increasing apoA-I/PC ratio proportionally to the apoA-I content in rHDL. Controlled oxidation of apoA-I Met112 gradually decreased PCOOH-inactivating capacity of rHDL but increased ABCA1-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux. Increasing apoA-I content in rHDL enhanced its antioxidative activity towards oxidized LDL and cholesterol efflux capacity via ABCA1, whereas oxidation of apoA-I Met112 decreased the antioxidative activity but increased the cholesterol efflux. These findings provide important considerations in the design of future HDL therapeutics. Non-standard abbreviations and acronyms: AAPH, 2,2'-azobis(-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride; ABCA1, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1; apoA-I, apolipoprotein A-I; BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene; CV, cardiovascular; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LOOH, lipid hydroperoxides; Met(O), methionine sulfoxide; Met112, methionine 112 residue; Met86, methionine 86 residue; oxLDL, oxidized low

  18. Preparing graduate student teaching assistants in the sciences: An intensive workshop focused on active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Julie A; Jakob, Susanne; Roehrig, Casey; Brenner, Tamara J

    2018-03-12

    In the past ten years, increasing evidence has demonstrated that scientific teaching and active learning improve student retention and learning gains in the sciences. Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs), who play an important role in undergraduate education at many universities, require training in these methods to encourage implementation, long-term adoption, and advocacy. Here, we describe the design and evaluation of a two-day training workshop for first-year GTAs in the life sciences. This workshop combines instruction in current research and theory supporting teaching science through active learning as well as opportunities for participants to practice teaching and receive feedback from peers and mentors. Postworkshop assessments indicated that GTA participants' knowledge of key topics increased during the workshop. In follow-up evaluations, participants reported that the workshop helped them prepare for teaching. This workshop design can easily be adapted to a wide range of science disciplines. Overall, the workshop prepares graduate students to engage, include, and support undergraduates from a variety of backgrounds when teaching in the sciences. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. On the comparability of knowledge transfer activities - a case study at the German Baltic Sea Coast focusing regional climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Insa

    2017-06-01

    In this article the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is discussed by accounting for external impacts. It is shown that factors which are neither part of the knowledge transfer activity nor part of the participating institution may have significant impact on the potential usefulness of knowledge transfer activities. Differences in the potential usefulness are leading to different initial conditions of the knowledge transfer activities. This needs to be taken into account when comparing different knowledge transfer activities, e.g., in program evaluations. This study is focusing on regional climate services at the German Baltic Sea coast. It is based on two surveys and experiences with two identical web tools applied on two regions with different spatial coverage. The results show that comparability among science based knowledge transfer activities is strongly limited through several external impacts. The potential usefulness and thus the initial condition of a particular knowledge transfer activity strongly depends on (1) the perceived priority of the focused topic, (2) the used information channels, (3) the conformity between the research agenda of service providing institutions and information demands in the public, as well as (4) on the spatial coverage of a service. It is suggested to account for the described external impacts for evaluations of knowledge transfer activities. The results show that the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is limited and challenge the adequacy of quantitative measures in this context. Moreover, as shown in this case study, in particular regional climate services should be individually evaluated on a long term perspective, by potential user groups and/or by its real users. It is further suggested that evaluation criteria should be co-developed with these stakeholder groups.

  20. Unspoken Playground Rules Discourage Adolescent Physical Activity in School: A Focus Group Study of Constructs in the Prototype Willingness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Catherine M; Davies, Emma L; Dawes, Helen

    2018-03-01

    The health benefits of exercise in school are recognized, yet physical activity continues to decline during early adolescence despite numerous interventions. In this study, we investigated whether the prototype willingness model, an account of adolescent decision making that includes both reasoned behavioral choices and unplanned responses to social environments, might improve understanding of physical activity in school. We conducted focus groups with British pupils aged 12 to 13 years and used deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the model. Participants described reasoned decisions about physical activity outside school and unplanned choices to be inactive during break, in response to social contexts described as more "judgmental" than in primary school. Social contexts appeared characterized by anxiety about competence, negative peer evaluation, and inactive playground norms. The prototype willingness model might more fully explain physical activity in school than reasoned behavioral models alone, indicating potential for interventions targeting anxieties about playground social environments.

  1. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  2. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  3. Effects of pesticide chemicals on the activity of metabolic enzymes: focus on thiocarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cécile; Duval, Romain; Xu, Ximing; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Thiocarbamates are chemicals widely used as pesticides. Occupational exposure is associated with acute intoxication. Populations can be exposed through food and water. Moreover, certain thiocarbamates are used clinically. The widespread use of thiocarbamates raises many issues regarding their toxicological and pharmacological impact. Thiocarbamates and their metabolites can modify biological macromolecules functions, in particular enzymes, through modification of cysteine residues, chelation of metal ions or modulation of the oxidative stress. Loss of enzyme activity can lead to the disruption of metabolic pathways, and explain, at least in part, the effects of these pesticides. Additionally, their reactivity and ability to easily cross biological barrier confer them a great interest for development of clinical applications. Many advances in the study of thiocarbamates metabolism and reactivity have led to a better knowledge of biological effects of these compounds. However, more data are needed on the determination of targets and specificity. Only few data concerning the exposure to a cocktail of pesticides/chemicals are available, raising the need to evaluate the toxic side effects of representative pesticides mixtures. Moreover, the dithiocarbamate Disulfiram has shown great potential in therapeutic applications and leads to the development of pharmacological thiocarbamates derivatives, highly specific to their target and easily distributed.

  4. The Energy Audit Activity Focused on the Lighting Systems in Historical Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Salvadori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy audit for a building is a procedure designed mainly to obtain adequate knowledge of the energy consumption profile, identify, and quantify opportunities for energy savings by a cost-benefit analysis and report, clearly and comprehensively, about the obtained results. If the audit is referred to a building with a significant historical and artistic value, a compatibility evaluation of the energy saving interventions with the architectural features should also be developed. In this paper, analysing the case study of a historical building used as public offices in Pisa (Italy, the authors describe how it is possible to conduct an energy audit activity (especially dedicated to the lighting system and they show how, for this type of buildings, it is possible to obtain significant energy savings with a refurbishment of the lighting system. A total number of seven interventions on indoor and outdoor lighting sub-systems were analysed in the paper. They are characterised by absolute compatibility with the historical and artistic value of the building and they show short payback times, variable between 4 and 34 months, allowing a reduction of the electrical energy consumption for the artificial indoor and outdoor lighting variable from 1.1 MWh/year to 39.0 MWh/year. The followed methodology and the evaluation results described in the paper, although based on a case study, can be extended to numerous historical buildings used as public offices, a recurring situation in the centres of Italian historical cities.

  5. Trans-methylation reactions in plants: focus on the activated methyl cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Moona; Alegre, Sara; Trotta, Andrea; Pascual, Jesús; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa

    2018-02-01

    Trans-methylation reactions are vital in basic metabolism, epigenetic regulation, RNA metabolism, and posttranslational control of protein function and therefore fundamental in determining the physiological processes in all living organisms. The plant kingdom is additionally characterized by the production of secondary metabolites that undergo specific hydroxylation, oxidation and methylation reactions to obtain a wide array of different chemical structures. Increasing research efforts have started to reveal the enzymatic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of complex metabolites in plants. Further engineering of these enzymatic machineries offers significant possibilities in the development of bio-based technologies, but necessitates deep understanding of their potential metabolic and regulatory interactions. Trans-methylation reactions are tightly coupled with the so-called activated methyl cycle (AMC), an essential metabolic circuit that maintains the trans-methylation capacity in all living cells. Tight regulation of the AMC is crucial in ensuring accurate trans-methylation reactions in different subcellular compartments, cell types, developmental stages and environmental conditions. This review addresses the organization and posttranslational regulation of the AMC and elaborates its critical role in determining metabolic regulation through modulation of methyl utilization in stress-exposed plants. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Preliminary focus on the mechanical and antibacterial activity of a PMMA-based bone cement loaded with gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Russo

    2017-09-01

    As reported in the literature, the stress distribution may be altered in bones after the implantation of a total joint prosthesis. Some scientific works have also correlated uncemented TKA to a progressive decrease of bone density below the tibial component. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are commonly employed in conjunction with systemic antibiotics to treat infections. Furthermore, nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity have been widely analysed. Accordingly, the current research was focused on a preliminary analysis of the mechanical and antibacterial activity of a PMMA-based bone cement loaded with gold nanoparticles. The obtained results demonstrated that nanocomposite cements with a specific concentration of gold nanoparticles improved the punching performance and antibacterial activity. However, critical aspects were found in the optimization of the nanocomposite bone cement.

  7. The relationship between Facebook and Instagram appearance-focused activities and body image concerns in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Rachel; Newton-John, Toby; Slater, Amy

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify the specific social networking sites (SNS) features that relate to body image concerns in young women. A total of 259 women aged 18-29years completed questionnaire measures of SNS use (Facebook and Instagram) and body image concerns. It was found that appearance-focused SNS use, rather than overall SNS use, was related to body image concerns in young women. Specifically, greater engagement in photo activities on Facebook, but not general Facebook use, was associated with greater thin-ideal internalisation and body surveillance. Similarly, following appearance-focused accounts on Instagram was associated with thin-ideal internalisation, body surveillance, and drive for thinness, whereas following appearance-neutral accounts was not associated with any body image outcomes. Implications for future SNS research, as well as for body image and disordered eating interventions for young women, are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-02-28

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.

  9. Switching between internally and externally focused attention in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Abnormal visual cortex activation and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Emily R; Muratore, Alexandra F; Taylor, Stephan F; Abelson, James L; Hof, Patrick R; Goodman, Wayne K

    2017-07-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by excessive absorption with internally-generated distressing thoughts and urges, with difficulty incorporating external information running counter to their fears and concerns. In the present study, we experimentally probed this core feature of OCD through the use of a novel attention switching task that investigates transitions between internally focused (IF) and externally focused (EF) attentional states. Eighteen OCD patients and 18 controls imagined positive and negative personal event scenarios (IF state) or performed a color-word Stroop task (EF state). The IF/EF states were followed by a target detection (TD) task requiring responses to external stimuli. Compared to controls, OCD patients made significantly more errors and showed reduced activation of superior and inferior occipital cortex, thalamus, and putamen during TD following negative IF, with the inferior occipital hypoactivation being significantly greater for TD following negative IF compared to TD following the other conditions. Patients showed stronger functional connectivity between the inferior occipital region and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. These findings point to an OCD-related impairment in the visual processing of external stimuli specifically when they follow a period of negative internal focus, and suggest that future treatments may wish to target the transition between attentional states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Project-focused activity and knowledge tracker: a unified data analysis, collaboration, and workflow tool for medicinal chemistry project teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodney, Marian D; Brosius, Arthur D; Gregory, Tracy; Heck, Steven D; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn L; Poss, Christopher S

    2009-12-01

    Advances in the field of drug discovery have brought an explosion in the quantity of data available to medicinal chemists and other project team members. New strategies and systems are needed to help these scientists to efficiently gather, organize, analyze, annotate, and share data about potential new drug molecules of interest to their project teams. Herein we describe a suite of integrated services and end-user applications that facilitate these activities throughout the medicinal chemistry design cycle. The Automated Data Presentation (ADP) and Virtual Compound Profiler (VCP) processes automate the gathering, organization, and storage of real and virtual molecules, respectively, and associated data. The Project-Focused Activity and Knowledge Tracker (PFAKT) provides a unified data analysis and collaboration environment, enhancing decision-making, improving team communication, and increasing efficiency.

  11. Does Contralateral Delay Activity Reflect Working Memory Storage or the Current Focus of Spatial Attention within Visual Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Nick; Eimer, Martin

    2016-12-01

    During the retention of visual information in working memory, event-related brain potentials show a sustained negativity over posterior visual regions contralateral to the side where memorized stimuli were presented. This contralateral delay activity (CDA) is generally believed to be a neural marker of working memory storage. In two experiments, we contrasted this storage account of the CDA with the alternative hypothesis that the CDA reflects the current focus of spatial attention on a subset of memorized items set up during the most recent encoding episode. We employed a sequential loading procedure where participants memorized four task-relevant items that were presented in two successive memory displays (M1 and M2). In both experiments, CDA components were initially elicited contralateral to task-relevant items in M1. Critically, the CDA switched polarity when M2 displays appeared on the opposite side. In line with the attentional activation account, these reversed CDA components exclusively reflected the number of items that were encoded from M2 displays, irrespective of how many M1 items were already held in working memory. On trials where M1 and M2 displays were presented on the same side and on trials where M2 displays appeared nonlaterally, CDA components elicited in the interval after M2 remained sensitive to a residual trace of M1 items, indicating that some activation of previously stored items was maintained across encoding episodes. These results challenge the hypothesis that CDA amplitudes directly reflect the total number of stored objects and suggest that the CDA is primarily sensitive to the activation of a subset of working memory representations within the current focus of spatial attention.

  12. Rsr1 Focuses Cdc42 Activity at Hyphal Tips and Promotes Maintenance of Hyphal Development in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Rebecca; Heisel, Timothy; Gonia, Sara; Robins, Robert; Norton, Jennifer; Haynes, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The extremely elongated morphology of fungal hyphae is dependent on the cell's ability to assemble and maintain polarized growth machinery over multiple cell cycles. The different morphologies of the fungus Candida albicans make it an excellent model organism in which to study the spatiotemporal requirements for constitutive polarized growth and the generation of different cell shapes. In C. albicans, deletion of the landmark protein Rsr1 causes defects in morphogenesis that are not predicted from study of the orthologous protein in the related yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thus suggesting that Rsr1 has expanded functions during polarized growth in C. albicans. Here, we show that Rsr1 activity localizes to hyphal tips by the differential localization of the Rsr1 GTPase-activating protein (GAP), Bud2, and guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Bud5. In addition, we find that Rsr1 is needed to maintain the focused localization of hyphal polarity structures and proteins, including Bem1, a marker of the active GTP-bound form of the Rho GTPase, Cdc42. Further, our results indicate that tip-localized Cdc42 clusters are associated with the cell's ability to express a hyphal transcriptional program and that the ability to generate a focused Cdc42 cluster in early hyphae (germ tubes) is needed to maintain hyphal morphogenesis over time. We propose that in C. albicans, Rsr1 “fine-tunes” the distribution of Cdc42 activity and that self-organizing (Rsr1-independent) mechanisms of polarized growth are not sufficient to generate narrow cell shapes or to provide feedback to the transcriptional program during hyphal morphogenesis. PMID:23223038

  13. Regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial activity by thyroid hormones: focus on "old" triiodothyronine and the "emerging" 3,5-diiodothyronine".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta eLombardi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 plays a crucial role in regulating metabolic rate and fuel oxidation; however, the mechanisms by which it affects whole-body energy metabolism are still not completely understood. Skeletal muscle (SKM plays a relevant role in energy metabolism and responds to thyroid state by remodeling the metabolic characteristics and cytoarchitecture of myocytes. These processes are coordinated with changes in mitochondrial content, bioenergetics, substrate oxidation rate, and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. Recent data indicate that emerging iodothyronines have biological activity. Among these, 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2 affects energy metabolism, SKM substrate utilization, and mitochondrial functionality. The effects it exerts on SKM mitochondria involve more aspects of mitochondrial bioenergetics; among these, respiratory chain activity, mitochondrial thermogenesis, and lipid-handling are stimulated rapidly. This minireview focuses on signaling and biochemical pathways activated by T3 and T2 in SKM that influence the above processes. These novel aspects of thyroid physiology could reveal new perspectives for understanding the involvement of SKM mitochondria in hypo- and hyperthyroidism.

  14. HIV/STI Prevention Among Heterosexually Active Black Adolescents With Mental Illnesses: Focus Group Findings for Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Wingood, Gina; Reason, Janaiya; Mack, Niya

    Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms. Participants also supported the feasibility of and interest in HIV/STI prevention programs integrated with mental health treatment. Transportation, potential breaches of confidentiality, and time were noted barriers to participation. Psychoeducational, skills-based programs are needed to address the sequelae of mental illnesses as they relate to the sexual decision-making process in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rethinking physical activity communication: using focus groups to understand women's goals, values, and beliefs to improve public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Michelle; Taber, Jennifer M; Patrick, Heather; Thai, Chan L; Oh, April

    2017-05-18

    Communication about physical activity (PA) frames PA and influences what it means to people, including the role it plays in their lives. To the extent that PA messages can be designed to reflect outcomes that are relevant to what people most value experiencing and achieving in their daily lives, the more compelling and effective they will be. Aligned with self-determination theory, this study investigated proximal goals and values that are salient in everyday life and how they could be leveraged through new messaging to better support PA participation among women. The present study was designed to examine the nature of women's daily goals and priorities and investigate women's PA beliefs, feelings, and experiences, in order to identify how PA may compete with or facilitate women's daily goals and priorities. Preliminary recommendations are proposed for designing new PA messages that align PA with women's daily goals and desired experiences to better motivate participation. Eight focus groups were conducted with White, Black, and Hispanic/Latina women aged 22-49, stratified by amount of self-reported PA (29 low active participants, 11 high active participants). Respondents discussed their goals, values, and daily priorities along with beliefs, feelings about and experiences being physically active. Data were collected, coded, and analyzed using a thematic analysis strategy to identify emergent themes. Many of the goals and values that both low and high active participants discussed as desiring and valuing map on to key principles of self-determination theory. However, the discussions among low active participants suggested that their beliefs, feelings, experiences, and definitions of PA were in conflict with their proximal goals, values, and priorities, also undermining their psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Findings from this study can be used to inform and evaluate new physical activity communication strategies that leverage more

  16. Overview of recent endeavors on personal aerial vehicles: A focus on the US and Europe led research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolong; Kreimeier, Michael; Stumpf, Eike; Zhou, Yaoming; Liu, Hu

    2017-05-01

    Personal aerial vehicles, an innovative transport mode to bridge the niche between scheduled airliners and ground transport, are seen by aviation researchers and engineers as a solution to provide fast urban on-demand mobility. This paper reviews recent research efforts on the personal aerial vehicle (PAV), with a focus on the US and Europe led research activities. As an extension of the programmatic level overview, several enabling technologies, such as vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL), automation, distributed electric propulsion, which might promote the deployment of PAVs, are introduced and discussed. Despite the dramatic innovation in PAV concept development and related technologies, some challenging issues remain, especially safety, infrastructure and public acceptance. As such, further efforts by many stakeholders are required to enable the real implementation and application of PAVs.

  17. Antioxidant and antiplatelet activity by polyphenol-rich nutrients: focus on extra virgin olive oil and cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Nocella, Cristina; Violi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the Western world. In the last decades nutraceutical approaches have been proposed to counteract atherosclerotic complications. In particular, polyphenols, a class of bio-active molecules prevalently contained in foods such as cocoa, fruits, vegetables, wine and tea, have been widely studied for their beneficial properties. Several epidemiological and interventional studies have shown that polyphenol-rich nutrients, as in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and cocoa, are associated with a risk reduction of cardiovascular events and/or modulation of cardiovascular risk factors. Definition of the mechanisms accounting for this putative cardio-protective effect is still elusive. This review focuses on the mechanisms that may be implicated in the beneficial effects of EVOO and cocoa, including down-regulation of oxidative stress and platelet aggregation, improvement of endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factor such as blood pressure, serum cholesterol and insulin sensitivity. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puiyan Lam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  19. Mapping Priorities to Focus Cropland Mapping Activities: Fitness Assessment of Existing Global, Regional and National Cropland Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Waldner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate information on the global cropland extent is critical for applications in the fields of food security, agricultural monitoring, water management, land-use change modeling and Earth system modeling. On the one hand, it gives detailed location information on where to analyze satellite image time series to assess crop condition. On the other hand, it isolates the agriculture component to focus food security monitoring on agriculture and to assess the potential impacts of climate change on agricultural lands. The cropland class is often poorly captured in global land cover products due to its dynamic nature and the large variety of agro-systems. The overall objective was to evaluate the current availability of cropland datasets in order to propose a strategic planning and effort distribution for future cropland mapping activities and, therefore, to maximize their impact. Following a very comprehensive identification and collection of national to global land cover maps, a multi-criteria analysis was designed at the country level to identify the priority areas for cropland mapping. As a result, the analysis highlighted priority regions, such as Western Africa, Ethiopia, Madagascar and Southeast Asia, for the remote sensing community to focus its efforts. A Unified Cropland Layer at 250 m for the year 2014 was produced combining the fittest products. It was assessed using global validation datasets and yields an overall accuracy ranging from 82%–94%. Masking cropland areas with a global forest map reduced the commission errors from 46% down to 26%. Compared to the GLC-Share and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis-International Food Policy Research Institute (IIASA-IFPRI cropland maps, significant spatial disagreements were found, which might be attributed to discrepancies in the cropland definition. This advocates for a shared definition of cropland, as well as global validation datasets relevant for the

  20. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates

  1. Effect of low solids retention time and focused pulsed pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Su; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-02-01

    The interacting effects of Focused Pulsed (FP) treatment and solids retention time (SRT) were evaluated in laboratory-scale digesters operated at SRTs of 2-20 days. Anaerobic digestion and methanogenesis of waste activated sludge (WAS) were stable for SRT ≥ 5 days, but the effluent soluble organic compounds increased significantly for SRT=2 days due to a combination of faster hydrolysis kinetics and washout of methanogens. FP treatment increased the CH(4) production rate and TCOD removal efficiency by up to 33% and 18%, respectively, at a SRT of 20 days. These effects were the result of an increase in the hydrolysis rate, since the concentrations of soluble components remained low for SRT ≥ 5 days. Alternately, FP pre-treatment of WAS allowed the same conversion of TCOD to CH(4) with a smaller SRT and digester size: e.g., 40% size savings with a CH(4) conversion of 0.23 g CH(4)-COD/g COD(in). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive Impact on Physical Activity and Health Behaviour Changes of a 15-Week Family Focused Intervention Program: "Juniors for Seniors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Michał; Bronikowska, Małgorzata; Pluta, Beata; Maciaszek, Janusz; Tomczak, Maciej; Glapa, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity (PA) in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program "Junior for Seniors" by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children ("juniors," 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M = 7.96 ± 0.69) and 22 parents ("seniors," 14 mothers aged M = 38.86 ± 2.96 and 8 fathers aged M = 37.38 ± 2.97) were voluntarily enrolled in a study spread across three primary schools in the city of Poznań, Poland. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined according to postintervention behavioural changes in PA in comparison to preintervention levels, as reported by the parents and children. Overall, the study found increases in PA levels and reductions in sedentary time. Although the changes are modest, there are some unrecognized benefits of the intervention which may have occurred, such as improved sport and motor skills, more frequent family social behaviours (walks, meals, and visiting relatives), or simply improved quality of "do-together" leisure time PA.

  3. Synthesis of the ASTEC integral code activities in SARNET – Focus on ASTEC V2 plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelard, P.; Reinke, N.; Ezzidi, A.; Lombard, V.; Barnak, M.; Lajtha, G.; Slaby, J.; Constantin, M.; Majumdar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Independent assessment of the ASTEC severe accident code vs. experiments is summarised. • Main remaining modelling issues and development perspectives are identified. • Independent assessment of ASTEC code at full scale conditions is described. • Main requirements to address BWR and PHWR types of reactors are identified. - Abstract: Among the 43 organisations which joined the SARNET2 FP7 project from 2009 to 2013, 31 have been involved in the activities on the ASTEC code. This paper presents a synthesis of the main achievements that have been obtained on the ASTEC V2 integral code, jointly developed by IRSN (France) and GRS (Germany), on development, validation vs. experimental data and applications at full scale conditions for both Gen.II and Gen.III plants. As to code development, while the current V2.0 series of ASTEC versions was continuously improved (elaboration and release by IRSN and GRS of three successive V2.0 revisions), IRSN and GRS have also intensively continued in parallel the elaboration of the second ASTEC V2 major version (version V2.1) to be delivered end of 2014. Regarding code validation vs. experiments, the partners have assessed the V2.0 version and subsequent revisions vs. more than 50 experiments; this extended assessment notably confirmed that most models are today close to the State of the Art, while it also corroborated the yet known key-topics on which modelling efforts should focus in priority. As to plant applications, the comparison of ASTEC results with other codes allows concluding on a globally good agreement for in-vessel and ex-vessel severe accident progression. As to ASTEC adaptations to BWR and PHWR, significant achievements have been obtained through the elaboration and integration in the future V2.1 version of dedicated core degradation models, notably to account for multi coolant flows

  4. Ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Zhang, Siyuan; Fu, Quanyou; Xu, Zhian; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an ultrasound line-by-line scanning method of spatial-temporal active cavitation mapping applicable in a liquid or liquid filled tissue cavities exposed by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Scattered signals from cavitation bubbles were obtained in a scan line immediately after one HIFU exposure, and then there was a waiting time of 2 s long enough to make the liquid back to the original state. As this pattern extended, an image was built up by sequentially measuring a series of such lines. The acquisition of the beamformed radiofrequency (RF) signals for a scan line was synchronized with HIFU exposure. The duration of HIFU exposure, as well as the delay of the interrogating pulse relative to the moment while HIFU was turned off, could vary from microseconds to seconds. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in tap-water and a tap-water filled cavity in the tissue-mimicking gelatin-agar phantom as capable of observing temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud with temporal resolution of several microseconds, lateral and axial resolution of 0.50 mm and 0.29 mm respectively. The dissolution process of cavitation bubble cloud and spatial distribution affected by cavitation previously generated were also investigated. Although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid (e.g. tap water, etc.) that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, the technique may be a useful tool in spatial-temporal cavitation mapping for HIFU with high precision and resolution, providing a reference for clinical therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeted drug delivery with focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening using acoustically-activated nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cherry C; Sheeran, Paul S; Wu, Shih-Ying; Olumolade, Oluyemi O; Dayton, Paul A; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2013-12-28

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of systemically administered microbubbles has been shown to locally, transiently and reversibly increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), thus allowing targeted delivery of therapeutic agents in the brain for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. Currently, microbubbles are the only agents that have been used to facilitate the FUS-induced BBB opening. However, they are constrained within the intravascular space due to their micron-size diameters, limiting the delivery effect at or near the microvessels. In the present study, acoustically-activated nanodroplets were used as a new class of contrast agents to mediate FUS-induced BBB opening in order to study the feasibility of utilizing these nanoscale phase-shift particles for targeted drug delivery in the brain. Significant dextran delivery was achieved in the mouse hippocampus using nanodroplets at clinically relevant pressures. Passive cavitation detection was used in the attempt to establish a correlation between the amount of dextran delivered in the brain and the acoustic emission recorded during sonication. Conventional microbubbles with the same lipid shell composition and perfluorobutane core as the nanodroplets were also used to compare the efficiency of an FUS-induced dextran delivery. It was found that nanodroplets had a higher BBB opening pressure threshold but a lower stable cavitation threshold than microbubbles, suggesting that contrast agent-dependent acoustic emission monitoring was needed. A more homogeneous dextran delivery within the targeted hippocampus was achieved using nanodroplets without inducing inertial cavitation or compromising safety. Our results offered a new means of developing the FUS-induced BBB opening technology for potential extravascular targeted drug delivery in the brain, extending the potential drug delivery region beyond the cerebral vasculature. © 2013.

  6. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  7. Increases in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreases the rostral prefrontal cortex activation after-8 weeks of focused attention based mindfulness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fabbro, Franco

    2016-02-01

    Mindfulness meditation is a form of attention control training. The training exercises the ability to repeatedly focus attention. We addressed the activation changes related to an 8-weeks mindfulness-oriented focused attention meditation training on an initially naïve subject cohort. Before and after training participants underwent an fMRI experiment, thus, although not strictly a cross over design, they served as their internal own control. During fMRI they exercised focused attention on breathing and body scan as compared to resting. We found increased and decreased activation in different parts of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by comparing pre- vs. post-mindfulness training (MT) during breathing and body scan meditation exercises that were compared against their own resting state. In the post-MT (vs. pre-MT) meditation increased activation in the right dorsolateral PFC and in the left caudate/anterior insula and decreased activation in the rostral PFC and right parietal area 3b. Thus a brief mindfulness training caused increased activation in areas involved in sustaining and monitoring the focus of attention (dorsolateral PFC), consistent with the aim of mindfulness that is exercising focused attention mechanisms, and in the left caudate/anterior insula involved in attention and corporeal awareness and decreased activation in areas part of the "default mode" network and is involved in mentalizing (rostral PFC), consistent with the ability trained by mindfulness of reducing spontaneous mind wandering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  9. "BodyWorks": A Parent-Focused Program to Promote Healthful Eating and Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Valerie Melino; Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Blake, Susan M.; Marr, Amanda; Rowe, Jonelle; Wasserman, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The "BodyWorks" program was designed to help parents improve family eating and activity behaviors. "BodyWorks" was associated with significant gains in parents' knowledge about nutrition and activity, and greater self-efficacy to set family nutrition goals, plan physical activities, and change eating habits. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. Reduction of mitochondrial electron transport complex activity is restricted to the ischemic focus after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Using histochemical methods offering high topographical resolution for evaluation of changes in the ischemic focus and the penumbra, the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I, II, and IV were examined in rats subjected to 2 h of proximal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery...

  11. The Positive Impact of Creative Activity: Effects of Creative Task Engagement and Motivational Focus on College Students' Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Regina; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed effectiveness of engaging students in a creative activity on a topic as a means of encouraging an active cognitive set toward learning that topic area. Creative task engagement was found to be an effective means of enhancing creativity (in the absence of evaluation expectation), intrinsic motivation, and long-term retention. (JBJ)

  12. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  13. Effect of cigarette smoke on monocyte procoagulant activity: Focus on platelet-derived brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Patrizia; Baldassarre, Damiano; Sandrini, Leonardo; Weksler, Babette B; Tremoli, Elena; Barbieri, Silvia S

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) activates platelets, promotes vascular dysfunction, and enhances Tissue Factor (TF) expression in blood monocytes favoring pro-thrombotic states. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the family of neurotrophins involved in survival, growth, and maturation of neurons, is released by activated platelets (APLTs) and plays a role in the cardiovascular system. The effect of CS on circulating levels of BDNF is controversial and the function of circulating BDNF in atherothrombosis is not fully understood. Here, we have shown that human platelets, treated with an aqueous extract of CS (CSE), released BDNF in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, incubation of human monocytes with BDNF or with the supernatant of platelets activated with CSE increased TF activity by a Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-dependent mechanism. Finally, comparing serum and plasma samples of 12 male never smokers (NS) and 29 male active smokers (AS) we observed a significant increase in microparticle-associated TF activity (MP-TF) as well as BDNF in AS, while in serum, BDNF behaved oppositely. Taken together these findings suggest that platelet-derived BDNF is involved in the regulation of TF activity and that CS plays a role in this pathway by favoring a pro-atherothrombotic state.

  14. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, B A; Jones, A; Biggs, B K; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8-14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) "very easy" or "easy" to use. The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies.

  15. Nocturnal activity patterns of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Nocturnal activity of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was studied from August 1991 to July 1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. During 2 or 3 nights each month, sand flies were collected with hand-held aspirators each hour between 1730 and 0630 hours, from a pigpen and a cattle corral located 30 m apart. Host-seeking activity of L. longipalpis adults was characterized by 2 general patterns: (1) adult sand fly activity increased shortly after sunset and continued until just after sunrise, and (2) peak sand fly activity was greatest early in the evening (1830-2330 hours) and then declined steadily toward morning. Female L. longipalpis activity generally increased after 2030 hours, whereas that of males remained constant or declined as the evening progressed. There were seasonal differences in sand fly abundance between the 2 sites: peak abundance in the cattle corral occurred during hot, dry periods, whereas maximum abundance in the pigpen occurred when relative humidity was higher. Influence of relative humidity on activity varied with season. Sand fly activity tended to decrease at temperatures below 24 degrees C and increase in the presence of moonlight.

  16. Changes in Psychosocial Factors and Physical Activity Frequency among Third- to Eighth-Grade Girls Who Participated in a Developmentally Focused Youth Sport Program: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debate, Rita D.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Zwald, Marissa; Huberty, Jennifer; Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the numerous physiological, psychological, and academic benefits of physical activity (PA), declines in PA levels among girls have been observed over the last decade. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the short-term changes pertaining to Girls on the Run and Girls on Track developmentally focused youth sport…

  17. [IMPACT OF CASPIAN SEA LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EPIZOOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE CASPIAN SANDY NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, N V; Udovikov, A I; Eroshenko, G A; Karavaeva, T B; Yakovlev, S A; Porshakov, A M; Zenkevich, E S; Kutyrev, V V

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that in 1923-2014 the sharp aggravations of the epizootic situation of plague in the area of its Caspian sandy natural focus after long interepizootic periods are in time with the ups of the Caspian Sea in the extrema of 11-year solar cycles. There were cases of multiple manifestations of plague in the same areas in the epizootic cycles of 1946-1954, 1979-1996, 2001, and 2013-2014. The paper considers the possible role of amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba and nematodes, the representatives of the orders Rhabditida and Tylenchida in the microfocal pattern of plague manifestations.

  18. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  19. Tax-1 and Tax-2 similarities and differences: focus on post-translational modifications and NF-κB activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinian, Margret; Kfoury, Youmna; Dassouki, Zeina; El-Hajj, Hiba; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although human T cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) share similar genetic organization, they have major differences in their pathogenesis and disease manifestation. HTLV-1 is capable of transforming T lymphocytes in infected patients resulting in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma whereas HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Numerous studies have provided accumulating evidence on the involvement of the viral transactivators Tax-1 versus Tax-2 in T cell transformation. Tax-1 is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular genes. Tax-1 post-translational modifications and specifically ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been implicated in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation and may contribute to its transformation capacity. Although Tax-2 has similar protein structure compared to Tax-1, the two proteins display differences both in their protein–protein interaction and activation of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies on Tax-2 have suggested ubiquitylation and SUMOylation independent mechanisms of NF-κB activation. In this present review, structural and functional differences between Tax-1 and Tax-2 will be summarized. Specifically, we will address their subcellular localization, nuclear trafficking and their effect on cellular regulatory proteins. A special attention will be given to Tax-1/Tax-2 post-translational modification such as ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, NF-κB activation, and protein–protein interactions involved in oncogenecity both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23966989

  20. Dose-response study of caffeine effects on cerebral functional activity with a specific focus on dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, A; Boyet, S

    2000-03-06

    Caffeine is a behavioral stimulant consumed on a worldwide basis. The question of whether caffeine is addictive has been debated for over a decade. Caffeine acts as a mild positive reinforcer but is not consistently self-administered in humans or animals. With [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography, we studied the effects of increasing doses of caffeine on cerebral glucose utilization in rats. At 1 mg/kg, caffeine activated the caudate nucleus mediating locomotion, and the raphe nuclei and locus coeruleus involved with mood and sleep. After 2.5 and 5 mg/kg caffeine, metabolic activation spread to other components of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, the thalamus, ventral tegmental area and amygdala. The functional activation of the shell of the nucleus accumbens, an area involved in addiction and reward, was only induced by the highest dose of caffeine, 10 mg/kg. At this dose, the activation of the shell of the nucleus accumbens occurred together with that of the core of the nucleus accumbens and of most other brain regions. These data correlate well with the known sensitivity of locomotion, mood and sleep to low doses of caffeine. They also show that low doses of caffeine which reflect the usual human level of consumption fail to activate reward circuits in the brain and thus provide functional evidence of the very low addictive potential of caffeine.

  1. Tax-1 and Tax-2 similarities and differences: Focus on post-translational modifications and NF-кB activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret eShirinian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlthough human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 share similar genetic organization, they have major differences in their pathogenesis and disease manifestation. HTLV-1 is capable of transforming T lymphocytes in infected patients and subsequently leads to adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL whereas HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Numerous studies have provided accumulating evidence on the involvement of the viral transactivators Tax-1 versus Tax-2 in T cell transformation. Tax-1 is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular genes. Tax-1 posttranslational modifications and specifically ubiquitylation and SUMOylation have been implicated in NF-кB activation and may contribute to its transformation capacity. Although Tax-2 has similar protein structure compared to Tax-1, the two proteins display differences both in their protein-protein interaction and activation of signal transduction pathways. Recent studies on Tax-2 have suggested ubiquitylation and SUMOylation independent mechanisms of NF-кB activation. In this present review, structural and functional differences between Tax-1 and Tax- 2 will be summarized. Specifically, we will address their subcellular localization, nuclear trafficking and their effect on cellular regulatory proteins. A special attention will be given to Tax-1/Tax-2 post-translational modification such as ubiquitylation, SUMOylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, NF-кB activation and protein-protein interactions involved in oncogenecity both in vivo and in vitro.

  2. A New Approach toward Digital Storytelling: An Activity Focused on Writing Self-Efficacy in a Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Park, Hyungsung; Baek, Youngkyun

    2011-01-01

    Recently, computer technology and multimedia elements have been developed and integrated into teaching and learning. Entertainment-based learning environments can make learning contents more attractive, and thus can lead to learners' active participation and facilitate learning. A significant amount of research examines using video editing…

  3. EFL Teaching in the Amazon Region of Ecuador: A Focus on Activities and Resources for Teaching Listening and Speaking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paul F.; Ochoa, Cesar A.; Cabrera, Paola A.; Castillo, Luz M.; Quinonez, Ana L.; Solano, Lida M.; Espinosa, Franklin O.; Ulehlova, Eva; Arias, Maria O.

    2015-01-01

    Research on teaching listening and speaking skills has been conducted at many levels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current implementation of classroom and extracurricular activities, as well as the use of educational resources for teaching both skills in public senior high schools in the Amazon region of Ecuador, particularly in…

  4. Analysis of surface binding sites (SBSs) in carbohydrate active enzymes with focus on glycoside hydrolase families 13 and 77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Ruzanski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Surface binding sites (SBSs) interact with carbohydrates outside of the enzyme active site. They are frequently situated on catalytic domains and are distinct from carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). SBSs are found in a variety of enzymes and often seen in crystal structures. Notably about half ...

  5. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  6. Role-Playing in a Consumption Context: An Experiential Learning Activity Focused on the Consumer Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Veronica L.; Magnotta, Sarah R.; Chang, Hua; Steffes, Erin

    2018-01-01

    Instructors are faced with the challenge of teaching a significant amount of material covering a wide variety of topics in a Principles of Marketing course. In order to present the critical consumer decision-making process concept in a meaningful way while remaining mindful of time constraints, we propose a semi-structured classroom activity that…

  7. Screening of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with focus on location and harvesting times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesil Celiktas, O.; Girgin, G.; Orhan, H.; Wichers, H.J.; Bedir, E.; Vardar Sukan, F.

    2007-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) harvested from different locations of Turkey at four different times of the year were analyzed by HPLC, and their radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities were studied by various assays. The amounts of carnosol,

  8. Exploring Marine Ecosystems with Elementary School Portuguese Children: Inquiry-Based Project Activities Focused on "Real-Life" Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Elsa; Faria, Cláudia; Boaventura, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how young students engage in an inquiry-based project driven by real-life contexts. Elementary school children were engaged in a small inquiry project centred on marine biodiversity and species adaptations. All activities included the exploration of an out-of-school setting as a learning context. A total…

  9. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  10. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  11. A matrix-focused structure-activity and binding site flexibility study of quinolinol inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, William A; Vieira, Rebecca C; Ensel, Susan M; Montgomery, Vicki; Guernieri, Rebecca; Eccard, Vanessa S; Campbell, Yvette; Roxas-Duncan, Virginia; Cardellina, John H; Webb, Robert P; Smith, Leonard A

    2017-02-01

    Our initial discovery of 8-hydroxyquinoline inhibitors of BoNT/A and separation/testing of enantiomers of one of the more active leads indicated considerable flexibility in the binding site. We designed a limited study to investigate this flexibility and probe structure-activity relationships; utilizing the Betti reaction, a 36 compound matrix of quinolinol BoNT/A LC inhibitors was developed using three 8-hydroxyquinolines, three heteroaromatic amines, and four substituted benzaldehydes. This study has revealed some of the most effective quinolinol-based BoNT/A inhibitors to date, with 7 compounds displaying IC 50 values ⩽1μM and 11 effective at ⩽2μM in an ex vivo assay. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Modulating the Focus of Attention for Spoken Words at Encoding Affects Frontoparietal Activation for Incidental Verbal Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Thomas A.; Almryde, Kyle R.; Fidler, Lesley J.; Lockwood, Julie L.; Antonucci, Sharon M.; Plante, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as ...

  13. Modulating the Focus of Attention for Spoken Words at Encoding Affects Frontoparietal Activation for Incidental Verbal Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Christensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as listeners heard a list of single English nouns. We then presented these words again in the context of a recognition task and assessed the effect of modulating attention at encoding on the BOLD responses to words that were either attended strongly, weakly, or not heard previously. MRI revealed activity in right-lateralized inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, and positive BOLD signals varied with the relative level of attention present at encoding. Temporal analysis of hemodynamic responses further showed that the time course of BOLD activity was modulated differentially by unintentionally encoded words compared to novel items. Our findings largely support current models of memory consolidation and retrieval, but they also provide fresh evidence for hemispheric differences and functional subdivisions in right frontoparietal attention networks that help shape auditory episodic recall.

  14. Modulating the focus of attention for spoken words at encoding affects frontoparietal activation for incidental verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Thomas A; Almryde, Kyle R; Fidler, Lesley J; Lockwood, Julie L; Antonucci, Sharon M; Plante, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Attention is crucial for encoding information into memory, and current dual-process models seek to explain the roles of attention in both recollection memory and incidental-perceptual memory processes. The present study combined an incidental memory paradigm with event-related functional MRI to examine the effect of attention at encoding on the subsequent neural activation associated with unintended perceptual memory for spoken words. At encoding, we systematically varied attention levels as listeners heard a list of single English nouns. We then presented these words again in the context of a recognition task and assessed the effect of modulating attention at encoding on the BOLD responses to words that were either attended strongly, weakly, or not heard previously. MRI revealed activity in right-lateralized inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, and positive BOLD signals varied with the relative level of attention present at encoding. Temporal analysis of hemodynamic responses further showed that the time course of BOLD activity was modulated differentially by unintentionally encoded words compared to novel items. Our findings largely support current models of memory consolidation and retrieval, but they also provide fresh evidence for hemispheric differences and functional subdivisions in right frontoparietal attention networks that help shape auditory episodic recall.

  15. Catalytic Activity Studies of Vanadia/Silica–Titania Catalysts in SVOC Partial Oxidation to Formaldehyde: Focus on the Catalyst Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Koivikko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, silica–titania supported catalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method with various compositions. Vanadia was impregnated on SiO2-TiO2 with different loadings, and materials were investigated in the partial oxidation of methanol and methyl mercaptan to formaldehyde. The materials were characterized by using N2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM, NH3-TPD, and Raman techniques. The activity results show the high importance of an optimized SiO2-TiO2 ratio to reach a high reactant conversion and formaldehyde yield. The characteristics of mixed oxides ensure a better dispersion of the active phase on the support and in this way increase the activity of the catalysts. The addition of vanadium pentoxide on the support lowered the optimal temperature of the reaction significantly. Increasing the vanadia loading from 1.5% to 2.5% did not result in higher formaldehyde concentration. Over the 1.5%V2O5/SiO2 + 30%TiO2 catalyst, the optimal selectivity was reached at 415 °C when the maximum formaldehyde concentration was ~1000 ppm.

  16. GPU accelerated fully space and time resolved numerical simulations of self-focusing laser beams in SBS-active media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Sarah; Colin de Verdière, Guillaume [CEA-DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Bergé, Luc, E-mail: luc.berge@cea.fr [CEA-DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Skupin, Stefan [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Friedrich Schiller University, Institute of Condensed Matter Theory and Optics, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    A computer cluster equipped with Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is used for simulating nonlinear optical wave packets undergoing Kerr self-focusing and stimulated Brillouin scattering in fused silica. We first recall the model equations in full (3+1) dimensions. These consist of two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations for counterpropagating optical beams closed with a source equation for light-induced acoustic waves seeded by thermal noise. Compared with simulations on a conventional cluster of Central Processing Units (CPUs), GPU-based computations allow us to use a significant (16 times) larger number of mesh points within similar computation times. Reciprocally, simulations employing the same number of mesh points are between 3 and 20 times faster on GPUs than on the same number of classical CPUs. Performance speedups close to 45 are reported for isolated functions evaluating, e.g., the optical nonlinearities. Since the field intensities may reach the ionization threshold of silica, the action of a defocusing electron plasma is also addressed.

  17. GPU accelerated fully space and time resolved numerical simulations of self-focusing laser beams in SBS-active media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauger, Sarah; Colin de Verdière, Guillaume; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    A computer cluster equipped with Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is used for simulating nonlinear optical wave packets undergoing Kerr self-focusing and stimulated Brillouin scattering in fused silica. We first recall the model equations in full (3+1) dimensions. These consist of two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations for counterpropagating optical beams closed with a source equation for light-induced acoustic waves seeded by thermal noise. Compared with simulations on a conventional cluster of Central Processing Units (CPUs), GPU-based computations allow us to use a significant (16 times) larger number of mesh points within similar computation times. Reciprocally, simulations employing the same number of mesh points are between 3 and 20 times faster on GPUs than on the same number of classical CPUs. Performance speedups close to 45 are reported for isolated functions evaluating, e.g., the optical nonlinearities. Since the field intensities may reach the ionization threshold of silica, the action of a defocusing electron plasma is also addressed

  18. Ceasing intrathecal therapy in chronic non-cancer pain: an invitation to shift from biomedical focus to active management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hayes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report long term experience (1997-2009 of intrathecal (IT therapy for chronic non-cancer pain in the context of our team's increasing emphasis on active management. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. SETTING: Australian tertiary multidisciplinary pain center, Hunter Integrated Pain Service (HIPS. INTERVENTION: This case series reports the changing use of IT implanted drug delivery systems (IDDSs for chronic non-cancer pain over 13 years. Initially IT therapy was used selectively following multidisciplinary assessment and double blind IT trial. Typical therapy combined opioid with clonidine. Multidimensional management was offered. Treatment strategy changed in 2003 due to HIPS experience of limited therapeutic gains and equivocal support for IT therapy in the literature. Subsequently IT therapy was no longer initiated for non-cancer pain and those on established regimes were encouraged to shift to oral/transdermal opioids with greater emphasis on active management. Patient education and consultation were key elements. Where IT cessation was elective gradual dose reduction commenced as an outpatient. In elective and urgent cases ketamine infusion and oral clonidine were used during hospital admissions to cover the switch to oral/transdermal opioids. Over the study period transition occurred to a broader management framework in which IT therapy for chronic non-cancer pain was no longer supported by HIPS. RESULTS: 25 patients were managed using IDDSs; 8 implanted by HIPS and 17 by other teams. Dose escalation and adverse effects were common. 24 of 25 patients ceased IT therapy; 7 (29% with urgent IDDS related complications, 16 (67% electively and 1 due to an unrelated death. The remaining patient returned to her original team to continue IT therapy. One post-explantation patient transferred to another team to recommence IT therapy. The remainder were successfully maintained on oral/transdermal opioids combined with active management.

  19. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  20. Clinical review: Cardiovascular consequences of ovarian disruption: a focus on functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in physically active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Harvey, Paula J

    2011-12-01

    Evidence indicates that hypoestrogenemia is linked with accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Premenopausal women presenting with ovulatory disruption due to functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) are characterized by hypoestrogenemia. One common and reversible form of FHA in association with energy deficiency is exercise-associated amenorrhea (EAA). Articles were found via PubMed search for both original and review articles based on peer review publications between 1974 and 2011 reporting on cardiovascular changes in women with FHA, with emphasis placed on women with EAA. Despite participation in regular exercise training, hypoestrogenic women with EAA demonstrate paradoxical changes in cardiovascular function, including endothelial dysfunction, a known permissive factor for the progression and development of atherosclerosis. Such alterations suggest that the beneficial effects of regular exercise training on vascular function are obviated in the face of hypoestrogenemia. The long-term cardiovascular consequences of altered vascular function in response to ovulatory disruption in women with EAA remain to be determined. Retrospective data, however, suggest premature development and progression of coronary artery disease in older premenopausal women reporting a history of hypothalamic ovulatory disruption. Importantly, in women with EAA, estrogen therapy, folic acid supplementation without change in menstrual status, and resumption of menses restores endothelial function. In this review, we focus on the influence of hypoestrogenemia in association with energy deficiency in mediating changes in cardiovascular function in women with EAA, including endothelial function, regional blood flow, lipid profile, and autonomic control of blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreflex sensitivity. The influence of exercise training is also considered. With the premenopausal years typically considered to be cardioprotective in association with normal ovarian function

  1. On the comparability of knowledge transfer activities – a case study at the German Baltic Sea Coast focusing regional climate services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Meinke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is discussed by accounting for external impacts. It is shown that factors which are neither part of the knowledge transfer activity nor part of the participating institution may have significant impact on the potential usefulness of knowledge transfer activities. Differences in the potential usefulness are leading to different initial conditions of the knowledge transfer activities. This needs to be taken into account when comparing different knowledge transfer activities, e.g., in program evaluations. This study is focusing on regional climate services at the German Baltic Sea coast. It is based on two surveys and experiences with two identical web tools applied on two regions with different spatial coverage. The results show that comparability among science based knowledge transfer activities is strongly limited through several external impacts. The potential usefulness and thus the initial condition of a particular knowledge transfer activity strongly depends on (1 the perceived priority of the focused topic, (2 the used information channels, (3 the conformity between the research agenda of service providing institutions and information demands in the public, as well as (4 on the spatial coverage of a service. It is suggested to account for the described external impacts for evaluations of knowledge transfer activities. The results show that the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is limited and challenge the adequacy of quantitative measures in this context. Moreover, as shown in this case study, in particular regional climate services should be individually evaluated on a long term perspective, by potential user groups and/or by its real users. It is further suggested that evaluation criteria should be co-developed with these stakeholder groups.

  2. Design a 10 kJ IS Mather Type Plasma Focus for Solid Target Activation to Produce Short-Lived Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Sheibani, S.; Elahi, M.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Zirak, A. R.; Alhooie, S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Khalaj, M. M.; Khanchi, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.

    2010-10-01

    A 10 kJ (15 kV, 88 μF) IS (Iranian Sun) Mather type plasma focus device has been studied to determine the activity of a compound exogenous carbon solid target through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The produced 13N is a short-lived radioisotope with a half-life of 9.97 min and threshold energy of 0.28 MeV. The results indicate that energetic deuterons impinging on the solid target can produce yield of = 6.7 × 10-5 with an activity of A = 6.8 × 104 Bq for one plasma focus shut and A ν = 4 × 105 Bq for 6 shut per mint when the projectile maximum deuterons energy is E max = 3 MeV.

  3. A focus on reward in anorexia nervosa through the lens of the activity-based anorexia rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, C J; Milton, L K; Oldfield, B J

    2017-10-01

    Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic, unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and tend to avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The activity-based anorexia model recapitulates many of the pathophysiological and behavioural hallmarks of the human condition, including a reduction in food intake, excessive exercise, dramatic weight loss, loss of reproductive cycles, hypothermia and anhedonia, and therefore it allows investigation into the underlying neurobiology of anorexia nervosa. The use of this model has directed attention to disruptions in central reward neurocircuitry, which may contribute to disease susceptibility. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of this unique model to provide insight into the mechanisms of reward relevant to feeding and weight loss, which may ultimately help to unravel the neurobiology of anorexia nervosa and, in a broader sense, the foundation of reward-based feeding. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  4. B cell follicle-like structures in multiple sclerosis-with focus on the role of B cell activating factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morten, Haugen; Frederiksen, Jette L; Vinter, Matilda Degn

    2014-01-01

    B lymphocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Follicle-like structures (FLS) have recently been found in the subarachnoid space in the leptomeninges in some patients with secondary progressive MS (SPMS). They contain proliferating B lymphocytes, plasma cells......, helper T lymphocytes and a network of follicular dendritic cells. FLS have been shown to correlate with increased cortical demyelination, neuronal loss, meningeal infiltration and central nervous system inflammation, as well as lower age at disease onset and progression to severe disability and death....... In this review, we will discuss the role of FLS in MS pathogenesis and disease course and the possible influence by B cell activating factor (BAFF) and C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13)....

  5. The biologically active zone in upland habitats at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA: Focus on plant rooting depth and biomobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovtang, Sara; Delistraty, Damon; Rochette, Elizabeth

    2018-07-01

    We challenge the suggestion by Sample et al. (2015) that a depth of 305 cm (10 ft) exceeds the depth of biological activity in soils at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA, or similar sites. Instead, we support the standard point of compliance, identified in the Model Toxics Control Act in the state of Washington, which specifies a depth of 457 cm (15 ft) for the protection of both human and ecological receptors at the Hanford Site. Our position is based on additional information considered in our expanded review of the literature, the influence of a changing environment over time, plant community dynamics at the Hanford Site, and inherent uncertainty in the Sample et al. (2015) analysis. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:442-446. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  6. Fauna and Monthly Activity of Sand Flies at Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmanianisis Focus in Qomrooddistrict of Qom Province in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzinnia B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL is a parasitological disease transmitted by female sand flies. There are several endemic foci of disease in different parts of Iran. The disease is mostly reported from central part of Qom Province including the villages Ghanavat and Qomrood. It is clear that knowledge on sand flies ecologyhas the main role in planning the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL. This study was carried out to determinecutaneous leishmaniasis vectors in Gomrood district of Qom provincein 2009. Methods: The present study was a descriptive, cross-sectional one conducted on sand flies (the leishmaiosis vectors. It was carried out in Qomrood area of central district of Qom province during 2009. Sand flies were collected biweekly from indoors (bed rooms, stables, etc. and outdoors-rodent burrows of three villages in Gomrood district, using 180 sticky traps (castor oil coated white paper 20 x 32 cm from the beginning (May to the end (November of the active season. For species identification, sand flies were mounted in Puri’s medium and identified after 24 hours using the keys of Theodor and Mesghali (1964.Results: A total of 10252 adult sand flies (4578 from indoors and 5674 from outdoors were collected and identified during May and November 2009. The following seven species were found in indoors: Phlebotomuspapatasi (86.1%, p. salehi (0/021%, P. sergenti (1/74%, p. caucasicus (1/26%, p. alexandri(0/24%, Sergentomyiasintoni (10/35% and S. theodori(0/26%. The collected species of oudoors were Phlebotomuspapatasi (54/67%, P. sergenti (0/35%, p. alexandri(0/035%, S. sintoni (44/02% S. dentata (0/21% S. clydei (0/19%, S. theodori (0/46% and S. pawlowski (0/05%. The most common sand flies in indoors and outdoors resting places were P. papatasi and S. sintoni. P. salehi was the lowest collected species in Gomrood district. The active peaks of sand flies were observed in late May and late August.The sex ratio

  7. Requirements on a community-based intervention for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people: a focus group study amongst experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krops, Leonie A; Hols, Doortje H J; Folkertsma, Nienke; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-06-14

    To explore ideas experts, working in the field of physical activity for people with a disability, pose on a stimulating movement intervention for physically disabled people longer than one year post rehabilitation or not familiar with rehabilitation. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted with experts (n = 28). Transcripts were analysed following thematic analysis, using the integrated physical activity for people with a disability and intervention mapping model. Experts expressed no need for a new intervention, but, instead, a need for adapting an existing intervention, and increased collaboration between organisations. Such an adapted intervention should aim to change participants and environmental attitude towards physical activity, and to increase visibility of potential activities. Several methods were mentioned, for instance individual coaching. Potential participants should be personally approached via various intermediates. The intervention owner and government are responsible for stimulating physical activity and should finance an intervention together with health insurances and the user. According to experts adapting an existing intervention, together with increased collaboration between organisations, will be effective in stimulating physical activity in the target population. This study provides requirements on an intervention to stimulate physical activity, and suggestions for the approach of the target population, finance, and responsibility. Implications for Rehabilitation There is no need for designing a new intervention, but need for adaptation of an existing intervention for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people. An intervention to stimulate physical activity in physically disabled people should aim to change participants and environmental attitude towards physical activity, and to increase the visibility of potential activities. Methods for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people could be

  8. Supporting youth wellbeing with a focus on eating well and being active: views from an Aboriginal community deliberative forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jackie; Cox, Heather; Lopes, Edilene; Motlik, Jessie; Hanson, Lisa

    2018-04-01

    Including and prioritising community voice in policy development means policy is more likely to reflect community values and priorities. This project trialled and evaluated a storyboard approach in a deliberative community forum to engage Australian Aboriginal people in health policy priority setting. The forum was co-constructed with two Aboriginal community-controlled organisations. A circle storyboard was used to centre Aboriginal community knowledge and values and encourage the group to engage with broader perspectives and evidence. The forum asked a diverse (descriptively representative) group of Aboriginal people in a rural town what governments should do to support the wellbeing of children and youth, particularly to encourage them to eat well and be active. The storyboard provided a tactile device to allow shared stories and identification of community issues. The group identified policies they believed governments should prioritise, including strategies to combat racism and provide local supports and outlets for young people. An informed deliberative storyboard approach offers a novel way of engaging with Aboriginal communities in a culturally appropriate and inclusive manner. Implications for public health: The identification of racism as a major issue of concern in preventing children from living healthy lifestyles highlights the need for policy responses in this area. © 2018 The Authors.

  9. Neuroimmune Interactions in Schizophrenia: Focus on Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Activation of the Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria das Graças Corsi-Zuelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients. Although elucidating the mechanism that induces this inflammatory profile remains a challenge, mounting evidence suggests that neuroimmune interactions may provide therapeutic advantages to control inflammation and hence schizophrenia. Recent studies have indicated that vagus nerve stimulation controls both peripheral and central inflammation via alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR. Other findings have indicated that vagal stimulation and α7nAChR-agonists can provide therapeutic advantages for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and epilepsy. This review analyzes the latest results regarding: (I the immune-to-brain pathogenesis of schizophrenia; (II the regulation of inflammation by the autonomic nervous system in psychiatric disorders; and (III the role of the vagus nerve and α7nAChR in schizophrenia.

  10. Neuroimmune Interactions in Schizophrenia: Focus on Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Activation of the Alpha-7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi-Zuelli, Fabiana Maria das Graças; Brognara, Fernanda; Quirino, Gustavo Fernando da Silva; Hiroki, Carlos Hiroji; Fais, Rafael Sobrano; Del-Ben, Cristina Marta; Ulloa, Luis; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Loureiro, Camila Marcelino

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients. Although elucidating the mechanism that induces this inflammatory profile remains a challenge, mounting evidence suggests that neuroimmune interactions may provide therapeutic advantages to control inflammation and hence schizophrenia. Recent studies have indicated that vagus nerve stimulation controls both peripheral and central inflammation via alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Other findings have indicated that vagal stimulation and α7nAChR-agonists can provide therapeutic advantages for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as depression and epilepsy. This review analyzes the latest results regarding: (I) the immune-to-brain pathogenesis of schizophrenia; (II) the regulation of inflammation by the autonomic nervous system in psychiatric disorders; and (III) the role of the vagus nerve and α7nAChR in schizophrenia. PMID:28620379

  11. Green chemistry focus on optimization of silver nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM) and mosquitocidal activity: Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondari Nyakundi, Erick; Padmanabhan, M Nalini

    2015-01-01

    There is an exigent necessity for development of environmental friendly bio-control agent(s) for elimination of mosquito due to increased resistance resurgence against synthetic control agents. Mosquito control strategy will lay a strong foundation to malaria exclusion or it can be curbed to certain level especially in the developing nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Tridax procumbens leaf extract as a reducing agent. The reaction medium involved in the synthesis process was optimized by statistical experimental design using response surface methodology to obtain better yield, uniform size, shape and stability. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, PSA and SEM Subsequently, the bioefficacy of these particles were investigated on Anopheles stephensi for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Interestingly, time period of 90 min, temperature of 76±2 °C, pH 7.2±2, 2 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3), 3mM PEG and 2mM PVP showed excellent parameters for bioprocess design for large scale production of stabilized nanoparticles. A concentration of 5 ppm of PVP stabilized nanoparticles exhibited 100% mortality. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilized by PEG and PVP may have important function as stabilizers, dispersants as well as larvicides for mosquito control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hazards in the Solar System: Out-of-School Time Student Activities Focused on Engineering Protective Space Gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Meyer, N.; Anderson, R. B.; Sokol, K.; Nolan, B.; Edgar, L. A.; Gaither, T. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Clark, J.

    2017-12-01

    retaining basic dexterity and functionality. Educators are given background information and links to in-depth descriptions of the science content, and students are guided through the engineering design process as well as given scientific background on hazards in the solar system in a fun and engaging series of activities.

  13. Vector-Host Interactions of Culiseta melanura in a Focus of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in Southeastern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Goudarz; Armstrong, Philip M; Abadam, Charles F; Akaratovic, Karen I; Kiser, Jay P; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2015-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern USA. Culiseta (Cs.) melanura is the primary vector of EEEV in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-Atlantic region. The objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of Cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in enzootic amplification of EEEV, 2) assess spatial and temporal patterns of virus activity during a season of intense virus transmission, and 3) investigate the potential role of Cs. melanura in epidemic/epizootic transmission of EEEV to humans and equines. Accordingly, we collected mosquitoes at 55 sites in Suffolk, Virginia in 2013, and identified the source of blood meals in engorged mosquitoes by nucleotide sequencing PCR products of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. We also examined field-collected mosquitoes for evidence of infection with EEEV using Vector Test, cell culture, and PCR. Analysis of 188 engorged Cs. melanura sampled from April through October 2013 indicated that 95.2%, 4.3%, and 0.5% obtained blood meals from avian, mammalian, and reptilian hosts, respectively. American Robin was the most frequently identified host for Cs. melanura (42.6% of blood meals) followed by Northern Cardinal (16.0%), European Starling (11.2%), Carolina Wren (4.3%), and Common Grackle (4.3%). EEEV was detected in 106 mosquito pools of Cs. melanura, and the number of virus positive pools peaked in late July with 22 positive pools and a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) infection rate of 4.46 per 1,000 mosquitoes. Our findings highlight the importance of Cs. melanura as a regional EEEV vector based on frequent feeding on virus-competent bird species. A small proportion of blood meals acquired from mammalian hosts suggests the possibility that this species may occasionally

  14. The electromagnetic Ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, W. H.; Nardi, V.

    1985-08-01

    Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield as spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev E 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by ser action near the centers of active galaxies.

  15. Electromagnetic ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.H.; Nardi, V.

    1985-01-01

    Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield a spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam, which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam, is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by action near the centers of active galaxies

  16. Initial Awareness as Perceived by a Group of Senior Students Majoring in High School Teaching in regards to their Own Teaching Process Focused on Assessment Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ignacio Sánchez-Sánchez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Developed in a regional campus of a university located 200 miles south of Santiago de Chile, the research showed the initial awareness of 50 senior students majoring in three High School Teaching Training Programs: Spanish Language; History; and Math, in regards to their own teaching process The qualitative approach used in this research is supported by the grounded theory. The critical incident technique was used to obtain the information about the individuals mentioned above, after their first period as in-practice High School teachers. Results show that the assessment teaching functions are mostly mentioned as essential to improve their teaching activities focused on the learning process of high school students. However, Teacher Training Programs should also emphasize real challenges and the abilities that a teacher must successfully develop during the process, instead of mainly focusing on measurement instruments and theoretical outlines

  17. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity among Rural Adults in Montana, United States: Views from Built Environment Audits, Resident Focus Groups, and Key Informant Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Lo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural populations in the United States have lower physical activity levels and are at a higher risk of being overweight and suffering from obesity than their urban counterparts. This paper aimed to understand the environmental factors that influence physical activity among rural adults in Montana. Eight built environment audits, 15 resident focus groups, and 24 key informant interviews were conducted between August and December 2014. Themes were triangulated and summarized into five categories of environmental factors: built, social, organizational, policy, and natural environments. Although the existence of active living features was documented by environmental audits, residents and key informants agreed that additional indoor recreation facilities and more well-maintained and conveniently located options were needed. Residents and key informants also agreed on the importance of age-specific, well-promoted, and structured physical activity programs, offered in socially supportive environments, as facilitators to physical activity. Key informants, however, noted that funding constraints and limited political will were barriers to developing these opportunities. Since building new recreational facilities and structures to support active transportation pose resource challenges, especially for rural communities, our results suggest that enhancing existing features, making small improvements, and involving stakeholders in the city planning process would be more fruitful to build momentum towards larger changes.

  18. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity among Rural Adults in Montana, United States: Views from Built Environment Audits, Resident Focus Groups, and Key Informant Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Brian K; Morgan, Emily H; Folta, Sara C; Graham, Meredith L; Paul, Lynn C; Nelson, Miriam E; Jew, Nicolette V; Moffat, Laurel F; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2017-10-04

    Rural populations in the United States have lower physical activity levels and are at a higher risk of being overweight and suffering from obesity than their urban counterparts. This paper aimed to understand the environmental factors that influence physical activity among rural adults in Montana. Eight built environment audits, 15 resident focus groups, and 24 key informant interviews were conducted between August and December 2014. Themes were triangulated and summarized into five categories of environmental factors: built, social, organizational, policy, and natural environments. Although the existence of active living features was documented by environmental audits, residents and key informants agreed that additional indoor recreation facilities and more well-maintained and conveniently located options were needed. Residents and key informants also agreed on the importance of age-specific, well-promoted, and structured physical activity programs, offered in socially supportive environments, as facilitators to physical activity. Key informants, however, noted that funding constraints and limited political will were barriers to developing these opportunities. Since building new recreational facilities and structures to support active transportation pose resource challenges, especially for rural communities, our results suggest that enhancing existing features, making small improvements, and involving stakeholders in the city planning process would be more fruitful to build momentum towards larger changes.

  19. Determination of boron in ceramic reference materials by prompt gamma activation analysis using focused neutron guided beam of JRR-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, T.; Kuroiwa, T.; Chiba, K.; Matsue, H.

    2008-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis using a focused thermal neutron guided beam at JAEA JRR-3M was applied to the determination of B in ceramic certified reference materials (BAM CRM S-003 Silicon Carbide Powder and NMIJ CRM 8004-a Silicon Nitride Powder). Cl and Si were used as internal standards to obtain linear calibration curves of B. The analytical result of B in BAM CRM S-003 was in good agreement with the certified value. The relative expanded measurement uncertainties (k = 2) were 4.8% for BAM CRM S-003 and 4.9% for NMIJ CRM 8004-a. (author)

  20. Narratives of Compensated Dating of Girls in Hong Kong Using Routine Activity Theory: Results of a Focus Group Study of Guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jessica C M; Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Cindy X S; Yu, Yolanda M Y; Nguyen, Ping

    2018-02-01

    This article presents public discourses on compensated dating of adolescent girls in Chinese society. Data are obtained from eight focus groups comprising 50 guardians at private, parochial, and public levels (i.e., social workers, police officers, parents of students, and community representatives). Qualitative data are used to demonstrate how the guardians conceptualize and contextualize compensated dating as an outcome of the dynamics of societal features. Social features such as contemporary ideologies, Internet technology advancement, commercialization of human relationships, and ambiguity between "right" and "wrong" motivate the service providers and customers of compensated dating, and accelerate their convergence and weakened levels of guardianship in society. This study is the first to connect the features of compensated dating of adolescent girls with recent societal changes using the routine activity approach. The findings confirm the application of the routine activity approach in the phenomenon of girls' compensated dating, and also offer theoretical and practical implications.

  1. Development of a training programme for home health care workers to promote preventive activities focused on a healthy lifestyle: an intervention mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Maaike E; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-09

    Lifestyle is an important aspect in maintaining good health in older adults, and home health care (HHC) workers can play an important role in promoting a healthy lifestyle. However, there is limited evidence in the literature regarding how to develop an effective training programme to improve the physical activity level and fruit and vegetable consumption of older adults within a HHC setting. The aim of this paper is to describe how Intervention Mapping (IM) was used to develop a training programme to promote preventive activities of HHC workers relating to the physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake of older adults living at home. IM, a systematic theory and evidence-based approach was used to develop, implement and evaluate the training programme. This entailed a literature search, a survey, semi-structured interviews and consultation with HHC workers and various field experts, and a pilot training session. The determinants associated with the provision of preventive activities were identified, and an overview was created of those objectives, matching methods and practical applications that could influence these determinants. The performance objectives for the HHC workers were early detection and monitoring, promoting a healthy lifestyle, informing colleagues, continuing allocated preventive activities and referring to other experts and facilities. Findings were translated into a comprehensive training programme for HHC workers focused on motivating older adults to adopt and maintain a healthier lifestyle. IM was a useful tool in the development of a theory-based training programme to promote preventive activities by HHC workers relating to fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity of older adults.

  2. Use of delayed gamma rays for active non-destructive assay of {sup 235}U irradiated by pulsed neutron source (plasma focus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andola, Sanjay; Niranjan, Ram [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, T.C., E-mail: tckk@barc.gov.in [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Rout, R.K. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D.B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, B.S.; Ramakumar, K.L. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, S.C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    A pulsed neutron source based on plasma focus device has been used for active interrogation and assay of {sup 235}U by monitoring its delayed high energy γ-rays. The method involves irradiation of fissile material by thermal neutrons obtained after moderation of a burst of neutrons emitted upon fusion of deuterium in plasma focus (PF) device. The delayed gamma rays emitted from the fissile material as a consequence of induced fission were detected by a large volume sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector. The detector is coupled to a data acquisition system of 2k input size with 2k ADC conversion gain. Counting was carried out in pulse height analysis mode for time integrated counts up to 100 s while the temporal profile of delayed gamma has been obtained by counting in multichannel scaling mode with dwell time of 50 ms. To avoid the effect of passive (natural) and active (from surrounding materials) backgrounds, counts have been acquired for gamma energy between 3 and 10 MeV. The lower limit of detection of {sup 235}U in the oxide samples with this set-up is estimated to be 14 mg.

  3. Lateralized delay period activity marks the focus of spatial attention in working memory: evidence from somatosensory event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Eimer, Martin

    2015-04-29

    The short-term retention of sensory information in working memory (WM) is known to be associated with a sustained enhancement of neural activity. What remains controversial is whether this neural trace indicates the sustained storage of information or the allocation of attention. To evaluate the storage and attention accounts, we examined sustained tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA component) of the event-related potential. The tCDA manifests over somatosensory cortex contralateral to task-relevant tactile information during stimulus retention. Two tactile sample sets (S1, S2) were presented sequentially, separated by 1.5 s. Each set comprised two stimuli, one per hand. Human participants memorized the location of one task-relevant stimulus per sample set and judged whether one of these locations was stimulated again at memory test. The two relevant pulses were unpredictably located on the same hand (stay trials) or on different hands (shift trials). Initially, tCDA components emerged contralateral to the relevant S1 pulse. Sequential loading of WM enhanced the tCDA after S2 was presented on stay trials. On shift trials, the tCDA's polarity reversed after S2 presentation, resulting in delay activity that was now contralateral to the task-relevant S2 pulse. The disappearance of a lateralized neural trace for the relevant S1 pulse did not impair memory accuracy for this stimulus on shift trials. These results contradict the storage account and suggest that delay period activity indicates the sustained engagement of an attention-based rehearsal mechanism. In conclusion, somatosensory delay period activity marks the current focus of attention in tactile WM. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356689-07$15.00/0.

  4. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) is made by focused ion beam. •Au N Rs d coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) is competent to sense target molecules in a solution. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d SERS active substrate can detect a single molecule of crystal violet. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d as a SERS-active substrate can distinguish melamine contaminants at low concentrations (e.g., 10 −12 M). -- Abstract: A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au N Rs d was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au N Rs d and Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au N Rs d was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10 7 in magnitude, which increased ≈10 12 in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au N Rs d . A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10 −3 to 10 −12 M) in water or milk solution upon Au N Rs d or Ag NPs/Au N Rs d were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm −1 for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm −1 was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au N Rs d ) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au N Rs d and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au N Rs d is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for

  6. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  7. Which Cue to ‘Want?’ Central Amygdala Opioid Activation Enhances and Focuses Incentive Salience on a Prepotent Reward Cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Stephen V.; Berridge, Kent C.

    2009-01-01

    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) helps translate learning into motivation, and here we show that opioid stimulation of CeA magnifies and focuses learned incentive salience onto a specific reward cue (Pavlovian conditioned stimulus, or CS). This motivation enhancement makes that cue more attractive, noticeable, and liable to elicit appetitive and consummatory behaviors. To reveal the focusing of incentive salience, we exploited individual differences in an autoshaping paradigm in which a rat prefers to approach, nibble and sniff one of two reward-associated stimuli (its prepotent stimulus). The individually-prepotent cue is either a predictive CS+ that signals reward (8sec metal lever insertion), or instead the metal cup that delivers sucrose pellets (the reward source). Results indicated that CeA opioid activation by microinjection of the μ agonist DAMGO (0.1μg) selectively and reversibly enhanced the attractiveness of whichever reward CS was that rat's prepotent cue. CeA DAMGO microinjections made rats more vigorously approach their particular prepotent CS, and to energetically sniff and nibble it in a nearly frenzied consummatory fashion. Only the prepotent cue was enhanced as an incentive target, and alternative cues were not enhanced. Conversely, inactivation of CeA by muscimol microinjection (0.25μg) suppressed approach, nibbles and sniffs of the prepotent CS. Confirming modulation of incentive salience, unconditioned food intake was similarly increased by DAMGO microinjection and decreased by muscimol in CeA. We conclude that opioid neurotransmission in central amygdala helps determine which environmental stimuli become most ‘wanted,’ and how ‘wanted’ they become. This may powerfully guide reward-seeking behavior. PMID:19458221

  8. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  9. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liao, Jiunn-Der, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) is made by focused ion beam. •Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) is competent to sense target molecules in a solution. •Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} SERS active substrate can detect a single molecule of crystal violet. •Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} as a SERS-active substrate can distinguish melamine contaminants at low concentrations (e.g., 10{sup −12} M). -- Abstract: A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} and Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10{sup 7} in magnitude, which increased ≈10{sup 12} in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}. A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10{sup −3} to 10{sup −12} M) in water or milk solution upon Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} or Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm{sup −1} for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm{sup −1} was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and

  10. Positive Impact on Physical Activity and Health Behaviour Changes of a 15-Week Family Focused Intervention Program: “Juniors for Seniors”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bronikowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of physical activity (PA in children and their parents requires effective planning and sometimes even interventions. This study shows the effect of PA during a 15-week intervention program “Junior for Seniors” by applying a socioecological model to the interpretation of the data. This comprehensive approach emphasizes the fact that health promotion should focus not only on intrapersonal factors but also on the multilevel factors that might be determinants and modulators of increased PA. In 2015, 24 children (“juniors,” 14 girls and 10 boys, aged M=7.96±0.69 and 22 parents (“seniors,” 14 mothers aged M=38.86±2.96 and 8 fathers aged M=37.38±2.97 were voluntarily enrolled in a study spread across three primary schools in the city of Poznań, Poland. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined according to postintervention behavioural changes in PA in comparison to preintervention levels, as reported by the parents and children. Overall, the study found increases in PA levels and reductions in sedentary time. Although the changes are modest, there are some unrecognized benefits of the intervention which may have occurred, such as improved sport and motor skills, more frequent family social behaviours (walks, meals, and visiting relatives, or simply improved quality of “do-together” leisure time PA.

  11. Numerical study of alfvénic wave activity in the solar wind as a cause for pitch angle scattering with focus on kinetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilbach, D.; Berger, L.; Drews, C.; Marsch, E.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies, that determined the inflow longitude of the local interstellar medium from the anisotropy of interstellar pickup ion (PUI) radial velocity, have once again raised the question, how transport effects and especially wave activity in the solar wind modifies the velocity distribution function of PUIs.This study investigates the modification of an oxygen PUI torus distribution by alfvénic waves qualitatively with a numerical approach. The focus of this study is to understand this modification kinetically, which means, that instead of describing the PUI transport through diffusion approaches, we trace the trajectories of test particles in pitch angle space with a time resolution of at least 100 time steps per gyro orbit in order to find first principles of wave particle interactions on the most basic scale.Therefore we have implemented a Leapfrog solver of the Lorentz-Newton equations of motion for a charged test particle in a electro-magnetic field. The alfvénic waves were represented through a continuous circularly polarized wave superimposed to a constant 5 nT background magnetic field. In addition an electric field arising from induction has been added to the simulation's boundary conditions. The simulation code computes the particles' trajectories in the solar wind bulk system.Upon interaction with mono frequent single-frequency waves, the particles are found to perform stationary trajectories in pitch angle space, so that the pitch angle distribution of a conglomerate of test particles does not experience a systematic broadening over time. Also the particles do not react most strongly with waves at resonant frequencies, since the pitch angle modification by the waves sweeps their parallel velocity out of resonance quickly. However, within frequencies close to first order resonance, strong interactions between waves and particles are observed.Altogether the framework of our simulation is readily expandable to simulate additional effects, which may

  12. Petroleum activity in ice covered waters - development and operation phase. Focus of eventual consequential explanation; Petroleumsvirksomhet i isfylte farvann - utbyggings- og driftsfase. Maalfokusering for eventuell konsekvensutredning. Arbeidsdokument fra AKU/AEAM-seminar, Stavanger 4. - 6. desember 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, J; Andresen, K H; Moe, K A

    1996-06-01

    This report from a seminar relates to the petroleum activities in the Barentshavet north. The focal point was to put on petroleum activities in ice covered waters covering the drilling and operation phase, to identify discharges from various technical solutions, and to classify possible research requirements when mapping the impacts of such components. In addition to this approach, the seminar also focused on other factors regarding drilling and production activities in ice covered waters. 3 refs., 13 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Segregation or "Thinking Black"?: Community Activism and the Development Of Black-Focused Schools in Toronto and London, 1968-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: On January 29, 2008 the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) approved a city-wide Africentric elementary school under their Alternative School policy, sparking a contentious debate. Calls for Black-focused schools also arose in 2008 in London in response to the disengagement of African Caribbean youth. The historical record…

  14. A step-by-step translation of evidence into a psychosocial intervention for everyday activities in dementia: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Challis, David; Hooper, Nigel M; Ferris, Sally

    2018-03-01

    In order to increase the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in dementia, a step-by-step process translating evidence and public engagement should be adhered to. This paper describes such a process by involving a two-stage focus group with people with dementia (PwD), informal carers, and staff. Based on previous evidence, general aspects of effective interventions were drawn out. These were tested in the first stage of focus groups, one with informal carers and PwD and one with staff. Findings from this stage helped shape the intervention further specifying its content. In the second stage, participants were consulted about the detailed components. The extant evidence base and focus groups helped to identify six practical and situation-specific elements worthy of consideration in planning such an intervention, including underlying theory and personal motivations for participation. Carers, PwD, and staff highlighted the importance of rapport between practitioners and PwD prior to commencing the intervention. It was also considered important that the intervention would be personalised to each individual. This paper shows how valuable public involvement can be to intervention development, and outlines a process of public involvement for future intervention development. The next step would be to formally test the intervention.

  15. The toxicity of very prolonged courses of PEGasparaginase or Erwinia asparaginase in relation to asparaginase activity, with a special focus on dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. Tong (Wing); R. Pieters (Rob); H.A. de Groot-Kruseman (Hester A.); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J. Boos (Joachim); W.J.E. Tissing (Wim); I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe prospectively studied the incidence and clinical course of hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia during very prolonged use of asparaginase in relation to levels of asparaginase activity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We also evaluated the incidence of

  16. The toxicity of very prolonged courses of PEGasparaginase or Erwinia asparaginase in relation to asparaginase activity, with a special focus on dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, Wing H.; Pieters, Rob; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A.; Hop, Wim C. J.; Boos, Joachim; Tissing, Wim J. E.; van der Sluis, Inge M.

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively studied the incidence and clinical course of hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia during very prolonged use of asparaginase in relation to levels of asparaginase activity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We also evaluated the incidence of pancreatitis,

  17. Challenges and Prospects of Exchange Activities and Collaborative Learning Towards the Construction of Inclusive Education System : Focusing on eff ective methods of collaborative learning in the future

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Norimune; Nosaki, Hitomi

    2014-01-01

    Various studies on Exchange Activities have been conducted and revealed many instruction methods to promote exchanging between students with disabilities and those without disabilities. However, for Collaborative Learning that takes place in children between those students, the number of research studies are limited despite the fact that the importance of research on Collaborative Learning has been pointed out by many researchers and teachers. In this study, the nature of Exchange Activities ...

  18. Focused ion beam-fabricated Au micro/nanostructures used as a surface enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for trace detection of molecules and influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ying-Yi; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Ju, Yu-Hung; Chang, Chia-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Shiau, Ai-Li, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Cheng Kung University, No 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-06

    The focused ion beam (FIB) technique was used to precisely fabricate patterned Au micro/nanostructures (fibAu). The effects of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on the fibAu samples were investigated by adjusting the geometrical, dimensional, and spacing factors. The SERS mechanism was evaluated using low-concentration rhodamine 6G (R6G) molecules, physically adsorbed or suspended on/within the micro/nanostructures. The results indicated that for detecting R6G molecules, hexagon-like micro/nanostructures induced a higher electromagnetic mechanism (EM) due to the availability of multiple edges and small curvature. By decreasing the dimensions from 300 to 150 nm, the laser-focused area contained an increasing number of micro/nanostructures and therefore intensified the excitation of SERS signals. Moreover, with an optimized geometry and dimensions of the micro/nanostructures, the relative intensity/surface area value reached a maximum as the spacing was 22 nm. An exponential decrease was found as the spacing was increased, which most probably resulted from the loss of EM. The spacing between the micro/nanostructures upon the fibAu was consequently regarded as the dominant factor for the detection of R6G molecules. By taking an optimized fibAu to detect low-concentration influenza virus, the amino acids from the outermost surface of the virus can be well distinguished through the SERS mechanism.

  19. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  20. Submersible microbial fuel cell sensor for monitoring microbial activity and BOD in groundwater: Focusing on impact of anodic biofilm on sensor applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    was required for application of the sensor for microbial activity measurement, while biofilm‐colonized anode was needed for utilizing the sensor for BOD content measurement. The current density of SUMFC sensor equipped with a biofilm‐colonized anode showed linear relationship with BOD content, to up to 250 mg......A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell (SUMFC), was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Fresh anode...

  1. Assessing Support Activities by International Donors for CDM Development in Sub-Saharan Africa with Focus on Selected Least Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arens, Christof; Wang-Helmreich, Hanna; Hodes, Glenn Stuart

    into the Global Carbon Market”, commissioned by the German Environment Ministry (BMU), it represents an interim step: it paints the picture of an overall donor activities map of the region, while an in-depth evaluation of the specific situation as regards local capacities and concrete capacity building needs...

  2. Promotion of Physical Activity focusing health. La promoción de la actividad física orientada hacia la salud. Un camino por hacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Health protection and promotion is a social issue since sedentary life is increasing as society develops. Physical activity is considered to be a fundamental means for achieving the goal of health protection and promotion. In this paper the roles of several institutions and personalities in such an achievement are assesed as well as the various aspects concerning physical activity as a means for enhancing health. The possibilities of participation of health professionals and the role of the education system in promoting physical activity are analysed as well.
    KEY WORDS: Health, promotion, physical activity, education

     

    La promoción de la salud en la actualidad, se presenta como una cuestión de interés social al incrementarse la tendencia al sedentarismo de forma paralela al desarrollo de la sociedad. En este sentido, la actividad física se presenta como un medio fundamental para alcanzar dicha promoción. Analizamos, pues, las competencias de diversas instituciones y personas responsables en su concreción, aspectos referentes a objetivos propuestos sobre la actividad física como medio para promocionar la salud, posibilidades de los profesionales sanitarios y papel del sistema educativo en la promoción de la actividad física.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Salud, promoción, actividad física, educación.

  3. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  4. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, T.; Nunokawa, J.; Fujii, H.; Takashima, R.; Hashimoto, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Yajima, T.; Matsuzawa, H.; Kurosawa, K.; Yanagawa, Y.; Someya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. (authors)

  5. Using focus groups in the consumer research phase of a social marketing program to promote moderate-intensity physical activity and walking trail use in Sumter County, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2006-01-01

    The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer research to develop a social marketing program to promote walking and other moderate-intensity physical activities. Two phases of focus groups were conducted. Phase 1 groups, which included both men and women, were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a social marketing program based on social marketing concepts. Phase 1 also determined the intervention's target audience, which was irregularly active women aged 35 to 54. Phase 2 groups, composed of members of the target audience, were asked to further define the product and discuss specific promotion strategies. Phase 1 participants determined that the program product, or target behavior, should be walking. In addition, they identified price, place, and promotion strategies. Phase 2 participants determined that moderate-intensity physical activity is best promoted using the term exercise and offered suggestions for marketing walking, or exercise, to the target audience. There have been few published studies of social marketing campaigns to promote physical activity. In this study, focus groups were key to understanding the target audience in a way that would not have been accomplished with quantitative data alone. The group discussions generated important insights into values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt a product or behavior. The focus group results guided the development of a social marketing program to promote physical activity in the target audience in Sumter County, South Carolina.

  6. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Galvis Ovallos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light traps, Shannon traps, protected human bait and aspiration in resting places. A total of 7,051 sandflies belonging to 12 species were captured. Pintomyia spinicrassa (95.7% predominated. Pintomyia oresbia and Lutzomyia sp. of Pichinde were found in the state of Norte de Santander for the first time. Pi. spinicrassa, Pintomyia nuneztovari, Micropygomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia scorzai and Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia sp. were captured on the protected human bait. A significant association between Pi. spinicrassa abundance and the total rainfall and the average temperature and humidity 10 days before the collection was observed. The dominance of Pi. spinicrassa, a recognised vector of Leishmania braziliensis, especially during the dry periods, indicates that the risk of parasite transmission may increase.

  7. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovallos, Fredy Galvis; Silva, Yanis Ricardo Espinosa; Fernandez, Nelson; Gutierrez, Reynaldo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Sandoval, Claudia Magaly

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light traps, Shannon traps, protected human bait and aspiration in resting places. A total of 7,051 sandflies belonging to 12 species were captured. Pintomyia spinicrassa (95.7%) predominated. Pintomyia oresbia and Lutzomyia sp. of Pichinde were found in the state of Norte de Santander for the first time. Pi. spinicrassa, Pintomyia nuneztovari, Micropygomyia venezuelensis, Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) scorzai and Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia) sp. were captured on the protected human bait. A significant association between Pi. spinicrassa abundance and the total rainfall and the average temperature and humidity 10 days before the collection was observed. The dominance of Pi. spinicrassa, a recognised vector of Leishmania braziliensis, especially during the dry periods, indicates that the risk of parasite transmission may increase.

  8. Influence of complementing a robotic upper limb rehabilitation system with video games on the engagement of the participants: a study focusing on muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Rusák, Zoltán; Horváth, Imre; Ji, Linhong

    2014-12-01

    Efficacious stroke rehabilitation depends not only on patients' medical treatment but also on their motivation and engagement during rehabilitation exercises. Although traditional rehabilitation exercises are often mundane, technology-assisted upper-limb robotic training can provide engaging and task-oriented training in a natural environment. The factors that influence engagement, however, are not fully understood. This paper therefore studies the relationship between engagement and muscle activities as well as the influencing factors of engagement. To this end, an experiment was conducted using a robotic upper limb rehabilitation system with healthy individuals in three training exercises: (a) a traditional exercise, which is typically used for training the grasping function, (b) a tracking exercise, currently used in robot-assisted stroke patient rehabilitation for fine motor movement, and (c) a video game exercise, which is a proliferating approach of robot-assisted rehabilitation enabling high-level active engagement of stroke patients. These exercises differ not only in the characteristics of the motion that they use but also in their method of triggering engagement. To measure the level of engagement, we used facial expressions, motion analysis of the arm movements, and electromyography. The results show that (a) the video game exercise could engage the participants for a longer period than the other two exercises, (b) the engagement level decreased when the participants became too familiar with the exercises, and (c) analysis of normalized root mean square in electromyographic data indicated that muscle activities were more intense when the participants are engaged. This study shows that several sub-factors on engagement, such as versatility of feedback, cognitive tasks, and competitiveness, may influence engagement more than the others. To maintain a high level of engagement, the rehabilitation system needs to be adaptive, providing different exercises to

  9. Progress, opportunities, and key fields for groundwater quality research under the impacts of human activities in China with a special focus on western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyue; Tian, Rui; Xue, Chenyang; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater quality research is extremely important for supporting the safety of the water supply and human health in arid and semi-arid areas of China. This review article was constructed to report the latest research progress of groundwater quality in western China where groundwater quality is undergoing fast deterioration because of fast economic development and extensive anthropogenic activities. The opportunities brought by increasing public awareness of groundwater quality protection were also highlighted and discussed. To guide and promote further development of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, ten key groundwater quality research fields were proposed. The review shows that the intensification of human activities and the associated impacts on groundwater quality in China, especially in western China, has made groundwater quality research increasingly important, and has caught the attention of local, national, and international agencies and scholars. China has achieved some progress in groundwater quality research in terms of national and regional laws, regulations, and financial supports. The future of groundwater quality research in China, especially in western China, is promising reflected by the opportunities highlighted. The key research fields proposed in this article may also inform groundwater quality protection and management at the national and international level.

  10. Identification of barriers to the prevention and treatment of heat-related illness in Latino farmworkers using activity-oriented, participatory rural appraisal focus group methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michelle; Krenz, Jennifer; Palmández, Pablo; Negrete, Maria; Perla, Martha; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Spector, June T

    2013-10-24

    Heat-related illness (HRI) is an important cause of non-fatal illness and death in farmworkers. We sought to identify potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in Latino farmworkers. We conducted three semi-structured focus group discussions with 35 Latino farmworkers in the Central Washington, USA area using participatory rural appraisal techniques. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed in Spanish. Three researchers reviewed and coded transcripts and field notes, and investigator triangulation was used to identify relevant themes and quotes. Although the majority of participants in our study reported never receiving formal HRI training, most participants were aware that extreme heat can cause illness and were able to accurately describe HRI symptoms, risk factors, and certain prevention strategies. Four main observations regarding farmworkers' HRI-relevant beliefs and attitudes were identified: 1) farmworkers subscribe to varying degrees to the belief that cooling treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, with some believing that such treatments should be avoided after heat exposure, and others encouraging the use of such treatments; 2) the desire to lose weight may be reflected in behaviors that promote increased sweating; 3) highly caffeinated energy drinks are preferred to increase work efficiency and maintain alertness; and 4) the location of drinking water at work (e.g. next to restrooms) and whether water is clean, but not necessarily chemically-treated, are important considerations in deciding whether to drink the water provided at worksites. We identified potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment related to hydration, certain HRI treatments, clothing use, and the desire to lose weight among Latino farmworkers. Strategies to address potential barriers to HRI prevention and treatment in this population may include engineering, administrative, and health education and health promotion strategies at individual, workplace

  11. [Anti-doping policy development process in the sports world (1968~1999): focusing on IOC activities and passive response from Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eui-Ryong; Kim, Tae-Young

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the anti-doping policy promoted by the IOC historical sociologically focusing on the period from 1968 to 1999. Public opinion surrounding doping control has emerged as a large amount of drug possession by athletes who had participated in the 1952 Olympics was caught, as well as following the accident where an athlete had died during the competition as a result of doping. From 1960, as many doping cases in sports games were exposed, several international organizations proclaimed fight against doping in order to seek a preventive measure. In 1961, the IOC newly established a medical commission within the organization. It was decided to implement doping control and female sex testing at the same time for all athletes who participated in the 1967 Olympics, and they were implemented from 1968 winter and summer Olympic Games. In 1971, the provisions for the tests were prescribed as mandatory on the IOC charter. From 1989, the OCT system was introduced as a measure to overcome limitations of the detection during competition period. As political problems and limitations emerged, WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) was established in 1999 to professionally manage and push for doping control. Female sex testing policy contributed to preventing males from participating in female competition by deceiving their gender to some extent. However, it was abolished due to strong public condemnation such as women's rights issues, social stigma and pain, and gender discrimination debate. In 1984, a doping control center was established in Korea, which enabled drug use or doping in the sports world to emerge to the surface in our society. Korea Sports Council and KOC articles of association that supervise doping related matters of Korean athletes were revised in 1990. The action of inserting doping related issue in the articles of association was taken 20 years after the start of IOC doping policy. Beginning with two international competitions in the 1980s, Korean

  12. The NORMAN network and its activities on emerging environmental substances with a focus on effect-directed analysis of complex environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brack, Werner [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Dulio, Valeria [National Institute for Environment and Industrial Risks, INERIS, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Slobodnik, Jaroslav [Environmental Institute, Kos (Slovakia)

    2012-12-15

    The need to look beyond the conventional target pollutants when assessing the hazards of chemicals to human health and to ecosystems is now generally recognised as a priority issue in all environmental policy areas at both the European level and national level in the various countries. It has also become clear that it is not possible for individual countries alone to develop the knowledge and methodologies needed for measuring and evaluating the effects and associated risks of a vast number of emerging pollutants. Further to these priority needs, the NORMAN project was funded in 2005 by the European Commission in order to promote the creation of a permanent network among reference laboratories and research centres, in collaboration with the parties involved (industry, standardisation bodies, NGOs, etc.), to ensure (i) a more rapid and wide-scope exchange of data and information on the occurrence and effects of emerging substances, (ii) better data quality and comparability via validation and harmonisation of common measurement methods (chemical and biological) and monitoring tools, (iii) more transparent information (need for information, not just data) and (iv) the establishment of an independent and competent forum for the technical/scientific debate on issues related to emerging substances. NORMAN plays a significant role as an interface organisation between science and policy, with the advantage of speaking with a ''bigger voice'' to the European Commission and other public institutions. The activities of the network range from a scientific watch and the feeding of data on emerging substances into NORMAN databases (information gateway on emerging pollutants) to the organisation of working groups and workshops (producing position papers on research priorities), the setting-up of interlaboratory studies and the organisation of measurement campaigns. This article presents the objectives and scope of the activities of the NORMAN network

  13. Analysis of the main activities of the city center of Alexander's psychosomatic hospital of St. Petersburg, focused on the choice of priorities in perfection of treatment and prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Vanchakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have analyzed the results of the City Psychosomatic Centre (CPSC activity in 2009-2011 ys in order to find out the most important trends in the clinical work that may be helpful in planning of management and prophylaxis. The methods applied were statistical and clinico-statistical analyses of the results of of the Center work in 2009-2011 ys. There were changes in the structure by increasing the incidence of diseases associated with stress and organic damage brain with mental disorders, showed an increase in the flow of male patients. Found that the average length of stay in bed in the center of psychosomatic inpatient unit was 9.2-9.7 days, which creates barriers to good practice the use of antidepressants. Overcoming of these challenges can be achieved through the formation of new forms of continuity between the departments of the psychosomatic center, the health center and the offices of St. Petersburg SHCI «Alexander's Hospital,» and other medical institutions of the city.

  14. The Role of Unfolded Protein Response and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling in Neurodegenerative Diseases with Special Focus on Prion Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are neurodegenerative pathologies characterized by the accumulation of a protease-resistant form of the cellular prion protein named prion protein scrapie (PrPSc in the brain. PrPSc accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER result in a dysregulated calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and subsequent initiation of unfolded protein response (UPR leading to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms for the transition between adaptation to ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis are still unclear. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that rule the signaling of many extracellular stimuli from plasma membrane to the nucleus. However the identification of numerous points of cross talk between the UPR and MAPK signaling pathways may contribute to our understanding of the consequences of ER stress in prion diseases. Indeed the MAPK signaling network is known to regulate cell cycle progression and cell survival or death responses following a variety of stresses including misfolded protein response stress. In this article, we review the UPR signaling in prion diseases and discuss the triad of MAPK signaling pathways. We also describe the role played by MAPK signaling cascades in Alzheimer’s (AD and Parkinson’s disease (PD. We will also overview the mechanisms of cell death and the role of MAPK signaling in prion disease progression and highlight potential avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  15. Design and validation of low-cost assistive glove for hand assessment and therapy during activity of daily living-focused robotic stroke therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Dominic E; Johnson, Michelle J; McGuire, John R

    2009-01-01

    Hand and arm impairment is common after stroke. Robotic stroke therapy will be more effective if hand and upper-arm training is integrated to help users practice reaching and grasping tasks. This article presents the design, development, and validation of a low-cost, functional electrical stimulation grasp-assistive glove for use with task-oriented robotic stroke therapy. Our glove measures grasp aperture while a user completes simple-to-complex real-life activities, and when combined with an integrated functional electrical stimulator, it assists in hand opening and closing. A key function is a new grasp-aperture prediction model, which uses the position of the end-effectors of two planar robots to define the distance between the thumb and index finger. We validated the accuracy and repeatability of the glove and its capability to assist in grasping. Results from five nondisabled subjects indicated that the glove is accurate and repeatable for both static hand-open and -closed tasks when compared with goniometric measures and for dynamic reach-to-grasp tasks when compared with motion analysis measures. Results from five subjects with stroke showed that with the glove, they could open their hands but without it could not. We present a glove that is a low-cost solution for in vivo grasp measurement and assistance.

  16. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  17. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  18. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  19. Factors influencing ruminal bacterial community diversity and composition and microbial fibrolytic enzyme abundance in lactating dairy cows with a focus on the role of active dry yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahal, Ousama; Li, Fuyong; Guan, Le Luo; Walker, Nicola D; McBride, Brian W

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to employ a DNA-based sequencing technology to study the effect of active dry yeast (ADY) supplementation, diet type, and sample location within the rumen on rumen bacterial community diversity and composition, and to use an RNA-based method to study the effect of ADY supplementation on rumen microbial metabolism during high-grain feeding (HG). Our previous report demonstrated that the supplementation of lactating dairy cows with ADY attenuated the effect of subacute ruminal acidosis. Therefore, we used samples from that study, where 16 multiparous, rumen-cannulated lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: ADY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Y1242, 80 billion cfu/animal per day) or control (carrier only). Cows received a high-forage diet (77:23, forage:concentrate), then were abruptly switched to HG (49:51, forage:concentrate). Rumen bacterial community diversity and structure were highly influenced by diet and sampling location (fluid, solids, epimural). The transition to HG reduced bacterial diversity, but epimural bacteria maintained a greater diversity than fluid and solids. Analysis of molecular variance indicated a significant separation due to diet × sampling location, but not due to treatment. Across all samples, the analysis yielded 6,254 nonsingleton operational taxonomic units (OTU), which were classified into several phyla: mainly Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres, Tenericutes, and Proteobacteria. High forage and solids were dominated by OTU from Fibrobacter, whereas HG and fluid were dominated by OTU from Prevotella. Epimural samples, however, were dominated in part by Campylobacter. Active dry yeast had no effect on bacterial community diversity or structure. The phylum SR1 was more abundant in all ADY samples regardless of diet or sampling location. Furthermore, on HG, OTU2 and OTU3 (both classified into Fibrobacter succinogenes) were more abundant with ADY in fluid

  20. Geographic approaches to quantifying the risk environment: a focus on syringe exchange program site access and drug-related law enforcement activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah LF; Bossak, Brian; Tempalski, Barbara; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of the “risk environment” – defined as the “space … [where] factors exogenous to the individual interact to increase the chances of HIV transmission” – draws together the disciplines of public health and geography. Researchers have increasingly turned to geographic methods to quantify dimensions of the risk environment that are both structural and spatial (e.g., local poverty rates). The scientific power of the intersection between public health and geography, however, has yet to be fully mined. In particular, research on the risk environment has rarely applied geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of syringe exchange programs (SEPs) or of drug-related law enforcement activities, despite the fact that these interventions are widely conceptualized as structural and spatial in nature and are two of the most well-established dimensions of the risk environment. To strengthen research on the risk environment, this paper presents a way of using geographic methods to create neighbourhood-based measures of (1) access to SEP sites and (2) exposure to drug-related arrests, and then applies these methods to one setting (New York City). NYC-based results identified substantial cross-neighbourhood variation in SEP site access and in exposure to drug-related arrest rates (even within the subset of neighbourhoods nominally experiencing the same drug-related police strategy). These geographic measures – grounded as they are in conceptualizations of SEPs and drug-related law enforcement strategies – can help develop new arenas of inquiry regarding the impact of these two dimensions of the risk environment on injectors’ health, including exploring whether and how neighbourhood-level access to SEP sites and exposure to drug-related arrests shape a range of outcomes among local injectors. PMID:18963907

  1. A study of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Katsumi; Majima, Kazuo

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of the plasma acceleration between electrodes, the phenomena due to the pinch effect at the top of the electrodes and the neutron emission mechanism were experimentally studied. The plasma focus device was a Mather type coaxial discharge device, and the instruments used for the present purpose were a Rogoski coil, an image converter camera, a scintillation detector and a silver foil activation counter. The results of the present experiment were as follows. Plasma focus was not definitely made under the same condition. When the focus was seen, a dip was observed in the discharge wave form, and the emissions of X-ray and neutrons were detected. The angular anisotropy of neutron emission was observed, and corresponds to a beam target model. The phenomena showing the occurrence of focus were seen, when the current sheet was produced at a delayed time after discharge, and arrived at the muzzle with large velocity. The relation between the number of emitted neutrons and the velocity of the current sheet was obtained, whereas no systematic relation exists between the number of emitted neutrons and the velocity of pinch. When the focus was not observed, no dip was seen in current wave form, and the emissions of X-ray and neutrons were not detected. The reason of no focus was considered. (Kato, T.)

  2. FOCUS ON GRAPHENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M

    2009-01-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fuerst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P Lopez-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J Gonzalez and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A

  3. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  4. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  5. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  6. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  7. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  8. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  9. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  10. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  11. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  12. An internet survey of the characteristics and physical activity of community-dwelling Australian adults with acquired brain injury: Exploring interest in an internet-delivered self-management program focused on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Taryn M; Dean, Catherine M; Dear, Blake F; Hush, Julia M; Titov, Nickolai

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) are more likely to be physically inactive and experience barriers to accessing services to address inactivity. This study was designed to guide the development of an internet-delivered self-management program to increase physical activity after ABI. The aims of this study were to examine the current physical activity status of community-dwelling Australian adults with ABI, the barriers to physical activity they experience and to explore interest an internet-delivered self-management program aimed at increasing physical activity. An online survey of Australian adults with ABI was used to collect information about demographic characteristics; general health; emotional well-being; mobility and physical activity status, and satisfaction; barriers to physical activity; confidence in overcoming barriers, and; interest in an internet self-management program. Data were analyzed descriptively and correlational analyses examined relationships between variables. Data were analyzed from 59 respondents. Over half were not satisfied with their current physical activity status. The most frequently reported barriers were pain/discomfort, fatigue and fear, and confidence to overcome these barriers was very low. Interest in an internet-delivered self-management program was high (74%) and not related to the amount of physical activity, satisfaction with physical activity and mobility status or total number of barriers. Australian adults with ABI are not satisfied with their activity levels and experience barriers in maintaining their physical activity levels. Participants were interested in accessing an internet-delivered self-management program aimed at improving physical activity levels. Therefore such a program warrants development and evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Competitive mindsets, creativity, and the role of regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny; Heidemeier, Heike

    2013-01-01

    We examined how regulatory focus and intentions to compete rather than cooperate with group members relate to creativity. Study 1 showed that a promotion focus (i.e., a focus on ideals) activated a cooperative mindset, whereas a prevention focus (i.e., a focus on responsibilities) activated a

  14. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  15. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  16. Plasma focus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.L.

    1975-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide a relatively simple pulsed power source for high density pulsed fusion studies with a variety of DT and other fusion microexplosion targets. The plasma focus operated on DT at 1 MJ should produce greater than or equal to 10 15 DT neutrons per pulse corresponding to 2800 J of nuclear energy release and for low pressure operation and appropriately configured high Z anode center should yield an x-ray burst of about 1000 J with a substantial fraction of this x-ray energy concentrated in the 5-100 kV range. Because of its x-ray and neutron production potential, the operation of the focus as an x-ray source is also under study and an initial design study for a repetitively pulsed 1 MJ plasma focus as a pulsed neutron materials testing source has been completed. The plasma focus seems particularly appropriate for application as a materials testing source for pulsed fusion reactors, for example, based on laser driven fusion microexplosions. The construction status of the device is described

  17. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  18. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  19. An adiabatic focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  20. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  1. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...

  2. Focus Group Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    home for the arrival of school- aged children. TIP: Do not conduct focus groups in a command conference room in the command group area. Doing so...organizational effectiveness and equal opportunity/equal employment opportunity/fair treatment and sexual assault and response factors (which are listed on the... Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  3. Dialogicality in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The phenomenon which dialogism addresses is human interaction. It enables us to conceptualise human interaction as intersubjective, symbolic, cultural, transformative and conflictual, in short, as complex. The complexity of human interaction is evident in all domains of human life, for example, i......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  4. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  5. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  6. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  7. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  8. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  9. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  10. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  11. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  12. Focused detection logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining a characteristic of the media surrounding a borehole by emitting gamma radiation in at least one tightly collimated beam toward an earth formation adjacent a borehole, by detecting from a plurality of tightly collimated paths that are focused at a zone of intersection with and aligned to intersect with each emitted beam the gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media at the zones of intersection, by misaligning the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths to prevent their intersection, by detecting gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media with the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths misaligned and by determining from the detected gamma radiation a media characteristic. In one embodiment, the detection collimater used is formed of a material that is essentially opaque to gamma radiation at the energies of interest and includes a plurality of passageways that are spherically focused at a zone of intersection with one of the emitted beams of gamma radiation and that are arranged in a number of surfaces that are curved to be azimuthally symmetrical about the axis of the intersected beam. 14 figures

  13. Niger institute focuses on financial accountability | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Niger institute focuses on financial accountability ... on renewing outdated financial management systems that impeded effective management and reporting on its activities. ... Canada-Africa grants spur novel ideas, networks.

  14. Focus group report - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST) conducted a focus group with members of the Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), interviews with tribal government representatives, and a survey of Oak Ridge Local Oversight Committee (LOC) and Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) members. The purpose was to understand what members of the interested and involved public want to know about technology development and ways to get that information to them. These data collection activities were used as a follow-up to two previously held focus groups with the general public near Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Most participants from the first two focus groups said they did not have time and/or were not interested in participating in technology decision-making. They said they would prefer to defer to members of their communities who are interested and want to be involved in technology decision-making

  15. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  16. Focus on Succes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Slimák

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physical persons, and the priority is loyalty of external customers. The address is targeted to would-be authors and readers of our Journal interested in engineering and management of quality of mutually correlate entities.

  17. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  18. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a distinct feature among people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and pose a barrier to functional recovery. Insufficient evidence exists on how to ameliorate these cognitive deficits in patients at UHR for psychosis and hence improve daily living and quality...... of life. The aim of the trial is to investigate whether cognitive remediation can improve cognitive and psychosocial function in patients at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: The FOCUS trial (Function and Overall Cognition in Ultra-high risk States) is a randomised, parallel group, observer-blinded clinical...... trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...

  19. Focus on the Rashba effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  20. Transcriptional profiling of striatal neurons in response to single or concurrent activation of dopamine D2, adenosine A(2A) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors: focus on beta-synuclein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Laia; Selga, Elisabet; García-Martínez, Juan Manuel; Amaral, Olavo B; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Alberch, Jordi; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Noé, Véronique; Lluís, Carme; Ciudad, Carlos J; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-10-25

    G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization is a concept which is changing the understanding of classical pharmacology. Both, oligomerization and functional interaction between adenosine A(2A,) dopamine D(2) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors have been demonstrated in the striatum. However, the transcriptional consequences of receptors co-activation are still unexplored. We aim here to determine the changes in gene expression of striatal primary cultured neurons upon isolated or simultaneous receptor activation. Interestingly, we found that 95 genes of the total analyzed (15,866 transcripts and variants) changed their expression in response to simultaneous stimulation of all three receptors. Among these genes, we focused on the β-synuclein (β-Syn) gene (SCNB). Quantitative PCR verified the magnitude and direction of change in expression of SCNB. Since β-Syn belongs to the homologous synuclein family and may be considered a natural regulator of α-synuclein (α-Syn), it has been proposed that β-Syn might act protectively against α-Syn neuropathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Congress continued to work on the budget during April with small breaks to attend Earth Day activities to acknowledge the public's growing environmental conscience. The House Budget Committee once again raised to 100 percent the portion of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) budget to be funded through user fees. However, the Senate Budget Committee authorized continuation of the current 45-percent user fee funding. The full House approved the budget resolution on May 1. The Senate may act sometime in May

  2. Order Management - Today's focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Ari

    1996-01-01

    Small and mid-range companies throughout the world have moved towards customer-specific production during the last few years, but often, the order flow has not changed to meet new demands. Customer orders pass through a laarge number of departments, such as sales, construction, pre...... to the final product.In the paper, a new method for improving order flow is presented, including an extended use of activity chain models....

  3. Focusing on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdin, C.M. du; Lacroix, D.

    2004-01-01

    Safety of our packages and operations is our first concern to ensure protection for people and the environment. Environmental impact generated by COGEMA LOGISTICS activities is also covered by an environmental management approach. This systematical environmental management approach starts with the design phase of new products and processes and meets several objectives: -to reduce the environmental impact of our direct activities by optimizing the maintenance, management and storage of our fleet, -to inform and develop awareness among our suppliers and incite them to join us in this approach. We favor the development of partnerships with our suppliers so as to work together to improve our products and services. As part of AREVA's policy of sustainable development, COGEMA LOGISTICS has decided to expand the management system at the environment using the ISO 14001 model. The associated ISO certification was obtained in February 2003 for all our activities and locations. In this context and beyond the compliance with regulations, COGEMA LOGISTICS undertakes to prevent all types of pollution and continuously improve environmental performance, together with customers, authorities, suppliers and local partners

  4. Focusing on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdin, C.M. du; Lacroix, D. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Safety of our packages and operations is our first concern to ensure protection for people and the environment. Environmental impact generated by COGEMA LOGISTICS activities is also covered by an environmental management approach. This systematical environmental management approach starts with the design phase of new products and processes and meets several objectives: -to reduce the environmental impact of our direct activities by optimizing the maintenance, management and storage of our fleet, -to inform and develop awareness among our suppliers and incite them to join us in this approach. We favor the development of partnerships with our suppliers so as to work together to improve our products and services. As part of AREVA's policy of sustainable development, COGEMA LOGISTICS has decided to expand the management system at the environment using the ISO 14001 model. The associated ISO certification was obtained in February 2003 for all our activities and locations. In this context and beyond the compliance with regulations, COGEMA LOGISTICS undertakes to prevent all types of pollution and continuously improve environmental performance, together with customers, authorities, suppliers and local partners.

  5. Focus on Fotemustine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rossi, A; Rossi, L; Laudisi, A; Sini, V; Toppo, L; Marchesi, F; Tortorelli, G; Leti, M; Turriziani, M; Aquino, A; Bonmassar, E; De Vecchis, L; Torino, F

    2006-12-01

    Fotemustine is a cytotoxic alkylating agent, belonging to the group of nitrosourea family. Its mechanism of action is similar to that of other nitrosoureas, characterized by a mono-functional/bi-functional alkylating activity. Worth of consideration is the finding that the presence of high levels of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) in cancer cells confers drug resistance. In different clinical trials Fotemustine showed a remarkable antitumor activity as single agent, and in association with other antineoplastic compounds or treatment modalities. Moreover, its toxicity is generally considered acceptable. The drug has been employed in the treatment of metastatic melanoma, and, on the basis of its pharmacokinetic properties, in brain tumors, either primitive or metastatic. Moreover, Fotemustine shows pharmacodynamic properties similar to those of mono-functional alkylating compounds (e.g. DNA methylating drugs, such as Temozolomide), that have been recently considered for the management of acute refractory leukaemia. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that this agent could be a good candidate to play a potential role in haematological malignancies.

  6. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  7. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  8. Recent developments: Washington focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Recent weeks have seen considerable Congressional activity on uranium enrichment legislation. On August 2, the Senate passed the Energy ampersand Water Development Appropriations Bill, which funds the DOE and NRC programs. A conference committee must be convened to work out the differences between the House and Senate versions of the Bill. The House Science, Space and Technology subcommittee held one hearing, and also a markup of HR 2480, the House bill to restructure the uranium enrichment program as a government corporation. Also in the House of Representatives, subcommittees of the Energy and Commerce Committee, and the Interior and Insular Affairs Committee held a joint hearing on the Smith Barney report on DOE restructuring. Lastly, the USCEA's Nuclear Fuel Supply Committee met in San Francisco near the end of July

  9. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  10. The focus on radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama T, G.

    2008-12-01

    So much the national normative all the international recommendations on the subject point to the need for qualified personnel with an appropriate degree of competition. In the 1997 year specialized adviser figure was settled down for the radiodiagnosis in complete congruence with the recommendations of the safety basic standards. However, this practice can be found even personnel occupationally exposed to learning on an approximately 22%. Mexican Official Standard NOM-229-SSA1-2002, T echnical requirements for the facilities, sanitary responsibilities, technical specifications for the equipment and radiation protection in medical diagnosis X-ray facilities , and replacing the old set of standards NOM-146 (156, 157 and 158)- SSA1-1996, contains two fundamental branches: one guided towards the radiation protection and the other one guided towards the quality assurance which comes the need for courses in that discipline too. In fact, in our country there is an infrastructure of radiation safety training that can address the needs of staff who is entering and remaining in the ranks of the involved areas. The Mexican Society of Radiological Safety can participate supporting the authorities to unify and to regulate monitoring criterions of such activities with a particular emphasis on evaluation as well as with the provision and the proposed new and varied agendas diversify courses, all to become true qualified experts as establishing the safety basic standards. (Author)

  11. Focus on sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R J; Godiksen, L; Hansen, G; Gustafson, D J; Brinkerhoff, D W; Ingle, M D; Rounds, T; Wing, H

    1990-01-01

    In recent years, sustainability has become one of the most critical concepts in international development and is having a dramatic impact on the way development is conceptualized and carried out. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is incorporating this concept into its programs and projects. Factors encouraging sustainability of projects and programs include host government policies that support or constrain program objectives, national and/or local commitment to project goals, managerial leadership that helps shape improved policies, collaboration at all staff levels in program management, financial resources that cover program operational costs, appropriate program technology, integration of the program with the social and cultural setting of the country, community involvement in the program, sound environmental management, technical assistance oriented to transferring skills and increasing institutional capacity, perception by the host country that the project is "effective," training provided by the project to transfer skill needed for capacity-building, integration of the program into existing institutional framework, and external political, economic and environmental factors. Impediments to sustainability are often inherent in the donor agency's programming process. This includes the implicit assumption that program objectives can be accomplished in a relatively short time frame, when in fact capacity-building requires a lengthy commitment. USAID professionals are pressured to show near-term results which emphasize outputs rather than purpose and goal-level accomplishments achievable only after extensive effort. The emphasis on obligating money and on the project paper as a sales document leads project designers to talk with a great deal more certainty about project results than is warranted by the complex development situation. Uncertainty and flexibility should be designed into projects so activities and objects can change as more

  12. Similarities and differences in underlying beliefs of socio-cognitive factors related to diet and physical activity in lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults in the Netherlands: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Romeike

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy eating patterns and a lack of physical activity (PA are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated people, including people of non-Western origin. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the beliefs and barriers that underlie socio-cognitive and planning constructs related to healthy eating and PA among lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults. Methods Focus group interviews were conducted with 90 Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan lower-educated adults between March and August 2012. Five semi-structured group interviews were conducted with Dutch participants, five with Turkish participants, and four with Moroccan participants. Men and women were interviewed separately. The question route was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and self-regulation theories. The theoretical method used for the qualitative data analysis was content analysis. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by applying the framework approach. Results Some participants seemed to lack knowledge of healthy eating and PA, especially regarding the health consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle. Important attitude beliefs concerning healthy eating and PA were taste and health benefits. Participants suggested that social support can encourage the actual performance of healthy behavior. For instance, exercising with other people was perceived as being supportive. Perceived barriers to PA and cooking healthily were a lack of time and tiredness. These previously mentioned beliefs arose in all the ethnic groups. Differences were also found in beliefs between the ethnic groups, which were mainly related to religious and cultural issues. Turkish and Moroccan participants discussed, for example, that the Koran contains the recommendation to eat in moderation and to take care of one’s body. Furthermore, they reported that refusing food when offered is difficult, as it can be perceived as

  13. Similarities and differences in underlying beliefs of socio-cognitive factors related to diet and physical activity in lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults in the Netherlands: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeike, Kristina; Abidi, Latifa; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke

    2016-08-17

    Unhealthy eating patterns and a lack of physical activity (PA) are highly prevalent in most Western countries, especially among lower-educated people, including people of non-Western origin. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the beliefs and barriers that underlie socio-cognitive and planning constructs related to healthy eating and PA among lower-educated Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan adults. Focus group interviews were conducted with 90 Dutch, Turkish, and Moroccan lower-educated adults between March and August 2012. Five semi-structured group interviews were conducted with Dutch participants, five with Turkish participants, and four with Moroccan participants. Men and women were interviewed separately. The question route was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and self-regulation theories. The theoretical method used for the qualitative data analysis was content analysis. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by applying the framework approach. Some participants seemed to lack knowledge of healthy eating and PA, especially regarding the health consequences of an unhealthy lifestyle. Important attitude beliefs concerning healthy eating and PA were taste and health benefits. Participants suggested that social support can encourage the actual performance of healthy behavior. For instance, exercising with other people was perceived as being supportive. Perceived barriers to PA and cooking healthily were a lack of time and tiredness. These previously mentioned beliefs arose in all the ethnic groups. Differences were also found in beliefs between the ethnic groups, which were mainly related to religious and cultural issues. Turkish and Moroccan participants discussed, for example, that the Koran contains the recommendation to eat in moderation and to take care of one's body. Furthermore, they reported that refusing food when offered is difficult, as it can be perceived as an insult. Finally, men and women usually cannot exercise

  14. Focusators for laser-branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  15. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  16. Autofocus system and autofocus method for focusing on a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary Morabito

    2017-05-23

    An autofocus system includes an imaging device, a lens system and a focus control actuator that is configured to change a focus position of the imaging device in relation to a stage. The electronic control unit is configured to control the focus control actuator to a plurality of predetermined focus positions, and activate the imaging device to obtain an image at predetermined positions and then apply a spatial filter to the obtained images. This generates a filtered image for the obtained images. The control unit determines a focus score for the filtered images such that the focus score corresponds to a degree of focus in the obtained images. The control unit identifies a best focus position by comparing the focus score of the filtered images, and controls the focus control actuator to the best focus position corresponding to the highest focus score.

  17. Content-Focused Coaching: Five Key Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Many districts are using content-focused coaching as a strategy to provide job-embedded support to teachers. However, the current coaching literature provides little guidance on what coaches need to know and be able to do to engage teachers in activities that will support their development of ambitious instructional practices. Furthermore, little…

  18. Summary report on focusing HTGR technology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program effort to focus technology development activities consists of work in three areas: the identification of Reference Plant Options; the identification of design data needs and supporting program requirements for these plants; and the development of management plans and tools consistent with the execution of candidate systems

  19. Las actividades en la naturaleza en la formación inicial docente: un acercamiento desde los sentidos Activities in nature in initial teacher training: an approach focusing on meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Castillo Retamal

    2012-09-01

    assigned to this learning sector and focuses on the re-signification that emerges from the concepts and experiences of the individuals who go through the process of initial education. As a result, the main purpose is to comprehend how future teachers assign sense and meaning to the relationship they establish with the natural environment, since they understand the generation of an eminently complex link, which configures the human being from the viewpoint of the bio-geo-structure of the natural spaces, man/nature relationship and the very historical character of the individual. On the other hand, the landmark of this research is the interpretative paradigm and the qualitative methodology, since the core question is to comprehend the notions of meaning of physical education teacher whose education is in progress, in the perspective of the activities in the natural environment.

  20. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  2. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  3. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  4. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  5. Some optical diagnostics for the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhavin, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of studying plasma focus dynamics are reported. Particular efforts were made to develop an infrared (IR) diagnostics. The plasma focus is formed in a discharge chamber, when shock waves and plasma sheath cumulate on the axis as a result of the break-down of filling gas by the application of high voltage. The current J was measured with a Rogovsky coil, and the voltage U was measured with a capacitor divider. The current derivative was measured with magnetic probes, and X-ray and neutron emission intensities were measured with a plastic scintillator. The total neutron yield were measured by the activation method. The time-integrated soft X-ray pictures of plasma focus were taken with a pin-hole camera. The formation and disruption of plasma focus were studied by multi-picture speed photography. Laser interferometry was used to study the time-space distribution of plasma density. For the study of turbulence phenomena in plasma focus, a new type IR detector was employed. The results of measurements suggest that there exists some superthermal radiation during the second compression of plasma focus, but it is not so strong. (Kato, T.)

  6. ECONOMIC STRATEGY CREATED THROUGH THEORY FOCUSED PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Alexandru Bodislav

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research done for this article is following the elaboration of a moldable model on the actual economic context, in which there are considered continuous learning elements on facts and commercial niches, evaluating a business starting from causality diagram and structuring its processes. Analyzing the evolution of a business and on the market in which they are deploying their activity through quantitative and qualitative measurement methods focused on trends. Testing hypotheses and business suppositions that are the main engine of theory focused on planning, a model of creating a strategic management process that will be developed in this article.

  7. Electric motors in the focus; Elektroantrieb im Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Jan

    2013-05-15

    In August 2013, the first electric series production model of Ford comes to the market: the Focus Electric. A 23-kWh lithium-ion battery supplies the 107 kilowatts (145 hp) electric motor of the Focus Electric with energy. This battery enables a range of 162 kilometers and a limited top speed of 136 kilometers per hour. However, with 40,000 Euro this electric-powered vehicles is too expensive.

  8. Assessment of Working Scientifically--The TAPS Focused Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kendra

    2018-01-01

    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) Focused Assessment approach embeds assessment within normal classroom science activities. Essentially, a Focused Assessment is a lesson plan for a science inquiry, with an identified focus for assessment and guidance on how to interpret the children's responses in relation to expectations for that…

  9. Self-focusing Past and Present - Fundamentals and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Self-focusing has been an area of active scientific investigation for years. From a practical point of view, self-focusing effects impose a limit on the power that can be transmitted through a material medium. This book presents a comprehensive treatment of this topic and reviews both theoretical and experimental investigations of self-focusing.

  10. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  11. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-12-01

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  12. Focusing liquid microjets with nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, A J; Ferrera, C; Montanero, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M

    2012-01-01

    The stability of flow focusing taking place in a converging–diverging nozzle, as well as the size of the resulting microjets, is examined experimentally in this paper. The results obtained in most aspects of the problem are similar to those of the classical plate-orifice configuration. There is, however, a notable difference between flow focusing in nozzles and in the plate-orifice configuration. In the former case, the liquid meniscus oscillates laterally (global whipping) for a significant area of the control parameter plane, a phenomenon never observed when focusing with the plate-orifice configuration. Global whipping may constitute an important drawback of flow focusing with nozzles because it reduces the robustness of the technique. (paper)

  13. Wayside Teaching: Focusing on Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Wayside teaching focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships with students. Teachers can implement certain wayside teaching practices to end the year in a positive way and begin preparing for the next school year.

  14. Nova frequency conversion and focusing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.A.; Seppala, L.G.; Williams, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    New developments in crystal array technology provided significant improvements in the mechanical design and optical performance of the Nova 2 omega/3 omega array hardware. The final Nova array configuration was tested on the Novette laser and on the first arm of Nova. Ten Nova 2 omega/3 omega crystal arrays were assembled and tested for crystal alignment and wave front distortion before installation on the Nova target chamber. Ten Nova focus lens positioners were assembled and tested last year. The positioning accuracy and repeatability of each assembly were evaluated before installation on the target chamber. A cylindrical focusing system was also developed for installation in the Nova lens positioner assembly. Finally, 10 completed frequency conversion and focusing systems were activated

  15. Using Focus Groups in the Consumer Research Phase of a Social Marketing Program to Promote Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity and Walking Trail Use in Sumter County, South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer researc...

  16. Project Management with IT Security Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Felician Alecu; Paul Pocatilu; Sergiu Capisizu

    2011-01-01

    The paper focus on the main key points related to the IT security project management. The most important lifecycle stages are identified: IT security project proposal definition, project organization, project planning, quality planning, project team organization, IT security project activities management and project closing. The most important success factors for IT security projects are the support of top-management, customer satisfaction, prevention over remediation and continuous progress....

  17. Stability of expanded plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the stabilization of the expanded plasma focus formed by 4.5 kJ plasma focus device of Mather type by magnetic field is presented. The experimental results of the induced axial magnetic field and electric probe measurements of the expanded plasma focus show that, the plasma consists of three plasmoids, electron temperature measurements off the plasmoids at a point close to the muzzle are 26 eV, 30 eV and 27 eV respectively and the electron densities are 6.6 x 10 14 , 6.1 x 10 14 / cm 3 respectively. The presence of external axial magnetic field (B 2 = 1.6 kg) at the mid distance between the breech and the muzzle has a less effect on the stability of expanded focus and it causes a restriction for the plasma motion. the electron temperature of the three plasmoids are found to increase in that case by 23%, 18.5% respectively. When this axial magnetic field is applied at the muzzle end, it leads to a more stable expanded plasma focus which consists mainly of one plasmoid with electron temperature of 39 eV and density of 3.4 x 10 14 / cm 3 . 5 figs

  18. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  19. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  20. Finding beam focus errors automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors

  1. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  2. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  3. Focus group report, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders

  4. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk…

  5. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  6. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  7. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  8. Work and Family. Special Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on issues concerning families with both parents employed outside the home and describes several employer programs designed to help employees balance their work and family life. The newsletter includes the following articles: (1) "Work and Family: 1992"; (2) "Levi Strauss and Co.--A Work/Family Program…

  9. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  10. Plasma focusing in coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.

    1986-01-01

    A capacitor bank has been discharged between two coaxial electrodes of 6.6 cm outer diameter, 3.2 cm inner diameter and length of 31.5 cm. filled with hydrogen gas at pressure of 310 μHg. Results show that, the axial and radial plasma current reach a maximum value at a position adjacent to the gun muzzle, at which the plasma focus occurs. The measurement of the electron temperature and density and azimuthal electric field along the axis of the expansion chamber, gives a maximum value at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, while the axial plasma current and velocity has a minimum value at that position. These results indicate that a second point of a plasma focus has been formed at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, along the axis of the expansion chamber

  11. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  12. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  13. Ion beam generation and focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Mendel, C.W.; Swain, D.W.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have shown that efficiently generated and focused ion beams could have significant advantages over electron beams in achieving ignition of inertially-confined thermonuclear fuel. Efficient ion beam generation implies use of a good ion source and suppression of net electron current. Net electron flow can be reduced by allowing electrons to reflex through a highly transparent anode or by use of transverse magnetic fields (either beam self-fields or externally applied fields). Geometric focusing can be achieved if the beam is generated by appropriately shaped electrodes. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate ion beam generation in both reflexing and pinched-flow diodes. Spherically shaped electrodes are used to concentrate a proton beam, and target response to proton deposition is studied

  14. Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using RF breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations

  15. Optimum Design of Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    The optimum design of Plasma Focus devices is presented based in a lumped parameter model of the MHD equations.Maps in the design parameters space are obtained, which determine the length and deuterium pressure required to produce a given neutron yield.Sensitivity analyses of the main effective numbers (sweeping efficiencies) was performed, and lately the optimum values were determined in order to set a basis for the conceptual design

  16. Focus On Photoshop Elements Focus on the Fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, David

    2011-01-01

    Are you bewildered by the advanced editing options available in Photoshop Elements? Do you want to get the most out of your image without going bleary-eyed in front of a computer screen? This handy guide will explain the ins and outs of using Photoshop Elements, without having to spend hours staring at the screen. Using a fabulous combination of easy-to-follow advice and step-by-step instructions, Focus On Photoshop Elements gives great advice on setting up, storing and sharing your image library and teaches you the basics of RAW image processing and color correction, plus shows you how to edi

  17. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  18. High efficiency focus neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.; Amrollahi, R.; Zare, M.; Fazelpour, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the new idea to increase the neutron yield of plasma focus devices is investigated and the results are presented. Based on many studies, more than 90% of neutrons in plasma focus devices were produced by beam target interactions and only 10% of them were due to thermonuclear reactions. While propounding the new idea, the number of collisions between deuteron ions and deuterium gas atoms were increased remarkably well. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 was used to study the given idea in the known 28 plasma focus devices. In this circumstance, the neutron yield of this system was also obtained and reported. Finally, it was found that in the ENEA device with 1 Hz working frequency, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 1011 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. In addition, in the NX2 device with 16 Hz working frequency, 1.34 × 1010 and 1.34 × 1012 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. The results show that with regards to the sizes and energy of these devices, they can be used as the efficient neutron generators.

  19. Epileptogenic focus localization: a new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Vânia [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, André Santos [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal); Centre for Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Capela, Carlos; Cerqueira, Luís [Department of Neuroradiology, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central, Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-05-18

    Epilepsy is one of the most important chronic neurological disorders worldwide affecting more than 50 million people of all ages. Among these, almost 20% of epilepsy cases are uncontrollable and have an unknown source of this abnormal electrical activity. Present techniques for the detection of epileptogenic foci include electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography, and multimodal EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), all with limitations in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. In order to overcome some of those limitations a novel approach using fMRI alone was developed based on the hypotheses that the epileptogenic focus shows Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) temporal profiles distinct from the remaining brain parenchyma during interictal activity and that the epileptogenic focus BOLD signals show lower complexity than healthy parenchyma. In this novel approach, bi-dimensional temporal clustering analysis, a data-driven technique, was used to identify brain regions with similar temporal profiles. Then, the BOLD signals of these regions were assessed regarding complexity using detrended fluctuation analysis and also using a modified multiscale entropy algorithm in order to identify which of those regions corresponded to epileptogenic tissue. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method three epileptic patients were analyzed comprising two types of epilepsy: unilateral and bilateral temporal lobe epilepsies. The results showed that this method is able to detect the brain regions associated with epileptogenic tissue. The results also showed that the epileptogenic focus influences the dynamics of related brain networks. This could be a key factor in the applicability of this method to other epilepsy cases. Finally, new perspectives are envisioned concerning the use of this method in the medical care of epilepsy. In particular, by improving this method using simultaneous structural, functional, and metabolic

  20. Epileptogenic focus localization: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Vânia; Ribeiro, André Santos; Capela, Carlos; Cerqueira, Luís; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most important chronic neurological disorders worldwide affecting more than 50 million people of all ages. Among these, almost 20% of epilepsy cases are uncontrollable and have an unknown source of this abnormal electrical activity. Present techniques for the detection of epileptogenic foci include electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography, and multimodal EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), all with limitations in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. In order to overcome some of those limitations a novel approach using fMRI alone was developed based on the hypotheses that the epileptogenic focus shows Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) temporal profiles distinct from the remaining brain parenchyma during interictal activity and that the epileptogenic focus BOLD signals show lower complexity than healthy parenchyma. In this novel approach, bi-dimensional temporal clustering analysis, a data-driven technique, was used to identify brain regions with similar temporal profiles. Then, the BOLD signals of these regions were assessed regarding complexity using detrended fluctuation analysis and also using a modified multiscale entropy algorithm in order to identify which of those regions corresponded to epileptogenic tissue. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method three epileptic patients were analyzed comprising two types of epilepsy: unilateral and bilateral temporal lobe epilepsies. The results showed that this method is able to detect the brain regions associated with epileptogenic tissue. The results also showed that the epileptogenic focus influences the dynamics of related brain networks. This could be a key factor in the applicability of this method to other epilepsy cases. Finally, new perspectives are envisioned concerning the use of this method in the medical care of epilepsy. In particular, by improving this method using simultaneous structural, functional, and metabolic

  1. Methods for assessing physical activity: a systematic review focused on older adults. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p256

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Terumi Ueno

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the large array of instruments for measuring physical activity (PA, the use of questionnaires, pedometers, and accelerometers with older adults is frequent. This study aimed to analyze the most widely adopted protocol for each instrument that is most commonly used to assess PA in older adults, and explore possible advantages and disadvantages of the methods used for these instruments. Thereby, we performed a search in databases and cross references of the articles selected. This procedure yielded in 16 studies being included. The in-depth analyzed studies demonstrate that questionnaires are usually applied either as an interview or self-administered, assessing the domains of leisure, sports, and household chores with a recall period of a typical week in the last month. Regarding pedometers and accelerometers, the length of time considered to be sufficient for data collection is five days. The devices are frequently used on the waist or hip with a belt or attached to clothing and removed only for water activities or during sleeping time. The use of either instrument should take into account the advantages and disadvantages that influence choosing one over the other, such as the number of participants to be evaluated, the time available for assessment, among others. The use of accelerometer along with PA questionnaire may yield more reliable and accurate measurements of PA level. In addition, it is recommended that, for older adults, questionnaires should be applied employing the interview format, in order to minimize possible misinterpretation of the questions.

  2. [A complex of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in the focus of West Nile fever in the Volgograd Region. III. Species feeding on birds and man and the rhythms of their nocturnal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Iu V; Bezzhonova, O V; Fedorova, M V; Bulgakova, T V; Platonov, A E

    2007-01-01

    The rate and nocturnal rhythm of mosquito attacks of birds and human beings were studied in the open biotopes of Volgograd and its vicinity in 2004. Thirteen and 11 species of the subfamily Culicinae were collected under the Berezantsev bell and from the traps containing a chicken (a hen), respectively; of them 9 species were common. The mosquitoes of an Anopheles maculipennis complex were caught in a small portion to the traps of both types. Most species of Aedes were highly anthropophilic, showed the minimum activity at night and their abundance considerably decreased by the early transmission period. Among the species that were active during the transmission period, Ae. vexans, Coq. richiardii, and Cx. modestus more intensively attacked a human being than birds and Cx. pipiens was frequently attracted into the hen traps. The attraction of each species of the caught varied during the transmission period. The maximum attacks of Cx. modestus and Cx. pipiens on man and birds coincide and those of Coq. Richiardii and Cx. pipiens on man was observed earlier than on birds. A possible role of mosquitoes of different species in the epizootic and epidemiological processes is discussed.

  3. The quest for customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line.

  4. A focused bibliography on robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, H. W.

    1983-08-01

    The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.

  5. Focus on topological quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachos, Jiannis K; Simon, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Topological quantum computation started as a niche area of research aimed at employing particles with exotic statistics, called anyons, for performing quantum computation. Soon it evolved to include a wide variety of disciplines. Advances in the understanding of anyon properties inspired new quantum algorithms and helped in the characterization of topological phases of matter and their experimental realization. The conceptual appeal of topological systems as well as their promise for building fault-tolerant quantum technologies fuelled the fascination in this field. This ‘focus on’ collection brings together several of the latest developments in the field and facilitates the synergy between different approaches. (editorial)

  6. Focus on astronomical predictable events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    At the Steno Museum Planetarium we have for many occasions used a countdown clock to get focus om astronomical events. A countdown clock can provide actuality to predictable events, for example The Venus Transit, Opportunity landing on Mars and The Solar Eclipse. The movement of the clock attracs...... the public and makes a point of interest in a small exhibit area. A countdown clock can be simple, but it is possible to expand the concept to an eye-catching part of a museum....

  7. Catastrophe in plasma focus evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1984-07-01

    A theory of generating strong electric field in a dense plasma column in plasma focus is established by applying the formula for the electron thermal conductivity in destroyed magnetic surfaces like those in tokamaks. The origin of the electric field may be from abrupt rise of plasma resistivity when the irregularity of magnetic field is weak. However, the electric field can be from the inductive origin in case the irregularity attains a certain level. Both origin should be mixed up depending on the magnitude of the irregularity. (author)

  8. Final focus system for TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal β function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Orbiter radiator panel solar focusing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, H. R.; Rankin, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Test data are presented which define the area around the Orbiter radiator panels for which the solar reflections are concentrated to one-sun or more. The concave shape of the panels and their specular silver/Teflon coating causes focusing of the reflected solar energy which could have adverse heating effects on equipment or astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) in the vicinity of the radiator panels. A room ambient test method was utilized with a one-tenth scale model of the radiator panels.

  10. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal

  11. Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. For cyclic accelerators a technique is required for carrying the plasma channel and the beam around a bend. Multiple laser-generated channels with dipole magnetic fields to switch the beam from one channel to the next have been tested at Sandia. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using rf breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. With a suitable driving frequency, a waveguide mode can be driven which has its peak field intensity on the axis with negligible fields at the chamber walls. The plasma production and hence the beam propagation is thereby isolated from the walls. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations

  12. The Hanford Site focus, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes what the Hanford Site will look like in the next two years. We offer thumbnail sketches of Hanford Site programs and the needs we are meeting through our efforts. We describe our goals, some recent accomplishments, the work we will do in fiscal year (FY) 1994, the major activities the FY 1995 budget request covers, and the economic picture in the next few years. The Hanford Site budget shows the type of work being planned. US Department of Energy (DOE) sites like the Hanford Site use documents called Activity Data Sheets to meet this need. These are building blocks that are included in the budget. Each Activity Data Sheet is a concise (usually 4 or 5 pages) summary of a piece of work funded by the DOE's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management budget. Each sheet describes a waste management or environmental restoration need over a 5-year period; related regulatory requirements and agreements; and the cost, milestones, and steps proposed to meet the need. The Hanford Site is complex and has a huge budget, and its Activity Data Sheets run to literally thousands of pages. This report summarizes the Activity Data Sheets in a less detailed and much more reader-friendly fashion

  13. Plasma focus - dense Z pinch and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shozo

    1986-02-01

    ''Workshop on the possibility of Z-pinch as a intense pulse light source'' in 1983 and ''Research meeting on plasma focus and Z-pinch'' in 1984 were held at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University under a collaborating research program. Research activities reported at the meetings on plasma focus, dense Z-pinch, and related phenomena are summerized. (author)

  14. Safety, training focus of combined organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toop, L.

    2006-03-15

    This article presented details of Enform, a company that coordinates safety programs and training for new employees in the oil and gas industry. Enform was created when the Petroleum Industry Training Services merged with the Canadian Petroleum Safety Council. The aim of Enform is to ensure continuous improvements in health and safety within the industry by reducing working injuries and promoting health and safety practices. The companies merged to eliminate duplication of services and allow associates further opportunities for advanced training. In 2005, Enform trained an estimated 155,000 students, and a number of new courses were introduced and updated. A franchise program was extended and a training council was formed to offer direction and guidance to the oil industry. Enform focuses on sharing information among companies, as well as working to harmonize safety regulations across provincial borders. A task force was recently created by the company with a specific focus on drug and alcohol abuse. Other concerns include driver safety and driver interactions with wildlife. Enform is mainly focused on the traditional oil industry, and has had little entry into the oil sands industry. It was concluded that increased activity in the oil and gas industry will remain Enform's biggest challenge in the next few years. Plans for Enform's increased involvement in the offshore oil and gas industry were also discussed. 4 figs.

  15. 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and -308 A/G tumor necrosis factor-α promoter gene polymorphisms in Argentinean lupus patients: focus on lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Sebastián Andrés; Aranda, Federico; Allievi, Alberto; Orden, Alberto Omar; Perés Wingeyer, Silvia; Trobo, Rosana; Alvarez, Analía; Eimon, Alicia; Barreira, Juan Carlos; Schneeberger, Emilce; Dal Pra, Fernando; Sarano, Judith; Hofman, Julio; Chamorro, Julián; de Larrañaga, Gabriela

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between the 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and -308 A/G tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) polymorphisms and the clinical and biochemical features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in an Argentinean patient cohort. A total of 402 patients were studied, including 179 SLE patients and 223 healthy individuals. PCR-RLFP was used to determine the genotypes of the 4G/5G PAI-1 and -308 A/G TNF-α polymorphisms. SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) (n = 86) were compared with patients without LN (n = 93). Additionally, LN patients were divided into proliferative LN and non-proliferative LN groups according to the results of the renal biopsies. No significant differences were noted in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies of these TNF-α and PAI-1 polymorphisms between SLE patients and controls. There were higher numbers of criteria for SLE, more lupus flares and higher damage scores in LN patients, but there were similar frequencies of anti-phospholipid antibody (APA) positivity and anti-phospholipid syndrome. No significant difference was noted for any studied variable between the proliferative LN and non-proliferative LN groups except for the presence of APA. We found no significant differences in the TNF-α and PAI-1 genotype distributions or allele frequencies between groups. We found that the -308 A/G TNF-α and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to SLE in an Argentinean population. We also did not find any association between the presence of any specific allele or genotype and the development of LN in SLE patients. Finally, no association was noted between either of the two polymorphisms and the severity of renal disease.

  16. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations

  17. Focus on integrated quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Patton, Brian; Sasaki, Masahide; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of research into quantum information processing is the development of technologies that are scaleable in complexity while allowing the mass manufacture of devices that promise transformative effects on information science. The demonstration that integrated photonics circuits could be made to perform operations that exploit the quantum nature of the photon has turned them into leading candidates for practical quantum information processing technologies. To fully achieve their promise, however, requires research from diverse fields. This focus issue provides a snapshot of some of the areas in which key advances have been made. We are grateful for the contributions from leading teams based around the globe and hope that the degree of progress being made in a challenging and exciting field is apparent from the papers published here. (editorial)

  18. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P; Knodlseder, R; Sazonov, S; Griffiths, R; Bastie, P; Halloin, H; Pareschi, G; Ramsey, B; Jensen, C; Buis, E J; Ulmer, M; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Comastri, A; Barret, D; Leising, M; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Abrosimov, N; Smither, B; Ubertini, P; Olive, J F; Lund, N; Pisa, A; Courtois, P; Roa, D; Harrison, F; Pareschi, G; Frontera, F; Von Ballmoos, P; Barriere, N; Rando, N; Borde, J; Hinglais, E; Cledassou, R; Duchon, P; Sghedoni, M; Huet, B; Takahashi, T; Caroli, E; Quadrinin, L; Buis, E J; Skinner, G; Krizmanic, J; Pareschi, G; Loffredo, G; Wunderer, C; Weidenspointner, G; Wunderer, C; Koechlin, L; Bignami, G; Von Ballmoos, P; Tueller, J; Andritschke, T; Laurens, A; Evrard, J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  19. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  20. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program summarizes the attempts to construct a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity within Wilson's generalized framework of renormalization. Its key ingredient is a non-Gaussian fixed point of the renormalization group flow which controls the behavior of the theory at trans-Planckian energies and renders gravity safe from unphysical divergences. Provided that the fixed point comes with a finite number of ultraviolet-attractive (relevant) directions, this construction gives rise to a consistent quantum field theory which is as predictive as an ordinary, perturbatively renormalizable one. This opens up the exciting possibility of establishing quantum Einstein gravity as a fundamental theory of gravity, without introducing supersymmetry or extra dimensions, and solely based on quantization techniques that are known to work well for the other fundamental forces of nature. While the idea of gravity being asymptotically safe was proposed by Steven Weinberg more than 30 years ago [1], the technical tools for investigating this scenario only emerged during the last decade. Here a key role is played by the exact functional renormalization group equation for gravity, which allows the construction of non-perturbative approximate solutions for the RG-flow of the gravitational couplings. Most remarkably, all solutions constructed to date exhibit a suitable non-Gaussian fixed point, lending strong support to the asymptotic safety conjecture. Moreover, the functional renormalization group also provides indications that the central idea of a non-Gaussian fixed point providing a safe ultraviolet completion also carries over to more realistic scenarios where gravity is coupled to a suitable matter sector like the standard model. These theoretical successes also triggered a wealth of studies focusing on the consequences of asymptotic safety in a wide range of phenomenological applications covering the physics of black holes, early

  1. Natural product HTP screening for antibacterial (E.coli 0157:H7) and anti-inflammatory agents in (LPS from E. coli O111:B4) activated macrophages and microglial cells; focus on sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Li, Nan; Bauer, David; Mendonca, Patricia; Taka, Equar; Darb, Mohammed; Thomas, Leeshawn; Williams, Henry; Soliman, Karam F A

    2016-11-15

    Acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome arising from infection can lead to multiple organ failure and death, with greater susceptibility occurring in immunocompromised individuals. Moreover, sub-acute chronic inflammation is a contributor to the pathology of diverse degenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and arthritis). Given the known limitations in Western medicine to treat a broad range of inflammatory related illness as well as the emergence of antibiotic resistance, there is a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to achieve these means. A high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 commonly sold natural products (bulk herbs, cooking spices, teas, leaves, supplement components, nutraceutical food components, fruit and vegetables, rinds, seeds, polyphenolics etc.) was conducted to elucidate anti-inflammatory substances in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. coli serotype O111:B4) monocytes: RAW 264.7 macrophages [peripheral], BV-2 microglia [brain]) relative to hydrocortisone, dexamethasone and L-N6-(1Iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL). HTP evaluation was also carried out for lethal kill curves against E.coli 0157:H7 1x10 6 CFU/mL relative to penicillin. Validation studies were performed to assess cytokine profiling using antibody arrays. Findings were corroborated by independent ELISAs and NO2-/iNOS expression quantified using the Griess Reagent and immunocytochemistry, respectively. For robust screening, we developed an in-vitro efficacy paradigm to ensure anti-inflammatory parameters were observed independent of cytotoxicity. This caution was taken given that many plants exert tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory effects at close range through similar signaling pathways, which could lead to false positives. The data show that activated BV-2 microglia cells (+ LPS 1μg/ml) release >10-fold greater IL-6, MIP1/2, RANTES and nitric oxide (NO2-), where RAW 264.7 macrophages (+ LPS 1μg/ml) produced > 10-fold rise in sTNFR2

  2. A process for risk-focused maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; Cooper, S.E.; Kurth, R.E.; Phillips, L.B.

    1991-03-01

    This report presents a process for focusing maintenance resources on components that enable nuclear plant systems to perform their essential functions and on components whose failure may initiate challenges to safety systems, so as to have the greatest impact in decreasing risk. The process provides criteria, based on risk, for deciding which components are critical to risk and determining what maintenance activities are required to ensure reliable operation of those risk-critical components. Two approaches are provided for selection of risk-critical components. One approach uses the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); the other is based on the methodology developed for this report, which has a basis in PRA although it does not use the results of a PRA study. Following identification of risk-critical components, both approaches use a single methodology for determining what maintenance activities are required to ensure reliable operation of the identified components. The report also provides demonstrations of application of the two approaches to selection of risk-critical components and demonstrations of application of the methodology for determining what maintenance activities are required to an active standby safety system, a normally operating system, and passive components. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  3. A process for risk-focused maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofgren, E.V.; Cooper, S.E.; Kurth, R.E.; Phillips, L.B. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report presents a process for focusing maintenance resources on components that enable nuclear plant systems to perform their essential functions and on components whose failure may initiate challenges to safety systems, so as to have the greatest impact in decreasing risk. The process provides criteria, based on risk, for deciding which components are critical to risk and determining what maintenance activities are required to ensure reliable operation of those risk-critical components. Two approaches are provided for selection of risk-critical components. One approach uses the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); the other is based on the methodology developed for this report, which has a basis in PRA although it does not use the results of a PRA study. Following identification of risk-critical components, both approaches use a single methodology for determining what maintenance activities are required to ensure reliable operation of the identified components. The report also provides demonstrations of application of the two approaches to selection of risk-critical components and demonstrations of application of the methodology for determining what maintenance activities are required to an active standby safety system, a normally operating system, and passive components. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Assessing Locally Focused Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    interest to other organizations within the Army, as well as to organizations within the Air Force, the Navy, the Marines, and the Intelligence Community...activities that lead to progress in the short term from a military standpoint (e.g., rewarding intelligence sources with food) may be at odds with...the aims and objectives of an aid organization working in the same area (e.g., preventing malnutrition for all), and both may impede the long-term

  5. Network operating system focus technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    An activity structured to provide specific design requirements and specifications for the Space Station Data Management System (DMS) Network Operating System (NOS) is outlined. Examples are given of the types of supporting studies and implementation tasks presently underway to realize a DMS test bed capability to develop hands-on understanding of NOS requirements as driven by actual subsystem test beds participating in the overall Johnson Space Center test bed program. Classical operating system elements and principal NOS functions are listed.

  6. Focusing, Sustaining, and Switching Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    Refereed articles Schwartz A and BG Shinn-Cunningham (2013). Dynamic range compression effects spatial selection of speech sounds in normal-hearing...34Foundations of binaural hearing: Why does spatial hearing matter?," Annual Meeting of the Academy of Audiology , Anaheim, CA, 3 April 2013 [invited keynote...Keynote Speaker, Binaural Active Audition Symposium, Kyoto Japan, March 2013 Keynote Speaker, Annual Meeting of the Academy of Audiology , Anaheim, CA

  7. HINS Linac front end focusing system R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, G.; Carcagno, R.H.; Dimarco, J.; Huang, Y.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Page, T.M.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; /Fermilab /Argonne

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes current status of an R&D program to develop a focusing system for the front end of a superconducting RF linac. Superconducting solenoids will be used as focusing lenses in the low energy accelerating sections of the front end. The development of focusing lenses for the first accelerating section is in the production stage, and lens certification activities are in preparation at FNAL. The report contains information about the focusing lens design and performance, including solenoid, dipole corrector, and power leads, and about cryogenic system design and performance. It also describes the lens magnetic axis position measurement technique and discusses scope of an acceptance/certification process.

  8. HINS Linac front end focusing system R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; Carcagno, R.H.; Dimarco, J.; Huang, Y.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Orris, D.F.; Page, T.M.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, M.A.; Terechkine, I.; Fermilab; Argonne

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes current status of an R and D program to develop a focusing system for the front end of a superconducting RF linac. Superconducting solenoids will be used as focusing lenses in the low energy accelerating sections of the front end. The development of focusing lenses for the first accelerating section is in the production stage, and lens certification activities are in preparation at FNAL. The report contains information about the focusing lens design and performance, including solenoid, dipole corrector, and power leads, and about cryogenic system design and performance. It also describes the lens magnetic axis position measurement technique and discusses scope of an acceptance/certification process

  9. Patient satisfaction: focusing on "excellent".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichiro; Waterman, Brian; Faulkner, Kelly M; Boslaugh, Sarah; Burroughs, Thomas E; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2009-01-01

    In an emerging competitive market such as healthcare, managers should focus on achieving excellent ratings to distinguish their organization from others. When it comes to customer loyalty, "excellent" has a different meaning. Customers who are merely satisfied often do not come back. The purpose of this study was to find out what influences adult patients to rate their overall experience as "excellent." The study used patient satisfaction data collected from one major academic hospital and four community hospitals. After conducting a multiple logistic regression analysis, certain attributes were shown to be more likely than others to influence patients to rate their experiences as excellent. The study revealed that staff care is the most influential attribute, followed by nursing care. These two attributes are distinctively stronger drivers of overall satisfaction than are the other attributes studied (i.e., physician care, admission process, room, and food). Staff care and nursing care are under the control of healthcare managers. If improvements are needed, they can be accomplished through training programs such as total quality management or continuous quality improvement, through which staff employees and nurses learn to be sensitive to patients' needs. Satisfying patients' needs is the first step toward having loyal patients, so hospitals that strive to ensure their patients are completely satisfied are more likely to prosper.

  10. Magnetic tearing in plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkawy, W.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma focus device used is Mather type filled with hydrogen gas at pressure between 0.1 and 1 torr. When connected to a large capacitor ≤10 KV a discharge is started with peak current 100 KA. Under the influence of the radial electric field E r , due to the potential between electrodes, and B φ the plasma will drift in the axial direction with velocity cE r /B φ . An induced axial magnetic field B z has been detected which due to sheath velocity. A propagation of magnetosonic wave has been observed with velocity ≅10 3 m sec -1 . Such a wave might be excited when the magnetic pressure is much greater than the plasma kinetic pressure B 2 /8π>nKT. Assuming (MHD) to be stable, Tearing model was driven which generally has smaller growth rates than (MHD) modes. Using the designed theoretical model and the plasma parameters the electron energy dΦ/dt=Ba 2 /τ R was calculated to be 2.22 KeV, which is comparable with that detected from X-ray measurements. (author)

  11. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  12. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  13. Workshop on crystals and focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berreman, D. W.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of the workshop on crystals and focusing was to exchange and pool the experience and information that the participants could contribute on the design and construction of monochromators for EXAFS with optimum speed, resolution and versatility. The panel was chaired by D.W. Berreman of BTL and included G. G. Cohen of NBS, S. Heald of Brookhaven National Labs and Lu Kun-quan of U. of Washington. Written contributions for the workshop were made by R. J. Emrich and J. R. Katzer of U. of Delaware, R. C. Gamble of Cal. Tech., J. Crane of Cal. Tech., and T. Matsushita of S. S. R. L. G. Bunker of U. of Washington was recording secretary, G. G. Cohen and S. Heald gave invited papers on the main program that were relevant to the workshop. Other contributors were R. Hänsel of U. of Kiel, W. Germany, G. Christoff of Ohio State and D. Hempstead of Rigaku/USA Inc., J. Holben of Marconi Avionics, Hertfordshire, England and J. Hastings of Brookhaven N. L.

  14. Focused conformational sampling in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Marco; Langini, Cassiano; Vymětal, Jiří; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    A detailed understanding of the conformational dynamics of biological molecules is difficult to obtain by experimental techniques due to resolution limitations in both time and space. Computer simulations avoid these in theory but are often too short to sample rare events reliably. Here we show that the progress index-guided sampling (PIGS) protocol can be used to enhance the sampling of rare events in selected parts of biomolecules without perturbing the remainder of the system. The method is very easy to use as it only requires as essential input a set of several features representing the parts of interest sufficiently. In this feature space, new states are discovered by spontaneous fluctuations alone and in unsupervised fashion. Because there are no energetic biases acting on phase space variables or projections thereof, the trajectories PIGS generates can be analyzed directly in the framework of transition networks. We demonstrate the possibility and usefulness of such focused explorations of biomolecules with two loops that are part of the binding sites of bromodomains, a family of epigenetic "reader" modules. This real-life application uncovers states that are structurally and kinetically far away from the initial crystallographic structures and are also metastable. Representative conformations are intended to be used in future high-throughput virtual screening campaigns.

  15. Focusing on Cause or Cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. Methods A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. Results The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Conclusions Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders

  16. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  17. Keep the focus on emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; Benson, S. M.; Peterson, P.; Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Most think that the major battle over climate is between those that want to solve the climate problem and the climate deniers. But there is another conflict, perhaps equally significant between people who all agree climate is a problem but who disagree radically about what they think the solution is. The imperative for stopping further climate change is to stop GHG emissions and the first energy sector of importance is electricity. Every major plan to eliminate emmissions from energy requires a carbon-free electricity system. The most popular idea about how to do this is to use all renewable energy, i.e. solar and wind power. But no one has ever built a large scale 100% renewable energy system and the few examples we have about regions that have tried are not encouraging. As the percentage of renewable energy goes up, ensuring a reliable supply often requires a fossil-based back-up system, so emissions can actually increase. Also, 100% renewable systems rely on massive deployment rates, far beyond any historical precident and often assume that adequate energy storage will "happen" through a combination of currently unavailable technologies. This approach is about adding renewable capacity, not about reducing emissions. Sweden provides a counter example that relies entirely on nuclear power and hydro and has an emission-free, reliable energy system. Likewise, biofuel is often cited as a climate-friendly substitute for petroleum-based fuels. Life-cycle analsyis indicates biofuels are often worse than petroleum-based fuels. We focus efficiency measures on buildings, but efficiency in transportation is even more important because we don't really have the fuel that is carbon neutral. Vehicle efficiency and reductions in vehicle miles traveled does better to address emissions. As mitigation is so important, climate advocates used to think discussion of adaptation was a distraction that should be avoided. But losing track of the need to eliminate emissions is the real

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  19. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents.

  20. Review of reasearch and technical development focused

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovský Marián

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of flotation tetrahedrite concentrates produced from the of ore mined in the Rudňany and Rožňava ore deposits is a very complex technological problem. This problem has not been solved succesfuly so far. The presence and quality of undesired metal components such as antimony and mercury in the product of a wet ore dressing is a limiting factor for subsequent metalurgical process to obtain pure metal copper and/or silver in copper smelter plants. This factor has been the principal reason of a great effort provided in this respects by both, manufacturers and reaserchers mainly in the last 25 years. This article is focused on the summary of mentioned activities.

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.

    2008-02-01

    future involve using overdense plasmas. Electronic processes on sub-atomic spatio-temporal scales are the basis of chemical physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, materials science, and even some life science processes. Research in these areas using the new attosecond tools will advance together with the ability to control electrons themselves. Indeed, we expect that developments will advance in a way that is similar to advances that have occurred on the femtosecond time scale, in which much previous experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of coherent light sources has led to the development of means for 'coherent control' of nuclear motion in molecules. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is centered on experimental and theoretical advances in the development of new methodologies and tools for electron control on the attosecond time scale. Topics such as the efficient generation of harmonics; the generation of attosecond pulses, including those having only a few cycles and those produced from overdense plasmas; the description of various nonlinear, nonperturbative laser-matter interactions, including many-electron effects and few-cycle pulse effects; the analysis of ultrashort propagation effects in atomic and molecular media; and the development of inversion methods for electron tomography, as well as many other topics, are addressed in the current focus issue dedicated to the new field of 'Attosecond Physics'. Focus on Attosecond Physics Contents Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases Tsuneto Kanai, Eiji J Takahashi, Yasuo Nabekawa and Katsumi Midorikawa Core-polarization effects in molecular high harmonic generation G Jordan and A Scrinzi Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train calculated using feasible formulae Y Nabekawa and K Midorikawa Attosecond pulse generation from aligned molecules—dynamics and propagation in H2+ E Lorin, S

  2. Ion Motion in the Adiabatic Focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we numerically study the effect of ion motion in an adiabatic focuser, motivated by a recent suggestion that ion motion in an adiabatic focuser might be significant and even preclude operation of the focuser as previously envisioned. It is shown that despite ion motion the adiabatic focuser should work as well as originally envisioned

  3. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  4. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  5. Focus group discussion in mathematical physics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellianawati; Rudiana, D.; Sabandar, J.; Subali, B.

    2018-03-01

    The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) activity in Mathematical Physics learning has helped students perform the stages of problem solving reflectively. The FGD implementation was conducted to explore the problems and find the right strategy to improve the students' ability to solve the problem accurately which is one of reflective thinking component that has been difficult to improve. The research method used is descriptive qualitative by using single subject response in Physics student. During the FGD process, one student was observed of her reflective thinking development in solving the physics problem. The strategy chosen in the discussion activity was the Cognitive Apprenticeship-Instruction (CA-I) syntax. Based on the results of this study, it is obtained the information that after going through a series of stages of discussion, the students' reflective thinking skills is increased significantly. The scaffolding stage in the CA-I model plays an important role in the process of solving physics problems accurately. Students are able to recognize and formulate problems by describing problem sketches, identifying the variables involved, applying mathematical equations that accord to physics concepts, executing accurately, and applying evaluation by explaining the solution to various contexts.

  6. Vocabulary Acquisition through Written Input: Effects of Form-Focused, Message-Oriented, and Comprehension Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddin, Zia; Daraee, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of form-focused and non-form-focused tasks on EFL learners' vocabulary learning through written input. The form-focused task aimed to draw students' attention to the word itself through word recognition activities. Non-form-focused tasks were divided into (a) the comprehension question task, which required…

  7. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  8. The 1998 annual: Focusing on asset quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Operational and financial activities of Newport Petroleum Corporation during fiscal year 1998 are reviewed. Despite the low oil prices, and the consequent reduction in industry activity and financial results, the Company continued to focus on high quality assets. The Company improved its proved and probable reserves by 21.3 million barrels of oil equivalent, increasing its reserve life index to over 10 years. Reserve addition costs in 1998 were a competitive $ 7.08 per barrel of oil equivalent. The Company produced more than 20,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day, generating revenue of $ 141 million. The Company acquired an interest in the Caroline Gas Unit for $ 165 million late in 1998 and experienced success with the drilling of two wells. At year end, reserves of approx. 575 bcf of raw gas in place were attributed to this area. New light oil discoveries were made in the Rigel area of northern British Columbia and the Shiningbank area of west-central Alberta. Both properties have significant development potential. While share price performance was essentially flat for the year, the target remains to add value on a per share basis over the long term. The outlook for natural gas appears to be positive, with markets expected to be robust with prices tracking supply/demand fundamentals. The completion of additional pipeline capacity from Alberta into U.S. markets has resulted in a lowering of the differential to U.S. prices, and as a result, it appears that pricing in western Canada will improve in the next several years. Although the outlook for oil prices remains uncertain, with recent OPEC commitments to curtail volumes, there is reason for cautious optimism. Overall, the Company is confident that it has the financial strength to not only weather an extended period of oil price weakness, but to continue to expand its activity levels and prosper

  9. Night Vision Goggles Objectives Lens Focusing Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan; Task, H. L

    2000-01-01

    ...: interpupillary distance, tilt, eye relief, height, eyepiece and objective lens focus. Currently, aircrew use a Hoffman 20/20 test unit to pre-focus their NVG objective lenses at optical infinity before boarding their aircraft...

  10. Self-focusing in laser produced spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.S.; Foeldes, I.B.

    1983-05-01

    The self-focusing effect appearing in different phases of development of laser produced breakdown plasma in air is investigated. Self-focusing during the ionization process is demonstrated. Thermal self-focusing was observed in the later stage of the plasma development at moderate light intensities. Plasma development was investigated by forward and side scattering of the laser light in the plasma. A crossed beam experiment gave evidence of the thermal mechanism of self-focusing. (author)

  11. Near-field flat focusing mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2018-03-01

    This article reviews recent progress towards the design of near-field flat focusing mirrors, focusing/imaging light patterns in reflection. An important feature of such flat focusing mirrors is their transverse invariance, as they do not possess any optical axis. We start with a review of the physical background to the different focusing mechanisms of near- and far-field focusing. These near-field focusing devices like flat lenses and the reviewed near-field focusing mirrors can implement planar focusing devices without any optical axis. In contrast, various types of far-field planar focusing devices, such as high-contrast gratings and metasurfaces, unavoidably break the transverse invariance due to their radially symmetrical structures. The particular realizations of near-field flat focusing mirrors including Bragg-like dielectric mirrors and dielectric subwavelength gratings are the main subjects of the review. The first flat focusing mirror was demonstrated with a chirped mirror and was shown to manage an angular dispersion for beam focusing, similar to the management of chromatic dispersion for pulse compression. Furthermore, the reviewed optimized chirped mirror demonstrated a long near-field focal length, hardly achieved by a flat lens or a planar hyperlens. Two more different configurations of dielectric subwavelength gratings that focus a light beam at normal or oblique incidence are also reviewed. We also summarize and compare focusing performance, limitations, and future perspectives between the reviewed flat focusing mirrors and other planar focusing devices including a flat lens with a negative-index material, a planar hyperlens, a high-contrast grating, and a metasurface.

  12. Focusing on butterfly eyespot focus: uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies in nymphalid butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Developmental studies on butterfly wing color patterns often focus on eyespots. A typical eyespot (such as that of Bicyclus anynana) has a few concentric rings of dark and light colors and a white spot (called a focus) at the center. The prospective eyespot center during the early pupal stage is known to act as an organizing center. It has often been assumed, according to gradient models for positional information, that a white spot in adult wings corresponds to an organizing center and that the size of the white spot indicates how active that organizing center was. However, there is no supporting evidence for these assumptions. To evaluate the feasibility of these assumptions in nymphalid butterflies, we studied the unique color patterns of Calisto tasajera (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), which have not been analyzed before in the literature. In the anterior forewing, one white spot was located at the center of an eyespot, but another white spot associated with either no or only a small eyespot was present in the adjacent compartment. The anterior hindwing contained two adjacent white spots not associated with eyespots, one of which showed a sparse pattern. The posterior hindwing contained two adjacent pear-shaped eyespots, and the white spots were located at the proximal side or even outside the eyespot bodies. The successive white spots within a single compartment along the midline in the posterior hindwing showed a possible trajectory of a positional determination process for the white spots. Several cases of focus-less eyespots in other nymphalid butterflies were also presented. These results argue for the uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies, suggesting that an eyespot organizing center does not necessarily differentiate into a white spot and that a prospective white spot does not necessarily signify organizing activity for an eyespot. Incorporation of these results in future models for butterfly wing color pattern formation is encouraged.

  13. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a crowd-sourced definition of a speech phenomenon we have called focus. Given sentences, text and speech, in isolation and in context, we asked annotators to identify what we term the focus word. We present their consistency in identifying the focused word, when presented with text...... or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...

  14. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter; Kunyansky, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  15. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  16. Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-01-01

    Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available

  17. Literature in focus: A Berlin Romance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The CERN staff have many hidden talents. Who knows, maybe a colleague you see every day is actually a virtuoso violinist, an accomplished sportsman or an internationally renowned collector. Mathilde Fontanet, a translator in the CERN Translation and Minutes Service, is a writer in her spare time. Those who read her first essays in the Graviton no doubt spotted her talent. Following the publication of four short stories, her first novel, 'Rabenstrasse 5', was published in Switzerland in May 2005. Its backdrop is the busy Berlin arts faculty in the early 1980s. Lydia, a student, meets a young woman who leads her into some rather unusual activities. In parallel, two friends, both professors of literature, each record their thoughts and emotions in a diary. The paths of Lydia and the two professors are to cross... The novel will be published in France on 14 October. Mathilde Fontanet will present it in the framework of a forthcoming 'Literature in Focus' event in the CERN Library. Mathilde Fontanet'Rabenstras...

  18. Noticing the self: Implicit assessment of self-focused attention using word recognition latencies

    OpenAIRE

    Eichstaedt, Dr Jan; Silvia, Dr Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    Self-focused attention is difficult to measure. Two studies developed an implicit measure of self-focus based on word recognition latencies. Self-focused attention activates self-content, so self-focused people should recognize self-relevant words more quickly. Study 1 measured individual-differences in self-focused attention. People scoring high in private self-consciousness recognized self-relevant words more quickly. Study 2 manipulated objective self-awareness with a writing task. People ...

  19. [Pre-verbality in focusing and the need for self check. An attempt at "focusing check"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masui, T; Ikemi, A; Murayama, S

    1983-06-01

    Though the Focusing process is not entirely non-verbal, in Focusing, careful attention is paid by the Focuser and the Listener to the pre-verbal experiential process. In other words, Focusing involves attending to the felt sense that is not easily expressed in words immediately. Hence, during the process of learning to Focus, the Focusing teacher attempts to communicate the experiences of Focusing to the student which are not easily done by words. Due to such difficulties, the Focusing student may (and quite frequently does) mistake the experiential process in Focusing with other processes. Often, the felt sense can be confused with other phenomena such as "autogenic discharge". Also the Focuser may not stay with the felt sense and drift into "free association" or frequently, certain processes in "meditation" can be confused with Focusing. Therefore, there is a need for a "check" by which the Focusing student can confirm the Focusing experience for himself. For the Focusing student, such a "check" serves not only to confirm the Focusing process, but also an aid to learning Focusing. We will report here a "Focusing Check" which we developed by translating Eugene Gendlin's "Focusing Check" and making several modifications in it so that it will be more understandable to the Japanese. Along with the "Focusing Check" we developed, the authors discuss the need for such a check.

  20. From field evaporation to focused ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This paper report various items of recent progress in the theory of field evaporation and the theory of the liquid-metal ion source. The research has, in part, been driven by a desire to find out how to reduce the beam-spot size in a focused ion beam machine, which is developing as a significant tool of nanotechnology. A major factor in determining beam spot size seems to be the behavior of the liquid-metal ion source (LMIS), and one route might be to reduce the minimum emission current of a LMIS, if this is possible. Theories of LMIS minimum emission current have been re-examined. Some progress has been made, but development of more accurate theory has been constrained by several factors, include the long-known limitations of the present theory of field evaporation (FEV). This, in turn, has stimulated a wider re-examination of FEV theory. As part of some general theoretical remarks, the following items of recent progress will be covered. Various results concerning the prediction of the field F e at which the activation energy Q for field evaporation is zero, including calculations in which vacuum electrostatic energy changes are taken into account, and another look at the views of Kingham and Tsong concerning escape charge-state. Some years ago, the following approximate formula was derived for the dependence of FEV activation energy on field F: Q=B(F e /F - 1) 2 . It has recently been possible to show that the parameter B can be estimated as B= βYΩ/8, where Y is Young's modulus, Ω is the atomic volume, and β is a correction factor of order. In the framework of the charge-draining mechanism, another look at how the activation-energy hump can be modelled, in order to predict/explain the conditions under which FEV becomes dominated by ion tunnelling rather than field evaporation. A review of the changes in LMIS theory that result from applying the equation of continuity to the metal/vacuum interface, including modifications to the theory of minimum

  1. Soft X-ray focusing Telescope aboard AstroSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K. P.; Dewangan, G. C.; Chandra, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT) is a moderateresolution X-ray imaging spectrometer supplementing the ultraviolet and hard X-ray payloads for broadband studies of cosmic sources with AstroSat. Well suited for observing bright X-ray sources, SXT observations of nearby active galactic nuclei...

  2. Ecohealth in Focus Cities - Lima, Peru | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Lima, Peru, solid waste management is an informal activity involving poor communities working under difficult conditions. ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work. Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  3. Preliminary results of neutron production in Sahand plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V.; Mohammadi, M.A.; Khorram, S.; Shabani, I.; Borhanian, J.; Ashrafi, S.; Naghshara, H.; Moslehi-Fard, M.; Sobhanian, S.

    2004-01-01

    We report in this paper the preliminary results of neutron generation during fusion reaction in deuterium in the Sahand Filipov type plasma focus, recently installed and put in operation at Tabriz University. The special calibration procedure for neutron detection system, using activation method is described

  4. Thermal self-focusing at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; McCrory, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Thermal self-focusing at oblique incidence has been investigated in two-dimensional line-focus geometry using the Eulerian hydrodynamics simulation code SAGE. The laser beam interacts with a long-scale-length preformed plasma with an expontial density profiele. Questions to be addressed include: (1) What happens when a self-focusing channel reaches the turning point of the incident rays, and (2) Does the unabsorbed light return in the specular direction or back along the channel. A comparison is also made between thermal self-focusing at normal incidence in cylindrical and line-focus geometries: in cylindrical geometry the self-focusing mechanism is enhanced by the relative ease with which plasma may be expelled from a small cylindrical channel

  5. Foreword: Focus on Superconductivity in Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of superconductivity in diamond, much attention has been given to the issue of superconductivity in semiconductors. Because diamond has a large band gap of 5.5 eV, it is called a wide-gap semiconductor. Upon heavy boron doping over 3×1020 cm−3, diamond becomes metallic and demonstrates superconductivity at temperatures below 11.4 K. This discovery implies that a semiconductor can become a superconductor upon carrier doping. Recently, superconductivity was also discovered in boron-doped silicon and SiC semiconductors. The number of superconducting semiconductors has increased. In 2008 an Fe-based superconductor was discovered in a research project on carrier doping in a LaCuSeO wide-gap semiconductor. This discovery enhanced research activities in the field of superconductivity, where many scientists place particular importance on superconductivity in semiconductors.This focus issue features a variety of topics on superconductivity in semiconductors selected from the 2nd International Workshop on Superconductivity in Diamond and Related Materials (IWSDRM2008, which was held at the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS, Tsukuba, Japan in July 2008. The 1st workshop was held in 2005 and was published as a special issue in Science and Technology of Advanced Materials (STAM in 2006 (Takano 2006 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 7 S1.The selection of papers describe many important experimental and theoretical studies on superconductivity in semiconductors. Topics on boron-doped diamond include isotope effects (Ekimov et al and the detailed structure of boron sites, and the relation between superconductivity and disorder induced by boron doping. Regarding other semiconductors, the superconducting properties of silicon and SiC (Kriener et al, Muranaka et al and Yanase et al are discussed, and In2O3 (Makise et al is presented as a new superconducting semiconductor. Iron-based superconductors are presented as a new series of high

  6. Needs of Non Energy-Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non energy-focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  7. Needs of Non-Energy Focused Contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liakus, C. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the informational needs of non-energy focused contractors, including what information they need to motivate them to become energy-focused, the BARA team studied the type of information provided by the national programs, trade associations, and manufacturers that were researched for the related technical report: Effective Communication of Energy Efficiency. While that report focused on the delivery method, format, and strategy of the information, this study examines the content being put forward.

  8. Suppression of radiation excitation in focusing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Ruth, R.D.

    1996-12-01

    Radiation damping and quantum excitation in an electron damping ring and a straight focusing channel are reviewed. They are found to be the two limiting cases in the study of a general bending and focusing combined system. In the intermediate regime where the radiation formation length is comparable to the betatron wavelength, quantum excitation can be exponentially suppressed by focusing field. This new regime may have interesting applications in the generation of ultra-low emittance beams

  9. Thermal self-focusing with multiple beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; McCrory, R.L.

    1986-07-01

    Self-focusing in underdense plasmas in the presence of overlapping beams is of interest for multibeam laser-irradiation systems. The hydrodynamics/ray-tracing simulation code SAGE is used to model thermal self-focusing in two-dimensional line-focus geometry with beams incident obliquely at different angles. The conjecture that multiple overlapping beams may suppress self-focusing is investigated for parameters appropriate to reactor-sized targets; in particular, the dependence upon intensity, scale length and pulse width is examined. While the full problem is three-dimensional, insight may be gained from two-dimensional simulations

  10. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  11. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  12. FEMP Focus: 2011 Volume 20 Issue 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-05

    Department of Energy (DOE); Federal Energy Management Program; FEMP Focus Newsletter; December 2010; Alternative Financing, Guidance Documents, Recovery Act Technical Assistance, Training, Energy Awareness

  13. Potential medical applications of the plasma focus in the radioisotope production for PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshan, M.V.; Razaghi, S.; Asghari, F.; Rawat, R.S.; Springham, S.V.; Lee, P.; Lee, S.; Tan, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Devices other than the accelerators are desired to be investigated for generating high energy particles to induce nuclear reaction and positron emission tomography (PET) producing radioisotopes. The experimental data of plasma focus devices (PF) are studied and the activity scaling law for External Solid Target (EST) activation is established. Based on the scaling law and the techniques to enhance the radioisotopes production, the feasibility of generating the required activity for PET imaging is studied. - Highlights: • Short lived radioisotopes for PET imaging are produced in plasma focus device. • The scaling law of the activity induced with plasma focus energy is established. • The potential medical applications of plasma focus are studied

  14. The Focus of Attention in Visual Working Memory: Protection of Focused Representations and Its Individual Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Anna; Schubö, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory can be modulated according to changes in the cued task relevance of maintained items. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying this modulation. In particular, we studied the consequences of attentional selection for selected and unselected items, and the role of individual differences in the efficiency with which attention is deployed. To this end, performance in a visual working memory task as well as the CDA/SPCN and the N2pc, ERP components associated with visual working memory and attentional processes, were analysed. Selection during the maintenance stage was manipulated by means of two successively presented retrocues providing spatial information as to which items were most likely to be tested. Results show that attentional selection serves to robustly protect relevant representations in the focus of attention while unselected representations which may become relevant again still remain available. Individuals with larger retrocueing benefits showed higher efficiency of attentional selection, as indicated by the N2pc, and showed stronger maintenance-associated activity (CDA/SPCN). The findings add to converging evidence that focused representations are protected, and highlight the flexibility of visual working memory, in which information can be weighted according its relevance.

  15. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  16. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  17. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n p much greater than electron beam density, n b ) or underdense (n p less than 2 n b ). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated

  18. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  19. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs

  20. Reorganization at Oryx Energy focuses on teamwork, technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    As one of the largest independent oil and gas companies in the world, Oryx Energy Co. has become a strong international player, In an increasingly global business, they are competing with some very tough international companies. This competition calls for their continued focus on technology and innovative ways of conducting business, not only on the international scene but also in the U.S. Here the author focuses on ways his company is approaching U.S. activities, both onshore and in the Gulf of Mexico

  1. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text

  2. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area

  3. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  4. Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Jensen, J. M.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Birch, A. C.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much progress has been made by measuring the travel times of solar acoustic waves from a central surface location to points at equal arc distance away. Depth information is obtained from the range of arc distances examined, with the larger distances revealing the deeper layers. This method we will call surface-focusing, as the common point, or focus, is at the surface. To obtain a clearer picture of the subsurface region, it would, no doubt, be better to focus on points below the surface. Our first attempt to do this used the ray theory to pick surface location pairs that would focus on a particular subsurface point. This is not the ideal procedure, as Born approximation kernels suggest that this focus should have zero sensitivity to sound speed inhomogeneities. However, the sensitivity is concentrated below the surface in a much better way than the old surface-focusing method, and so we expect the deep-focusing method to be more sensitive. A large sunspot group was studied by both methods. Inversions based on both methods will be compared.

  5. Technology of a small plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews plasma focus technology, including the underlying dynamic and energy balance theory, scaling of the neutron yield, cost effectiveness of the design, as well as the main subsystems, e.g., capacitor bank, spark-gap switch and triggering electronics, the plasma focus tube, some simple diagnostics, and a high-voltage charger. It discusses the range of densities and temperatures available with a small plasma focus, and the type of experiments and applications that can be carried out with it. 61 refs, 21 figs

  6. Designing focusing solenoids for superconducting RF accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; Wokas, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    The design of a focusing solenoid for use in a superconducting RF linac requires resolving a range of problems with conflicting requirements. Providing the required focusing strength contradicts the goal of minimizing the stray field on the surfaces of adjacent superconducting RF cavities. The requirement of a compact solenoid, able to fit into a gap between cavities, contradicts the need of mechanical support necessary to restrain electromagnetic forces that can result in coil motion and subsequent quenching. In this report we will attempt to address these and other issues arising during the development of focusing solenoids. Some relevant test data will also be presented.

  7. Inhibitors of Microglial Neurotoxicity: Focus on Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungho Suk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglial cells play a dual role in the central nervous system as they have both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. Uncontrolled and excessive activation of microglia often contributes to inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration. Recently, much attention has been paid to therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting neurotoxic microglial activation. Pharmacological inhibitors of microglial activation are emerging as a result of such endeavors. In this review, natural products-based inhibitors of microglial activation will be reviewed. Potential neuroprotective activity of these compounds will also be discussed. Future works should focus on the discovery of novel drug targets that specifically mediate microglial neurotoxicity rather than neuroprotection. Development of new drugs based on these targets may require a better understanding of microglial biology and neuroinflammation at the molecular, cellular, and systems levels.

  8. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.

    1986-04-01

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  9. Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and Environmental Load in ... 000 lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... and the Lima Metropolitan Urban Plan will be updated in light of the results.

  10. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your comments ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common ...

  11. Spatial filters for focusing ultrasound images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gori, Paola

    2001-01-01

    , but the approach always yields point spread functions better or equal to a traditional dynamically focused image. Finally, the process was applied to in-vivo clinical images of the liver and right kidney from a 28 years old male. The data was obtained with a single element transducer focused at 100 mm....... A new method for making spatial matched filter focusing of RF ultrasound data is proposed based on the spatial impulse response description of the imaging. The response from a scatterer at any given point in space relative to the transducer can be calculated, and this gives the spatial matched filter...... for synthetic aperture imaging for single element transducers. It is evaluated using the Field II program. Data from a single 3 MHz transducer focused at a distance of 80 mm is processed. Far from the transducer focal region, the processing greatly improves the image resolution: the lateral slice...

  12. Structural Analysis of Extended Plasma Focus Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator Development Centre (ADC) of Nuclear Malaysia intends to upgrade the plasma focus device. It involves the extension part placed on top of the existing plasma focus vacuum chamber. This extended vacuum chamber purposely to give an extra space in conducting experiments on the existing plasma focus chamber. The aim of upgrading the plasma focus device is to solve the limitation in research and analysis of sample due to its done in an open system that cause analysis of samples is limited and less optimal. This extended chamber was design in considering the ease of fabrication as well as durability of its structural. Thus, this paper discusses the structural analysis in term of pressure loading effect in extended chamber. (author)

  13. FOCUS AND CONSTITUENT QUESTION FORMATION IN DAGBANI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issah

    Key words: SpecFoc, focus marker, clause initial, constituent interrogatives, information ... 1Throughout this work, I use the phrase interrogative words in a general way to refer to the ...... Wh-Questions and extraction asymmetries in Malagasy.

  14. Symmetric lens with extended depth of focus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung Nae

    2008-01-01

    The lens surface profile is derived based on the instantaneous focal length versus the lens radius data. The lens design based on instantaneous focal length versus the lens radius data has many useful applications in software assisted image focusing technology.

  15. Social Work Intervention Focused on Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Study Focus: 30-day Rehospitalizations Among At-risk Older Adults Randomized to a Social Work-driven Care Transitions Intervention; Heart Disease; Diabetes; Hypertension; Cancer; Depression; Asthma; Chronic Heart Failure; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Stroke

  16. Nonverbal communication in the focus-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of analysing the information obtained through focus group qualitative marketing research, a very important source of data is represented by non-verbal communication. Although the literature reveals an abundance of published material that describes how data obtained through focus group should be analysed, one of the least addressed issue is the interpretation of signals from participants: gestures, posture, dynamic and rhythm of speech or even the silence. This Article addresses precisely aspects of non-verbal communication in the focus group's and although not intended to examine in detail the results of a focus group, it shows how some of signals transmitted by participants of such research have been analysed and interpreted.

  17. Plasma focus as a pulsed power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.; McFarland, G.; Barlett, R.; Gullickson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The plasma focus is a remarkable natural phenomena that achieves significant space-time compression of both particle and field energy. Depending on the mode of operation, about 20 percent of the bank energy can be concentrated into the kinetic energy of a thin, dense, cylindrically convergent gas shell, or into a small-diameter, high-ν/γ relativistic electron burst and oppositely directed ion burst. The kinetic energy of the fast ions and electrons can exceed the applied voltage by a factor of greater than 100. The different modes of energy concentration by the plasma focus are presented and discussed both in terms of their role in the direct yield of the focus and for the case of a plasma focus supplemented by various fusionable targets

  18. Protocols for the Design of Kinase-focused Compound Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Edgar; Wroblowski, Berthold; Buyck, Christophe; Neefs, Jean-Marc; Meyer, Christophe; Cummings, Maxwell D; van Vlijmen, Herman

    2018-05-01

    Protocols for the design of kinase-focused compound libraries are presented. Kinase-focused compound libraries can be differentiated based on the design goal. Depending on whether the library should be a discovery library specific for one particular kinase, a general discovery library for multiple distinct kinase projects, or even phenotypic screening, there exists today a variety of in silico methods to design candidate compound libraries. We address the following scenarios: 1) Datamining of SAR databases and kinase focused vendor catalogues; 2) Predictions and virtual screening; 3) Structure-based design of combinatorial kinase inhibitors; 4) Design of covalent kinase inhibitors; 5) Design of macrocyclic kinase inhibitors; and 6) Design of allosteric kinase inhibitors and activators. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. MACS low-background doubly focusing neutron monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Smee, S A; Scharfstein, G A; Qiu, Y; Brand, P C; Anand, D K; Broholm, C L

    2002-01-01

    A novel doubly focusing neutron monochromator has been developed as part of the Multi-Analyzer Crystal Spectrometer (MACS) at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. The instrument utilizes a unique vertical focusing element that enables active vertical and horizontal focusing with a large, 357-crystal (1428 cm sup 2), array. The design significantly reduces the amount of structural material in the beam path as compared to similar instruments. Optical measurements verify the excellent focal performance of the device. Analytical and Monte Carlo simulations predict that, when mounted at the NIST cold-neutron source, the device should produce a monochromatic beam (DELTA E=0.2 meV) with flux phi>10 sup 8 n/cm sup 2 s. (orig.)

  20. Focused labeled proof systems for modal logic

    OpenAIRE

    Miller , Dale; Volpe , Marco

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Focused proofs are sequent calculus proofs that group inference rules into alternating positive and negative phases. These phases can then be used to define macro-level inference rules from Gentzen's original and tiny introduction and structural rules. We show here that the inference rules of labeled proof systems for modal logics can similarly be described as pairs of such phases within the LKF focused proof system for first-order classical logic. We consider the syst...

  1. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient superconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  2. Superconducting quadrupoles for the SLC final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Murray, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The final focus system of the SLC will be upgraded by replacing the final quadrupoles with higher gradient supperconducting magnets positioned closer to the interaction point. The parameters of the new system have been chosen to be compatible with the experimental detectors with a minimum of changes to other final focus components. These parameter choices are discussed along with the expected improvement in SLC performance

  3. The final focus test beam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, D.

    1991-05-01

    An overview is given of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) that is being constructed as a prototype final focus system for a future electron-positron linear collider. This beam line will use as input the 50 GeV electron beam from the SLC linac, and is designed to reduce the transverse dimensions of the beam spot at the focal point to 1 μm. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Draft of textbook focused on indirect taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Hana

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis is about draft of textbook which is focused on indirect taxes for business school. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is focused on teaching tax issues at business school. Readers are introduced with basic studying documents, for example framework educational program and school educational program. In the following part I have conducted didactic analysis of curriculum and textbook of economics for business schools. The draft of t...

  5. Microflow Cytometers with Integrated Hydrodynamic Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmidt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the suitability of microfluidic structures for high throughput blood cell analysis. The microfluidic chips exploit fully integrated hydrodynamic focusing based on two different concepts: Two-stage cascade focusing and spin focusing (vortex principle. The sample—A suspension of micro particles or blood cells—is injected into a sheath fluid streaming at a substantially higher flow rate, which assures positioning of the particles in the center of the flow channel. Particle velocities of a few m/s are achieved as required for high throughput blood cell analysis. The stability of hydrodynamic particle positioning was evaluated by measuring the pulse heights distributions of fluorescence signals from calibration beads. Quantitative assessment based on coefficient of variation for the fluorescence intensity distributions resulted in a value of about 3% determined for the micro-device exploiting cascade hydrodynamic focusing. For the spin focusing approach similar values were achieved for sample flow rates being 1.5 times lower. Our results indicate that the performances of both variants of hydrodynamic focusing suit for blood cell differentiation and counting. The potential of the micro flow cytometer is demonstrated by detecting immunologically labeled CD3 positive and CD4 positive T-lymphocytes in blood.

  6. Veselago focusing of anisotropic massless Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Massless Dirac fermions (MDFs) emerge as quasiparticles in various novel materials such as graphene and topological insulators, and they exhibit several intriguing properties, of which Veselago focusing is an outstanding example with a lot of possible applications. However, up to now Veselago focusing merely occurred in p-n junction devices based on the isotropic MDF, which lacks the tunability needed for realistic applications. Here, motivated by the emergence of novel Dirac materials, we investigate the propagation behaviors of anisotropic MDFs in such a p-n junction structure. By projecting the Hamiltonian of the anisotropic MDF to that of the isotropic MDF and deriving an exact analytical expression for the propagator, precise Veselago focusing is demonstrated without the need for mirror symmetry of the electron source and its focusing image. We show a tunable focusing position that can be used in a device to probe masked atom-scale defects. This study provides an innovative concept to realize Veselago focusing relevant for potential applications, and it paves the way for the design of novel electron optics devices by exploiting the anisotropic MDF.

  7. Focus is key: Panic-focused interpretations are associated with symptomatic improvement in panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, John R; Solomonov, Nili; Derubeis, Robert J; Phillips, Alexander C; Busch, Fredric N; Barber, Jacques P; Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara L

    2018-04-18

    This study examines whether, in panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy (PFPP), interpretations of conflicts that underlie anxiety (panic-focused or PF-interpretations) are specifically associated with subsequent panic disorder (PD) symptom improvement, over and above the provision of non-symptom-focused interpretations. Technique use in Sessions 2 and 10 of a 24-session PFPP protocol was assessed for the 65 patients with complete outcome data randomized to PFPP in a two-site trial of psychotherapies for PD. Sessions were rated in 15-min segments for therapists' use of PF-interpretations, non-PF-interpretations, and PF-clarifications. Robust regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between these interventions and symptom change subsequent to the sampled session. Interpersonal problems were examined as a moderator of the relationship of PF-interpretations to symptom change. At Session 10, but not at Session 2, patients who received a higher degree of PF-interpretations experienced greater subsequent improvement in panic symptoms. Non-PF-interpretations were not predictive. Patients with more interpersonal distress benefitted particularly from the use of PF-interpretations at Session 10. By the middle phase of PFPP, panic-focused interpretations may drive subsequent improvements in panic symptoms, especially among patients with higher interpersonal distress. Interpretations of conflict absent a panic focus may not be especially helpful.

  8. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  9. Mental health and wellbeing: focus on men's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Sarah; Robertson, Steve

    2016-11-24

    All nurses have a responsibility to ensure that they actively promote both mental and physical health and wellbeing. This article aims to bring together current thinking and evidence about nursing and men's mental health promotion. Key areas of concern outlined are the high rate of suicide in men, the expression of depression in men and the problems of masculinity when related to seeking help for mental health. The article highlights the importance of language and the normalising of distressing feelings when working with men and suggests that nurses need to recognise how men can experience depression differently, actively identify and address suicidal thinking, and provide gender-sensitive interventions. Additionally, nurses working with men need to demonstrate 'male-positive' values and offer future-focused and action-oriented interventions (such as solution-focused, coaching or cognitive behavioural therapy approaches) that contribute to a sense of agency, promote hope and are more engaging for many men.

  10. Use of focus groups in a library's strategic planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa-Moore, Mori Lou; Bunnett, Brian; Mayo, Helen G; Olney, Cynthia A

    2002-01-01

    The use of focus groups to determine patron satisfaction with library resources and services is extensive and well established. This article demonstrates how focus groups can also be used to help shape the future direction of a library as part of the strategic planning process. By responding to questions about their long-term library and information needs, focus group participants at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Library contributed an abundance of qualitative patron data that was previously lacking from this process. The selection and recruitment of these patrons is discussed along with the line of questioning used in the various focus group sessions. Of special interest is the way the authors utilized these sessions to mobilize and involve the staff in creating the library's strategic plan. This was accomplished not only by having staff members participate in one of the sessions but also by sharing the project's major findings with them and instructing them in how these findings related to the library's future. The authors' experience demonstrates that focus groups are an effective strategic planning tool for libraries and emphasizes the need to share information broadly, if active involvement of the staff is desired in both the development and implementation of the library's strategic plan.

  11. Criminalisation of Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism.......Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism....

  12. Focused ion beam patterned Hall nano-sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candini, A.; Gazzadi, G.C.; Di Bona, A.; Affronte, M.; Ercolani, D.; Biasiol, G.; Sorba, L.

    2007-01-01

    By means of focused ion beam milling, we fabricate Hall magnetometers with active areas as small as 100x100nm 2 . The constituent material can either be metallic (Au), semimetallic (Bi) or doped bulk semiconducting (Si doped GaAs). We experimentally show that Au nano-probes can work from room temperature down to liquid helium with magnetic flux sensitivity -1 Φ 0

  13. Imaging in juvenile idiopathic arthritis with a focus on ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Louise; Court-Payen, Michel; Boesen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Early therapeutic intervention and use of new highly efficacious treatments have improved the outcome in many patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), but have also led to the need for more precise methods to evaluate disease activity. In adult rheumatology, numerous studies have...... US studies have been conducted. Sonographic assessment of disease activity has, however, been proven to be more informative than clinical examination and is also readily available at points of care. This review summarises the literature on imaging in JIA, focusing on US and the important role...

  14. Phase analysis and focusing of synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chubar, O; Snigirev, A

    1999-01-01

    High accuracy calculations of synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted by a relativistic electron show that the phase of the frequency domain electric field of SR differs from the phase of radiation of a virtual point source. These differences may result in the reduction of focusing efficiency of diffraction-limited SR, if the focusing is performed by conventional optical components optimised for point sources. We show that by applying a phase correction locally, one may transform the phase of SR electric field at a desired polarisation to that of a point source. Such corrections are computed for undulator radiation (planar and helical) and bending magnet radiation (central part and edges). The focusing of the corrected SR wavefront can result in the increase of peak intensity in the focused spot up to several times compared to the focusing without correction. For non-diffraction-limited radiation, the effect of the phase corrections is reduced. Due to this reason, the use of the proposed phase corrections in exist...

  15. The Realization of Focus in Asturian Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covadonga Sánchez-Alvarado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish was classified as a language that only exploits syntactic mechanisms to mark focus. Recent experimental studies, nonetheless, have shown that speakers of different dialects are also able to use prosody to different degrees. This study aims to provide further understanding on the role played by prosody in the realization of focus in Spanish by looking at Asturian Spanish, a dialect in contact with another Romance language, Asturian. The data from a contextualized sentence completion task revealed that a phonological distinction between specific pitch categories (L+focus being elicited (i.e., informational/non-corrective vs. contrastive/corrective. Nonetheless, it also showed that speakers exploit different prosodic features (i.e., pitch range, alignment, and duration to mark focus constituents, although their use differs as a result of that constituents’ function. These findings provide further support for the consideration of languages and specific dialects in a continuum based on the degree to which they use prosody to mark focus and to explore more in detail the phonetic implementation of focal accents.

  16. Axial sheath dynamics in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.A.; Masoud, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the result of investigation with a 10 kJ Mather type plasma focus. It is operated in hydrogen gas at ambient pressure of 0.15--1 torr and charging voltage of 8--11 kV. Radial distribution of the current sheath density with axial distance has been estimated. Plasma rotation in the expansion chamber in the absence of external magnetic field has been detected. A plasma flare from the plasma focus region propagating in the radial direction has been observed. Streak photography shows two plasma streams flowing simultaneously out of the muzzle. The mean energy of the electron beam ejected from the pinch region of the focused plasma, was measured by retarding field analyzer to be 0.32 keV. The electron temperature of the plasma focus at peak compression was determined by measuring the X-ray intensity as a function of absorber thickness at a distance of 62 cm from the focus. The electron temperature has been found to 3 keV

  17. [Aerodynamic focusing of particles and heavy molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Mora, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    By accelerating a gas containing suspended particles or large molecules through a converging nozzle, the suspended species may be focused and therefore used to write fine lines on a surface. Our objective was to study the limits on how narrow this focal region could be as a function of particle size. We find that, for monodisperse particles with masses m p some 3.6 x 10 5 times larger than the molecular mass m of the carrier gas (diameters above some 100 angstrom), there is no fundamental obstacle to directly write submicron features. However, this conclusion has been verified experimentally only with particles larger than 0.1 μm. Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies on the defocusing role of Brownian motion for very small particles or heavy molecules have shown that high resolution (purely aerodynamic) focusing is impossible with volatile molecules whose masses are typically smaller than 1000 Dalton. For these, the minimal focal diameter after optimization appears to be 5√(m/m p ) times the nozzle diameter d n . But combinations of focused lasers and aerodynamic focusing appear as promising for direct writing with molecular precursors. Theoretical and numerical schemes capable of predicting the evolution of the focusing beam, including Brownian motion effects, have been developed, although further numerical work would be desirable. 11 refs

  18. [THE ENVIRONMENTAL BASES AND MECHANISM FOR NATURAL OPISTHORCHIASIS FOCUS PULSATION IN THE COMBINED FOCUS OF OPISTHORCHIASIS AND TULAREMIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, A V

    2015-01-01

    A cyclic change in the epizootic activity of a tularemia activity underlies the mechanism of natural opisthorchiasis focus pulsation in the combined focus of opisthorchiasis and tularemia in the ecosystem of the Konda River. This is due to mass breeding and depression in the water vole (Arvicola terrestris) population. The mass breeding is predetermined by high population reproduction constants. The rodents' potential fecundity occurs with the high capacity of lands, which is caused by the hydrological regime of rivers. The size depression is predetermined by the epizootics of tularemia. The water vole is a host of the pathogens of opisthorchiasis and tularemia. So the mass rodent breeding in the combined infection and invasion focus causes an increase in the number of real invasion sources. The epizootic of tularemia is responsible for elimination of these invasion sources and for decreases in the flow of invasion material, the infection rate of Codiella and hence the amount of their produced cercarae, the extensive and intensive indicators of fish contamination, and the intensity of an epizootic process in the opisthorchiasis focus.

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heart and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Wolf, Fred

    2008-01-01

    tractable to support a comprehensive analysis of functional performance at the systems level. Analogously, experimental work increasingly probes the system dynamics simultaneously at multiple levels from cell to whole organ. Here an invaluable contribution of physics to the experimental characterization of large scale activity in cardiac and neuronal tissues is the currently emerging high level of quantitative precision and control. Long-term high precision recording of large scale activity patterns of neural and cardiac tissues increasingly supports the formulation of quantitative phenomenological theories of complex dynamical states as well the realization of algorithms for manipulating and controlling them. Both quantitative phenomenology and control are not only essential for bridging theory and experiment in complex systems; they are also indispensable for turning scientific insight into diagnostic progress and improved treatment for the affected heart and mind. The present Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects well the richness and excitement of this currently rapidly evolving field. It combines theoretical and experimental approaches and covers analyses ranging from the organ level over investigations of model systems to the biophysics of individual cells. The articles below represent the first contributions to this collection and further additions will appear in the near future. Focus on Heart and Mind Contents 'Heart' contributions Spiral wave drift and complex-oscillatory spiral waves caused by heterogeneities in two-dimensional in vitro cardiac tissues Sung-Jae Woo, Jin Hee Hong, Tae Yun Kim, Byung Wook Bae and Kyoung J Lee Epicardial wavefronts arise from widely distributed transient sources during ventricular fibrillation in the isolated swine heart J M Rogers, G P Walcott, J D Gladden, S B Melnick, R E Ideker and M W Kay Efficient control of spiral wave location in an excitable medium with localized heterogeneities J Schlesner, V S Zykov, H Brandtst

  20. Task-focused modeling in automated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriesenga, Mark R.; Peleg, K.; Sklansky, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Machine vision systems analyze image data to carry out automation tasks. Our interest is in machine vision systems that rely on models to achieve their designed task. When the model is interrogated from an a priori menu of questions, the model need not be complete. Instead, the machine vision system can use a partial model that contains a large amount of information in regions of interest and less information elsewhere. We propose an adaptive modeling scheme for machine vision, called task-focused modeling, which constructs a model having just sufficient detail to carry out the specified task. The model is detailed in regions of interest to the task and is less detailed elsewhere. This focusing effect saves time and reduces the computational effort expended by the machine vision system. We illustrate task-focused modeling by an example involving real-time micropropagation of plants in automated agriculture.

  1. Focusing properties of cylindrical vector vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqiang, Zhang; Ruishan, Chen; Anting, Wang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, following Richards and Wolf vectorial diffraction theory, the focusing properties of cylindrical vector vortex beams (CVVB) are investigated, and a diffractive optical element (DOE) is designed to spatially modulate the amplitude of the CVVB. Simulated results show that the CVVB focused by an objective also carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), and the optical fields near the focal region can be modulated by changing the topological charge of the CVVB. We numerically simulate the focus properties of radially and azimuthally polarized beams with topological charge equal to 0, 1, 2 and 10 respectively. As a result, a dark channel with a length about 20 λ can be obtained. These new properties have the potential applications such as particle acceleration, optical trapping and material processing.

  2. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1992-08-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We will outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We will discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, will be described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC will be given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  3. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, R.; Irwing, J.

    1992-01-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread , bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, are described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC are given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). (Author) 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  4. Radiation damping in focusing-dominated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhirong; Chen, Pisin; Ruth, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    A quasi-classical method is developed to calculate the radiation damping of a relativistic particle in a straight, continuous focusing system. In one limiting case where the pitch angle of the particle θ p is much larger than the radiation opening angle 1/γ, the radiation power spectrum is similar to synchrotron radiation and the relative damping rate of the transverse action is proportional to the relative energy loss rate. In the other limiting case where θ p much-lt 1/γ, the radiation is dipole in nature and the relative damping rate of the transverse action is energy-independent and is much faster than the relative energy rate. Quantum excitation to the transverse action is absent in this focusing channel. These results can be extended to bent systems provided that the focusing field dominates over the bending field

  5. Focus Groups as Transformative Spiritual Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Moloney PhD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.

  6. Bringing customer focus to power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.V. [USGen Power Services (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The restructuring of the power generation industry and the impact it will have on a company`s success was discussed. Some companies are following one of three distinct strategies for survival, the GENCO, MARKETCO and TRADECO. The GENCO focuses on aggregating low cost, kick butt generation assets that could be either regionally concentrated or geographically distributed. The TRADECO invests in few, or even no, assets. Its only objective is to maximize net income. The MARKETCO structure focuses on understanding and meeting customers` needs. The MARKETCO puts as much value in aggregating `load` as it does on assets. It was suggested that the MARKETCO was the quickest path to success in the restructured electric industry, since it is plainly evident that in the New Millenium the customer will be king, and companies will not survive unless they focus the majority of their efforts on the customer.

  7. Final Focus Systems in Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, Tor

    1998-01-01

    In colliding beam facilities, the ''final focus system'' must demagnify the beams to attain the very small spot sizes required at the interaction points. The first final focus system with local chromatic correction was developed for the Stanford Linear Collider where very large demagnifications were desired. This same conceptual design has been adopted by all the future linear collider designs as well as the SuperConducting Supercollider, the Stanford and KEK B-Factories, and the proposed Muon Collider. In this paper, the over-all layout, physics constraints, and optimization techniques relevant to the design of final focus systems for high-energy electron-positron linear colliders are reviewed. Finally, advanced concepts to avoid some of the limitations of these systems are discussed

  8. The plasma focus - numerical experiments leading technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, S.H.; Lee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical experiments on the plasma focus are now used routinely to assist design and provide reference points for diagnostics. More importantly guidance has been given regarding the implementation of technology for new generations of plasma focus devices. For example intensive series of experiments have shown that it is of no use to reduce static bank inductance L0 below certain values because of the consistent loading effects of the plasma focus dynamics on the capacitor bank. Thus whilst it was thought that the PF1000 could receive major benefits by reducing its bank inductance L 0 , numerical experiments have shown to the contrary that its present L 0 of 30 nH is already optimum and that reducing L 0 would be a very expensive fruitless exercise. This knowledge gained from numerical experiments now acts as a general valuable guideline to all high performance (ie low inductance) plasma focus devices not to unnecessarily attempt to further lower the static inductance L 0 . The numerical experiments also show that the deterioration of the yield scaling law (e.g. the fusion neutron yield scaling with storage energy) is inevitable again due to the consistent loading effect of the plasma focus, which becomes more and more dominant as capacitor bank impedance reduces with increasing capacitance C 0 as storage energy is increased. This line of thinking has led to the suggestion of using higher voltages (as an alternative to increasing C 0 ) and to seeding of Deuterium with noble gases in order to enhance compression through thermodynamic mechanisms and through radiation cooling effects of strong line radiation. Circuit manipulation e.g. to enhance focus pinch compression by current-stepping is also being numerically experimented upon. Ultimately however systems have to be built, guided by numerical experiments, so that the predicted technology may be proven and realized. (author)

  9. Focus measurement of electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zhijun; Xin Jian; Jia Qinglong

    2007-01-01

    Many personal factors would influence the result of the focus measurement of linear accelerator using the conventional sandwich method. This paper presents a modified method which applies a film scanning meter to scan the X-ray image film got by sandwich method for obtaining a greyscale distribution, then the full width at half maximum value of greyscale distribution represents the focus size. The method can eliminates disadvantage influence from accelerator radiant field asymmetry by quadratic polynomial fitting and measures peak width at half height instead of stripe statistic. (authors)

  10. CY15 Livermore Computing Focus Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Tom M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cupps, Kim C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); D' Hooge, Trent E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fahey, Tim J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fox, Dave M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Futral, Scott W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gary, Mark R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldstone, Robin J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamilton, Pam G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heer, Todd M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Long, Jeff W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mark, Rich J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morrone, Chris J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shoopman, Jerry D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slavec, Joe A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Springmeyer, Becky R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stearman, Marc D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Watson, Py C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-20

    The LC team undertook a survey of primary Center drivers for CY15. Identified key drivers included enhancing user experience and productivity, pre-exascale platform preparation, process improvement, data-centric computing paradigms and business expansion. The team organized critical supporting efforts into three cross-cutting focus areas; Improving Service Quality; Monitoring, Automation, Delegation and Center Efficiency; and Next Generation Compute and Data Environments In each area the team detailed high level challenges and identified discrete actions to address these issues during the calendar year. Identifying the Center’s primary drivers, issues, and plans is intended to serve as a lens focusing LC personnel, resources, and priorities throughout the year.

  11. Foil focusing of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    When an intense relativistic electron beams (IREB) passes through a grounded metal foil, the transverse electric field due to the beam space charge is locally shorted out, and the beam is focused by the magnetic field of its current. The effect can be treated as focusing by a thin lens with first order aberration. Expressions for the focal length and aberration coefficient of the equivalent thin lens are developed in this note. These are then applied to practical examples representative of IREB research at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  12. SKEW QUADRUPOLE FOCUSING LATTICES AND APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we revisit using skew quadrupole fields in place of traditional normal upright quadrupole fields to make beam focusing structures. We illustrate by example skew lattice decoupling, dispersion suppression and chromatic correction using the neutrino factory Study-II muon storage ring design. Ongoing BNL investigation of flat coil magnet structures that allow building a very compact muon storage ring arc and other flat coil configurations that might bring significant magnet cost reduction to a VLHC motivate our study of skew focusing

  13. A self-focusing mercury jet target

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, C

    2002-01-01

    Mercury jet production targets have been studied in relation to antiproton production and, more recently, pion production for a neutrino factory. There has always been a temptation to include some self-focusing of the secondaries by passing a current through the mercury jet analogous to the already proven lithium lens. However, skin heating of the mercury causes fast vaporization leading to the development of a gliding discharge along the surface of the jet. This external discharge can, nevertheless, provide some useful focusing of the secondaries in the case of the neutrino factory. The technical complications must not be underestimated.

  14. Neutron emission from deuterium plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Joksimovic, D.; Maric, Z.; Udovicic, V.; Vukovic, J.

    1998-01-01

    The anisotropy of emitted neutrons is investigated on a small 'Mather-type' plasma focus device (PF). This problem is of importance for determining the nature of the fusion reaction mechanisms. Mica detectors together with thick uranium foils were used for both detection and angular distribution measurements of the neutrons. Previously, the annealing of the detectors was done and measured after the irradiation with neutrons from Am-Be source. Also, annealing ability of H-plasma focus has been tested. Geometry of detectors in both experiments was the same. (authors)

  15. Radiation reaction in a continuous focusing channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Chen, P.; Ruth, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    We show that the radiation damping rate of the transverse action of a particle in a straight, continuous focusing system is independent of the particle energy, and that no quantum excitation is induced. This absolute damping effect leads to the existence of a transverse ground state to which the particle inevitably decays and yields the minimum beam emittance that one can ever attain, γε min =ℎ/2mc, limited only by the uncertainty principle. Because of adiabatic invariance, the particle can be accelerated along the focusing channel in its ground state without any radiation energy loss

  16. Exploring an experiential learning project through Kolb's Learning Theory using a qualitative research method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk Chan, Cecilia Ka

    2012-08-01

    Experiential learning pedagogy is taking a lead in the development of graduate attributes and educational aims as these are of prime importance for society. This paper shows a community service experiential project conducted in China. The project enabled students to serve the affected community in a post-earthquake area by applying their knowledge and skills. This paper documented the students' learning process from their project goals, pre-trip preparations, work progress, obstacles encountered to the final results and reflections. Using the data gathered from a focus group interview approach, the four components of Kolb's learning cycle, the concrete experience, reflection observation, abstract conceptualisation and active experimentation, have been shown to transform and internalise student's learning experience, achieving a variety of learning outcomes. The author will also explore how this community service type of experiential learning in the engineering discipline allowed students to experience deep learning and develop their graduate attributes.

  17. International Focus: Highlighting APPA Members Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazner, Steve, Comp.

    2011-01-01

    While most APPA member institutions are located in the United States and Canada, there are also 45 of member institutions located internationally--from Australia and New Zealand to Southeast Asia to the Middle East to Europe. This article focuses on four of its international members: (1) American University of Kuwait (AUK); (2) American University…

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic studies of the strong Focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezin, Robert

    1971-01-01

    The POTTER magnetohydrodynamic code is used. It consists of a two-dimensional fluid model with two temperatures Te, Ti and transverse transport coefficients for a fully ionized plasma. Applied to the FOCUS geometry used at Limeil, it gives temperatures consistent with the BENNETT law but much lower than those evaluated experimentally by the X-ray absorbing foils technique. (author) [fr

  19. Training Manual. Focused Observations: Nonverbal Teaching Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Banks; And Others

    Nonverbal teacher behavior is recognized as an important factor in establishing a positive social climate in the classroom. A feedback and analysis instrument is presented focusing on specific nonverbal teacher behaviors. These behaviors--facial expressions, gestures, body movements, and idiosyncratic characteristics--are categorized as either…

  20. Science Education at Arts-Focused Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, W. Wyatt; Ritchie, Aarika; Murray, Amy Vashlishan; Honea, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Many arts-focused colleges and universities in the United States offer their undergraduate students coursework in science. To better understand the delivery of science education at this type of institution, this article surveys the science programs of forty-one arts-oriented schools. The findings suggest that most science programs are located in…

  1. Careers in focus library and information science

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Careers in Focus: Library and Information Science, Second Edition profiles 19 careers for professionals interested in this field. Job profiles include:. -Acquisitions librarians. -Book conservators. -Children's librarians. -Corporate librarians. -Film and video librarians. -Law librarians. -Library assistants. -Library media specialists. -Medical librarians. -Research assistants.

  2. The stabilisation of final focus system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The StaFF (stabilisation of final focus) system will use interferometers to monitor the relative ... quadrupole magnets will be the most demanding application, where mutual and beam- ... interferometers to measure lines of a geodetic network to record relative motion between two beam ... coupled interferometer design.

  3. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knodlseder, J.; von Ballmoos, P.; Frontera, F.

    2009-01-01

    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reach...... processes in the universe....

  4. Accelerating and focusing structures for PIGMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.A.; Bush, E.D. Jr.; Holsinger, R.F.; Manca, J.J.; Saito, N.; Stovall, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute is supporting a program of accelerator development at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory aimed at the extension of proton linac technologies to produce the most suitable Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI). An optimized design of a pion generator suitable for a radiotherapy program at a major medical center has been established, consisting of a 250-keV injector, followed by a 35-meter-long drift-tube linac that accelerates the proton beam to 150 MeV, and an 85-meter-long coupled-cavity linac that accelerates the beam to its final energy of 650 MeV, where the average beam current of 100 microamperes impinges on one or more targets producing abundant quantities of π - mesons for radiotherapeutic applications. A number of extensions to proton linac technology are being pursued under the PIGMI program at LASL. A discussion is given of recent developments in three areas relevant to the acceleration and focusing of proton beams, namely, the alternating phase focused (APF) linac structure, the disk and washer linac structure, and small permanent magnet quadrupole lenses. The APF linac structure is being developed for the acceleration and focusing role from the injection energy of 250 keV to a few MeV, where a transition is made to a permanent magnet quadrupole focused linac structure. The disk and washer linac structure is under consideration for the high velocity portion of the design

  5. Gas ionization by focused laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the effect of line broadening by focusing may considerably contribute to the observed laser-induced ionization of gases when the ionization energy of the gas molecules is well above the mean photon energy of the laser radiation. (Author) [pt

  6. Focal CT abnormality and epileptogenic focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Kazuichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Tottori, Takayasu; Matsuda, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Seino, Masakazu

    1989-01-01

    In 31 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, the precise site of epileptogenic focus was determined by means of a depth EEG recording as one of the presurgical evaluations. In 13 patients, a CT scan revealed focal lesions; 7 in the left temporal lobe and 6 in the right temporal lobe. In 5 of the 7 patients and in 5 of the 6 patients the epileptogenic foci were determined in the temporal lobe on the side of a CT lesion. However, in 2 of the patients with a CT lesion in the left temporal lobe, independent epileptogenic foci were found in both the temporal lobes, and in the other patient with a CT lesion in the right temporal lobe, they were found in the right frontal and left temporal lobes. Thus, the CT lesions agreed in lateralization and focality with the epileptogenic foci in 10 of the 13 patients (77%), but they disagreed in 3 (23%). A CT lesion disclosed in the temporal lobe does not necessarily indicate the side and/or site where the epileptogenic focus may be localized. Although exceptions may be made, spatial disagreement was exemplified between the CT lesion and epileptogenic focus. Therefore, extreme caution has to be taken on the side and/or site of the epileptogenic focus when functional surgical indication is to be made. (author)

  7. Proximity focusing RICH with TOF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpar, S.; Adachi, I.; Fujita, K.; Fukushima, T.; Gorisek, A.; Hayashi, D.; Iijima, T.; Ikado, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Kawai, H.; Kozakai, Y.; Krizan, P.; Kuratani, A.; Mazuka, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Nishida, S.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Seki, T.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Unno, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A proximity focusing RICH counter with a multi-channel micro-channel plate (MCP) PMT was tested as a time-of-flight counter. Cherenkov photons emitted in the radiator medium as well as in the entrance window of the PMT were used for the time-of-flight measurement, and an excellent performance of the counter could be demonstrated

  8. Fundamental Movement Skills: An Important Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Stodden, David; Cohen, Kristen E.; Smith, Jordan J.; Lubans, David Revalds; Lenoir, Matthieu; Iivonen, Susanna; Miller, Andrew D.; Laukkanen, Arto; Dudley, Dean; Lander, Natalie J.; Brown, Helen; Morgan, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent international conference presentations have critiqued the promotion of fundamental movement skills (FMS) as a primary pedagogical focus. Presenters have called for a debate about the importance of, and rationale for teaching FMS, and this letter is a response to that call. The authors of this letter are academics who actively…

  9. Shape from focus for large image fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Pavel; Hamarová, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 33 (2015), s. 9747-9751 ISSN 1559-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12301S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : shape from focus * large image fields * optically rough surface Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2015

  10. X-ray focusing using capillary arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Chapman, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    A new form of X-ray focusing device based on glass capillary arrays is presented. Theoretical and experimental results for array of circular capillaries and theoretical and computational results for square hole capillaries are given. It is envisaged that devices such as these will find wide applications in X-ray optics as achromatic condensers and collimators. 3 refs., 4 figs

  11. SERPUKHOV: Focusing particles by a crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With several Laboratories having shown how bent crystals can be used to steer particle beams, a team working at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) at Serpukhov, near Moscow, has shown how these crystals can also be used to focus particle beams

  12. Optimizing Monochromatic Focusing on ThALES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, P.; Boehm, M.; Kulda, J.; Roux, S.; Hiess, A.; Steffens, P.; Šaroun, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, A (2014), SA026 ISSN 0031-9015 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Monte Carlo ray-tracing * inelastic neutron scattering * Triple-Axis spectrometer * monochromatic focusing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.585, year: 2014

  13. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  14. Capability, Governance and Nanotechnology : Focus on India ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nanotechnology is the study and manipulation of matter on an ultra-small scale, generally in the range of 1-100 nanometres (1 metre = 1 billion nanometres). Like biotechnology, nanotechnology has the potential to bring huge benefits to the poor, but also huge costs. Focusing on India, this project will examine the ...

  15. Beam acceleration in plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Maric, Z.; Stanojevic, J.; Udovicic, V. E-mail: udovicic@atom.phy.bg.ac.yu; Vukovic, J

    2001-06-01

    The proton beam emission from the small 8 kJ plasma focus device operated with the H{sub 2} filling was analyzed. Maximum energy and yield were obtained using NTD. The fast protons were registered with the energy up to 500 keV using the polycarbonate absorbers with the different thickness.

  16. Beam acceleration in plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Maric, Z.; Stanojevic, J.; Udovicic, V.; Vukovic, J.

    2001-01-01

    The proton beam emission from the small 8 kJ plasma focus device operated with the H 2 filling was analyzed. Maximum energy and yield were obtained using NTD. The fast protons were registered with the energy up to 500 keV using the polycarbonate absorbers with the different thickness

  17. Welcome Families by Focusing on Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkel, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Families of struggling students, this teacher in a high-poverty school knows, feel defensive and hurt when communications with their child's school focus mainly on that child's deficits. This is especially true for families from poverty or immigrant backgrounds--and affirming the latter families is important in the current climate of hostility…

  18. Invited paper: Plasma focus in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinji, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Plasma focus research in China began in the seventies. There are now 3 devices in two institutions, Tsinghua University in Beijing and the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy in Changsha. The research works can be divided into two groups: the engineering problems related to plasma focus devices and the plasma phenomena and process of the focus. Under the first subject, insulation and plasma spark gaps are studied. By casting silicon rubber onto the ends of the transmission cable, the length of insulation can be appreciably reduced. With the method of simulating charges, the electric field distribution of a field distortion type spark gap was calculated. Comparison of the field distribution before and after triggering was represented. It shows that the electric field strength of the gap after triggering may reach 14-80 times as high as that before triggering. Thus the characteristic of the gap may be improved remarkably. In respect of the phenomena of the plasma focus, neutron emission and X-ray emission were measured. It was shown that the proportion of X-ray with higher energy depends upon the material of the inner electrode. Two kinds of stud materials, tungsten and molybendum, were adopted. Measured results of the distribution of X-ray energy were represented respectively for the two materials used. Evidently, the distribution changed with the inserted materials

  19. Organisational Change: A Solution-Focused Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a solution-focused approach to organisational change. Planning Alternative Tomorrows with Hope (PATH) is an intervention more commonly applied to individuals. In this study the intervention is used with groups of people working in educational organisations to help manage the change process. The approach…

  20. Professional Development: Focusing on Transition. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azúa, Ramón L.; Keleher, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, the National Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Neglected or Delinquent Children and Youth (NDTAC) released its first in a series of professional development briefs that focus on the professional development needs and interests of Neglected or Delinquent (N or D) State coordinators, correctional educators, and providers of…

  1. Synthesis of focusing-and-deflection columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, M.; Mui, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Szilagyi and Szep have demonstrated that focusing lenses of high performances can be constructed from a column of circular plate electrodes. Later, Szilagyi modified that system to include dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components by partitioning each plate into eight equal sectors. It has already been shown that the additional quadrupole components can indeed bring about substantial improvements in the focusing of charged particle beams. In this article, that design procedure is expanded to construct columns capable of both focusing and deflecting particle beams by just introducing additional dipole components. In this new design, the geometry of the system remains unchanged. The only extra complication is the demand for more individual controls of the sector voltages. Two sample designs, one for negative ions and one for electrons, are presented showing that in both cases a ±2.3 mrad diverging beam can be focused down to a spot of less than 50 nm in radius over a scanning circular area of radius 0.25 mm. The details of the two systems are given in Sec. IV along with the source conditions. The performance of the negative ion system is found to be comparable to the published data. For the relativistic electron system, the interaction of individual components to reduce various aberrations is investigated. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society

  2. Focus: Composition and Language Study, K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This issue of "Kansas English" focus on composition and language study, kindergarten through grade six. The articles and authors are "Evaluating Process and Product in Children's Writing" by Robert L. Hillerich, "Written Language Development and Instruction of Elementary School Children" by Lester S. Golub, "From a Reading Desk" by Myrline…

  3. Computational numerical modelling of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brollo, Fabricio

    2005-01-01

    Several models for calculation of the dynamics of Plasma Focus have been developed. All of them begin from the same physic principle: the current sheet run down the anode length, ionizing and collecting the gas that finds in its way.This is known as snow-plow model.Concerning pinch's compression, a MHD model is proposed.The plasma is treated as a fluid , particularly as a high ionized gas.However, there are not many models that, taking into account thermal equilibrium inside the plasma, make approximated calculations of the maximum temperatures reached in the pinch.Besides, there are no models which use those temperatures to estimate the termofusion neutron yield for the Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium gas filled cases.In the PLADEMA network (Dense Magnetized Plasmas) a code was developed with the objective of describe the plasma focus dynamics, in a conceptual engineering stage.The codes calculates the principal variables (currents, time to focus, etc) and estimates the neutron yield in Deuterium-filled plasma focus devices.It can be affirmed that the code's experimental validation, in its axial and radial stages, was very successfully. However, it was accepted that the compression stage should be formulated again, to find a solution for a large variation of a parameter related with velocity profiles for the particles trapped inside the pinch.The objectives of this work can be stated in the next way : - Check the compression's model hypothesis. Develop a new model .- Implement the new model in the code. Compare results against experimental data of Plasma Focus devices from all around the world [es

  4. Opposing effects of expectancy and somatic focus on pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie E Johnston

    Full Text Available High-pain expectancy increases pain and pain-related brain activity, creating a cycle of psychologically maintained pain. Though these effects are robust, little is known about how expectancy works and what psychological processes either support or mitigate its effects. To address this, we independently manipulated pain expectancy and "top-down" attention to the body, and examined their effects on both a performance-based measure of body-focus and heat-induced pain. Multi-level mediation analyses showed that high-pain expectancy substantially increased pain, replicating previous work. However, attention to the body reduced pain, partially suppressing the effects of expectancy. Furthermore, increased body-focus had larger pain-reducing effects when pain expectancy was high, suggesting that attempts to focus on external distractors are counterproductive in this situation. Overall, the results show that attention to the body cannot explain pain-enhancing expectancy effects, and that focusing on sensory/discriminative aspects of pain might be a useful pain-regulation strategy when severe pain is expected.

  5. Opposing Effects of Expectancy and Somatic Focus on Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D.

    2012-01-01

    High-pain expectancy increases pain and pain-related brain activity, creating a cycle of psychologically maintained pain. Though these effects are robust, little is known about how expectancy works and what psychological processes either support or mitigate its effects. To address this, we independently manipulated pain expectancy and “top-down” attention to the body, and examined their effects on both a performance-based measure of body-focus and heat-induced pain. Multi-level mediation analyses showed that high-pain expectancy substantially increased pain, replicating previous work. However, attention to the body reduced pain, partially suppressing the effects of expectancy. Furthermore, increased body-focus had larger pain-reducing effects when pain expectancy was high, suggesting that attempts to focus on external distractors are counterproductive in this situation. Overall, the results show that attention to the body cannot explain pain-enhancing expectancy effects, and that focusing on sensory/discriminative aspects of pain might be a useful pain-regulation strategy when severe pain is expected. PMID:22723896

  6. Numerical experimentation on focusing time and neutron yield in GN1 plasma focus machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Arwinder; Lee, Sing; Saw, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have shown how we have fitted Lee's six phase model code to analyze the current waveform of the GN1 plasma focus machine working in deuterium gas. The Lee's 6-phase model codes was later configured to work between 0.5 to 6 Torr and the results of both focusing time and neutron yield was then compared with the published experimental results. The final results indicate that Lee's code, gives realistic plasma dynamics and focus properties together with a realistic neutron yield for GN1 plasma focus, without the need of any adjustable parameters, needing only to fit the computed current trace to a measured current trace. (author)

  7. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs

  8. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs.

  9. Changing the Focus of Knowledge Management for Nuclear Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge Management (KM) has long been a recognized tool for improving the safety, efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear facilities. However, the objectives, tools and mechanisms utilized are often focused on steady-state maintenance of established knowledge and on incremental improvements to current practice. When nuclear facilities transition from routine operations to project-based decommissioning activities there is a need to reconsider the knowledge objectives, methodologies and tools to ensure that KM practices are relevant to the new activities being carried out and provide solutions to the new challenges posed in decommissioning. It is important that the changes required in preparation for and during the decommissioning phase are factored in to knowledge planning to ensure that KM activities are efficient and effective. This transition requires a change in the KM mind-set and a different way of setting new KM objectives. (author

  10. Magnetic focusing in triangular electron billiards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Kristensen, A.; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    1999-01-01

    The classical ballistic magnetotransport in triangular electron billiards fabricated in a high mobility GaAs heterostructure has been studied at 4.2 K. The sample geometry may be viewed as a double-slit structure with a skewed injection angle. We observe a striking cancellation of the magnetic...... focusing spectrum compared to the case of a perpendicular injection angle. From numerical and analytical analysis, we confirm that the quenching is a fundamental geometrical effect, and identify two mechanisms responsible for the anomaly. The focusing spectrum of the considered skewed geometry...... is remarkably sensitive to the angular distribution of injected electrons as well as the overall injection angle. [S0163-1829(99)06619-9]....

  11. Plasma devices for focusing extreme light pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Gonoskov, A.A.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Nazarov, W.; Quere, F.; Sergeev, A.M.; Yan, X.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Since the inception of the laser, there has been a constant push toward increasing the laser peak intensity, as this has lead to opening the exploration of new territories, and the production of compact sources of particles and radiation with unprecedented characteristics. However, increasing the peak laser intensity is usually performed by enhancing the produced laser properties, either by lowering its duration or increasing its energy, which involves a great level of complexity for the laser chain, or comes at great cost. Focusing tightly is another possibility to increase the laser intensity, but this comes at the risk of damaging the optics with target debris, as it requires their placement in close proximity to the interaction region. Plasma devices are an attractive, compact alternative to tightly focus extreme light pulses and further increase the final laser intensity. (authors)

  12. Dense plasma focus - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendys, J.

    1976-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) is a convenient source of short, intense neutron pulses, and dense, high temperature plasma. This review of the literature on the DPF indicates that its operation is still not understood, and attempts to show where the present data is either inadequate or inconsistent. Because the plasma conditions and neutron and x-ray fluxes vary from shot to shot, it is maintained that, to resolve inconsistencies in the present data, spectra need to be measured with energy and time resolution simultaneously, and cannot be built up from a large number of shots. Time resolutions of the order of 1 nsec for pulse lengths of about 100 nsec make these requirements especially difficult. Some theoretical models are presented for the neutron output and its spectrum, but no self-consistent description of the plasma in the focus region is likely for some time. (author)

  13. Missing data imputation: focusing on single imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-01-01

    Complete case analysis is widely used for handling missing data, and it is the default method in many statistical packages. However, this method may introduce bias and some useful information will be omitted from analysis. Therefore, many imputation methods are developed to make gap end. The present article focuses on single imputation. Imputations with mean, median and mode are simple but, like complete case analysis, can introduce bias on mean and deviation. Furthermore, they ignore relationship with other variables. Regression imputation can preserve relationship between missing values and other variables. There are many sophisticated methods exist to handle missing values in longitudinal data. This article focuses primarily on how to implement R code to perform single imputation, while avoiding complex mathematical calculations.

  14. Energy coupling in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, T.E.; Pickles, W.L.; Sahlin, H.L.; Price, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments have been performed with a 125-kJ plasma focus to investigate mechanisms for rapid coupling of inductively-stored energy into plasmas. The coupling can take place through the formation of an electron or ion beam that deposits its energy in a target or directly by the penetration of the magnetic field into a resistive plasma. Some preliminary results from experiments of both types are described. The experiments use a replaceable conical anode tip that is intended to guide the focus to within a few millimeters of the axis, where it can suddenly deliver energy either to a small target or to particles that are accelerated. X-ray and fast-ion diagnostics have been used to study the effects

  15. Plasma focus system: Design, construction and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alacakir, A.; Akguen, Y.; Boeluekdemir, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a compact experimental system for fusion research. The design, construction and experiments of the 3 kJ Mather type plasma focus machine is described. This machine is established for neutron yield and fast neutron radiography by D-D reaction which is given by D + D→ 3 He (0.82 MeV) + n (2.45 MeV) . Investigation of the geometry of plasma focus machine in the presence of high voltage drive and vacuum system setup is shown. 108 neutron per pulse and 200 kA peak current is obtained for many shots. Scintillator screen for fast neutron imaging, sensitive to 2.45 MeV neutrons, is also manufactured in our labs. Structural neutron shielding computations for safety is also completed

  16. Compression Models for Plasma Focus Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jose; Calusse, Alejandro; Ramos, Ruben; Rodriguez Palomino, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Using a numerical model that calculates the dynamics of Plasma Focus devices, we compared the results of three different compression models of the plasma pinch.One of the main objectives in this area is to develop a simplified model to calculate the neutron production of Plasma Focus devices, to study the influence of the main parameters in this neutron yield.The dynamics is thoroughly studied, and the model predicts fairly well values such as maximum currents and times for pinch collapse.Therefore, we evaluate here different models of pinch compression, to try to predict the neutron production with good agreement with the rest of the variables involved.To fulfill this requirement, we have experimental results of neutron production as a function of deuterium filling pressure in the chamber, and typical values of other main variables in the dynamics of the current sheet

  17. Slice through an LHC focusing magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Slice through an LHC superconducting quadrupole (focusing) magnet. The slice includes a cut through the magnet wiring (niobium titanium), the beampipe and the steel magnet yokes. Particle beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have the same energy as a high-speed train, squeezed ready for collision into a space narrower than a human hair. Huge forces are needed to control them. Dipole magnets (2 poles) are used to bend the paths of the protons around the 27 km ring. Quadrupole magnets (4 poles) focus the proton beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams’ paths cross. Bringing beams into collision requires a precision comparable to making two knitting needles collide, launched from either side of the Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Self-focusing of whistler waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpman, V. I.; Kaufman, R. N.; Shagalov, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of axially symmetric self-focusing of whistler waves, based on the full system of Maxwell equations, is developed. The plasma is described by the magnetohydrodynamic equations including the ponderomotive force from RF field. The nonlinear Schrodinger equations (NSE) for arbitrary azimuthal modes of whistler waves are derived. It is shown that they differ from the NSE for a scalar field; this is connected with an intrinsic angular momentum due to the rotating polarization of whistlers. It is shown that the self-focusing, as described by the NSE, differs in its final stage from the results following the full set of Maxwell equations. The latter gives defocusing after sufficient narrowing of the initial wave beam, due to transformation of the trapped wave into a nontrapped branch which is not contained in the NSE description. The oscillatory character of the defocusing is demonstrated.

  19. Raman Amplification with a Flying Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D.; Bucht, S.; Davies, A.; Haberberger, D.; Kessler, T.; Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new laser amplifier scheme utilizing stimulated Raman scattering in plasma in conjunction with a "flying focus"—a chromatic focusing system combined with a chirped pump beam that provides spatiotemporal control over the pump's focal spot. Pump intensity isosurfaces are made to propagate at v =-c so as to be in sync with the injected counterpropagating seed pulse. By setting the pump intensity in the interaction region to be just above the ionization threshold of the background gas, an ionization wave is produced that travels at a fixed distance ahead of the seed. Simulations show that this will make it possible to optimize the plasma temperature and mitigate many of the issues that are known to have impacted previous Raman amplification experiments, in particular, the growth of precursors.

  20. Self-focusing in SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerhalt, J.R.; Galbraith, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown by explicit calculation of previously published quasicontinuum model that the molecular susceptibility rapidly approaches zero as higher excited states of the molecule become populated. Hence the overtones of the ν 3 -pumped mode are totally responsible for the self focusing effects in SF 6 . The ν 3 ladder contribution to the susceptibility is calculated. The vibrational model is a classical triply degenerate anharmonic oscillator in the Cartesian basis with the anharmonicity parameters chosen to be consistent with the latest spectroscopic analysis of the 3ν 3 overtone spectrum. The rotational structure is represented by a distribution of these oscillators where the distribution is chosen to correspond to the spectrum of the ν 3 fundamental. Good agreement is found with the 300 0 in self-focusing data of Nowak and Ham at CO 2 P(28), P(20) and P(10) in SF 6

  1. Focused-laser interferometric position sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Stephen J.; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple method to measure the position shifts of an object with a range of tens of micrometers using a focused-laser (FL) interferometric position sensor. In this article we examine the effects of mechanical vibration on FL and Michelson interferometers. We tested both interferometers using vibration amplitudes ranging from 0 to 20 μm. Our FL interferometer has a resolution much better than the diffraction grating periodicities of 10 and 14 μm used in our experiments. A FL interferometer provides improved mechanical stability at the expense of spatial resolution. Our experimental results show that Michelson interferometers cannot be used when the vibration amplitude is more than an optical wavelength. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a focused-laser interferometric position sensor can be used to measure the position shifts of an object on a less sensitive, micrometer scale when the vibration amplitude is too large to use a Michelson interferometer

  2. Radio frequency focused interdigital linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Donald A.; Starling, W. Joel

    2006-08-29

    An interdigital (Wideroe) linear accelerator employing drift tubes, and associated support stems that couple to both the longitudinal and support stem electromagnetic fields of the linac, creating rf quadrupole fields along the axis of the linac to provide transverse focusing for the particle beam. Each drift tube comprises two separate electrodes operating at different electrical potentials as determined by cavity rf fields. Each electrode supports two fingers, pointing towards the opposite end of the drift tube, forming a four-finger geometry that produces an rf quadrupole field distribution along its axis. The fundamental periodicity of the structure is equal to one half of the particle wavelength .beta..lamda., where .beta. is the particle velocity in units of the velocity of light and .lamda. is the free space wavelength of the rf. Particles are accelerated in the gaps between drift tubes. The particle beam is focused in regions inside the drift tubes.

  3. New focusing analyser on IN12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.; Faak, B.

    1999-01-01

    Among several improvements and modifications the IN12 three-axis spectrometer for cold neutrons has been equipped with a new graphite analyzer with variable horizontal and fixed vertical focusing features. With this analyzer we could drastically improve the instrument performance and also meet the standards of a modern three-axis spectrometer. In this report we show construction details as well as experimental results which demonstrate the improvements. (author)

  4. SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION WITH A FOCUS ON SESAME

    CERN Document Server

    ahmad, sameem

    2017-01-01

    Scientific communication, the representation of CERN and raising awareness about science to a wide range of audiences is very important for the CERN communication teams. Having a physics background and an interest in science administration, communication and research, I was based in the International Relations sector, working in various groups and focusing on written communication. I gained experience in many aspects of scientific communications by finding out how CERN in represented in the press and media, other online forums and in outreach.

  5. Vision Trainer Teaches Focusing Techniques at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Based on work Stanford Research Institute did for Ames Research Center, Joseph Trachtman developed a vision trainer to treat visual focusing problems in the 1980s. In 2014, Trachtman, operating out of Seattle, released a home version of the device called the Zone-Trac. The inventor has found the biofeedback process used by the technology induces an alpha-wave brain state, causing increased hand-eye coordination and reaction times, among other effects

  6. A lumped parameter model of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jose H.; Florido, Pablo C.; Bruzzone, H.; Clausse, Alejandro

    1999-01-01

    A lumped parameter model to estimate neutron emission of a plasma focus (PF) device is developed. The dynamic of the current sheet is calculated using a snowplow model, and the neutron production with the thermal fusion cross section for a deuterium filling gas. The results were contrasted as a function of the filling pressure with experimental measurements of a 3.68 KJ Mather-type PF. (author)

  7. Simulation Of Gas Focused Liquid Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor, Rizwan

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of dissertation is to develop an experimentally verified computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of micron-sized liquid jet, produced by an injection molded Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzle (GDVN). In these nozzles, liquid jets are efficiently orientedly transporting mass and momentum. They are produced by intelligently projecting hydrodynamic focusing effect from a high-speed stream of a co-flowing lower density and lower viscosity gas on a stream of liquid from a feeding capillary. L...

  8. Charmed baryons photoproduced in FOCUS at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Ratti, S P

    2001-01-01

    FOCUS collected over 7 * 10/sup 7/ triggers and more than 10/sup 6/ fully reconstructed charm particles in a photoproduction experiment at Fermilab. The experimental setup is an upgraded version of a multiparticle spectrometer used in the previous experiment E687. Data on charmed meson spectroscopy have been presented by F.L Fabbri in this Section. Here data on photoproduction of charmed baryons are presented.

  9. Architecture and Energy. Towards a broader Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

     Architecture and Energy. Towards a broader focus. By Michael Lauring and Rob Marsh   In typical new Danish dwellings build according to the standards of the Building Regulations 2008 approximately 35% of the primary energy use is related to heat consumption divided into 23% room heating and 12% ...... & Hacker (2008): Bygninger, Energi, Klima. Mod et nyt paradigme.  Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (Danish Building Research Institute). [2] Marsh, Larsen, Lauring & Christensen (2006): Arkitektur og energi. Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (Danish Building Research Instititute)....

  10. Focusing magnets for HIF based on racetracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martovetsky, N N; Manahan, R R

    2000-09-11

    Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is considered a promising path to a practical fusion reactor. A driver for a HIF reactor will require a large number of quadrupole arrays to focus heavy ion beams. A conceptual design, and trade off studies of the quadrupole array based on racetracks are presented. A comparison with a conventional shell magnet is given and advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A more detailed design of a single quadrupole for the High Current experiment (HCX) is presented and discussed.

  11. Results of Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Dieter R

    2003-06-13

    The beam experiments of Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) started in September 1993 at SLAC, and have produced a 1.7 {micro}m x 75 nm spot of 46 GeV electron beam. A number of new techniques involving two nanometer spot-size monitors have been developed. Several beam diagnostic/tuning schemes are applied to achieve and maintain the small spot. This experiment opens the way toward the nanometer world for future linear colliders.

  12. Ion Distribution Measurement In Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryadi; Sunardi; Usada, Widdi; Purwadi, Agus; Zaenuri, Akhmad

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of the Argon ion distribution in plasma focus by using Faraday cup has been done. The intensity of ion beam followed the I Rn rule, n=1,02. In the operation condition of 0,8 mbar and 12,5 kV the current sheath spen 2.2 to 2.4 μsecond in the rundown phase. Cu ion was also been observed in the Faraday cup

  13. The Upgraded Plasma Focus Installation > - The Installation >

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokhin, O.N.; Nikulin, V.Ya.; Babenko, B.A.; Gorbunov, D.N.; Gurei, A.E.; Kalachev, N.V.; Kozlova, T.A.; Malafeev, Yu.S.; Polukhin, S.N.; Sychev, A.A.; Tikhomirov, A.A.; Tsybenko, S.P.; Volobuev, I.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the upgraded plasma focus installation > - the installation > and some preliminary experimental results. The total energy stored in capacity bank is now 400 kJ, current - 5 MA with the rise time 3.5 μs. The investigation is targeted on the study of near electrode processes and its influence on plasma dynamics in a special operating regime of Filippov type PF - Hard X-ray regime. (author)

  14. Understanding weight stigmatization: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossrow, N H; Jeffery, R W; McGuire, M T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate, in a nonclinical sample of adults, thoughts on and experiences with weight stigmatization. Focus groups were used to collect information. Participants were recruited through a newspaper advertisement and flyers posted in public places in Minneapolis and St. Paul. During the focus groups, participants were led in a discussion about their thoughts on weight stigmatization and personal experiences of being treated differently or poorly because of their weight. Six gender-specific focus groups consisted of 31 adult volunteers (17 women and 14 men). Perceptions of weight-based stereotypes and weight stigmatization and personal reports of having been treated differently or poorly owing to weight were measured. Participants reported a variety of experiences of being treated differently or poorly because of their weight. These included teasing, harassment, slurs and insults, negative judgments and assumptions, and perceived discrimination. Participants reported that such experiences occurred at home, among friends and strangers, at work, and in health care settings. Women reported a greater number and a greater variety of negative experiences than men. The results indicated that participants experienced weight-based stigmatization in many aspects of their lives. Awareness of these experiences may assist in the development of treatments for overweight individuals.

  15. Tunable Graphene Metasurface Reflectarray for Cloaking, Illusion, and Focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sudipta Romen; Gutiérrez, Cristian E.; Nemilentsau, Andrei; Lee, In-Ho; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Avouris, Phaedon; Low, Tony

    2018-03-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. We present a graphene-based metasurface that can be actively tuned between different regimes of operation, such as anomalous beam steering and focusing, cloaking, and illusion optics, by applying electrostatic gating without modifying the geometry of the metasurface. The metasurface is designed by placing graphene ribbons on a dielectric cavity resonator, where interplay between geometric plasmon resonances in the ribbons and Fabry-Perot resonances in the cavity is used to achieve a 2 π phase shift. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that the wave front of the field reflected from a triangular bump covered by the metasurface can be tuned by applying electric bias so as to resemble that of a bare plane and of a spherical object. Moreover, reflective focusing and the change of the reflection direction for the above mentioned cases are also shown.

  16. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  17. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  18. Optimal wave focusing for seismic source imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Farhad

    In both global and exploration seismology, studying seismic sources provides geophysicists with invaluable insight into the physics of earthquakes and faulting processes. One way to characterize the seismic source is to directly image it. Time-reversal (TR) focusing provides a simple and robust solution to the source imaging problem. However, for recovering a well- resolved image, TR requires a full-aperture receiver array that surrounds the source and adequately samples the wavefield. This requirement often cannot be realized in practice. In most source imaging experiments, the receiver geometry, due to the limited aperture and sparsity of the stations, does not allow adequate sampling of the source wavefield. Incomplete acquisition and imbalanced illumination of the imaging target limit the resolving power of the TR process. The main focus of this thesis is to offer an alternative approach to source imaging with the goal of mitigating the adverse effects of incomplete acquisition on the TR modeling. To this end, I propose a new method, named Backus-Gilbert (BG) source imaging, to optimally focus the wavefield onto the source position using a given receiver geometry. I first introduce BG as a method for focusing waves in acoustic media at a desired location and time. Then, by exploiting the source-receiver reciprocity of the Green function and the linearity of the problem, I show that BG focusing can be adapted and used as a source-imaging tool. Following this, I generalize the BG theory for elastic waves. Applying BG formalism for source imaging requires a model for the wave propagation properties of the earth and an estimate of the source location. Using numerical tests, I next examine the robustness and sensitivity of the proposed method with respect to errors in the earth model, uncertainty in the source location, and noise in data. The BG method can image extended sources as well as point sources. It can also retrieve the source mechanism. These features of

  19. Finding focus: a study of the historical development of focus in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals how two important focus articulations change over time in written English. Constituent focus, often accompanied by contrast, makes use of the clause-initial position in the oldest stages of English, but as this position comes to be used for the grammatical subject over time, the

  20. A new electrophoretic focusing principle: focusing of nonamphoteric weak ionogenic analytes using inverse electromigration dispersion profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Petr; Malá, Zdena; Bocek, Petr

    2010-03-01

    This contribution introduces a new separation principle in CE which offers focusing of weak nonamphoteric ionogenic species and their inherent transport to the detector. The prerequisite condition for application of this principle is the existence of an inverse electromigration dispersion profile, i.e. a profile where pH is decreasing toward the anode or cathode for focusing of anionic or cationic weak analytes, respectively. The theory presented defines the principal conditions under which an analyte is focused on a profile of this type. Since electromigration dispersion profiles are migrating ones, the new principle offers inherent transport of focused analytes into the detection cell. The focusing principle described utilizes a mechanism different from both CZE (where separation is based on the difference in mobilities) and IEF (where separation is based on difference in pI), and hence, offers another separation dimension in CE. The new principle and its theory presented here are supplemented by convincing experiments as their proof.