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Sample records for pre-treatment stuttering frequency

  1. Stuttering Frequency, Speech Rate, Speech Naturalness, and Speech Effort During the Production of Voluntary Stuttering.

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    Davidow, Jason H; Grossman, Heather L; Edge, Robin L

    2018-05-01

    Voluntary stuttering techniques involve persons who stutter purposefully interjecting disfluencies into their speech. Little research has been conducted on the impact of these techniques on the speech pattern of persons who stutter. The present study examined whether changes in the frequency of voluntary stuttering accompanied changes in stuttering frequency, articulation rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort. In total, 12 persons who stutter aged 16-34 years participated. Participants read four 300-syllable passages during a control condition, and three voluntary stuttering conditions that involved attempting to produce purposeful, tension-free repetitions of initial sounds or syllables of a word for two or more repetitions (i.e., bouncing). The three voluntary stuttering conditions included bouncing on 5%, 10%, and 15% of syllables read. Friedman tests and follow-up Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were conducted for the statistical analyses. Stuttering frequency, articulation rate, and speech naturalness were significantly different between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Speech effort did not differ between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Stuttering frequency was significantly lower during the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition, and speech effort was significantly lower during two of the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition. Due to changes in articulation rate across the voluntary stuttering conditions, it is difficult to conclude, as has been suggested previously, that voluntary stuttering is the reason for stuttering reductions found when using voluntary stuttering techniques. Additionally, future investigations should examine different types of voluntary stuttering over an extended period of time to determine their impact on stuttering frequency, speech rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort.

  2. Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a multi-dimensional problem involving a particular kind of speech behavior, feelings, beliefs, self- concepts, and social interactions. Stutterers have "good days"? with less stuttering? and "bad days"? when they can't get a word out. Current research suggests that it is caused by a complex interaction between a person’s physical makeup and the environment. Stutterers are, on average, psychologically normal, except for fears and anxieties around talking. Stress and anxiety may aggravate stuttering. On the other hand, most stutterers speak fluently when relaxed, but stutter under stress. Stuttering affects people from all levels of the socioeconomic scale and is found in all parts of the world. The frequency of stuttered words, the type of speech disruption, and the presence of, and type of associated behavior varies from person to person. In terms of prognosis, early detection is important. The aim of this article, is to examine the persons who stutter, within the light of the etiology, frequency, definition, differential diagnosis, and comorbid psychiatric symptoms.

  3. CNV amplitude as a neural correlate for stuttering frequency: A case report of acquired stuttering.

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    Vanhoutte, Sarah; Van Borsel, John; Cosyns, Marjan; Batens, Katja; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hemelsoet, Dimitri; Van Roost, Dirk; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Santens, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    A neural hallmark of developmental stuttering is abnormal articulatory programming. One of the neurophysiological substrates of articulatory preparation is the contingent negative variation (CNV). Unfortunately, CNV tasks are rarely performed in persons who stutter and mainly focus on the effect of task variation rather than on interindividual variation in stutter related variables. However, variations in motor programming seem to be related to variation in stuttering frequency. The current study presents a case report of acquired stuttering following stroke and stroke related surgery in the left superior temporal gyrus. A speech related CNV task was administered at four points in time with differences in stuttering severity and frequency. Unexpectedly, CNV amplitudes at electrode sites approximating bilateral motor and left inferior frontal gyrus appeared to be inversely proportional to stuttering frequency. The higher the stuttering frequency, the lower the activity for articulatory preparation. Thus, the amount of disturbance in motor programming seems to determine stuttering frequency. At right frontal electrodes, a relative increase in CNV amplitude was seen at the test session with most severe stuttering. Right frontal overactivation is cautiously suggested to be a compensation strategy. In conclusion, late CNV amplitude elicited by a relatively simple speech task seems to be able to provide an objective, neural correlate of stuttering frequency. The present case report supports the hypothesis that motor preparation has an important role in stuttering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Study Stuttering Frequency Variability during a Single Day

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    Karimi, Hamid; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Stuttering varies between and within speaking situations. In this study, the authors used statistical process control charts with 10 case studies to investigate variability of stuttering frequency. Method: Participants were 10 adults who stutter. The authors counted the percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for segments of their speech…

  5. Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but treatments can help. They include stuttering therapy, electronic devices, and self-help groups. Starting stuttering therapy early for young children can keep it from becoming a lifelong problem. ...

  6. Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2011-01-01

    Stuttering is a multi-dimensional problem involving a particular kind of speech behavior, feelings, beliefs, self- concepts, and social interactions. Stutterers have "good days"? with less stuttering? and "bad days"? when they can't get a word out. Current research suggests that it is caused by a complex interaction between a person’s physical makeup and the environment. Stutterers are, on average, psychologically normal, except for fears and anxieties around talking. Stress and anxiety may a...

  7. Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as speech or language therapy. However, if your child's stuttering is frequent, continues to get worse, and is accompanied by body or facial movements, an evaluation by a speech-language therapist around (instead of before) age 3 is ...

  8. Brain activity in adults who stutter: Similarities across speaking tasks and correlations with stuttering frequency and speaking rate

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    Ingham, Roger J.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bothe, Anne K.; Ingham, Janis C.

    2012-01-01

    Many differences in brain activity have been reported between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically fluent controls during oral reading tasks. An earlier meta-analysis of imaging studies identified stutter-related regions, but recent studies report less agreement with those regions. A PET study on adult dextral PWS (n = 18) and matched fluent controls (CONT, n = 12) is reported that used both oral reading and monologue tasks. After correcting for speech rate differences between the groups the task-activation differences were surprisingly small. For both analyses only some regions previously considered stutter-related were more activated in the PWS group than in the CONT group, and these were also activated during eyes-closed rest (ECR). In the PWS group, stuttering frequency was correlated with cortico-striatal-thalamic circuit activity in both speaking tasks. The neuroimaging findings for the PWS group, relative to the CONT group, appear consistent with neuroanatomic abnormalities being increasingly reported among PWS. PMID:22564749

  9. Cortical activity during cued picture naming predicts individual differences in stuttering frequency.

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    Mock, Jeffrey R; Foundas, Anne L; Golob, Edward J

    2016-09-01

    Developmental stuttering is characterized by fluent speech punctuated by stuttering events, the frequency of which varies among individuals and contexts. Most stuttering events occur at the beginning of an utterance, suggesting neural dynamics associated with stuttering may be evident during speech preparation. This study used EEG to measure cortical activity during speech preparation in men who stutter, and compared the EEG measures to individual differences in stuttering rate as well as to a fluent control group. Each trial contained a cue followed by an acoustic probe at one of two onset times (early or late), and then a picture. There were two conditions: a speech condition where cues induced speech preparation of the picture's name and a control condition that minimized speech preparation. Across conditions stuttering frequency correlated to cue-related EEG beta power and auditory ERP slow waves from early onset acoustic probes. The findings reveal two new cortical markers of stuttering frequency that were present in both conditions, manifest at different times, are elicited by different stimuli (visual cue, auditory probe), and have different EEG responses (beta power, ERP slow wave). The cue-target paradigm evoked brain responses that correlated to pre-experimental stuttering rate. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stuttering Frequency in Relation to Lexical Diversity, Syntactic Complexity, and Utterance Length

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    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Hall, Nancy E.

    2018-01-01

    Children's frequency of stuttering can be affected by utterance length, syntactic complexity, and lexical content of language. Using a unique small-scale within-subjects design, this study explored whether language samples that contain more stuttering have (a) longer, (b) syntactically more complex, and (c) lexically more diverse utterances than…

  11. Effects of measurement method and transcript availability on inexperienced raters' stuttering frequency scores.

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    Chakraborty, Nalanda; Logan, Kenneth J

    To examine the effects of measurement method and transcript availability on the accuracy, reliability, and efficiency of inexperienced raters' stuttering frequency measurements. 44 adults, all inexperienced at evaluating stuttered speech, underwent 20 min of preliminary training in stuttering measurement and then analyzed a series of sentences, with and without access to transcripts of sentence stimuli, using either a syllable-based analysis (SBA) or an utterance-based analysis (UBA). Participants' analyses were compared between groups and to a composite analysis from two experienced evaluators. Stuttering frequency scores from the SBA and UBA groups differed significantly from the experienced evaluators' scores; however, UBA scores were significantly closer to the experienced evaluators' scores and were completed significantly faster than the SBA scores. Transcript availability facilitated scoring accuracy and efficiency in both groups. The internal reliability of stuttering frequency scores was acceptable for the SBA and UBA groups; however, the SBA group demonstrated only modest point-by-point agreement with ratings from the experienced evaluators. Given its accuracy and efficiency advantages over syllable-based analysis, utterance-based fluency analysis appears to be an appropriate context for introducing stuttering frequency measurement to raters who have limited experience in stuttering measurement. To address accuracy gaps between experienced and inexperienced raters, however, use of either analysis must be supplemented with training activities that expose inexperienced raters to the decision-making processes used by experienced raters when identifying stuttered syllables. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Methylphenidate on the Frequency of Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Rabaeys, Henk; Bijleveld, Henny-Annie; Devroey, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Recently, a case report described a decrease in frequency of stuttering after intake of methylphenidate (MPH). This study was undertaken to investigate if this effect could again be reproduced in a population of young healthy male adult persons with developmental stuttering. A double-blind randomized crossover trial, with a 2-week washout period, including 15 Dutch-speaking young healthy persons with developmental stuttering, assessed the effects of a single dose of 20 mg MPH compared with placebo on stuttering. Dependent and 1-sample t tests were used to detect significant differences. The end point was the number of stutter moments and self-perceived improvement. MPH yielded a significant decrease in the number of stutter moments when reading and speaking (P = 0.002), which was not the case with placebo (P = 0.090). There was a significant improvement from baseline after intake of MPH as compared with placebo (P = 0.003). Self-perceived improvement with MPH was not significantly better as compared with placebo (P = 0.28). This study showed that the participants had an objective statistically significant decrease in the frequency of stuttering with MPH, and this was not the case with placebo. This was also the case for a reduction in stutter moments when reading out loud and speaking spontaneously. However, this result was not subjectively perceived by the participants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Stuttering in Parkinson's disease after deep brain stimulation: A note on dystonia and low-frequency stimulation.

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    Mendonça, Marcelo D; Barbosa, Raquel; Seromenho-Santos, Alexandra; Reizinho, Carla; Bugalho, Paulo

    2018-04-01

    Stuttering, a speech fluency disorder, is a rare complication of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's Disease (PD). We report a 61 years-old patient with PD, afflicted by severe On and Off dystonia, treated with Subthalamic Nucleus DBS that developed post-DBS stuttering while on 130 Hz stimulation. Stuttering reduction was noted when frequency was changed to 80 Hz, but the previously observed dystonia improvement was lost. There are no reports in literature on patients developing stuttering with low-frequency stimulation. We question if low-frequency stimulation could have a role for managing PD's post-DBS stuttering, and notice that stuttering improvement was associated with dystonia worsening suggesting that they are distinct phenomena. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of text type, topic familiarity, and stuttering frequency on listener recall, comprehension, and mental effort.

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    Panico, James; Healey, E Charles

    2009-04-01

    To determine how text type, topic familiarity, and stuttering frequency influence listener recall, comprehension, and perceived mental effort. Sixty adults listened to familiar and unfamiliar narrative and expository texts produced with 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% stuttering. Participants listened to 4 experimental text samples at only 1 stuttering frequency. After hearing the text samples, each listener performed a free recall task, answered cued recall questions, answered story comprehension questions, and rated their perceived mental effort. Free and cued recall as well as story comprehension scores were higher for narrative than for expository texts. Free and cued recall scores were better for familiar than for unfamiliar stories, although topic familiarity did not affect story comprehension scores. Samples with all levels of stuttering resulted in higher mental effort ratings for both text types and topic familiarities. Stuttering has a greater influence on listener recall and comprehension for narrative than for expository texts. Topic familiarity affects free and cued recall but has no influence on story comprehension. Regardless of the amount of stuttering, mental effort was high for both text types and levels of familiarity.

  15. Comparisons of Stuttering Frequency during and after Speech Initiation in Unaltered Feedback, Altered Auditory Feedback and Choral Speech Conditions

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    Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Kalinowski, Joseph; Robbins, Mary; Crawcour, Stephen; Bowers, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: Stuttering is prone to strike during speech initiation more so than at any other point in an utterance. The use of auditory feedback (AAF) has been found to produce robust decreases in the stuttering frequency by creating an electronic rendition of choral speech (i.e., speaking in unison). However, AAF requires users to self-initiate…

  16. INFLUENCE OF LENGTH OF SENTENCES ON THE FREQUENCY OF SPEECH DISFLUENCIES IN CHILDREN WHO STUTTER

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    Leila Begić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether the length of sentences has influence on the frequency of speech disfluencies for children who stutter. The participants included 30 children who stutter 19 male participants and 13 female participants, whose age ranged between 4 years and 8 months to 6 years and 11 months (56 to 83 months of age. Research was conducted in kindergartens and primary schools in Tuzla Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina2 . The test consisted of 36 sentences. In relation to the length, sentences were divided into three groups: in the first group there were 9 sentences which included 3 to 5 words, in the second group, there were 14 sentences which included 6 to 8 words and in the third group there were 13 sentences which included 9 to 11 words. Testing was conducted so that the examiner was pronouncing one sentence after which the participant repeated the same sentence. Each participant was requested to repeat exactly what he/she had heard. Speech and language pathologist has recorded all speech disfluencies in all sentences. The results showed that the sentences containing 9 to 11 words had most effects on the overall dynamics of speech disfluencies in children who stutter. The results suggest that during the process of assessment and diagnosis of children who stutter, it should be required to assess the child's ability to use complex linguistic statements and to assess the frequency of disfluencies in relation to the complexity of the sentences. Precision diagnostics would provide guidelines for the treatment of stuttering in terms of implementation of approaches and strategies which include language treatment and gradually increasing the length and complexity of statements of children who stutter during speech.

  17. The effect of filtered speech feedback on the frequency of stuttering

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    Rami, Manish Krishnakant

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of filtered components of speech and whispered speech on the frequency of stuttering. It is known that choral speech, shadowing, and altered auditory feedback are the only conditions which induce fluency without any additional effort than normally required to speak on the part of people who stutter. All these conditions use speech as a second signal. This experiment examined the role of components of speech signal as delineated by the source- filter theory of speech production. Three filtered speech signals, a whispered speech signal, and a choral speech signal formed the stimuli. It was postulated that if the speech signal in whole was necessary for producing fluency in people who stutter, then all other conditions except choral speech should fail to produce fluency enhancement. If the glottal source alone was adequate in restoring fluency, then only the conditions of NAF and whispered speech should fail in promoting fluency. In the event that full filter characteristics are necessary for the fluency creating effects, then all conditions except the choral speech and whispered speech should fail to produce fluency. If any part of the filter characteristics is sufficient in yielding fluency, then only the NAF and the approximate glottal source should fail to demonstrate an increase in the amount of fluency. Twelve adults who stuttered read passages under the six conditions while receiving auditory feedback consisting of one of the six experimental conditions: (a)NAF; (b)approximate glottal source; (c)glottal source and first formant; (d)glottal source and first two formants; and (e)whispered speech. Frequencies of stuttering were obtained for each condition and submitted to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. Statistically significant differences in means were found within the choral feedback conditions. Specifically, the choral speech, the source and first formant, source and the first two formants, and the

  18. RECEIVER OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS MEASURE FOR THE RECOGNITION OF STUTTERING DYSFLUENCIES USING LINE SPECTRAL FREQUENCIES

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    Nahrul Khair Alang Rashid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a motor-speech disorder, having common features with other motor control disorders such as dystonia, Parkinson’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome. Stuttering results from complex interactions between factors such as motor, language, emotional and genetic. This study used Line Spectral Frequency (LSF for the feature extraction, while using three classifiers for the identification purpose, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN and Radial Basis Function (RBF. The UCLASS (University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech release 1 was used as database in this research. These recordings were from people of ages 12y11m to 19y5m, who were referred to clinics in London for assessment of their stuttering. The performance metrics used for interpreting the results are sensitivity, accuracy, precision and misclassification rate. Only M1 and M2 had below 100% sensitivity for RBF. The sensitivity of M1 was found to be between 40 & 60%, therefore categorized as moderate, while that of M2 falls between 60 & 80%, classed as substantial. Overall, RBF outperforms the two other classifiers, MLP and RNN for all the performance metrics considered.

  19. A standalone Internet cognitive behavior therapy treatment for social anxiety in adults who stutter: CBTpsych.

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    Helgadóttir, Fjóla Dögg; Menzies, Ross G; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue

    2014-09-01

    Social anxiety is common for those who stutter and efficacious cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for them appears viable. However, there are difficulties with provision of CBT services for anxiety among those who stutter. Standalone Internet CBT treatment is a potential solution to those problems. CBTpsych is a fully automated, online social anxiety intervention for those who stutter. This report is a Phase I trial of CBTpsych. Fourteen participants were allowed 5 months to complete seven sections of CBTpsych. Pre-treatment and post-treatment assessments tested for social anxiety, common unhelpful thoughts related to stuttering, quality of life and stuttering frequency. Significant post-treatment improvements in social anxiety, unhelpful thoughts, and quality of life were reported. Five of seven participants diagnosed with social anxiety lost those diagnoses at post-treatment. The two participants who did not lose social anxiety diagnoses did not complete all the CBTpsych modules. CBTpsych did not improve stuttering frequency. Eleven of the fourteen participants who began treatment completed Section 4 or more of the CBTpsych intervention. CBTpsych provides a potential means to provide CBT treatment for social anxiety associated with stuttering, to any client without cost, regardless of location. Further clinical trials are warranted. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) describe that social anxiety is common in those who stutter; (b) discuss the origin of social anxiety and the associated link with bullying; (c) summarize the problems in provision of effective evidence based cognitive behavior therapy for adults who stutter; (d) describe a scalable computerized treatment designed to tackle the service provision gap; (e) describe the unhelpful thoughts associated with stuttering that this fully automated computer program was able to tackle; (f) list the positive outcomes for individuals who stuttered that participated in this trial such as the

  20. Increased motor preparation activity during fluent single word production in DS: A correlate for stuttering frequency and severity.

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    Vanhoutte, Sarah; Santens, Patrick; Cosyns, Marjan; van Mierlo, Pieter; Batens, Katja; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Van Borsel, John

    2015-08-01

    Abnormal speech motor preparation is suggested to be a neural characteristic of stuttering. One of the neurophysiological substrates of motor preparation is the contingent negative variation (CNV). The CNV is an event-related, slow negative potential that occurs between two defined stimuli. Unfortunately, CNV tasks are rarely studied in developmental stuttering (DS). Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate motor preparation in DS by use of a CNV task. Twenty five adults who stutter (AWS) and 35 fluent speakers (FS) were included. They performed a picture naming task while an electro-encephalogram was recorded. The slope of the CNV was evaluated at frontal, central and parietal electrode sites. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed with stuttering severity and frequency measures. There was a marked increase in CNV slope in AWS as compared to FS. This increase was observed over the entire scalp with respect to stimulus onset, and only over the right hemisphere with respect to lip movement onset. Moreover, strong positive correlations were found between CNV slope and stuttering frequency and severity. As the CNV is known to reflect the activity in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical-network, the present findings confirm an increased activation of this loop during speech motor preparation in stuttering. The more a person stutters, the more neurons of this cortical-subcortical network seem to be activated. Because this increased CNV slope was observed during fluent single word production, it is discussed whether or not this observation refers to a successful compensation strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biofeedback and stuttering

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    E. Gordon

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Electromyographic biofeedback was used to reduce tension and enhance control of the speech associated muscles, resulting in a reduction of the frequency of stuttering. Five sessions were conducted over a course of three weeks. A mild, moderate and severe stutterer were assessed. A decrease in stuttering frequency was seen in each subject from pre to post biofeedback sessions on both a descriptive and an inferential level.

  2. Neurogenic Stuttering

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    ... Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Neurogenic Stuttering Parents of Preschoolers Parents of School-Age Children ... Pathologists Physicians Employers Download brochure What is neurogenic stuttering? Neurogenic stuttering is a type of fluency disorder ...

  3. Emotional Diathesis, Emotional Stress, and Childhood Stuttering

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    Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Jones, Robin M.; Kim, Hanjoe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether emotional reactivity and emotional stress of children who stutter (CWS) are associated with their stuttering frequency, (b) when the relationship between emotional reactivity and stuttering frequency is more likely to exist, and (c) how these associations are mediated by a 3rd…

  4. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

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    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  5. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... research volunteers. If you stutter or have a family member who stutters, you could be eligible to ... Researchers Study Stuttering? A large portion of the family clustering of stuttering is explained by genes and ...

  6. Prevalence of stuttering.

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    Porfert, A R; Rosenfield, D B

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering in a university population was 2.1%; 3.4% were former stutterers. More men than women stuttered. Right handed female stutterers were less likely to have "lost" their stutter than were right handed males. Stutterers, past stutterers, and questionable stutterers all had a family history of stuttering. The significant prevalence of stuttering, the increased prevalence among males, the lack of a decline of this disorder over the past few decades despite the increased number of speech clinicians and data concerning handedness, emphasise the need to investigate organic causes of stuttering. PMID:731247

  7. Comparison of different speech tasks among adults who stutter and adults who do not stutter

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    Ana Paula Ritto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compared the performance of both fluent speakers and people who stutter in three different speaking situations: monologue speech, oral reading and choral reading. This study follows the assumption that the neuromotor control of speech can be influenced by external auditory stimuli in both speakers who stutter and speakers who do not stutter. METHOD: Seventeen adults who stutter and seventeen adults who do not stutter were assessed in three speaking tasks: monologue, oral reading (solo reading aloud and choral reading (reading in unison with the evaluator. Speech fluency and rate were measured for each task. RESULTS: The participants who stuttered had a lower frequency of stuttering during choral reading than during monologue and oral reading. CONCLUSIONS: According to the dual premotor system model, choral speech enhanced fluency by providing external cues for the timing of each syllable compensating for deficient internal cues.

  8. Observer perspective imagery with stuttering.

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    Lowe, Robyn; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Adults who stutter are at risk of developing a range of psychological conditions. Social anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder associated with stuttering. Observer perspective imagery is one cognitive process involved in the maintenance of some anxiety disorders. This involves viewing images as if looking at the self from the perspective of another. In contrast, the field perspective involves looking out from the self at the surrounding environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of observer perspective imagery with stuttering. The authors administered the Hackmann, Surawy and Clark (1998) semi-structured interview to 30 adults who stutter and 30 controls. Group images and impressions were compared for frequency, perspective recalled and emotional valence. The stuttering group was significantly more likely than controls to recall images and impressions from an observer rather than a field perspective for anxious situations. It is possible the present results could reflect the same attentional processing bias that occurs with anxiety disorders in the non-stuttering population. These preliminary results provide an explanation for the persistence of conditions such as social anxiety disorder with stuttering. Clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Stuttering Characteristics of German-English Bilingual Speakers

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    Schafer, Martina; Robb, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine stuttering behavior in German-English bilingual people who stutter (PWS), with particular reference to the frequency of stuttering on content and function words. Fifteen bilingual PWS were sampled who spoke German as the first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). Conversational speech was…

  10. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    ... Have a Question In the News Researcher Story: Stuttering In a 2010 movie, The King’s Speech, many ... effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? A ...

  11. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Have a Question In the News Researcher Story: Stuttering In a 2010 movie, The King’s Speech, many ... effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? A ...

  12. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... the world who have been recruited through speech-language-pathology programs in universities and speech clinics in ... The Stuttering Foundation National Stuttering Association American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Stuttering (a fact sheet from NIDCD) ...

  13. "Stuttering Joyce"

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    Spurr, David Anton

    2011-01-01

    Stuttering and other forms of breakdown in the smooth flow of speech occur in Joyce’s work at crucial moments, notably moments of confession under the pressure of interrogation. This essay shows how Joyce uses stuttering and other “errors” in correct pronunciation to develop a new literary language that finds its fully achieved form in Finnegans Wake. It explores the links between Joyce’s writing and contemporary psychoanalytical ideas of the “subject” as something which emerges out of the te...

  14. Teaching Students Who Stutter

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    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Stutterer's incident in class draws national attention; Stuttering Foundation responds with tips for educators. In response to the articles in the "New York Times," Jane Fraser, president of the nonprofit Stuttering Foundation, wrote in a press release eight tips for educators regarding working with students who stutter. This article presents…

  15. Separation of trait and state in stuttering.

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    Connally, Emily L; Ward, David; Pliatsikas, Christos; Finnegan, Sarah; Jenkinson, Mark; Boyles, Rowan; Watkins, Kate E

    2018-04-06

    Stuttering is a disorder in which the smooth flow of speech is interrupted. People who stutter show structural and functional abnormalities in the speech and motor system. It is unclear whether functional differences reflect general traits of the disorder or are specifically related to the dysfluent speech state. We used a hierarchical approach to separate state and trait effects within stuttering. We collected sparse-sampled functional MRI during two overt speech tasks (sentence reading and picture description) in 17 people who stutter and 16 fluent controls. Separate analyses identified indicators of: (1) general traits of people who stutter; (2) frequency of dysfluent speech states in subgroups of people who stutter; and (3) the differences between fluent and dysfluent states in people who stutter. We found that reduced activation of left auditory cortex, inferior frontal cortex bilaterally, and medial cerebellum were general traits that distinguished fluent speech in people who stutter from that of controls. The stuttering subgroup with higher frequency of dysfluent states during scanning (n = 9) had reduced activation in the right subcortical grey matter, left temporo-occipital cortex, the cingulate cortex, and medial parieto-occipital cortex relative to the subgroup who were more fluent (n = 8). Finally, during dysfluent states relative to fluent ones, there was greater activation of inferior frontal and premotor cortex extending into the frontal operculum, bilaterally. The above differences were seen across both tasks. Subcortical state effects differed according to the task. Overall, our data emphasise the independence of trait and state effects in stuttering. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Elementary school students' perceptions of stuttering: A mixed model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, James; Healey, E Charles; Knopik, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Past research studies have focused on perceptions of stuttering by various age groups and only a few have examined how children react to a peer who stutters. All of these studies used a quantitative analysis but only one included a qualitative analysis of elementary school age children's responses to stuttering. The aim of this study was to further explore the perceptions of elementary school students toward a peer who stutters using both quantitative and qualitative analyses of three levels of stuttering. Participants included 88 elementary school children between 8 and 12 years of age. Each participant viewed one of four audiovisual samples of a peer producing fluent speech and mild, moderate, and severe simulated stuttering. Each participant then rated five Likert statements and answered three open-ended questions. Quantitative and qualitative results indicated that negative ratings and the percentage of negative comments increased as the frequency of stuttering increased. However, the children in this study indicated that they were comfortable listening to stuttering and would be comfortable making friends with the peer who stutters. The findings of this study together with past research in this area should help clinicians and their clients appreciate the range of social and emotional reactions peers have of a child who stutters. After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (a) discuss past research regarding children's perceptions of stuttering; (b) summarize the need to explore the perceptions of elementary-aged children toward a peer who stutters; (c) describe the major quantitative and qualitative findings of children's perceptions of stuttering; and (d) discuss the need for disseminating more information about stuttering to children and teachers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brief Report: Treating Stuttering in an Adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Shelley B.; Whelan, Cory J.; Burgess, Cathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Stuttering and autism can co-occur and when they do it presents a significant communication challenge. This study examined the effectiveness of a modified version of the fluency rules program (FRP; Runyan and Runyan, Stuttering and related disorders of fluency, in 2007) to reduce stuttering frequency in a man with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).…

  18. A preliminary investigation of daily variability of stuttering in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Christopher D; Leslie, Paula; Quesal, Robert W; Yaruss, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Variability in frequency of stuttering has made the results of treatment outcome studies difficult to interpret. Many factors that affect variability have been investigated; yet the typical range of variability experienced by speakers remains unknown. This study examined the day-to-day variability in the percentage of syllables containing stuttered and nonstuttered disfluencies in the speech of six adult speakers in three spontaneous speaking situations and two reading tasks. The frequency of moments stuttering during the tasks were compared within and between speakers and days to document the degree of variability in stuttering frequency and explore whether there were any consistent patterns. The Stuttering Severity Instrument-Fourth Edition (SSI-4) and Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering for Adults (OASES-A) were also tested for day-to-day variability. Correlations between frequency, severity, and life impact were made. The primary result of this study was the large range over which frequency of stuttering varied from day to day for the same individual. This variability did not correlate with any measures of stuttering severity but did correlate with life impact as measured by the OASES-A. No global pattern was detected in variability from day to day within or between participants. However, there were significantly more nonstuttered disfluencies present during the spontaneous speaking tasks than during the reading tasks. The day-to-day variability in the life impact of the disorder (OASES-A) was less than the day-to-day variability in observable stuttering behavior (percentage of syllables stuttered and SSI-4). Frequency of stuttering varies significantly from situation to situation and day to day, with observed variability exceeding the degree of change often reported in treatment outcomes studies from before to after treatment. This variability must be accounted for in future clinical and scientific work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  19. National Stuttering Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Advancing Research Letting Go Newsletter Stuttering in the News Social Media and Internet Groups Media Information Other Stuttering Sites/Organizations Free Printables & Brochures Other Programs Who ...

  20. Stuttering and Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Teachers Speech-Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Stuttering and Tourette's Syndrome Parents of Preschoolers Parents of ... to 3 people in 1000. Just as in stuttering, TS is more common in males than females ( ...

  1. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... communicate with other people, which often affects a person’s quality of life. Dennis Drayna, Ph.D., an ... all the people who we recruit now are individuals who stutter, who have stuttered for a long ...

  2. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied by struggling behaviors, such as rapid eye blinks or tremors of ... variety of ways. We work closely with stuttering organizations. For example, each year I go to the ...

  3. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... The NIH Director The NIH Almanac NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® Impact of NIH Research Science, Health, ... about NIDCD Stuttering Research The Long Road to Discovery: Stuttering Genes Turn Up in the Most Unexpected ...

  4. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... If You Have a Question In the News Researcher Story: Stuttering In a 2010 movie, The King’s ... mitigate the effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study ...

  5. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... he delivered in Wembley Stadium. Stuttering is a speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech. For people who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied ...

  6. Stuttering and temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Novšak Brce, Jerneja

    2015-01-01

    Different authors agree that stuttering is a multifactorial disorder which requires correspondingly evaluation, diagnosis and treatment (Conture 2001; Logan, Yaruss, 1999; Vanryckeghem, Brutten, 1997; Zebrowski, Kelly, 2002). The process of diagnosing stuttering should take into account the affective, behavioral and cognitive aspects of the stuttering disorder (Vanryckeghem, Brutten, 2007). Researches show that the temperament of the individual is an important factor in stuttering. In chil...

  7. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... National Stuttering Association where I give a talk about our research, and I recruit and I enroll research subjects ... a fact sheet from NIDCD) Questions and Answers about NIDCD Stuttering Research The Long Road to Discovery: Stuttering Genes Turn ...

  8. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... people can actually do things to mitigate the effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? A large portion of the family clustering of stuttering is explained by genes and not by environment. So, the question is, can we use this ...

  9. Theory and Therapy in Stuttering: A Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Ann

    2012-01-01

    There are many treatments currently available for stuttering, for both children and adults. These range from direct interventions intended to reduce the severity and/or frequency of the speech behaviors of stuttering, to those intended to alleviate the anxiety and other mental health issues that can accompany the disorder. However, as there are…

  10. Stuttering Due To Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Huseyin Alparslan; Krespi, Yakup; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Coban, Oguzhan

    2005-01-01

    Acquired stuttering is a disorder of the fluency of speech. The mechanism underlying stuttering is unknown. It may occur after bilateral and unilateral cortical or subcortical brain damage. We report two cases who had stuttering resulting from left parietal infarction.

  11. Family characteristics of stuttering children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić-Ružić Budimirka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Stuttering is a functional impairment of speech, which is manifested by conscious, but nonintentionally interrupted, disharmonic and disrhythmic fluctuation of sound varying in frequency and intensity. Aetiology of this disorder has been conceived within the frame of theoretical models, which tend to connect genetic and epigenetic factors. OBJECTIVE The goal of the paper was to study the characteristics of the family functioning of stuttering children in comparison to the family functioning of children without speech disorder, which confirmed the justification of the introduction of family orientated therapeutic interventions into the therapy spectrum of child stuttering. METHOD Seventy-nine nucleus families of 3 to 6 year-old children were examined; of these, 39 families had stuttering children and 40 had children without speech disorder. The assessment of family characteristics was made using the Family Health Scale, an observer-rating scale which according to semistructured interview and operational criteria, measures 6 basic dimensions of family functioning: Emotional State, Communication, Borders, Alliances, Adaptability & Stability, Family Skills. A total score calculated from the basic dimensions, is considered as a global index of family health. RESULTS Families with stuttering children compared to families with children without speech disorder showed significantly lower scores in all the basic dimension of family functioning, as well as in the total score on the Family Health Scale. CONCLUSION Our research results have shown that stuttering children in comparison with children without speech disorder live in families with unfavorable emotional atmosphere, impaired communication and worse control over situational and developmental difficulties, which affect children's development and well-being. In the light of previous research, the application of family therapy modified according to the child's needs is now considered

  12. Expressed parental concern regarding childhood stuttering and the Test of Childhood Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanova, Victoria; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the Test of Childhood Stuttering observational rating scales (TOCS; Gillam et al., 2009) (1) differed between parents who did versus did not express concern (independent from the TOCS) about their child's speech fluency; (2) correlated with children's frequency of stuttering measured during a child-examiner conversation; and (3) correlated with the length and complexity of children's utterances, as indexed by mean length of utterance (MLU). Participants were 183 young children ages 3:0-5:11. Ninety-one had parents who reported concern about their child's stuttering (65 boys, 26 girls) and 92 had parents who reported no such concern (50 boys, 42 girls). Participants' conversational speech during a child-examiner conversation was analyzed for (a) frequency of occurrence of stuttered and non-stuttered disfluencies, and (b) MLU. Besides expressing concern or lack thereof about their child's speech fluency, parents completed the TOCS observational rating scales documenting how often they observe different disfluency types in speech of their children, as well as disfluency-related consequences. There were three main findings. First, parents who expressed concern (independently from the TOCS) about their child's stuttering reported significantly higher scores on the TOCS Speech Fluency and Disfluency-Related Consequences rating scales. Second, children whose parents rated them higher on the TOCS Speech Fluency rating scale produced more stuttered disfluencies during a child-examiner conversation. Third, children with higher scores on the TOCS Disfluency-Related Consequences rating scale had shorter MLU during child-examiner conversation, across age and level of language ability. Findings support the use of the TOCS observational rating scales as one documentable, objective means to determine parental perception of and concern about their child's stuttering. Findings also support the notion that parents are

  13. The role of language familiarity in bilingual stuttering assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda Savio; Robb, Michael P; Ormond, Tika; Blomgren, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of English-speaking speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to evaluate stuttering behaviour in two Spanish-English bilingual adults who stutter (AWS1 and AWS2). The English-speaking SLPs were asked to judge the frequency, severity, type, duration, and physical concomitants of stuttering in both languages of the two AWS. The combined results from the English-speaking SLPs were then compared to the judgements of three Spanish-English bilingual SLPs. Results indicated that English-speaking SLPs (1) judged stuttering frequency to be greater in Spanish than English for AWS1, and equal in Spanish and English for AWS2, (2) were more accurate at evaluating individual moments of stuttering for the English samples compared to the Spanish samples, (3) identified fewer and less severe stuttering behaviours than the bilingual SLPs in both languages, and (4) were accurate judges of overall stuttering severity in both languages. The results correspond to past research examining the accuracy of stuttering evaluations in unfamiliar languages. Possible explanations for the findings, clinical implications, and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Research Paper: Investigation of Acoustic Characteristics of Speech Motor Control in Children Who Stutter and Children Who Do Not Stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fakar Gharamaleki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Stuttering is a developmental disorder of speech fluency with unknown causes. One of the proposed theories in this field is deficits in speech motor control that is associated with damaged control, timing, and coordination of the speech muscles. Fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time are the most important acoustic components that are often used for indirect evaluation of physiological functions underlying the mechanisms of speech motor control. The purpose of this investigation was to compare some of the acoustic characteristics of speech motor control in children who stutter and children who do not stutter. Materials & Methods This research is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 25 Azari-Persian bilingual boys who stutter (stutters group and 23 Azari-Persian bilinguals and 21 Persian monolingual boys who do not stutter (non-stutters group in the age range of 6 to 10 years participated in this study. Children participated in /a/ and /i/ vowels prolongation and carrier phrase repetition tasks for the analysis of some of their acoustic characteristics including fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time. The PRAAT software was used for acoustic analysis. SPSS software (version 17, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for analyzing the data. Results The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the stutters and non-stutters groups (P>0.05 with respect to the acoustic features of speech motor control . Conclusion No significant group differences were observed in all of the dependent variables reported in this study. Thus, the results of this research do not support the notion of aberrant speech motor control in children who stutter.

  15. Lexical tone and stuttering loci in Mandarin: evidence from preschool children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Chi; Zebrowski, Patricia; Yang, Shu-Lan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M = 4:9; range = 3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1) no significant differences in the stuttering frequencies between Tone 1 and Tone 2, or between Tone 3 and Tone 4, and (2) a higher incidence of stuttering on syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 embedded in conflicting (as opposed to compatible) tonal contexts. Results suggest that the higher incidence of stuttering on Mandarin syllables carrying either Tone 3 or 4 may be attributed to the increased level of speech motor demand underlying rapid F0 change both within and across syllables.

  16. What Causes Stuttering?

    OpenAIRE

    Büchel, Christian; Sommer, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Stuttering, with its characteristic disruption in verbal fluency, has been known for centuries; earliest descriptions probably date back to the Biblical Moses' “slowness of speech and tongue” and his related avoidance behavior (Exodus 4, 10–13). Stuttering occurs in all cultures and ethnic groups (Andrews et al. 1983; Zimmermann et al. 1983), although prevalence might differ. Insofar as many of the steps in how we produce language normally are still a mystery, disorders like stuttering are ev...

  17. Self-efficacy and quality of life in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alice; Breen, Lauren; Yaruss, J Scott; Beilby, Janet

    2017-12-01

    Self-efficacy has emerged as a potential predictor of quality of life for adults who stutter. Research has focused primarily on the positive relationship self-efficacy has to treatment outcomes, but little is known about the relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life for adults who stutter. The purpose of this mixed- methods study is to determine the predictive value of self-efficacy and its relationship to quality of life for adults who stutter. The Self-Efficacy Scale for Adult Stutterers and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience with Stuttering were administered to 39 adults who stutter, aged 18- 77. Percentage of syllables stuttered was calculated from a conversational speech sample as a measure of stuttered speech frequency. Qualitative interviews with semi-structured probes were conducted with 10 adults and analyzed using thematic analysis to explore the lived experience of adults who stutter. Self-efficacy emerged as a strong positive predictor of quality of life for adults living with a stuttered speech disorder. Stuttered speech frequency was a moderate negative predictor of self-efficacy. Major qualitative themes identified from the interviews with the participants were: encumbrance, self-concept, confidence, acceptance, life-long journey, treatment, and support. Results provide clarity on the predictive value of self-efficacy and its relationship to quality of life and stuttered speech frequency. Findings highlight that the unique life experiences of adults who stutter require a multidimensional approach to the assessment and treatment of stuttered speech disorders. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lexical tone and stuttering in Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Thomas; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; To, Carol K-S; Tong, Michael C-F; Lee, Kathy Y-S

    2018-01-01

    Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese. Twenty-four native Cantonese-speaking adults who stutter participated in this study, ranging in age from 18-33 years. There were 18 men and 6 women. Participants read aloud 13 Cantonese syllables, each of which was produced with six contrastive lexical tones. All 78 syllables were embedded in the same carrier sentence, to reduce the influence of suprasegmental or linguistic stress, and were presented in random order. No significant differences were found for stuttering moments across the six lexical tones. It is suggested that this is because lexical tones, at least in Cantonese, do not place the task demands on the speech motor system that typify varying syllabic stress in Western languages: variations not only in fundamental frequency, but also in duration and intensity. The findings of this study suggest that treatments for adults who stutter in Western languages, such as speech restructuring, can be used with Cantonese speakers without undue attention to lexical tone.

  19. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attitudes of a group of South African speech-language pathologists towards stutterers and stuttering therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B; Ross, E; Girson, J

    1997-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the attitudes of a group of South African speech-language pathologists towards stuttering and stuttering therapy. Further aims were to investigate whether a stereotype of stutterers was found among these speech-language pathologists, and to determine whether there was any relationship between the attitudes held about stutterers, and the therapists' training and experience. A random probability sample of respondents was selected from the population of speech therapists registered with the Interim Medical and Dental Council of South Africa (I.M.D.C.S.A.). A self-administered mailed questionnaire was employed to realise the aims of the study. The main result of this investigation indicated that almost 50% of the sample of qualified clinicians surveyed, viewed stutterers as a group characterised by specific personality traits and psychological problems. This belief held true irrespective of the number of years of experience working in the field, the time of graduation, the frequency of treating stutterers, or the training emphasis. Implications of these results are considered with respect to student training, continuing education of qualified practitioners and future research.

  1. Comparison of Percentage of Syllables Stuttered With Parent-Reported Severity Ratings as a Primary Outcome Measure in Clinical Trials of Early Stuttering Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onslow, Mark; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Lowe, Robyn; Arnott, Simone; Bridgman, Kate; de Sonneville, Caroline; Franken, Marie-Christine

    2018-04-17

    This report investigates whether parent-reported stuttering severity ratings (SRs) provide similar estimates of effect size as percentage of syllables stuttered (%SS) for randomized trials of early stuttering treatment with preschool children. Data sets from 3 randomized controlled trials of an early stuttering intervention were selected for analyses. Analyses included median changes and 95% confidence intervals per treatment group, Bland-Altman plots, analysis of covariance, and Spearman rho correlations. Both SRs and %SS showed large effect sizes from pretreatment to follow-up, although correlations between the 2 measures were moderate at best. Absolute agreement between the 2 measures improved as percentage reduction of stuttering frequency and severity increased, probably due to innate measurement limitations for participants with low baseline severity. Analysis of covariance for the 3 trials showed consistent results. There is no statistical reason to favor %SS over parent-reported stuttering SRs as primary outcomes for clinical trials of early stuttering treatment. However, there are logistical reasons to favor parent-reported stuttering SRs. We conclude that parent-reported rating of the child's typical stuttering severity for the week or month prior to each assessment is a justifiable alternative to %SS as a primary outcome measure in clinical trials of early stuttering treatment.

  2. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... delivered in Wembley Stadium. Stuttering is a speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech. For people who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied by struggling behaviors, such as rapid eye blinks or tremors of ...

  3. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied by struggling behaviors, such as rapid eye blinks or tremors of the lips. Stuttering can make it difficult to communicate with other people, which often affects a person’s quality of life. Dennis Drayna, Ph. ...

  4. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to mitigate the effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? A large portion of the ... human geneticists really can’t make progress. How do we find our subjects? Well, we find them ...

  5. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... King George VI of England’s speech challenge known as stuttering and about the King’s work with a ... overcome this communication disorder heard in speeches such as this one he delivered in Wembley Stadium. Stuttering ...

  6. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... actually do things to mitigate the effects of the disorder. How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? Video of How Do Researchers Study Stuttering? ... the disorder. — CROSS FADE — The foundation of our studies is the human subjects who volunteer to participate. Without human ...

  7. Vocal tract dynamics in an adult stutterer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wolk

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was motivated by the clinical observation of "laryngeal spasms" during dysfluency in an adult female  stutterer. The flexible fiberoptic nasolaryngoscope was employed in an attempt to assess this phenomenon objectively. Findings from fiberscopic and spectrographic investigations provided evidence for a disturbance in laryngeal behaviour, and in turn served to determine the nature of the treatment programme. Asymmetry of the vocal folds  and partial abductory laryngeal behaviour, reflecting  a conflict between adductory and abductory forces, characterized the dysfluency  in this patient. A subjective evaluation after treatment revealed a reduction in both severity and frequency of stuttering behaviour. Furthermore, fiberscopic examination carried out after treatment revealed an absence of the laryngeal disturbances noted previously. Results are considered in terms of vocal tract dynamics in stuttering and its clinical applicability.

  8. Effect of delayed auditory feedback on stuttering with and without central auditory processing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoloto, Luana Altran; Cardoso, Ana Cláudia Vieira; Cerqueira, Amanda Venuti; Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti de

    2017-12-07

    To verify the effect of delayed auditory feedback on speech fluency of individuals who stutter with and without central auditory processing disorders. The participants were twenty individuals with stuttering from 7 to 17 years old and were divided into two groups: Stuttering Group with Auditory Processing Disorders (SGAPD): 10 individuals with central auditory processing disorders, and Stuttering Group (SG): 10 individuals without central auditory processing disorders. Procedures were: fluency assessment with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF), assessment of the stuttering severity and central auditory processing (CAP). Phono Tools software was used to cause a delay of 100 milliseconds in the auditory feedback. The "Wilcoxon Signal Post" test was used in the intragroup analysis and "Mann-Whitney" test in the intergroup analysis. The DAF caused a statistically significant reduction in SG: in the frequency score of stuttering-like disfluencies in the analysis of the Stuttering Severity Instrument, in the amount of blocks and repetitions of monosyllabic words, and in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies of duration. Delayed auditory feedback did not cause statistically significant effects on SGAPD fluency, individuals with stuttering with auditory processing disorders. The effect of delayed auditory feedback in speech fluency of individuals who stutter was different in individuals of both groups, because there was an improvement in fluency only in individuals without auditory processing disorder.

  9. The role of auditory temporal cues in the fluency of stuttering adults

    OpenAIRE

    Furini, Juliana; Picoloto, Luana Altran; Marconato, Eduarda; Bohnen, Anelise Junqueira; Cardoso, Ana Claudia Vieira; Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: to compare the frequency of disfluencies and speech rate in spontaneous speech and reading in adults with and without stuttering in non-altered and delayed auditory feedback (NAF, DAF). Methods: participants were 30 adults: 15 with Stuttering (Research Group - RG), and 15 without stuttering (Control Group - CG). The procedures were: audiological assessment and speech fluency evaluation in two listening conditions, normal and delayed auditory feedback (100 milliseconds dela...

  10. General vulnerability to stuttering: The experience of stuttering and conditions bringing about invulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, P M; Kalinowski, J S

    2016-08-01

    General vulnerability to stuttering is the broad awareness of stuttering and the ever-present, experiential sense of a person who stutters (PWS). It is defined by stuttering in all its forms and the awareness of its presence, both in moments of stuttering and moments of perceivably fluent speech. Under the heading of general vulnerability to stuttering is specific vulnerability to stuttering, which includes the actual events of stuttering (i.e., overt symptoms, covert symptoms, subperceptual stuttering, and anticipation of stuttering). The differentiation between the two is that specific vulnerability requires a specific moment of stuttering where general vulnerability does not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Access to Information About Stuttering and Societal Knowledge of Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little...

  12. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  13. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  14. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... the disorder but also how with work and understanding people can actually do things to mitigate the ... subjects who volunteer to participate. Without human subjects, human geneticists ... About Nature vs. Nuture and the Genetics of Stuttering? What ...

  15. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... stuttering is explained by genes and not by environment. So, the question is, can we use this ... Visitor Information Frequently Asked Questions Web Policies and Notices Freedom of Information Act No Fear Act Office ...

  16. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... Health & Human Services Search the NIH Website NIH Employee Intranet Staff Directory En Español Site Menu Home ... stuttering is explained by genes and not by environment. So, the question is, can we use this ...

  17. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... is explained by genes and not by environment. So, the question is, can we use this information, ... to actually understand the underlying causes of stuttering? So, the good news is — we can. The genetic ...

  18. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... use this information, the fact that it is genetic, to actually understand the underlying causes of stuttering? So, the good news is — we can. The genetic methods for all sorts of medical genetic disorders ...

  19. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... work with a speech therapist to overcome this communication disorder heard in speeches such as this one ... at the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders at the NIH, is studying stuttering with ...

  20. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... it is genetic, to actually understand the underlying causes of stuttering? So, the good news is — we can. The genetic methods for all sorts of medical genetic disorders have been refined over the past decade and ...

  1. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... Registries Personal Stories For Parents and Children For Health Care ... known as stuttering and about the King’s work with a speech therapist to overcome this communication ...

  2. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... seriousness of the disorder but also how with work and understanding people can actually do things to ... large portion of the family clustering of stuttering is explained by genes and ...

  3. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... the power to identify the genes that underlie really any clearly inherited disorder. The problem with stuttering ... volunteer to participate. Without human subjects, human geneticists really can’t make progress. How do we find ...

  4. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... variety of ways. We work closely with stuttering organizations. For example, each year I go to the ... then, finally, we also work with speech therapy organizations in the United States that have provided a ...

  5. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... work closely with stuttering organizations. For example, each year I go to the annual convention of the ... Genes Turn Up in the Most Unexpected Places This page last reviewed on March 23, 2016 Connect ...

  6. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech. For people who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied by struggling ... can make it difficult to communicate with other people, which often affects a person’s quality of life. ...

  7. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... the family clustering of stuttering is explained by genes and not by environment. So, the question is, ... have given us the power to identify the genes that underlie really any clearly inherited disorder. The ...

  8. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... or tremors of the lips. Stuttering can make it difficult to communicate with other people, which often ... the most important things about us. I think it revealed not only the seriousness of the disorder ...

  9. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... understand the underlying causes of stuttering? So, the good news is — we can. The genetic methods for ... and I recruit and I enroll research subjects right there. Likewise, we’ve worked with the British ...

  10. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... About NIH Who We Are What We Do Jobs at NIH Visitor Information Frequently Asked Questions Contact ... challenge known as stuttering and about the King’s work with a speech therapist to overcome this communication ...

  11. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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  12. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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  13. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... gov , or contact the NIH Clinical Center Patient Recruitment and Public Liaison Office, (800) 411-1222, prpl@ ... subjects who volunteer to participate. Without human subjects, human geneticists really can’t make ... Stuttering Association American Speech- ...

  14. Cybernetic functioning in stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Zsilavecz

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different kinds of masking noise and DAF, in order to identify the condition which would elicit the highest incidence of fluency in a group of stutterers. The study demonstrates that masking noise and DAF can be effectively applied as an aid in a therapy programme, viz. noise can effectively be put to use so as to encourage and reinforce somesthesia. Stuttering is viewed as defective functioning in the cybernetic system.

  15. EEG Mu (µ) rhythm spectra and oscillatory activity differentiate stuttering from non-stuttering adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Harkrider, Ashley W; Thornton, David; Jenson, David; Kittilstved, Tiffani

    2017-06-01

    Stuttering is linked to sensorimotor deficits related to internal modeling mechanisms. This study compared spectral power and oscillatory activity of EEG mu (μ) rhythms between persons who stutter (PWS) and controls in listening and auditory discrimination tasks. EEG data were analyzed from passive listening in noise and accurate (same/different) discrimination of tones or syllables in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Independent component analysis identified left and/or right μ rhythms with characteristic alpha (α) and beta (β) peaks localized to premotor/motor regions in 23 of 27 people who stutter (PWS) and 24 of 27 controls. PWS produced μ spectra with reduced β amplitudes across conditions, suggesting reduced forward modeling capacity. Group time-frequency differences were associated with noisy conditions only. PWS showed increased μ-β desynchronization when listening to noise and early in discrimination events, suggesting evidence of heightened motor activity that might be related to forward modeling deficits. PWS also showed reduced μ-α synchronization in discrimination conditions, indicating reduced sensory gating. Together these findings indicate spectral and oscillatory analyses of μ rhythms are sensitive to stuttering. More specifically, they can reveal stuttering-related sensorimotor processing differences in listening and auditory discrimination that also may be influenced by basal ganglia deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward a Theory of Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R; Radford, Nola T; Jacob, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Stuttering affects about 1% of the general population and from 8 to 11% of children. The onset of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) typically occurs between 2 and 4 years of age. The etiology of stuttering is unknown and a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Clues to the pathogenesis of stuttering include the following observations: PDS is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and birth-associated trauma; stuttering can recur or develop in adulthood following traumatic events such as brain injury and stroke; PDS is associated with structural and functional abnormalities in the brain associated with speech and language; and stuttering resolves spontaneously in a high percentage of affected children. Evidence marshaled from the literature on stuttering and from related sources suggests the hypothesis that stuttering is a neuro-motor disorder resulting from perinatal or later-onset hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII), and that chronic stuttering and its behavioral correlates are manifestations of recurrent transient ischemic episodes affecting speech-motor pathways. The hypothesis could be tested by comparing children who stutter and nonstutterers (controls) in terms of the occurrence of perinatal trauma, based on birth records, and by determining rates of stuttering in children exposed to HII during the perinatal period. Subject to testing, the hypothesis suggests that interventions to increase brain perfusion directly could be effective both in the treatment of stuttering and its prevention at the time of birth or later trauma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Stuttering Due To Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Huseyin Alparslan; Krespi, Yakup; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Coban, Oguzhan

    2005-01-01

    Acquired stuttering is a disorder of the fluency of speech. The mechanism underlying stuttering is unknown. It may occur after bilateral and unilateral cortical or subcortical brain damage. We report two cases who had stuttering resulting from left parietal infarction. PMID:16082078

  18. Changing Adolescent Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Timothy W.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Live oral or recorded video presentations on stuttering were delivered to high school students in order to determine the extent to which their attitudes toward stuttering could be improved. Methods: A classroom teacher administered the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") to two health classes before and…

  19. Stuttering Due To Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Alparslan Sahin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired stuttering is a disorder of the fluency of speech. The mechanism underlying stuttering is unknown. It may occur after bilateral and unilateral cortical or subcortical brain damage. We report two cases who had stuttering resulting from left parietal infarction.

  20. Access to Information About Stuttering and Societal Knowledge of Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Rodney; Brackenbury, Tim; Irani, Farzan

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine societal knowledge of stuttering, access to information sources, and the influence of information sources on knowledge of stuttering. 185 participants from Northwest Ohio were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the general public varies in their knowledge of stuttering and that majority of participants had not accessed information about stuttering, and the few who had, did so a long time ago. Finally, access to information sources had little influence on knowledge of stuttering. Implications for future research are discussed.

  1. Responses of adults who stutter to the anticipation of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric S; Yaruss, J Scott; Quesal, Robert W; Terranova, Valerie; Whalen, D H

    2015-09-01

    Many people who stutter experience the phenomenon of anticipation-the sense that stuttering will occur before it is physically and overtly realized. A systematic investigation of how people who stutter respond to anticipation has not been previously reported. The purposes of this study were to provide self-report evidence of what people do in response to anticipation of stuttering and to determine the extent to which this anticipation occurs. Thirty adults who stutter indicated on a Likert rating scale the extent to which they anticipate stuttering and answered three open-ended (written) questions regarding how they respond to anticipation. All participants reported experiencing anticipation at least "sometimes," and 77% of the participants reported experiencing anticipation "often" or "always." The extent to which participants reported experiencing anticipation was not related to stuttering severity, impact, or treatment history. Analysis of written responses revealed 24 major categories, which were heuristically divided into action or non-action responses. Categories representing avoidance and self-management strategies were further divided into 14 and 19 subcategories, respectively. Participants were just as likely to view anticipation as helpful as they were to view it as harmful. Findings demonstrate that most, if not all, adults who stutter experience anticipation, and the majority of adults who stutter report doing so at least often. Adults who stutter respond to this anticipation by altering the speech production process in various ways. Results highlight the importance of the role that anticipation plays in how stuttering behaviors manifest themselves. The reader will be able to: (a) summarize existing literature on the anticipation of stuttering; (b) describe the role and extent of anticipation of stuttering in adults; (c) describe the various ways that adults who stutter respond to anticipation; (d) describe the importance of measuring anticipation in

  2. Phase II trial of a syllable-timed speech treatment for school-age children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Lowe, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    A recent clinical trial (Andrews et al., 2012) showed Syllable Timed Speech (STS) to be a potentially useful treatment agent for the reduction of stuttering for school-age children. The present trial investigated a modified version of this program that incorporated parent verbal contingencies. Participants were 22 stuttering children aged 6-11 years. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS in conversation. Parents were also taught to use verbal contingencies in response to their child's stuttered and stutter-free speech and to praise their child's use of STS. Outcome assessments were conducted pre-treatment, at the completion of Stage 1 of the program and 6 months and 12 months after Stage 1 completion. Outcomes are reported for the 19 children who completed Stage 1 of the program. The group mean percent stuttering reduction was 77% from pre-treatment to 12 months post-treatment, and 82% with the two least responsive participants removed. There was considerable variation in response to the treatment. Eleven of the children showed reduced avoidance of speaking situations and 18 were more satisfied with their fluency post-treatment. However, there was some suggestion that stuttering control was not sufficient to fully eliminate situation avoidance for the children. The results of this trial are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further clinical trials of the method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Comorbidity of tics and stuttering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surushkina, S Yu; Chutko, L S; Aitbekov, K A; Nikishena, I S; Bondarchuk, Yu I

    2014-01-01

    To determine the clinical presentations of stuttering in children with tics treated with noofen. Authors examined 181 children with tics, aged 7-13. Stuttering was identified in 23.2% of cases. Thirty children with tics and comorbid stuttering received noofen. RESULTS AND СONCLUSION: The prevalence of stuttering in children with tics was significantly higher than in the population. Stuttering was significantly more frequent in children with transient tics than chronic tics. Neurotic stuttering was recorded more frequently. The high efficacy of noofen was shown; the decrease in ticks was obtained in 80% of cases, the reduction of stuttering in 66.7% of cases. The data of clinical, psychological and neurophysiological studies, confirming the improvement of patients after treatment, are presented.

  4. Rethinking covert stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Christopher Dominick; Manning, Walter H; Nordstrom, Susan Naomi

    2017-09-01

    The experience of passing as fluent, also called covert stuttering, has been uncritically framed as an inherently negative pursuit. Historically passing has been understood as a repression of one's true, authentic self in response to either psychological distress or social discrimination. The authors of this paper seek a more nuanced understanding of passing. We ask, how must a person relate to herself in order to pass as fluent? This is a qualitative research study in which the authors utilized the ethical theories of philosopher Michel Foucault to contextualize data obtained from semi-structured interviews with nine participants who pass as fluent. Rather than a repression of an authentic self our data suggests passing is more usefully understood as a form of resistance by people who stutter to a hostile society. Participants learned from experiences of delegitimization that their stuttering had ethical ramifications. Consequently, they used a variety of self-forming practices to pass and thereby achieve the privileges that come with perceived able-bodiedness. Passing as fluent is not an inauthentic form of stuttering but a form of stuttering that is produced through the use of specific technologies of communication. These technologies of communication are constituted by the unique ethical relationship of the person who stutters with herself. Passing can be understood as an active form of resistance rather than a passive form of repression. By theorizing passing as fluent as an ethical relationship, we open up the possibility of changing the relationship and performing it differently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stuttering-Psycholinguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hategan, Carolina Bodea; Anca, Maria; Prihoi, Lacramioara

    2012-01-01

    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the…

  6. Safety Behaviors and Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robyn; Helgadottir, Fjola; Menzies, Ross; Heard, Rob; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Those who are socially anxious may use safety behaviors during feared social interactions to prevent negative outcomes. Safety behaviors are associated with anxiety maintenance and poorer treatment outcomes because they prevent fear extinction. Social anxiety disorder is often comorbid with stuttering. Speech pathologists reported in a…

  7. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... Media Contacts Images and B-roll Events Social Media More » Quick Links ... challenge known as stuttering and about the King’s work with a speech therapist to overcome this communication disorder heard in speeches such as this one ...

  8. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech. For people who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied by struggling behaviors, ... We’ve worked with families around the world who have been recruited through speech-language-pathology programs in universities and speech clinics ...

  9. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied by struggling behaviors, such as rapid eye blinks or tremors of ... Contact Us Twitter Facebook Instagram YouTube Flickr More Social Media from NIH Footer NIH Home En Español ...

  10. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... of our studies is the human subjects who volunteer to participate. Without human subjects, human geneticists really can’t make progress. How do we find our subjects? Well, we find them through a variety of ways. We work closely with stuttering organizations. For example, each year ...

  11. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... You Have a Question In the News Researcher Story: Stuttering In a 2010 movie, The King’s Speech, ... from NIH Footer NIH Home En Español Site Map Visitor Information Frequently Asked Questions Web Policies and ...

  12. Researcher Story: Stuttering

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    Full Text Available ... are repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech. For people who stutter, disruptions may be accompanied ... a long industrial depression… What was the impact of The King’s Speech? Video of What Did You Think About " ...

  13. The Gestalt approach to stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, N R; Kaplan, M L

    1978-02-01

    This article describes the application of Gestalt therapy concepts to the treatment of stuttering. Within this framework stuttering is seen as an organized self-system rather than a symptom. This self-system is maintained and reinforced by the stutter's experience of this physical self, self-expectancies, self-messages, projections on others, and total viewing of self as a limited and inadequate person. The individual enmeshes himself or herself into this system and restricts himself to familiar behaviors, in this case stuttering, because he has no framework for other ways of functioning. The Gestalt therapeutic framework as a basis of unlocking the individual's limited style of functioning is explored.

  14. Beyond stuttering: Speech disfluencies in normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Suaire, Pauline; Moyse, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normative data on the speech disfluencies of normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4, an age at which stuttering has begun in 95% of children who stutter (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Fifty monolingual French-speaking children who do not stutter participated in the study. Analyses of a conversational speech sample comprising 250-550 words revealed an average of 10% total disfluencies, 2% stuttering-like disfluencies and around 8% non-stuttered disfluencies. Possible explanations for these high speech disfluency frequencies are discussed, including explanations linked to French in particular. The results shed light on the importance of normative data specific to each language.

  15. Strategies for Teachers to Manage Stuttering in the Classroom: A Call for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidow, Jason H; Zaroogian, Lisa; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A

    2016-10-01

    This clinical focus article highlights the need for future research involving ways to assist children who stutter in the classroom. The 4 most commonly recommended strategies for teachers were found via searches of electronic databases and personal libraries of the authors. The peer-reviewed evidence for each recommendation was subsequently located and detailed. There are varying amounts of evidence for the 4 recommended teacher strategies outside of the classroom, but there are no data for 2 of the strategies, and minimal data for the others, in a classroom setting. That is, there is virtually no evidence regarding whether or not the actions put forth influence, for example, stuttering frequency, stuttering severity, participation, or the social, emotional, and cognitive components of stuttering in the classroom. There is a need for researchers and speech-language pathologists in the schools to study the outcomes of teacher strategies in the classroom for children who stutter.

  16. Stuttering Min oscillations within E. coli bacteria: a stochastic polymerization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Supratim; Derr, Julien; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions. (paper)

  17. Stuttering Min oscillations within E. coli bacteria: a stochastic polymerization model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Supratim; Derr, Julien; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions.

  18. Phonatory vocal tract stability in stuttering children before and after fluency--enhancing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehqan, A; Ali Dashti, G; Mirzadeh, M

    2010-01-01

    Stuttering is a complex disorder. Essentially, it is a neuromuscular disorder whose core consists of tiny lags and disruptions in the timing of the complicated movements required for speech. The purpose of the current study was to collec and comparg jitters and shimmer values in children who stutter before and after fluency--enhancing therapy. Subjects consisted of 15 Iranian preschool girls with stutterg, and 15 Iranial preschool girls without afflictions, matched according to age. Vocal jittering and shimmer measurements of thesphonation of the children were compared before and after therapy. Each subject phonated vowels nine times in a random order. Each phonation was sustained for at least five seconds and was recorded. The middle three-second portion of each recorded vowel phonation was subjected to jitter and shimmer analysis. On shimmer measures between pre-treatment and post treatment, significant differences were found in all sustained vowels of persons who stutter group and means of shimmer in post therapy were significantly lower than pre-treatment. Differences in jitter measurements were not significant between pre-treatment and post-treatment statuses and this parameter did not change after therapy. The findings showed that therapy resulted in decreaseg irregularity in the amplitude of vibrations (shimmer). In other words, the therapy increases the steady-state of the laryngeal system. Moreover, this parameter may be used as an index for the effectiveness of therapy.

  19. The role of auditory temporal cues in the fluency of stuttering adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Furini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to compare the frequency of disfluencies and speech rate in spontaneous speech and reading in adults with and without stuttering in non-altered and delayed auditory feedback (NAF, DAF. Methods: participants were 30 adults: 15 with Stuttering (Research Group - RG, and 15 without stuttering (Control Group - CG. The procedures were: audiological assessment and speech fluency evaluation in two listening conditions, normal and delayed auditory feedback (100 milliseconds delayed by Fono Tools software. Results: the DAF caused a significant improvement in the fluency of spontaneous speech in RG when compared to speech under NAF. The effect of DAF was different in CG, because it increased the common disfluencies and the total of disfluencies in spontaneous speech and reading, besides showing an increase in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies in reading. The intergroup analysis showed significant differences in the two speech tasks for the two listening conditions in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies and in the total of disfluencies, and in the flows of syllable and word-per-minute in the NAF. Conclusion: the results demonstrated that delayed auditory feedback promoted fluency in spontaneous speech of adults who stutter, without interfering in the speech rate. In non-stuttering adults an increase occurred in the number of common disfluencies and total of disfluencies as well as reduction of speech rate in spontaneous speech and reading.

  20. Self-perceived competence and social acceptance of young children who stutter: Initial findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertsberg, Naomi; Zebrowski, Patricia M

    The goals of this study were to determine whether young children who stutter (CWS) perceive their own competence and social acceptance differently than young children who do not stutter (CWNS), and to identify the predictors of perceived competence and social acceptance in young speakers. We administered the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) to 13 CWS and 14 CWNS and examined group differences. We also collected information on the children's genders, temperaments, stuttering frequencies, language abilities, and phonological skills to identify which of these factors predicted PSPCSA scores. CWS, as a group, did not differ from CWNS in their perceived general competence or social acceptance. Gender predicted scores of perceived general competence, and stuttering frequency predicted perceived social acceptance. Temperament, language abilities, and phonological skills were not significant predictors of perceived competence or social acceptance in our sample. While CWS did not significantly differ from CWNS in terms of perceived competence and social acceptance, when both talker groups were considered together, girls self-reported greater perceived competence than boys. Further, lower stuttering frequency was associated with greater perceived social acceptance. These preliminary findings provide motivation for further empirical study of the psychosocial components of childhood stuttering. Readers will be able to describe the constructs of perceived competence and social acceptance in young children, and whether early stuttering plays a role in the development of these constructs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. STUTTERING THERAPY FOR A CHILD AT INTERMEDIATE STUTTERING LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIKJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering therapy very often demands combination of various approaches or its modification. The main purpose of this study was to present an integrated approach to stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy for an intermediate school-age male stutterer (11 years old.The therapy for the child lasted for 12 months, sessions have been carried out twice a week, each session lasted for 45 minutes. The child still attends the therapy. The therapy uses integration of stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy. For the purpose of the fluency shaping therapy, delayed auditory feedback program is applied. During the stuttering modification therapy the child has been taught how to stutter more easily which implies prolongation of all sounds in words on which child stutters, with easy and soft transition from one sound to another. It is continuously being worked with the child on reducing negative feelings and attitudes as well as elimination of avoidance of words and speaking situations. We explained to the parents the treatment program and their role in the program realization. We also explained the possible causes of stuttering, and tried to identify and reduce fluency distractors, and engage the child in as many situations as possible which improved speech fluency.After the application of this program the child has improved fluency during the conversation in clinical and nonclinical conditions (environment. This fluency consists of spontaneous and controlled fluency. Furthermore, fear of speaking and avoidance of speech situations are significantly reduced. On the basis of the applied therapy on the child at intermediate stuttering level it can be concluded that it is possible to integrate successfully both approaches: stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy.

  2. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  3. Assessing Attentional Biases with Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robyn; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Onslow, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many adults who stutter presenting for speech treatment experience social anxiety disorder. The presence of mental health disorders in adults who stutter has been implicated in a failure to maintain speech treatment benefits. Contemporary theories of social anxiety disorder propose that the condition is maintained by negative…

  4. When will a stuttering moment occur? The determining role of speech motor preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; Cosyns, Marjan; van Mierlo, Pieter; Batens, Katja; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Van Borsel, John; Santens, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether increased activity related to speech motor preparation preceding fluently produced words reflects a successful compensation strategy in stuttering. For this purpose, a contingent negative variation (CNV) was evoked during a picture naming task and measured by use of electro-encephalography. A CNV is a slow, negative event-related potential known to reflect motor preparation generated by the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (BGTC) - loop. In a previous analysis, the CNV of 25 adults with developmental stuttering (AWS) was significantly increased, especially over the right hemisphere, compared to the CNV of 35 fluent speakers (FS) when both groups were speaking fluently (Vanhoutte et al., (2015) doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.05.013). To elucidate whether this increase is a compensation strategy enabling fluent speech in AWS, the present analysis evaluated the CNV of 7 AWS who stuttered during this picture naming task. The CNV preceding AWS stuttered words was statistically compared to the CNV preceding AWS fluent words and FS fluent words. Though no difference emerged between the CNV of the AWS stuttered words and the FS fluent words, a significant reduction was observed when comparing the CNV preceding AWS stuttered words to the CNV preceding AWS fluent words. The latter seems to confirm the compensation hypothesis: the increased CNV prior to AWS fluent words is a successful compensation strategy, especially when it occurs over the right hemisphere. The words are produced fluently because of an enlarged activity during speech motor preparation. The left CNV preceding AWS stuttered words correlated negatively with stuttering frequency and severity suggestive for a link between the left BGTC - network and the stuttering pathology. Overall, speech motor preparatory activity generated by the BGTC - loop seems to have a determining role in stuttering. An important divergence between left and right hemisphere is

  5. STUTTERING-PSYCHOLINGUISTIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Anca; Carolina Bodea Haţegan; Lăcrămioara Prihoi

    2012-01-01

    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the linguistic material. Thus, the conclusions of this research study offer the possibility of promoting cross-cultural and cross-linguistic researches, with t...

  6. Psychosurgery for stuttering

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    Dur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Edgar Durand,1 Alexander G Weil,2 Marc Lévêque1,3 1Espace éthique de l’Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris et Département de recherche en éthique, South Paris University, Paris, France; 2Pediatric Neurosurgical Department, Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Service de Neurochirurgie, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France We read with interest the article entitled “Anterior capsulotomy improves persistent developmental stuttering with a psychiatric disorder: a case report and literature review” published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment.1 The authors report on a 28-year-old man with persistent developmental stuttering who was treated by bilateral anterior capsulotomy in the People’s Republic of China. To our knowledge, this is a new and previously unreported application of this technique for this indication. Accordingly, as the authors highlight, “the evidence for surgical treatment of persistent developmental stuttering and associated psychiatric disorders is limited”, placing their approach within the clinical research forum. In this experimental context, this case report brings forward several important reflections on patient evaluation, technique utilized, and postoperative follow-up. Read the original article

  7. Examination of validity in spoken language evaluations: Adult onset stuttering following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Carole R; Cornis-Pop, Micaela; Beach, Woodford A

    2015-01-01

    Reports of increased incidence of adult onset stuttering in veterans and service members with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan lead to a reexamination of the neurogenic vs. psychogenic etiology of stuttering. This article proposes to examine the merit of the dichotomy between neurogenic and psychogenic bases of stuttering, including symptom exaggeration, for the evaluation and treatment of the disorder. Two case studies of adult onset stuttering in service members with mTBI from improvised explosive device blasts are presented in detail. Speech fluency was disrupted by abnormal pauses and speech hesitations, brief blocks, rapid repetitions, and occasional prolongations. There was also wide variability in the frequency of stuttering across topics and conversational situations. Treatment focused on reducing the frequency and severity of dysfluencies and included educational, psychological, environmental, and behavioral interventions. Stuttering characteristics as well as the absence of objective neurological findings ruled out neurogenic basis of stuttering in these two cases and pointed to psychogenic causes. However, the differential diagnosis had only limited value for developing the plan of care. The successful outcomes of the treatment serve to illustrate the complex interaction of neurological, psychological, emotional, and environmental factors of post-concussive symptoms and to underscore the notion that there are many facets to symptom presentation in post-combat health.

  8. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers

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    Hänggi Jürgen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurophysiological and neuroanatomical foundations of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS are still a matter of dispute. A main argument is that stutterers show atypical anatomical asymmetries of speech-relevant brain areas, which possibly affect speech fluency. The major aim of this study was to determine whether adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy in cortical speech-language areas. Methods Adults with PDS (n = 10 and controls (n = 10 matched for age, sex, hand preference, and education were studied using high-resolution MRI scans. Using a new variant of the voxel-based morphometry technique (augmented VBM the brains of stutterers and non-stutterers were compared with respect to white matter (WM and grey matter (GM differences. Results We found increased WM volumes in a right-hemispheric network comprising the superior temporal gyrus (including the planum temporale, the inferior frontal gyrus (including the pars triangularis, the precentral gyrus in the vicinity of the face and mouth representation, and the anterior middle frontal gyrus. In addition, we detected a leftward WM asymmetry in the auditory cortex in non-stutterers, while stutterers showed symmetric WM volumes. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence that adults with PDS have anomalous anatomy not only in perisylvian speech and language areas but also in prefrontal and sensorimotor areas. Whether this atypical asymmetry of WM is the cause or the consequence of stuttering is still an unanswered question.

  9. Stuttering: Clinical and research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Hector R; Stoeckle, James H

    2016-06-01

    To provide an update on the epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of developmental stuttering. The MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched for past and recent studies on the epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of developmental stuttering. Most recommendations are based on small studies, limited-quality evidence, or consensus. Stuttering is a speech disorder, common in persons of all ages, that affects normal fluency and time patterning of speech. Stuttering has been associated with differences in brain anatomy, functioning, and dopamine regulation thought to be due to genetic causes. Attention to making a correct diagnosis or referral in children is important because there is growing consensus that early intervention with speech therapy for children who stutter is critical. For adults, stuttering can be associated with substantial psychosocial morbidity including social anxiety and low quality of life. Pharmacologic treatment has received attention in recent years, but clinical evidence is limited. The mainstay of treatment for children and adults remains speech therapy. A growing body of research has attempted to uncover the pathophysiology of stuttering. Referral for speech therapy remains the best option for children and adults. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  10. The Disfluent Speech of Bilingual Spanish–English Children: Considerations for Differential Diagnosis of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and types of speech disfluencies that are produced by bilingual Spanish–English (SE) speaking children who do not stutter. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluent speech is mediated by language dominance and/or language produced. Method Spanish and English narratives (a retell and a tell in each language) were elicited and analyzed relative to the frequency and types of speech disfluencies produced. These data were compared with the monolingual English-speaking guidelines for differential diagnosis of stuttering. Results The mean frequency of stuttering-like speech behaviors in the bilingual SE participants ranged from 3% to 22%, exceeding the monolingual English standard of 3 per 100 words. There was no significant frequency difference in stuttering-like or non-stuttering-like speech disfluency produced relative to the child's language dominance. There was a significant difference relative to the language the child was speaking; all children produced significantly more stuttering-like speech disfluencies in Spanish than in English. Conclusion Results demonstrate that the disfluent speech of bilingual SE children should be carefully considered relative to the complex nature of bilingualism. PMID:25215876

  11. A pilot study into a possible relationship between diet and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum, Jean; Rietveld, Toni; Wiedijk, Piet; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    There are theoretical and empirical reasons to consider a potential role for copper metabolism in the brain in how it could influence stuttering. However, a link between stuttering and dietary intake has never been researched in a systematic way. This pilot study therefore aimed to explore a possible association between ingested amounts of copper and thiamine (vitamin B1) with stuttering frequency using a double blind cross-over longitudinal paradigm. 19 adults who stutter between 20 and 51 years old filled out an online survey for 9 consecutive weeks. The survey consisted of self-assessed fluency and mood state scales, as well as food journals. After 4 weeks, the participants consumed either copper or thiamine supplements for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week washout period, and another period of two weeks taking the other supplement. Formal speech assessments were done pre/post baseline and at the end of each supplement intake. Participants were not informed about the nature of the supplements during the experiment and the investigators were blinded to the order of the supplements. The results demonstrated that copper and thiamine had no measurable effect on the amount of stuttering (self and formal assessments) but there was a moderate, significant correlation between mood state and fluency. The findings do not support notions of dietary influences of ingested copper or thiamine on stuttering but do provide modest support for a relationship between variations in stuttering and self-perceived anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. If You Think Your Child Is Stuttering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Employers Tweet If You Think Your Child Is Stuttering... Parents of Preschoolers Parents of School-Age Children ... Edward G. Conture, Vanderbilt University. Is Your Child Stuttering? If your child has difficulty speaking and tends ...

  13. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multilingual Children Who Stutter: Clinical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Rosalee C.

    2011-01-01

    Stuttering occurs across all languages and cultures. However, the impact of speaking more than one language on assessment and treatment of young children who stutter is not well documented. This paper discusses some of the challenges related to clinical issues pertaining to this population including (a) identifying stuttering in an unfamiliar…

  15. Stuttering mostly speeds up solving parity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.; Bobaru, M.; Havelund, K.; Holzmann, G.J.; Joshi, R.

    2011-01-01

    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering

  16. A cure for stuttering parity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.; Roychoudhury, A.; D'Souza, M.

    2012-01-01

    We define governed stuttering bisimulation for parity games, weakening stuttering bisimulation by taking the ownership of vertices into account only when this might lead to observably different games. We show that governed stuttering bisimilarity is an equivalence for parity games and allows for a

  17. Accuracy of Parent Identification of Stuttering Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinicians rely on parents to provide information regarding the onset and development of stuttering in their own children. The accuracy and reliability of their judgments of stuttering is therefore important and is not well researched. Aim: To investigate the accuracy of parent judgements of stuttering in their own children's speech…

  18. A cure for stuttering parity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cranen, S.; Keiren, J.J.A.; Willemse, T.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    We de¿ne governed stuttering bisimulation for parity games, weakening stuttering bisimulation by taking the ownership of vertices into account only when this might lead to observably different games. We show that governed stuttering bisimilarity is an equivalence for parity games and allows for a

  19. Culture and Listeners' Gaze Responses to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is frequently observed that listeners demonstrate gaze aversion to stuttering. This response may have profound social/communicative implications for both fluent and stuttering individuals. However, there is a lack of empirical examination of listeners' eye gaze responses to stuttering, and it is unclear whether cultural background…

  20. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Poland

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    Przepiorka, Aneta M.; Blachnio, Agata; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Wozniak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background: People who stutter often experience negative judgments and reactions to their stuttering from the nonstuttering majority. Many are stigmatized because of their stuttering and threatened with social exclusion, placing them at risk for compromised quality of life. Aims: The purpose of this investigation was to measure public attitudes…

  1. University Students' Perceptions of the Life Effects of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephanie; Gabel, Rodney; Irani, Farzan; Schlagheck, Adam

    2010-01-01

    An open-ended, written survey was administered to 146 university students who did not stutter to obtain their impressions of the effects of stuttering on the lives of people who stutter (PWS). Participants first wrote about the general effects of stuttering and then considered how their lives would be different if they stuttered. Both types of…

  2. Stuttering at school: the effect of a teacher training program on stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lorene Karoline; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Maciel, Thamiris Moreira; Ribeiro, Jessyca Kelly Barbosa Carneiro; Souza, Marina Alves de; Chaves, Flávia Gonçalves

    2016-07-04

    Verify the knowledge of teachers from public and private schools about stuttering and attest the effectiveness of the Teacher Training Program on Stuttering in the expansion of this knowledge. The study sample comprised 137 early-childhood teachers. Initially, the teachers responded to a questionnaire on stuttering. After that, 75 teachers attended a 4-hour Teacher Training Program on Stuttering. One month later, the teachers responded to the same questionnaire again. The following points were observed after the training program: increased percentage of teachers who consider as low the prevalence of stuttering in the population; beginning of reports stating that stuttering is more frequent in males; increased number of teachers who consider stuttering hereditary; decreased incidence of teachers who believe stuttering is psychological; prevalence of those who believe stuttering is a consequence of multiple causes; decreased rate of teachers who believe stuttering is emotional; a better understanding of how educators should behave to help stutterers. Before the course, the teachers had some knowledge regarding stuttering, but it was insufficient to differentiate from other language disorders. The Program expanded their knowledge on stuttering. However, it proved to be more effective with respect to the characteristics of stuttering than to the attitudes of the teachers.

  3. Speech-Language Dissociations, Distractibility, and Childhood Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203

  4. Corpus callosum demyelination associated with acquired stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Barbara McElwee; Guitar, Barry; Solomon, Andrew

    2018-04-21

    Compared with developmental stuttering, adult onset acquired stuttering is rare. However, several case reports describe acquired stuttering and an association with callosal pathology. Interestingly, these cases share a neuroanatomical localisation also demonstrated in developmental stuttering. We present a case of adult onset acquired stuttering associated with inflammatory demyelination within the corpus callosum. This patient's disfluency improved after the initiation of immunomodulatory therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Resting state functional connectivity changes in adults with developmental stuttering: an initial sLORETA study.

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    Kathleen eJoos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stuttering is defined as speech characterized by verbal dysfluencies, but should not be seen as an isolated speech disorder, but as a generalized sensorimotor timing deficit due to impaired communication between speech related brain areas. Therefore we focused on resting state brain activity and functional connectivity.Method: We included 11 patients with developmental stuttering and 11 age matched controls. To objectify stuttering severity and the impact on the quality of life (QoL, we used the Dutch validated Test for Stuttering Severity-Readers (TSS-R and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES, respectively. Furthermore, we used standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA analyses to look at resting state activity and functional connectivity differences and their correlations with the TSS-R and OASES.Results: No resting state activity differences were identified in comparison to fluently speaking controls or in correlation with stuttering severity or QoL measures. Significant alterations in resting state functional connectivity were found, predominantly interhemispheric, i.e. a decreased functional connectivity for high frequency oscillations (beta and gamma between motor speech areas (BA44 and 45 and the contralateral premotor (BA 6 and motor (BA 4 areas. A positive correlation was found between functional connectivity at low frequency oscillations (theta and alpha and stuttering severity, while a mixed increased and decreased functional connectivity at low and high frequency oscillations correlated with QoL.Discussion: PWS are characterized by decreased high frequency interhemispheric functional connectivity between motor speech, premotor and motor areas in the resting state, while higher functional connectivity in the low frequency bands indicates more severe speech disturbances, suggesting that increased interhemispheric and right sided functional connectivity is

  6. Functional connectivity changes in adults with developmental stuttering: a preliminary study using quantitative electro-encephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Kathleen; De Ridder, Dirk; Boey, Ronny A.; Vanneste, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stuttering is defined as speech characterized by verbal dysfluencies, but should not be seen as an isolated speech disorder, but as a generalized sensorimotor timing deficit due to impaired communication between speech related brain areas. Therefore we focused on resting state brain activity and functional connectivity. Method: We included 11 patients with developmental stuttering and 11 age matched controls. To objectify stuttering severity and the impact on quality of life (QoL), we used the Dutch validated Test for Stuttering Severity-Readers (TSS-R) and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES), respectively. Furthermore, we used standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses to look at resting state activity and functional connectivity differences and their correlations with the TSS-R and OASES. Results: No significant results could be obtained when looking at neural activity, however significant alterations in resting state functional connectivity could be demonstrated between persons who stutter (PWS) and fluently speaking controls, predominantly interhemispheric, i.e., a decreased functional connectivity for high frequency oscillations (beta and gamma) between motor speech areas (BA44 and 45) and the contralateral premotor (BA6) and motor (BA4) areas. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between functional connectivity at low frequency oscillations (theta and alpha) and stuttering severity, while a mixed increased and decreased functional connectivity at low and high frequency oscillations correlated with QoL. Discussion: PWS are characterized by decreased high frequency interhemispheric functional connectivity between motor speech, premotor and motor areas in the resting state, while higher functional connectivity in the low frequency bands indicates more severe speech disturbances, suggesting that increased interhemispheric and right sided functional connectivity is

  7. Direct versus Indirect Treatment for Preschool Children who Stutter: The RESTART Randomized Trial.

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    Caroline de Sonneville-Koedoot

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a common childhood disorder. There is limited high quality evidence regarding options for best treatment. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of direct treatment with indirect treatment in preschool children who stutter.In this multicenter randomized controlled trial with an 18 month follow-up, preschool children who stutter who were referred for treatment were randomized to direct treatment (Lidcombe Program; n = 99 or indirect treatment (RESTART-DCM treatment; n = 100. Main inclusion criteria were age 3-6 years, ≥3% syllables stuttered (%SS, and time since onset ≥6 months. The primary outcome was the percentage of non-stuttering children at 18 months. Secondary outcomes included stuttering frequency (%SS, stuttering severity ratings by the parents and therapist, severity rating by the child, health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral problems, and speech attitude.Percentage of non-stuttering children for direct treatment was 76.5% (65/85 versus 71.4% (65/91 for indirect treatment (Odds Ratio (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-2.4, p = .42. At 3 months, children treated by direct treatment showed a greater decline in %SS (significant interaction time x therapy: β = -1.89; t(282.82 = -2.807, p = .005. At 18 months, stuttering frequency was 1.2% (SD 2.1 for direct treatment and 1.5% (SD 2.1 for indirect treatment. Direct treatment had slightly better scores on most other secondary outcome measures, but no differences between treatment approaches were significant.Direct treatment decreased stuttering more quickly during the first three months of treatment. At 18 months, however, clinical outcomes for direct and indirect treatment were comparable. These results imply that at 18 months post treatment onset, both treatments are roughly equal in treating developmental stuttering in ways that surpass expectations of natural recovery. Follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings in the longer term

  8. Olanzapine versus haloperidol: Which can control stuttering better?

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    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: It seems that olanzapine does have better impact in controlling stuttering, and it may be recommended to prescribe olanzapine for stutters as the first choice to control the stuttering under a careful follow-up.

  9. Influence of stuttering variation on talker group classification in preschool children: Preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of 17 3- to 5-year-old CWS and 9 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no statistically significant between-group difference in chronological age (CWS: M = 45.53 months, SD = 8.32; CWNS: M = 47.67 months, SD = 6.69). All participants had speech, language, and hearing development within normal limits, with the exception of stuttering for CWS. Both talker groups participated in a series of speaking samples that varied by: (a) conversational partner [parent and clinician], (b) location [home and clinic], and (c) context [conversation and narrative]. The primary dependent measures for this study were the number of stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD) per total number of spoken words [%SLD] and the ratio of SLD to total disfluencies (TD) [SLD/TD]. Results indicated that significant variability of stuttering did not exist as a result of conversational partner or location. Changes in context, however, did impact the CWS, who demonstrated higher SLD/TD in the conversation sample versus a narrative sample. Consistent with hypotheses, CWS and CWNS were accurately identified as stutterers and nonstutterers, respectively, regardless of changes to conversational partner, location or context for the overall participant sample. Present findings were taken to suggest that during assessment, variations in stuttering frequency resulting from changes in conversational partner, location or context do not significantly influence the diagnosis of stuttering, especially for children not on the talker group classification borderline between CWS and CWNS. PMID:19167719

  10. Efficacy of Simplified Habit-Reversal on Stuttering Treatment in Home , School and Clinic

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    Behshid Garrousi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is a disorder that can cause serious personal, emotional and social problems. Based on its pathophysiology, different treatment approaches to stuttering are controversial. Behavioral treatment has been shown to be effective for stuttering.   In this study were mentioned to effectiveness of Simplified Habit-reversal as a behavioral approach for treatment of stuttering in Iranian children. Materials & Methods: Twelve students participated in this study was selected from 350 stuttered children in schools. After baseline assessment in three setting, simplified Habit -reversal was done for the children. Assessment (baseline , treatment and booster sessions were done in the subject’s home, school and clinic Assessment sessions were done at first -2nd-3th-4th-6th-12th-13th months after treatment. Post hoc tests were done by using paired t-test. Level of significance were considered equal on lest their 0.03 Results: Stuttering frequency was decreased in multiple assessment at home (P<0.03.these changes was observed in two other setting (P<0.02 in school, P0.05. Conclusion: Future researches about effectiveness of this method, especially in older cases and cases with co-morbidity in both sexes, are recommended.

  11. INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME

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    Nevzeta SALIHOVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education „Zenica“; Primary school "Kovačići" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.

  12. The effect of static and dynamic visual gestures on stuttering inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, Vijaya K; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Kalinowski, Joseph; Dayalu, Vikram N

    2011-03-29

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of steady-state and dynamic visual gestures of vowels in stuttering inhibition. Eight adults who stuttered recited sentences from memory while watching video presentations of the following visual speech gestures: (a) a steady-state /u/, (b) dynamic production of /a-i-u/, (c) steady-state /u/ with an accompanying audible 1 kHz pure tone, and (d) dynamic production of /a-i-u/ with an accompanying audible 1 kHz pure tone. A 1 kHz pure tone and a no-external signal condition served as control conditions. Results revealed a significant main effect of auditory condition on stuttering frequency. Relative to the no-external signal condition, the combined visual plus pure tone conditions resulted in a statistically significant reduction in stuttering frequency. In addition, a significant difference in stuttering frequency was also observed when the visual plus pure tone conditions were compared to the visual only conditions. However, no significant differences were observed between the no-external signal condition and visual only conditions, or the no-external signal condition and pure tone condition. These findings are in contrast to previous findings demonstrated by similar vowel gestures presented via the auditory modality that resulted in high levels of stuttering inhibition. The differential role of sensory modalities in speech perception and production as well as their individual capacities to transfer gestural information for the purposes of stuttering inhibition is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Silane pre-treatments on copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorian, F.; Rossi, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2006-01-01

    A large part of aluminium products are coated with an organic layer in order to improve the corrosion resistance. Copper surfaces are also sometimes protected with an organic coating to improve the durability or the aesthetic properties. Examples of industrial applications are household appliances and heat exchanger components. For these applications it is not rare to have the industrial need to treat at the same time components made of aluminium and copper. In order to extend the service life of the organic coated copper a specific surface pre-treatment is often required. Nevertheless, probably because of the limited market of this application, no specific pre-treatments for copper are industrially developed, with the exception of cleaning procedures, but simply extensions of existing pre-treatments optimised for other metals (aluminium, zinc) are used. The application of silane pre-treatments as adhesion promoters for organic coated metals is remarkably increasing in the last decade, because silanes offer very good performance together with high environmental compatibility. The idea is therefore to try to develop a specific silane based pre-treatment for copper. The starting point is the existing silane products for aluminium, optimising the composition and the application conditions (concentration, temperature, pH of the bath, etc.) in order to develop a high performance copper alloy pre-treatment increasing the protective properties and the adhesion of a successively applied organic coating. Moreover these pre-treatments could be used for aluminium alloys too and therefore could be suggested for multi-metals components. The deposits were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy and optical and electron microscopic observations. A careful electrochemical characterisation, mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS) was carried out to highlight the presence of silane and to evaluate the performance of the different deposits. In order to study an

  14. Effects of Delayed Auditory Feedback in Stuttering Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Hernández Jaramillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study corresponds to a single subject design, analyzes the patterns of stuttering in the speech corpus in various oral language tasks, under the conditions of use or non-use of Delayed Auditory Feedback (DAF, in order to establish the effect of the DAF in the frequency of occur¬rence and type of dysrhythmia. The study concludes the positive effect of the DAF, with a rate of return of 25 % on the errors of fluency, with variation depending on the type of oral production task. This in turn suggests that 75 % of the disfluency or linked with top encode failures or not susceptible to resolve or compensated by the DAF. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for therapeutic intervention in stuttering.

  15. The Client's Perspective on Voluntary Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Donaher, Joe; Stergiou, Erin

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering. The present study used an original survey designed to explore the intended purpose. A total of 206 adults who stutter were included in the final data corpus. Responses were considered with respect to the type of voluntary stuttering the participants reportedly produced and the location of use. A client perceives significantly greater affective, behavioral, and cognitive benefits from voluntary stuttering when the production is closely matched to the client's actual stutter and when it is used outside the clinical environment. To enhance client perception of associated benefits, clinicians should encourage use of voluntary stuttering that closely matches the client's own stuttering. Clinicians should also facilitate practice of voluntary stuttering outside of the therapy room. Finally, clinicians should be aware that clients, at least initially, may not perceive any benefits from the use of this strategy.

  16. Stutter analysis of complex STR MPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsen, Søren B; Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante

    2018-01-01

    Stutters are common and well documented artefacts of amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) regions when using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) occurring as strands one or more motifs shorter or longer than the parental allele. Understanding the mechanism and rate by which stutters are created...... is especially important when the samples contain small amounts of DNA or DNA from multiple contributors. It has been shown that there is a linear relationship between the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS) and the stutter ratio. This holds if there is only a single type of stutter variant. However...

  17. Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm characteristics of plaintain. P-N T Johnson. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjs.v39i1.15851 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  18. Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. ... on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. Chiyeon Lim, Sehyun Lim, Young-Jun Lee, Bokcheul Kong, Byoungho Lee, Chang-Hyun Kim, Buyeo Kim, Suin Cho ... induced brain damage. Keywords: Glycyrrhizin, licorice, stroke, apoptosis ...

  19. Characteristics of Stuttering in Dutch-Speaking Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, Ronny A.; Wuyts, Floris L.; van de Heyning, Paul H.; Heylen, Louis; de Bodt, Marc S.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical diagnostic procedures to distinguish stuttering from non-stuttering individuals partially rely on the observation of characteristics of stuttered words or syllables. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of such a procedure, and to describe the observed characteristics of stuttered words. Methods…

  20. Estimating stutter rates for Y-STR alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2011-01-01

    Stutter peaks are artefacts that arise during PCR amplification of short tandem repeats. Stutter peaks are especially important in forensic case work with DNA mixtures. The aim of the study was primarily to estimate the stutter rates of the AmpFlSTR Yfiler kit. We found that the stutter rates...

  1. Anticipation in stuttering: A theoretical model of the nature of stutter prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A; Davidow, Jason H

    2015-06-01

    The fact that some people who stutter have the ability to anticipate a stuttering moment is essential for several theories of stuttering and important for maximum effectiveness of many currently used treatment techniques. The "anticipation effect," however, is poorly understood despite much investigation into this phenomenon. In the present paper, we combine (1) behavioral evidence from the stuttering-anticipation literature, (2) speech production models, and (3) models of error detection to propose a theoretical model of anticipation. Integrating evidence from theories such as Damasio's Somatic Marker Hypothesis, Levelt's Perceptual Monitoring Theory, Guenther's The Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model, Postma's Covert Repair Hypothesis, among others, our central thesis is that the anticipation of a stuttering moment occurs as an outcome of the interactions between previous learning experiences (i.e., learnt associations between stuttered utterances and any self-experienced or environmental consequence) and error monitoring. Possible neurological mechanisms involved in generating conscious anticipation are also discussed, along with directions for future research. The reader will be able to: (a) describe historical theories that explain how PWS may learn to anticipate stuttering; (b) state some traditional sources of evidence of anticipation in stuttering; (c) describe how PWS may be sensitive to the detection of a stuttering; (d) state some of the neural correlates that may underlie anticipation in stuttering; and (e) describe some of the possible utilities of incorporating anticipation into stuttering interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahre, H.; Bahroun, K.; Behm, H.; Steves, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Böke, M.; Hopmann, Ch; Winter, J.

    2013-02-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered.

  3. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahre, H; Böke, M; Winter, J; Bahroun, K; Behm, H; Hopmann, Ch; Steves, S; Awakowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered. (paper)

  4. Stuttering: Genetic updates and a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayerossadat Nouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stuttering is a common disorder of speech dissiliency that is characterized by excessive repetitions of sounds, syllables, and monosyllabic words, as well as sound prolongations and complete blockages of the vocal tract. About 60 million people are affected and it is more common between the age of 3 and 6, when children begin forming sentences and connecting thoughts verbally. There are three types of stuttering known as developmental stuttering, neurogenic stuttering, and psychogenic stuttering. The exact pathophysiology of developmental stuttering is unknown; however, various family and twin studies have repeatedly implicated heredity as a major factor in the etiology of stuttering. It is clear that the genetic influence is not in the form of an exact single gene effect such as autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, or x-linked in all families; however, in all of the inheritance forms it is influenced by sex with higher occurrence in males than females at a ratio of 4:1 in older children and adults. Recently special genetic locus has been determined on several autosomal chromosomes related to developmental stuttering. In this report, the proband is a 20-year-old boy was referred to our clinic for premarriage genetic counseling; he has been affected since 3 years and now is under cure. three generation study of his family show 13 individuals are affected by stuttering. For the first it occurred in the proband′s grandfather and after this time about all of affected cases has been seen in consanguineous marriages. Therefore, the genetical inheritance of stuttering is crystal clear in this family and autosomal recessive inheritance pattern is proposed. Totally in such families with repeated occur of stuttering, we cannot account it as a multifactorial disorder.

  5. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  6. Early Stuttering, Temperament and Anxiety: Two Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Block, Susan; Menzies, Ross; Reilly, Sheena

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The topic of temperament and early stuttering and the extent to which it involves anxiety is theoretically and clinically relevant. The topic can contribute to theory development and clinical practices with early stuttering. Method: We present a review of the empirical literature for this area with a view to determining which of two…

  7. Managing Stuttering beyond the Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Packman, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This prologue serves to introduce a research forum composed of studies that address the topic of stuttering in school-age children and adolescents. Researchers are encouraged to continue to build the knowledge base that sustains evidence-based practice in this area. Method: The nature of stuttering as it evolves from early childhood into…

  8. Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.

  9. Audiovocal Integration in Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Torrey; Chon, HeeCheong; Han, Woojae

    2012-01-01

    Background: Altered auditory feedback can facilitate speech fluency in adults who stutter. However, other findings suggest that adults who stutter show anomalies in "audiovocal integration", such as longer phonation reaction times to auditory stimuli and less effective pitch tracking. Aims: To study audiovocal integration in adults who stutter…

  10. Corpus Callosum Morphology in Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Ai Leen; Chang, Soo-Eun; Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Loucks, Torrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have reported both functional and neuroanatomical differences between adults who stutter and their normally fluent peers. However, the reasons for these differences remain unclear although some developmental data suggest that structural brain differences may be present in school-age children who stutter. In the present study, the…

  11. Beliefs and behavioural intentions towards pharmacotherapy for stuttering: A survey of adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGroarty, Allan; McCartan, Rebecca

    Although considerable efforts have been made to investigate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for stuttering, little is known about how the stuttering community perceives these treatments. This study aimed to assess and quantify beliefs regarding pharmacotherapy for adults who stutter and to establish whether behavioural intentions to undertake treatment were related to these beliefs. An adapted version of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire was completed by adults who stutter. Participants also reported perceptions of their stuttering including its overall impact, ratings of previous speech therapy, and behavioural intentions to initiate pharmacotherapy and speech therapy in future. Necessity and concern beliefs were distributed widely across the sample and in a pattern indicating a relatively balanced perception of the benefits and costs of medication prescribed specifically for stuttering. Of the study's measures, the necessity-concerns differential most strongly predicted the behavioural intention to initiate pharmacotherapy. The overall impact of stuttering predicted intentions to seek both pharmacotherapy and speech therapy. Participants reported the likelihood of pursuing pharmacotherapy and speech therapy in equal measure. The theoretical model of medication representations appears to be a useful framework for understanding the beliefs of adults who stutter towards the medical treatment of their disorder. The findings of this study may be of interest to clinicians and researchers working in the field of stuttering treatment and to people who stutter considering pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relations between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael

    2016-02-01

    This study attempted to understand the relationship between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter. The study employed a cross-sectional design using a web survey distribution mode to gain information related to causal attributions and psychological well-being of 348 adults who stutter. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships between participants' causal attributions (i.e. locus of causality, external control, personal control, stability, biological attributions, non-biological attributions) for stuttering and various measures of psychological well-being including self-stigma, self-esteem/self-efficacy, hope, anxiety and depression. Results indicated that higher perceptions of external control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy and higher ratings of anxiety and depression. Higher perceptions of personal control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of self-stigma and higher ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy. Increased biological attributions were significantly related to higher ratings of permanency and unchangeableness of stuttering and lower ratings of personal control of stuttering. The findings demonstrate the importance of instilling a sense of control in PWS regarding their ability to manage their stuttering. Findings also raise questions regarding the benefits of educating PWS about the biological underpinnings of stuttering.

  13. The accuracy with which adults who do not stutter predict stuttering-related communication attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Kenneth J; Willis, Julie R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which adults who do not stutter can predict communication-related attitudes of adults who do stutter. 40 participants (mean age of 22.5 years) evaluated speech samples from an adult with mild stuttering and an adult with severe stuttering via audio-only (n=20) or audio-visual (n=20) modes to predict how the adults had responded on the S24 scale of communication attitudes. Participants correctly predicted which speaker had the more favorable S24 score, and the predicted scores were significantly different between the severity conditions. Across the four subgroups, predicted S24 scores differed from actual scores by 4-9 points. Predicted values were greater than the actual values for 3 of 4 subgroups, but still relatively positive in relation to the S24 norm sample. Stimulus presentation mode interacted with stuttering severity to affect prediction accuracy. The participants predicted the speakers' negative self-attributions more accurately than their positive self-attributions. Findings suggest that adults who do not stutter estimate the communication-related attitudes of specific adults who stutter in a manner that is generally accurate, though, in some conditions, somewhat less favorable than the speaker's actual ratings. At a group level, adults who do not stutter demonstrate the ability to discern minimal versus average levels of attitudinal impact for speakers who stutter. The participants' complex prediction patterns are discussed in relation to stereotype accuracy and classic views of negative stereotyping. The reader will be able to (a) summarize main findings on research related to listeners' attitudes toward people who stutter, (b) describe the extent to which people who do not stutter can predict the communication attitudes of people who do stutter; and (c) discuss how findings from the present study relate to previous findings on stereotypes about people who stutter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc

  14. [Advances in research on mechanisms of seed pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian; Gao, Ya Ni; Wang, Quan Zhen

    2016-11-18

    Seeds play a vital role in nature and agro-ecosystems. The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling determine the propagation and survival of a plant species, but seed vigor is often seriously damaged because of seed aging, dormancy and the deterioration of natural habitat. Thus, exploring methods for improving germination quality is of great significance to ecology and the economy. Based on the latest international reports, seed pre-treatments are the most practical and effective methods for improving plant performance, increasing yields and enhancing stress resistance. This review provided a summary of the current pre-sowing treatment technologies and the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to these methods by addressing gene expression, cytological effects, enzyme system activities, material and energy metabolism, antioxidation mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. We also interpreted the mechanisms of the seed pre-treatment methods from aspects of seed germination acceleration and stress resistance enhancement. The bottleneck in seed pre-treatments at the cytological and molecular levels and the problems involved in their application were also discussed. Thus far, most studies had largely focused on the partial reaction alterations of plant biochemistry and enzyme activities, and they had generally been characterized by a lack of systematic and holistic study for applications to crop production. Finally, we proposed an outlook for further study in an attempt to provide a prospective and scientific reference for plant germplasm conservation, high-efficiency organic agriculture development and ecological environment re-construction.

  15. Compilation of a preliminary checklist for the differential diagnosis of neurogenic stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Lundie

    2014-06-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe and highlight the characteristics of NS in order to compile a preliminary checklist for accurate diagnosis and intervention. Method: An explorative, applied mixed method, multiple case study research design was followed. Purposive sampling was used to select four participants. A comprehensive assessment battery was compiled for data collection. Results: The results revealed a distinct pattern of core stuttering behaviours in NS, although discrepancies existed regarding stuttering severity and frequency. It was also found that DS and NS can co-occur. The case history and the core stuttering pattern are important considerations during differential diagnosis, as these are the only consistent characteristics in people with NS. Conclusion: It is unlikely that all the symptoms of NS are present in an individual. The researchers scrutinised the findings of this study and the findings of previous literature to compile a potentially workable checklist.

  16. The Disfluent Speech of Bilingual Spanish-English Children: Considerations for Differential Diagnosis of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and types of speech disfluencies that are produced by bilingual Spanish-English (SE) speaking children who do not stutter. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluent speech is mediated by language dominance and/or language produced. Method: Spanish and…

  17. Neural Control of Rising and Falling Tones in Mandarin Speakers Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. "Brain and Language, 121"(1), 35-46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional…

  18. The effect of Phonological Encoding Complexity on Speech Fluency of Stuttering and Non-Stuttering Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ramezani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is a fairly common speech disorder. However, the etiology is poorly understood and is likely to be heterogeneous. The aim of this research is to investigate phonological encoding complexity on speech fluency in 6-9 year old stuttering children in comparison with non-stutterers in Tehran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive analytic research was done on 18 stuttering children with profound and severe level and 18 non-stuttering children. The stuttering subjects were selected by convenience and normal subjects were matched to stuttering subjects by gender, age and geographics. A non-word test comprising 87 non-words was used to investigate phonological encoding and phonological complexity effects on speech fluency. Stimuli were presented in random order with approximately 5 seconds between items, using a computer via external Toshiba SOMIC SM-818 headphone and requested subject was asked to repeat them.  Results: The results indicated that speech fluency decreased significantly (P<0.05 by increasing phonological complexity comparing to controls. Conclusion: The findings of the present research seem to suggest that, stuttering children may have deficits in phonological encoding. The deficit has been increased with phonological encoding complexity. Based on covert repair hypothesis, phonological difficulty may cause covert self- repair and leads to different patterns of stuttering.

  19. Sympathetic arousal as a marker of chronicity in childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. Participants were 9 children with persisting stuttering, 23 children who recovered, and 17 children who do not stutter. Participants performed a stress-inducing picture-naming task and skin conductance was measured across three time points. Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered. Findings are taken to suggest that sympathetic activity may be an early marker of heightened risk for chronic stuttering.

  20. Pre-treatment of oil palm fronds biomass for gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil Palm Fronds (OPF has been proven as one of the potential types of biomass feedstock for power generation. The low ash content and high calorific value are making OPF an attractive source for gasification. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pre-treatments of OPF residual on gasification. The pre-treatments included the briquetting process and extensive drying of OPF which are studied separately. In briquetting process, the OPF were mixed with some portions of paper as an additives, leaflets, and water, to form a soupy slurry. The extensive drying of OPF needs to cut down OPF in 4–6 cm particle size and left to dry in the oven at 150°C for 24 hours. Gasification process was carried out at the end of each of the pre-treated processes. It was found that the average gas composition obtained from briquetting process was 8.07%, 2.06%, 0.54%,and 11.02% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 respectively. A good composition of syngas was produced from extensive dried OPF, as 16.48%, 4.03%, 0.91%,and 11.15% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 contents respectively. It can be concluded that pre-treatments improved the physical characteristics of biomass. The bulk density of biomass can be increased by briquetting but the stability of the structure is depending on the composition of briquette formulation. Furthermore, the stability of gasification process also depended on briquette density, mechanical strength, and formulation.

  1. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment of thermomechanical pulp on hydrogen peroxide bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, E.; Charles, A.; Daneault, C.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatments of softwood TMP had been carried to evaluate its impact on the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide bleaching. The trials were performed after a factorial design of experiment using frequency, power and time as variables. The experiments were conducted in an ultrasonic bath and then bleached with hydrogen peroxide. Measurements such as brightness, L*A*B* color system coordinate, residual hydrogen peroxide and metal content were evaluated on bleached pulp. The results indicate that the effect of ultrasonic treatment on brightness was dependent on the ultrasound frequency used; the brightness increased slightly at 68 kHz and decreased at 40 and 170 kHz. These results were correlated to the ultrasound effect on the generation of transition metals (copper, iron and manganese) which are responsible for catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The influence of metal interference was minimized by using a chelating agent such as diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). With the results obtained in this study we have identified a set of option conditions, e.g. 1000 W, 40 kHz, 1.5 % consistency and 0.2% addition of DTPA prior to the bleaching stage (after ultrasonic pre-treatment) who improve brightness by 2.5 %ISO.

  2. Investigation of the Reationship between Hand Gestures and Speech in Adults Who Stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Barikrou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gestures of the hands and arms have long been observed to accompany speech in spontaneous conversation. However, the way in which these two modes of expression are related in production is not yet fully understood. So, the present study aims to investigate the spontaneous gestures that accompany speech in adults who stutter in comparison to fluent controls.  Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional and comparative research, ten adults who stutter were selected randomly from speech and language pathology clinics and compared with ten healthy persons as control group who were matched with stutterers according to sex, age and education. The cartoon story-retelling task used to elicit spontaneous gestures that accompany speech. Participants were asked to watch the animation carefully and then retell the storyline in as much detail as possible to a listener sitting across from him or her and his or her narration was video recorded simultaneously. Then recorded utterances and gestures were analyzed. The statistical methods such as Kolmogorov- Smirnov and Independent t-test were used for data analyzing. Results: The results indicated that stutterers in comparison to controls in average use fewer iconic gestures in their narration (P=0.005. Also, stutterers in comparison to controls in average use fewer iconic gestures per each utterance and word (P=0.019. Furthermore, the execution of gesture production during moments of dysfluency revealed that more than 70% of the gestures produced with stuttering were frozen or abandoned at the moment of dysfluency. Conclusion: It seems gesture and speech have such an intricate and deep association that show similar frequency and timing patterns and move completely parallel to each other in such a way that deficit in speech results in deficiency in hand gesture.

  3. Stutter seismic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumma, W. H.; Hughes, D. R.; Zimmerman, N. S.

    1980-08-12

    An improved seismic prospecting system comprising the use of a closely spaced sequence of source initiations at essentially the same location to provide shorter objective-level wavelets than are obtainable with a single pulse. In a preferred form, three dynamite charges are detonated in the same or three closely spaced shot holes to generate a downward traveling wavelet having increased high frequency content and reduced content at a peak frequency determined by initial testing.

  4. The Effect of Word Meaning on Speech DysFluency in Adults with Developmental Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Masumi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stuttering is one of the most prevalent speech and language disorders. Symptomology of stuttering has been surveyed from different aspects such as biological, developmental, environmental, emotional, learning and linguistic. Previous researches in English-speaking people have suggested that some linguistic features such as word meanings may play a role in the frequency of speech non-fluency in people who stutter. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of word meanings on the frequency of dysfluency in Persian-speaking adults with developmental stuttering. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was performed on 14 adults who stuttered. Their average age was 25 years. The frequency of non-fluency instances was evaluated upon reading two lists containing 60 words and 60 non-words. The words were selected on the basis of common Persian syllable structures. ‘Kolmogoro-Smirnov one sample test’ and paired t-test was used to analyze data the significance level was set at P<0.05. Results:There was a significant difference between the dysfluency in word and non-word lists (P<0.05. Discussion: The findings of this study indicate a significant increase in the frequency of dysfluency on non-words than on real words. It seems that the phonological encodingprocess of non-word reading is much more complex than for word reading, because, in non-word reading, the component of semantic content retrieval (word meaning is missing when compared to word reading.

  5. Waste washing pre-treatment of municipal and special waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    2012-03-15

    Long-term pollution potential in landfills is mainly related to the quality of leachate. Waste can be conveniently treated prior to landfilling with an aim to minimizing future emissions. Washing of waste represents a feasible pre-treatment method focused on controlling the leachable fraction of residues and relevant impact. In this study, non-recyclable plastics originating from source segregation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste (MSW), bottom ash from MSW incineration and automotive shredder residues (ASR) were treated and the removal efficiency of washing pre-treatment prior to landfilling was evaluated. Column tests were performed to simulate the behaviour of waste in landfill under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The findings obtained revealed how waste washing treatment (WWT) allowed the leachability of contaminants from waste to be reduced. Removal rates exceeding 65% were obtained for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN). A percentage decrease of approximately 60% was reached for the leachable fraction of chlorides, sulphates, fluoride and metals, as proved by a reduction in electric conductivity values (70%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. USE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY PRE-TREATMENT IN AUTOMOTIVE PAINTING LINE

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    Alberto Nei Carvalho Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current safety requirements, environmental impacts and performance have been ledding the automotive industry to search for new alternatives, not just for new car bodies materials, also for new sheet surface treatments as well, used in the painting process in order to fit simultaneous, environmental requirements and corrosion resistance maintenance, that are the key feature guarantees offered by automakers and are also vital to the durability of the vehicle. This fact is of great importance considering that, besides the various types of steels and their metalic coatings, another factor that directly influences the corrosion resistance is the painting system used. Within this context, the GMB, in partnership with CSN, has been performing several works by adding the knowledge of the supplier to automotive technology. An example of this partnership we have the present study, which aimed to, comparatively, evaluate the corrosion resistance of two systems of painted galvanized steel, the first one with pre-treatment based on a traditional phosphate, and the another one based on a nano-ceramic film. In this study, was found out that materials with pre-treatment based on results of nanotechnology showed similar corrosion resistance comparing the phosphatized materials in a traditional way.

  7. Sludge pre-treatment with pulsed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopplow, O.; Barjenbruch, M.; Heinz, V.

    2003-07-01

    The anaerobic stabilization process depends - among others - on the bio-availability of organic carbon. Through pre-treatment of the sludge which leads to the destruction of micro-organisms and to the setting-free of cell content substances (disintegration), the carbon can be microbially converted better and faster. Moreover, effects on the digestion are likely. However, only little experience is available in the sludge treatment with pulsed electric fields. Laboratory-scale digestion tests have been run to analyse the influence of pulsed electric fields on the properties of sludge, anaerobic degradation, sludge water reload and foaming of digesters. The results will be compared with those of other disintegration methods (high pressure homogenise, thermal treatment). The effect of pre-treatment on the sludge is shown by the COD release. Degrees of disintegration have been achieved up to 20%. The specific energy input was high. The energy consumption has been decreased by initial improvements (pre-heating to 55{sup o}C). The filament bacteria were partially destroyed. The foam reduction in the digesters was marginal. The anaerobic degradation performance has been improved in every case. The degradation rate of organic matter increased about 9%. Due to the increase of degradation, there is a higher reload of the sludge-water with COD and nitrogen compounds. (author)

  8. The Study of the Effect of Syntactic Complexity of Noun and Verb Phrase Structure on the Occurrence of Stuttering in 4-6 Year Pre-School Stuttering Persian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Ahangar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of syntactic complexity of noun phrase and verb phrase on the occurrence of stuttering in 4-6 year Persian speaking children with stuttering. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-analytic research was done on 15 stuttering children, consisting of 12 boys and 3 girls, 4 to 6 years old monolingual Persian speaking who referred to Javad-Ol-Aemmeh speech therapy clinic in Mashhad city. The sampling approach was simple (available sampling method. To do this research, sampling was carried out in a quiet home of speech therapy where there were just the speech therapist, the parent, the child and the researcher. While speaking, the speech of the children was recorded by an MP3 with Creative brand. Finally, a 30-minute spontaneous speech sample was gathered from each of the given stuttering children. The children produced around 60 utterances during a verbal interaction with the speech therapist, parents (mother or father or the researcher. Then the produced spontaneous speech sample by any of these stuttering children was transcribed on paper. The data were analyzed only as groups and not individually. The data were analyzed using SPSS software and Paired T-test method. Results: The group analyses showed significant differences between fluent and stuttered utterances in terms of syntactic complexity of noun and verb phrase structures. Also, the results confirm that at phrasal level, in noun phrases, based on their three functions as subject, direct object and object of preposition, there is a meaningful relationship between the number of subject (P<0.001 and object of preposition (P=0.050 with the stuttering frequency. In verb phrases, based on the presence of the auxiliary verb, copula verb, and negative prefix, just there is a meaningful relationship between the presence of the auxiliary verb and the stuttering frequency (P=0.010. Conclusion: The research findings indicate

  9. Maintenance of Improved Attitudes Toward Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Flynn, Timothy W

    2018-05-03

    This study sought to determine the extent to which experimentally induced positive attitudes in high school students in a previous investigation were maintained 7 years later. Authors and assistants recruited 36 adults in their early 20s (Follow-up group) who, in high school, had witnessed either a live oral talk by a person who stutters or a professionally made video on stuttering designed for teens followed by a short talk by the same speaker. The Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering was administered before and after the interventions in high school and 7 years later such that pre-post group comparisons were made. Previously, the Follow-up group had demonstrated highly positive changes in their attitudes after the interventions. In addition, a control group of 56 former high school students from the same state, who did not participate in the interventions, were recruited and compared to the Follow-up group. The Follow-up group, which was found to be representative of the original high school cohort, held more positive Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering mean ratings than the Control group, although somewhat less positive than their previous postintervention ratings. The Follow-up group maintained many of the positive changes in their beliefs and self reactions regarding stuttering that were induced 7 years earlier after witnessing personal stories and facts about stuttering.

  10. Stuttering on function words in bilingual children who stutter: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Byrd, Courtney T; Bedore, Lisa M; Taliancich-Klinger, Casey L

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests young monolingual children who stutter (CWS) are more disfluent on function than content words, particularly when produced in the initial utterance position. The purpose of the present preliminary study was to investigate whether young bilingual CWS present with this same pattern. The narrative and conversational samples of four bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking CWS were analysed. All four bilingual participants produced significantly more stuttering on function words compared to content words, irrespective of their position in the utterance, in their Spanish narrative and conversational speech samples. Three of the four participants also demonstrated more stuttering on function compared to content words in their narrative speech samples in English, but only one participant produced more stuttering on function than content words in her English conversational sample. These preliminary findings are discussed relative to linguistic planning and language proficiency and their potential contribution to stuttered speech.

  11. LACK OF EFFECT OF CLONIDINE ON STUTTERING IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALTHAUS, M; VINK, HJF; MINDERAA, RB; GOORHUISBROUWER, SM; OOSTERHOFF, MD

    Objective: The authors studied the effects of the alpha(2)-receptor agonist clonidine on stuttering in children. Method: Using a double-blind crossover study, they gave placebo or 4 mu g/kg body weight per day to 25 stuttering children who were 6-13 years old. Stuttering was measured by counting the

  12. Stuttering and Language Ability in Children: Questioning the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article explains why it is reasonable to question the view that stuttering and language ability in children are linked--the so-called "stuttering-language connection." Method: Studies that focused on syntactic, morphologic, and lexical development in children who stutter (CWS) are examined for evidence to support the following…

  13. Neurogenic Stuttering and Lateralized Motor Deficits Induced by Tranylcypromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Duffy

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of neurogenic stuttering induced by the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine is described. The association of neurogenic stuttering with acquired lateralized motor deficits in the patient described is discussed with reference to current theories regarding the pathogenesis of neurogenic stuttering.

  14. Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

  15. Secondary School Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, and Reactions to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensens, Stefanie; Struyf, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study identifies teachers' beliefs about and attitudes toward stuttering and explores to what extent these beliefs and attitudes prompt specific teachers' reactions to the stuttering of a student. Method: Participants were teachers in secondary education in Flanders (Belgium), currently teaching an adolescent who stutters. They were…

  16. Listener Responses According to Stuttering Self-Acknowledgment and Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjae; Manning, Walter H.

    2010-01-01

    Given the well-documented understanding that stuttering behavior elicits stereotypically negative responses from listeners, two experiments explored the equivocal results of earlier investigations concerning the potential for self-acknowledgment and modification of stuttering to elicit positive responses from naive (unfamiliar with stuttering)…

  17. Stuttering Inhibition via Altered Auditory Feedback during Scripted Telephone Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudock, Daniel; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background: Overt stuttering is inhibited by approximately 80% when people who stutter read aloud as they hear an altered form of their speech feedback to them. However, levels of stuttering inhibition vary from 60% to 100% depending on speaking situation and signal presentation. For example, binaural presentations of delayed auditory feedback…

  18. Behavioral treatments for children and adults who stutter: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomgren M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Blomgren Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of stuttering followed by a synopsis of current approaches to treat stuttering in children and adults. Treatment is discussed in terms of multifactorial, operant, speech restructuring, and anxiolytic approaches. Multifactorial and operant treatments are designed for young children who stutter. Both of these approaches involve parent training and differ primarily in their focus on reducing demands on the child (multifactorial or in their use of response contingent stimulation (operant conditioning. Speech restructuring and anxiolytic approaches are used with adults who stutter. Speech restructuring approaches focus on the mechanics of speech production, and anxiolytic treatments tend to focus on the symptoms and social and vocational challenges of stuttering. The evidence base for these different approaches is outlined. Response contingent therapy (for children and speech restructuring therapy (for adults have the most robust empirical evidence base. Multifactorial treatments for children and stuttering management approaches for adults are popular but are based on theoretical models of stuttering; the evidence base is not robust and tends to be inferred from work in areas such as cognitive behavior therapy and desensitization. Comprehensive, or holistic, approaches to treating stuttering are also discussed. Comprehensive approaches for treating stuttering in adults address both improved speech fluency and stuttering management. Keywords: stuttering, treatment, stuttering management, speech restructuring, cognitive restructuring

  19. Stuttering and the Bilingual Child--New Ways to Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    What should parents of a child who stutters do if their child speaks more than one language? Research shows that a child's language skills can affect his or her fluency, according to the nonprofit Stuttering Foundation of America. However, it has not been proven that speaking two languages in the home since birth causes stuttering. If the child is…

  20. Comparison Study of the Stuttered Words Type in Stuttering Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mokhlessin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since knowing the mechanisms which evoke non-fluency is the first step in the treatment of stuttering, and there are very few researches in Persian which consider the role of the linguistic factors behind stuttering, this study is an attempt to provide answers to some of numerous questions about stuttering by comparing the stuttered words` type in stuttered children and adults. Materials and Methods: In this study stuttered people were divided into 5 age groups as follows: 3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-16, and older than 17 years old. Each group had ten participants. Forty-two of the 50 participants were male, and the youngest person was 3 years old and the eldest one was 32 years old. The study method involved recording at least 5 minuets of spontaneous speech of every one who was diagnosed of suffering from stuttering by two speech and language pathologists. The percent of non-fluency on every word's type was determined where a content word was followed or preceded by a function word (Function-Function-Content words and Function-Content words contexts. Then these findings were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results of this study show while function words are dominantly more stuttered than content words in children less than 13 years old in Function-Function-Content words context, we consider more disfluency on content words and second function word by getting old. We consider more stuttering on function words in children less that 13 years old in Function-Content words context too and increased non-fluency on content word by growing up. Results also show meaningful differences between the fifth group and others in the amount of stuttering on second function word in the Function-Function-Content words contexts and also between the first group and the others in amount of non-fluency both on function and content words in Function-Content words context. Conclusion: People who stutter from Farsi speakers

  1. Intrajudge and Interjudge Reliability of the Stuttering Severity Instrument-Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidow, Jason H; Scott, Kathleen A

    2017-11-08

    The Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI) is a tool used to measure the severity of stuttering. Previous versions of the instrument have known limitations (e.g., Lewis, 1995). The present study examined the intra- and interjudge reliability of the newest version, the Stuttering Severity Instrument-Fourth Edition (SSI-4) (Riley, 2009). Twelve judges who were trained on the SSI-4 protocol participated. Judges collected SSI-4 data while viewing 4 videos of adults who stutter at Time 1 and 4 weeks later at Time 2. Data were analyzed for intra- and interjudge reliability of the SSI-4 subscores (for Frequency, Duration, and Physical Concomitants), total score, and final severity rating. Intra- and interjudge reliability across the subscores and total score concurred with the manual's reported reliability when reliability was calculated using the methods described in the manual. New calculations of judge agreement produced different values from those in the manual-for the 3 subscores, total score, and final severity rating-and provided data absent from the manual. Clinicians and researchers who use the SSI-4 should carefully consider the limitations of the instrument. Investigation into the multitasking demands of the instrument may provide information on whether separating the collection of data for specific variables will improve intra- and interjudge reliability of those variables.

  2. A review of brain circuitries involved in stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig-McQuaide, Anna; Akram, Harith; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Tripoliti, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its etiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia (BG). Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic studies are discussed. Evidence of structural and functional changes in the BG in those who stutter indicates that this motor speech disorder is due, at least in part, to abnormal BG cues for the initiation and termination of articulatory movements. Studies discussed provide evidence of a dysfunctional hyperdopaminergic state of the thalamocortical pathways underlying speech motor control in stuttering. Evidence that stuttering can improve, worsen or recur following deep brain stimulation for other indications is presented in order to emphasize the role of BG in stuttering. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the pathophysiology of this speech disorder, which is associated with significant social isolation. PMID:25452719

  3. Impact of pre-treatment technologies on soil aquifer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Besançon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of pre-treatment options on the performances of soil columns simulating soil aquifer treatment (SAT. For this purpose a conventional activated sludge (CAS process, a membrane bioreactor (MBR and vertical flow reed beds were used as single units or in combination before SAT. The influent and effluent from each treatment train were monitored over three successive 6-month periods, corresponding to changes in the operational conditions of the MBR and CAS units from 6 days' sludge retention time (SRT to 12 and 20 days. All the columns acted as efficient polishing steps for solids and bacteria. The column receiving effluent from the CAS system running at 6 days' SRT also presented high total nitrogen and total phosphorus removals, but this column was also associated with the lowest infiltration rates over that period. While the quality of the effluent from the column following the CAS process increased over 18 months of operation, the effluent quality of the columns receiving MBR effluent degraded. No correlations were found between variations in SRT of the MBR and CAS processes and the columns' performances. Overall, all columns, except the one receiving CAS effluent, underwent a reduction in infiltration rate over 18 months.

  4. Ultrasound pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Elvira, S; Fdz-Polanco, M; Plaza, F I; Garralón, G; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2009-01-01

    Prior research indicates that ultrasounds can be used in batch reactors as pre-treatment before anaerobic digestion, but the specific energy required at laboratory-scale is too high. This work evaluates both the continuous ultrasound device performance (efficiency and solubilisation) and the operation of anaerobic digesters continuously fed with sonicated sludge, and presents energy balance considerations. The results of sludge solubilisation after the sonication treatment indicate that, applying identical specific energy, it is better to increase the power than the residence time. Working with secondary sludge, batch biodegradability tests show that by applying 30 kWh/m3 of sludge, it is possible to increase biogas production by 42%. Data from continuous pilot-scale anaerobic reactors (V=100 L) indicate that operating with a conventional HRT=20 d, a reactor fed with pre-treated sludge increases the volatile solids removal and the biogas production by 25 and 37% respectively. Operating with HRT=15 d, the removal efficiency is similar to the obtained with a reactor fed with non-hydrolysed sludge at HTR=20 d, although the specific biogas productivity per volume of reactor is higher for the pretreated sludge. Regarding the energy balance, although for laboratory-scale devices it is negative, full-scale suppliers state a net generation of 3-10 kW per kW of energy used.

  5. Self-acceptance of stuttering: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardo, Thales; Gabel, Rodney M; Tetnowski, John A; Swartz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between self-acceptance of stuttering and (1) psychosocial factors (self-esteem, hostility towards others, emotional support, and perceived discrimination); (2) treatment history (support group participation, therapy duration, and perceived therapy success); and (3) previously reported variables in self-acceptance of stuttering, which include age and stuttering severity. Participants were 80 adults who stutter who were recruited with assistance from the National Stuttering Association and Board Certified Specialists in Fluency Disorders. Participants completed an electronic survey composed of an acceptance of stuttering scale, psychosocial scales, and a participant information questionnaire. Statistical analysis identified significant correlations between participants' reports of self-acceptance of stuttering and self-esteem, perceived discrimination, hostility towards others, and perceived therapy outcome. Self-esteem was positively correlated with self-acceptance, while hostility towards others and perceived discrimination was negatively correlated with self-acceptance. Participants who perceived their therapy outcome to be successful were significantly more likely to report higher levels of self-acceptance. No significant relationships were found between self-acceptance of stuttering and support group participation, emotional support, stuttering severity, and participant age. This exploratory investigation has provided a foundation for future studies on the self-acceptance of stuttering. The findings indicate common psychosocial variables in self-acceptance of stuttering and of other disabilities. The significant relationships between self-acceptance of stuttering and psychosocial and therapeutic variables found need to be further explored to identify its causalities and clinical implications. The reader will be able to (1) discuss the importance of assessing self-acceptance of stuttering, (2) summarize the literature on self

  6. Neurogenic stuttering: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C; Amorim, H; Beca, G; Nunes, R

    2018-01-16

    Neurogenic stuttering is a disorder of neurologic origin in the rhythm of speech during which the patient knows exactly what he wants to say but is unable to because of an involuntary prolongation, cessation or repetition of a sound. To assemble new insights regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of neurogenic stuttering. A review of all PubMed and Scopus published articles between January 2000 and September 2016 was performed. Thirty-three publications were analyzed. Neurogenic stuttering is a rare entity whose epidemiological incidence is yet not fully established. It is correlated with several neurological diseases and with several possible localizations within the nervous system. Notwithstanding the recent advances in the understanding of the underlying mechanism, it is not yet possible to establish a single pathophysiological mechanism of neurogenic stuttering. The differential diagnosis is complex and requires the detailed knowledge of other language disorders. The treatment is currently based on specific speech language therapy strategies. Neurogenic stuttering is a complex disorder which is not fully understood. Additional studies might help to better explain the underlying pathophysiological mechanism and to open doors to novel therapeutic methods.

  7. Epidemiology of Stuttering: 21st Century Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological advances in stuttering during the current century are reviewed within the perspectives of past knowledge. The review is organized in six sections: (a) onset (b) incidence (c) prevalence (d) developmental paths, (e) genetics and (f) subtypes. It is concluded that: (1) most of the risk for stuttering onset is over by age 5, earlier than has been previously thought, with a male-to-female ratio near onset smaller than what has been thought, (2) there are indications that the lifespan incidence in the general population may be higher than the 5% commonly cited in past work, (3) the average prevalence over the lifespan may be lower than the commonly held 1%, (4) the effects of race, ethnicity, culture, bilingualism, and socioeconomic status on the incidence/prevalence of stuttering remain uncertain, (5) longitudinal, as well as incidence and prevalence studies support high levels of natural recovery from stuttering, (6) advances in biological genetic research have brought within reach the identification of candidate genes that contribute to stuttering in the population at large, (7) subtype-differentiation has attracted growing interest, with most of the accumulated evidence supporting a distinction between persistent and recovered subtypes. PMID:23773662

  8. The Effects of Self-Disclosure and Non Self-Disclosure of Stuttering on Listeners' Perceptions of a Person Who Stutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, E. Charles; Gabel, Rodney M.; Daniels, Derek E.; Kawai, Nori

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine listener perceptions of an adult male person who stutters (PWS) who did or did not disclose his stuttering. Ninety adults who do not stutter individually viewed one of three videotaped monologues produced by a male speaker with severe stuttering. In one monologue, 30 listeners heard the speaker disclose…

  9. The role of selected lexical factors on confrontation naming accuracy, speed, and fluency in adults who do and do not stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S; Bernstein Ratner, Nan

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lexical access in adults who stutter (AWS) differs from that in people who do not stutter. Specifically, the authors examined the role of 3 lexical factors on naming speed, accuracy, and fluency: word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency. If stuttering results from an impairment in lexical access, these factors were hypothesized to differentially affect AWS performance on a confrontation naming task. Twenty-five AWS and 25 normally fluent comparison speakers, matched for age and education, participated in a confrontation naming task designed to explore within-speaker performance on naming accuracy, speed, and fluency based on stimulus word frequency and neighborhood characteristics. Accuracy, fluency, and reaction time (from acoustic waveform analysis) were computed. In general, AWS demonstrated the same effects of lexical factors on their naming as did adults who do not stutter. However, accuracy of naming was reduced for AWS. Stuttering rate was influenced by word frequency but not other factors. Results suggest that AWS could have a fundamental deficit in lexical retrieval, but this deficit is unlikely to be at the level of the word's abstract phonological representation. Implications for further research are discussed.

  10. Exogenously triggered response inhibition in developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between children's exogenously triggered response inhibition and stuttering. Participants were 18 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 9;01 years) and 18 children who not stutter (CWNS; mean age = 9;01 years). Participants were matched on age (±3 months) and gender. Response inhibition was assessed by a stop signal task (Verbruggen, Logan, & Stevens, 2008). Results suggest that CWS, compared to CWNS, perform comparable to CWNS in a task where response control is externally triggered. Our findings seem to indicate that previous questionnaire-based findings (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) of a decreased efficiency of response inhibition cannot be generalized to all types of response inhibition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Further development and validation of the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS) scales: relationship to anxiety and social phobia among adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Lisa; Menzies, Ross; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In an initial validation study, the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs About Stuttering (UTBAS I) scale, demonstrated excellent psychometric properties as a self-report measure of the frequency of unhelpful cognitions associated with social anxiety for adults who stutter. The aim was to further validate the original UTBAS I scale, and to develop two additional scales to assess beliefs (UTBAS II) and anxiety (UTBAS III) associated with negative thoughts. A total of 140 adults seeking speech-restructuring treatment for stuttering completed the original UTBAS I scale, the newly developed UTBAS II and III scales, and self-report measures of psychological functioning. Participants also completed a first-stage screener for the presence of anxious personality disorder, and a diagnostic assessment to evaluate the presence of social phobia, according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The mean UTBAS I score for the present sample did not differ significantly from the mean score reported in the original UTBAS I validation study. Convergent validity was confirmed by significant correlations between the UTBAS Total score and all anxiety-related measures. Discriminant validity was established by the absence of strong correlations between the UTBAS Total score and some of the self-report measures of unrelated constructs, although it was found to tap into the negative cognitions associated with depression and life problems. Approximately one-quarter of participants met criteria for a diagnosis of DSM-IV or ICD-10 social phobia (23.5% and 27.2% respectively), and nearly one-third met first-stage screening criteria for anxious personality disorder (30%). The mean UTBAS scores for participants who met criteria for these disorders were significantly higher than scores for participants who did not, confirming known-groups validity. The present study demonstrates the validity and

  12. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.

    2015-01-01

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  13. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6120, WA (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  14. Attitudes of Turkish speech and language therapists toward stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maviş, Ilknur; St Louis, Kenneth O; Özdemir, Sertan; Toğram, Bülent

    2013-06-01

    The study sought to identify clinical beliefs and attitudes of speech and language therapists (SLTs) in Turkey and to compare them to previous research on SLTs in the USA and UK. The Clinician Attitudes Toward Stuttering (CATS) inventory was administered by mail to nearly all-practicing SLTs in Turkey (n=61). Turkish SLTs, whose caseloads contained a substantial number of people who stutter, agreed with CATS items suggesting psychological causes and problems for those who stutter. They strongly believed therapy should focus on parent counseling for preschoolers who stutter as well as adolescents. They were not optimistic about carrying out stuttering therapy nor about the likelihood that children who stutter could be effectively treated. Attitudes toward stuttering by clinicians who treat them are important considerations in the conduct and outcomes of stuttering therapy. Additionally, SLTs working with stuttering clients should benefit from professional views and clinical experiences of their colleagues from surveys such as this one. The reader will be able to describe: (a) the components of the CATS, (b) common themes in Turkish speech and language therapists' attitudes toward stuttering, (c) differences between the attitudes of speech and language therapists from Turkey versus the United States and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered morphology of the nucleus accumbens in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Auer, Tibor; Metzger, F Luise; Euler, Harald A; Frahm, Jens; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures. The study included 33 right-handed participants who stutter and 34 right-handed control participants matched for sex, age, and education. Structural images were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging to estimate volumetric characteristics of the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, pallidum, putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. Volumetric comparisons and vertex-based shape comparisons revealed structural differences. The right nucleus accumbens was larger in participants who stutter compared to controls. Recent theories of basal ganglia functions suggest that the nucleus accumbens is a motivation-to-movement interface. A speaker intends to reach communicative goals, but stuttering can derail these efforts. It is therefore highly plausible to find alterations in the motivation-to-movement interface in stuttering. While behavioral studies of stuttering sought to find links between the limbic and sensorimotor system, we provide the first neuroimaging evidence of alterations in the limbic system. Thus, our findings might initialize a unified neurobiological framework of persistent developmental stuttering that integrates sensorimotor and social-motivational neuroanatomical circuitries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Daichi; Yada, Yasuto; Imaizumi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Toshimitsu; Miyawaki, Manami; Van Borsel, John

    To determine laypeople's knowledge and awareness of stuttering in Japan. A total of 303 respondents, recruited by street sampling, completed a questionnaire assessing the prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different races, cause, treatment, association with intelligence, and hereditariness of stuttering. The questionnaire used was a Japanese version of that devised by Van Borsel, Verniers, and Bouvry (1999) for use in Belgium. Although around half of the respondents had heard or met a stutterer, they tended to misunderstand the stuttering; e.g., respondents estimated the prevalence of stuttering as high. Knowledge also differed according to age, gender, and education level. Specifically, older individuals, females, and individuals with higher levels of education tended to have greater knowledge of stuttering. In comparing the results of the present study with similar studies conducted in Belgium, China, and Brazil, we observed several similarities and differences. Although most respondents were to some extent familiar with stuttering, their overall knowledge of the condition was limited. Certain factors could be involved in having knowledge of stuttering, such as one's life experience, cultural background, and social attitudes toward stuttering. The findings suggest the need for growing knowledge and awareness of stuttering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced Perfusion in Broca’s Area in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay; Huo, Yuankai; Wang, Zhishun; Bansal, Ravi; Williams, Steven C. R.; Lythgoe, David; Zelaya, Fernando O.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. Methods We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups. Results We detected lower regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) at rest in the stuttering group compared to healthy controls in Broca’s area bilaterally and the superior frontal gyrus. rCBF values in Broca’s area bilaterally correlated inversely with the severity of stuttering and extended posteriorly into other portions of the language loop. We also found increased rCBF in cerebellar nuclei and parietal cortex in the stuttering group compared to healthy controls. Findings were unchanged in child-only analyses and when excluding participants with comorbid illnesses or those taking medication. Conclusions rCBF is reduced in Broca’s region in persons who stutter. More severe stuttering is associated with even greater reductions in rCBF to Broca’s region, additive to the underlying putative trait reduction in rCBF relative to control values. Moreover, a greater abnormality in rCBF in the posterior language loop is associated with more severe symptoms, suggesting that a common pathophysiology throughout the language loop likely contributes to stuttering severity. PMID:28035724

  18. Prevalence of Stuttering in Javanroud\\'s Bilingual Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiva Mohammadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Study of prevalence of stuttering in Iranian bilingual societies is essential for determine the effects of linguistic factors in stuttering and therapy demands in these bilingual societies. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of stuttering among Javanrud’s bilingual students. Materials & Methods: In this cross- sectional, descriptive and analytical study, all of bilingual students of Javanrud’s schools were examined and in order to this purpose, teacher referral method was used for the primary screening of speech disorders at all. Essential information about speech disorders specifically stuttering had been given to teachers before this primary step. Then researcher diagnosed stuttering students based on personal interview, reading, spontaneous speech and description of serial images that tell a story in Kurdish and Persian. Data were analysed by statistical tests such as Chi-square and Logistic Regression. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanrud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1/13 percent. Among primary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2/06, 0/87 and 0/5 percent respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1/35 and among girls was 0/88 percent. An overall male/female ratio was 1/5. Prevalence of stuttering in primary, guidance and high school was differ from each other significantly (P<0/001. Prevalence of stuttering in male was higher than female significantly (P=0/034. Conclusion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanrood’s bilingual students was higher than accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1%. Risk of being stuttering in male was higher than female.

  19. A comparison of attitudes towards stuttering of non-stuttering preschoolers in the United States and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Weidner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Extensive research documents ubiquitous negative attitudes towards stuttering, but when and how they develop is unclear. This non-experimental, comparative study examined US and Turkish preschoolers to explore the origin of stuttering attitudes cross-culturally. Method: The authors compared stuttering attitudes of 28 US and 31 Turkish non-stuttering preschoolers on English and Turkish versions of experimental prototypes of the newly developed Public Opinion Survey on Human Attributes–Stuttering/Child (POSHA–S/Child. Children first watched a short video of two stuttering avatar characters and then answered oral questions about stuttering. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire. Differences in the US and Turkish POSHA–S/Child means were calculated using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Attitudes of the US and Turkish children were remarkably similar. Children rated most of the items negatively but also rated some items as neutral or positive. They held relatively more negative attitudes towards traits and personalities of children who stutter yet relatively more positive attitudes towards stuttering children’s potential. Conclusion: Stuttering attitudes in children appear to be partly independent of culture.

  20. A comparison of attitudes towards stuttering of non-stuttering preschoolers in the United States and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakisci, Egemen; Ozdemir, Ramazan S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Extensive research documents ubiquitous negative attitudes towards stuttering, but when and how they develop is unclear. This non-experimental, comparative study examined US and Turkish preschoolers to explore the origin of stuttering attitudes cross-culturally. Method The authors compared stuttering attitudes of 28 US and 31 Turkish non-stuttering preschoolers on English and Turkish versions of experimental prototypes of the newly developed Public Opinion Survey on Human Attributes–Stuttering/Child (POSHA–S/Child). Children first watched a short video of two stuttering avatar characters and then answered oral questions about stuttering. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire. Differences in the US and Turkish POSHA–S/Child means were calculated using the Mann–Whitney U test. Results Attitudes of the US and Turkish children were remarkably similar. Children rated most of the items negatively but also rated some items as neutral or positive. They held relatively more negative attitudes towards traits and personalities of children who stutter yet relatively more positive attitudes towards stuttering children’s potential. Conclusion Stuttering attitudes in children appear to be partly independent of culture. PMID:28470081

  1. Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... persist as a lifelong communication disorder. How is speech normally produced? We make speech sounds through a ... Info Follow us on Contact Us Privacy Accessibility Freedom of Information Act Site Map Website Policies Free ...

  2. Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Lignocellulosic Biomass under Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment is a significant step in the production of second-generation biofuels from waste lignocellulosic materials. Obtaining biofuels as a result of fermentation processes requires appropriate pre-treatment conditions ensuring the highest possible degree of saccharification of the feed material. An influence of the following process parameters were investigated for alkaline pre-treatment of Salix viminalis L.: catalyst concentration (NaOH, temperature, pre-treatment time and granulation. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in accordance to the Box-Behnken design for four factors. In the saccharification process of the pre-treated biomass, cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on diatomaceous earth were used. Based on the obtained results, a mathematical model for the optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment prediction is proposed. The optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment are established as follows: granulation 0.75 mm, catalyst concentration 7%, pre-treatment time 6 h and temperature 65 °C if the saccharification efficiency and cost analysis are considered. An influence of the optimized pre-treatment on both the chemical composition and structural changes for six various lignocellulosic materials (energetic willow, energetic poplar, beech, triticale, meadow grass, corncobs was investigated. SEM images of raw and pre-treated biomass samples are included in order to follow the changes in the biomass structure during hydrolysis.

  3. The design of a novel, environmentally improved cotton pre-treatment proces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit)

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this thesis of Gerrit Bouwhuis, lecturer at Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology in Enschede is the development of a new industrial applicable pre-treatment process for cotton based on catalysis. The pre-treatment generally consists of desizing, scouring and bleaching. These

  4. Application of ceramic membranes for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma; Ha, Changwon; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    and particulate fouling materials (algae, suspended and colloidal particles). Also, a pre-treatment barrier reduces organics and provides better feed water quality for RO membranes. MF and UF pre-treatment prior to SWRO provides Low Silt Density Index (SDI) values

  5. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, John; Harbour, John; Pavey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  6. Quality of Life in adults who stutter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Sonneville (Caroline); C.A.M. Bouwmans-Frijters (Clazien); M-C. Franken (Marie-Christine)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Although persistent developmental stuttering is known to affect daily living, just how great the impact is remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the underlying mechanisms which lead to a diminished quality of life (QoL). The primary objective of this study is to

  7. Others\\' Presence on the Life Experiences of People Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahan Heydari-Nasrabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is a disorder that not only affects the person's oral communications but also makes problems for behavioral aspects including both personal and social ones. This study aims at identifying the attitudes of such phenomenon and detecting the life experriences of those stuttering in order to help speech therapists carry out comprehensive and effective therapy plans to decrease stuttering and to contribute them to have a better and more convenient life and social activities. Materials & Methods: This reasearch has been done in a qualitative research and the phenomenology approach. Tewenty one adults who stutter purposefully selected and interviewed in deep and focus groups. The interviewees’ words were completely recorded and the subjects were written down by listening to the participants’ oral discriptions.The themes obtained from the life experiences of those stuttering categorized based on the Van Manon's method and analyzed as well. Results: The life experiences of people stuttering appeared in eight domains as below: 1- Being humiliated by others 2- Trying to content others in dialogue 3- Understanding of others of stutter 4-Other s Gender 5- Being ridiculed by others 6- Other s pity 7- Speaking completed by others 8- Other s Impatient and little attention 9- Other s Position and status Conclusion: Stuttering is a multi-dimensional disorder influencing on both making speech disabilities and all the aspects of the person's life. This disorder makes problems for inter- personal communications and influences the life quality of the one stuttering. According to the degree of its intensity, it affects on the occupational, family and educational situations. Others' presence highly arouses the outlook of the person stuttering. Meantime, the teachers, classmates and families play a significant role in the person's affections and emotions. Removing speech symptoms can not alone contribute to improvement,modifying the person

  8. Real enough: using virtual public speaking environments to evoke feelings and behaviors targeted in stuttering assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Shelley B; Hancock, Adrienne B

    2015-05-01

    Virtual reality environments (VREs) are computer-generated, 3-dimensional worlds that allow users to experience situations similar to those encountered in the real world. The purpose of this study was to investigate VREs for potential use in assessing and treating persons who stutter (PWS) by determining the extent to which PWS's affective, behavioral, and cognitive measures in a VRE correlate with those same measures in a similar live environment. Ten PWS delivered speeches-first to a live audience and, on another day, to 2 virtual audiences (neutral and challenging audiences). Participants completed standard tests of communication apprehension and confidence prior to each condition, and frequency of stuttering was measured during each speech. Correlational analyses revealed significant, positive correlations between virtual and live conditions for affective and cognitive measures as well as for frequency of stuttering. These findings suggest that virtual public speaking environments engender affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions in PWS that correspond to those experienced in the real world. Therefore, the authentic, safe, and controlled environments provided by VREs may be useful for stuttering assessment and treatment.

  9. Physico-chemical pre-treatment for drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanien, W. A. M.

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work is to attempt to improve the quality of town water by application of alternating current, direct current and magnetic field to raw water as pre-treatment to enhance the coagulation and flocculation. The design and operation for these processes and the evaluation there of have been mentioned. Treatment generally requires application of electric current Ac or Dc (0.1-1.0 A) for residence current time 2-12 minutes, or application of magnetic field (20-400 mt). The measurement of turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) of raw water were determined before and after treatment to obtain the efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal. Total bacteria count was determined using standard plate count method. Most probable number (MPN) technique was used to determine the number of coliform organisms that were present in water to obtain the efficiency of water purification. The results obtain revealed that treatment by Ac and Dc electric current gave turbidity removal efficiency in the range 40-81%, 17-76% and TSS in the range 37-61%, 9-57%, respectively. Coagulation of natural colloids and other material suspended in water is faster in water impacted by an electric current. When alum and polymer was used as coagulant together with Ac electric current, clarification rate was greater by 1.8-2.4 times in Damira 2001; 1.5-3.3 times by poly aluminum chloride together with Ac electric current ; 2.4-4.5 times by alum and poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride together with Dc electric current in Damira 2002. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 57-83% and of total coliform was 58-93% when exposed to electric current for an extended residence current times between 2 to 11 minutes. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 60-85%, and of total coliform was 53-95% when exposed to current between 0.16-0.60 A at constant current time. The results obtained from physical and chemical analysis of raw water and water treated by Ac, Dc

  10. Physico-chemical pre-treatment for drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, W A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work is to attempt to improve the quality of town water by application of alternating current, direct current and magnetic field to raw water as pre-treatment to enhance the coagulation and flocculation. The design and operation for these processes and the evaluation there of have been mentioned. Treatment generally requires application of electric current Ac or Dc (0.1-1.0 A) for residence current time 2-12 minutes, or application of magnetic field (20-400 mt). The measurement of turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) of raw water were determined before and after treatment to obtain the efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal. Total bacteria count was determined using standard plate count method. Most probable number (MPN) technique was used to determine the number of coliform organisms that were present in water to obtain the efficiency of water purification. The results obtain revealed that treatment by Ac and Dc electric current gave turbidity removal efficiency in the range 40-81%, 17-76% and TSS in the range 37-61%, 9-57%, respectively. Coagulation of natural colloids and other material suspended in water is faster in water impacted by an electric current. When alum and polymer was used as coagulant together with Ac electric current, clarification rate was greater by 1.8-2.4 times in Damira 2001; 1.5-3.3 times by poly aluminum chloride together with Ac electric current ; 2.4-4.5 times by alum and poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride together with Dc electric current in Damira 2002. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 57-83% and of total coliform was 58-93% when exposed to electric current for an extended residence current times between 2 to 11 minutes. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 60-85%, and of total coliform was 53-95% when exposed to current between 0.16-0.60 A at constant current time. The results obtained from physical and chemical analysis of raw water and water treated by Ac, Dc

  11. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The efficacy of stuttering measurement training: evaluating two training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Lauren A; Stavros, Candace; Ebrahimian, Mineh; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Roger J

    2015-04-01

    Two stuttering measurement training programs currently used for training clinicians were evaluated for their efficacy in improving the accuracy of total stuttering event counting. Four groups, each with 12 randomly allocated participants, completed a pretest-posttest design training study. They were evaluated by their counts of stuttering events on eight 3-min audiovisual speech samples from adults and children who stutter. Stuttering judgment training involved use of either the Stuttering Measurement System (SMS), Stuttering Measurement Assessment and Training (SMAAT) programs, or no training. To test for the reliability of any training effect, SMS training was repeated with the 4th group. Both SMS-trained groups produced approximately 34% improvement, significantly better than no training or the SMAAT program. The SMAAT program produced a mixed result. The SMS program was shown to produce a "medium" effect size improvement in the accuracy of stuttering event counts, and this improvement was almost perfectly replicated in a 2nd group. Half of the SMAAT judges produced a 36% improvement in accuracy, but the other half showed no improvement. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate the durability of the reported improvements, but these positive effects justify the importance of stuttering measurement training.

  13. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  14. Does Language Influence the Accuracy of Judgments of Stuttering in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether stuttering judgment accuracy is influenced by familiarity with the stuttering speaker's language. Method: Audiovisual 7-min speech samples from nine 3- to 5-year-olds were used. Icelandic children who stutter (CWS), preselected for different levels of stuttering, were subdivided into 5-s intervals. Ten experienced…

  15. The Impact of Adolescent Stuttering on Educational and Employment Outcomes: Evidence from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In interview and survey studies, people who stutter report the belief that stuttering has had a negative impact on their own education and employment. This population study sought objective evidence of such disadvantage for people who stutter as a group, compared with people who do not stutter. Method: A secondary analysis of a British…

  16. Turkish Language Teachers' and Primary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Their Stuttering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Ilhan

    2013-01-01

    Stuttering is a speech defect which is seen in all countries. Stuttering affects fluency of speech due to some physiological, psychological and neurological causes. Protractions, clogs and repeats are seen in stuttering. Since it will probably result in social handicaps, stuttering should be considered as more important than other speech defects.…

  17. Anxiety in 11-Year-Old Children Who Stutter: Findings from a Prospective Longitudinal Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie A.; Iverach, Lisa; O'Brian, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Kefalianos, Elaina; Hearne, Anna; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine if a community sample of 11-year-old children with persistent stuttering have higher anxiety than children who have recovered from stuttering and nonstuttering controls. Method: Participants in a community cohort study were categorized into 3 groups: (a) those with persistent stuttering, (b) those with recovered stuttering, and…

  18. Attitudes toward stuttering of nonstuttering preschool and kindergarten children: A comparison using a standard instrument prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Mary E; St Louis, Kenneth O; Burgess, Megan E; LeMasters, Staci N

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated attitudes of nonstuttering preschool and kindergarten children toward peers who stutter in order to identify differences by age groups and better understand the genesis of stuttering attitudes. The study also examined the use of a new stuttering attitudes instrument designed for use with young children. The newly developed Public Opinion Survey on Human Attributes-Stuttering/Child was verbally administered to 27 preschool and 24 kindergarten children who do not stutter in the mid-Atlantic region of the USA. Overall, preschoolers held more negative stuttering attitudes than kindergarteners, but results were not uniformly in that direction. In both groups, the attribute of stuttering was viewed more negatively than individuals who stutter. Children viewed the potential of peers who stutter as quite positive, whereas their knowledge about and experience with stuttering were generally limited and some of their beliefs quite negative. Negative or uninformed stuttering attitudes among nonstuttering children begin as early as the preschool years. This study provides empirical evidence for the need to educate young children about the nature of stuttering and how to respond appropriately to peers who stutter. Readers should be able to: (a) describe attitudinal differences between kindergarteners and preschoolers toward peers who stutter; (b) describe the parameters of the POSHA-S/Child; (c) describe the nature of stuttering attitudes in young children relative to their beliefs and self reactions; and (d) describe the implications and future direction of stuttering attitude research in young children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary Evidence That Growth in Productive Language Differentiates Childhood Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Kathryn A.; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Brown, Barbara; Weber, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood stuttering is common but is often outgrown. Children whose stuttering persists experience significant life impacts, calling for a better understanding of what factors may underlie eventual recovery. In previous research, language ability has been shown to differentiate children who stutter (CWS) from children who do not stutter,…

  20. A study of the role of the FOXP2 and CNTNAP2 genes in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-Un; Park, John; Domingues, Carlos F; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Paris, Emily; Sainz, Eduardo; Gutierrez, Joanne; Drayna, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    A number of speech disorders including stuttering have been shown to have important genetic contributions, as indicated by high heritability estimates from twin and other studies. We studied the potential contribution to stuttering from variants in the FOXP2 gene, which have previously been associated with developmental verbal dyspraxia, and from variants in the CNTNAP2 gene, which have been associated with specific language impairment (SLI). DNA sequence analysis of these two genes in a group of 602 unrelated cases, all with familial persistent developmental stuttering, revealed no excess of potentially deleterious coding sequence variants in the cases compared to a matched group of 487 well characterized neurologically normal controls. This was compared to the distribution of variants in the GNPTAB, GNPTG, and NAGPA genes which have previously been associated with persistent stuttering. Using an expanded subject data set, we again found that NAGPA showed significantly different mutation frequencies in North Americans of European descent (p=0.0091) and a significant difference existed in the mutation frequency of GNPTAB in Brazilians (p=0.00050). No significant differences in mutation frequency in the FOXP2 and CNTNAP2 genes were observed between cases and controls. To examine the pattern of expression of these five genes in the human brain, real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR was performed on RNA purified from 27 different human brain regions. The expression patterns of FOXP2 and CNTNAP2 were generally different from those of GNPTAB, GNPTG and NAPGA in terms of relatively lower expression in the cerebellum. This study provides an improved estimate of the contribution of mutations in GNPTAB, GNPTG and NAGPA to persistent stuttering, and suggests that variants in FOXP2 and CNTNAP2 are not involved in the genesis of familial persistent stuttering. This, together with the different brain expression patterns of GNPTAB, GNPTG, and NAGPA compared to that of

  1. Me, My Stuttering, and Them! Effect of Self-Disclosure of Stuttering on Listener Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Bajaj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A common question encountered by speech-language pathologists while dealing with adults who stutter (AWS is whether their disclosure of stuttering to listeners would change their perception. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of self-disclosure and speaker sex on adult listeners’ perceptions of simulated stuttering. Method: The study involved a group of 100 college students between the age range of 18 and 25 years, who judged the videotaped speech samples of 1 male and 1 female person, who simulated stuttering in disclosed and undisclosed state. The listener perception was evaluated through a questionnaire developed for the purpose. Results: The trends suggested that a female AWS possessed overall better listener perception as compared with male AWS in undisclosed condition and received better perception by listeners in more domains than male AWS in disclosed state. Conclusions: Listener perception seems to be a sex-specific phenomenon which gets affected by one’s disclosure about stuttering and the culture of the listeners.

  2. Essentials of Epidemiology and Phenomenology of Stuttering – Consequences for Clinical SLP Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Boey, Ronny

    2012-01-01

    The Antwerp epidemiological and phenomenological study on stuttering focuses on the onset and development of stuttering. Descriptive data related to the onset of stuttering were obtained for a group of 1549 participants. The reported and observed variables were obtained in order to test several hypotheses concerning the age-related, gender-related and interrelated phenomena. The following aspects of stuttering and the related phenomena were studied: (a) stuttering-like disfluencies (typ...

  3. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based,…

  4. Assessment of Stigma Associated with Stuttering: Development and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To create a psychometrically sound scale that measures different levels of internalized stigma (i.e., self-stigma) among adults who stutter and to analyze factor structure, reliability, and initial construct validity of the scale. Method: Two-hundred ninety-one adults who stutter were recruited from Board Recognized Specialists in Fluency…

  5. Effects of Perceived Causality on Perceptions of Persons Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P.; Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the perceived cause of stuttering on perceptions of persons who stutter (PWS) using a 7-item social distance scale, a 25-item adjective pair scale and a 2-item visual analogue scale. Two hundred and four university students rated vignettes which varied on describing a PWS with different causalities for stuttering…

  6. Research and Development on a Public Attitude Instrument for Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes research associated with the development of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), a survey instrument designed to provide a worldwide standard measure of public attitudes toward stuttering. Pilot studies with early experimental prototypes of the "POSHA-S" are summarized that relate to…

  7. Stuttering in Preschool Children: Direct versus Indirect Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the controversial topic of stuttering in preschool children and how to evaluate the options for treatment, emphasizing the role of external research evidence. Method: A hypothetical but realistic case study of a 3-year-old boy who stutters is described. Two contrasting approaches to treatment are…

  8. Arab School Teachers' Knowledge, Beliefs and Reactions regarding Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fauzia A.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotypes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are widespread in the general public irrespective of age, level of education, culture, geographic location and profession. Negative attitudes held by persons of authority like teachers can lead to social, economic and educational obstacles in the lives of PWS. Method: The current…

  9. Characteristics of Young Children Close to the Onset of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenagh, Penny; Costelloe, Sarah; Davis, Steve; Howell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Five factors (gender, handedness, some aspects of general health, family history, and intelligence) that could assist speech-language pathologists in identification of children who stutter (CWS) in 42 CWS and 34 fluent control children (children who do not stutter [CWNS]) were investigated. The data reported here were obtained from assessments…

  10. Developmental Stuttering in Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Richard M.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Oleson, Jacob J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A number of studies with large sample sizes have reported lower prevalence of stuttering in children with significant hearing loss compared to children without hearing loss. This study used a parent questionnaire to investigate the characteristics of stuttering (e.g., incidence, prevalence, and age of onset) in children who are hard of…

  11. How Stuttering Develops: The Multifactorial Dynamic Pathways Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We advanced a multifactorial, dynamic account of the complex, nonlinear interactions of motor, linguistic, and emotional factors contributing to the development of stuttering. Our purpose here is to update our account as the multifactorial dynamic pathways theory. Method: We review evidence related to how stuttering develops, including…

  12. A review of brain circuitries involved in stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eCraig-Mcquaide

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its aetiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia. Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic studies are discussed. Evidence that stuttering of structural and functional changes in the basal ganglia in those who stutter indicates that this motor speech disorder is due, at least in part, to abnormal basal ganglia cues for the initiation and termination of articulatory movements. Studies discussed provide evidence of a dysfunctional hyperdopaminergic state of the thalamocortical pathways underlying speech motor control in stuttering. Evidence that stuttering can improve, worsen or recur following deep brain stimulation (DBS for other indications is presented in order to emphasise the role of basal ganglia in stuttering. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the pathophysiology of this speech disorder, which is associated with significant social isolation.

  13. Modifying Attitudes of Arab School Teachers toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fauzia; St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors of this quasi-experimental design study explored the effect of an educational documentary video that presented factual and emotional aspects of stuttering on changing attitudes toward stuttering of preservice trainees and in-service public school teachers in Kuwait. Method: Participants were 99 preservice trainees (48 control,…

  14. The Efficacy of Stuttering Measurement Training: Evaluating Two Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Lauren A.; Stavros, Candace; Ebrahimian, Mineh; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Two stuttering measurement training programs currently used for training clinicians were evaluated for their efficacy in improving the accuracy of total stuttering event counting. Method: Four groups, each with 12 randomly allocated participants, completed a pretest-posttest design training study. They were evaluated by their counts of…

  15. Early intervention for stuttering: similarities and differences between two programs

    OpenAIRE

    Aumont-Boucand, V.; Millard, S.; Packman, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two proponents of different approaches to early stuttering discuss how they would manage a hypothetical case of stuttering in a preschool-age girl. Two evidence-based approaches are discussed: Palin Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and the Lidcombe Program. This paper arose from an oral discussion session held at the International Fluency Association Conference in Tours, France in 2012.

  16. Power2: Relapse Management with Adolescents Who Stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Gordon W.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for relapse management in adolescents who stutter. The package includes game-based training techniques in problem solving, communication skills, and assertiveness; coping responses for stuttering episodes; and realistic expectations for fluency and relapse. Follow-up results with…

  17. Technology and the evolution of clinical methods for stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Ann; Meredith, Grant

    2011-06-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) was 20 years old last year. Enormous amounts of information about stuttering are now available to anyone who can access the Internet. Compared to 20 years ago, people who stutter and their families can now make more informed choices about speech-language interventions, from a distance. Blogs and chat rooms provide opportunities for people who stutter to share their experiences from a distance and to support one another. New technologies are also being adopted into speech-language pathology practice and service delivery. Telehealth is an exciting development as it means that treatment can now be made available to many rural and remotely located people who previously did not have access to it. Possible future technological developments for speech-language pathology practice include Internet based treatments and the use of Virtual Reality. Having speech and CBT treatments for stuttering available on the Internet would greatly increase their accessibility. Second Life also has exciting possibilities for people who stutter. The reader will (1) explain how people who stutter and their families can get information about stuttering from the World Wide Web, (2) discuss how new technologies have been applied in speech-language pathology practice, and (3) summarize the principles and practice of telehealth delivery of services for people who stutter and their families. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Stuttering in Rio De Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Britto Pereira, Monica Medeiros; Rossi, Jamile Perni; Van Borsel, John

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results of an investigation of public awareness and knowledge of stuttering in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total number of 606 street recruited respondents answered questions on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and…

  19. Premonitory Awareness in Stuttering Scale (PAiS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholin, Joana; Heiler, Sabrina; Whillier, Alexander; Sommer, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Anticipation of stuttering events in persistent developmental stuttering is a frequent but inadequately measured phenomenon that is of both theoretical and clinical importance. Here, we describe the development and preliminary testing of a German version of the Premonitory Awareness in Stuttering Scale (PAiS): a 12-item questionnaire assessing immediate and prospective anticipation of stuttering that was translated and adapted from the Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (PUTS) (Woods, Piacentini, Himle, & Chang, 2005). After refining the preliminary PAiS scale in a pilot study, we administered a revised version to 21 adults who stutter (AWS) and 21 age, gender and education-matched control participants. Results demonstrated that the PAiS had good internal consistency and discriminated the two speaker groups very effectively, with AWS reporting anticipation of speech disruptions significantly more often than adults with typical speech. Correlations between the PAiS total score and both the objective and subjective measures of stuttering severity revealed that AWS with high PAiS scores produced fewer stuttered syllables. This is possibly because these individuals are better able to adaptively use these anticipatory sensations to modulate their speech. These results suggest that, with continued refinement, the PAiS has the potential to provide clinicians and researchers with a practical and psychometrically sound tool that can quantify how a given AWS anticipates upcoming stuttering events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmentally friendly hybrid coatings for corrosion protection: silane based pre-treatments and nanostructured waterborne coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Fedel, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers a nanotechnology approach based on the production of metals pre-treatments and organic coatings (a complete protection system at all) designed from the nanoscale. The final aim is to develop protection systems with improved corrosion protection properties and a low environmental impact. In particular, multifunctional silane hybrid molecules were used to design sol-gel pre-treatments for metals and to modify the inner structure of UV curable waterborne organic coatings...

  1. Social anxiety disorder and stuttering: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Lisa; Rapee, Ronald M

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety is one of the most widely observed and extensively studied psychological concomitants of stuttering. Research conducted prior to the turn of the century produced evidence of heightened anxiety in people who stutter, yet findings were inconsistent and ambiguous. Failure to detect a clear and systematic relationship between anxiety and stuttering was attributed to methodological flaws, including use of small sample sizes and unidimensional measures of anxiety. More recent research, however, has generated far less equivocal findings when using social anxiety questionnaires and psychiatric diagnostic assessments in larger samples of people who stutter. In particular, a growing body of research has demonstrated an alarmingly high rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent and chronic anxiety disorder characterised by significant fear of humiliation, embarrassment, and negative evaluation in social or performance-based situations. In light of the debilitating nature of social anxiety disorder, and the impact of stuttering on quality of life and personal functioning, collaboration between speech pathologists and psychologists is required to develop and implement comprehensive assessment and treatment programmes for social anxiety among people who stutter. This comprehensive approach has the potential to improve quality of life and engagement in everyday activities for people who stutter. Determining the prevalence of social anxiety disorder among children and adolescents who stutter is a critical line of future research. Further studies are also required to confirm the efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in treating social anxiety disorder in stuttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the nature and course of social anxiety disorder; (b) outline previous research regarding anxiety and stuttering, including features of social anxiety disorder; (c) summarise research findings regarding the

  2. A NOVEL APPROACH TO STUTTERED SPEECH CORRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Sabur Ajibola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stuttered speech is a dysfluency rich speech, more prevalent in males than females. It has been associated with insufficient air pressure or poor articulation, even though the root causes are more complex. The primary features include prolonged speech and repetitive speech, while some of its secondary features include, anxiety, fear, and shame. This study used LPC analysis and synthesis algorithms to reconstruct the stuttered speech. The results were evaluated using cepstral distance, Itakura-Saito distance, mean square error, and likelihood ratio. These measures implied perfect speech reconstruction quality. ASR was used for further testing, and the results showed that all the reconstructed speech samples were perfectly recognized while only three samples of the original speech were perfectly recognized.

  3. [Implications of multilingualism in the manifestations of stuttering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejon Teitler, N

    Stuttering is a communication disorder affecting speech which is then considered disfluent. What happens when a person who stutters speaks several languages? There will be constant interactions between multilinguism and stuttering. The disorder will generally appear differently according to the spoken language. Linguistic factors have an impact on stutte­ring, with disfluencies appearing differently according to the speaker’s proficiency in using each language. Emotional factors related to the choice of the spoken language can exag­ge­rate the disorder, hence influencing the speaker’s choice of a language, even choices in life. These factors are to be taken into consideration when assessing stuttering, with a particular attention to cultural aspects. Finally, stuttering variability according to the spoken language will also have an impact on therapeutic decisions.

  4. Improving enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem using peroxide and microwave assisted pre-treatment techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of microwave assisted alkali (MAA and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP pre-treatment methods in improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem was investigated. Ground cassava stems were by MAA method by varying microwave power, NaOH concentration and pre-treatment time. AHP method was performed at various H2O2 concentrations, pre-treatment temperatures and times. The results showed that reducing sugar yield was higher from MAA pretreated stem when compared with AHP pre-treatment, which demonstrated that MAA pre-treatment was effective in releasing sugars. SEM studies on the pre-treated samples revealed extensive distortion of fibres in MAA pre-treated than AHP pre-treated samples, which showed pores and cracks in the fibrous structure. Spectral studies showed the change in the chemical structure of pre-treated samples. The work revealed that the studied pre-treatment methods were effective in improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem.

  5. Optimization of Pre-Treatment Process Parameters to Generate Biodiesel from Microalga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuma Onumaegbu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell disruption is an integral part of microalga production process, which improves the release of intracellular products that are essential for biofuel production. In this work, pre-treatment parameters that will enhance the efficiency of lipid production using high-pressure homogenizer on microalgae biomass will be investigated. The high-pressure homogenizer that is considered is a GYB40-10S/GY60-6S; with a pre-treatment pressure of 1000 psi, 2000 psi, and 3000 psi, the number of passes; 1, 2, and 3, a reaction time of 3, 3.5, and 4 h. Pressure and cavitation increase the efficiency of the pre-treatment process of the homogenizer. In addition, homogenization shear force and pressure are the basic significant factors that enhance the efficiency of microalgae cell rupture. Also, the use of modelling to simulate pre-treatment processes (Response Surface Methodology (RSM, Box-Behnken Designs (BBD, and design of experiment (DOE for process optimization will be adopted in this study. The results clearly demonstrate that high-pressure homogenization pre-treatment can effectively disrupt microalga cell walls to enhance lipid recovery efficiency, with a relatively short extraction time, both that are essential for maintaining a good quality of lipids for biofuel production. A maximum of 18% lipid yields were obtained after 3 h of HPH pre-treatment at 3000 psi.

  6. Synergistic effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment combined with UV irradiation for secondary effluent disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Li, Zifu; Xie, Lanlan; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Tingting

    2013-11-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficiency is often affected by suspended solids (SS). Given their high concentration or large particle size, SS can scatter UV light and provide shielding for bacteria. Thus, ultrasound is often employed as a pre-treatment process to improve UV disinfection. This work investigated the synergistic effect of ultrasound combined with UV for secondary effluent disinfection. Bench-scale experiments were conducted in using samples obtained from secondary sedimentation tanks. These tanks belonged to three wastewater treatment plants in Beijing that use different kinds of biological treatment methods. Several parameters may contribute to the changes in the efficiency of ultrasound and UV disinfection. Thus, the frequency and energy density of ultrasound, as well as the SS, were investigated. Results demonstrated that samples which have relatively higher SS concentrations or higher percentages of larger particles have less disinfection efficiency using UV disinfection alone. However, the presence of ultrasound could improve the disinfection efficiency because it has synergistic effect. Changes in the particle size distribution and SS concentration notably affected the efficiency of UV disinfection. The efficiency of Escherichia coli elimination can be decreased by 1.2 log units as the SS concentration increases from 16.9 mg/l to 25.4 mg/l at a UV energy density of 40 mJ/cm(2). UV disinfection alone reduced the E. coli population by 3.4 log units. However, the synergistic disinfection of ultrasound and UV could reach 5.4 log units during the reduction of E. coli at a 40 kHz frequency and an energy density of 2.64 kJ/l. The additional synergistic effect is 1.1 log units. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. From planning to articulation in speech production: What differentiates a person who stutters from a person who does not stutter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, P.H.H.M. van; Hulstijn, W.; Peters, H.F.M.

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to differentiate between people who stutter and control speakers regarding their ability to assemble motor plans and to prepare (and execute) muscle commands. Adult males who stutter, matched for age, gender, and educational level with a group of control

  8. Gestural overlap in consonant clusters: effects on the fluent speech of stuttering and non-stuttering subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huinck, W.J.; Lieshout, P.H.H.M. van; Peters, H.F.M.; Hulstijn, W.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate if persons who stutter differ from persons who do not stutter in the coproduction of different types of consonant clusters, as measured in the number of dysfluencies and incorrect speech productions, in speech reaction times and in word durations. Based on the

  9. Reduced perfusion in Broca's area in developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay; Huo, Yuankai; Wang, Zhishun; Bansal, Ravi; Williams, Steven C R; Lythgoe, David; Zelaya, Fernando O; Peterson, Bradley S

    2017-04-01

    To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups. We detected lower regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) at rest in the stuttering group compared with healthy controls in Broca's area bilaterally and the superior frontal gyrus. rCBF values in Broca's area bilaterally correlated inversely with the severity of stuttering and extended posteriorly into other portions of the language loop. We also found increased rCBF in cerebellar nuclei and parietal cortex in the stuttering group compared with healthy controls. Findings were unchanged in child-only analyses and when excluding participants with comorbid illnesses or those taking medication. rCBF is reduced in Broca's region in persons who stutter. More severe stuttering is associated with even greater reductions in rCBF to Broca's region, additive to the underlying putative trait reduction in rCBF relative to control values. Moreover, a greater abnormality in rCBF in the posterior language loop is associated with more severe symptoms, suggesting that a common pathophysiology throughout the language loop likely contributes to stuttering severity. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1865-1874, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A cross-cultural, long-term outcome evaluation of the ISTAR Comprehensive Stuttering Program across Dutch and Canadian adults who stutter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevin, M.; Huinck, W.J.; Kully, D.; Peters, H.F.M.; Lomheim, H.; Tellers, M.

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to evaluate the effectiveness of stuttering treatment programs delivered in domestic and international contexts and to determine if treatment delivered internationally is culturally sensitive. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the ISTAR Comprehensive Stuttering Program (CSP) within

  11. Evidence, Goals, and Outcomes in Stuttering Treatment: Applications With an Adolescent Who Stutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Anne K

    2018-01-09

    The purpose of this clinical focus article is to summarize 1 possible process that a clinician might follow in designing and conducting a treatment program with John, a 14-year-old male individual who stutters. The available research evidence, practitioner experience, and consideration of individual preferences are combined to address goals, treatment procedures, and outcomes for John. The stuttering treatment research literature includes multiple well-designed reviews and individual studies that have shown the effectiveness of prolonged speech (and smooth speech and related variations) for improving stuttered speech and for improving social, emotional, cognitive, and related variables in adolescents who stutter. Based on that evidence, and incorporating the additional elements of practitioner experience and client preferences, this clinical focus article suggests that John would be likely to benefit from a treatment program based on prolonged speech. The basic structure of 1 possible such program is also described, with an emphasis on the goals and outcomes that John could be expected to achieve.

  12. Relationship between the stuttering severity index and speech rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The speech rate is one of the parameters considered when investigating speech fluency and is an important variable in the assessment of individuals with communication complaints. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the stuttering severity index with one of the indices used for assessing fluency/speech rate. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Fluency and Fluency Disorders Investigation Laboratory, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy adults with stuttering diagnosis. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: A speech sample from each participant containing at least 200 fluent syllables was videotaped and analyzed according to a stuttering severity index test and speech rate parameters. RESULTS: The results obtained in this study indicate that the stuttering severity and the speech rate present significant variation, i.e., the more severe the stuttering is, the lower the speech rate in words and syllables per minute. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results suggest that speech rate is an important indicator of fluency levels and should be incorporated in the assessment and treatment of stuttering. This study represents a first attempt to identify the possible subtypes of developmental stuttering. DEFINITION: Objective tests that quantify diseases are important in their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

  13. Flanking Variation Influences Rates of Stutter in Simple Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August E. Woerner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been posited that the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS of tandem repeats, as defined by the number of exactly matching repeating motif units, is a better predictor of rates of stutter than the parental allele length (PAL. While there are cases where this hypothesis is likely correct, such as the 9.3 allele in the TH01 locus, there can be situations where it may not apply as well. For example, the PAL may capture flanking indel variations while remaining insensitive to polymorphisms in the repeat, and these haplotypic changes may impact the stutter rate. To address this, rates of stutter were contrasted against the LUS as well as the PAL on different flanking haplotypic backgrounds. This study shows that rates of stutter can vary substantially depending on the flanking haplotype, and while there are cases where the LUS is a better predictor of stutter than the PAL, examples to the contrary are apparent in commonly assayed forensic markers. Further, flanking variation that is 7 bp from the repeat region can impact rates of stutter. These findings suggest that non-proximal effects, such as DNA secondary structure, may be impacting the rates of stutter in common forensic short tandem repeat markers.

  14. Stuttering attitudes of students: Professional, intracultural, and international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Przepiorka, Aneta M; Beste-Guldborg, Ann; Williams, Mandy J; Blachnio, Agata; Guendouzi, Jacqueline; Reichel, Isabella K; Ware, Mercedes B

    2014-03-01

    The study sought to identify major-specific, training, and cultural factors affecting attitudes toward stuttering of speech-language pathology (SLP) students. Eight convenience samples of 50 students each from universities in the USA and Poland filled out the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) in English or Polish, respectively. USA samples included undergraduate and graduate students in SLP majors or non-SLP majors as well as a sample of non-SLP students who were Native Americans. Polish samples included SLP (logopedics), psychology, and mixed majors. SLP students held more positive attitudes than non-SLP students in both countries. Graduate students held more positive attitudes than undergraduate students in the USA, and this effect was stronger for SLP than for non-SLP students. Native American students' stuttering attitudes were similar to other American non-SLP students' attitudes. Polish student attitudes were less positive overall than those of their American student counterparts. SLP students' attitudes toward stuttering are affected by a "halo effect" of being in that major, by specific training in fluency disorders, and by various cultural factors, yet to be clearly understood. The reader will be able to: (a) describe major factors affecting SLP students' attitudes toward stuttering; (b) describe similarities and differences in attitudes toward stuttering of students from the USA and Poland; (c) describe similarities and differences in attitudes toward stuttering of Native American students from the USA and non-Native American students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of anxiety in stuttering: Evidence from functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Jia, Fanlu; Siok, Wai Ting; Tan, Li Hai

    2017-03-27

    Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurologically based speech disorder associated with cognitive-linguistic, motor and emotional abnormalities. Previous studies investigating the relationship between anxiety and stuttering have yielded mixed results, but it has not yet been examined whether anxiety influences brain activity underlying stuttering. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the functional connectivity associated with state anxiety in a syllable repetition task, and trait anxiety during rest in adults who stutter (N=19) and fluent controls (N=19). During the speech task, people who stutter (PWS) showed increased functional connectivity of the right amygdala with the prefrontal gyrus (the left ventromedial frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus) and the left insula compared to controls. During rest, PWS showed stronger functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and the left orbital frontal gyrus, and between the left hippocampus and left motor areas than controls. Taken together, our results suggest aberrant bottom-up and/or top-down interactions for anxiety regulation, which might be responsible for the higher level of state anxiety during speech and for the anxiety-prone trait in PWS. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the neural underpinnings of anxiety in PWS, thus yielding new insight into the causes of stuttering which might aid strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of stuttering. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Review on Stuttering and Social Anxiety Disorder in Children: Possible Causes and Therapies/Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nathania

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, stuttering and its relation to social anxiety disorder have been researched using different approaches in study fields such as neurolinguistics and neuropsychology. This paper presents a review of research publications about social anxiety disorder in children who stutter. It takes into account studies of stuttering, social anxiety disorders, the possible causes as well as atti-tudes and beliefs towards stuttering. Also, therapies or treatments that have been conducted on both English-speaking children who stutter in the Western context and Mandarin-speaking children stut-terers in Asia, Taiwan in particular; will be looked at

  17. Optimisation of dilute acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Yoney; Martin, Carlos; Gullon, Beatriz; Parajo, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Rice hulls are potential low-cost feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in many countries. In this work, the dilute-acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls was investigated using a central composite rotatable experimental design. The experimental variables were temperature (140-210 C), biomass load (5-20%) and sulphuric acid concentration (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of reaction mixture). A total of 16 experimental runs, including a 23-plan, two replicates at the central point and six star points, were carried out. Low temperatures were found to be favourable for the hydrolysis of xylan and of the easily hydrolyzable glucan fraction. High glucose formation (up to 15.3 g/100 g), attributable to starch hydrolysis, was detected in the hydrolysates obtained under the least severe pre-treatment conditions. Using the experimental results, several models for predicting the effect of the operational conditions on the yield of pretreated solids, xylan and glucan conversion upon pre-treatment, and on enzymatic convertibility of cellulose were developed. Optimum results were predicted for the conversion of easily-hydrolyzable glucan in the material pretreated at 140.7 C, and for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in the material pretreated at 169 C. These results suggested the use of two-step acid hydrolysis as future pre-treatment strategy for artisan rice hulls. Key words: Dilute acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, pre-treatment, rice hulls. (author)

  18. Comprehensive Stuttering Treatment for Adolescents: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Craig E

    2018-01-09

    This article will focus on a hypothetical case study to highlight comprehensive assessment and treatment for adolescent children who stutter. Assessment and treatment are laid out with a literature review utilizing the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Specific assessment and treatment strategies and approaches are discussed. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model can help guide clinicians through the assessment and treatment process to ensure that all areas of stuttering are considered. Comprehensive assessment and treatment helps clinicians address all relevant elements of a stuttering disorder, rather than focusing exclusively on reducing speech disruptions.

  19. Stuttering and work life: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker-Katz, Geraldine; Lincoln, Michelle; Cumming, Steven

    2013-12-01

    The experiential claims of nine people who stuttered were examined with the purpose of determining the impact of stuttering on their work lives and to further examine what meaning they derive from these experiences. Six male and three female participants aged 29-61 years (mean age, 41.4) who stuttered were interviewed and verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Credibility was established by way of member checking, researcher comparison with only consensual themes and interpretations presented in the final analysis. Four Superordinate themes, "stuttering is always there; stuttering at work reveals a problem; stuttering limits communication; and stuttering limits occupational progression" were distilled by descriptive and interpretative treatment of the interview transcripts. The interpretative level of analysis identified self-stigma as central to the meaning derived from these experiences. Participants' expectation of stigmatizing public attitudes, together with their own self-validation of such attitudes perpetuated diminished feelings about self-esteem and self-efficacy. Fear of negative evaluation may be heightened in the work context and might mediate feelings of self-stigma in this context. Superordinate themes and their subthemes indicate that stuttering is problematic at work by way of perpetuating in the PWS an expectation of negative evaluation by others. Findings implicate issues of self-stigma as generating feelings of self-doubt and self-reproach in PWS in the workplace. The development and effects of self-stigma in PWS have broader implications than the workplace context alone and further examination of the issues of self-stigma in stuttering is recommended. At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (a) describe how stuttering might affect workplace experiences; (b) describe the impact of stuttering on communication in the work context; (c) describe how qualitative methods can provide

  20. Response surface methodology for the optimization of sludge solubilization by ultrasonic pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingyue; Zhang, Xiaohui; Lu, Peng; Cao, Qiguang; Yuan, Yuan; Yue, Mingxing; Fu, Yiwei; Wu, Libin

    2018-02-01

    The present study examines the optimization of the ultrasonic pre-treatment conditions with response surface experimental design in terms of sludge disintegration efficiency (solubilisation of organic components). Ultrasonic pre-treatment for the maximum solubilization with residual sludge enhanced the SCOD release. Optimization of the ultrasonic pre-treatment was conducted through a Box-Behnken design (three variables, a total of 17 experiments) to determine the effects of three independent variables (power, residence time and TS) on COD solubilization of sludge. The optimal COD was obtained at 17349.4mg/L, when the power was 534.67W, the time was 10.77, and TS was 2%, while the SE of this condition was 28792J/kg TS.

  1. Previously unclassified bacteria dominate during thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic pre-treatment of primary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Hasina M; Batstone, Damien J; Bond, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Thermophilic biological pre-treatment enables enhanced anaerobic digestion for treatment of wastewater sludges but, at present, there is limited understanding of the hydrolytic-acidogenic microbial composition and its contribution to this process. In this study, the process was assessed by comparing the microbiology of thermophilic (50-65 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) pre-treatment reactors treating primary sludge. A full-cycle approach for the 16S rRNA genes was applied in order to monitor the diversity of bacteria and their abundance in a thermophilic pre-treatment reactor treating primary sludge. For the thermophilic pre-treatment (TP), over 90% of the sequences were previously undetected and these had less than 97% sequence similarity to cultured organisms. During the first 83 days, members of the Betaproteobacteria dominated the community sequences and a newly designed probe was used to monitor a previously unknown bacterium affiliated with the genus Brachymonas. Between days 85 and 183, three phylotypes that affiliated with the genera Comamonas, Clostridium and Lysobacter were persistently dominant in the TP community, as revealed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Hydrolytic and fermentative functions have been speculated for these bacteria. Mesophilic pre-treatment (MP) and TP communities were different but they were both relatively dynamic. Statistical correlation analysis and the function of closely allied reference organisms indicated that previously unclassified bacteria dominated the TP community and may have been functionally involved in the enhanced hydrolytic performance of thermophilic anaerobic pre-treatment. This study is the first to reveal the diversity and dynamics of bacteria during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioprotection by caffeine pre-treatment and post-treatment in the bone marrow chromosomes of mice given whole-body [gamma]-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, Z.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1992-10-01

    The effect of caffeine given as pre- and post-treatment in mice exposed to whole-body [gamma]-irradiation (1.5 Gy [sup 60]Co [gamma]-rays) was studied. The pre-treatment was either acute or chronic. The acute dose (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was in the form of an injection given intraperitoneally, 30 min before irradiation. The chronic administration was in the form of caffeine solution (4.208x10[sup -3] M and 7.72x10[sup -4] M) contained in drinking water for 5 weeks prior to radiation exposure. The acute pre-treatment with caffeine reduced the radiation-induced frequency of chromosomal aberrations discernibly, whereas chronic pre-treatment afforded a much more significant degree of radioprotection. The caffeine post-treatment (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was given in the form of an intraperitoneal injection to the mice immediately following whole-body [gamma]-irradiation. It is noted that both post-treatment concentrations of caffeine also significantly reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by [gamma]-rays. These data are briefly discussed in terms of possible mechanistic considerations. (author). 33 refs.; 3 tabs.

  3. Radioprotection by caffeine pre-treatment and post-treatment in the bone marrow chromosomes of mice given whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of caffeine given as pre- and post-treatment in mice exposed to whole-body γ-irradiation (1.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays) was studied. The pre-treatment was either acute or chronic. The acute dose (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was in the form of an injection given intraperitoneally, 30 min before irradiation. The chronic administration was in the form of caffeine solution (4.208x10 -3 M and 7.72x10 -4 M) contained in drinking water for 5 weeks prior to radiation exposure. The acute pre-treatment with caffeine reduced the radiation-induced frequency of chromosomal aberrations discernibly, whereas chronic pre-treatment afforded a much more significant degree of radioprotection. The caffeine post-treatment (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was given in the form of an intraperitoneal injection to the mice immediately following whole-body γ-irradiation. It is noted that both post-treatment concentrations of caffeine also significantly reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by γ-rays. These data are briefly discussed in terms of possible mechanistic considerations. (author). 33 refs.; 3 tabs

  4. Research Paper: Comparison the Quality of Life Among Adults With and Without Stuttering: An Emphasis on the Severity of Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Sadegh Rahimi

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion Based on the OASES-A characteristics, people who stutter had a lower level of quality of life. It was also found that the quality of life of people with mild and moderate stages of stuttering was better than the people at severe and very severe stages. In addition, age, gender, education, and vocation were found to affect the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to make positive changes in the psychological aspect of the assessment and treatment processes of adults with stuttering. In addition, attitude should be considered for better interactions in daily communications and to improve the quality of life.

  5. Best Practice for Developmental Stuttering: Balancing Evidence and Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Donaher, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Best practice for developmental stuttering remains a topic of debate. In the clinical forum following the introduction, four fluency experts balance the evidence and expertise to describe their approach to assessment and treatment.

  6. Investigation into stutter ratio variability between different laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Jo-Anne; Curran, James M

    2014-11-01

    The determination of parameters such as stutter ratio is important to inform a laboratory's forensic DNA profile interpretation strategy. As part of a large data analysis project to implement a continuous model of DNA profile interpretation we analysed stutter ratio data from eight different forensic laboratories for the Promega PowerPlex(®) 21 multiplex. This allowed a comparison of inter laboratory variation. The maximum difference for any one laboratory from the average of the best fit determined by the model was 0.31%. These results indicate that stutter ratios calculated from samples analysed using the same profiling kit are not expected to differ between laboratories, even those using different capillary electrophoresis platforms. A common set of laboratory parameters are able to be generated and used for profile interpretation at all laboratories using the same multiplex and cycle number, potentially reducing the need for individual laboratories to determine stutter ratios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of stuttering on communication: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; Ferguson, Alison

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a study in which Systemic Functional Linguistics was applied to describe how people who stutter use language. The aim of the study was to determine and describe any differences in language use between a group of 10 adults who stutter and 10 matched normally-fluent speakers. In addition to formal linguistic analyses, analyses drawn from Systemic Functional Linguistics were used to further investigate the expression of both syntactic and semantic complexity. The findings from this study replicated previous findings of Packman et al. in which they found that the language used by people who stutter was significantly less complex than the control group. Another major finding was that adults who stuttered used the linguistic resource of modality significantly less than the normally-fluent matched peers. The implications these strategies have on communication and social participation will be discussed.

  8. Stuttering adults' lack of pre-speech auditory modulation normalizes when speaking with delayed auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2018-02-01

    Auditory modulation during speech movement planning is limited in adults who stutter (AWS), but the functional relevance of the phenomenon itself remains unknown. We investigated for AWS and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) (a) a potential relationship between pre-speech auditory modulation and auditory feedback contributions to speech motor learning and (b) the effect on pre-speech auditory modulation of real-time versus delayed auditory feedback. Experiment I used a sensorimotor adaptation paradigm to estimate auditory-motor speech learning. Using acoustic speech recordings, we quantified subjects' formant frequency adjustments across trials when continually exposed to formant-shifted auditory feedback. In Experiment II, we used electroencephalography to determine the same subjects' extent of pre-speech auditory modulation (reductions in auditory evoked potential N1 amplitude) when probe tones were delivered prior to speaking versus not speaking. To manipulate subjects' ability to monitor real-time feedback, we included speaking conditions with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF). Experiment I showed that auditory-motor learning was limited for AWS versus AWNS, and the extent of learning was negatively correlated with stuttering frequency. Experiment II yielded several key findings: (a) our prior finding of limited pre-speech auditory modulation in AWS was replicated; (b) DAF caused a decrease in auditory modulation for most AWNS but an increase for most AWS; and (c) for AWS, the amount of auditory modulation when speaking with DAF was positively correlated with stuttering frequency. Lastly, AWNS showed no correlation between pre-speech auditory modulation (Experiment II) and extent of auditory-motor learning (Experiment I) whereas AWS showed a negative correlation between these measures. Thus, findings suggest that AWS show deficits in both pre-speech auditory modulation and auditory-motor learning; however, limited pre

  9. Neurological aspects of stuttering: summary overview of scientific findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naudine Willemse

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide a summary overview of some of the more important scientific evidence of neurological differences between stutterers and non-stutterers. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ‘n opsommende oorsig te bied van die belangrikste wetenskaplike bewyse vir neurologiese verskille tussen mense wat hakkel en mense wat nie hakkel nie. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  10. Behavioural, emotional and social development of children who stutter

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Developmental stuttering may be associated with diminished psychological well-being which has been documented from late childhood onwards. It is important to establish the point at which behavioural, emotional and social problems emerge in children who stutter. Methods: The study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study, whose initial cohort comprised 18,818 children. Analysis involved data collected when the cohort members were 3, 5 and 11 years old. The association between parent...

  11. The Role of Explicit and Impelicit Memory in Stutteres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golavizh Karimi-Javan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders. However, its etiology is poorly understood, and is likely to be heterogeneous. Impairment of cognitive functions such as emotional memory and attention is one of the important factors. The aim of this research is to compare explicit and implicit memory between stutterers and normal individuals and also comparison of anxiety and depression between 2 groups. Materials & Methods: This is a case-control and analytical research.The participated individuals in this research were 30 male and female stutterers and the same number as the matched control group. The control group was matched for gender, age, education and bilingualism. The cue recall task performed to investigate explicit memory and the word stem completing task for implicit memory. The anxiety and depression of the individuals were measured by using general Hygiene Questionnaire (GHQ28 in this study. The performance of the individuals was measured based on positive and negative words in explicit and implicit memory and was compared with anxiety and depression score they obtained. Data was analyzed by using independent T-test, paired T-test, U-Man Witney and Willkaxon test. Results: The data indicated that stutterers recognized less emotionally positive words in explicit memory as compared with nonstutterers. Also, stutterers recognized more emotionally negative words as compared with emotionally positive words in explicit and implicit memory tasks (P<0/05. Additionally, stutterers showed more anxiety and depression as compared to nonstutterers. This difference was significant except for depression (P0.05. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the role of cognitive functions including emotional memory in motor speech programming and the difference in the function of positive versus negative emotional memories between stutterers and nonstutterers in this research, the role of emotional memory can be considered as an important

  12. Axis I anxiety and mental health disorders among stuttering adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Anthony; Menzies, Ross G; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Lowe, Robyn; Iverach, Lisa; Heard, Robert; Block, Susan

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12-14 years; n=20) and older adolescents (15-17 years; n=17). Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate-severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15-17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12-14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental

  13. Stuttering Intervention in Three Service Delivery Models (Direct, Hybrid, and Telepractice): Two Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    VALENTINE, DANIEL T.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed outcomes in stuttering intervention across three service delivery models: direct, hybrid, and telepractice for two 11-year old children who stutter. The goal of the study was to investigate whether short-term goals were maintained through the telepractice sessions. The Stuttering Severity Instrument, Fourth Edition (SSI-4) was administered to each child before and after each intervention period and weekly fluency samples (percentage of stuttered syllables in a monologue) w...

  14. SONO-OXIDATIVE PRE-TREATMENT OF WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE BEFORE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Şahinkaya

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of sonication, potassium ferrate (K2FeO4 oxidation and their simultaneous combination (called "sono-oxidative pre-treatment" on chemical properties and anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS were investigated and compared comprehensively. Based on chemical parameters, the optimum operating conditions were found to be 0.3 g K2FeO4/g total solids (TS dosage for 2-h individual K2FeO4 oxidation, 0.50 W/mL ultrasonic power density for 10-min individual sonication and, lastly, the combination of 2.5-min sonication at 0.75 W/mL ultrasonic power density with 2-h chemical oxidation at 0.3 g K2FeO4/g TS dosage for sono-oxidative pre-treatment. The disintegration efficiencies of these methods under the optimized conditions were in the following descending order: 37.8% for sono-oxidative pre-treatment > 26.3% for sonication > 13.1% for K2FeO4 oxidation. The influences of these methods on anaerobic biodegradability were tested with the biochemical methane potential assay. It was seen that the cumulative methane production increased by 9.2% in the K2FeO4 oxidation reactor, 15.8% in the sonicated reactor and 18.6% in the reactor with sono-oxidative pre-treatment, compared to the control (untreated reactor.

  15. Pre-treatment with a sinus node blockade, ivabradine, before coronary CT angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechtsen, J; Egstrup, K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether a simple pre-treatment regimen of sinus node inhibition by ivabradine taken at home for only 1 day resulted in a lower pre-scanning heart rate (HR) and reduced the need for intravenous beta-blockers (BB) prior to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA)....

  16. The role of pre-treatment proactive coping skills in successful weight management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Charlotte D. W.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Kroese, Floor M.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Proactive coping encompasses future-oriented self-regulatory skills that help people prepare for future difficulties before they occur, such as planning and monitoring. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay between pre-treatment proactive coping skills and expected

  17. Effects of thermo-chemical pre-treatment on anaerobic biodegradability and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, T.; Klaasse Bos, G.J.; Zeeman, G.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of different thermo-chemical pre-treatment methods were determined on the biodegradability and hydrolysis rate of lignocellulosic biomass. Three plant species, hay, straw and bracken were thermo-chemically pre-treated with calcium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate and maleic acid. After

  18. Dry ice blasting as a substitution for the conventional electroplating pre-treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlmann Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For high quality electroplated products, surfaces must be thoroughly pre-treated. For this purpose electroplating currently needs a variety of chemical baths. The used chemicals are injurious to health and harmful to the environment. In addition, the conventional pre-treatment has a long process time which results in high costs. Dry ice blasting alone or in combination with other processes has the potential to completely substitute these conventional pre-treatment processes. Three process sequences as pre-treatment methods prior to electroplating were investigated on the aluminium alloys AlSi12 and AlMg3. The used processes are dry ice blasting, tempering during dry ice blasting and glass bead blasting followed by dry ice blasting. The influence of the parameters on the surface roughness, surface topography and surface tension of the workpieces was examined. A model to describe the correlation between the dry ice blasting parameters and surface parameters was developed. Finally, an adhesion test of electroplated specimen was conducted in order to determine the suitability of these alternative pre-treatment processes.

  19. Effects of hydrothermal pre-treatments on Giant reed (Arundo donax) methane yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Girolamo, Giuseppe; Grigatti, Marco; Barbanti, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    /20min, 180°C/10min and 180°C/20min. Conversely, the eight pre-treatments with H2SO4 catalyst incurred a methanogenic inhibition in association with high SO42- concentration in the hydrolysate, known to enhance sulphate reducing bacteria. Furfurals were also detected in the hydrolysate of five strong...

  20. Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa (Benth) ... There has been emphasis on the use of indigenous tree species to check land ... out to investigate the most effective pre-sowing treatments to break seed dormancy and to ... Matured seeds of P. biglobosa were collected from farmers at Mbalagh ...

  1. Gambling Disorder: Exploring Pre-treatment and In-treatment Dropout Predictors. A UK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of treatment dropout in a sample of gamblers attending a specialist clinic for gambling disorder. We analysed data on 846 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Firstly, we investigated differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables between treatment completers and pre-treatment dropouts, as well as between treatment completers and during-treatment dropouts. Subsequently, variables were entered into a multinomial logistic regression model to identify significant predictors of pre-treatment and in-treatment dropout. Overall, 44.8% of clients did not complete the treatment: 27.4% dropped out before starting it, while 17.4% dropped out during the treatment. Younger age and use of drugs were associated with pre-treatment dropout, while family history of gambling disorder, a lower PGSI score, and being a smoker were related with in-treatment dropout. Our findings suggest that pre-treatment dropouts differ from in-treatment dropouts, and, thus, further research will benefit from considering these groups separately. In addition, this newly gained knowledge will also be helpful in increasing treatment retention in specific subgroups of problem gamblers.

  2. Investigation on the influence of pre-treatments on drying behaviour of broccoli by MRI experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) allows the monitoring of internal moisture content of food products during drying non-destructively. In an experimental set-up with continuous and controlled hot air supply, the internal moisture distribution of broccoli with different pre-treatments are

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of pre-treatment biopsy for grading cutaneous mast cell tumours in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, T; Kudnig, S T; Firestone, S M

    2018-06-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are common tumours of the canine skin, and are estimated to represent up to 20% of all skin tumours in dogs. Tumour grade has a major impact on the incidence of local recurrence and metastatic potential. In addition to helping the clinician with surgical planning, knowledge of the tumour grade also assists in proper prognostication and client education. For pre-treatment biopsies to be useful, there must exist a high level of correlation between the histopathological grade obtained from the pre-treatment biopsy and the actual histopathological grade from the excisional biopsy. The aim of this study was to determine concordance of tumour grade between various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch, needle core) and the "gold standard" excisional biopsy method. We found an overall concordance rate of 96% based on the Patnaik grading system, and an overall concordance rate of 92% based on the Kiupel grading system. The accuracy of the various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch and needle core) when compared with excisional biopsy was 92%, 100% and 100%, respectively, based on the Patnaik grading system, and 90%, 95% and 100%, respectively, based on the Kiupel grading system. Of the cases with discordant results, the pre-treatment biopsies tended to underestimate the grade of the tumour. Based on these results, we conclude that pre-treatment biopsies are sufficiently accurate for differentiating low-grade from high-grade MCTs, regardless of biopsy technique or tumour location. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Speech rhythm in Kannada speaking adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthy, Santosh; Venugopal, Sahana; Parakh, Priyanka

    2017-10-01

    A longstanding hypothesis about the underlying mechanisms of stuttering suggests that speech disfluencies may be associated with problems in timing and temporal patterning of speech events. Fifteen adults who do and do not stutter read five sentences, and from these, the vocalic and consonantal durations were measured. Using these, pairwise variability index (raw PVI for consonantal intervals and normalised PVI for vocalic intervals) and interval based rhythm metrics (PercV, DeltaC, DeltaV, VarcoC and VarcoV) were calculated for all the participants. Findings suggested higher mean values in adults who stutter when compared to adults who do not stutter for all the rhythm metrics except for VarcoV. Further, statistically significant difference between the two groups was found for all the rhythm metrics except for VarcoV. Combining the present results with consistent prior findings based on rhythm deficits in children and adults who stutter, there appears to be strong empirical support for the hypothesis that individuals who stutter may have deficits in generation of rhythmic speech patterns.

  5. Acoustic analyses of diadochokinesis in fluent and stuttering children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Staróbole Juste

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to acoustically compare the performance of children who do and do not stutter on diadochokinesis tasks in terms of syllable duration, syllable periods, and peak intensity. METHODS: In this case-control study, acoustical analyses were performed on 26 children who stutter and 20 agedmatched normally fluent children (both groups stratified into preschoolers and school-aged children during a diadochokinesis task: the repetition of articulatory segments through a task testing the ability to alternate movements. Speech fluency was assessed using the Fluency Profile and the Stuttering Severity Instrument. RESULTS: The children who stutter and those who do not did not significantly differ in terms of the acoustic patterns they produced in the diadochokinesis tasks. Significant differences were demonstrated between age groups independent of speech fluency. Overall, the preschoolers performed poorer. These results indicate that the observed differences are related to speech-motor age development and not to stuttering itself. CONCLUSIONS: Acoustic studies demonstrate that speech segment durations are most variable, both within and between subjects, during childhood and then gradually decrease to adult levels by the age of eleven to thirteen years. One possible explanation for the results of the present study is that children who stutter presented higher coefficients of variation to exploit the motor equivalence to achieve accurate sound production (i.e., the absence of speech disruptions.

  6. Cognitive flexibility in preschool children with and without stuttering disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorn, Naomi; Marton, Klara; Pirutinsky, Steven

    2017-11-13

    Multifactorial explanations of developmental stuttering suggest that difficulties in self-regulation and weak attentional flexibility contribute to persisting stuttering. We tested this prediction by examining whether preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) shift their attention less flexibly than children who do not stutter (CWNS) during a modified version of the Dimension Card Change Sort (DCCS), a reliable measure of attention switching for young children. Sixteen CWS (12 males) and 30 children CWNS (11 males) participated in the study. Groups were matched on age (CWS: M=49.63, SD=10.34, range=38-80months; CWNS: M=50.63, SD=9.82, range=37-74months), cognitive ability, and language skills. All children completed a computer-based variation of the DCCS, in which they matched on-screen bivalent stimuli to response buttons based on rules that switched mid-task. Results showed increased slowing for CWS compared to controls during the postswitch phase, as well as contrasting patterns of speed-accuracy tradeoff for CWS and CWNS as they moved from the preswitch to postswitch phase of the task. Group differences in performance suggest that early stuttering may be associated with difficulty shifting attention efficiently and greater concern about errors. Findings are consistent with a growing literature indicating links between weak attentional control and persisting developmental stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recovery of brain abscess-induced stuttering after neurosurgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Daisuke; Doutake, Youichi; Yokota, Hidenori; Watanabe, Eiju

    2018-05-12

    Stuttering occurs in approximately 5% of all children and 1% of adults. One type, neurogenic stuttering, is usually attributable to strokes or other structural damages to the brain areas that are responsible for language fluency. Here, we present the first case of neurogenic stuttering caused by a brain abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man admitted for a seizure and administered an anticonvulsant, after which he began stuttering. MRI revealed a brain abscess in the left frontal lobe that extended to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA (Brodmann's area) 9 and 46), frontal eye field (BA 8) and premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (BA 6). After neurosurgical drainage and antibiotic treatment, the symptoms had resolved. This case is unique in that the therapeutic effects and localisation of the cause of stuttering were rapidly identified, allowing for a more accurate description of the neural circuitry related to stuttering. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. In search of new methods. Qigong in stuttering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Półrola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Even though stuttering is probably as old a phenomenon as the human speech itself, the stuttering therapy is still a challenge for the therapist and requires constant searching for new methods. Qigong may prove to be one of them. Aim of the research: The research paper presents the results of an experimental investigation evaluating the usefulness of qigong practice in stuttering therapy. Material and methods: Two groups of stuttering adults underwent 6-month therapy. In group I – the experimental one (n = 11 – the therapy consisted of speech fluency training, psychotherapy and qigong practice. In group II – the control one (n = 12 – it included speech fluency training and psychotherapy. In both groups 2-hour sessions of speech fluency training and psychotherapy were conducted twice a week. Two-hour qigong sessions took place once a week. Results: After 6 months the therapy results were compared with regard to the basic stuttering parameters, such as the degree of speech disfluency, the level of logophobia and speech disfluency symptoms. Improvement was observed in both groups, the beneficial effects, however, being more prominent in the qigong-practising group. Conclusions : Qigong exercises used in the therapy of stuttering people along with speech fluency training and psychotherapy give beneficial effects.

  9. Speaker and Observer Perceptions of Physical Tension during Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichenor, Seth; Leslie, Paula; Shaiman, Susan; Yaruss, J Scott

    2017-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists routinely assess physical tension during evaluation of those who stutter. If speakers experience tension that is not visible to clinicians, then judgments of severity may be inaccurate. This study addressed this potential discrepancy by comparing judgments of tension by people who stutter and expert clinicians to determine if clinicians could accurately identify the speakers' experience of physical tension. Ten adults who stutter were audio-video recorded in two speaking samples. Two board-certified specialists in fluency evaluated the samples using the Stuttering Severity Instrument-4 and a checklist adapted for this study. Speakers rated their tension using the same forms, and then discussed their experiences in a qualitative interview so that themes related to physical tension could be identified. The degree of tension reported by speakers was higher than that observed by specialists. Tension in parts of the body that were less visible to the observer (chest, abdomen, throat) was reported more by speakers than by specialists. The thematic analysis revealed that speakers' experience of tension changes over time and that these changes may be related to speakers' acceptance of stuttering. The lack of agreement between speaker and specialist perceptions of tension suggests that using self-reports is a necessary component for supporting the accurate diagnosis of tension in stuttering. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Childhood Stuttering: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine

    2016-11-01

    Remarkable progress has been made over the past two decades in expanding our understanding of the behavioral, peripheral physiologic, and central neurophysiologic bases of stuttering in early childhood. It is clear that stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by atypical development of speech motor planning and execution networks. The speech motor system must interact in complex ways with neural systems mediating language and other cognitive and emotional processes. During the time when stuttering typically appears and follows its path to either recovery or persistence, all of these neurobehavioral systems are undergoing rapid and dramatic developmental changes. We summarize our current understanding of the various developmental trajectories relevant for the understanding of stuttering in early childhood. We also present theoretical and experimental approaches that we believe will be optimal for even more rapid progress toward developing better and more targeted treatment for stuttering in the preschool children who are more likely to persist in stuttering. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Genetic Bases of Stuttering: The State of the Art, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Yairi, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Objective The literature on the genetics of stuttering is reviewed with special reference to the historical development from psychosocial explanations leading up to current biological research of gene identification. Summary A gradual progression has been made from the early crude methods of counting percentages of stuttering probands who have relatives who stutter to recent studies using entire genomes of DNA collected from each participant. Despite the shortcomings of some early studies, investigators have accumulated a substantial body of data showing a large presence of familial stuttering. This encouraged more refined research in the form of twin studies. Concordance rates among twins were sufficiently high to lend additional support to the genetic perspective of stuttering. More sophisticated aggregation studies and segregation analyses followed, producing data that matched recognized genetic models, providing the final ‘go ahead’ to proceed from the behavior/statistical genetics into the sphere of biological genetics. Recent linkage and association studies have begun to reveal contributing genes to the disorder. Conclusion No definitive findings have been made regarding which transmission model, chromosomes, genes, or sex factors are involved in the expression of stuttering in the population at large. Future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22067705

  12. The Neurobiological Grounding of Persistent Stuttering: from Structure to Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Anwander, Alfred; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation provide insights into the neuronal mechanisms underlying speech disfluencies in chronic persistent stuttering. In the present paper, the goal is not to provide an exhaustive review of existing literature, but rather to highlight robust findings. We, therefore, conducted a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies which have recently implicated disrupted white matter connectivity in stuttering. A reduction of fractional anisotropy in persistent stuttering has been reported at several different loci. Our meta-analysis revealed consistent deficits in the left dorsal stream and in the interhemispheric connections between the sensorimotor cortices. In addition, recent fMRI meta-analyses link stuttering to reduced left fronto-parieto-temporal activation while greater fluency is associated with boosted co-activations of right fronto-parieto-temporal areas. However, the physiological foundation of these irregularities is not accessible with MRI. Complementary, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) reveals local excitatory and inhibitory regulation of cortical dynamics. Applied to a speech motor area, TMS revealed reduced speech-planning-related neuronal dynamics at the level of the primary motor cortex in stuttering. Together, this review provides a focused view of the neurobiology of stuttering to date and may guide the rational design of future research. This future needs to account for the perpetual dynamic interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and speech motor circuits that shape fluent speech.

  13. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Tahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory processing deficits have been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism for stuttering. Previous studies have demonstrated abnormal responses in subjects with persistent developmental stuttering (PDS at the higher level of the central auditory system using speech stimuli. Recently, the potential usefulness of speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in central auditory processing disorders has been emphasized. The current study used the speech evoked ABR to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with PDS have specific auditory perceptual dysfunction. Objectives. To determine whether brainstem responses to speech stimuli differ between PDS subjects and normal fluent speakers. Methods. Twenty-five subjects with PDS participated in this study. The speech-ABRs were elicited by the 5-formant synthesized syllable/da/, with duration of 40 ms. Results. There were significant group differences for the onset and offset transient peaks. Subjects with PDS had longer latencies for the onset and offset peaks relative to the control group. Conclusions. Subjects with PDS showed a deficient neural timing in the early stages of the auditory pathway consistent with temporal processing deficits and their abnormal timing may underlie to their disfluency.

  14. Duration of Stuttered Syllables Measured by “Computerized Scoring of the Stuttering Severity (CSSS” and “Pratt”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezai

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Higher reliability and replicability of duration values calculated by Praat software indicates that this software can be applied for more precise determination of duration of stuttered syllables. 

  15. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social Anxiety and the Severity and Typography of Stuttering in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Kylie; Hennessey, Neville; Beilby, Janet; Byrnes, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between anxiety, attitude toward daily communication, and stuttering symptomatology in adolescent stuttering. Adolescents who stuttered (n = 19) showed significantly higher levels of trait, state and social anxiety than fluent speaking controls (n = 18). Trait and state anxiety was significantly…

  17. Speech production in people who stutter: Testing the motor plan assembly hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, P.H.H.M. van; Hulstijn, W.; Peters, H.F.M.

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that persons who stutter, when compared to persons who do not stutter, are less able to assemble abstract motor plans for short verbal responses. Subjects were adult males who stutter and age- and sex-matched control speakers, who were

  18. Prevalence of risk factors for stuttering among boys: analytical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Moço Canhetti Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions.DESIGN AND SETTING:Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university.METHODS: The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC and non-stuttering children (NSC, with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering.RESULTS:There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses.CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.

  19. Struggling in Silence: A Qualitative Study of Six African American Male Stutterers in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Antonio L.; Hartlep, Nicholas D.

    2017-01-01

    Stuttering places students at-risk for being stereotyped and experiencing identity difficulties in school. This study hoped to fill a lacuna in the literature on the educational experiences of African American male stutterers. Six African American adult males who stuttered and lived in Washington, DC; Maryland; and/or Virginia participated in this…

  20. Autonomic and Emotional Responses of Graduate Student Clinicians in Speech-Language Pathology to Stuttered Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, Vijaya K.; Nanjundeswaran, Chayadevie; Dayalu, Vikram N.; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluent speakers and people who stutter manifest alterations in autonomic and emotional responses as they view stuttered relative to fluent speech samples. These reactions are indicative of an aroused autonomic state and are hypothesized to be triggered by the abrupt breakdown in fluency exemplified in stuttered speech. Furthermore,…

  1. Event- and interval-based measurement of stuttering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ana Rita S; Jesus, Luis M T; Hall, Andreia; Leahy, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Event- and interval-based measurements are two different ways of computing frequency of stuttering. Interval-based methodology emerged as an alternative measure to overcome problems associated with reproducibility in the event-based methodology. No review has been made to study the effect of methodological factors in interval-based absolute reliability data or to compute the agreement between the two methodologies in terms of inter-judge, intra-judge and accuracy (i.e., correspondence between raters' scores and an established criterion). To provide a review related to reproducibility of event-based and time-interval measurement, and to verify the effect of methodological factors (training, experience, interval duration, sample presentation order and judgment conditions) on agreement of time-interval measurement; in addition, to determine if it is possible to quantify the agreement between the two methodologies The first two authors searched for articles on ERIC, MEDLINE, PubMed, B-on, CENTRAL and Dissertation Abstracts during January-February 2013 and retrieved 495 articles. Forty-eight articles were selected for review. Content tables were constructed with the main findings. Articles related to event-based measurements revealed values of inter- and intra-judge greater than 0.70 and agreement percentages beyond 80%. The articles related to time-interval measures revealed that, in general, judges with more experience with stuttering presented significantly higher levels of intra- and inter-judge agreement. Inter- and intra-judge values were beyond the references for high reproducibility values for both methodologies. Accuracy (regarding the closeness of raters' judgements with an established criterion), intra- and inter-judge agreement were higher for trained groups when compared with non-trained groups. Sample presentation order and audio/video conditions did not result in differences in inter- or intra-judge results. A duration of 5 s for an interval appears to be

  2. Evaluation of chemical, thermobaric and thermochemical pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of high-fat cattle slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter W; Schmidt, Thomas; McCabe, Bernadette K

    2017-11-01

    This work aimed to enhance the anaerobic digestion of fat-rich dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge through chemical, thermobaric, and thermochemical pre-treatment methods. Soluble chemical oxygen demand was enhanced from 16.3% in the control to 20.84% (thermobaric), 40.82% (chemical), and 50.7% (thermochemical). Pre-treatment altered volatile fatty acid concentration by -64% (thermobaric), 127% (chemical) and 228% (thermochemical). Early inhibition was reduced by 20% in the thermochemical group, and 100% in the thermobaric group. Specific methane production was enhanced by 3.28% (chemical), 8.32% (thermobaric), and 8.49% (thermochemical) as a result of pre-treatment. Under batch digestion, thermobaric pre-treatment demonstrated the greatest improvement in methane yield with respect to degree of pre-treatment applied. Thermobaric pre-treatment was also the most viable for implementation at slaughterhouses, with potential for heat-exchange to reduce pre-treatment cost. Further investigation into long-term impact of pre-treatments in semi-continuous digestion experiments will provide additional evaluation of appropriate pre-treatment options for high-fat slaughterhouse wastewater. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between the experience of stuttering and demographic characteristics of adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Debora; Kichin-Brin, Marina; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Roziner, Ilan; Amir, Ofer

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to examine the association between adults' experience of stuttering and their age, gender and marital status, as well as to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Hebrew version of the OASES-A. The Hebrew version of the OASES-A was administered to 91 adults-who-stutter. The validity of the translated version was evaluated using a subset of 43 participants, who also completed three additional instruments: (a) a Perceived Stuttering Severity (PSS) self-rating scale, (b) the Situation Avoidance Behavior Checklist (SABC), (c) the Students Life Satisfaction scale (SLSS). Finally, the correlations between the participants' OASES-A scores and their age, gender and marital status were calculated. A negative correlation was found between the participants' OASES-A impact scores and their age (pstuttering, whereas gender is not. In addition, the Hebrew version of the OASES-A is valid and comparable with equivalent versions in other languages. This facilitates the application of the OASES-A in future clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonword repetition in adults who stutter: The effects of stimuli stress and auditory-orthographic cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Coalson

    Full Text Available Adults who stutter (AWS are less accurate in their immediate repetition of novel phonological sequences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS. The present study examined whether manipulation of the following two aspects of traditional nonword repetition tasks unmask distinct weaknesses in phonological working memory in AWS: (1 presentation of stimuli with less-frequent stress patterns, and (2 removal of auditory-orthographic cues immediately prior to response.Fifty-two participants (26 AWS, 26 AWNS produced 12 bisyllabic nonwords in the presence of corresponding auditory-orthographic cues (i.e., immediate repetition task, and the absence of auditory-orthographic cues (i.e., short-term recall task. Half of each cohort (13 AWS, 13 AWNS were exposed to the stimuli with high-frequency trochaic stress, and half (13 AWS, 13 AWNS were exposed to identical stimuli with lower-frequency iambic stress.No differences in immediate repetition accuracy for trochaic or iambic nonwords were observed for either group. However, AWS were less accurate when recalling iambic nonwords than trochaic nonwords in the absence of auditory-orthographic cues.Manipulation of two factors which may minimize phonological demand during standard nonword repetition tasks increased the number of errors in AWS compared to AWNS. These findings suggest greater vulnerability in phonological working memory in AWS, even when producing nonwords as short as two syllables.

  5. The experiences of living with a sibling who stutters: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Janet M; Byrnes, Michelle L; Young, Kate N

    2012-06-01

    Stuttering impacts on the child in a variety of ways, notably in terms of communicative impairment and psychosocial impact. In addition, the stuttering disorder has a holistic impact, affecting those with whom the child who stutters lives. Within the family constellation, the closest person to the individual who stutters is often their sibling. This study investigated the experiences of fluent siblings of children who stutter to examine the impact that stuttering may have on their lives. A mixed methods research design incorporated qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative questionnaires. The results of the qualitative investigation revealed four aspects of children's lives that were affected by having a sibling who stuttered: the relationship between siblings, the impact on the fluent sibling, the impact on the parent relationship with both children, and the impact on the sibling's relationship with others. Findings revealed that siblings of children who stutter exhibited strongly negative emotions, and differing levels of responsibility associated with their involvement in the actual stuttering management programme. Furthermore, for the fluent sibling, secondary to having a brother or sister who stuttered, communication with and attention from their parents was variable. The results of the quantitative component of the study revealed children who stutter and their siblings demonstrated significantly greater closeness, and concurrently, increased conflict and status disparity than did the control fluent sibling dyads. The parents of the experimental sibling dyads also demonstrated significantly greater partiality towards a child, namely the child who stuttered, than did the parents of the control sibling dyads. The reader will be able to: (1) identify the themes associated with having a sibling who stutters; (2) identify how the quality of the sibling relationship differs between sibling dyads that do and do not consist of a sibling who stutters; and

  6. Public attitudes toward-and identification of-cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Kenneth O; Sønsterud, Hilda; Carlo, Edna J; Heitmann, Ragnhild R; Kvenseth, Helene

    2014-12-01

    The study sought to compare public attitudes toward cluttering versus stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico and to compare respondents' identification of persons known with these fluency disorders. After reading lay definitions of cluttering and stuttering, three samples of adults from Norway and three from Puerto Rico rated their attitudes toward cluttering and/or stuttering on modified versions of the POSHA-Cl (for cluttering) and POSHA-S (for stuttering). They also identified children and adults whom they knew who either or both manifested cluttering or stuttering. Attitudes toward cluttering were essentially unaffected by rating either cluttering only or combined cluttering and stuttering on the same questionnaire in both countries. The same was also true of stuttering. Attitudes were very similar toward both disorders although slightly less positive for cluttering. Norwegian attitudes toward both disorders were generally more positive than Puerto Rican attitudes. The average respondent identified slightly more than one fluency disorder, a higher percentage for stuttering than cluttering and higher for adults than children. Cluttering-stuttering was rarely identified. Given a lay definition, this study confirmed that adults from diverse cultures hold attitudes toward cluttering that are similar to-but somewhat less positive than-their attitudes toward stuttering. It also confirmed that adults can identify cluttering among people they know, although less commonly than stuttering. Design controls in this study assured that consideration of stuttering did not affect either the attitudes or identification results for cluttering. The reader will be able to: (a) describe the effects-or lack thereof-of considerations of stuttering on attitudes toward cluttering; (b) describe differences in public identification of children and adults who either clutter or stutter; (c) describe differences between attitudes toward cluttering and stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico

  7. Improving the sludge disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinkaya, S; Sevimli, M F; Aygün, A

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious problems encountered in biological wastewater treatment processes is the production of waste activated sludge (WAS). Sonication, which is an energy-intensive process, is the most powerful sludge pre-treatment method. Due to lack of information about the combined pre-treatment methods of sonication, the combined pre-treatment methods were investigated and it was aimed to improve the disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining sonication with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods in this study. The process performances were evaluated based on the quantities of increases in soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), protein and carbohydrate. The releases of soluble COD, carbohydrate and protein by the combined methods were higher than those by sonication, alkalization and thermal pre-treatment alone. Degrees of sludge disintegration in various options of sonication were in the following descending order: sono-alkalization > sono-thermal pre-treatment > sonication. Therefore, it was determined that combining sonication with alkalization significantly improved the sludge disintegration and decreased the required energy to reach the same yield by sonication. In addition, effects on sludge settleability and dewaterability and kinetic mathematical modelling of pre-treatment performances of these methods were investigated. It was proven that the proposed model accurately predicted the efficiencies of ultrasonic pre-treatment methods.

  8. The effect of lime pre-treatments of date palm leaves on delignification and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, M.; Ahmadi, F.; Rajaee Rad, A.; Zamiri, M.J.; Cone, J.W.; Polikarpov, I.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of lime pre-treatment on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability of date palm leaves (DPL). Lime pre-treatments, with or without oxygen supply, were applied for 1, 2 and 3 weeks at 25 and 40 °C. Lime was neutralized by the

  9. Pre-treatment Social Anxiety Severity Moderates the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277

  10. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural (furan-2-carboxaldehyde), formed during dilute acid hydrolysis of biomass, is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. The present study used a biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model biofuel fermentation broth. The pre-treatment in...

  11. Effect of sample pre-treatment on the determination of steroid esters in hair of bovine calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of three sample pre-treatment steps, washing, cutting and grinding on the determination of steroid esters in hair is studied. The study is performed by using hair samples obtained after pour-on application of steroid esters to bovine calves. After sample pre-treatment the hair is treated

  12. Effects of chemical-physical pre-treatment processes on hemp fibres for reinforcement of composites and textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bohn, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    Retted hemp fibres were treated using chemical-physical pre-treatments and the material was characterised chemically in order to evaluate the effect of the pre-treatments, respectively, wet oxidation (WO), hydrothermal treatment (HT) and steam explosion (STEX). Process variables were addition...

  13. Study on the pre-treatment of oxidized zinc ore prior to flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-sheng; Chen, Yun; Xiang, Ping; Yu, Zheng-jun; Potgieter, J. H.

    2018-02-01

    The pre-treatment of zinc oxide bearing ores with high slime content is important to ensure that resources are utilized optimally. This paper reports an improved process using hydrocyclone de-sliming, dispersion reagents, and magnetic removal of iron minerals for the pre-treatment of zinc oxide ore with a high slime and iron content, and the benefits compared to traditional technologies are shown. In addition, this paper investigates the damage related to fine slime and iron during zinc oxide flotation, the necessity of using hydrocyclone de-sliming together with dispersion reagents to alleviate the influence of slime, and interactions among hydrocyclone de-sliming, reagent dispersion, and magnetic iron removal. Results show that under optimized operating conditions the entire beneficiation technology results in a flotation concentrate with a Zn grade of 34.66% and a recovery of 73.41%.

  14. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared...... germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments at batch-scale of sludge samples from two WWTPs using anaerobic digestion, and thermal and ozonation pre......-treatments. Glyphosate and eco-labelled soil were used as references. Inhibition of germination of seeds exposed to the glyphosate and sludge was registered and thus germination was successfully applied for sludge ecotoxicity assessment, and using the root elongation as the end-point was both faster and more precise...

  15. Pre-treatment technology for electrochemical detection of heavy metal lead and cadmium in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke YAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wet digestion is used as the pre-treatment technology for the electrochemical detection of heavy metals in food, and the complete wet digestion condition of food sample is optimized by electrochemical experiments. The results show that the experimental samples can be digested completely using the Nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide system and is not pre-digested after adding 10 mL nitric acid at 120~140 ℃ and adding 10~15 mL of hydrogen peroxide during the heating process. The correlation coefficient of electrochemical detect is 0.99 for digestion solution of the samples, and the recovery of standard addition is 82%~115%. Wet digestion as a pre-treatment technology of food samples. It can digest sample fully and meet the requirements of electrochemical detection.

  16. FMECA about pre-treatment system for purge gas of test blanket module in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wanfa; Luo Deli; Tang Tao

    2012-01-01

    The pre-treatment system for purge gas of TBM will be installed in Port Cell for installing TBM in ITER, the function of which includes filtering purge gas, removing HTO, cooling, and adjusting flow rate, etc. The purge gas treated will be conveyed into TES (Tritium Extraction System). The technological process and system components in pre-treatment system were introduced. Tritium releasing risk was regarded as failure criterion; failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) were carried out and several weaknesses or failure mode in the system were found. Besides, risk priority number (RPN) and failure mode criticality were calculated. Finally, some design improvement measures and usage compensation measures were given. At last, four important potential failure modes were found out. The analysis will provide the design basis for reducing risk of excessive tritium releasing, which is also a useful assist for safety analysis about other tritium system. (authors)

  17. Use of basic and specific pre-treatments for the biogas production. Revision and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez Hernández, Carlos M.; García López, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in mind the importance that has today the use of national and international biogas plants, which use as raw material animal manure; as well as agricultural and agroindustrial residuals for the energy production and biofertilizers, minimizing the aspects of environmental contamination. This work is presented in three parts, in those which: firstly the technologies and the methods are described to apply the basic and special pre-treatments to the different biomass in order to obtain their maximum potential of methane. A second part where it is approached the particularities to do that. Finally, a third part where their possible use is analyzed in the Cuban case. As a result of the same one, the state of the art is shown in the use of basic and special pre-treatments, with the objective of to potentialize the increase of the methane production in agricultural or animal biomasses. (author)

  18. Fibrillation of Aspen by Alkaline Cold Pre-treatment and Vibration Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄRNER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt to fibrillate aspen bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP fibre in an environmentally friendly way is reported. The effects of various NaOH, KOH, urea and ethanol aqueous solutions at lowered temperature were tested for pre-treatment. The pre-treatment was followed by vibration milling aiming to peel off outer cell wall layers and to fibrillate S2 layer of the aspen wood fibre. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that it is possible to fibrillate BCTMP aspen fibres by using alkaline aqueous solutions at low temperatures followed by a mechanical treatment. A strong dependence on fibrillation of cellulose on temperature, time and alkali concentration was established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7412

  19. Speech Remediation of Long-Term Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty L. McMicken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research article describes the remediation of moderate stuttering in an adult client who experienced speech dysfluency for more than 40 years. Treatment took place at an urban residential rehabilitation mission where the client was court sentenced for a history of felonies and current narcotic sales and use. In conjunction with the operant conditioning instruction of the rehabilitation mission, the Ryan Fluency Program was implemented along with the initial use of pause time in response to the complex needs of the client. The article provides an overview of the assessment (Fluency Interviews, Criterion Tests and treatment program. At present, 2.5 years post-initiation of treatment, the client has reported and been observed to have achieved smooth, forward-flowing, natural sounding speech throughout his work environment, family interaction, and daily life.

  20. Korean speech-language pathologists' attitudes toward stuttering according to clinical experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjae

    2014-11-01

    Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there have been few empirical studies on the attitudes of Korean SLPs toward stuttering. To determine whether the attitudes of Korean SLPs and speech-language pathology students toward stuttering would be different according to the status of clinical certification, stuttering coursework completion and clinical practicum in stuttering. Survey data from 37 certified Korean SLPs and 70 undergraduate students majoring in speech-language pathology were analysed. All the participants completed the modified Clinician Attitudes Toward Stuttering (CATS) Inventory. Results showed that the diagnosogenic view was still accepted by many participants. Significant differences were found in seven out of 46 CATS Inventory items according to the certification status. In addition significant differences were also found in three items and one item according to stuttering coursework completion and clinical practicum experience in stuttering, respectively. Clinical and educational experience appears to have mixed influences on SLPs' and students' attitudes toward stuttering. While SLPs and students may demonstrate more appropriate understanding and knowledge in certain areas of stuttering, they may feel difficulty in their clinical experience, possibly resulting in low self-efficacy. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  1. Diffevential Diagnosis of Frimary Stuttering and Normal Nonfluency in Children Referring to Saba Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early Diagnosis and intervention of primary stuttering is the key for prevention of chronic developmental stuttering. Normal nonfluency of children under 5 years old is an important differential diagnosis of primary stuttering. The goals of this research are finding accuracy of diagnoses on children referred to Saba speech therapy Clinic labeled as normal nonfluency and introducing move precise methods of differential diagnosis.  Materials & Methods: The research method is case series study in which through simple sampling procedure stuttering children referring to SabA Clinic during 1382 & 83 were studied. 10. Research tools and data collection consist of: questionnair, spontaneous speech sample recording and determining VOT using laryngograph processor. It should be noted that because normative date of stutteres VOT the lack of the normal subjects VOT are analysed and comared with stutterers. Results: Based on numerical criteria, our findings indicate that only one of stutterers was normal nonfluent and the others were stutteres. VOT data of stutteres also were compared to that of normal matched children. The results revealed that all of stutterers had significantly (P<0.05 longer VOT than normal subjects . Conclusion: This study provides a good numeric and clinical index for speech language pathologists for diagnosis of primary stuttering and normal nonfluency. Morover,. using VOT would help accurate diagnosis.

  2. Exploring risk factors for stuttering development in Parkinson disease after deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picillo, Marina; Vincos, Gustavo B; Sammartino, Francesco; Lozano, Andres M; Fasano, Alfonso

    2017-05-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder with disruption of verbal fluency, occasionally present in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD co-incident stuttering may either worsen or improve after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Sixteen out of 453 PD patients (3.5%) exhibited stuttering after DBS (PD-S) and were compared with a group of patients without stuttering (PD-NS) using non-parametric statistics. After DBS, stuttering worsened in 3 out of 4 patients with co-incidental stuttering. Most PD-S underwent subthalamic (STN) DBS, but 4 were implanted in the globus pallidus (GPi). Nine out of 16 PD-S (56.3%) reported a positive familial history for stuttering compared to none of the PD-NS. PD-S were mainly male (81.3%) with slight worse motor features compared to PD-NS. Herein, we describe a group of PD patients developing stuttering after DBS and report the presence of a positive familial history for stuttering as the most relevant risk factor, suggesting a possible underlying genetic cause. The fact that stuttering occurred after either STN or GPi DBS is an argument against the impact of medication reduction on stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determining the effect of laser acupuncture in treating stutterers in comparison with speech therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Shafiei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigation of strategies and methods of therapy in stutterers regarding to its characteristics, length of treatment, and relapse of stuttering is very important. Acupuncture has been introduced as a therapeutic method for the treatment of stuttering. The aim of the present research was the identification of the results of intervention of laser acupuncture in comparison with speech therapy in stutterers. Materials and Methods: This clinical - trial and case control research was conducted on 20 stutterers and 20 non-stutterers. In the present study, speech therapy and laser acupuncture were used on 10 persons who had developmental stuttering from childhood. Results: The results were compared with the data of speech therapy and placebo laser in 10 control subjects. All of the subjects were followed up for 12 weeks after the intervention. The obtained data showed that accompanying of speech therapy with laser acupuncture resulted the increasing of maintenance and therapeutic effects of stuttering treatment and decreasing of relapsing. The speech rate and percent of stuttered words before and after the intervention in both groups (A and B were decreased. Following the results after 12 weeks showed that the results were stable in laser group more than the other group and there was a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that using of laser acupuncture therapy accompanying by speech therapy has many effects on the treatment of stuttering and prevents the relapsing of stuttering that is very common.

  4. Time dependent pre-treatment EPID dosimetry for standard and FFF VMAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, Mark; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M J J G; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Scheib, Stefan G; Baltes, Christof; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-08-21

    Methods to calibrate Megavoltage electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetry have been previously documented for dynamic treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using flattened beams and typically using integrated fields. While these methods verify the accumulated field shape and dose, the dose rate and differential fields remain unverified. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate calibration model for time dependent pre-treatment dose verification using amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for both flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beams. A general calibration model was created using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator, equipped with an aS1000 EPID, for each photon spectrum 6 MV, 10 MV, 6 MV-FFF, 10 MV-FFF. As planned VMAT treatments use control points (CPs) for optimization, measured images are separated into corresponding time intervals for direct comparison with predictions. The accuracy of the calibration model was determined for a range of treatment conditions. Measured and predicted CP dose images were compared using a time dependent gamma evaluation using criteria (3%, 3 mm, 0.5 sec). Time dependent pre-treatment dose verification is possible without an additional measurement device or phantom, using the on-board EPID. Sufficient data is present in trajectory log files and EPID frame headers to reliably synchronize and resample portal images. For the VMAT plans tested, significantly more deviation is observed when analysed in a time dependent manner for FFF and non-FFF plans than when analysed using only the integrated field. We show EPID-based pre-treatment dose verification can be performed on a CP basis for VMAT plans. This model can measure pre-treatment doses for both flattened and unflattened beams in a time dependent manner which highlights deviations that are missed in integrated field verifications.

  5. Influence of different pre-treatment routes on the anaerobic digestion of a filamentous algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Poulsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    biomass blending (20% compared to use of a mechanical size reduction method alone. The methane yields from Rhizoclonium biomass were however observed to be considerably lower than those of other algae species from......The anaerobic digestion of outdoor cultivated Rhizoclonium biomass was investigated in this study. The influence of applying mechanical and biological pre-treatment methods prior to the biomass digestion on the overall methane yields was examined. The results show that the application of a combined...

  6. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Multicentre validation of IMRT pre-treatment verification: Comparison of in-house and external audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornet, Núria; Carrasco, Pablo; Beltrán, Mercè; Calvo, Juan Francisco; Escudé, Lluís; Hernández, Victor; Quera, Jaume; Sáez, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: We performed a multicentre intercomparison of IMRT optimisation and dose planning and IMRT pre-treatment verification methods and results. The aims were to check consistency between dose plans and to validate whether in-house pre-treatment verification results agreed with those of an external audit. Materials and methods: Participating centres used two mock cases (prostate and head and neck) for the intercomparison and audit. Compliance to dosimetric goals and total number of MU per plan were collected. A simple quality index to compare the different plans was proposed. We compared gamma index pass rates using the centre’s equipment and methodology to those of an external audit. Results: While for the prostate case, all centres fulfilled the dosimetric goals and plan quality was homogeneous, that was not the case for the head and neck case. The number of MU did not correlate with the plan quality index. Pre-treatment verifications results of the external audit did not agree with those of the in-house measurements for two centres: being within tolerance for in-house measurements and unacceptable for the audit or the other way round. Conclusions: Although all plans fulfilled dosimetric constraints, plan quality is highly dependent on the planner expertise. External audits are an excellent tool to detect errors in IMRT implementation and cannot be replaced by intercomparison using results obtained by centres

  8. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tailoring degradation of AZ31 alloy by surface pre-treatment and electrospun PCL fibrous coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanas, T. [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, Kerala 673601 (India); Sampath Kumar, T.S., E-mail: tssk@iitm.ac.in [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Perumal, Govindaraj; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology - Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-08-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy was coated with polycaprolactone (PCL) nano-fibrous layer using electrospinning technique so as to control degradation in physiological environment. Before coating, the alloy was treated with HNO{sub 3} to have good adhesion between the coating and substrate. To elucidate the role of pre-treatment and coating, samples only with PCL coating as well as HNO{sub 3} treatment only were prepared for comparison. Best coating adhesion of 4B grade by ASTM D3359–09 tape test was observed for pre-treated samples. The effect of coating on in vitro degradation and biomineralization was studied using supersaturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5 ×). The weight loss and corrosion results obtained by immersion test showed that the combination of HNO{sub 3} pre-treatment and PCL coating is very effective in controlling the degradation rate and improving bioactivity. Cytotoxicity studies using L6 cells showed that PCL coated sample has better cell adhesion and proliferation compared to uncoated samples. Nano-fibrous PCL coating combined with prior acid treatment seems to be a promising method to tailor degradation rate with enhanced bioactivity of Mg alloys. - Highlights: • PCL electrospun coating on HNO{sub 3} pre-treated AZ31 alloy controls biodegradation. • Acid pre-treatment stabilizes the substrate - coating interface. • Electrospun porous coating improves biomineralization. • Coating similar to extracellular matrix enhances cell adhesion.

  10. Effect of the pre-treatment on the performance of MBR, Berghausen WWTP. Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat A.E. Moustafa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pilot scale experiments were carried out to examine the effect of the pre-treatment methods on the performance of MBR. The PURON® MBR module was used in this study. In order to investigate the effect of pre-treatment on the behaviour of membrane, samples were withdrawn at different locations in Berghausen WWTP. During the first period samples have been collected directly from the main source as raw sewage to determine its main characteristics. During the second period samples have been screened with screening 1 mm filter material to prevent debris from damaging the membrane. During the third phase samples have been taken after the primary settling tank to have the benefits of filtering out unwanted trash, removing scum and floating debris. The study showed that the membrane bio-reactor filters out nearly all solids, the pre-treatment has a positive effect on the MBR performance, and the pre-sedimentation is more effective than fine screening. Moreover, aeration is considered as one of the intrinsic parameters in both hydraulic and biological process performances because of its ability to maintain solids in suspension, scours the membrane surface, limits fouling, and provide oxygen to the biomass, which results in a better biodegradability.

  11. Pre-treatment of Biomass By Rolling - A Combined Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Ravn, Christian; Nielsen, Emil Krabbe

    2017-01-01

    Pre-treatment of bulk straw material by rolling is studied as a possible method to prepare for subsequent biogas production. A combined experimental and theoretical study is presented. A pilot rolling mill with a double screw feeder is designed and constructed for crushing of bulk straw. Experime...... process window for pre-treatment of wheat straw by roll pressing varying the feed, the roll gap, the roll speed and the moisture content of the bulk straw.......Pre-treatment of bulk straw material by rolling is studied as a possible method to prepare for subsequent biogas production. A combined experimental and theoretical study is presented. A pilot rolling mill with a double screw feeder is designed and constructed for crushing of bulk straw....... Experiments show that the roll speed and the roll reduction should be chosen within a specific range depending on the injection screw speed to avoid blocking or insufficient compaction. A mechanical testing procedure of the bulk straw material including closed die compaction testing as well as simple...

  12. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

  13. Antisense pre-treatment increases gene therapy efficacy in dystrophic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccate, Cécile; Mollard, Amédée; Le Hir, Maëva; Julien, Laura; McClorey, Graham; Jarmin, Susan; Le Heron, Anita; Dickson, George; Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Sofia; Piétri-Rouxel, France; Wood, Matthew J; Voit, Thomas; Lorain, Stéphanie

    2016-08-15

    In preclinical models for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dystrophin restoration during adeno-associated virus (AAV)-U7-mediated exon-skipping therapy was shown to decrease drastically after six months in treated muscles. This decline in efficacy is strongly correlated with the loss of the therapeutic AAV genomes, probably due to alterations of the dystrophic myofiber membranes. To improve the membrane integrity of the dystrophic myofibers at the time of AAV-U7 injection, mdx muscles were pre-treated with a single dose of the peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PPMO) antisense oligonucleotides that induced temporary dystrophin expression at the sarcolemma. The PPMO pre-treatment allowed efficient maintenance of AAV genomes in mdx muscles and enhanced the AAV-U7 therapy effect with a ten-fold increase of the protein level after 6 months. PPMO pre-treatment was also beneficial to AAV-mediated gene therapy with transfer of micro-dystrophin cDNA into muscles. Therefore, avoiding vector genome loss after AAV injection by PPMO pre-treatment would allow efficient long-term restoration of dystrophin and the use of lower and thus safer vector doses for Duchenne patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect of some pre-treatments on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, S.; Guerses, A.; Bayrak, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments, such as HCl treatment, demineralization and pyrolysis, under a CO 2 atmosphere at different temperatures on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite were investigated. The adsorption capacities of the samples were determined before and after these pre-treatments. In addition, the removals of pyritic and organic sulfur and ash contents for the same coal samples were also defined. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the samples decreased after these pre-treatments. The decrease in adsorption capacity with pyrolysis can be attributed to the changes in surface morphology and/or pore size distribution of the coal samples. On the other hand, the observed decrease in adsorption capacity with removal of carbonates and silicates shows that these minerals have an important effect on methylene blue adsorption, and the adsorption considerably occurs through electrostatic interactions. In addition, the obtained results showed that the organic sulfur presence in the coal matrix have a positive effect on the methylene blue adsorption

  15. SU-E-T-148: Benchmarks and Pre-Treatment Reviews: A Study of Quality Assurance Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenstein, J; Nguyen, H; Roll, J; Walsh, A; Tailor, A; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews have on improving the quality of submitted clinical trial data. Methods: Benchmarks are used to evaluate a site’s ability to develop a treatment that meets a specific protocol’s treatment guidelines prior to placing their first patient on the protocol. A pre-treatment review is an actual patient placed on the protocol in which the dosimetry and contour volumes are evaluated to be per protocol guidelines prior to allowing the beginning of the treatment. A key component of these QA mechanisms is that sites are provided timely feedback to educate them on how to plan per the protocol and prevent protocol deviations on patients accrued to a protocol. For both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews a dose volume analysis (DVA) was performed using MIM softwareTM. For pre-treatment reviews a volume contour evaluation was also performed. Results: IROC Houston performed a QA effectiveness analysis of a protocol which required both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews. In 70 percent of the patient cases submitted, the benchmark played an effective role in assuring that the pre-treatment review of the cases met protocol requirements. The 35 percent of sites failing the benchmark subsequently modified there planning technique to pass the benchmark before being allowed to submit a patient for pre-treatment review. However, in 30 percent of the submitted cases the pre-treatment review failed where the majority (71 percent) failed the DVA. 20 percent of sites submitting patients failed to correct their dose volume discrepancies indicated by the benchmark case. Conclusion: Benchmark cases and pre-treatment reviews can be an effective QA tool to educate sites on protocol guidelines and to minimize deviations. Without the benchmark cases it is possible that 65 percent of the cases undergoing a pre-treatment review would have failed to meet the protocols requirements.Support: U24-CA-180803

  16. Decreased Cerebellar-Orbitofrontal Connectivity Correlates with Stuttering Severity: Whole-Brain Functional and Structural Connectivity Associations with Persistent Developmental Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, Kevin R.; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had st...

  17. Decreased cerebellar-orbitofrontal connectivity correlates with stuttering severity: Whole-brain functional and structural connectivity associations with persistent developmental stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Richard Sitek; Kevin Richard Sitek; Shanqing eCai; Shanqing eCai; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Joseph S Perkell; Joseph S Perkell; Frank eGuenther; Satrajit S Ghosh; Satrajit S Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had ...

  18. Stuttering as a trait or state - an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Brown, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder characterised by repetitions, prolongations and blocks that disrupt the forward movement of speech. An earlier meta-analysis of brain imaging studies of stuttering (Brown et al., 2005) revealed a general trend towards rightward lateralization of brain activations and hyperactivity in the larynx motor cortex bilaterally. The present study sought not only to update that meta-analysis with recent work but to introduce an important distinction not present in the first study, namely the difference between 'trait' and 'state' stuttering. The analysis of trait stuttering compares people who stutter (PWS) with people who do not stutter when behaviour is controlled for, i.e., when speech is fluent in both groups. In contrast, the analysis of state stuttering examines PWS during episodes of stuttered speech compared with episodes of fluent speech. Seventeen studies were analysed using activation likelihood estimation. Trait stuttering was characterised by the well-known rightward shift in lateralization for language and speech areas. State stuttering revealed a more diverse pattern. Abnormal activation of larynx and lip motor cortex was common to the two analyses. State stuttering was associated with overactivation in the right hemisphere larynx and lip motor cortex. Trait stuttering was associated with overactivation of lip motor cortex in the right hemisphere but underactivation of larynx motor cortex in the left hemisphere. These results support a large literature highlighting laryngeal and lip involvement in the symptomatology of stuttering, and disambiguate two possible sources of activation in neuroimaging studies of persistent developmental stuttering. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Patterns of Stuttering Comparing two Languages: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Hernández-Jaramillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In bilinguals, specific patterns of stuttering in each one of the languages may be different. This study reports on the case of a bilingual adult who speaks Spanish and English simultaneously and whose dominant language is Spanish. Speech and language testing was performed in both languages. The samples chosen for the analysis of speech corpus were: spontaneous speech, de­scription of the picture and reading. Some differences in the stuttering distribution were found. Of the disfluent instants, 61.39 % of the total was presented in English and the other remaining 38.61 % in Spanish. In both languages, stuttering by word type was more frequent in function words (i.e. prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, particles and infinitive forms than in content words (i.e. verbs, nouns, adjectives. As observed, dysfluency types were similar in Spanish and English, with the greatest percentage being word repetition, followed by phonemic prolongations. These were more frequent in English than in Spanish. Although it is possible to find similari­ties in the stuttering pattern suggesting general stuttering laws, differences associated not only with language-specific idiosyncrasies but also with the individual’s bilingualism characteristics were also found.

  20. Logistic regression for risk factor modelling in stuttering research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Wu, Yaqionq

    2013-06-01

    To outline the uses of logistic regression and other statistical methods for risk factor analysis in the context of research on stuttering. The principles underlying the application of a logistic regression are illustrated, and the types of questions to which such a technique has been applied in the stuttering field are outlined. The assumptions and limitations of the technique are discussed with respect to existing stuttering research, and with respect to formulating appropriate research strategies to accommodate these considerations. Finally, some alternatives to the approach are briefly discussed. The way the statistical procedures are employed are demonstrated with some hypothetical data. Research into several practical issues concerning stuttering could benefit if risk factor modelling were used. Important examples are early diagnosis, prognosis (whether a child will recover or persist) and assessment of treatment outcome. After reading this article you will: (a) Summarize the situations in which logistic regression can be applied to a range of issues about stuttering; (b) Follow the steps in performing a logistic regression analysis; (c) Describe the assumptions of the logistic regression technique and the precautions that need to be checked when it is employed; (d) Be able to summarize its advantages over other techniques like estimation of group differences and simple regression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of Haramay Fiber by Pre-treatment of Retting Process withPhosphoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntari-Sasas; Neni-Rustini Eriawati

    2000-01-01

    Haramay as bast fiber contains of cellulose fiber as the main part, mixedwith hemi cellulose, pectin, and lignin as binding material for cellulosefiber to keep it together in the bundle form. For textile material, this bastfiber has to be freed from its binding material, called as retting process,before subjecting to scouring, dyeing and finishing process in textileindustry. In the retting process the dissolve of binding material can be doneeither by using enzyme in bio technology or extraction with strong alkalinecondition in common technology. Using sodium hydroxide for dissolving thebinding material can be carried out easily with good dissolving ability, butcan render the strength retention of the cellulose fiber. Pre-treatment ofthe bast fiber with phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ), is expected to hydrolyze someof the binding materials that can not be dissolved in alkaline condition,including natural pigment that colored the fiber with creamy white. In thisstudy, the pre-treatment process before retting with phosphoric acid wascarried out in various condition, such as concentration of phosphoric acid (5ml/l- 25 ml/l), time and temperature of pre-treatment (1-3 hours at 50 o C or12-24 hours at room temperature), followed by neutralization in dilutealkaline. The retting process was carried out by means of scouring in variousconcentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH 38 o Be, 10 ml/l-30 m/l), and then wascontinued with bleaching process in hydrogen peroxide solution. Aftercarrying out those experiment, the bast fiber that called haramay wassubjected to testing for weight reduction, strength retention and degree ofwhiteness. From the testing results it is concluded that pre-treatment withphosphoric acid can increase the weight reduction, strength retention ortenacity and degree of whiteness of haramay fiber compared to the oneswithout pre-treatment with phosphoric acid. The best result was obtained bypre-treatment with 5 ml/l H 3 PO 4 at 50 o C for 2 hours, continued by

  2. Influence of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation pre-treatment on rheological characteristics of wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T T H; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation as physico-chemical pre-treatment processes on the change of rheology of wastewater sludge was investigated in this study. Pre-treated and raw sludges displayed non-Newtonian rheological behaviour with shear thinning as well as thixotropic properties for total solids ranging from 10 g/L to 40 g/L. The rheological models, namely, Bingham plastic, Casson law, NCA/CMA Casson, IPC Paste, and power law were also studied to characterize flow of raw and pre-treated sludges. Among all rheological models, the power law was more prominent in describing the rheology of the sludges. Pre-treatment processes resulted in a decrease in pseudoplasticity of sludge due to the decrease in consistency index K varying from 42.4 to 1188, 25.6 to 620.4 and 52.5 to 317.9; and increase in flow behaviour index n changing from 0.5 to 0.35, 0.62 to 0.55 and 0.63 to 0.58, for RS, UlS and FS, respectively at solids concentration 10-40 g/L. The correlation between improvement of biodegradability and dewaterability, decrease in viscosity, and change in particle size as a function of sludge pre-treatment process was also investigated. Fenton oxidation facilitated sludge filterability resulting in capillary suction time values which were approximately 50% of the raw sludges, whereas ultrasonication with high input energy deteriorated the filterability. Biodegradability was also enhanced by the pre-treatment processes and the maximum value was obtained (64%, 77% and 73% for raw, ultrasonicated and Fenton oxidized sludges, respectively) at total solids concentration of 25 g/L. Hence, pre-treatment of wastewater sludge modified the rheological properties so that: (1) the flowability of sludge was improved for transport through the treatment train (via pipes and pumps); (2) the dewaterability of wastewater sludge was enhanced for eventual disposal and; (3) the assimilation of nutrients by microorganisms for further value-addition was increased.

  3. Altered Modulation of Silent Period in Tongue Motor Cortex of Persistent Developmental Stuttering in Relation to Stuttering Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busan, Pierpaolo; Del Ben, Giovanni; Bernardini, Simona; Natarelli, Giulia; Bencich, Marco; Monti, Fabrizio; Manganotti, Paolo; Battaglini, Piero Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Motor balance in developmental stuttering (DS) was investigated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), with the aim to define novel neural markers of persistent DS in adulthood. Eleven DS adult males were evaluated with TMS on tongue primary motor cortex, compared to 15 matched fluent speakers, in a "state" condition (i.e. stutterers vs. fluent speakers, no overt stuttering). Motor and silent period thresholds (SPT), recruitment curves, and silent period durations were acquired by recording tongue motor evoked potentials. Tongue silent period duration was increased in DS, especially in the left hemisphere (Pstuttering severity. Pre-TMS electromyography data gave overlapping evidence. Findings suggest the existence of a complex intracortical balance in DS tongue primary motor cortex, with a particular interplay between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, also in neural substrates related to silent periods. Findings are discussed with respect to functional and structural impairments in stuttering, and are also proposed as novel neural markers of a stuttering "state" in persistent DS, helping to define more focused treatments (e.g. neuro-modulation).

  4. Motor Speech Sequence Learning in Adults Who Stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Aghazamani

    2018-04-01

    Conclusion The results of this study showed that PWS show improvement in accuracy, reaction time and sequence duration variables from day 1 to day 3. Also, PWS show more substantial number of errors compared to PNS, but this difference was not significant between the two groups. Similar results were obtained for the reaction time. Results of this study demonstrated that PWS show slower sequence duration compared to PNS. Some studies suggested that this could be because people who stutter use a control strategy to reduce the number of errors, although many studies suggested that this may indicate motor learning. According to speech motor skills hypothesis, it can be concluded that people who stutter have limitations in motor speech learning abilities. The findings of the present study could have clinical implication for the treatment of stuttering.

  5. Communication attitudes of Japanese school-age children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version of the CAT could differentiate between the communication attitude of Japanese elementary school CWS and children who do not stutter (CWNS). A Japanese translation of the 1991 version of the Communication Attitude Test-Revised (CAT-R) was used in this study. Eighty Japanese CWS and 80 gender- and grade level-matched CWNS participated in the study. The results showed that CWS had a significantly more negative communication attitude than CWNS. Both CWS and CWNS in 1st grade showed significantly more positive communication attitudes than children in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grades. Furthermore, a link between stuttering severity and CWS' communication attitude was found. Additional research is needed to confirm the results of the current study, which indicate that the communication attitude of Japanese CWS becomes more negative as they get older. The reader will be able to: (1) Describe the process that was used to develop a Japanese version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT-J). (2) Discuss attitude differences between Japanese children who stutter and those who do not and how grade level impacts a negative attitude toward communication. (3) Explain the link between stuttering severity and attitudes of Japanese children who stutter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Language skills of children during the first 12 months after stuttering onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Amy; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-03-01

    To describe the language development in a sample of young children who stutter during the first 12 months after stuttering onset was reported. Language production was analysed in a sample of 66 children who stuttered (aged 2-4 years). The sample were identified from a pre-existing prospective, community based longitudinal cohort. Data were collected at three time points within the first year after stuttering onset. Stuttering severity was measured, and global indicators of expressive language proficiency (length of utterances and grammatical complexity) were derived from the samples and summarised. Language production abilities of the children who stutter were contrasted with normative data. The majority of children's stuttering was rated as mild in severity, with more than 83% of participants demonstrating very mild or mild stuttering at each of the time points studied. The participants demonstrated developmentally appropriate spoken language skills comparable with available normative data. In the first year following the report of stuttering onset, the language skills of the children who were stuttering progressed in a manner that is consistent with developmental expectations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The perceived impact of stuttering on personality as measured by the NEO-FFI-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shivangi; Casenhiser, Devin; Hedinger, Tricia; Kittilstved, Tiffani; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2017-04-01

    The NEO-FFI has been widely used to demonstrate personality differences between people who stutter (PWS) and those who do not. These differences can be interpreted as indicators of internal sources of disability that contribute to handicaps associated with stuttering. The aim of the current study was to use this same tool to determine the perceived impact of stuttering on personality in order to provide a similar indicator of how external factors may contribute to the stuttering disability. A total of 49 non-stuttering young adults were given the NEO-FFI-3 after watching a video of someone stuttering (moderately to severely) and after watching a video of someone speaking fluently. Participants were asked to answer test items while imagining that they had spoken like the persons in the videos for their entire lives. When asked to assume the stuttering perspective, participants reported themselves to be significantly more neurotic (P stuttered perspectives are consistent with existing stereotypes about PWS. These differences are greater than and only partially consistent with differences in personality found between PWS and non-stuttering individuals. The findings support the notion that external factors (e.g. listener reactions and stereotypes about PWS) contribute strongly to the manner in which stuttering restricts function and results in handicaps.

  8. Dosimetric pre-treatment verification of IMRT using an EPID; clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijtveld, Mathilda van; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: In our clinic a QA program for IMRT verification, fully based on dosimetric measurements with electronic portal imaging devices (EPID), has been running for over 3 years. The program includes a pre-treatment dosimetric check of all IMRT fields. During a complete treatment simulation at the linac, a portal dose image (PDI) is acquired with the EPID for each patient field and compared with a predicted PDI. In this paper, the results of this pre-treatment procedure are analysed, and intercepted errors are reported. An automated image analysis procedure is proposed to limit the number of fields that need human intervention in PDI comparison. Materials and methods: Most of our analyses are performed using the γ index with 3% local dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement as reference values. Scalar parameters are derived from the γ values to summarize the agreement between measured and predicted 2D PDIs. Areas with all pixels having γ values larger than one are evaluated, making decisions based on clinically relevant criteria more straightforward. Results: In 270 patients, the pre-treatment checks revealed four clinically relevant errors. Calculation of statistics for a group of 75 patients showed that the patient-averaged mean γ value inside the field was 0.43 ± 0.13 (1 SD) and only 6.1 ± 6.8% of pixels had a γ value larger than one. With the proposed automated image analysis scheme, visual inspection of images can be avoided in 2/3 of the cases. Conclusion: EPIDs may be used for high accuracy and high resolution routine verification of IMRT fields to intercept clinically relevant dosimetric errors prior to the start of treatment. For the majority of fields, PDI comparison can fully rely on an automated procedure, avoiding excessive workload

  9. How the detector resolution affects the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment quality assurance results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, A; Esposito, M; Pini, S; Ghirelli, A; Zatelli, G; Russo, S

    2017-12-01

    Aim of this work was to study how the detector resolution can affect the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) verification results. Three detectors (PTW OCTAVIUS 4D 729, 1500 and 100 SRS) used in five configurations with different resolution were compared: 729, 729 merged, 1500, 1500 merged and 1000 SRS. Absolute local gamma passing rates of 3D pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) were evaluated for 150 dose distributions in 30 plans. Five different kinds of error were introduced in order to establish the detection sensitivity of the three devices. Percentage dosimetric differences were evaluated between planned dosevolume histogram (DVH) and patients' predicted DVH calculated by PTW DVH 4D® software. The mean gamma passing rates and the standard deviations were 92.4% ± 3.7%, 94.6% ± 1.8%, 95.3% ± 4.2%, 97.4% ± 2.5% and 97.6% ± 1.4 respectively for 729, 729 merged, 1500, 1500 merged and 1000 SRS with 2% local dose/2mm criterion. The same trend was found on the sensitivity analysis: using a tight gamma analysis criterion (2%L/1mm) only the 1000 SRS detected every kind of error, while 729 and 1500 merged detected three and four kinds of error respectively. Regarding dose metrics extracted from DVH curves, D50% was within the tolerance level in more than 90% of cases only for the 1000 SRS. The detector resolution can significantly affect the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment verification results. The choice of a detector with resolution suitable to the investigated field size is of main importance to avoid getting false positive. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of different pre-treatments in recovering pre-burial isotopic ratios of charred plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkemper, O; Braadbaart, F; van Os, B; van Hoesel, A; van Brussel, A A N; Fernandes, R

    2018-02-15

    Isotopic analysis of archaeological charred plant remains offers useful archaeological information. However, adequate sample pre-treatment protocols may be necessary to provide a contamination-free isotopic signal while limiting sample loss and achieving a high throughput. Under these constraints, research was undertaken to compare the performance of different pre-treatment protocols. Charred archaeological plant material was selected for isotopic analysis (δ 13 C and δ 15 N values) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry from a variety of plant species, time periods and soil conditions. Preservation conditions and the effectiveness of cleaning protocols were assessed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. An acid-base-acid protocol, successfully employed in radiocarbon dating, was used to define a contamination-free isotopic reference. Acid-base-acid isotopic measurements were compared with those obtained from untreated material and an acid-only protocol. The isotopic signals of untreated material and the acid-only protocol typically did not differ more than 1‰ from those of the acid-base-acid reference. There were no significant isotopic offsets between acid-base-acid and acid-only or untreated samples. Sample losses in the acid-base-acid protocol were on average 50 ± 17% (maximum = 98.4%). Elemental XRF measurements showed promising results in the detection of more contaminated samples albeit with a high rate of false positives. For the large range of preservation conditions described in the study, untreated charred plant samples, water cleaned of sediments, provide reliable stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. The use of pre-treatments may be necessary under different preservation conditions or more conservative measurement uncertainties should be reported. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Multi-centre audit of VMAT planning and pre-treatment verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Bruggeman, Diego; Hernández, Victor; Sáez, Jordi; Navarro, David; Pino, Francisco; Martínez, Tatiana; Alayrach, Maria-Elena; Ailleres, Norbert; Melero, Alejandro; Jornet, Núria

    2017-08-01

    We performed a multi-centre intercomparison of VMAT dose planning and pre-treatment verification. The aims were to analyse the dose plans in terms of dosimetric quality and deliverability, and to validate whether in-house pre-treatment verification results agreed with those of an external audit. The nine participating centres encompassed different machines, equipment, and methodologies. Two mock cases (prostate and head and neck) were planned using one and two arcs. A plan quality index was defined to compare the plans and different complexity indices were calculated to check their deliverability. We compared gamma index pass rates using the centre's equipment and methodology to those of an external audit (global 3D gamma, absolute dose differences, 10% of maximum dose threshold). Log-file analysis was performed to look for delivery errors. All centres fulfilled the dosimetric goals but plan quality and delivery complexity were heterogeneous and uncorrelated, depending on the manufacturer and the planner's methodology. Pre-treatment verifications results were within tolerance in all cases for gamma 3%-3mm evaluation. Nevertheless, differences between the external audit and in-house measurements arose due to different equipment or methodology, especially for 2%-2mm criteria with differences up to 20%. No correlation was found between complexity indices and verification results amongst centres. All plans fulfilled dosimetric constraints, but plan quality and complexity did not correlate and were strongly dependent on the planner and the vendor. In-house measurements cannot completely replace external audits for credentialing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  13. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  14. Recent developments in sample preparation and data pre-treatment in metabonomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Song, Yi peng; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2016-01-01

    Metabonomics is a powerful approach for biomarker discovery and an effective tool for pinpointing endpoint metabolic effects of external stimuli, such as pathogens and disease development. Due to its wide applications, metabonomics is required to deal with various biological samples of different properties. Hence sample preparation and corresponding data pre-treatment become important factors in ensuring validity of an investigation. In this review, we summarize some recent developments in metabonomics sample preparation and data-pretreatment procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Viral persistence in surface and drinking water: Suitability of PCR pre-treatment with intercalating dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, B; Goulet, M; Lucas, F S; Joyeux, M; Moulin, L; Wurtzer, S

    2016-03-15

    After many outbreaks of enteric virus associated with consumption of drinking water, the study of enteric viruses in water has increased significantly in recent years. In order to better understand the dynamics of enteric viruses in environmental water and the associated viral risk, it is necessary to estimate viral persistence in different conditions. In this study, two representative models of human enteric viruses, adenovirus 41 (AdV 41) and coxsackievirus B2 (CV-B2), were used to evaluate the persistence of enteric viruses in environmental water. The persistence of infectious particles, encapsidated genomes and free nucleic acids of AdV 41 and CV-B2 was evaluated in drinking water and surface water at different temperatures (4 °C, 20 °C and 37 °C). The infectivity of AdV 41 and CV-B2 persisted for at least 25 days, whatever the water temperature, and for more than 70 days at 4 °C and 20 °C, in both drinking and surface water. Encapsidated genomes persisted beyond 70 days, whatever the water temperature. Free nucleic acids (i.e. without capsid) also were able to persist for at least 16 days in drinking and surface water. The usefulness of a detection method based on an intercalating dye pre-treatment, which specifically targets preserved particles, was investigated for the discrimination of free and encapsidated genomes and it was compared to virus infectivity. Further, the resistance of AdV 41 and CV-B2 against two major disinfection treatments applied in drinking water plants (UV and chlorination) was evaluated. Even after the application of UV rays and chlorine at high doses (400 mJ/cm(2) and 10 mg.min/L, respectively), viral genomes were still detected with molecular biology methods. Although the intercalating dye pre-treatment had little use for the detection of the effects of UV treatment, it was useful in the case of treatment by chlorination and less than 1 log10 difference in the results was found as compared to the infectivity measurements

  16. Evaluation of pre-treatments for inhibiting bromate formation during ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    This study compared several pre-treatment methods for inhibiting BrO3- formation during ozonation of tap water, from the DTU campus, including H2O2 addition (perozone), pH-depression, NH4+ and Cl2/NH4+ addition. At the same time, the inhibition of atrazine and carbamazepine removal was evaluated...... close to the 10 μg/L limit, however atrazine removal did not exceed 75%. Carbamazepine was completely removed under all the tested experimental conditions with the 3.5 mg/L O3 dose....

  17. Effect of pre-treatments on the germination of jasmin box (Phillyrea latifolia) seeds in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spyroglou, Gavriil; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    The major problem in seedlings production of jasmin box (Phillyrea latifolia) is the poor and irregular germination due to seed dormancy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate methods of seed pre-treatments to increase germination. The effect of different solutions of KOH and NaOH, wood ash lye, GA3 and cold or warm stratification on germination were evaluated. Sets of four replicates of 25 seeds were soaked for 24 hours in KOH and NaOH solutions of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 %, in wood a...

  18. Improved performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMT by N2O plasma pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Min-Han; Zhang Kai; Zhao Sheng-Lei; Wang Chong; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue

    2015-01-01

    The influence of an N 2 O plasma pre-treatment technique on characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) prepared by using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system is presented. After the plasma treatment, the peak transconductance (g m ) increases from 209 mS/mm to 293 mS/mm. Moreover, it is observed that the reverse gate leakage current is lowered by one order of magnitude and the drain current dispersion is improved in the plasma-treated device. From the analysis of frequency-dependent conductance, it can be seen that the trap state density (D T ) and time constant (τ T ) of the N 2 O-treated device are smaller than those of a non-treated device. The results indicate that the N 2 O plasma pre-pretreatment before the gate metal deposition could be a promising approach to enhancing the performance of the device. (paper)

  19. Pre-treatment of waste fuel with low-speed shredding and screening for fluidized bed incineration; Foerbehandling av avfallsbraensle foer fluidbaeddpannor med laangsamtgaaende valskross och saekerhetssiktning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Sven; Victoren, Anders; Niklasson, Fredrik; Jones, Frida

    2013-09-01

    approximate cost of 104-118 SEK/tonne (12-14 /tonne) treated waste, which is the same as for the larger FB plant shredder system. The cost for the hammer mill system was determined to 155-185 SEK/tonne (18-22 /tonne) treated waste. The higher cost for the hammer mill system rely on the estimated higher maintenance and electricity consumption costs. The analysis of the particle size distribution of the fuel treated with lowspeed shredding and screening shows that the fuel satisfy the demands stipu-lated for combustion in smaller FB furnaces. Furthermore, the combustion trials show no obvious differences in operation quality, compared to the normal hammer milled fuel; no significant differences in level or stability in power, bed temperature or emission levels could be found. Nor was the frequency of spikes of CO of NO{sub x} increased, nor the frequency of violation of the stipulated 24-hrs, halv-hour, or ten-minute stipulated emission limits increased. In summary, the study gives initial support for the thesis that shedding and screening is just as feasible for fuel pre-treatment in smaller FB furnaces with one single fuel supply conveyor as traditional hammer milling systems. Furthermore, it is cheaper. Lowspeed shreddning should, therefore, be concidered as pre-treatment method for both larger as well as smaller FB incineration plants. Beyond the parameters that have been investigated within the scope of this project, availability and safety are important factors that speek for lowspeed shedders. However, these are questions that have to be further investigated.

  20. Decreased cerebellar-orbitofrontal connectivity correlates with stuttering severity: Whole-brain functional and structural connectivity associations with persistent developmental stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Richard Sitek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex. Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and orbitofrontal cortex may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers.

  1. Decreased Cerebellar-Orbitofrontal Connectivity Correlates with Stuttering Severity: Whole-Brain Functional and Structural Connectivity Associations with Persistent Developmental Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Kevin R; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S; Perkell, Joseph S; Guenther, Frank H; Ghosh, Satrajit S

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and OFC may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers.

  2. Decreased Cerebellar-Orbitofrontal Connectivity Correlates with Stuttering Severity: Whole-Brain Functional and Structural Connectivity Associations with Persistent Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Kevin R.; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and OFC may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers. PMID:27199712

  3. Social Pre-treatment Modulates Attention Allocation to Transient and Stable Object Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Oláh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that ostensive-communicative signals in social learning situations enable observers to focus their attention on the intrinsic features of an object (e.g. color at the expense of ignoring transient object properties (e.g. location. Here we investigated whether off-line social cues, presented as social primes, have the same power to modulate attention allocation to stable and transient object properties as on-line ostensive-communicative cues. The first part of the experiment consisted of a pre-treatment phase, where adult male participants either received intensive social stimulation or were asked to perform non-social actions. Then, they participated in a change detection test, where they watched pairs of pictures depicting an array of five objects. On the second picture, a change occurred compared to the first picture. One object changed either its location (moving forward or backward or was replaced by another object, and participants were required to indicate where the change had happened. We found that participants detected the change more successfully if it had happened in the location of the object; however, this difference was reduced following a socially intense pre-treatment phase. The results are discussed in relation to the claims of the natural pedagogy theory.

  4. The economic pre-treatment of coal mine drainage water with caustic and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, B H; Nador, L; Addleman, S; Jeston, L

    2017-09-01

    Coal mine drainage waters are low in pH with varying amounts of iron and manganese and are generally brackish. The Austar Coal Mine in NSW, Australia, sought alternatives to their current lime dosing as the pre-treatment before the downstream reverse osmosis plant. Undesirable operating aspects of the current system include manganese and gypsum scaling/fouling, the need for anti-scalants and reduced water recovery. Thirteen processes for acid mine drainage were initially considered. The preferred process of caustic and ozone for Mn(II) oxidation was pilot tested at up to 0.74 kL/hr at the mine site. Under proper conditions and no aeration, about 81 per cent of the Fe could be removed (initially at 156 mg/L) as green rust. Supplemental aeration followed first-order kinetics and allowed 99.9 per cent Fe(II) oxidation and removal but only with a hydraulic residence time of about 47 minutes. The addition of supplemental Cu catalyst improved Fe removal. Ozone applied after caustic was effective in stoichiometrically oxidising recalcitrant Mn(II) and any remaining Fe(II). Control of the ozonation was achieved using the oxidation reduction potential during oxidation of the Mn(II) species. The use of caustic, followed by ozone, proved economically comparable to the current lime pre-treatment.

  5. Impact analysis of different chemical pre-treatments on colour of apple discs during drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Lukinac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to compare colour changes of chemically pre-treated dried apple discs. Changes were observed by chromameter in L*a*b* colour model by using Minolta chromameter CR-400 and by image analysis system in RGB colour model. Apple discs variety "Gold Rush" were pre-treated and dried in laboratory tray drier at drying temperature 70 °C and at airflow velocity of 1.5 ms-1. Different chemical pre-treatments were applied on apple discs (dipping in 0.5% ascorbic acid solution; 0.3% L–cysteine solution; 0.1% 4–hexyl resorcinol solution and 1% sodium metabisulphite solution. Mean values of colour parameters, colour changes and correlation coefficients for apple discs were calculated for both colour models. The analysis showed statistically significant influence of pre-treatment method on total colour changes for both chosen colour models of dried apples. Calculated correlation coefficient between colour changes for used models was found to be 0.894. According to colour characteristics the best results were achieved when samples were pre-treated with 0.5% ascorbic acid solution. According to calculated results it was found that image analysis method as well as colorimetric method can be used to observe the colour changes on dried apple discs.

  6. Is Inconsistent Pre-treatment Bedtime Related to CPAP Non-Adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Amy M.; King, Tonya S.; Sawyer, Douglas A.; Rizzo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Lack of adherence to continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) limits the effectiveness of treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized that an irregular bedtime would be negatively related to regular use of CPAP treatment. If so, modifying bedtime schedule may address the persistent problem of inconsistent CPAP use in adults with OSA. In a prospective longitudinal study, we examined whether inconsistent self-reported bedtime before initiation of CPAP treatment, operationalized as bedtime variability, was (1) different among those adherent (≥ 4 hours per night) and non-adherent to CPAP treatment at one week and one month; and/or (2) was related to one-week and one-month CPAP use when other variables were accounted for. Consecutively-recruited newly-diagnosed OSA adults (N=79) completed sleep diaries prior to CPAP treatment. One-week and one-month objective CPAP use data were collected. Pre-treatment bedtime variability was different among CPAP non-adherers and adherers at one month and was a significant predictor of non-adherence at one month in multivariate analyses. The odds of one-month CPAP non-adherence were 3.5 times greater in those whose pre-treatment bedtimes varied by >75 minutes. Addressing sleep schedule prior to CPAP initiation may be an opportunity to improve CPAP adherence. PMID:25353159

  7. MBR technology: a promising approach for the (pre-)treatment of hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, S; Cramer, C; Mauer, C; Köster, S; Schröder, H Fr; Pinnekamp, J

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very reliable and extensively tested solution for biological wastewater treatment. Nowadays, separate treatment of highly polluted wastewater streams especially from hospitals and other health care facilities is currently under investigation worldwide. In this context, the MBR technology will play a decisive role because an effluent widely cleaned up from solids and nutrients is absolutely mandatory for a subsequent further elimination of organic trace pollutants. Taking hospital wastewater as an example, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent MBR technology is an adequate 'pre-treatment' solution for further elimination of trace pollutants. Therefore, we investigated - within a 2-year period - the performance of a full-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with a MBR by referring to conventional chemical and microbiological standard parameters. Furthermore, we measured the energy consumption and tested different operating conditions. According to our findings the MBR treatment of the hospital wastewater was highly efficient in terms of the removal of solids and nutrients. Finally, we did not observe any major adverse effects on the operation and performance of the MBR system which potentially could derive from the composition of the hospital wastewater. In total, the present study proved that MBR technology is a very efficient and reliable treatment approach for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater from hospitals and can be recommended as a suitable pre-treatment solution for further trace pollutant removal.

  8. EFFECT OF PRE-TREATMENT ON THE DRYING KINETICS AND PRODUCT QUALITY OF STAR FRUIT SLICES

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    CHING LIK HII

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Start fruit (Avverhoa carambola is rich in nutrients and contains dietary antioxidants which are beneficial to human health. Currently, the commercial potential of this fruit has not been fully explored especially in its dried form. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of pre-treatment on the drying kinetics and product quality of star fruit slices. The various pre-treatment methods investigated were hot water blanching and dipping in sugar solution. The star fruit was cut into thin slices (5 mm for drying (60°C-80°C using a hot air ventilated oven. Mathematical modelling showed that the Page model was able to describe the moisture diffusion process during drying. Effective diffusivity values were found within the order reported for most food materials (10-8-10-12 m2/s. A decreasing trend in shrinkage ratios was observed with decreasing moisture ratios which corresponds to the greater rate of moisture removal especially at the falling rate period. Overall colour changes were more significant in the blanched samples which could be due to the non-enzymatic browning.

  9. Relationship between stuttering severity in children and their mothers’ speaking rate

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    Ali Dehqan

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is a complex disease that influences occupational, social, academic and emotional achievements. The aim of this study was to correlate the stuttering severity index with speaking rates of mothers and children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the child rehabilitation clinics of Tehran city. METHODS: 35 pairs of mothers and their children who stuttered were studied. There were 29 boys and six girls, of mean age 8.5 years (range: 5.1-12.0. Speech samples from the mother-child pairs were audiotaped for approximately 15 minutes, until a reciprocal verbal interaction had been obtained. This sample was then analyzed in accordance with a stuttering severity index test and speaking rate parameters. RESULTS: The research results outlined a significant relationship between the mothers’ speaking rate and their children’s stuttering severity. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the mothers’ speaking rate should be incorporated in the assessment and treatment of stuttering.

  10. Childhood Stuttering – Where are we and Where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made over the past two decades in expanding our understanding of the behavioral, peripheral physiological, and central neurophysiological bases of stuttering in early childhood. It is clear that stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by atypical development of speech motor planning and execution networks. The speech motor system must interact in complex ways with neural systems mediating language, other cognitive, and emotional processes. During the time window when stuttering typically appears and follows its path to either recovery or persistence, all of these neurobehavioral systems are undergoing rapid and dramatic developmental changes. We summarize our current understanding of the various developmental trajectories relevant for the understanding of stuttering in early childhood. We also present theoretical and experimental approaches that we believe will be optimal for even more rapid progress toward developing better and more targeted treatment for stuttering in the preschool children who are more likely to persist in stuttering. PMID:27701705

  11. Pre-treatment of substrates for biogas production - A systems analysis; Foerbehandling av biogassubstrat i systemanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My; Holmstroem, David; Lagerkvist, Anders; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2013-09-01

    The present expansion of biogas capacity responds to a growing demand for renewable vehicle fuels. Biodegradable wastes are attractive substrates and are also prioritized in national policy. The full potential of the substrates can rarely be used however. This is partly due to impurities, or the availability or degradation speed may be limiting the biogas yield. In both cases there is a need of pre-treatments. This work deals with the system impacts of pre-treatment aiming to remove impurities in food waste and pre-treatments aiming to improve the biogas yield of horse manure and ley. In the latter case steam explosion and extrusion were the treatments studied. Gas yields and the plant and system impacts on energy, climate and economic were studied. The system includes the biogas plant as well as the impact in supplementary systems for heat and power production. The three named substrates were identified to be highly prioritised due to their total potential and the improvements possible in its realisation. Existing information from literature and contacts has form the data basis, with the addition of a few supplementary analyses of substrates. The project has been operated by the authors with participation of a group of facility operators and external reviewers. Four plants have been visited during the study. Operators of digestion plants and all interested in developing the efficiency of biogas plants are the main target group for the study. The rate that the potential yield of food waste can be utilised depends largely on how efficiently contaminants can be separated without loss of substrate. In this case the separation degree has the main impact on the economy, but not a pronounced climate effect. For all types of pre-treatments the water content of substrates is important, a higher water content is detrimental to economy, energy demand and climate impact. For both the energy balance and the climate impact the generation of vehicle fuel has a large impact. An

  12. Characterization of lignin during oxidative and hydrothermal pre-treatment processes of wheat straw and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Felby, Claus

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize and map changes in lignin during hydrothermal and wet explosion pre-treatments of wheat straw and corn stover. Chemical composition, microscopic (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopic (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR) analyses were performed. Results showed that both pre-treatments improved the cellulose and lignin content with substantial removal of hemicellulose in the pre-treated biomasses. These values were slightly higher for hydrothermal compared to wet explosion pre-treatment. ATR-FTIR analyses also confirmed these results. Microscopic analysis showed that pre-treatments affected the biomass by partial difibration. Lignin deposition on the surface of the hydrothermally pre-treated fibre was very distinct while severe loss of fibril integrity was noticed with wet exploded fibre. The present study thus revealed that the lignin cannot be removed by the studied pre-treatments. However, both pre-treatments improved the accessibility of the biomass towards enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  14. Comprehensive Stuttering Treatment or Adolescents: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Craig E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This article will focus on a hypothetical case study to highlight comprehensive assessment and treatment for adolescent children who stutter. Method: Assessment and treatment are laid out with a literature review utilizing the components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. Specific assessment…

  15. Hemispheric lateralization of motor thresholds in relation to stuttering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A Alm

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15 and in controls (n = 15. In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026, with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049. The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control.

  16. Cortical associates of emotional reactivity and regulation in childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Conture, Edward G; Key, Alexandra P; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M

    2018-06-01

    This study sought to determine the cortical associates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation (as indexed by the amplitude of evoked response potentials [ERP]) in young children who do and do not stutter during passive viewing of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. Participants were 17 young children who stutter and 22 young children who do not stutter (between 4 years 0 months to 6 years 11 months). The dependent measures were (1) mean amplitude of late positive potential (LPP, an ERP sensitive to emotional stimuli) during passive (i.e., no response required) picture viewing and directed reappraisal tasks and (2) emotional reactivity and regulation related scores on caregiver reports of young children's temperament (Children's Behavior Questionnaire, CBQ). Young CWS, when compared to CWNS, exhibited significantly greater LPP amplitudes when viewing unpleasant pictures, but no significant between-group difference when viewing pleasant pictures and during the emotion regulation condition. There were, however, for CWS, but not CWNS, significant correlations between temperament-related measures of emotion and cortical measures of emotional reactivity and regulation. Findings provide further empirical support for the notion that emotional processes are associated with childhood stuttering, and that CWS's inherent temperamental proclivities need to be taken into account when empirically studying or theorizing about this association. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. White matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering: Lessons from tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld-Duenias, Vered; Civier, Oren; Amir, Ofer; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2018-03-01

    Fluent speech production relies on the coordinated processing of multiple brain regions. This highlights the role of neural pathways that connect distinct brain regions in producing fluent speech. Here, we aim to investigate the role of the white matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering (PDS), where speech fluency is disrupted. We use diffusion weighted imaging and tractography to compare the white matter properties between adults who do and do not stutter. We compare the diffusion properties along 18 major cerebral white matter pathways. We complement the analysis with an overview of the methodology and a roadmap of the pathways implicated in PDS according to the existing literature. We report differences in the microstructural properties of the anterior callosum, the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and the right cingulum in people who stutter compared with fluent controls. Persistent developmental stuttering is consistently associated with differences in bilateral distributed networks. We review evidence showing that PDS involves differences in bilateral dorsal fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal pathways, in callosal pathways, in several motor pathways and in basal ganglia connections. This entails an important role for long range white matter pathways in this disorder. Using a wide-lens analysis, we demonstrate differences in additional, right hemispheric pathways, which go beyond the replicable findings in the literature. This suggests that the affected circuits may extend beyond the known language and motor pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating Psychometric Characteristics of Detection Protocol of Malingering Stuttering

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    Arsia Thaghva

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion According to the results, the detection protocol of malingering stuttering is of good internal consistency and concurrent validity. However, considering that the sample population was not large in the present study, it can be said that this study is a preliminary evaluation to find the psychometric features of the instruments, with the aim of laying the groundwork for further studies.

  19. Communication Attitudes of Japanese School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…

  20. Hemispheric Lateralization of Motor Thresholds in Relation to Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Per A.; Karlsson, Ragnhild; Sundberg, Madeleine; Axelson, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. Previous studies indicate a tendency towards elevated motor threshold for the left hemisphere, as measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may reflect a monohemispheric motor system impairment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relative side-to-side difference (asymmetry) and the absolute levels of motor threshold for the hand area, using TMS in adults who stutter (n = 15) and in controls (n = 15). In accordance with the hypothesis, the groups differed significantly regarding the relative side-to-side difference of finger motor threshold (p = 0.0026), with the stuttering group showing higher motor threshold of the left hemisphere in relation to the right. Also the absolute level of the finger motor threshold for the left hemisphere differed between the groups (p = 0.049). The obtained results, together with previous investigations, provide support for the hypothesis that stuttering tends to be related to left hemisphere motor impairment, and possibly to a dysfunctional state of bilateral speech motor control. PMID:24146930

  1. Stutter-Step Models of Performance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stephen L.; Leenman, Theodore S.; Todd, Jennifer J.; Kentucky; Weeden, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate a stutter-step model of academic performance in high school, this article adopts a unique measure of the beliefs of 12,591 high school sophomores from the Education Longitudinal Study, 2002-2006. Verbatim responses to questions on occupational plans are coded to capture specific job titles, the listing of multiple jobs, and the listing…

  2. The experience of stuttering among Ultra-Orthodox and Secular/Traditional Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Debora; Ezrati-Vinacour, Ruth; Katz-Bernstein, Nitza; Fostick, Leah

    2017-12-01

    This groundbreaking research compares the experience of stuttering among adult male People Who Stutter (PWS) from the ultra-Orthodox (UO) Jewish community in Israel to those from Secular/Traditional (ST) backgrounds. Participants were 32 UO and 31 ST PWS, aged 18-67 years. Self-report questionnaires utilized: Perceived Stuttering Severity (PSS); Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES-A); Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS); Situation Avoidance Behavior Checklist (SABC). Demographic, religious, and stuttering information was collected. Groups were compared on scales, and correlations between scales and the PSS. Subjective stuttering severity ratings were significantly higher among the UO. A significant group effect was found for the OASES-A quality of life subscale, but not other subscales. Significant positive correlations were found between: 1) PSS and OASES-A Total Impact; 2) PSS and 3 OASES subscales; and 3) PSS and SABC (indicating increased avoidance with increased stuttering severity rating). A significant negative correlation was found between the PSS and SLSS, indicating lower life satisfaction with higher rates of stuttering severity among the ST. Interestingly, when tested by group, significant correlations between the PSS and all other study measures were observed only among the ST. UO participants showed higher subjective stuttering severity ratings, yet less impact on quality of life, and no correlation between subjective stuttering and other measures of stuttering experience. These novel findings may result from the combined protective effect of religiosity and socio-cultural characteristics on UO PWS' well-being, despite heightened concern about social consequences of stuttering within UO society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stuttering Prevalence among Kurdish-Farsi Students Effects of the Two Languages Similarities

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    Hiwa Mohamadi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It has been noted that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. The similarities of the languages involved have been mentioned to justify the difference between stuttering prevalence among bilingual and monolingual speakers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of language similarities on prevalence of stuttering among Kurdish-Farsi bilingual students. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, we examined all of Javanroud’s schools’ bilingual students. We used teacher referral method for the primary screening of speech disorders. Essential information about speech disorders, specifically stuttering, had been given to teachers before this primary step. The bilingual researcher then diagnosed stuttering students based on DSM-IV criteria through personal interview, text reading, and spontaneous speech in Kurdish and Farsi. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanroud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1.13%. Among elementary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2.06%, 0.87% and 0.5% respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1.35% and 0.88% among girls. An overall male/female ratio was 1.5/1. Prevalence of stuttering in elementary, guidance and high school differed significantly (P=0.000. Prevalence of stuttering in males was significantly higher than females (P=0.034. Discussion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanroud’s bilingual students was higher than the universal accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1% but lower than other studies in bilingual population. The similarities of Kurdish and Farsi languages play an important role in this and are discussed in the paper.

  4. A comparison of three strategies for reducing the public stigma associated with stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P; Dioguardi, Lauren; Pate, Julie E

    2016-12-01

    The effects of three anti-stigma strategies for stuttering-contact (hearing personal stories from an individual who stutters), education (replacing myths about stuttering with facts), and protest (condemning negative attitudes toward people who stutter)-were examined on attitudes, emotions, and behavioral intentions toward people who stutter. Two hundred and twelve adults recruited from a nationwide survey in the United States were randomly assigned to one of the three anti-stigma conditions or a control condition. Participants completed questionnaires about stereotypes, negative emotional reactions, social distance, discriminatory intentions, and empowerment regarding people who stutter prior to and after watching a video for the assigned condition, and reported their attitude changes about people who stutter. Some participants completed follow-up questionnaires on the same measures one week later. All three anti-stigma strategies were more effective than the control condition for reducing stereotypes, negative emotions, and discriminatory intentions from pretest to posttest. Education and protest effects for reducing negative stereotypes were maintained at one-week follow-up. Contact had the most positive effect for increasing affirming attitudes about people who stutter from pretest to posttest and pretest to follow-up. Participants in the contact and education groups, but not protest, self-reported significantly more positive attitude change about people who stutter as a result of watching the video compared to the control group. Advocates in the field of stuttering can use education and protest strategies to reduce negative attitudes about people who stutter, and people who stutter can increase affirming attitudes through interpersonal contact with others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect Evaluation of Utterance Length on Speech Dysfluency in Stuttering and Nonstuttering Persian-Speaker Children

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    Fateme Haresabadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The correlation of stuttering and different linguistic factors is assessed in many studies. The obtained results can pave the way to reach a better understanding of stuttering, as well as finding more appropriate treatments. This study investigates the effect of utterance length on speech dysfluency comparing stuttering Persian(Farsi -speaking children and nonstuttering ones.Methods: Ten stuttering and ten nonstuttering Persian-speaking children between 4 and 6 years of age, matched by age and gender where included in this cross-sectional study. All individuals were investigated by ten sets of simple and complex sentences. Morphemes were added one by one to sentences in each set in order to assess the impact of utterance length on dysfluency. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: In practicing ten sets of sentences, the speech dysfluency shows significant enhance with increase of utterance length in both stuttering and nonstuttering children (p=0.001. Furthermore, while comparing two groups of simple and complex sentences, significant increase of speech dysfluency was observed by length enhance of utterance, in both stuttering and nonstuttering children (p<0.05. The comparison of stuttering and nonstuttering children showed significant difference between the two groups as well (p=0.001. Conclusions: The results of this study show that increase in utterance length in both simple and complex sentences lead to increase in dysfluency in stuttering and nonstuttering children. Stuttering children indicated more dysfluency than nonstuttering ones.

  6. Stuttering treatment and brain research in adults: A still unfolding relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Roger J; Ingham, Janis C; Euler, Harald A; Neumann, Katrin

    2018-03-01

    Brain imaging and brain stimulation procedures have now been used for more than two decades to investigate the neural systems that contribute to the occurrence of stuttering in adults, and to identify processes that might enhance recovery from stuttering. The purpose of this paper is to review the extent to which these dual lines of research with adults who stutter have intersected and whether they are contributing towards the alleviation of this impairment. Several areas of research are reviewed in order to determine whether research on the neurology of stuttering is showing any potential for advancing the treatment of this communication disorder: (a) attempts to discover the neurology of stuttering, (b) neural changes associated with treated recovery, and (c) direct neural intervention. Although much has been learned about the neural underpinnings of stuttering, little research in any of the reviewed areas has thus far contributed to the advancement of stuttering treatment. Much of the research on the neurology of stuttering that does have therapy potential has been largely driven by a speech-motor model that is designed to account for the efficacy of fluency-inducing strategies and strategies that have been shown to yield therapy benefits. Investigations on methods that will induce neuroplasticity are overdue. Strategies profitable with other disorders have only occasionally been employed. However, there are signs that investigations on the neurology of adults who have recovered from stuttering are slowly being recognized for their potential in this regard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Language ability of children with and without a history of stuttering: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Amy; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Mensah, Fiona; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to determine whether the communication and language skills of children who have a history of stuttering are different from children who do not have a history of stuttering at ages 2-5 years. This study utilizes data from the Early Language in Victoria Study (ELVS), a longitudinal study with a community sample of 1910 children recruited in Melbourne, Australia, as well as a concurrent study examining the onset and progression of stuttering. Participants with a history of stuttering (n = 181) and a control group without a history of stuttering (n = 1438) were identified according to the established protocol of these two existing studies. The stuttering group scored higher than the non-stuttering group on all of the communication and language outcomes measured. The group differences were statistically significant on four of the seven measures and these findings were maintained when potentially confounding factors were controlled for. Importantly, the children with a history of stuttering, as a group, and the control group without a history of stuttering demonstrated developmentally-appropriate early communication and language skills.

  8. Role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering: a brain stimulation and tractographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerdere, Rahsan; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Cochereau, Jérôme; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of stuttering are to date incompletely understood. Although the possible involvement of the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and certain parts of the cerebral cortex in this speech disorder has previously been reported, there are still not many studies investigating the role of white matter fibers in stuttering. Axonal stimulation during awake surgery provides a unique opportunity to study the functional role of structural connectivity. Here, our goal was to investigate the white matter tracts implicated in stuttering, by combining direct electrostimulation mapping and postoperative tractography imaging, with a special focus on the left frontal aslant tract. Eight patients with no preoperative stuttering underwent awake surgery for a left frontal low-grade glioma. Intraoperative cortical and axonal electrical mapping was used to interfere in speech processing and subsequently provoke stuttering. We further assessed the relationship between the subcortical sites leading to stuttering and the spatial course of the frontal aslant tract. All patients experienced intraoperative stuttering during axonal electrostimulation. On postsurgical tractographies, the subcortical distribution of stimulated sites matched the topographical position of the left frontal aslant tract. This white matter pathway was preserved during surgery, and no patients had postoperative stuttering. For the first time to our knowledge, by using direct axonal stimulation combined with postoperative tractography, we provide original data supporting a pivotal role of the left frontal aslant tract in stuttering. We propose that this speech disorder could be the result of a disconnection within a large-scale cortico-subcortical circuit subserving speech motor control.

  9. The Lidcombe Program of early stuttering intervention for Malaysian families: Four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Etain; Wilson, Linda; Lincoln, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the outcomes of implementing the Lidcombe Program, an evidence-based early intervention for stuttering, with four preschool children in Malaysia. Early stuttering intervention is currently underdeveloped in Malaysia, where stuttering treatment is often more assertion-based than evidence-based. Therefore, introducing an evidence-based early stuttering intervention is an important milestone for Malaysian preschoolers who stutter. The participants ranged from 3 years 3 months to 4 years 9 months at the start of the study. Beyond-clinic speech samples were obtained at 1 month and 1 week pretreatment and immediately post-Stage 1, and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months post-Stage 1. Two participants, who were bilingual, achieved near-zero levels of stuttering at 12 months posttreatment. Near zero levels of stuttering were also present in their untreated languages. One participant withdrew due to reasons not connected with the research or treatment. The remaining participant, who presented with severe stuttering, completed Stage 1 but had some relapse in Stage 2 and demonstrated mild stuttering 12 months post-Stage 1. The outcomes were achieved without the need to significantly adapt Lidcombe Program procedures to Malaysian culture. Further research to continue evaluation of the Lidcombe Program with Malaysian families and to estimate proportion of those who will respond is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Classification of types of stuttering symptoms based on brain activity.

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    Jing Jiang

    Full Text Available Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT whole-word repetitions (WWR should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type.

  11. Classification of Types of Stuttering Symptoms Based on Brain Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Lu, Chunming; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Howell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Among the non-fluencies seen in speech, some are more typical (MT) of stuttering speakers, whereas others are less typical (LT) and are common to both stuttering and fluent speakers. No neuroimaging work has evaluated the neural basis for grouping these symptom types. Another long-debated issue is which type (LT, MT) whole-word repetitions (WWR) should be placed in. In this study, a sentence completion task was performed by twenty stuttering patients who were scanned using an event-related design. This task elicited stuttering in these patients. Each stuttered trial from each patient was sorted into the MT or LT types with WWR put aside. Pattern classification was employed to train a patient-specific single trial model to automatically classify each trial as MT or LT using the corresponding fMRI data. This model was then validated by using test data that were independent of the training data. In a subsequent analysis, the classification model, just established, was used to determine which type the WWR should be placed in. The results showed that the LT and the MT could be separated with high accuracy based on their brain activity. The brain regions that made most contribution to the separation of the types were: the left inferior frontal cortex and bilateral precuneus, both of which showed higher activity in the MT than in the LT; and the left putamen and right cerebellum which showed the opposite activity pattern. The results also showed that the brain activity for WWR was more similar to that of the LT and fluent speech than to that of the MT. These findings provide a neurological basis for separating the MT and the LT types, and support the widely-used MT/LT symptom grouping scheme. In addition, WWR play a similar role as the LT, and thus should be placed in the LT type. PMID:22761887

  12. Effect of Pre-treatment method on the Hydrolysis of Corn cob and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawole Ogirima Olanipekun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient pre-treatment has been found to be crucial step before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into fuels or chemicals. As a result various pretreatment methods have been developed to facilitate these bio-conversion processes, and this research focuses on the effect of two pretreatment methods such as liquid hot water and sulphuric acid pre-treatment to remove some of the components like lignin and hemicellulose which form structural barrier to enzymatic accessibility of cellulose in corn cobs and sawdust. The cellulosic materials were first dried in oven at 65 oC for 24 hours,  and using   solid to liquid ratio of 1:10, the two methods were carried out at resident times ranging from 10 - 40 minutes. The liquid hot water method involved heating the cellulosic materials in water at 120 oC and 1atmosphere in a pressure vessel, and for the second method, the dried cellulosic materials were refluxed in 5 % sulphuric acid at a temperature of 120 oC. Pretreated samples were filtered and liquid fractions were analyzed for the presence of reducing sugars, while solid residues were dried in the oven and weighed to measure the mass lost during pretreatment as a pointer to lignin breakdown. It was observed that the mass lost increased with time for both pretreatment methods, but the liquid hot water pretreatment gave higher lignin and hemicellulose removal when compared to the sulphuric acid pre-treatment. The pretreated materials were hydrolyzed with two combinations of commercial enzymes namely cellulase/ hemicellulase and cellulase/β glucosidase. The reducing sugar was measured using Dinitrosalycilic acid (DNSA method and the sugar yields from corn cobs were higher than that of sawdust when subjected to similar process conditions, and the enzyme combination of cellulase/glucosidase gave higher yields of reducing sugars.  A model equation which describes the hydrolysis process was developed from first principles and the experimental data

  13. Translation, Assessment and Deployment of Stuttering Instruments into Different Languages: Comments Arising from Bakhtiar et al., "Investigation of the Reliability of the SSI-3 for Preschool Persian-Speaking Children Who Stutter" ["J. Fluency Disord." 35 (2010) 87-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hamid; Nilipour, Reza; Shafiei, Bijan; Howell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Bakhtiar, Seifpanahi, Ansari, Ghanadzade and Packman (2010) reported high inter-, and intra-judge agreement of a translation of the Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI-3) for preschool Persian-speaking children who stutter. Translation of SSI-3 into Persian is desirable as there is no standardised stuttering severity test for that language.…

  14. Impact of stuttering severity on adolescents' domain-specific and general self-esteem through cognitive and emotional mediating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensens, Stefanie; Beyers, Wim; Struyf, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The theory that self-esteem is substantially constructed based on social interactions implies that having a stutter could have a negative impact on self-esteem. Specifically, self-esteem during adolescence, a period of life characterized by increased self-consciousness, could be at risk. In addition to studying mean differences between stuttering and non-stuttering adolescents, this article concentrates on the influence of stuttering severity on domain-specific and general self-esteem. Subsequently, we investigate if covert processes on negative communication attitudes, experienced stigma, non-disclosure of stuttering, and (mal)adaptive perfectionism mediate the relationship between stuttering severity and self-esteem. Our sample comprised 55 stuttering and 76 non-stuttering adolescents. They were asked to fill in a battery of questionnaires, consisting of: Subjective Screening of Stuttering, Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, Erickson S-24, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and the Stigmatization and Disclosure in Adolescents Who Stutter Scale. SEM (structural equation modeling) analyses showed that stuttering severity negatively influences adolescents' evaluations of social acceptance, school competence, the competence to experience a close friendship, and global self-esteem. Maladaptive perfectionism and especially negative communication attitudes fully mediate the negative influence of stuttering severity on self-esteem. Group comparison showed that the mediation model applies to both stuttering and non-stuttering adolescents. We acknowledge the impact of having a stutter on those domains of the self in which social interactions and communication matter most. We then accentuate that negative attitudes about communication situations and excessive worries about saying things in ways they perceive as wrong are important processes to consider with regard to the self-esteem of adolescents who stutter. Moreover, we provide evidence that these covert

  15. The importance of pre-treatment of spent hydrotreating catalysts on metals recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luiz de Souza Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a three-step pre-treatment route for processing spent commercial NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts. Extraction of soluble coke with n-hexane and/or leaching of foulant elements with oxalic acid were performed before burning insoluble coke under air. Oxidized catalysts were leached with 9 mol L-1 sulfuric acid. Iron was the only foulant element partially leached by oxalic acid. The amount of insoluble matter in sulfuric acid was drastically reduced when iron and/or soluble coke were previously removed. Losses of active phase metals (Ni, Mo during leaching with oxalic acid were compensated by the increase of their recovery in the sulfuric acid leachate.

  16. Functionality of colinergic systems in rats pre-treatment with triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, O.M.S. de.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of experimental hiperthyroidism in the colinergic activity, rats were injected daily, during 1, 5, 19 or 20 days, with triiodothyronine (0 to 100 ug/kg, s.c.). The hiperthyroidism was evaluated by the decrease of the body weight and the increase of the body temperature and serum hormonal levels (T3). After the administration of the cholinergic agonists (pilocarpine and oxotremorine) or a anticholinesterase drug (eserine), the cholinergic behavioural and pharmacologic activity was evaluated recording the rectal temperature, locomotor activity, catalepsy, tremor and cromodacryorrhea. The results suggests that T3 pre-treatment may induce in rats changes in the functionality of the central cholinergic post-sinaptic receptors. However, the administration of this hormone does not seem to induce any alterations in the periferic cholinergic receptors, implicated in cromodacryorrhea effect. (author)

  17. Arsenic adsorption in pre-treatment natural zeolite with magnesium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Z, F.; Valenzuela G, J. L.; Aguayo S, S.; Meza F, D.

    2009-01-01

    A methodology was developed to modify a natural zeolite (chabazite) with magnesium oxide in order to remove arsenic (As +5 ) from water for human consumption. It is proposed a magnesium oxide while regarded as an efficient adsorbent for removing metals in water. X-ray diffraction analyses show significant changes in the chabazite due to the presence of oxides and amorphous hydroxides incorporated during the pre-treatment. Experimental design results show an efficiency greater than 90% of As +5 adsorbed in five minutes. The results indicate that the most significant variables affecting the adsorption of As +5 are the initial concentration of As and the solid/liquid ratio. Experimental data fitted better to Freundlich isotherm with a 20.17 mg/g adsorption capability. (Author)

  18. The importance of pre-treatment of spent hydrotreating catalysts on metals recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Alexandre Luiz de Souza; Silva, Cristiano Nunes da; Afonso, Julio Carlos, E-mail: julio@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Mantovano, Jose Luiz [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN/IEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Materiais Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    This work describes a three-step pre-treatment route for processing spent commercial Ni Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Extraction of soluble coke with n-hexane and/or leaching of foulant elements with oxalic acid were performed before burning insoluble coke under air. Oxidized catalysts were leached with 9 mol L{sup -1} sulfuric acid. Iron was the only foulant element partially leached by oxalic acid. The amount of insoluble matter in sulfuric acid was drastically reduced when iron and/or soluble coke were previously removed. Losses of active phase metals (Ni, Mo) during leaching with oxalic acid were compensated by the increase of their recovery in the sulfuric acid leachate. (author)

  19. A review on hydrothermal pre-treatment technologies and environmental profiles of algal biomass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavish; Guo, Miao; Izadpanah, Arash; Shah, Nilay; Hellgardt, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The need for efficient and clean biomass conversion technologies has propelled Hydrothermal (HT) processing as a promising treatment option for biofuel production. This manuscript discussed its application for pre-treatment of microalgae biomass to solid (biochar), liquid (biocrude and biodiesel) and gaseous (hydrogen and methane) products via Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC), Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) as well as the utility of HT water as an extraction medium and HT Hydrotreatment (HDT) of algal biocrude. In addition, the Solar Energy Retained in Fuel (SERF) using HT technologies is calculated and compared with benchmark biofuel. Lastly, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) discusses the limitation of the current state of art as well as introduction to new potential input categories to obtain a detailed environmental profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced methane production from pig slurry with pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2018-02-01

    Intensive amount of manure produced in pig breeding sectors represents negative impact on the environment and requires optimal management. Anaerobic digestion as a well-known manure management process was optimized in this experimental study by pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment. The effect of PEF on methane production was investigated at three different intensities (15, 30 and 50 kWh/m 3 ). The results indicate that the methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was improved by continuous escalation of applied intensity, up to 50 kWh/m 3 . In comparison with untreated slurry, methane production and COD removal were increased up to 58% and 44%, respectively.

  1. Correlation between pre-treatment quasispecies complexity and treatment outcome in chronic HCV genotype 3a.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moreau, Isabelle

    2012-02-03

    Pre-treatment HCV quasispecies complexity and diversity may predict response to interferon based anti-viral therapy. The objective of this study was to retrospectively (1) examine temporal changes in quasispecies prior to the start of therapy and (2) investigate extensively quasispecies evolution in a group of 10 chronically infected patients with genotype 3a, treated with pegylated alpha2a-Interferon and ribavirin. The degree of sequence heterogeneity within the hypervariable region 1 was assessed by analyzing 20-30 individual clones in serial serum samples. Genetic parameters, including amino acid Shannon entropy, Hamming distance and genetic distance were calculated for each sample. Treatment outcome was divided into (1) sustained virological responders (SVR) and (2) treatment failure (TF). Our results indicate, (1) quasispecies complexity and diversity are lower in the SVR group, (2) quasispecies vary temporally and (3) genetic heterogeneity at baseline can be use to predict treatment outcome. We discuss the results from the perspective of replicative homeostasis.

  2. Targeted pre-treatment of hemp bast fibres for optimal performance in biocomposite materials: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Summerscales, John

    2017-01-01

    . In order to achieve strong NFCs, well separated and cellulose-rich fibres are required. Hemp is taking a center stage in this regard as a source of suitable natural plant cellulose fibres because natural hemp bast fibres are long and inherently possess high strength. Classical field and water retting...... methods have been used for centuries for removal of non-cellulosic components from fibrous plant stems including from hemp, but carries a risk of reducing the mechanical properties of the fibres via damaging the cellulose. For NFCs new targeted fibre pre-treatment methods are needed to selectively...... and effectively remove non-cellulosic components from the plant fibres to produce cellulose rich fibres without introducing any damage to the fibres. A key feature for successful use of natural fibres such as hemp fibres in composite materials is optimal interfacial contact between the fibres and the hydrophobic...

  3. Pre-treatment of desalination feed seawater by Jordanian Tripoli, Pozzolana and Feldspar: batch experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIMAN E. AL-RAWAJFEH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, composites of layered double hydroxide (LDH with three Jordanian natural raw materials: Tripoli (T, Pozzolana (P and Feldspar (F were prepared by co-precipitation and have been used for feed seawater pre-treatment. The data reveals that percent adsorption decreased with increase in initial concentration, but the actual amount of adsorbed ions per unit mass of LDH/T-P-F increased with increase in metal ion concentrations. The values of ΔG were negative and within 21 to 26 kJ/mol, while the values of and ΔS were positive, with ΔH within the range of 0.1 to 25 kJ/mol. The values of ΔH, ΔS and ΔG indicate the favorability of physisorption and show that the LDH/T-P-F composites have a considerable potential as adsorbents for the removal of ions from seawater.

  4. Application of ceramic membranes for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma

    2013-05-30

    Low-pressure (microfiltration/ultrafiltration (MF/UF)) membranes are being increasingly used as pre-treatment, prior to seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The objective of pre-treatment before reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is to remove undesirable and particulate fouling materials (algae, suspended and colloidal particles). Also, a pre-treatment barrier reduces organics and provides better feed water quality for RO membranes. MF and UF pre-treatment prior to SWRO provides Low Silt Density Index (SDI) values recommended for RO operation. Ceramic membranes are more attractive as they made of more chemically resistant materials, which allow for more stable operation and aggressive backwashing (BW) and cleaning. A pilot plant with a monolith ceramic MF membrane (0.1 μm pore size) from METAWATER was used to carry out the study. Red Sea water pumped from a distance of 700 m offshore from Thuwal (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) was used as feed water. The pilot plant was operated automatically at constant flux of 150 LMH that involved BW, air flushing and forward flushing at the end of filtration cycle. Seawater permeates were used for hydraulic BW, while sodium hypochlorite, citric acid and sodium hydroxide were used for chemical cleaning (CIP) to restore the membrane permeability after use. Filtration cycles of 2.5 h were adopted for initial experiments. Aggressive BW flux of 1,800 LMH for 15 s, air flushing of 4 bars for 10 s and forward flushing of 300 LMH for 40 s were applied for regular membrane hydraulic cleaning. The increase of membrane resistances over time was monitored. Further studies were also performed by using Anopore ceramic membranes AAO100 (pore sizes of 0.1 μm) using a constant pressure bench-scale set-up. The feed water and permeate were analysed using an SDI unit, flow cytometre (FCM) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). The results showed that ceramic membrane filtration reduced the SDI15 of seawater from 6.1 to 2.1 which

  5. The History of Stuttering by 7 Years of Age: Follow-Up of a Prospective Community Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Vogel, Adam; Pezic, Angela; Mensah, Fiona; Conway, Laura; Bavin, Edith; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: For a community cohort of children confirmed to have stuttered by the age of 4 years, we report (a) the recovery rate from stuttering, (b) predictors of recovery, and (c) comorbidities at the age of 7 years. Method: This study was nested in the Early Language in Victoria Study. Predictors of stuttering recovery included child, family, and…

  6. Functional neural circuits that underlie developmental stuttering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Qiao

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS and typically developing (TD fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups. We then used Granger Causality (GC to study the causal interactions (effective connectivity between the regions that ICA and HPM identified. Finally, we used a kernel support vector machine to assess how well these measures of functional connectivity and granger causality discriminate PWS from TD controls. Functional connectivity was stronger in PWS compared with TD controls in the supplementary motor area (SMA and primary motor cortices, but weaker in inferior frontal cortex (IFG, Broca's area, caudate, putamen, and thalamus. Additionally, causal influences were significantly weaker in PWS from the IFG to SMA, and from the basal ganglia to IFG through the thalamus, compared to TD controls. ICA and GC indices together yielded an accuracy of 92.7% in classifying PWS from TD controls. Our findings suggest the presence of dysfunctional circuits that support speech planning and timing cues for the initiation and execution of motor sequences in PWS. Our high accuracy of classification further suggests that these aberrant brain features may serve as robust biomarkers for PWS.

  7. Functional neural circuits that underlie developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianping; Wang, Zhishun; Zhao, Guihu; Huo, Yuankai; Herder, Carl L; Sikora, Chamonix O; Peterson, Bradley S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically developing (TD) fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM) to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups. We then used Granger Causality (GC) to study the causal interactions (effective connectivity) between the regions that ICA and HPM identified. Finally, we used a kernel support vector machine to assess how well these measures of functional connectivity and granger causality discriminate PWS from TD controls. Functional connectivity was stronger in PWS compared with TD controls in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortices, but weaker in inferior frontal cortex (IFG, Broca's area), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. Additionally, causal influences were significantly weaker in PWS from the IFG to SMA, and from the basal ganglia to IFG through the thalamus, compared to TD controls. ICA and GC indices together yielded an accuracy of 92.7% in classifying PWS from TD controls. Our findings suggest the presence of dysfunctional circuits that support speech planning and timing cues for the initiation and execution of motor sequences in PWS. Our high accuracy of classification further suggests that these aberrant brain features may serve as robust biomarkers for PWS.

  8. Functional neural circuits that underlie developmental stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guihu; Huo, Yuankai; Herder, Carl L.; Sikora, Chamonix O.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically developing (TD) fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM) to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups. We then used Granger Causality (GC) to study the causal interactions (effective connectivity) between the regions that ICA and HPM identified. Finally, we used a kernel support vector machine to assess how well these measures of functional connectivity and granger causality discriminate PWS from TD controls. Functional connectivity was stronger in PWS compared with TD controls in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortices, but weaker in inferior frontal cortex (IFG, Broca’s area), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. Additionally, causal influences were significantly weaker in PWS from the IFG to SMA, and from the basal ganglia to IFG through the thalamus, compared to TD controls. ICA and GC indices together yielded an accuracy of 92.7% in classifying PWS from TD controls. Our findings suggest the presence of dysfunctional circuits that support speech planning and timing cues for the initiation and execution of motor sequences in PWS. Our high accuracy of classification further suggests that these aberrant brain features may serve as robust biomarkers for PWS. PMID:28759567

  9. Essential pre-treatment imaging examinations in patients with endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Mari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no reports discussing which imaging procedures are truly necessary before treatment of endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer (eEGC. The aim of this pilot study was to show which imaging examinations are essential to select indicated treatment or appropriate strategy in patients with eEGC. Methods In 140 consecutive patients (95 men, 45 women; age, 66.4 +/- 11.3 years [mean +/- standard deviation], range, 33-90 with eEGC which were diagnosed during two years, the pre-treatment results of ultrasonography (US and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT of the abdomen, barium enema (BE and chest radiography (CR were retrospectively reviewed. Useful findings that might affect indication or strategy were evaluated. Results US demonstrated useful findings in 13 of 140 patients (9.3%: biliary tract stones (n = 11 and other malignant tumors (n = 2. Only one useful finding was demonstrated on CT (pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous tumor but not on US (0.7%; 95% confidential interval [CI], 2.1%. BE demonstrated colorectal carcinomas in six patients and polyps in 10 patients, altering treatment strategy (11.4%; 95%CI, 6.1-16.7%. Of these, only two colorectal carcinomas were detected on CT. CR showed three relevant findings (2.1%: pulmonary carcinoma (n = 1 and cardiomegaly (n = 2. Seventy-nine patients (56% were treated surgically and 56 patients were treated by endoscopic intervention. The remaining five patients received no treatment due to various reasons. Conclusions US, BE and CR may be essential as pre-treatment imaging examinations because they occasionally detect findings which affect treatment indication and strategy, although abdominal contrast-enhanced CT rarely provide additional information.

  10. Optical monitoring systems for thermal spray processes: droplets behavior and substrate pre-treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Yamagata, Y.; Miyazaki, F.; Yamasaki, M.; Tanaka, J.; Muraoka, K.

    2017-11-01

    Thermal spray is a technique to form molten droplets using either plasma- or combustion-heating, which impinge upon substrates to form coating layers for various purposes, such as anti-corrosion and anti-wear layers. Although it is an established technique having a history of more than a century, operations of spray guns together with preparing suitable substrate surfaces for obtaining good coating layers still rely on experienced technicians. Because of the necessity of meeting more and more stringent requirements for coating quality and cost from customers, there has been a strong need to try to monitor spray processes, so as to obtain the best possible spray coating layers. The basic requirements for such monitoring systems are *reasonably cheap, *easy operation for laypersons, *easy access to targets to be investigated, and *an in-situ capability. The purpose of the present work is to provide suitable optical monitoring systems for (1) droplets behavior and (2) substrate pre-treatments. For the former (1), the first result was already presented at the 17th laser-aided plasma diagnostics meeting (LAPD17) in 2015 in Sapporo, and the results of its subsequent applications into real spray environments are shown in this article in order to validate the previous proposal. Topic (2) is new in the research program, and the proof-of-principle experiment for the proposed method yielded a favorable result. Based on this positive result, an overall strategy is being planned to fulfill the final objective of the optical monitoring of substrate pre-treatments. Details of these two programs (1) and (2) together with the present status are described.

  11. Eldecalcitol normalizes bone turnover markers regardless of their pre-treatment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Masataka; Saito, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Three-year treatment with eldecalcitol has been shown to improve lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD), decrease bone turnover markers, and lower the incidences of vertebral and wrist fractures in patients with osteoporosis more than with treatment with alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a risk of eldecalcitol causing severely suppressed bone turnover in osteoporosis patients with low pre-treatment levels of bone turnover markers. Post-hoc analysis was conducted on the data from a 3-year, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, clinical trial of eldecalcitol versus alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion conducted in Japan. Enrolled patients with baseline measurements of bone turnover markers were stratified into tertiles according to their pre-treatment levels of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, or urinary collagen-N-telopeptide. Eldecalcitol treatment rapidly reduced bone turnover markers, and kept them within the normal range. However, in the patients whose baseline values for bone turnover were low, eldecalcitol treatment did not further reduce bone turnover markers during the 3-year treatment period. Further long-term observation may be required to reach the conclusion. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NUMBER: NCT00144456. Eldecalcitol normalizes, but does not overly suppress, bone turnover regardless of baseline levels of bone turnover markers. Thus, it is unlikely that eldecalcitol treatment will increase the risk of severely suppressed bone turnover and therefore deterioration of bone quality, at least for a treatment duration of 3 years.

  12. Connecting Lignin-Degradation Pathway with Pre-Treatment Inhibitor Sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunsinger, G. B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, P. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, D. K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-27

    In order to produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity.

  13. Control of Pre-treatment for Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Proton Ion Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, D. W.; Lee, S. M.; Kim, W. J.

    2008-04-01

    The carbon nanotubes are the next generation material in fuel storage system, the gas sensor, the life science sensor or the nano-size transistor, the stiffener and the heat dissipation field. For use at appropriate position in various field, it must be developed that control technique makes carbon nanotubes with high performance synthesized at appropriate location. The density of the carbon nanotube is 1 - 2g/cm3 with aluminum (2 - 3g/cm3) to be light, the elastic modulus is the level where as many of as 30 - 50 times of iron's elastic modulus and thermal conductivity is similar to the diamond, electric conductivity is high as well above the metal. Generally, many researchers have tried to synthesize the carbon nanotubes of mm length unit using the hydrogen and porous substrate, which play a role of more activating the catalyst. The proton beam which consist of H+ was able to directly inject the hydrogen into target materials such as Ni, Co, Fe as well as transfer high activation energy to them. so we were able to carry out feasibility of controlling the porosity of thin film and substrate to synthesize carbon nanotubes. The pre-treatment method of existing which is used generally heat treatment and the ammonia controls has generated island of catalyst which has increased the surface to react the hydrocarbon. However, pre-treatment method of existing caused the random nuclear creation so it was hard to control the island size of catalyst. It was not enough to understand the porous effect against synthesis of carbon nanotubes deduced from altering various substrates. In this report, it is possible investigate how hydrogen and the porous effect influence on growth of carbon nanotubes through controlling the nuclear creation of catalysts directly and the porosity of them using proton beam

  14. Japanese normative data for the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs about Stuttering (UTBAS) Scales for adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shin Ying; Sakai, Naomi; Mori, Koichi; Iverach, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    This study reports Japanese normative data for the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs about Stuttering (UTBAS) scales. We outline the translation process, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the UTBAS scales. The translation of the UTBAS scales into Japanese (UTBAS-J) was completed using the standard forward-backward translation process, and was administered to 130 Japanese adults who stutter. To validate the UTBAS-J scales, scores for the Japanese and Australian cohorts were compared. Spearman correlations were conducted between the UTBAS-J and the Modified Erickson Communication Attitude scale (S-24), the self-assessment scale of speech (SA scale), and age. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the UTBAS-J were assessed. Independent t-tests were conducted to evaluate the differences in the UTBAS-J scales according to gender, speech treatment experience, and stuttering self-help group participation experience. The UTBAS-J showed good test-retest reliability, high internal consistency, and moderate to high significant correlations with S-24 and SA scale. A weak correlation was found between the UTBAS-J scales with age. No significant relationships were found between UTBAS-J scores, gender and speech treatment experience. However, those who participated in the stuttering self-help group demonstrated lower UTBAS-J scores than those who did not. Given the current scarcity of clinical assessment tools for adults who stutter in Japan, the UTBAS-J holds promise as an assessment tool and outcome measure for use in clinical and research environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stuttering in relation to anxiety, temperament, and personality: review and analysis with focus on causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Per A

    2014-06-01

    Anxiety and emotional reactions have a central role in many theories of stuttering, for example that persons who stutter would tend to have an emotionally sensitive temperament. The possible relation between stuttering and certain traits of temperament or personality were reviewed and analyzed, with focus on temporal relations (i.e., what comes first). It was consistently found that preschool children who stutter (as a group) do not show any tendencies toward elevated temperamental traits of shyness or social anxiety compared with children who do not stutter. Significant group differences were, however, repeatedly reported for traits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which is likely to reflect a subgroup of children who stutter. Available data is not consistent with the proposal that the risk for persistent stuttering is increased by an emotionally reactive temperament in children who stutter. Speech-related social anxiety develops in many cases of stuttering, before adulthood. Reduction of social anxiety in adults who stutter does not in itself appear to result in significant improvement of speech fluency. Studies have not revealed any relation between the severity of the motor symptoms of stuttering and temperamental traits. It is proposed that situational variability of stuttering, related to social complexity, is an effect of interference from social cognition and not directly from the emotions of social anxiety. In summary, the studies in this review provide strong evidence that persons who stutter are not characterized by constitutional traits of anxiety or similar constructs. This paper provides a review and analysis of studies of anxiety, temperament, and personality, organized with the objective to clarify cause and effect relations. Readers will be able to (a) understand the importance of effect size and distribution of data for interpretation of group differences; (b) understand the role of temporal relations for interpretation

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS OF STUTTERING CHILDREN AND CHILDREN WITH FLUENT SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila BEGIC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of phonological awareness of stuttering children and children with fluent speech. The sample consisted of 64 children, between 56 and 83 months old (4 years and 8 months to 6 years and 11 months. Examinees were divided in two groups. The first group consisted of 32 stuttering children, 19 males, and 13 females. The control group consisted of 32 children with fluent speech, whose age and sex were equal to the age and sex of the children in the experimental group. The research was conducted in preschools and primary schools in Tuzla and Una-Sana Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The subjects were examined with 7 subtests (syllable and phoneme blending abilities, ability to rhyme, phoneme segmentation, phoneme deletion, phoneme transposition and spoonerisms. Each of the subtest scores, which index a variety of phonological awareness abilities, was examined separately. Phonological awareness score is the total score which relates to a common result that the subjects achieved on these 7 individual subtests. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between stuttering children and their peers with fluent speech in relation to Phonological awareness score. The examination of differences between stuttering and non-stuttering children in individual variables, which describe phonological awareness, showed that there was statistically significant difference in the ability to rhyme between these two subjects groups. T-test was used for examination of the differences between the male stuttering children and their fluent peers, and also female stuttering children and their fluent peers for the phonological awareness variables. The results exhibited statistically significant differences in the variable Rhyme between the male stuttering children and their fluent peers. In addition, we examined the ability of phonemic analysis of children who stutter and children with fluent

  17. ACTH has beneficial effects on stuttering in ADHD and ASD patients with ESES: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunel, Attila; Sever, Ali; Altunel, Emine Özlem

    2017-02-01

    Etiology of stuttering remains unknown and no pharmacologic intervention has been approved for treatment. We aimed to evaluate EEG parameters and the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in stuttering. In this retrospective study, 25 patients with attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and comorbid stuttering were followed and treated with ACTH for electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES). Sleep EEGs were recorded at referral and follow-up visits and short courses of ACTH were administered when spike-wave index (SWI) was ⩾15%. The assessment of treatment effectiveness was based on reduction in SWI, and the clinician-reported improvement in stuttering, and ADHD or ASD. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between the clinical and EEG parameters. Following treatment with ACTH, a reduction in SWI in all the patients was accompanied by a 72% improvement in ADHD or ASD, and 83.8% improvement in stuttering. Twelve of the 25 patients with stuttering showed complete treatment response. Linear regressions established that SWI at final visit significantly predicted improvement in ADHD or ASD, and in stuttering. If symptoms had recurred, improvement was once again achieved with repeated ACTH therapies. Stuttering always improved prior to, and recurred following ADHD or ASD. The underlying etiology leading to ESES may play a significant role in the pathophysiology of stuttering and connect stuttering to other developmental disorders. ACTH therapy has beneficial effects on stuttering and improves EEG parameters. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from co-digestion of wastewater sludges and agricultural wastes: Comparison with microwave pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylin Alagöz, B; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonication and microwave sludge disintegration/pre-treatment techniques on the anaerobic co-digestion efficiency of wastewater sludges with olive and grape pomaces. The effects of both co-digestion and sludge pre-treatment techniques were evaluated in terms of the organic removal efficiency and the biogas production. The "co-digestion" of wastewater sludge with both types of pomaces was revealed to be a much more efficient way for the biogas production compared to the single (mono) sludge digestion. The ultrasonication and microwave pre-treatments applied to the sludge samples caused to a further increase in biogas and methane yields. Based on applied specific energies, ultrasonication pre-treatment was found much more effective than microwave irradiation. The specific energy applied in microwave pre-treatment (87,000kj/kgTS) was almost 9 times higher than that of used in ultrasonication (10,000kj/kgTS), resulting only 10-15% increases in biogas/methane yield. Co-digestion of winery and olive industry residues with pre-treated wastewater sludges appears to be a suitable technique for waste management and energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K

    2014-10-01

    Furfural is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. This study used a naturally occurring (not GMO) biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model fermentation broth. Pre-treatment involved inoculating and incubating the fermentation broth with strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The Leuconostoc strains converted furfural to furfuryl alcohol without consuming large amounts of dextrose in the process. Coupling this pre-treatment to ethanolic fermentation reduced furfural in the broth and improved growth, dextrose uptake and ethanol formation. Pre-treatment permitted ethanol formation in the presence of 5.2 g L(-1) furfural, which was otherwise inhibitive. The pre-treatment and presence of the Leuconostoc strains in the fermentation broth did not interfere with Z. mobilis ethanolic fermentation or the amounts of ethanol produced. The method suggests a possible technique for reducing the effect that furfural has on the production of ethanol for use as a biofuel. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben; Pratt, Steven; Schenk, Peer M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  1. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment on the physicochemical composition of Agave durangensis leaves and potential enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Hernández, M G; Ochoa-Martínez, L A; Rutiaga-Quiñones, J G; Rocha-Guzmán, N E; Lara-Ceniceros, T E; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Prado Barragán, L A; Rutiaga-Quiñones, O M

    2018-02-01

    Approximately 1 million tons of agave plants are processed annually by the Mexican tequila and mezcal industry, generating vast amounts of agroindustrial solid waste. This type of lignocellulosic biomass is considered to be agroindustrial residue, which can be used to produce enzymes, giving it added value. However, the structure of lignocellulosic biomass makes it highly recalcitrant, and results in relatively low yield when used in its native form. The aim of this study was to investigate an effective pre-treatment method for the production of commercially important hydrolytic enzymes. In this work, the physical and chemical modification of Agave durangensis leaves was analysed using ultrasound and high temperature as pre-treatments, and production of enzymes was evaluated. The pre-treatments resulted in modification of the lignocellulosic structure and composition; the ultrasound pre-treatment improved the production of inulinase by 4 U/mg and cellulase by 0.297 U/mg, and thermal pre-treatment improved β-fructofuranosidase by 30 U/mg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative effects of biomass pre-treatments for direct and indirect transesterification to enhance microalgal lipid recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough eGhasemi Naghdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane-ethanol (3:1. Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171% under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  3. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Pratt, Steven [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Schenk, Peer M., E-mail: p.schenk@uq.edu.au [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2014-12-04

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  4. Weak responses to auditory feedback perturbation during articulation in persons who stutter: evidence for abnormal auditory-motor transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqing Cai

    Full Text Available Previous empirical observations have led researchers to propose that auditory feedback (the auditory perception of self-produced sounds when speaking functions abnormally in the speech motor systems of persons who stutter (PWS. Researchers have theorized that an important neural basis of stuttering is the aberrant integration of auditory information into incipient speech motor commands. Because of the circumstantial support for these hypotheses and the differences and contradictions between them, there is a need for carefully designed experiments that directly examine auditory-motor integration during speech production in PWS. In the current study, we used real-time manipulation of auditory feedback to directly investigate whether the speech motor system of PWS utilizes auditory feedback abnormally during articulation and to characterize potential deficits of this auditory-motor integration. Twenty-one PWS and 18 fluent control participants were recruited. Using a short-latency formant-perturbation system, we examined participants' compensatory responses to unanticipated perturbation of auditory feedback of the first formant frequency during the production of the monophthong [ε]. The PWS showed compensatory responses that were qualitatively similar to the controls' and had close-to-normal latencies (∼150 ms, but the magnitudes of their responses were substantially and significantly smaller than those of the control participants (by 47% on average, p<0.05. Measurements of auditory acuity indicate that the weaker-than-normal compensatory responses in PWS were not attributable to a deficit in low-level auditory processing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with functional defects in the inverse models responsible for the transformation from the domain of auditory targets and auditory error information into the domain of speech motor commands.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from ophthalmic products: can pre-treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate increase patch test sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa

    2005-05-01

    In patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis because of topical ophthalmic medicaments, patch tests performed with patients' own products are often negative. The irritant anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) may alter the stratum corneum and increase antigen penetration. Pre-treatment of the skin with SLS 0.5% for 24 h was performed in the sites of patch tests with patients' own products in 15 selected patients. In patients previously negative to their own products tested with conventional patch tests, SLS pre-treatment showed 6 new relevant positive reactions and induced a stronger positive reaction in 1 patient. SLS pre-treatment could be proposed as an alternative promising method, which may increase sensitivity of patch tests with patients' own products.

  6. Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    for ethanol fermentation. The resulting hydrolyzsates contain substances inhibitory to fermentation-depending on both the raw material (biomass) and the pre-treatment applied. An overview of the inhibitory effect on ethanol production by yeast and bacteria is presented. Apart from furans formed by sugar......An overview of the different inhibitors formed by pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials and their inhibition of ethanol production in yeast and bacteria is given. Different high temperature physical pre-treatment methods are available to render the carbohydrates in lignocellulose accessible...... degradation, phenol monomers from lignin degradation are important co-factors in hydrolysate inhibition, and inhibitory effects of these aromatic compounds on different ethanol producing microorganisms is reviewed. The furans and phenols generally inhibited growth and ethanol production rate (Q...

  7. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect...... of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis......Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...

  8. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on quantity and quality of source-sorted municipal organic waste for biogas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, J.l.C.; Davidsson, Å.

    2007-01-01

    , collection bag material (plastic or paper) and easily degradable organic matter. Furthermore, the particle size of the biomass was related to the pre-treatment technology. The content of plastic in the biomass depended both on the actual collection bag material used in the system and the pre......Source-sorted municipal organic waste collected from different dwelling types in five Danish cities and pre-treated at three different plants was sampled and characterized several times during one year to investigate the origin of any differences in composition of the pre-treated waste introduced...... by city, pre-treatment technology, dwelling type or annual season. The investigated pre-treatment technologies were screw press, disc screen and shredder + magnet. The average quantity of pre-treated organic waste (biomass) produced from the incoming waste varied between the investigated pre...

  9. Use of principal components analysis (PCA) on estuarine sediment datasets: The effect of data pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.K.; Spencer, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) is a multivariate statistical technique capable of discerning patterns in large environmental datasets. Although widely used, there is disparity in the literature with respect to data pre-treatment prior to PCA. This research examines the influence of commonly reported data pre-treatment methods on PCA outputs, and hence data interpretation, using a typical environmental dataset comprising sediment geochemical data from an estuary in SE England. This study demonstrated that applying the routinely used log (x + 1) transformation skewed the data and masked important trends. Removing outlying samples and correcting for the influence of grain size had the most significant effect on PCA outputs and data interpretation. Reducing the influence of grain size using granulometric normalisation meant that other factors affecting metal variability, including mineralogy, anthropogenic sources and distance along the salinity transect could be identified and interpreted more clearly. - Data pre-treatment can have a significant influence on the outcome of PCA.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Pre-treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Schneidinger, Cora; Kölbl, Heinz; Bodner, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a prognostic parameter in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pre-treatment CRP levels were analyzed to determine potential associations with clinicopathological parameters and to assess prognostic value in 46 patients with sole adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. The mean (±SD) pre-treatment serum CRP level was 5.82 (7.21) mg/l. Serum CRP concentration significantly correlated positively with age at diagnosis (p=0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0026), recurrent disease (p=0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.0002). In multivariate Cox regression models with age, FIGO stage, histological grade and lymph node status, elevated CRP and cancer antigen 125 levels were associated with shortened survival (pcervix. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment use of selenium in retinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Yazici

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of selenium in rat retinal ischemia reperfusion (IR model and compare pre-treatment and post-treatment use. METHODS: Selenium pre-treatment group (n=8 was treated with intraperitoneal (i.p. selenium 0.5 mg/kg for 7d and terminated 24h after the IR injury. Selenium post-treatment group (n=8 was treated with i.p. selenium 0.5 mg/kg for 7d after the IR injury with termination at the end of the 7d period. Sham group (n=8 received i.p. saline injections identical to the selenium volume for 7d with termination 24h after the IR injury. Control group (n=8 received no intervention. Main outcome measures were retina superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH, total antioxidant status (TAS, malondialdehyde (MDA, DNA fragmentation levels, and immunohistological apoptosis evaluation. RESULTS: Compared to the Sham group, selenium pre-treatment had a statistical difference in all parameters except SOD. Post-treatment selenium also resulted in statistical differences in all parameters except the MDA levels. When comparing selenium groups, the pre-treatment selenium group had a statistically higher success in reduction of markers of cell damage such as MDA and DNA fragmentation. In contrast, the post-selenium treatment group had resulted in statistically higher levels of GSH. Histologically both selenium groups succeeded to limit retinal thickening and apoptosis. Pre-treatment use was statistically more successful in decreasing apoptosis in ganglion cell layer compared to post-treatment use. CONCLUSION: Selenium was successful in retinal protection in IR injuries. Pre-treatment efficacy was superior in terms of prevention of tissue damage and apoptosis.

  12. Evidence that a Motor Timing Deficit Is a Factor in the Development of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lindsey; Smith, Anne; Zelaznik, Howard N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether young children who stutter have a basic motor timing and/or a coordination deficit. Method: Between-hands coordination and variability of rhythmic motor timing were assessed in 17 children who stutter (4-6 years of age) and 13 age-matched controls. Children clapped in rhythm with a metronome with a 600-ms interbeat…

  13. Relationships among Linguistic Processing Speed, Phonological Working Memory, and Attention in Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie D.; Wagovich, Stacy A.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively recently, experimental studies of linguistic processing speed in children who stutter (CWS) have emerged, some of which suggest differences in performance among CWS compared to children who do not stutter (CWNS). What is not yet well understood is the extent to which underlying cognitive skills may impact performance on timed tasks of…

  14. The Role of Hemispheral Asymmetry and Regional Activity of Quantitative EEG in Children with Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Aynur; Toros, Fevziye; Comelekoglu, Ulku

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the role of delayed cerebral maturation, hemisphere asymmetry and regional differences in children with stuttering and healthy controls during resting state and hyperventilation, using conventional EEG techniques and quantitative EEG (QEEG) analysis. This cross-sectional case control study included 26 children with stuttering and…

  15. Changes in the Pattern of Stuttering over Development for Children Who Recover or Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Bailey, Eleanor; Kothari, Nayomi

    2010-01-01

    Three schemes for assessing stuttering were compared. They differed with respect to whether they included whole-word repetitions as characteristics more typical of stuttering. Persistent and recovered groups of children were examined to see whether: (1) one of the schemes differentiated the groups better than others; (2) more and less typical of…

  16. Individual Differences in Neural Regions Functionally Related to Real and Imagined Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Ingham, Roger J.; Ingham, Janis C.; Paolini, Katherine E.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent brain imaging investigations of developmental stuttering show considerable disagreement regarding which regions are related to stuttering. These divergent findings have been mainly derived from group studies. To investigate functional neurophysiology with improved precision, an individual-participant approach (N = 4) using event-related…

  17. The Influence of Anticipation of Word Misrecognition on the Likelihood of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul H.; Lickley, Robin J.; Corley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the experience of stuttering can result from the speaker's anticipation of his words being misrecognized. Twelve adults who stutter (AWS) repeated single words into what appeared to be an automatic speech-recognition system. Following each iteration of each word, participants provided a self-rating of whether they…

  18. Effects of Length, Complexity, and Grammatical Correctness on Stuttering in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer B.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Carlo, Edna J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effects of utterance length, syntactic complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in the spontaneous speech of young, monolingual Spanish-speaking children. Method: Spontaneous speech samples of 11 monolingual Spanish-speaking children who stuttered, ages 35 to 70 months, were examined. Mean number of syllables,…

  19. Randomized Clinical Trial: The Use of SpeechEasy® in Stuttering Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritto, Ana Paula; Juste, Fabiola Staróbole; Stuart, Andrew; Kalinowski, Joseph; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefit of devices delivering altered auditory feedback (AAF) as a therapeutic alternative for those who stutter. Aims: The effectiveness of a device delivering AAF (SpeechEasy®) was compared with behavioural techniques in the treatment of stuttering in a randomized clinical trial. Methods &…

  20. Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…

  1. A case series on the effectiveness of lurasidone in patients with stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoensook, Janet; Maguire, Gerald A

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is approximately 1% of the population, affecting an estimated 3 million individuals in the United States. The dopamine hypothesis of stuttering explains that abnormally increased cerebral dopamine affects the balanced levels that maintain the basal ganglia circuits, which helps with timing cues in initiating speech. This is especially significant when considering treatment strategies. We report a reduction in stuttering with lurasidone, a potent D2 receptor antagonist with a relatively favorable adverse effects profile. We conducted a non-randomized, open-label study of lurasidone in patients with stuttering (N = 7). Patients self-reported stuttering severity, locus of control, and avoidance using the Subjective Screening of Stuttering (SSS) scale and were assessed with the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale. We observed a notable, statistically significant improvement in all areas of stuttering, as rated by the SSS scale. According to the CGI-Improvement Scale, 2 patients were scored as "very much improved" and 5 were scored as "much improved." This open-label study of lurasidone in patients with stuttering showed improvement in subjective symptoms, in CGI scores, and on the SSS scale.

  2. Stuttering Attitudes among Turkish Family Generations and Neighbors from Representative Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Attitudes toward stuttering, measured by the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S"), are compared among (a) two different representative samples; (b) family generations (children, parents, and either grandparents or uncles and aunts) and neighbors; (c) children, parents, grandparents/adult…

  3. Dual Diathesis-Stressor Model of Emotional and Linguistic Contributions to Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Tedra A.; Frankel, Carl B.; Buhr, Anthony P.; Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Karrass, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed emotional and speech-language contributions to childhood stuttering. A dual diathesis-stressor framework guided this study, in which both linguistic requirements and skills, and emotion and its regulation, are hypothesized to contribute to stuttering. The language diathesis consists of expressive and receptive language skills.…

  4. Patterns of Stuttering in a Spanish/English Bilingual: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Ramos, Eliane; Barrocas, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Stuttering patterns may differ when comparing two languages. In bilinguals, specific patterns of stuttering in each one of the languages may potentially be found. This study reports on the case of a 27-year-old Spanish/English simultaneous bilingual whose dominant language is English. Speech and language testing was performed in both languages…

  5. Characteristics of Fluency and Speech in Two Families with High Incidences of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Sheila V.; Freeman, Frances J.; Braun, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents data from 2 families with high incidence of stuttering, comparing methods of phenotype assignment and exploring the presence of other fluency disorders and corresponding speech characteristics. Method: Three methods for assigning phenotype of stuttering were used: self-identification, family identification, and expert…

  6. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Stuttering: A Twin Study from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautakoski, Pirkko; Hannus, Therese; Simberg, Susanna; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the prevalence of self-reported stuttering in a Finnish twin population and examined the extent to which the variance in liability to stuttering was attributable to genetic and environmental effects. We analyzed data of 1728 Finnish twins, born between 1961 and 1989. The participants were asked to complete a…

  7. Stuttering, Temperament, and Anxiety: Data from a Community Cohort Ages 2-4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…

  8. Evidence That Bimanual Motor Timing Performance Is Not a Significant Factor in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Allison I.; Zelaznik, Howard; Smith, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stuttering involves a breakdown in the speech motor system. We address whether stuttering in its early stage is specific to the speech motor system or whether its impact is observable across motor systems. Method: As an extension of Olander, Smith, and Zelaznik (2010), we measured bimanual motor timing performance in 115 children: 70…

  9. Temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Raquel; de Andrade, Adriana Neves; Santos, Renata Beatriz Fernandes; Marangoni, Andrea Tortosa; Schiefer, Ana Maria; Gil, Daniela

    Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder, and may be associated with neuroaudiological factors linked to central auditory processing, including changes in auditory processing skills and temporal resolution. To characterize the temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers and to compare them with non-stutterers. The study included 41 right-handed subjects, aged 18-46 years, divided into two groups: stutterers (n=20) and non-stutters (n=21), compared according to age, education, and sex. All subjects were submitted to the duration pattern tests, random gap detection test, and long-latency auditory evoked potential. Individuals who stutter showed poorer performance on Duration Pattern and Random Gap Detection tests when compared with fluent individuals. In the long-latency auditory evoked potential, there was a difference in the latency of N2 and P3 components; stutterers had higher latency values. Stutterers have poor performance in temporal processing and higher latency values for N2 and P3 components. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. The Function of Repeating: The Relation between Word Class and Repetition Type in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, Anthony P.; Jones, Robin M.; Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is already known that preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) tend to stutter on function words at the beginning of sentences. It is also known that phonological errors potentially resulting in part-word repetitions tend to occur on content words. However, the precise relation between word class and repetition type in preschool-age…

  11. Working Memory Involvement in Stuttering: Exploring the Evidence and Research Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Several studies of utterance planning and attention processes in stuttering have raised the prospect of working memory involvement in the disorder. In this paper, potential connections between stuttering and two elements of Baddeley's [Baddeley, A. D. (2003). "Working memory: Looking back and looking forward." "Neuroscience," 4, 829-839] working…

  12. Emotional Reactivity, Regulation and Childhood Stuttering: A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Hayley S.; Conture, Edward G.; Key, Alexandra P. F.; Walden, Tedra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess whether behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation are associated with developmental stuttering, as well as determine the feasibility of these methods in preschool-age children. Nine preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and nine preschool-age children…

  13. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  14. Direct versus indirect treatment for preschool children who stutter: The RESTART randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Sonneville (Caroline); E.A. Stolk (Elly); T. Rietveld (Toni); M.-C. Franken (Marie-Christine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective Stuttering is a common childhood disorder. There is limited high quality evidence regarding options for best treatment. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of direct treatment with indirect treatment in preschool children who stutter. Methods In this

  15. Morphophonological Practice: An Ethnographic Study of Grammar and Discourse in Four American English Stuttering Speech Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Nathaniel William

    2010-01-01

    Using the Practice Theory Approach to Language, this dissertation examines how social actors use communicative practices within activities to constitute a communicative context that I call the American English Stuttering Speech Community (AESSC). Building on previous linguistic research on stuttering and sociological research on collectives of…

  16. Older People Who Stutter: Barriers to Communication and Perceptions of Treatment Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker-Katz, Geraldine; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the experience of stuttering for people over 55 years of age. Recent research has established that the same types of stuttering behaviours, cognitions, and emotional consequences experienced during young adulthood persist into older age. Aims: The aims were to investigate perceptions of limitations to activity and…

  17. Prevalence of stuttering in primary school children in Cairo-Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Ella, Mahmoud; Saleh, Marwa; Habil, Ihab; El Sawy, Mohammed; El Assal, Lamia

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo. A cross-sectional design was employed. Using a multi-stage random sample from 10 schools in Cairo, a total of 8765 primary school students were enrolled in the study. The teacher referring method was initially used to detect stuttering students, which was then confirmed by a Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Personal data were collected for all students and separate questionnaires were administered to the parents of each stuttering child, inquiring about consanguinity, family history, presence of other disorders and family attitudes towards the child. Prevalence of stuttering among primary school children in Cairo was 1.03%. The prevalence of stuttering showed a declining trend in the older age group. Stuttering was 7-fold more prevalent among left-handed students. Males had a higher prevalence of stuttering, but didn't reach statistical significance. Anxiety was expressed in 25% of the families of affected children. Positive family history was found in 28% of cases, mainly among first-degree relatives. The current study showed a prevalence of stuttering comparable to other areas of the world with some evidence of hereditary background, although lower than that reported by other studies.

  18. Sounds Affecting the Moments of Stuttering in Multilingualism: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrish, Taryn; Nesbitt, Amy; le Roux, Mia; Zsilavecz, Ursula; van der Linde, Jeannie

    2017-01-01

    Research involving stuttering in multilingual individuals is limited. Speech-language therapists face the challenge of treating a diverse client base, which includes multilingual individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the stuttering moments across English, Afrikaans, and German in a multilingual speaker. A single multilingual adult with…

  19. Non-verbal sensorimotor timing deficits in children and adolescents who stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eFalk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that motor and speech disorders co-occur during development. In the present study, we investigated whether stuttering, a developmental speech disorder, is associated with a motor timing deficit in childhood and adolescence. By testing sensorimotor synchronization abilities, we aimed to assess whether predictive timing is dysfunctional in young participants who stutter (8-16 years. Twenty German children and adolescents who stutter and 43 non-stuttering participants matched for age and musical training were tested on their ability to synchronize their finger taps with periodic tone sequences and with a musical beat. Forty percent of children and 90 percent of adolescents who stutter displayed poor synchronization with both metronome and musical stimuli, falling below 2.5 % of the estimated population based on the performance of the group without the disorder. Synchronization deficits were characterized by either lower synchronization accuracy or lower consistency or both. Lower accuracy resulted in an over-anticipation of the pacing event in participants who stutter. Moreover, individual profiles revealed that lower consistency was typical of participants that were severely stuttering. These findings support the idea that malfunctioning predictive timing during auditory-motor coupling plays a role in stuttering in children and adolescents.

  20. Temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Prestes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Stuttering is a speech fluency disorder, and may be associated with neuroaudiological factors linked to central auditory processing, including changes in auditory processing skills and temporal resolution. Objective: To characterize the temporal processing and long-latency auditory evoked potential in stutterers and to compare them with non-stutterers. Methods: The study included 41 right-handed subjects, aged 18-46 years, divided into two groups: stutterers (n = 20 and non-stutters (n = 21, compared according to age, education, and sex. All subjects were submitted to the duration pattern tests, random gap detection test, and long-latency auditory evoked potential. Results: Individuals who stutter showed poorer performance on Duration Pattern and Random Gap Detection tests when compared with fluent individuals. In the long-latency auditory evoked potential, there was a difference in the latency of N2 and P3 components; stutterers had higher latency values. Conclusion: Stutterers have poor performance in temporal processing and higher latency values for N2 and P3 components.

  1. Temperament and Early Stuttering Development: Cross-Sectional Findings from a Community Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if there is an association between stuttering severity and behaviors and the expression of temperament characteristics, including precursors of anxiety. Method: We studied temperament characteristics of a prospectively recruited community cohort of children who stutter (N = 173) at ages 3, 4, and…

  2. A Clinician Survey of Speech and Non-Speech Characteristics of Neurogenic Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, Catherine; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Nil, Luc F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents survey data on 58 Dutch-speaking patients with neurogenic stuttering following various neurological injuries. Stroke was the most prevalent cause of stuttering in our patients, followed by traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and other causes. Speech and non-speech characteristics were analyzed separately for…

  3. Investigating Personality in Stuttering: Results of a Case Control Study Using the NEO-FFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleek, Benjamin; Montag, Christian; Faber, Jennifer; Reuter, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Iverach et al. ("Journal of Communication Disorders," 2010) compared persons who stutter with two normative samples in the context of the five-factor model of personality measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Persons who stutter were characterized by higher "Neuroticism," lower…

  4. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70ºC prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, H.N.; Lu, Jingquan

    2005-01-01

    . The present study investigates the effect of the pre-treatment at 70 degrees C on thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge in continuously operated digesters. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 degrees C enhanced the removal of organic matter...... and the methane production during the subsequent anaerobic digestion step at 55 degrees C. It also greatly contributed to the destruction of pathogens present in primary sludge. Finally it results in enhanced microbial activities of the subsequent anaerobic step suggesting that the same efficiencies in organic...... matter removal and methane recovery could be obtained at lower HRTs....

  5. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested......-sized wastewater treatment plants....

  6. The role of pre-treatment MRI in established cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tins, Bernhard; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor; McCall, Iain

    2009-01-01

    Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) often results in functional impairment and premature osteoarthritis despite surgical treatment. Treatment decisions are commonly based on the clinical history and radiographic appearance. This study assesses the pre-treatment features of SCFE and correlates them to the clinical history to: (1) define the underlying pathological mechanisms; (2) correlate the morphological hip abnormalities with the clinical classifications; (3) identify specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that could carry prognostic implications for treatment approach and outcome. Methods: Clinical history and pre- and posttreatment radiographs and pre-treatment MRIs of 14 patients with 15 affected hips were reviewed. Alignment, impingement, fulcrum formation, remodelling, osteopenia, synovitis, joint effusion, bone marrow and soft tissue oedema and status of the physis and the periosteal sleeve were assessed and related to the clinical history, in particular history of trauma, duration of clinical symptoms and ability to bear weight. Results: Bone marrow oedema around the growth plate and joint effusion occurred in all patients. Synovitis occurred in 13/15 patients. 6 patients had a fall before presenting with SCFE. 5/6 had periarticular soft tissue oedema, complete disruption of the physis and partial periosteal sleeve disruption. 9 patients had no fall prior to presentation, physis and periost were intact in 7/9; periarticular oedema was not seen. 14/15 showed evidence of chronic remodelling. Despite an acute clinical history remodelling was present. A fulcrum-like alignment, impingement of the epiphysis on the metaphysis with a small area of physical contact, was seen in 8 patients, 6/8 had a prior fall. There was no case of avascular necrosis. Spontaneous reduction of SCFE occurred in 1 case, the only case without chronic remodelling. With MRI as gold standard radiographs underestimate the severity of SCFE. Conclusion

  7. The role of pre-treatment MRI in established cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tins, Bernhard [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY 10 7 AG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Bernhard.Tins@rjah.nhs.uk; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor; McCall, Iain [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY 10 7 AG (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) often results in functional impairment and premature osteoarthritis despite surgical treatment. Treatment decisions are commonly based on the clinical history and radiographic appearance. This study assesses the pre-treatment features of SCFE and correlates them to the clinical history to: (1) define the underlying pathological mechanisms; (2) correlate the morphological hip abnormalities with the clinical classifications; (3) identify specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that could carry prognostic implications for treatment approach and outcome. Methods: Clinical history and pre- and posttreatment radiographs and pre-treatment MRIs of 14 patients with 15 affected hips were reviewed. Alignment, impingement, fulcrum formation, remodelling, osteopenia, synovitis, joint effusion, bone marrow and soft tissue oedema and status of the physis and the periosteal sleeve were assessed and related to the clinical history, in particular history of trauma, duration of clinical symptoms and ability to bear weight. Results: Bone marrow oedema around the growth plate and joint effusion occurred in all patients. Synovitis occurred in 13/15 patients. 6 patients had a fall before presenting with SCFE. 5/6 had periarticular soft tissue oedema, complete disruption of the physis and partial periosteal sleeve disruption. 9 patients had no fall prior to presentation, physis and periost were intact in 7/9; periarticular oedema was not seen. 14/15 showed evidence of chronic remodelling. Despite an acute clinical history remodelling was present. A fulcrum-like alignment, impingement of the epiphysis on the metaphysis with a small area of physical contact, was seen in 8 patients, 6/8 had a prior fall. There was no case of avascular necrosis. Spontaneous reduction of SCFE occurred in 1 case, the only case without chronic remodelling. With MRI as gold standard radiographs underestimate the severity of SCFE. Conclusion

  8. Young children's family history of stuttering and their articulation, language and attentional abilities: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward G; Tumanova, Victoria; Clark, Chagit E; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) with a positive versus negative family history of stuttering differ in articulation, language and attentional abilities and family histories of articulation, language and attention related disorders. Participants were 25 young CWS and 50 young CWNS. All 75 participants' caregivers consistently reported a positive or negative family history of stuttering across three consecutive time points that were about 8 months apart for a total of approximately 16 months. Each participant's family history focused on the same, relatively limited number of generations (i.e., participants' parents & siblings). Children's family history of stuttering as well as articulation, language, and attention related disorders was obtained from one or two caregivers during an extensive interview. Children's speech and language abilities were measured using four standardized articulation and language tests and their attentional abilities were measured using caregiver reports of temperament. Findings indicated that (1) most caregivers (81.5% or 75 out 92) were consistent in their reporting of positive or negative history of stuttering; (2) CWNS with a positive family history of stuttering, compared to those with a negative family history of stuttering, were more likely to have reported a positive family history of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and (3) CWNS with a positive family history of stuttering had lower language scores than those with a negative family history of stuttering. However, there were no such significant differences in family histories of ADHD and language scores for CWS with a positive versus negative family history of stuttering. In addition, although 24% of CWS versus 12% of CWNS's caregivers reported a positive family history of stuttering, inferential analyses indicated no significant differences between CWS and CWNS in relative proportions of family

  9. A comparison of reactive plasma pre-treatments on PET substrates by Cu and Ti pulsed-DC and HIPIMS discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audronis, M., E-mail: m.audronis@yahoo.co.uk [Gencoa Ltd, Physics Road, Speke, Liverpool, L24 9HP (United Kingdom); Hinder, S.J. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Mack, P. [ThermoFisher Scientific Ltd, Imberhorne Lane, East Grinstead, Sussex, RH19 1UB (United Kingdom); Bellido-Gonzalez, V. [Gencoa Ltd, Physics Road, Speke, Liverpool, L24 9HP (United Kingdom); Bussey, D.; Matthews, A. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Baker, M.A. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-30

    PET web samples have been treated by magnetically enhanced glow discharges powered using either medium frequency pulse direct current (p-DC) or low frequency high power pulse (HIPIMS) sources. The plasma pre-treatment processes were carried out in an Ar-O{sub 2} atmosphere using either Cu or Ti sputter targets. XPS, AFM and sessile drop water contact angle measurements have been employed to examine changes in surface chemistry and morphology for different pre-treatment process parameters. Deposition of metal oxide onto the PET surface is observed as a result of the sputter magnetron-based glow discharge web treatment. Using the Cu target, both the p-DC and HIPIMS processes result in the formation of a thin CuO layer (with a thickness between 1 and 11 nm) being deposited onto the PET surface. Employing the Ti target, both p-DC and HIPIMS processes give rise to a much lower concentration of Ti (< 5 at.%), in the form of TiO{sub 2} on the PET treated surface. The TiO{sub 2} is probably distributed as an island-like distribution covering the PET surface. Presence of Cu and Ti oxide constituents on the treated PET is beneficial in aiding the adhesion but alone (i.e. without oxygen plasma activation) is not enough to provide very high levels of hydrophilicity as is clear from sessile drop water contact angle measurements on aged samples. Exposure to the plasma treatments leads to a small amount of roughening of the substrate surface, but the average surface roughness in all cases is below 2.5 nm. The PET structure at the interface with a coating is mostly or wholly preserved. The oxygen plasma treatment, metal oxide deposition and surface roughening resulting from the HIPIMS and p-DC treatments will promote adhesion to any subsequent thin film that is deposited immediately following the plasma treatment.

  10. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease based on tissue-absorbed dose calculations: effect of pre-treatment thyroid volume on clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Michael J; Joe, Alexius Y; Mallek, Dirk von; Ezziddin, Samer; Palmedo, Holger [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Brink, Ingo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Freiburg (Germany); Krause, Thomas M [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital Bern (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    This study was performed with three aims. The first was to analyse the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with and without goitres under conditions of mild iodine deficiency using several tissue-absorbed doses. The second aim was to detect further parameters which might be predictive for treatment outcome. Finally, we wished to determine the deviation of the therapeutically achieved dose from that intended. Activities of 185-2,220 MBq radioiodine were calculated by means of Marinelli's formula to deliver doses of 150, 200 or 300 Gy to the thyroids of 224 patients with Graves' disease and goitres up to 130 ml in volume. Control of hyperthyroidism, change in thyroid volume and thyrotropin-receptor antibodies were evaluated 15{+-}9 months after treatment for each dose. The results were further evaluated with respect to pre-treatment parameters which might be predictive for therapy outcome. Thyroidal radioiodine uptake was measured every day during therapy to determine the therapeutically achieved target dose and its coefficient of variation. There was a significant dose dependency in therapeutic outcome: frequency of hypothyroidism increased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 67.7% after 300 Gy, while the frequency of persistent hyperthyroidism decreased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 8.1% after 300 Gy. Patients who became hypothyroid had a maximum thyroid volume of 42 ml and received a target dose of 256{+-}80 Gy. The coefficient of variation for the achieved target dose ranged between 27.7% for 150 Gy and 17.8% for 300 Gy. When analysing further factors which might influence therapeutic outcome, only pre-treatment thyroid volume showed a significant relationship to the result of treatment. It is concluded that a target dose of 250 Gy is essential to achieve hypothyroidism within 1 year after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with goitres up to 40 ml in volume. Patients with larger goitres might need higher doses. (orig.)

  11. Radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease based on tissue-absorbed dose calculations: effect of pre-treatment thyroid volume on clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, Michael J.; Joe, Alexius Y.; Mallek, Dirk von; Ezziddin, Samer; Palmedo, Holger; Brink, Ingo; Krause, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    This study was performed with three aims. The first was to analyse the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with and without goitres under conditions of mild iodine deficiency using several tissue-absorbed doses. The second aim was to detect further parameters which might be predictive for treatment outcome. Finally, we wished to determine the deviation of the therapeutically achieved dose from that intended. Activities of 185-2,220 MBq radioiodine were calculated by means of Marinelli's formula to deliver doses of 150, 200 or 300 Gy to the thyroids of 224 patients with Graves' disease and goitres up to 130 ml in volume. Control of hyperthyroidism, change in thyroid volume and thyrotropin-receptor antibodies were evaluated 15±9 months after treatment for each dose. The results were further evaluated with respect to pre-treatment parameters which might be predictive for therapy outcome. Thyroidal radioiodine uptake was measured every day during therapy to determine the therapeutically achieved target dose and its coefficient of variation. There was a significant dose dependency in therapeutic outcome: frequency of hypothyroidism increased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 67.7% after 300 Gy, while the frequency of persistent hyperthyroidism decreased from 27.4% after 150 Gy to 8.1% after 300 Gy. Patients who became hypothyroid had a maximum thyroid volume of 42 ml and received a target dose of 256±80 Gy. The coefficient of variation for the achieved target dose ranged between 27.7% for 150 Gy and 17.8% for 300 Gy. When analysing further factors which might influence therapeutic outcome, only pre-treatment thyroid volume showed a significant relationship to the result of treatment. It is concluded that a target dose of 250 Gy is essential to achieve hypothyroidism within 1 year after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease patients with goitres up to 40 ml in volume. Patients with larger goitres might need higher doses. (orig.)

  12. Primary school teachers’ opinions and attitudes towards stuttering in two South African urban education districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Abrahams

    2016-07-01

    Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research design was used. Primary schools intwo education districts in Western Cape, South Africa, were sampled. The POSHA-S, a selfadministeredquestionnaire, was completed by a cluster sample of 469 participants. Results: Overall positive attitudes towards stuttering were found, specifically related to thepotential of people who stutter, although the result should be interpreted with caution as thesample was not homogenously positive. Teachers still had misconceptions about personalitystereotypes and the cause of stuttering. The attitudes of the South African sample were slightlymore positive compared with the samples in the current POSHA-S database. Conclusion: When developing stuttering intervention strategies, there are a number of keyconsiderations to take into account. The study provides a basis for speech-language therapiststo think about intervention with teachers and which areas of stuttering to consider.

  13. Speech Timing Deficit of Stuttering: Evidence from Contingent Negative Variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ning

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the speech preparation processes of adults who stutter (AWS. Fifteen AWS and fifteen adults with fluent speech (AFS participated in the experiment. The event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded in a foreperiod paradigm. The warning signal (S1 was a color square, and the following imperative stimulus (S2 was either a white square (the Go signal that required participants to name the color of S1 or a white dot (the NoGo signal that prevents participants from speaking. Three differences were found between AWS and AFS. First, the mean amplitude of the ERP component parietal positivity elicited by S1 (S1-P3 was smaller in AWS than in AFS, which implies that AWS may have deficits in investing working memory on phonological programming. Second, the topographic shift from the early phase to the late phase of contingent negative variation occurred earlier for AWS than for AFS, thus suggesting that the motor preparation process is promoted in AWS. Third, the NoGo effect in the ERP component parietal positivity elicited by S2 (S2-P3 was larger for AFS than for AWS, indicating that AWS have difficulties in inhibiting a planned speech response. These results provide a full picture of the speech preparation and response inhibition processes of AWS. The relationship among these three findings is discussed. However, as stuttering was not manipulated in this study, it is still unclear whether the effects are the causes or the results of stuttering. Further studies are suggested to explore the relationship between stuttering and the effects found in the present study.

  14. Early Childhood Stuttering and Electrophysiological Indices of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Arnold, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    We examined neural activity mediating semantic and syntactic processing in 27 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 27 preschool-age children who do not stutter (CWNS) matched for age, nonverbal IQ and language abilities. All participants displayed language abilities and nonverbal IQ within the normal range. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited while participants watched a cartoon video and heard naturally spoken sentences that were either correct or contained semantic or syntactic (phrase structure) violations. ERPs in CWS, compared to CWNS, were characterized by longer N400 peak latencies elicited by semantic processing. In the CWS, syntactic violations elicited greater negative amplitudes for the early time window (150–350 ms) over medial sites compared to CWNS. Additionally, the amplitude of the P600 elicited by syntactic violations relative to control words was significant over the left hemisphere for the CWNS but showed the reverse pattern in CWS, a robust effect only over the right hemisphere. Both groups of preschoolage children demonstrated marked and differential effects for neural processes elicited by semantic and phrase structure violations; however, a significant proportion of young CWS exhibit differences in the neural functions mediating language processing compared to CWNS despite normal language abilities. These results are the first to show that differences in event-related brain potentials reflecting language processing occur as early as the preschool years in CWS and provide the first evidence that atypical lateralization of hemispheric speech/language functions previously observed in the brains of adults who stutter begin to emerge near the onset of developmental stuttering. PMID:23773672

  15. REMOVE AND RELEASE OF NUTRIENTS AFTER HYBRID PRE-TREATMENT OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Machnicka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in wastewater treatment technologies is the formation of foam/scum on the surface of bioreactors. The foam elimination/destruction can be carried out by various methods among which disintegration is included. Hybrid disintegration (chemical decomposition and hydrodynamic cavitation of the foam microorganisms results in phosphates, ammonium nitrogen, magnesium and potassium transferred from the foam solids into the liquid phase. Application of both methods as a hybrid pre-treatment process caused in an increased concentration of phosphates of about 677 mg PO43- L-1, ammonium nitrogen about 41 mg N-NH4+ L-1. The concentration of Mg2+ and K+ in the solution increased from 6.2 to 31.1 mg Mg2+ L-1 and from 22.4 to 102.0 mg K+ L-1, respectively. The confirmation of physicochemical changes and release of cellular matter as a result of cellular lysis (hybrid disintegration was IR analysis. It was demonstrated that the disintegration of foam permits removal of a part of nutrients in the form of struvite.

  16. Air radon equilibrium factor measurement in a Waste Water Pre-Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.E.; Juste, B.; Ortiz, J.; Martorell, S.; Verdu, G.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze in this paper a Waste Water Pre-Treatment Plant (WWTP) located at the Mediterranean coast with air radon concentration above Spanish action level (600 Bq per cubic meter). This paper presents a method for radon equilibrium determination by gamma spectrometry measuring of the radon progeny concentrations in the air, in order to estimate WWTP workers effective dose more exactly. The method is based on simultaneous sampling of air through a filter paper and alpha spectrometry measurement of radon activity concentration in the air. According to the measured radon activity concentration in the air of 368±45 Bq/m 3 the equilibrium factor between radon and progenies is estimated to be F=0.27, which is in good agreement with expected values. - Highlights: • High levels of Radon in a workplace can increase health risks in the employees. • Using the typical equilibrium factor 0.4 could lead to an error in the estimation of radon doses. • We present a method for radon equilibrium determination. • Equilibrium factor is calculated by gamma spectrometry measuring of radon progeny concentrations in the air.

  17. Impact of the environmental conditions and substrate pre-treatment on whey protein hydrolysis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2017-01-22

    Proteins in solution are subject to myriad forces stemming from interactions with each other as well as with the solvent media. The role of the environmental conditions, namely pH, temperature, ionic strength remains under-estimated yet it impacts protein conformations and consequently its interaction with, and susceptibility to, the enzyme. Enzymes, being proteins are also amenable to the environmental conditions because they are either activated or denatured depending on the choice of the conditions. Furthermore, enzyme specificity is restricted to a narrow regime of optimal conditions while opportunities outside the optimum conditions remain untapped. In addition, the composition of protein substrate (whether mixed or single purified) have been underestimated in previous studies. In addition, protein pre-treatment methods like heat denaturation prior to hydrolysis is a complex phenomenon whose progression is influenced by the environmental conditions including the presence or absence of sugars like lactose, ionic strength, purity of the protein, and the molecular structure of the mixed proteins particularly presence of free thiol groups. In this review, we revisit protein hydrolysis with a focus on the impact of the hydrolysis environment and show that preference of peptide bonds and/or one protein over another during hydrolysis is driven by the environmental conditions. Likewise, heat-denaturing is a process which is dependent on not only the environment but the presence or absence of other proteins.

  18. Pre-treatment with antibiotics and Escherichia coli to equalize the gut microbiota in conventional mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninge, Caroline; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota can vary widely between individual mice of the same batch and thereby affect the resulting outcome in experimental studies. Therefore, an efficient method is needed to equalize the gut microbiota prior to the start of critical experiments. In order to minimize variations in gut microbiota between animals and provide the animals with a Gram-negative flora exposing lipopolysaccharides in the cell-walls, C57BL/6 mice were given a mixture of ampicillin, metronidazole and clindamycin in the drinking water for 3 days and then Escherichia coli for two additional days. Treatment with antibiotics alone or with antibiotics in combination with E. coli was well tolerated by all animals. Body weight and liver weight were not affected, although higher hepatic fat content was found in treated animals (p antibiotics and antibiotics in combination with E. coli (p < 0.01), without affecting the total amount of bacteria. Cloned and sequenced 16S rRNA genes showed high presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Porphymonadaceae in the treated animals. Analysis with Principal Component Analysis gave a clear separation of the composition in microbiota between different treatment groups. The described treatment efficiently equalized the gut microbiota and provided the animals with a strong abundance of Enterobacteriaceae without changing the total load of bacteria. This is a straightforward, lenient and efficient method of pre-treatment to equalize the gut microbiota of mice as a starting procedure of animal studies.

  19. Potential of filter-vermicomposter for household wastewater pre-treatment and sludge sanitisation on site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajurel, D; Deegener, S; Shalabi, M; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    Septic tank systems have been widely used to separate and digest solid matter in the household wastewater for a long time. However, they contaminate groundwater with pathogens and nutrients and deprive agriculture of valuable nutrients and soil conditioner from human excreta. Compared with septic tank systems the filter-composter (Rottebehaelter), which usually consists of an underground monolithic concrete tank having two filter beds at its bottom or two filter bags that are hung side by side and used alternately at intervals of 6-12 months, is an efficient component for solid-liquid separation, pre-treatment and collection/storage of solid matter in household wastewater. The solids are retained and decompose in the filter bags or on the filter bed while the liquid filters through. However, because of the high moisture content of the retained solids decomposition is slow. Therefore, secondary treatment of the retained solids is required for sanitisation. The breakthrough was the combination of vermicomposting with the filter-composter system. Relatively dry and stable retained materials were obtained in the filter bags in about 3 months only. No secondary treatment is required as the human excreta will be converted to vermicastings, which are hygienically safe and can be reused as soil conditioner. Therefore, further development of the filter-composter with vermicomposting is worthwhile, especially the aspects of sanitisation of the faecal matter and its reuse as a soil conditioner.

  20. Evaluation of pre-treatment technologies for phosphorous removal from drinking water to mitigate membrane biofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, M.; Tihomirova, K.; Mežule, L.; Rubulis, J.; Gruškeviča, K.; Juhna, T.

    2017-10-01

    Membranes are widely used for the treatment of various solutions. However, membrane fouling remains the limiting factor for their usage, setting biofouling as the most severe type of it. Therefore, the production of biologically stable water prior to membranes is important. Since lack of phosphorus may hinder the growth of microorganisms, the aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of microbially available phosphorus (MAP) removal via affordable water pre-treatment methods (adsorption, biofiltration, electrocoagulation) on bacterial growth. Four cylindrical reactors were installed at an artificially recharged groundwater station. Further temperature influence and carbon limitation were tested for biofiltration technology. The amount of MAP and total cell count was measured by flow cytometry. The results showed that at lower temperatures electrocoagulation performed the best, resulting in complete MAP removal (detection limit 6.27x10-3μg P l-1). Sorbent demonstrated MAP removal of 70-90%. Biomass did not have any noteworthy results at +8°C, however, at +19°C MAP removal of around 80% was achieved. Main conclusions obtained within this study are: (i) tested technologies effectively eliminate MAP levels; (ii) temperature has a significant effect on MAP removal in a bioreactor, (iii) multi-barrier approach might be necessary for better P limitation that might prolong operating time of a membrane.