WorldWideScience

Sample records for pre-therapy clinical schema

  1. The image schema and innate archetypes: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, John

    2016-02-01

    Based in contemporary neuroscience, Jean Knox's 2004 JAP paper 'From archetypes to reflective function' honed her position on image schemas, thereby introducing a model for archetypes which sees them as 'reliably repeated early developmental achievements' and not as genetically inherited, innate psychic structures. The image schema model is used to illustrate how the analyst worked with a patient who began life as an unwanted pregnancy, was adopted at birth and as an adult experienced profound synchronicities, paranormal/telepathic phenomena and visions. The classical approach to such phenomena would see the intense affectivity arising out of a ruptured symbiotic mother-infant relationship constellating certain archetypes which set up the patient's visions. This view is contrasted with Knox's model which sees the archetype an sich as a developmentally produced image schema underpinning the emergence of later imagery. The patient's visions can then be understood to arise from his psychoid body memory related to his traumatic conception and birth. The contemporary neuroscience which supports this view is outlined and a subsequent image schema explanation is presented. Clinically, the case material suggests that a pre-birth perspective needs to be explored in all analytic work. Other implications of Knox's image schema model are summarized. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  2. Data Warehouse Design from HL7 Clinical Document Architecture Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Luzi, Daniela; Ricci, Fabrizio L

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a semi-automatic approach to extract clinical information structured in a HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and transform it in a data warehouse dimensional model schema. It is based on a conceptual framework published in a previous work that maps the dimensional model primitives with CDA elements. Its feasibility is demonstrated providing a case study based on the analysis of vital signs gathered during laboratory tests.

  3. A metadata schema for data objects in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Steve; Ohmann, Christian

    2016-11-24

    A large number of stakeholders have accepted the need for greater transparency in clinical research and, in the context of various initiatives and systems, have developed a diverse and expanding number of repositories for storing the data and documents created by clinical studies (collectively known as data objects). To make the best use of such resources, we assert that it is also necessary for stakeholders to agree and deploy a simple, consistent metadata scheme. The relevant data objects and their likely storage are described, and the requirements for metadata to support data sharing in clinical research are identified. Issues concerning persistent identifiers, for both studies and data objects, are explored. A scheme is proposed that is based on the DataCite standard, with extensions to cover the needs of clinical researchers, specifically to provide (a) study identification data, including links to clinical trial registries; (b) data object characteristics and identifiers; and (c) data covering location, ownership and access to the data object. The components of the metadata scheme are described. The metadata schema is proposed as a natural extension of a widely agreed standard to fill a gap not tackled by other standards related to clinical research (e.g., Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium, Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group). The proposal could be integrated with, but is not dependent on, other moves to better structure data in clinical research.

  4. A data-driven concept schema for defining clinical research data needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Hoxha, Julia; Ravichandran, Praveen Chandar; Mendonça, Eneida A; Hanauer, David A; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-07-01

    The Patient, Intervention, Control/Comparison, and Outcome (PICO) framework is an effective technique for framing a clinical question. We aim to develop the counterpart of PICO to structure clinical research data needs. We use a data-driven approach to abstracting key concepts representing clinical research data needs by adapting and extending an expert-derived framework originally developed for defining cancer research data needs. We annotated clinical trial eligibility criteria, EHR data request logs, and data queries to electronic health records (EHR), to extract and harmonize concept classes representing clinical research data needs. We evaluated the class coverage, class preservation from the original framework, schema generalizability, schema understandability, and schema structural correctness through a semi-structured interview with eight multidisciplinary domain experts. We iteratively refined the schema based on the evaluations. Our data-driven schema preserved 68% of the 63 classes from the original framework and covered 88% (73/82) of the classes proposed by evaluators. Class coverage for participants of different backgrounds ranged from 60% to 100% with a median value of 95% agreement among the individual evaluators. The schema was found understandable and structurally sound. Our proposed schema may serve as the counterpart to PICO for improving the research data needs communication between researchers and informaticians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hispanic Masculinity: Myth or Psychological Schema Meriting Clinical Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. Manuel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines machismo (strict adherence to traditional masculine gender identity) in terms of Bem's gender schema theory. Uses the example of a Mexican immigrant family facing social and cultural changes to demonstrate the dynamics of machismo and how it might lead to emotional problems and physical symptoms in Hispanic men and their families.…

  6. Schema Therapy for Emotional Dysregulation: Theoretical Implication and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, Harold; Grecucci, Alessandro; Giardini, Irene; Ugolini, Erika; Carmelita, Alessandro; Panzeri, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The term emotional dysregulation refers to an impaired ability to regulate unwanted emotional states. Scientific evidence supports the idea that emotional dysregulation underlies several psychological disorders as, for example: personality disorders, bipolar disorder type II, interpersonal trauma, anxiety disorders, mood disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Emotional dysregulation may derive from early interpersonal traumas in childhood. These early traumatic events create a persistent sensitization of the central nervous system in relation to early life stressing events. For this reason, some authors suggest a common endophenotypical origin across psychopathologies. In the last 20 years, cognitive behavioral therapy has increasingly adopted an interactive-ontogenetic view to explain the development of disorders associated to emotional dysregulation. Unfortunately, standard Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) methods are not useful in treating emotional dysregulation. A CBT-derived new approach called Schema Therapy (ST), that integrates theory and techniques from psychodynamic and emotion focused therapy, holds the promise to fill this gap in cognitive literature. In this model, psychopathology is viewed as the interaction between the innate temperament of the child and the early experiences of deprivation or frustration of the subject’s basic needs. This deprivation may lead to develop early maladaptive schemas (EMS), and maladaptive Modes. In the present paper we point out that EMSs and Modes are associated with either dysregulated emotions or with dysregulatory strategies that produce and maintain problematic emotional responses. Thanks to a special focus on the therapeutic relationship and emotion focused-experiential techniques, this approach successfully treats severe emotional dysregulation. In this paper, we make several comparisons between the main ideas of ST and the science of emotion regulation, and we present how to conceptualize pathological

  7. Changes in symptom severity, schemas and modes in heterogeneous psychiatric patient groups following short-term schema cognitive-behavioural group therapy: a naturalistic pre-treatment and post-treatment design in an outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vreeswijk, M F; Spinhoven, P; Eurelings-Bontekoe, E H M; Broersen, J

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy has proven to be an effective treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. However, little is known of its merits in other psychiatric (personality) disorders. This study investigated whether schema therapy in a group setting (group schema cognitive-behavioural therapy [SCBT-g]) was associated with changes in symptom and schema and mode severity. Furthermore, the aim was to search for baseline predictors and possible mediators of treatment outcome. Sixty-three heterogeneous psychiatric outpatients who attended the SCBT-g were included as participants. In this naturalistic pre-treatment and post-treatment design, data were available on the Symptom Checklist 90, the Schema Questionnaire and the Young-Atkinson Mode Inventory. All outcome measurements showed changes with moderate to high effect sizes, with 53.2% of the patients showing a significant reduction in severity of psychiatric symptoms and schemas and modes. Higher pre-treatment levels of the schema domain Other Directedness predicted greater symptom reduction. Pre-treatment to mid-treatment changes in schema severity predicted subsequent symptom improvement, but change in symptoms and schemas proved to be strongly correlated. In this naturalistic study, SCBT-g was associated with reduced symptom and schema and mode severity in more than half of the psychiatric outpatients. Furthermore, the results suggest that changes in schemas and symptomatology mutually reinforce each other. Over 50% of ambulatory patients show clinical improvement after treatment in a short-term schema therapy group. Other Directedness seems to be a predictor of schema group therapy success. More randomized controlled trial studies and prediction and mediation studies on (short-term) schema group therapy are sorely needed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Transmitted drug resistance in the CFAR network of integrated clinical systems cohort: prevalence and effects on pre-therapy CD4 and viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Art F Y; Aldous, Jeannette L; Mathews, W Christopher; Kitahata, Mari; Kahn, James S; Saag, Michael S; Rodríguez, Benigno; Boswell, Stephen L; Frost, Simon D W; Haubrich, Richard H

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomes often carry one or more mutations associated with drug resistance upon transmission into a therapy-naïve individual. We assessed the prevalence and clinical significance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in chronically-infected therapy-naïve patients enrolled in a multi-center cohort in North America. Pre-therapy clinical significance was quantified by plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4+ cell count (CD4) at baseline. Naïve bulk sequences of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) were screened for resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance list. The overall prevalence of TDR was 14.2%. We used a Bayesian network to identify co-transmission of TDR mutations in clusters associated with specific drugs or drug classes. Aggregate effects of mutations by drug class were estimated by fitting linear models of pVL and CD4 on weighted sums over TDR mutations according to the Stanford HIV Database algorithm. Transmitted resistance to both classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitors was significantly associated with lower CD4, but had opposing effects on pVL. In contrast, position-specific analyses of TDR mutations revealed substantial effects on CD4 and pVL at several residue positions that were being masked in the aggregate analyses, and significant interaction effects as well. Residue positions in RT with predominant effects on CD4 or pVL (D67 and M184) were re-evaluated in causal models using an inverse probability-weighting scheme to address the problem of confounding by other mutations and demographic or risk factors. We found that causal effect estimates of mutations M184V/I (-1.7 log₁₀pVL) and D67N/G (-2.1[³√CD4] and 0.4 log₁₀pVL) were compensated by K103N/S and K219Q/E/N/R. As TDR becomes an increasing dilemma in this modern era of highly-active antiretroviral therapy, these results have immediate significance for the clinical management of HIV-1 infections and

  9. Transmitted drug resistance in the CFAR network of integrated clinical systems cohort: prevalence and effects on pre-therapy CD4 and viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genomes often carry one or more mutations associated with drug resistance upon transmission into a therapy-naïve individual. We assessed the prevalence and clinical significance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR in chronically-infected therapy-naïve patients enrolled in a multi-center cohort in North America. Pre-therapy clinical significance was quantified by plasma viral load (pVL and CD4+ cell count (CD4 at baseline. Naïve bulk sequences of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT were screened for resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance list. The overall prevalence of TDR was 14.2%. We used a Bayesian network to identify co-transmission of TDR mutations in clusters associated with specific drugs or drug classes. Aggregate effects of mutations by drug class were estimated by fitting linear models of pVL and CD4 on weighted sums over TDR mutations according to the Stanford HIV Database algorithm. Transmitted resistance to both classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitors was significantly associated with lower CD4, but had opposing effects on pVL. In contrast, position-specific analyses of TDR mutations revealed substantial effects on CD4 and pVL at several residue positions that were being masked in the aggregate analyses, and significant interaction effects as well. Residue positions in RT with predominant effects on CD4 or pVL (D67 and M184 were re-evaluated in causal models using an inverse probability-weighting scheme to address the problem of confounding by other mutations and demographic or risk factors. We found that causal effect estimates of mutations M184V/I (-1.7 log₁₀pVL and D67N/G (-2.1[³√CD4] and 0.4 log₁₀pVL were compensated by K103N/S and K219Q/E/N/R. As TDR becomes an increasing dilemma in this modern era of highly-active antiretroviral therapy, these results have immediate significance for the clinical management of HIV-1

  10. Automatic acquisition of sublanguage semantic schema: towards the word sense disambiguation of clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Olga; Igo, Sean; Hurdle, John F

    2010-11-13

    Natural language processing of clinical notes is challenging due to a high degree of semantic ambiguity. Previous research has uncovered ways to improve disambiguation accuracy using manually created rules of semantic sentence structure. However, applying a natural language processing system in a new clinical domain using this method is very labor intensive. This paper presents an automatic method of developing such disambiguation rules for a wide range of clinical domains. Our rules are based on the co-occurrence patterns of semantic types of terms unambiguously mapped to UMLS concepts by MetaMap. These patterns are combined into a sublanguage semantic schema that can be used by an existing natural language processing system such as MetaMap. The differences of co-occurrence patterns across clinical notes of different domains are presented here as evidence of clinical sublanguages.

  11. Professional Burnout, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Physical Health in Clinical and Counselling Psychology Trainees.

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    Kaeding, April; Sougleris, Christina; Reid, Corinne; van Vreeswijk, Michiel F; Hayes, Christopher; Dorrian, Jill; Simpson, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the personal factors that increase vulnerability to job-related stress and burnout among psychologists in training. This study was based on a large international sample and aimed to explore the role of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) in predicting vulnerability to burnout, as well as attendant effects on short-term physical health, in clinical and counseling postgraduate psychology trainees. An online, quantitative, cross-sectional survey method design was used to collect self-report data that measured burnout, EMS, and physical health from 1,297 trainees. Only the unrelenting standards (US) schema predicted high burnout among trainees. The most commonly endorsed physical health symptoms were back and neck pain and tiredness, and were more severe for those experiencing high burnout. The current study contributes to our understanding of the role of the US EMS in the evolution of burnout in trainees and has implications for the development of self-awareness training programs for this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder symptoms: An examination in a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Steven N; Francis, Andrew J P

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the overall and specific relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and personality disorder (PD) symptoms in a non-clinical sample. While a notable previous study has examined the relationship between EMSs and PD symptoms after statistically controlling for gender and within-cluster PD symptoms, they did not control for comorbid axis I and inter-cluster PD symptoms. Hence, we redressed this methodological problem by statistically controlling for these conditions in a series of multiple regressions. In a sample of 178 non-clinical participants, we obtained self-reports of PD symptoms, depression, anxiety, eating disorder, and EMSs. Results of a series of multiple regressions found that EMSs significantly predicted all PD symptoms apart from borderline and antisocial PDs and our hypotheses were largely consistent with hypotheses for cluster A and C PDs. We also found that specific EMSs differentially predicted PD subtypes even after controlling for other PD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. This study supports the contention that PDs are related to EMSs and there are specific relationships between particular EMSs and particular PDs. 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Female sexual self-schema after interpersonal trauma: relationship to psychiatric and cognitive functioning in a clinical treatment-seeking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Leah M; Galovski, Tara E; Peterson, Zoë D

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed the relationship between sexual self-schema and posttraumatic functioning in a clinical sample of 112 female sexual assault survivors. Contrary to hypotheses, posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptom severity were unrelated to the valence of sexual self-schema. Yet, negative posttraumatic cognitions were related to sexual self-schemas. Specifically, less positive self-views were associated with more negative schema (r = -.35). In a multivariate analysis, the measure of negative views of the world and others was associated with more positive schema. Results indicate that intervening to improve survivors' postassault appraisals of the self may help to reduce the impact of interpersonal trauma on women's sexual functioning. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. The psychometric properties of the Finnish Young Schema Questionnaire in chronic pain patients and a non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saariaho, Tom; Saariaho, Anita; Karila, Irma; Joukamaa, Matti

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the latent factor structure of the Finnish Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2-extended; short form) in samples of chronic pain patients (n=271) and controls (n=331) with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The data in the total sample supported the 18-factor structure as hypothesized by Young, J. E., Klosko, J., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press. The diagonally weighted least squares estimation method gave repeatable parameter estimates in successive confirmatory factor analyses (CFA). The internal consistency of the YSQ-S2-extended was adequate to high in both samples and the groups showed equal goodness-of-fit statistics in CFA. This study consisted of the oldest population so far (mean age 47 years) and supported the use of the Finnish version of the YSQ-S2-extended in clinical practice.

  15. Lossless Conditional Schema Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the reco......The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples...... and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that conditionally evolving schemas, in contrast to current commercial database systems, are lossless when the schema evolves...

  16. Manipulation of the body schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laessoe, Uffe; Barth, Lasse; Skeie, Sindre

    2017-01-01

    Summary Clinical experience advocates sensory stimulation to increase the body sensation and adjust the body schema, which may be disturbed in some patients. Unilateral massage may affect the body midline orientation, but little evidence is available to support the effect of this practice. Twenty...... afferent stimuli may enhance the body perception and influence the body schema and midline orientation....

  17. Trans-generational transfer of early maladaptive schemas – a preliminary study performed on a non-clinical group

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Mącik; Jan Chodkiewicz; Daria Bielicka

    2016-01-01

    Background The maladaptive schemas theory assumes the creation of schemas as a result of relationships with parents during childhood. The aim of the study was to answer questions about the relations between dysfunctional parents’ schemas and their parental attitudes and their children’s schemas. Participants and procedure Eighty people participated in the study: 20 full families with grown children: a daughter and a son. The Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Par...

  18. Trans-generational transfer of early maladaptive schemas – a preliminary study performed on a non-clinical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The maladaptive schemas theory assumes the creation of schemas as a result of relationships with parents during childhood. The aim of the study was to answer questions about the relations between dysfunctional parents’ schemas and their parental attitudes and their children’s schemas. Participants and procedure Eighty people participated in the study: 20 full families with grown children: a daughter and a son. The Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitudes (KPR-Roc by Plopa and the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 were used. Results The results indicate that in the case of daughters the relationships between parental attitudes and schemas relate primarily to the perception of the mother’s attitudes. The strongest positive relationship between maladaptive daughter’s schemas were in relation to an excessively demanding attitude of the mother. There were no relations between the perception of the father’s attitudes and schemas of daughters. In the case of boys there were less significant correlations for both the perception of the mother and father. With regard to the relationship between parents’ schemas and children’s schemas, such mothers’ schemas as defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness and absolute severity and such fathers’ schemas as defectiveness, entanglement and self-sacrifice showed especially strong links with daughters’ schemas. The strongest relationships with sons’ schemas occurred in relation to the mother’s schema connected with pessimism and the father’s vulnerability to harm. Conclusions Young’s schemas theory seems to be significant from the perspective of understanding intergenerational transfers of beliefs and accompanying behaviours.

  19. Lossless conditional schema evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Böhlen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that evolving schemas with conditional schema changes, in contrast to database systems relying on data migration, are lossless when the schema evolves. The lossless property...

  20. A narrative review of schemas and schema therapy outcomes in the eating disorders.

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    Pugh, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Whilst cognitive-behavioural therapy has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of eating disorders, therapy outcomes and current conceptualizations still remain inadequate. In light of these shortcomings there has been growing interest in the utility of schema therapy applied to eating pathology. The present article first provides a narrative review of empirical literature exploring schemas and schema processes in eating disorders. Secondly, it critically evaluates outcome studies assessing schema therapy applied to eating disorders. Current evidence lends support to schema-focused conceptualizations of eating pathology and confirms that eating disorders are characterised by pronounced maladaptive schemas. Treatment outcomes also indicate that schema therapy, the schema-mode approach, and associated techniques are promising interventions for complex eating disorders. Implications for clinical practice and future directions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamelis, L.L.M.; Evers, S.M.A.A.; Spinhoven, P.; Arntz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the effectiveness of 50 sessions of schema therapy with clarification-oriented psychotherapy and with treatment as usual among patients with cluster C, paranoid, histrionic, or narcissistic personality disorder. Method: A multicenter randomized controlled trial, with

  2. Effects of the Schema Therapy and Mindfulness on the Maladaptive Schemas Hold by the Psoriasis Patients with the Psychopathology Symptoms

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    Parvin Jamali Gojani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to compare the effects of the schema along with mindfulness-based therapies in the psoriasis patients. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study with post- and pre-tests was conducted on the psoriasis patients in the Dermatology Clinic of the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital, Iran using the convenience sampling in 2014. The patients had a low general health score. The experimental groups included two treatment groups of schema-based (n = 8 and mindfulness (n = 8. Both groups received eight 90-min sessions therapy once a week; they were compared with 8 patients in the control group. To evaluate the psoriasis patients' maladaptive schema, Young schema questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed through the covariance analysis test. Results: There was a significant difference between the schema-based therapy and mindfulness groups with the control group. There was also a significant difference between the schema-based therapy groups consisting of the defeated schema, dependence/incompetence schema, devotion schema, stubbornly criteria schema, merit schema, restraint/inadequate self-discipline schema, and the control group. Moreover, a significant difference existed between the maladaptive schema of mindfulness therapy group and the controls. There was a significant difference concerning the improvement of the psychopathologic symptoms between the mindfulness therapy group and the control group. Conclusions: This study showed similar effects of both the schema and mindfulness-based therapies on the maladaptive schemas in improving the psoriasis patients with the psychopathologic symptoms.

  3. Effects of the Schema Therapy and Mindfulness on the Maladaptive Schemas Hold by the Psoriasis Patients with the Psychopathology Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, Parvin Jamali; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Behzadi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of the schema along with mindfulness-based therapies in the psoriasis patients. This semi-experimental study with post- and pre-tests was conducted on the psoriasis patients in the Dermatology Clinic of the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital, Iran using the convenience sampling in 2014. The patients had a low general health score. The experimental groups included two treatment groups of schema-based ( n = 8) and mindfulness ( n = 8). Both groups received eight 90-min sessions therapy once a week; they were compared with 8 patients in the control group. To evaluate the psoriasis patients' maladaptive schema, Young schema questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed through the covariance analysis test. There was a significant difference between the schema-based therapy and mindfulness groups with the control group. There was also a significant difference between the schema-based therapy groups consisting of the defeated schema, dependence/incompetence schema, devotion schema, stubbornly criteria schema, merit schema, restraint/inadequate self-discipline schema, and the control group. Moreover, a significant difference existed between the maladaptive schema of mindfulness therapy group and the controls. There was a significant difference concerning the improvement of the psychopathologic symptoms between the mindfulness therapy group and the control group. This study showed similar effects of both the schema and mindfulness-based therapies on the maladaptive schemas in improving the psoriasis patients with the psychopathologic symptoms.

  4. Cognitive schemas among mental health professionals: Adaptive or maladaptive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Saddichha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Maladaptive cognitive schemas can lead to biases during clinical assessment or psychotherapeutic interventions. This study aimed to explore the cognitive schemas among mental health professionals. Materials and Methods: 100 mental health professionals, of both genders, equally divided between psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and psychiatric nurses, were approached and administered the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form after written informed consent. Results: Males had higher maladaptive schemas than female respondents across all schema domains, viz., disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy, impaired limits, other-directedness, and overvigilance (P ≤ 0.05. Psychiatrists had higher maladaptive schemas than psychologists (P ≤ 0.05. Age was weakly but positively corelated with the schemas of self-sacrifice (P = 0.038 and unrelenting standards (P = 0.002 . Conclusions: Mental health professionals also may have maladaptive schemas, which needs to be addressed through schema therapy.

  5. What is a biomarker? Research investments and lack of clinical integration necessitate a review of biomarker terminology and validation schema.

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    Ptolemy, Adam S; Rifai, Nader

    2010-01-01

    A continual trend of annual growth can be seen within research devoted to the discovery and validation of disease biomarkers within both the natural and clinical sciences. This expansion of intellectual endeavours was quantified through database searches of (a) research grant awards provided by the various branches of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and (b) academic publications. A search of awards presented between 1986 and 2009 revealed a total of 28,856 grants awarded by the NIH containing the term "biomarker". The total funds for these awards in 2008 and 2009 alone were over $2.5 billion. During the same respective time frames, searches of "biomarker" and either "discovery", "genomics", "proteomics" or "metabolomics" yielded a total of 4,928 NIH grants whose combined funding exceeded $1.2 billion. The derived trend in NIH awards paralleled the annual expansion in "biomarker" literature. A PubMed search for the term, between 1990 and 2009, revealed a total of 441,510 published articles, with 38,457 published in 2008. These enormous investments and academic outputs however have not translated into the expected integration of new biomarkers for patient care. For example no proteomics derived biomarkers are currently being utilized in routine clinical management. This translational chasm necessitates a review of the previously proposed biomarker definitions and evaluation schema. A subsequent discussion of both the analytical and pre-analytical considerations for such research is also presented within. This required knowledge should aid scientists in their pursuit and validation of new biological markers of disease.

  6. Multitemporal conditional schema evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    Schema evolution is the ability of the database to respond to changes in the real world by allowing the schema to evolve.  The multidimensional conditionally evolving schema (MD-CES) is a conceptual model for conditional schema changes, which modify the schema of those tuples that satisfy...... two time dimensions.  We show that the space complexity of these new evolution models is linear or polynomial. 1D-CES and 2D-CES are compared to temporal schema versioning, and we show that, unlike valid time versioning, they are lossless and achieve the same space complexity as temporal versioning...

  7. XML Schema Representation of DICOM Structured Reporting.

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    Lee, K P; Hu, Jingkun

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Structured Reporting (SR) standard improves the expressiveness, precision, and comparability of documentation about diagnostic images and waveforms. It supports the interchange of clinical reports in which critical features shown by images and waveforms can be denoted unambiguously by the observer, indexed, and retrieved selectively by subsequent reviewers. It is essential to provide access to clinical reports across the health care enterprise by using technologies that facilitate information exchange and processing by computers as well as provide support for robust and semantically rich standards, such as DICOM. This is supported by the current trend in the healthcare industry towards the use of Extensible Markup Language (XML) technologies for storage and exchange of medical information. The objective of the work reported here is to develop XML Schema for representing DICOM SR as XML documents. We briefly describe the document type definition (DTD) for XML and its limitations, followed by XML Schema (the intended replacement for DTD) and its features. A framework for generating XML Schema for representing DICOM SR in XML is presented next. None applicable. A schema instance based on an SR example in the DICOM specification was created and validated against the schema. The schema is being used extensively in producing reports on Philips Medical Systems ultrasound equipment. With the framework described it is feasible to generate XML Schema using the existing DICOM SR specification. It can also be applied to generate XML Schemas for other DICOM information objects.

  8. Early maladaptive schemas in children: development and validation of the schema inventory for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, M.; de Boo, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    A Schema Inventory for Children (SIC) was developed, based on Young’s schema model. Its psychometric properties were investigated in a non-clinical multi-ethnic sample of children, aged 8-13 years. The latent structure of the SIC was explored using a cross-validation design. Confirmatory factor

  9. Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Ann Skewes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schema Therapy has shown promising results for personality disorders but there is a limited evidence base for group Schema Therapy (ST-g with mixed personality disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of ST-g in a sample of eight participants with mixed personality disorders (with a predominant diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder and high levels of comorbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, behavioural, and experiential techniques. Specific schema-based strategies were chosen for a diagnostically mixed group of personality disorder clients. Six participants attended until end of treatment and two dropped-out before mid-treatment. All outcome measures showed changes with large effect sizes in avoidant personality disorder symptom severity, depression and anxiety levels between pre-therapy and follow-up. Four participants achieved a loss of personality disorder diagnosis at the end of therapy. By follow-up, five participants had achieved a loss of diagnosis, suggesting that participants derived ongoing benefits from the group even after treatment ended. Six participants no longer met criteria for depression at the end of treatment and this was maintained for all participants at six-month follow-up. At follow-up, the majority of participants showed clinically significant change on the GSI. For the SMI maladaptive modes, the majority of participants showed improvement at follow-up. At follow-up 40% of participants showed clinically significant change on the SMI adaptive modes. Qualitative feedback indicates that the group helps to normalize participants’ psychological experiences and difficulties and promotes self-expression and self-disclosure, while reducing disinhibition. Preliminary results suggest that short-term ST-g may benefit those with mixed personality disorders, but generalizability is limited by the small sample size and lack

  10. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  11. A new look at the schema therapy model: organization and role of early maladaptive schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Bo; Lockwood, George; Young, Jeffrey E

    2017-12-19

    This study reexamined the organization of Young's 18 early maladaptive schemas and their hypothesized associations with experiences of need-thwarting parental experiences in childhood and the "vulnerable child" mode of emotional distress in adulthood. A large Danish sample (N = 1054) of 658 clinical- and 391 nonclinical adults completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, parenting styles, and the vulnerable child mode. We identified four higher-order schema domains as most appropriate in terms of interpretability and empirical indices ("Disconnection & Rejection", "Impaired Autonomy & Performance", "Excessive Responsibility & Standards", and "Impaired Limits"). All four schema domains were differentially associated with conceptually relevant need-thwarting parental experiences. Apart from "Impaired Limits", the schema domains meaningfully accounted for the association between need-thwarting parental experiences in childhood and emotional states of feeling like a "vulnerable child" in adulthood. We conclude that four domains of early maladaptive schemas are empirically and conceptually consistent with Young's schema therapy model of personality pathology and longstanding emotional disorders. Findings warrant replication using different populations and if possible a prospective multi-method design. A scoring key for computing the four schema domains is provided.

  12. Neurobiology of Schemas and Schema-Mediated Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Asaf; Marlatte, Hannah

    2017-08-01

    Schemas are superordinate knowledge structures that reflect abstracted commonalities across multiple experiences, exerting powerful influences over how events are perceived, interpreted, and remembered. Activated schema templates modulate early perceptual processing, as they get populated with specific informational instances (schema instantiation). Instantiated schemas, in turn, can enhance or distort mnemonic processing from the outset (at encoding), impact offline memory transformation and accelerate neocortical integration. Recent studies demonstrate distinctive neurobiological processes underlying schema-related learning. Interactions between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), hippocampus, angular gyrus (AG), and unimodal associative cortices support context-relevant schema instantiation and schema mnemonic effects. The vmPFC and hippocampus may compete (as suggested by some models) or synchronize (as suggested by others) to optimize schema-related learning depending on the specific operationalization of schema memory. This highlights the need for more precise definitions of memory schemas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of schema-focused therapy on depression, anxiety and maladaptive cognitive schemas in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindynis, S; Burlacu, S; Louville, P; Limosin, F

    2013-12-01

    Depression is one of the most frequent mental disorders in older people, known to increase rates of disability and mortality. Depression in late life, commonly accompanied by multiple medical illnesses, reduces quality of life and is a strong risk factor for suicide. Despite its clinical significance, depression remains underdiagnosed and inadequately treated in older patients. Cognitive-behavioural psychotherapies have the most empirical support in treating late-life depression, and are recommended by numerous guidelines in this indication. Group interventions are also recommended for older adults because they offer peer support, mitigate social isolation, encourage shared empathy and provide a context for peer feedback help from the group. Previous studies have shown that maladaptive schemas have an important role in the development or maintenance of depression and anxiety in older people, either as risk factors or as vulnerability markers, but there are no studies that have examined the effectiveness of schema-focused therapy to improve depression in late life. The main goals of the present study were to explore the relationship of maladaptive schemas with depression and anxiety severity in aged inpatients, and to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural individual and group treatment program that includes schema-focused therapy on depression, anxiety, and cognitive schemas activation. The sample consisted of aged depressed inpatients (n=51) treated in a psychiatric unit. Participants completed measures of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]) severity and maladaptive schemas (Cognitive Inventory of Subjective Distress [CISD]) at pre- and post-intervention (mean hospital stay: 4weeks). The maladaptive schemas Loss of Individuality, Refusal of Assistance and Vulnerability are more activated in our sample of depressed subjects with regard to the reference population. Most of specific maladaptive

  14. Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Molly C; Lumley, Margaret N

    2012-01-01

    Schema theory posits that experiences of maltreatment result in the early development of maladaptive schemas (EMS; Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003, Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide, The Guilford Press: New York, NY). EMS are organized by conditionality; unconditional schemas are theorized to develop early in childhood predominantly in response to experiences of parenting and conditional schemas are theorized to develop later in life in response to other relationships. Despite this distinction, minimal previous research has investigated their differential development. The current study examined the relative contributions of parental and other (peer and intimate partner) emotional maltreatment (EMT) in the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. Ninety-seven undergraduate students retrospectively reported their maltreatment experiences using the Lifetime Experiences Questionnaire and completed the Young Schema Questionnaire to measure EMS. Consistent with hypotheses, parental EMT was the strongest predictor of unconditional schemas. Unexpectedly, parental EMT also emerged as the strongest predictor of conditional schemas. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Early maladaptive schemas in children: development and validation of the Schema Inventory for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkeboer, Marleen M; de Boo, Gerly M

    2010-06-01

    A Schema Inventory for Children (SIC) was developed, based on Young's schema model. Its psychometric properties were investigated in a non-clinical multi-ethnic sample of children, aged 8-13 years. The latent structure of the SIC was explored using a cross-validation design. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded satisfying fits for a modified model, that included 8 of the original 15 schema factors, as well as 3 new factors, each containing a theoretically meaningful combination of 2 or 3 original schema factors. Our data suggest that, to a certain extent, children present with the same schemas as identified in adolescents and adults, although some unique, children-specific schemas occurred. SIC item loadings were moderate to good, and all factors showed adequate discriminant validity. However, factor reliability estimates were mediocre, but in most cases still acceptable. Furthermore, results suggest adequate stability for all SIC scales. Finally, strong relations between most of the SIC scales and measures of psychopathology were found, although an opposite pattern of associations emerged for two scales (i.e., Enmeshment and Self-Sacrifice), suggesting that these schemas are not maladaptive -yet- at this young age.

  16. The role of childhood trauma, early maladaptive schemas, emotional schemas and experimental avoidance on depression: A structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mehdi; Ghazanfari, Firoozeh; Rezaee, Fatemeh

    2016-12-30

    The present investigation was designed to examine disconnection and rejection (DR) schemas, negative emotional schemas (NESs) and experimental avoidance (EA) as mediating variables of the relationship between the childhood trauma (CT) and depression. Specifically we examined the mediating role of NESs and EA between DR schemas and depression. The study sample consist of 439 female college students (M age =22.47; SD=6.0), of whom 88 met the criteria for current major depressive disorder (MDD) and 351 who had history of MDD in the last 12 months. Subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Early Maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire (SQ-SF), the Leahy Emotional Schemas Scale (LESS), the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The findings showed that DR schemas were mediator of the relationship CT and depression but CT through the NESs and EA did not predict depression. NESs were mediator of the relationship between DR schemas and depression and EA was mediator of the relationship between DR schemas and depression. In general, results suggest that intervention of depressed women may need to target the changing of DR schemas, NESs and reduction of EA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  18. The Effects of Item Placement in the Young Schema Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Ida; Moir, Victoria K; Lee, Christopher W

    The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed to measure Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS), a construct central to Schema Therapy (ST). Traditionally YSQ items were placed in a grouped format for each schema but in recent versions of the questionnaire, items are presented in a random order. This study investigates the effect of item placement on the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. On different occasions, participants completed two versions of the YSQ short form, one with items grouped according to schemas and another where items were placed in a random order. Responses were analysed using the polytomous Rasch model of measurement (partial credit parameterization). Results show that the two versions are not psychometrically equivalent. There were greater differences between the clinical and non-clinical group means for the grouped format than the random format and greater person separation. There was more response dependence between items in the grouped format which has been linked to inflated reliability indices.

  19. How we see others: the psychobiology of schemas and transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2009-01-01

    Social cognition involves automatic and stimulus-driven processes; these may be important in mediating stereotypes in the community and schemas and transference in the clinic setting. Significant differences in self-related processing and other-related processing may also lead to important biases in our view of the other. The psychobiology of social cognition is gradually being delineated, and may be useful in understanding these phenomena, and in responding appropriately. In the clinic, schemas can be rigorously assessed, and schema-focused psychotherapy may be useful in a number of indications.

  20. The DSD Schema Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    XML (Extensible Markup Language), a linear syntax for trees, has gathered a remarkable amount of interest in industry. The acceptance of XML opens new venues for the application of formal methods such as specification of abstract syntax tree sets and tree transformations. A user domain may...... be specified as a set of trees. For example, XHTML is a user domain corresponding to a set of XML documents that make sense as hypertext. A notation for defining such a set of XML trees is called a schema language. We believe that a useful schema notation must identify most of the syntactic requirements...... to the DSD (Document Structure Description) notation as our bid on how to meet these requirements. The DSD notation was inspired by industrial needs. We show how DSDs help manage aspects of complex XML software through a case study about interactive voice response systems, i.e., automated telephone answering...

  1. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  2. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Depressed Women and Its Relationship with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Bolat KONUKÇU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: Schemas are deep enduring cognitive structures that are the source of dysfunctional cognitions, emotions and behaviors, activate after critical incidents in depression. A subset of schemas called Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS which are hyphotised to arise from early traumatic and adverse life events are also claimed to be related with not only personality disorders but also mood disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and depression and relationship between schema scores and depression severity in depressed women and compare it with non-depressed controls.Methods: 40 women attending to an outpatient psychiatry clinic and 30 healthy controls participated. All participants were assessed with SCID-1. Data were obtained by using a Sociodemographic Questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.Results: All except one (enmeshment/undeveloped self maladaptive schema scores of depressed women were higher than controls. BDI was correlated to some schema and schema domain scores in both depressed and control groups but the correlations were stronger in control group. Mean emotional deprivation, negativism, abandonment and instability, failure EMS scores showed the highest difference between two groups. The schema domains most related to depression symptom severity were disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy and performance.Conclusions: Almost all early maladaptive schemas are related to depression, and some schemas are related to depression symptom severity but these correlations are weaker in control group. This may mean that EMS are stable and mood independent structures. Although other schemas are related to depression, mostly related EMS in women might be emotional deprivation schema. These schemas may also overlap with Beck’s unlovability core belief or sociotropy dimension

  3. Schema matching and mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Bellahsene, Zohra; Rahm, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Requiring heterogeneous information systems to cooperate and communicate has now become crucial, especially in application areas like e-business, Web-based mash-ups and the life sciences. Such cooperating systems have to automatically and efficiently match, exchange, transform and integrate large data sets from different sources and of different structure in order to enable seamless data exchange and transformation. The book edited by Bellahsene, Bonifati and Rahm provides an overview of the ways in which the schema and ontology matching and mapping tools have addressed the above requirements

  4. XML Schema Languages: Beyond DTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Demetrios

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of XML (extensible markup language) and the traditional DTD (document type definition) format focuses on efforts of the World Wide Web Consortium's XML schema working group to develop a schema language to replace DTD that will be capable of defining the set of constraints of any possible data resource. (Contains 14 references.) (LRW)

  5. [Assessment of early maladaptive schemas: a psychometric study of the Turkish young schema questionnaire-short form-3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygüt, Gonca; Karaosmanoğlu, Alp; Cakir, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    Schemas are generally assumed to develop as a result of early experiences with attachment figures. Within this theoretical framework Young et al. (1991, 2003) developed a schema questionnaire to evaluate early maladaptive schemas. The aim of the present study was to preliminarily establish the psychometric validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3. University students from different departments participated in the study. According to phases of psychometric examinations, the number of participants differed in a range of N= 150-1071. Principal components analysis with equamax rotation was carried out and 14 definable factor structures emerged. Higher-order factor analysis supported 5 schema domains: Impaired autonomy, disconnection, unrelenting standards, other-directedness, and impaired limits. Test-retest and internal consistency analysis revealed statistically significant correlation coefficients, which can be interpreted as evidence of the reliability. As to convergent validity, correlational analysis of theoretically-related variables (SCL-90-R) showed statistically significant coefficients and the direction of the relationships were congruent with theoretical expectations. Furthermore, in a pilot study, we examined the discriminant validity of the scale. Accordingly, t-test analysis that compared the YSQ-subscale scores of clinical and normal populations yielded statistically significant differences in some schemas and schema domains. As preliminary evidence, our findings show that the factor structure of the Turkish YSQ-SF3 is generally consistent with previous studies and that it has acceptable levels of reliability and validity.

  6. Designing XML schemas for bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Russel Elton; Burton, Philip John

    2003-06-01

    Data interchange bioinformatics databases will, in the future, most likely take place using extensible markup language (XML). The document structure will be described by an XML Schema rather than a document type definition (DTD). To ensure flexibility, the XML Schema must incorporate aspects of Object-Oriented Modeling. This impinges on the choice of the data model, which, in turn, is based on the organization of bioinformatics data by biologists. Thus, there is a need for the general bioinformatics community to be aware of the design issues relating to XML Schema. This paper, which is aimed at a general bioinformatics audience, uses examples to describe the differences between a DTD and an XML Schema and indicates how Unified Modeling Language diagrams may be used to incorporate Object-Oriented Modeling in the design of schema.

  7. Men's sexual self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, B L; Cyranowski, J M; Espindle, D

    1999-04-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself. In Part 1, a measure of men's sexual self-schema is developed. Studies of test-retest and internal consistency reliability and validity studies of factor analysis, internal structure, convergent and discriminant validity, process, group difference, and change are provided. The construct consists of 3 dimensions: passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal traits. In Part 2, the data suggest that men's sexual schema is derived from past sexual experience, is manifest in current sexual experience, and guides future sexual behavior. In Part 3, the data document the cognitive processing aspects of sexual schema. Consistent with the investigators' schema research with women, these data substantiate the importance of cognitive representations of sexuality.

  8. Psychometric Properties and Normative values of Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaires Set for Children and Adolescents (SQS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Olcay

    2017-03-01

    The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaires Set for Children and Adolescents (SQS) was developed to assess early maladaptive schemas in children between the ages of 10 and 16 in Turkey. The SQS consists of five questionnaires that represent five schema domains in Young's schema theory. Psychometric properties (n = 983) and normative values (n = 2250) of SQS were investigated in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 16. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Results revealed 15 schema factors under five schema domains, with good fit indexes. A total of 14 schema factors were in line with Young's early maladaptive schemas. In addition to these factors, one new schema emerged: self-disapproval. Reliability analyses showed that SQS has high internal consistency and consistency over a 1-month interval. Correlations of SQS with the Adjective Check List (ACL), the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), the Symptom Assessment (SA-45) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) were investigated to assess criterion validity, and the correlations revealed encouraging results. SQS significantly differentiated between children who have clinical diagnoses (n = 78) and children who have no diagnosis (n = 100). Finally, general normative values (n = 2,250) were determined for age groups, gender and age/gender groups. In conclusion, the early maladaptive schema questionnaires set for children and adolescents turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire with standard scores.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The early maladaptive schema questionnaires set for children and adolescents (SQS) is a psychometrically reliable and valid measure of early maladaptive schemas for children between the ages of 10 and 16. SQS consists of five schema domains that represent Young's schema domains including 15 early maladaptive schemas and 97 items. Normative values for each schema were determined for age, gender and

  9. Modeling business objects with XML schema

    CERN Document Server

    Daum, Berthold

    2003-01-01

    XML Schema is the new language standard from the W3C and the new foundation for defining data in Web-based systems. There is a wealth of information available about Schemas but very little understanding of how to use this highly formal specification for creating documents. Grasping the power of Schemas means going back to the basics of documents themselves, and the semantic rules, or grammars, that define them. Written for schema designers, system architects, programmers, and document authors, Modeling Business Objects with XML Schema guides you through understanding Schemas from the basic concepts, type systems, type derivation, inheritance, namespace handling, through advanced concepts in schema design.*Reviews basic XML syntax and the Schema recommendation in detail.*Builds a knowledge base model step by step (about jazz music) that is used throughout the book.*Discusses Schema design in large environments, best practice design patterns, and Schema''s relation to object-oriented concepts.

  10. Effects of the Schema Therapy and Mindfulness on the Maladaptive Schemas Hold by the Psoriasis Patients with the Psychopathology Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gojani, Parvin Jamali; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Behzadi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare the effects of the schema along with mindfulness-based therapies in the psoriasis patients. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study with post- and pre-tests was conducted on the psoriasis patients in the Dermatology Clinic of the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital, Iran using the convenience sampling in 2014. The patients had a low general health score. The experimental groups included two treatment groups of schema-based (n = 8) and mindfulness (n = ...

  11. Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Patients with Somatoform Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ýsmet Kýrpýnar

    2014-08-01

    Method: We investigated a total of 28 patients aged 18-65 years, were diagnosed as Hypochondriasis or Somatization Disorder according to DSM-IV and 30 healthy controls. All participitans were assessed with The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1. Data were obtained by using a Sociodemographic Questionnaire and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3. Results: The main age of patients was 36,71 ± 10.39. Most of the patients were female, married and housewives. All early maladaptive schema scores of patients with somatoform disorders were higher than healthy controls. Conclusion: All early maladaptive schemas have been found to be related to somatoform disorders in this study. The role of not a specific one but a total of maladaptive schemas in etiology may reflect the unspecific general sources of the tendency to somatoform disorders. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 84-93

  12. The Effectiveness of schema therapy in reduction of Early maladaptive schemas on PTSD Veterans Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Moosaviassl

    2014-04-01

    Results: The findings showed that the Schema therapy reduced the severity of maladaptive schemas in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and follow-up period of treatment indicates the consistency of treatment. Discussion: Schema therapy targeting the root growth impairment and restructuring of maladaptive schemas able to treat persistent symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and decreased their incompatible schemas activity.

  13. Data mapping for transformation from RDB schema to RDF schema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discussed the data mapping for transformation from relational database (RDB) schema to resource description frame (RDF) Schema. During transformation process between these two schemas, weaknesses like compatibility issues, update query and complexity in relationships are generated. We proposed an approach to overcome these issues particularly when data is transformed from RDB to RDF for semantic web applications, As, for evolving data keeping changes intact is hard and difficult to sustain. Main focus of this study is to map up common features found in both data models of RDB and Semantic Web (SW) based schemas using either form of XML as an intermediate which will help in improving transformation results. These data mappings can further help in gaining better compatibility options for data transformation. (author)

  14. Exploring the relationship between schema modes, cognitive fusion and eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Masley, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Schema therapy is becoming an increasingly popular psychological model for working with individuals who have a variety of mental health and personality difficulties. The aim of this review is to look at the current evidence base for schema therapy and highlight directions for further research. Method: A systematic search of the literature was conducted up until January 2011. All studies that had clinically tested the efficacy of schema therapy as described by Jeffrey Young...

  15. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  16. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  17. SCHEMA THEORY IN READING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriany Fahriany

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehension is making a sense out of text. It is a process of using reader’s existing knowledge (schemata to interpret texts in order to construct meaning. Many reading experts agree that the schema theory is one of the reasonable theories of human information processing. Schemata, the plural of schema, are believed to be the building blocks of cognition. This paper discusses the role of readers’ preexisting knowledge on linguistics code as well as readers’ knowledge of the world (schema, which for the case of reading has similar importance of the printed words in the text. It is argued that the more non visual information the reader posses, the less visual information is needed. For teaching and learning, teachers are expected to use different strategies in order to deal with different students’ preexisting knowledge and schema to maximize students’ learning.

  18. Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G Simpson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g in a case-series of eight participants with chronic eating disorders and high levels of co-morbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, experiential and interpersonal strategies, with an emphasis on behavioural change. Specific schema-based strategies focused on bodily felt-sense and body-image, as well as emotional regulation skills. Six attended until end of treatment, two dropped-out at mid-treatment. Eating disorder severity, global schema severity, shame and anxiety levels were reduced between pre- and post therapy, with a large effect size at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in eating severity was found in four out of six completers. Group completers showed a mean reduction in schema severity of 43% at post-treatment, and 59% at follow-up. By follow-up, all completers had achieved over 60% improvement in schema severity. Self-report feedback suggests that group factors may catalyze the change process in schema therapy by increasing perceptions of support and encouragement to take risks and try out new behaviours, whilst providing a de-stigmatising and de-shaming therapeutic experience.

  19. Creativity: an organizational schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    To describe an organizational schema of human creativity. Previous research has concluded that creativity involves something novel and useful, but whether creativity is common or rare, domain-specific or domain-general, quantitative or qualitative, or personal or social remains unresolved. Extant research from neurobiology, psychology, cognitive science, and neuroeconomics was used to generate a novel synthesis that explains human creative behavior. Creativity is the attempt to bridge the gap between what is and what should be. It emerges from the interplay of 5 commonly shared factors: motivation, perception, action, temperament, and social interaction. The reward value of what exists compared with an imagined possibility generates the motivational voltage that drives the creative effort. Action to attain the goal requires a dexterously executed plan, and dexterity levels are influenced by both practice effects and biologic biases. Temperament sustains the creative effort during periods of nonreward in anticipation of goal completion. Societal esthetics measure the success of creative efforts. Personal skill sets derived from nature and nurture vary between individuals and determine one's own creative phenotype. Despite great qualitative and quantitative differences between individuals, the neurobiologic principles of creative behavior are the same from the least to the most creative among us.

  20. Inpatient schema therapy for nonresponsive patients with personality pathology: Changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes, coping styles, experienced parenting styles, and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Grietje M; Chakhssi, Farid; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2016-12-01

    This study provides an evaluation of group schema therapy (ST) for inpatient treatment of patients with personality pathology who did not respond to previous psychotherapeutic interventions. Forty-two patients were assessed pre- and posttreatment, and 35 patients were evaluated at follow-up 6 months later. The results showed a dropout rate of 35%. Those who dropped out did not differ from those who completed treatment with regard to demographic and clinical variables; the only exception was that those who dropped out showed a lower prevalence of mood disorders. Furthermore, intention-to-treat analyses showed a significant improvement in maladaptive schemas, schema modes, maladaptive coping styles, mental well-being, and psychological distress after treatment, and these improvements were maintained at follow-up. On the other hand, there was no significant change in experienced parenting style as self-reported by patients. Changes in schemas and schema modes measured from pre- to posttreatment were predictive of general psychological distress at follow-up. Overall, these preliminary findings suggest that positive treatment results can be obtained with group ST-based inpatient treatment for patients who did not respond to previous psychotherapeutic interventions. Moreover, these findings are comparable with treatment results for patients without such a nonresponsive treatment history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Testing Three-Item Versions for Seven of Young's Maladaptive Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; DiMino, John; Sheridan, Natalie; Pred, Robert S.; Beverly, Clyde; Chessler, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) in either long-form (205- item) or short-form (75-item or 90-item) versions has demonstrated its clinical usefulness for assessing early maladaptive schemas. However, even a 75 or 90-item "short form", particularly when combined with other measures, can represent a lengthy…

  2. Insecure attachment and maladaptive schema in disordered eating: The mediating role of rejection sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Tara; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Krug, Isabel

    2017-11-01

    The current study aimed to assess insecure attachment and the disconnection and rejection domain of maladaptive schema in the context of disordered eating. Rejection sensitivity (RS) was proposed as a mediator between maladaptive schema and disordered eating. The sample consisted of 108 female participants with a lifetime eating disorder diagnosis and 508 female control participants. Participants were asked to complete a number of self-report measures related to insecure attachment (anxious and avoidant), maladaptive schema (emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust, social isolation, and defectiveness), RS (interpersonal and appearance-based), and disordered eating. Path analysis indicated that anxious attachment was associated with disordered eating through multiple pathways involving emotional deprivation, abandonment, interpersonal RS, and appearance-based RS. Avoidant attachment was not related to disordered eating behaviours. The results indicate that both interpersonal and appearance-based RS are important mediators for the relationships between insecure attachment, maladaptive schema, and disordered eating. The results from the current study suggest that insecure attachment leads to maladaptive schema, which in turn leads to sensitivity to rejection and subsequent disordered eating behaviour. Attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, was related to greater endorsement of all five schemas in the disconnection and rejection domain. Path analysis revealed that, of the schema in the disconnection and rejection domain, only emotional deprivation and abandonment were related to disordered eating. Interpersonal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity were significant mediators of the relationship between emotional deprivation and disordered eating as well as the relationship between abandonment and disordered eating. Differentiating between schemas within schema domains has clinical value in further understanding the pathway to disordered eating. The

  3. Do schema processes mediate links between parenting and eating pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Alex; Waller, Glenn; Emanuelli, Francesca; Murray, James; Meyer, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    Adverse parenting experiences are commonly linked to eating pathology. A schema-based model of the development and maintenance of eating pathology proposes that one of the potential mediators of the link between parenting and eating pathology might be the development of schema maintenance processes--mechanisms that operate to help the individual avoid intolerable emotions. To test this hypothesis, 353 female students and 124 female eating-disordered clients were recruited. They completed a measure of perceived parenting experiences as related to schema development (Young Parenting Inventory-Revised (YPI-R)), two measures of schema processes (Young Compensatory Inventory; Young-Rygh Avoidance Inventory (YRAI)) and a measure of eating pathology (Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI)). In support of the hypothesis, certain schema processes did mediate the relationship between specific perceptions of parenting and particular forms of eating pathology, although these were different for the clinical and non-clinical samples. In those patients where parenting is implicated in the development of eating pathology, treatment might need to target the cognitive processes that can explain this link. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  4. Prognostic value of GA-67 scintigraphy in pre-therapy patients of hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Numair Younis; Hamid Naseer; Mohammad Salim; Saeeda Asghar

    2004-01-01

    Ga-67 scintigraphy (GS) has an established role in the diagnosis and management of Hodgkin's disease (HD). Recently published data suggests that uptake of Ga-67 estimated on GS in pre-therapy patients can differentiate between two most common varieties of HD namely Mixed Cellularity (MC) and Nodular Sclerosing (NS). We tried to evaluate the importance of Ga-67 uptake in pre-therapy patients of HD in relationship with the disease outcome and patient survival. GS was performed in 70 pre-therapy patients of HD. The GS was positive in 64 of 70 patients with 135 lesions showing Ga-67 uptake. The uptake ratios were calculated using semi-quantitative technique. The ratios were compared for different sub-type of HD. The initial uptake ratios were compared with the results of therapy and patient survival one year after completing the therapy. The results show that Ga-67 uptake ratios were higher in patients with MC sub-type than in other sub-types of HD. Also the patients showing higher Ga-67 avidity on pre-therapy scans showed better survival and early response to chemotherapy. The initial stage of disease at the time of diagnosis also has a direct relationship with the disease outcome. We conclude that GS in pre-therapy patients of HD can provide valuable information and can be used as reliable indicator of prognosis in conjunction with the stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. (authors)

  5. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefi, Afsaneh; RajeziEsfahani, Sepideh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Dolatshahee, Behrooz; Assadi, Abbasali; Maleki, Fahime; Momeni, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Purpose of this study is comparing early maladaptive schemas which are active in patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders together, considering recent DSM-5 changes through which OCD has been placed in a separate and new diagnostic level. This research is a causal-comparative study. 151 persons were categorized in three groups of people suffering from OCD (50), suffering from anxiety disorders (50), and control group (51). Early diagnosis of disorders in two clinical groups were verified based on structured clinical interview for DSM )SCID-I) and Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). General health questionnaire (GHQ-28), the short versions of the Young schemas questionnaire (YSQ), and Padua inventory-Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR) were also implemented. Findings revealed that mean scores of all schemas of those suffering from anxiety disorders, except for Self-Sacrifice, Unrelenting-Standards/Hypercriticalness, Entitlement/Grandiosity schemas, and mean scores of all early maladaptive schemas of those suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder are significantly higher than those of control group. OCD group had significantly higher scores in Emotional Deprivation, Mistrust/Abuse, and Defectiveness/Shame schemas than anxiety disorders group. Defectiveness/Shame and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness schemas can explain 38 percent of variance of obsessive compulsive symptoms. The dominant and specific early maladaptive schemas of OCD are Defectiveness/Shame, Mistrust/Abuse, and Emotional Deprivation Schemas. This study besides supporting the theory of early maladaptive schemas, suggests that interventions based on specific schemas can be useful methods in treatment of OCD and anxiety disorders.

  6. Thai University Student Schemas and Anxiety Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Douglas; Sukawatana, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) contribute to the development of anxiety symptomologies among college undergraduates (N = 110). The study was conducted by assessing the correlations between 18 schemas derived from Young's model of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and anxiety symptoms using Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale…

  7. Towards Online and Transactional Relational Schema Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to draw the attention of the database community to the problem of online schema changes: changing the schema of a database without blocking concurrent transactions. We have identified important classes of relational schema transformations that we want to perform online, and we

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas among patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Lisa D; Provencher, Martin D

    2012-02-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with a variety of cognitive features that seem to play a role in affective symptoms. Schema theory may serve as a unifying theory that would explain many of these features. This study is an exploratory investigation of schema theory's Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) among individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder. A sample of 74 participants with bipolar disorder and 99 mixed clinical controls (46 with unipolar depression and 53 with anxiety disorders) completed the Young Schema Questionnaire and comparison measures. Associations were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Mean scores were compared with previously established benchmarks. Participants with bipolar disorder demonstrate elevated scores on most EMSs, many at an intermediate position between nonclinical and mixed clinical control groups. When controlling for depression, participants with bipolar disorder exceed those with unipolar depression on Approval-Seeking/Recognition-Seeking and Entitlement/Grandiosity. Bipolar group membership is predicted by high scores on Approval-Seeking/Recognition-Seeking and low scores on Emotional Inhibition and Abandonment. Women were overrepresented. Axis II traits were not assessed, nor were manic symptoms in the mixed clinical sample. Bipolar disorder is associated with a general activation of the EMSs. Approval-Seeking/Recognition-Seeking and Entitlement/Grandiosity seem to be particularly high, while Emotional Inhibition and Abandonment seem to be typically low. These EMS are highly consistent with characteristics of the bipolar spectrum. By demonstrating the activation of the EMSs, this study suggests that the EMS component of schema theory may be applied to bipolar disorder. Future research should explore how EMSs might interact with life events to trigger affective symptoms and, ultimately, the applicability of schema therapy to bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An empirical test of schema mode conceptualizations in personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Van Vreeswijk, Michiel F; Arntz, Arnoud

    2008-07-01

    Although the use of schema modes in schema-focused therapy (SFT) has been very popular since its introduction, Young's schema mode concept remained largely empirically untested. In order to provide insight into the mode conceptualization of personality disorders (PDs), the current study assessed the relationships between 14 schema modes and all PDs. Relationships between dimensional PD scores and self-reported mode scores were tested in a mixed study group of 489 participants, consisting of axis I and axis II patients, and non-patients. Psychopathology was assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I and axis II disorders (SCID I and SCID II) or the Structural Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV), and modes were assessed by the Schema Mode Inventory. Kendall's partial tau coefficients, controlling each PD-mode correlation for all other PD scores, indicated unique mode profiles for all PDs and corroborated most of the hypothesized PD-mode correlations, supporting the construct validity of the mode model. Nevertheless, the high number of correlations found for some PDs raises concerns about the specificity of the mode model. Implications for both research and therapy are discussed.

  10. Trouble ahead, trouble behind: Narcissism and early maladaptive schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Green, Bradley A; Arnau, Randolph C; Sisemore, Teddi B; Myers, Erin M

    2011-03-01

    Narcissism is a multifaceted construct that is inconsistently defined and assessed between clinical psychology and social-personality psychology. The purpose of the present study was to examine the similarities and differences in the cognitive schemas underlying various forms of narcissism. This was accomplished by examining the associations of normal and pathological forms of narcissism with the early maladaptive schemas. The results showed important similarities in these associations (e.g., all of the narcissism scales were positively associated with the entitlement schema) as well as differences (e.g., vulnerable narcissism was the only form of narcissism that was positively associated with subjugation). Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for the ways in which individuals with these forms of narcissism perceive and navigate their social environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Schema Evolution for Stars and Snowflakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Rasmussen, Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    The most common implementation platform for multidimensional data warehouses is RDBMSs storing data in relational star and snowflake schemas. DW schemas evolve over time, which may invalidate existing analysis queries used for reporting purposes. However, the evolution properties of star...... and snowflake schemas have not previously been investigated systematically. This paper systematically investigates the evolution properties of star and snowflake schemas. Eight evolution operations are considered, covering insertion and deletion of dimensions, levels, dimension attributes, and measure...... attributes. For each operation, the formal semantics of the changes for star and snowflake schemas are given, and instance adaption and impact on existing queries are described. Finally, we compare the evolution properties of star and snowflake schemas, concluding that the star schema is considerably more...

  12. A systematic review of the evidence base for Schema Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masley, Samantha A; Gillanders, David T; Simpson, Susan G; Taylor, Morag A

    2012-01-01

    Schema Therapy is becoming an increasingly popular psychological model for working with individuals who have a variety of mental health and personality difficulties. The aim of this review is to look at the current evidence base for Schema Therapy and highlight directions for further research. A systematic search of the literature was conducted up until January 2011. All studies that had clinically tested the efficacy of Schema Therapy as described by Jeffrey Young (1994 and 2003) were considered. These studies underwent detailed quality assessments based on Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN-50) culminating in 12 studies being included in the review. The culminative message (both from the popularity of this model and the medium-to-large effect sizes) is of a theory that has already demonstrated clinically effective outcomes in a small number of studies and that would benefit from ongoing research and development with complex client groups. It is imperative that psychological practice be guided by high-quality research that demonstrates efficacious, evidence-based interventions. It is therefore recommended that researchers and clinicians working with Schema Therapy seek to build on these positive outcomes and further demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of this model through ongoing research.

  13. Young's Schema Theory: Exploring the Direct and Indirect Links Between Negative Childhood Experiences and Temperament to Negative Affectivity In Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Jesinoski, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Young's schema theory offers a theoretical approach that relates negative childhood experiences, temperament, and early maladaptive schema, to the experience of negative affect and/or depression in adulthood. However, despite the widespread use of schema therapy in clinical practice, little research has explored the pathways theorized by Young. This study explored the pathways posited by Young and colleagues looking at the direct and indirect relationships among negative childhood experience,...

  14. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Opiate and Stimulant Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Karami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early maladaptive schemas are valid representations of unpleasant childhood experiences that shape a person’s viewpoints of the world, and lead to clinical symptoms such as depression, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Given the importance of this matter, we conducted a research on early maladaptive schemas in substance-abusers, to allow more appropriate preventive measures to be taken with a better understanding of the issue. Methods: For this descriptive-comparative study, 115 patients (91 opiate users and 24 stimulant users visiting drug addiction treatment centers were selected through convenience sampling from persons who were admitted to substance abuse treatment centers (Methadone Maintenance therapy centers, addiction treatment camps and self-help groups and Narcotics Anonymous (NA of Yasuj. Data were collected using a Demographic Information Questionnaire and Young’s Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF. Data analysis was done with ANOVA and t-tests. Results: The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between users of opiates and stimulants in terms of vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment, subjugation, emotional inhibition, entitlement, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, emotional  deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness, failure/shame, and dependence. The average score of the stimulant-users was higher than that of opiate-users in all the schemas except for the dimensions of abandonment, mistrust, and unrelenting standards. Discussion: Stimulant users have more early maladaptive schemas and are at a greater risk of psychological vulnerability. Early maladaptive schemas can be used by clinicians and researchers as a psychopathology and treatment method for substance dependence disorder.

  15. Early maladaptive schemas in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Mehmet; Lapsekili, Nergis; Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Sutcigil, Levent; Turkcapar, Hakan

    2012-09-01

    According to the cognitive model of depression, negative schemas, formed in early life, increase susceptibility to depression. The objective of this study was to investigate schemas that are proposed to increase susceptibility of depression in bipolar disorder patients who have had depressive episodes. Eighteen patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV and a healthy control group (N= 20) constituted the sample of the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Young Schema Scale were applied to patients in order to determine the level of symptoms and schemas. When the scores obtained from Young Schema Scale were compared between groups, significant differences were observed between bipolar patients and control group on all the schemas except abandonment, emotional deprivation, defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness, and approval seeking. The negative schema scores of bipolar patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. Of all schemas included in the Young Schema Scale, the scores of bipolar group were higher than the scores of the control group. These findings suggest that, in cognitive-based psychotherapeutic approaches for patients with bipolar disorder, it would be more effective to focus on schemas related to the perception and allowance of feelings at the proper time and the instability of self-perceptions. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The role of parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in the risk of suicidal behavior repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Rosanna; Power, Kevin; Kane, Scott; Stewart, Alex Mitchell; Murray, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of perceived parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in suicidal behavior. Participants completed measures of perceived parental bonding; schemas; risk of repeating suicidal behavior; anxiety; and depression following their presentation at Accident and Emergency with suicidal behavior. A suicidal behavior group (n = 60) differed from a comparison clinical (n = 46) and non-clinical (n = 48) group on measures of early maladaptive schemas, anxiety, and depression. No significant difference was noted between the suicidal behavior group and the comparison clinical group on a measure of parental bonding. Within the suicidal behavior group, significant associations were indicated between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior; and early maladaptive schemas and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior. Early maladaptive schemas were found to mediate the relationship between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior, with schemas of Social Alienation and Defectiveness/Shame offering mediator roles. The findings of the current study emphasize the complexities of suicidal behavior and factors that are associated with suicidal behavior. Although causality cannot be assumed, the findings highlight the importance and inter-relationships of not only perceived early experiences, but of underlying schemas in relation to suicidal behavior.

  17. Automatic schema evolution in Root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R.; Rademakers, F.

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3 (spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution. In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing. This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file. Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later, its structure browsed and objects inspected, also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing. The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session. ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file

  18. The young schema questionnaire 3 short form (YSQ-S3),Psychometric properties and association with personality disorders in a Danish mixed sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Simonsen, Erik; Christoffersen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Early Maladaptive Schemas, as measured with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ), are proposed to underlie a variety of mental health problems, in particular Personality Disorders. The latest short version of the instrument measuring all 18 schemas, the YSQ-S3, has only been examined to a limited...... for the assessment of Early Maladaptive Schemas in both clinical and research settings. Findings are discussed in relation to Personality Disorders and the Schema Therapy model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...

  19. Do they practice what we teach? Follow-up evaluation of a Schema Therapy training programme

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, Deborah; Moghaddam, Nima; Beckley, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a three-day Schema Therapy training programme for trainee clinical psychologists. The training used an experiential model of learning, which was intended to encourage the transfer of knowledge and techniques from the learning environment into clinical practice. Using a mixed-methods approach, the training programme was evaluated in terms of: (1) self-reported changes in knowledge, confidence and willingness to use Schema Therapy-informed techniques; (2) whether the tra...

  20. [Influence between early maladaptive schemas and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, A; Jourda, B; Laros, C; Walburg, V; Callahan, S

    2011-09-01

    Early maladaptive schemas developed during childhood are relatively stable. Once activated, these early maladaptive schemas could influence reality perceptions and create cognitive distortions. Previous studies showed that early maladaptive schemas are linked to depression: early maladaptive schemas could be a risk factor for depression (Young, 2001) and a vulnerability marker for depression (Dozoïs, 2007). The main objective of the present study was to explore the influence of early maladaptive schemas on depression severity among a French adult population. One hundred and sixty-two participants (mean age 29 years; SD=13.86) were enrolled, 66 men (mean age 29 years; SD=13.65) and 106 women (mean age 30; SD=14.07). Participants were invited to complete the Young Schema Questionnaire, short version (YSQ-S1-Young 1994) and the Beck depression Inventory, 2nd version (BDI-II-Beck 1994). Fifty-six participants were randomly selected to complete a paper version of the scales, and 95 participants completed an online electronic version. Fifty-two percent of the participants were not depressed, 15% slightly depressed, 17% moderately depressed and 16% met criteria of severe depression. All 15 schemas scores were positively correlated to depression scores. Comparing schema scores and depression severity it can be noted that for severely depressed participants all schema scores were significantly higher, and six of 15 schemas were significantly higher in the case of moderate depression. In addition, three schemas (imperfection, vulnerability, fusional relation) are significantly and positively linked to depression scores, whereas one schema (everything is owed to me) appears to be a significantly negative predictor of associated depression. This study confirms results of previous research concerning the link between early maladaptive schemas and depression. What is more, the results show that the importance of these schemas increases with depression severity. The most

  1. LGIST: Learning Generalized Image Schemas for Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    methods we designed for image schemas and gists are plausible learning methods for infants. Our learning agent, called Jean in honor of Jean Piaget and...kind of representation, image schemas, and associated learning methods. The learning agent was called Jean . Jean is a model of early cognitive...development based loosely on Jean Piaget’s theory of sensori-motor and pre-operational thought. Like an infant, Jean repeatedly executes schemas, gradually

  2. XML Schema Guide for Primary CDR Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the extensible markup language (XML) schema guide for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics’ (OPPT) e-CDRweb tool. E-CDRweb is the electronic, web-based tool provided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the submission of Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) information. This document provides the user with tips and guidance on correctly using the version 1.7 XML schema. Please note that the order of the elements must match the schema.

  3. The cognitive import of the narrative schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer

    2007-01-01

    principle of intelligibility. This is the reason why the narrative schema is by no means confined to the domain of the literary work of art. It is rather a major principle for the combination of partial significations in many other domains. The paper explores the role traditionally assigned to the narrative...... schema within continental semiotics, and through an interpretation of Heider & Simmel’s study on apparent behavior it establishes the cognitive import of the narrative schema and its origin in visual perception; finally it gives examples of the meaning organizing import of the narrative schema....

  4. Schema Evolution for Stars and Snowflakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Rasmussen, Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    The most common implementation platform for multidimensional data warehouses is RDBMSs storing data in relational star and snowflake schemas. DW schemas evolve over time, which may invalidate existing analysis queries used for reporting purposes. However, the evolution properties of star and snow......The most common implementation platform for multidimensional data warehouses is RDBMSs storing data in relational star and snowflake schemas. DW schemas evolve over time, which may invalidate existing analysis queries used for reporting purposes. However, the evolution properties of star...... and snowflake schemas have not previously been investigated systematically. This paper systematically investigates the evolution properties of star and snowflake schemas. Eight evolution operations are considered, covering insertion and deletion of dimensions, levels, dimension attributes, and measure...... attributes. For each operation, the formal semantics of the changes for star and snowflake schemas are given, and instance adaption and impact on existing queries are described. Finally, we compare the evolution properties of star and snowflake schemas, concluding that the star schema is considerably more...

  5. Schema crawled API documentation exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkeli, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    Åpne API blir stadig mer utbredt som fører til at utviklere kan benytte mye tid i å lese dokumentasjon for å finne et passende alternativ. Tesen beskriver en design som kan benyttes for å danne et sett med hjelpemidler som har til hensikt å redusere unødvendige alternativ av API for brukeren. Dette gjøres via en web crawler som går gjennom API dokumentasjon samt en behandler av datamengdene som spesifikt benytter XML Schema for å finne retur formet til APIene den støter på. Resultatene listes...

  6. Understanding Schemas and Emotion in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cath

    2010-01-01

    This book makes explicit connections between young children's spontaneous repeated actions and their representations of their emotional worlds. Drawing on the literature on schemas, attachment theory and family contexts, the author takes schema theory into the territory of the emotions, making it relevant to the social and emotional development…

  7. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  8. Perceived Parental Bonding, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Outcome in Schema Therapy of Cluster C Personality Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart Lunding, Synve; Hoffart, Asle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the relationships between perceived parental bonding, Early Maladaptive Schemas (Young et al., 2003), and outcome of schema therapy of Cluster C personality problems and whether the perceptions of parental bonding could be influenced by schema therapy. The sample consisted of 45 patients with panic disorder and/or agoraphobia and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, Cluster C personality traits who participated in an 11-week inpatient programme consisting of two phases; the first was a 5-week panic/agoraphobia-focused cognitive therapy, whereas the second phase was a personality-focused schema therapy. The patients were assessed at pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Opposite to our hypothesis, lower paternal care at pre-treatment was related to more reduction in Cluster C personality traits from pre-treatment to 1-year follow-up. Maternal protection was related to the schema domains of impaired autonomy and exaggerated standards. Overall schema severity and the schema emotional inhibition at pre-treatment were associated with less change in Cluster C traits. Perceived maternal care was reduced from pre-treatment to 1-year follow-up, and more reduction in maternal care was related to less reduction in Cluster C traits. Parental bonding failed to predict treatment outcome in the expected direction, but maternal protection was related to two of the schema domains. Overall schema severity and the particular schema emotional inhibition predicted outcome. Furthermore, perceived maternal care was reduced from before to after treatment. Future studies should examine these questions in larger samples of Cluster C patients receiving schema therapy of a longer duration. Most schemas within the impaired autonomy domain and the schema self-sacrifice seem to be related to low perceived maternal protection. Overall schema severity and the schema emotional inhibition

  9. Dysfunctional schema modes, childhood trauma and dissociation in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig; Dorahy, Martin J; Courtney, Deyra; Bayles, Terry; O'Kane, Maria

    2009-06-01

    To examine the relationship between dysfunctional schema modes, childhood trauma and dissociation in borderline personality disorder (BPD). 30 BPD patients completed the Wessex Dissociation Scale (WDS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Schema Mode Questionnaire (SMQ). The 'Angry and Impulsive Child' and 'Abandoned and Abused Child' modes uniquely predicted dissociation scores. Childhood trauma did not predict dissociation scores. Findings support the schema mode model of BPD [Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioners guide. London: Guilford Press] and its emphasis on the role of dissociation. Clinically they support the emphasis on the identification and integration of dysfunctional parts of the personality in working with individuals diagnosed with BPD.

  10. The Role Of Early Maladaptive Schemas And Coping Strategies In Substance Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikem HACIÖMEROĞLU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the early maladaptive schemas and coping strategies of substance dependents. We hypothesized that substance dependents would have more maladaptive schemas and would use less adaptive coping strategies than healthy controls. Methods: Thirty-two patients diagnosed with substance dependence and 31 control subjects without any psychiatric disorders were evaluated via Young Schema Questionnaire-SF, COPE, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I. Results: The substance dependents scored significantly higher than the control group in nine out of fourteen early maladaptive schemas. In terms of coping strategies, the substance dependents scored significantly lower than the control group in positive reinterpretation and growth, seeking social support for instrumental reasons, active coping, and seeking social support for emotional reasons, and significantly higher in behavioral disengagement and alcohol-drug disengagement subscales. Moreover, alcohol-drug disengagement type of coping style was significantly predicted by schemas of emotional deprivation, emotional inhibition, enmeshment/dependence, entitlement/ insufficient self-control, abandonment/instability, punitiveness, defectiveness/shame, vulnerability to harm or illness, and unrelenting standards/hypercriticalness. Discussion: Current study showed that the substance dependents had more maladaptive unhealthy core beliefs and ineffective coping strategies than a non-clinical control group. These findings support the importance of early maladaptive schemas which might be the underlying factor for the dependence problem, and might prevent the person to deal with the problem with more active and problem focused coping strategies.

  11. Relationship between early maladaptive schemas and symptom dimensions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Sang Won; Lee, Seung Jae

    2014-01-30

    The aims of this study were to evaluate early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to clarify relationships between particular EMSs and the five factor-analyzed symptom dimensions and other clinical variables. Fifty-seven patients with OCD and 70 normal controls completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Y-BOCS symptom checklist, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Patients with OCD had significantly higher scores for schema related to defectiveness/shame, social isolation/alienation, and failure than did normal controls. Among the five OCD symptom dimensions, the sexual/religious dimension was only significantly correlated with two schemas of vulnerability to harm or illness and enmeshment/undeveloped self. These two schemas were significant predictors of the sexual/religious dimension, accounting for 33% of the total variance in this dimension. Any EMSs in patients with OCD were not related to clinical variables such as severity of OCD and duration of illness. These findings may constitute evidence to improve our understandings of OCD from a perspective of schema theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterizing Thematized Derivative Schema by the Underlying Emergent Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mercedes; Llinares, Salvador; Sanchez-Matamoros, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on different underlying structures of the derivative schema of three undergraduate students that were considered to be at the trans level of development of the derivative schema (action-process-object-schema). The derivative schema is characterized in terms of the students' ability to explicitly transfer the relationship between…

  13. XML Schema Guide for Secondary CDR Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the extensible markup language (XML) schema guide for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics’ (OPPT) e-CDRweb tool. E-CDRweb is the electronic, web-based tool provided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the submission of Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) information. This document provides the user with tips and guidance on correctly using the version 1.1 XML schema for the Joint Submission Form. Please note that the order of the elements must match the schema.

  14. Evaluation of Relationship between Schemas and Panic Disorder through a Case Treated with Schema Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Yancar Demir

    2014-08-01

    Discussion: Early maladaptive schemas and inadaptive ways of behaviors that has been developed by patients to handle these schemas may underly the axis I disorder symptoms such as anxiety, depression, drug abuse and psychosomatic disorders. As we look have a look at our patient, it can be said that her seperation with parents before elementary school may have led to her schemas of desertion and distrust and also teacher being over guarding at the levels of harming sovereignty to compensate the absence of the parents forms the basis of schemas of dependence / incompatence, being harmed and weakness against ilnesses. These schemas may be the reason of the patient's inability to handle certain life problems that may be triggering her panic attack symptoms. Schema therapy led to awareness of the patient about her schemas. Patient who had been thought of more functional ways coping instead of inadaptive ways was free of her panic attack symptoms which were resistant to medical treatment. The schema therapy proceess that has been going on with our patient is a good example for schema therapy that was originally developed for treatment for axis II disorders may also be effective for axis 1 disorders. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 109-115

  15. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Karatzias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82. We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78. We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method: Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results: It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions: Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma.

  16. HTML5 Microdata and Schema.org

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ronallo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On June 2, 2011, Bing, Google, and Yahoo! announced the joint effort Schema.org. When the big search engines talk, Web site authors listen. This article is an introduction to Microdata and Schema.org. The first section describes what HTML5, Microdata and Schema.org are, and the problems they have been designed to solve. With this foundation in place section 2 provides a practical tutorial of how to use Microdata and Schema.org using a real life example from the cultural heritage sector. Along the way some tools for implementers will also be introduced. Issues with applying these technologies to cultural heritage materials will crop up along with opportunities to improve the situation.

  17. The effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire: short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Lusia; Waters, Anne

    2005-03-01

    The schema concept has had an important role in both early and more recent accounts of psychopathology. Schemas are underlying cognitive structures that are thought to create vulnerability to disorders, because they act as templates for the perception, encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Recent approaches to the understanding and treatment of personality disorders give schemas particular prominence, and the concept of early maladaptive schemas forms the cornerstone of Young's (1999) schema-focused cognitive therapy. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire--short form (YSQ-S; Young, 1998). A sample of 50 non-clinical participants completed the YSQ-S on three different occasions: in neutral mood, and following happy and depressed mood inductions. The results of 30 participants with full data sets showed that emotional deprivation and defectiveness scores increased after the depressed mood induction, whereas entitlement scores increased after the happy mood induction. The results are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of vulnerability to psychopathology, and future directions for research are suggested.

  18. Schema modes and dissociation in borderline personality disorder/traits in adolescents or young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazandeh, Hoda; Kissane, David W; Saeedi, Naysun; Gordon, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Dramatic mental shifts in young patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be understood to occur via dissociative processes found in immature schema modes. A schema mode is an organized pattern of thought, affect and behaviour based on a set of core beliefs. These maladaptive modes are not integrated into a united personality structure and can function in a dissociated form. The aim of this study was to empirically assess the relationship between dysfunctional schema modes and dissociation in BPD. Forty-two young patients with BPD confirmed by the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis-II personality disorders (SCID-II) were further assessed by the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ), DSM-IV/ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q), Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) and Wessex Dissociation Scale (WDS). Pearson correlations assessed associations and stepwise regression explored the extent of these associations. The strongest correlations were found between dissociation and the following modes: Detached Protector, Angry Child, Impulsive Child, Punitive Parent, Demanding Parent, and Vulnerable Child. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that schema modes explained 58% of the variance in dissociation. The schema modes that significantly predicted dissociation were the Detached Protector and Impulsive Child modes. Key therapeutic targets in treating adolescents with BPD include detachment and impulsivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. True and false recall and dissociation among maltreated children: the role of self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2008-01-01

    The current investigation addresses the manner through which trauma affects basic memory and self-system processes. True and false recall for self-referent stimuli were assessed in conjunction with dissociative symptomatology among abused (N=76), neglected (N=92), and nonmaltreated (N=116) school-aged children. Abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children did not differ in the level of processing self-schema effect or in the occurrence and frequency of false recall. Rather, differences in the affective valence of false recall emerged as a function of maltreatment subtype and age. Regarding dissociation, the abused children displayed higher levels of dissociative symptomatology than did the nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children did not exhibit differences in the valence of their self-schemas, positive and negative self-schemas were related to self-integration differently among the subgroups of maltreatment. Negative self-schemas were associated with increased dissociation among the abused children, whereas positive self-schemas were related to increased dissociation for the neglected children. Thus, positive self-schemas displayed by the younger neglected children were related to higher dissociation, suggestive of defensive self-processing. Implications for clinical intervention are underscored.

  20. Changes in schemas of patients with severe borderline personality disorder: the Oulu BPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Virpi; Kärki, Anna; Saariaho, Tom; Lindeman, Sari; Hakko, Helinä

    2015-02-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a relatively common and severe psychiatric disorder that can impair quality of life in many ways. The aim of this study was to determine whether a combined treatment model for BPD patients, utilising major principles from schema-focused therapy (SFT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), could be more effective in relieving early maladaptive schemas of BPD patients, compared to treatment as usual (TAU). This study is a part of the Oulu BPD study conducted at mental health care services run by Oulu city social and health care services. The study is a multisite, randomized controlled trial conducted over a one year period, involving two groups of patients with severe BPD: (1) Community Treatment By Experts (CTBE) patients (n = 18) receiving the combined treatment model, and 2) TAU patients (n = 27). The patients' schemas were assessed using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-L3a) before and after one year of treatment. The results reveal that CTBE patients who attended the combined treatment model showed a statistically significant reduction in eight out of 18 early maladaptive schemas, while patients receiving treatment as usual did not demonstrate any significant changes in schemas. The cognitive therapeutic treatment model can be applied for clinical use in public mental health settings using existing professionals, and appears to produce positive changes in patients with BPD. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Topological Schemas of Memory Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Babichev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal cognitive map—a neuronal representation of the spatial environment—is widely discussed in the computational neuroscience literature for decades. However, more recent studies point out that hippocampus plays a major role in producing yet another cognitive framework—the memory space—that incorporates not only spatial, but also non-spatial memories. Unlike the cognitive maps, the memory spaces, broadly understood as “networks of interconnections among the representations of events,” have not yet been studied from a theoretical perspective. Here we propose a mathematical approach that allows modeling memory spaces constructively, as epiphenomena of neuronal spiking activity and thus to interlink several important notions of cognitive neurophysiology. First, we suggest that memory spaces have a topological nature—a hypothesis that allows treating both spatial and non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function on equal footing. We then model the hippocampal memory spaces in different environments and demonstrate that the resulting constructions naturally incorporate the corresponding cognitive maps and provide a wider context for interpreting spatial information. Lastly, we propose a formal description of the memory consolidation process that connects memory spaces to the Morris' cognitive schemas-heuristic representations of the acquired memories, used to explain the dynamics of learning and memory consolidation in a given environment. The proposed approach allows evaluating these constructs as the most compact representations of the memory space's structure.

  2. Differences in the neural signature of remembering schema-congruent and schema-incongruent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Garvin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Shing, Yee Lee

    2015-08-15

    New experiences are remembered in relation to one's existing world knowledge or schema. Recent research suggests that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) supports the retrieval of schema-congruent information. However, the neural mechanisms supporting memory for information violating a schema have remained elusive, presumably because incongruity is inherently ambiguous in tasks that rely on world knowledge. We present a novel paradigm that experimentally induces hierarchically structured knowledge to directly contrast neural correlates that contribute to the successful retrieval of schema-congruent versus schema-incongruent information. We hypothesize that remembering incongruent events engages source memory networks including the lateral PFC. In a sample of young adults, we observed enhanced activity in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), in the posterior parietal cortex, and in the striatum when successfully retrieving incongruent events, along with enhanced connectivity between DLPFC and striatum. In addition, we found enhanced mPFC activity for successfully retrieved events that are congruent with the induced schema, presumably reflecting a role of the mPFC in biasing retrieval towards schema-congruent episodes. We conclude that medial and lateral PFC contributions to memory retrieval differ by schema congruency, and highlight the utility of the new experimental paradigm for addressing developmental research questions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Defining the XML schema matching problem for a personal schema based query answering system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiljanic, M.; van Keulen, Maurice; Jonker, Willem

    In this report, we analyze the problem of personal schema matching. We define the ingredients of the XML schema matching problem using constraint logic programming. This allows us to thourougly investigate specific matching problems. We do not have the ambition to provide for a formalism that covers

  4. SchemaOnRead: A Package for Schema-on-Read in R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J.

    2016-08-01

    Schema-on-read is an agile approach to data storage and retrieval that defers investments in data organization until production queries need to be run by working with data directly in native form. Schema-on-read functions have been implemented in a wide range of analytical systems, most notably Hadoop. SchemaOnRead is a CRAN package that uses R’s flexible data representations to provide transparent and convenient support for the schema-on-read paradigm in R. The schema-on- read tools within the package include a single function call that recursively reads folders with text, comma separated value, raster image, R data, HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet, Weka, Epi Info, Pajek network, R network, HTML, SPSS, Systat, and Stata files. The provided tools can be used as-is or easily adapted to implement customized schema-on-read tool chains in R. This paper’s contribution is that it introduces and describes SchemaOnRead, the first R package specifically focused on providing explicit schema-on-read support in R.

  5. The secure base script: associated with early maladaptive schemas related to attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Heather R; Bailey, Heidi N; Lumley, Margaret N

    2014-12-01

    To examine the relations between traditionally assessed early maladaptive schemas and the attachment-specific secure base script (a script-like representation of what individuals expect to happen when they face distress), to inform our understanding of beliefs about the self in relation to others. The present study took an ecologically driven approach, assessing knowledge of the secure base script from descriptions of current relationships. A cross-sectional design was used. One hundred forty-six undergraduate students, recruited as part of a larger study on adversity and self-concept, provided narrative descriptions of their current relationships. Narratives were coded for attachment-related 'secure base' content using a secure base script scale for relationship narratives. Early maladaptive schemas were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire, and attachment was additionally evaluated using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to secure base script content in theory-consistent ways. The extent to which participants described secure base script content was inversely associated with four out of five maladaptive schemas characterized most centrally by disconnection from others. Furthermore, these associations remained significant when controlling for self-reported attachment style. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety also were related to maladaptive schemas in a predictable pattern. Results bridge cognitive and attachment theories, supporting the interrelatedness of secure base script knowledge assessed in current relationships, and schema-related content regarding connectedness with others. Better integration of theories regarding internal representations may serve to enrich psychotherapeutic formulation from a variety of clinical perspectives. Schema Therapy's (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003 , Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press) early

  6. The Obstacle to Happiness: Early Maladaptive Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barbaros YALCIN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine whether individuals’ early maladaptive schemas predict their happiness levels or not and to find out what early maladaptive schemas prevent individuals’ happiness. Method: Relational screening model was used in the study. The study group consisted of the 253 university students; 198 (%78.3 females and 55 (%21.7 males. “The Qxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form”, developed by Hills and Argyle (2002 and adapted into Turkish by Dogan and Cotok (2011, and “Young Schema Scale-Short Form 3”, developed by Young et al. (2003 and adapted into Turkish by Soygut, Karaosmanoglu, and Cakir (2009 were used to gather the data for the study. Results: According to the results obtained from the study, it was found out that there is a significantly negative relation between happiness and Vulnerability to Harm & Illness, Pessimism/Negativity, Failure, Social Isolation, Emotional Inhibition, Approval-Seeking and Insufficient Self-Control. Moreover, university students’ Pessimism/Negativity and Failure schemas were found to be the predictors of their happiness levels. Conclusion: Families, teachers and mental health workers should work together to resolve the Pessimism/Negativity and Failure early maladaptive schemas of university students’. It is considered as a preventive measure that the education system must be reviewed. [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 7-13

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Young Schema Questionnaire L-3: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristide Saggino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Schema Therapy (ST is a well-known approach for the treatment of personality disorders. This therapy integrates different theories and techniques into an original and systematic treatment model. The Young Schema Questionnaire L-3 (YSQ-L3 is a self-report instrument, based on the ST model, designed to assess 18 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs. During the last decade, it has been translated and validated in different countries and languages. This study aims to establish the psychometric properties of the Italian Version of the YSQ-L3. We enrolled two groups: a clinical (n = 148 and a non-clinical one (n = 918. We investigated the factor structure, reliability and convergent validity with anxiety and depression between clinical and non-clinical groups. The results highlighted a few relevant findings. Cronbach's alpha showed significant values for all the schemas. All of the factor models do not seem highly adequate, even if the hierarchical model has proven to be the most significant one. Furthermore, the questionnaire confirms the ability to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical groups and could represent a useful tool in the clinical practice. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  8. Predicting the Risk of Opioid Use Disorder Based on Early Maladaptive Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamirinejad, Somayeh; Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Moslem, Alireza; MoghaddamHosseini, Vahideh; Akaberi, Arash

    2018-03-01

    Substance use is a globally devastating social problem. Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are inefficient mechanisms leading directly or indirectly to psychological distress. The current study aimed to assess the role of EMSs in predicting opioid use disorder. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bojnurd at northeast of Iran on 60 male opioid users who received Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) and 60 control males. The opioid users were selected randomly from MMT clinics and control subjects were selected and matched with opioid users using demographic variables. The subjects completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF). Except for SS (self-sacrifice), EG (entitlement/grandiosity), US (unrelenting standards), and FA (Failure to Achieve), the mean of other maladaptive schemas in the opioid user group were significantly higher than that of the control group, adjusted for multiple comparisons. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences in maladaptive schemas between the two groups. Logistic regression identified that Emotional Deprivation, Mistrust/Abuse, and Unrelenting Standards can predict opioid use. As a result, the risk of opioid-related disorders in people with higher YSQ-SF scores in these schemas is higher. The findings conclude that the existence of underlying EMS may constitute a vulnerability factor for developing opioid use disorders later on in life. Provided the vast amount of scientific literature in evidence-based treatments focusing on EMSs, maladaptive schemas and related core beliefs can be detected and treated in adolescence to prevent the enactment of the schema and psychological distress likely to induce opioid use.

  9. Negative self-schema: the effects of induced depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, L J; Teasdale, J D; Broadbent, D E

    1988-05-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall paradigm, previously used as a measure of negative self-schema in depressed patients (Derry & Kuiper, 1981), was administered to normal subjects in whom depressed or neutral mood had been induced. Subjects in whom depressed mood was induced showed a pattern of recall similar to that previously found for depressed patients, suggesting (1) that at least some of the effects observed in depressed patients were a function of transient mood state, rather than persistent characteristics, and (2) that these effects of depressed mood also occur in individuals who have not been selected for vulnerability to clinical depression.

  10. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Scott H; Young, Jeffrey E

    2006-04-01

    This article presents the Schema Therapy (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003) approach to the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Schema therapy draws on the cognitive-behavioral, attachment, psychodynamic, and emotion-focused traditions and conceptualizes patients who have borderline personality disorder as being under the sway of five modes or aspects of the self. The goal of the therapy is to reorganize this inner structure. To this end, there are four core mechanisms of change that are used in this therapy: (1) limited reparenting, (2) experiential imagery and dialogue work, (3) cognitive restructuring and education, and (4) behavioral pattern breaking. These interventions are used during the three phases of treatment: (1) bonding and emotional regulation, (2) schema mode change, and (3) development of autonomy. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Bartlett's concept of schema in reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The concept of schema was advanced by Frederic Bartlett to provide the basis for a radical temporal alternative to traditional spatial storage theories of memory. Bartlett took remembering out of the head and situated it at the enfolding relation between organism and environment. Through an activ......The concept of schema was advanced by Frederic Bartlett to provide the basis for a radical temporal alternative to traditional spatial storage theories of memory. Bartlett took remembering out of the head and situated it at the enfolding relation between organism and environment. Through...... an activity of “turning around upon schemata,” humans can create ruptures in their seamless flow of activity in an environment and take active control over mind and behavior. This paper contextualizes Bartlett’s concept of schema within broader theoretical developments of his time, examines its temporal......, dynamic, temporal, holistic, and social concept....

  12. Children's Memory Schema in an Environmental Learning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, Mark; Banham, Jessica

    1990-01-01

    Described is an investigation that determined whether young children have schemas for environmental information. The results are discussed with reference to the importance of memory schemas for learning about the environment. (KR)

  13. Development of geotechnical data schema in transportation : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The objective of "Development of Geotechnical Data Schema in Transportation" is to develop an : international standard interchange format for geotechnical data. This standard will include a data : dictionary and XML schema which are GML compliant. Th...

  14. The Academic Self-Schema: An Experimental Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinot, Delphine; Monteil, Jean-Marc

    1995-01-01

    Existence of an academic self-schema was studied with 142 French eighth and ninth graders and 50 high school students. Both success and failure schemas appeared to exist, but the academic failure schema was only observed for the variable self-description time. (SLD)

  15. Validation of the schema mode concept in personality disordered offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen-de Vos, Marije; Bernstein, David P.; Clark, Lee Anna; de Vogel, Vivienne; Bogaerts, S.; Slaats, Mariette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A core element of Schema Therapy (ST) is schema modes' or fluctuating emotional states. ST assumes that particular personality pathology consists of specific combinations of maladaptive schema modes. There is confirmatory evidence for the modes hypothesized to be central to borderline and

  16. Validation of the schema mode concept in personality disordered offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen-de Vos, M.; Bernstein, D.P.; Clark, L.A.; de Vogel, V.; Bogaerts, S.; Slaats, M.; Arntz, A.

    Purpose: A core element of Schema Therapy (ST) is ‘schema modes’ or fluctuating emotional states. ST assumes that particular personality pathology consists of specific combinations of maladaptive schema modes. There is confirmatory evidence for the modes hypothesized to be central to borderline and

  17. Validation of the schema mode concept in personality disordered offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marije Keulen-de Vos; David P. Bernstein; Lee Anna Clark; Vivienne de Vogel; Stefan Bogaerts; Mariëtte Slaats; Arnoud Arntz

    2017-01-01

    A core element of Schema Therapy (ST) is ‘schema modes’ or fluctuating emotional states. ST assumes that particular personality pathology consists of specific combinations of maladaptive schema modes. There is confirmatory evidence for the modes hypothesized to be central to borderline and

  18. Age neutrality of the young schema questionnaire in patients with a substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Els; Claes, Laurence; Dierckx, Eva; Debast, Inge; Van Alphen, S P J Bas; Rossi, Gina; Schotte, Chris; Santens, Els; Peuskens, Hendrik

    2014-08-01

    Young's Schema Focused Therapy (SFT) is gaining popularity in the treatment of older adults. In the context of this therapy, the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed to assess the early maladaptive schemas (EMS). EMS are considered to be relatively stable over time, but research shows that questionnaires often lack face validity in older adults, which makes it difficult to investigate EMS in older adults and their stability across the lifespan. In the present cross-sectional study, we investigated the age neutrality of the Young Schema Questionnaire--Long Form in young (aged 18-34 years), middle-aged (aged 35-59 years), and older (aged 60-75 years) adults in a clinical sample of substance use disorders (N = 321) by examining potential differential item functioning (DIF). While investigating the stability of the schemas, we controlled for substance dependency and clinical symptoms by means of, respectively, the Drug Use Screening Inventory - Revised and the Symptom Checklist-90-R. The Bonferroni-adjusted Liu-Agresti Cumulative Common Log-Odds Ratio confirmed large DIF for six items, divided across five schema scales (Mistrust/Abuse, Subjugation, Entitlement, Enmeshment and Self-sacrifice). Of the six items that presented DIF, only one item showed differential test functioning (Entitlement). Overall results show only 3% DIF, implying age neutrality of the questionnaire. Current results corroborate that most EMS scales are equally measured across age, and reliable comparisons can be made across the lifespan, allowing for good clinical practice and further research on SFT in older adults. Only for Entitlement, Enmeshment, and Insufficient Self-control, caution is needed when comparing mean scores across the age groups.

  19. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder traits in perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Carmen; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Schema Therapy proposes a number of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that are involved in the development of PDs. This study examined the prevalence of PD traits in a sample of men who committed violence against their partners and the relationship between EMSs domains and PD traits. With this aim, a sample of 119 convicted men completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young & Brown, 1994) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III; Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1994). The results showed that the most prevalent PD traits were narcissistic (24.6%), obsessive-compulsive (21.9%), and paranoid (17.5%). These PD traits were linked to several EMSs in ways consistent with the Schema Therapy model. Namely, narcissistic PD traits were positively associated with schemas of the impaired limits domain and were negatively associated with the other-directedness domain. The paranoid PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired autonomy and performance domain. Finally, both borderline and antisocial PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired limits domain. These findings suggest that the assessment and modification of EMSs should be a factor to consider for inclusion in the treatment programs for perpetrators of IPV in order to provide comprehensive intervention of this population.

  20. The role of sexual self-schema in a diathesis-stress model of sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyranowski, Jill M; Aarestad, Susan L; Andersen, Barbara L

    1999-01-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations regarding sexual aspects of the self that represent a core component of one's sexuality. We contend that individual differences in the sexual self-view represent an important cognitive diathesis for predicting sexual difficulty or dysfunction. We illustrate the role of sexual self-schemas on sexual behavior and responsiveness in healthy female and male samples. Next, we describe how diathesis-stress models of psychopathology have been applied to the sexual arena, and discuss the critical features of clinically useful diathesis variables. Drawing from these criteria, we examine the diathetic properties of sexual self-schemas. Finally, we discuss an empirical test of the proposed diathesis-stress interaction, reviewing the role of women's sexual self-views on sexual morbidity following diagnosis and treatment for gynecologic cancer.

  1. The role of sexual self-schema in a diathesis–stress model of sexual dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    CYRANOWSKI, JILL M.; AARESTAD, SUSAN L.; ANDERSEN, BARBARA L.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations regarding sexual aspects of the self that represent a core component of one’s sexuality. We contend that individual differences in the sexual self-view represent an important cognitive diathesis for predicting sexual difficulty or dysfunction. We illustrate the role of sexual self-schemas on sexual behavior and responsiveness in healthy female and male samples. Next, we describe how diathesis–stress models of psychopathology have been applied to the sexual arena, and discuss the critical features of clinically useful diathesis variables. Drawing from these criteria, we examine the diathetic properties of sexual self-schemas. Finally, we discuss an empirical test of the proposed diathesis–stress interaction, reviewing the role of women’s sexual self-views on sexual morbidity following diagnosis and treatment for gynecologic cancer. PMID:19587834

  2. How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Lee, Christopher; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema...... therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants. Associations were investigated in terms of factor...... loadings and regression coefficients in relation to five domains, followed by specific correlations among all constructs. The results indicated conceptually coherent associations, and 15 of 25 traits were strongly related to relevant schema therapy constructs. Conclusively, DSM-5 traits may be considered...

  3. Diagnostic whole body scan (pre-therapy scan) in differentiated thyroid cancer: A single center community hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, P; Driscoll, H K; Venkatraman, P

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic whole body scan (pre-therapy scan) with either I-123 or I-131 (radioactive isotopes of iodine) is performed to assess the extent of thyroid cancer especially distant metastasis prior to administering the therapeutic dose of I-131. Our aim of the following study was to determine the utility of the diagnostic pre-therapy scan in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer. It was a case-control study carried out by retrospective chart review, of a randomly selected 100 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who had followed in our community hospital over the course of 1 year. We collected data on multiple variables in the subjects - including age, gender, pre-operative size of the nodules, diagnosis, stage of the malignancy, size of the tumor, multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, dose of radioiodine used for remnant ablation, recurrence rates and persistence rates. Continuous variables were compared using the independent sample Mann-Whitney U-test whereas the Chi-square test was used for nominal variables. The mean dose of radioactive iodine administered was 97.56 (±27.98) in the pre-therapy scan group and it was 97.23 (±32.40) in the control group. There was no difference between the two groups (P - 0.45). There was also no difference in the recurrence rates between the groups (P = 1.0). There was a trend toward a higher degree of persistent cancer in the group that had the pre-therapy scans (P - 0.086). Pre-therapy scan may not affect the dose of radio-iodine I-131 used for remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer and does not influence the recurrence rates. This was especially true with respect to I-131 remnant ablation for low risk tumors.

  4. "Schemas: A Way into a Child's World"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cath

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores some of the learning of a young child from the age of 8-23 months and considers how identifying schemas or repeated patterns of actions can inform our pedagogic responses. Gabriella was observed using naturalistic observation methods, at home, at her grandparents' home, at parks and using early childhood services. Narrative…

  5. Treatment for Chronic Depression Using Schema Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, F.; Arntz, A.; Leeuw, I.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) is an integrative treatment approach to chronic lifelong problems with an established effectiveness for treating personality disorders. This article describes the adaptation of ST to chronic depression by reviewing the literature on the underlying risk factors to chronic

  6. Abstract Schemas in Children's Chess Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Dianne; And Others

    The nature and development of semantic processing in chess was investigated in a study involving younger players from 6 through 18 years of age. Efforts were directed toward establishing the assertion that skilled players' memory for chess positions depends largely upon the availability of pre-stored schema (PSS) that are both abstract and…

  7. Schema-Based Theories of Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-17

    73 is OSSO; AT9 . _________ 19 SC6111T’ :LA$SP~cAQN -a~ 9 1 2 11 116 A concluding section compares the schema approach with a search approach that uses...the military story and a story about forming a circle around an oil fire in order to use many small hoses to spray foam on the fire. Students who

  8. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    to develop a hierarchical schema that systematically evaluates and ranks the surrogacy status of biomarkers and surrogates; and to obtain feedback from stakeholders. METHODS: After a systematic search of Medline and Embase on biomarkers, surrogate (outcomes, endpoints, markers, indicators), intermediate...... endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...... of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...

  9. An Interpersonal Investigation of Sexual Self-Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kyle; Rehman, Uzma S; Fallis, Erin E; Goodnight, Jackson A

    2016-02-01

    A sexual self-schema is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self. In the current study, we examined how an individual's sexual self-schema influenced the processing of self and partner related sexual information. Specifically, we investigated how sexual self-schemas related to own and partner sexual satisfaction and how they influenced perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction. Participants were 117 heterosexual couples in committed, long-term relationships. Both partners completed measures assessing their sexual self-schemas, their own sexual satisfaction, and perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction. Consistent with our predictions, own sexual schema was associated with own sexual satisfaction. For men, more positive sexual self-schemas were associated with greater sexual satisfaction, and for women, more negative sexual self-schemas were associated with lower sexual satisfaction. For both men and women, there was no significant association between own sexual self-schema and partner sexual satisfaction. Sexual self-schemas directly and indirectly influenced an individual's perception of the partner's sexual satisfaction, such that men and women with more positive sexual self-schemas rated their partners as more sexually satisfied, after controlling for the partner's self-reported level of sexual satisfaction. Our findings demonstrated that sexual self-schemas are relevant to own sexual satisfaction as well as the processing of interpersonally relevant sexual information, specifically one's perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction.

  10. Exploring correlation between perceived parenting styles, early maladaptive schemas, and depression among women with depressive symptoms in iran and India- role of early maladaptive schemas as mediators and moderatos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajouei Nia, Maryam; Sovani, Anuradha; Sarami Forooshani, Gholam Reza

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have reported that inadequate parental styles can contribute to depressive symptoms through dysfunctional cognitive styles. This study aimed to investigate the association of dysfunctional schemas and parenting style with depression, as well as the role of maladaptive schemas such as moderators and mediators in Iran and India. The study sample was selected randomly and consisted of 200 (age group 16-60 y) depressed females (mild to moderate); 100 from Tehran (Iran) and another 100 from Pune (India). The type of the research was causal-comparative. The data collection took place in hospitals and clinics in the targeted cities. Descriptive statistic tests and hierarchical multiple regression were executed (for the purpose of analyzing data) by SPSS 17. It was demonstrated that the association between parenting and depression was not moderated by early maladaptive schemas. On the contrary, the results supported meditational models in which parenting styles are associated with the cognitive schemas, and these in turn are related to depressive symptoms. It was also found that abandonment mediates the impacts of maternal style on depression in Iran. On the other hand, abandonment and punitiveness schemas mediated the relation between paternal style and depression in India. These findings suggest that the correlation between childhood experiences and depression in adulthood are mediated by dysfunctional schemas.

  11. Factorial Structure and Preliminary Validation of the Schema Mode Inventory for Eating Disorders (SMI-ED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G. Simpson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the Schema Mode Inventory for Eating Disorders (SMI-ED in a disordered eating population.Method: 573 participants with disordered eating patterns as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q completed the 190-item adapted version of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI. The new SMI-ED was developed by clinicians/researchers specializing in the treatment of eating disorders, through combining items from the original SMI with a set of additional questions specifically representative of the eating disorder population. Psychometric testing included Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and internal consistency (Cronbach's α. Multivariate Analyses of Covariance (MANCOVA was also run to test statistical differences between the EDE-Q subscales on the SMI-ED modes, while controlling for possible confounding variables.Results: Factorial analysis confirmed an acceptable 16-related-factors solution for the SMI-ED, thus providing preliminary evidence for the adequate validity of the new measure based on internal structure. Concurrent validity was also established through moderate to high correlations on the modes most relevant to eating disorders with EDE-Q subscales. This study represents the first step in creating a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring schema modes in eating disorders, and provides greater insight into the relevant schema modes within this population.Conclusion: This research represents an important preliminary step toward understanding and labeling the schema mode model for this clinical group. Findings from the psychometric evaluation of SMI-ED suggest that this is a useful tool which may further assist in the measurement and conceptualization of schema modes in this population.

  12. Testing the Effects of Team Processes on Team Member Schema Similarity and Team Performance: Examination of the Team Member Schema Similarity Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rentsch, Joan

    1998-01-01

    .... Team membership influences and team interaction processes were examined as antecedents to team member teamwork schema similarity, which was conceptualized as team member teamwork schema agreement and accuracy...

  13. Organization of physical interactomes as uncovered by network schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Eric; Nabieva, Elena; Chazelle, Bernard; Singh, Mona

    2008-10-01

    Large-scale protein-protein interaction networks provide new opportunities for understanding cellular organization and functioning. We introduce network schemas to elucidate shared mechanisms within interactomes. Network schemas specify descriptions of proteins and the topology of interactions among them. We develop algorithms for systematically uncovering recurring, over-represented schemas in physical interaction networks. We apply our methods to the S. cerevisiae interactome, focusing on schemas consisting of proteins described via sequence motifs and molecular function annotations and interacting with one another in one of four basic network topologies. We identify hundreds of recurring and over-represented network schemas of various complexity, and demonstrate via graph-theoretic representations how more complex schemas are organized in terms of their lower-order constituents. The uncovered schemas span a wide range of cellular activities, with many signaling and transport related higher-order schemas. We establish the functional importance of the schemas by showing that they correspond to functionally cohesive sets of proteins, are enriched in the frequency with which they have instances in the H. sapiens interactome, and are useful for predicting protein function. Our findings suggest that network schemas are a powerful paradigm for organizing, interrogating, and annotating cellular networks.

  14. Patient predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy and schema therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet D; McIntosh, Virginia Vw; Jordan, Jennifer; Porter, Richard J; Douglas, Katie; Frampton, Christopher M; Joyce, Peter R

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have examined differential predictors of response to psychotherapy for depression. Greater understanding about the factors associated with therapeutic response may better enable therapists to optimise response by targeting therapy for the individual. The aim of the current exploratory study was to examine patient characteristics associated with response to cognitive behaviour therapy and schema therapy for depression. Participants were 100 outpatients in a clinical trial randomised to either cognitive behaviour therapy or schema therapy. Potential predictors of response examined included demographic, clinical, functioning, cognitive, personality and neuropsychological variables. Individuals with chronic depression and increased levels of pre-treatment negative automatic thoughts had a poorer response to both cognitive behaviour therapy and schema therapy. A treatment type interaction was found for verbal learning and memory. Lower levels of verbal learning and memory impairment markedly impacted on response to schema therapy. This was not the case for cognitive behaviour therapy, which was more impacted if verbal learning and memory was in the moderate range. Study findings are consistent with the Capitalisation Model suggesting that therapy that focuses on the person's strengths is more likely to contribute to a better outcome. Limitations were that participants were outpatients in a randomised controlled trial and may not be representative of other depressed samples. Examination of a variety of potential predictors was exploratory and requires replication.

  15. Association of parasuicidal behaviour to early maladaptive schemas and schema modes in patients with BPD: The Oulu BPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Virpi; Vuorenmaa, Elina; Lindeman, Sari; Tuulari, Jyrki; Hakko, Helinä

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to examine which early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and schema modes emerged in parasuicidal and non-parasuicidal patients with BPD participating in the Oulu BPD study. The patients' EMSs were assessed using the Young Schema Questionnaire, and schema modes using the Young Atkinson Mode Inventory. Sixty patients with BPD responded to both the schema and schema mode questionnaires; of these, 46 (76.7%) fulfilled the criteria for parasuicidality. In BPD patients with parasuicidality, the EMSs of emotional deprivation, abandonment/instability, mistrust/abuse and social isolation were the most prevalent, and the schema modes of vulnerable child, angry child, detached protector and compliant surrender were prominent. In patients without parasuicidality, the schema modes of healthy adult and happy child were the most prevalent. Significant correlations were observed between the schema modes of detached protector, vulnerable child, punitive parent and angry child and almost every EMS in BPD patients with parasuicidality. Our preliminary findings suggest that associations between certain EMSs and schema modes to parasuicidality in BPD patients may provide valuable information when planning and implementing their treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Spiritual self-schema therapy, drug abuse, and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, David; Avants, S Kelly; Margolin, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This case report describes the use of Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) therapy in the treatment of an HIV-positive inner-city drug user maintained on methadone and referred for additional treatment due to unremitting cocaine use. 3-S therapy is a manual-guided intervention based on cognitive self-schema theory. Its goal is to help the patient create, elaborate, and make accessible a cognitive schema--the "spiritual" self-schema-that is incompatible with drug use and other HIV risk behaviors. 3-S therapy facilitates a cognitive shift from the habitual activation of the "addict" self-schema, with its drug-related cognitions, scripts and action plans, to the "spiritual" self-schema, with its associated repertoire of harm reduction beliefs and behaviors.

  17. Impact of Stress and Glucocorticoids on Schema-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Nixon, Patricia; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schwabe, Lars

    2017-05-01

    Pre-existing knowledge, a 'schema', facilitates the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of schema-relevant information. Such schema-based memory is key to every form of education and provides intriguing insights into the integration of new information and prior knowledge. Stress is known to have a critical impact on memory processes, mainly through the action of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. However, whether stress and these major stress mediators affect schema-based learning is completely unknown. To address this question, we performed two experiments, in which participants acquired a schema on day 1 and learned schema-related as well as schema-unrelated information on day 2. In the first experiment, participants underwent a stress or control manipulation either immediately or about 25 min before schema-based memory testing. The second experiment tested whether glucocorticoid and/or noradrenergic activation is sufficient to modulate schema-based memory. To this end, participants received orally a placebo, hydrocortisone, the α2-adrenoceptor-antagonist yohimbine, leading to increased noradrenergic stimulation, or both drugs, before completing the schema-based memory test. Our data indicate that stress, irrespective of the exact timing of the stress exposure, impaired schema-based learning, while leaving learning of schema-unrelated information intact. A very similar effect was obtained after hydrocortisone, but not yohimbine, administration. These data show that stress disrupts participants' ability to benefit from prior knowledge during learning and that glucocorticoid activation is sufficient to produce this effect. Our findings provide novel insights into the impact of stress and stress hormones on the dynamics of human memory and have important practical implications, specifically for educational contexts.

  18. Game Play Schemas: From Player Analysis to Adaptive Game Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Lindley

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schema theory provides a foundation for the analysis of game play patterns created by players during their interaction with a game. Schema models derived from the analysis of play provide a rich explanatory framework for the cognitive processes underlying game play, as well as detailed hypotheses for the hierarchical structure of pleasures and rewards motivating players. Game engagement is accounted for as a process of schema selection or development, while immersion is explained in terms of levels of attentional demand in schema execution. However, schemas may not only be used to describe play, but might be used actively as cognitive models within a game engine. Predesigned schema models are knowledge representations constituting anticipated or desired learned cognitive outcomes of play. Automated analysis of player schemas and comparison with predesigned target schemas can provide a foundation for a game engine adapting or tuning game mechanics to achieve specific effects of engagement, immersion, and cognitive skill acquisition by players. Hence, schema models may enhance the play experience as well as provide a foundation for achieving explicitly represented pedagogical or therapeutic functions of games.

  19. Co-rumination, anxiety, and maladaptive cognitive schemas: when friendship can hurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlucci L

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leonardo Carlucci, Ines D’Ambrosio, Marco Innamorati, Aristide Saggino, Michela Balsamo Department of Psychological Sciences, Health and Territory, “G. d’Annunzio” University, Chieti, Italy Background: This study investigated maladaptive cognitive schemas as mediators of the relationship between co-rumination and anxiety. Methods: Self-report measures of co-rumination, trait cognitive and somatic anxiety, and early maladaptive cognitive schemas were provided to a nonclinical sample of 461 young adults. Mediation of co-rumination and trait somatic and cognitive anxiety by each early maladaptive schema domain was tested using nonparametric, bootstrap-based resampling. Results: Significant associations between co-rumination and trait and cognitive anxiety were mediated by schema domains related to Rejection and Disconnection, Overvigilance and Inhibition, and Impaired Autonomy. The association between co-rumination and somatic anxiety was mediated by domains related to Rejection and Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that those who engage in co-rumination, potentially resulting in clinical levels of anxiety, might benefit from treatment that focuses on themes of rejection sensitivity and belonging, beliefs about autonomy, and when the anxiety is more cognitive, treatment that focuses on hypercriticalness and emotional inhibition too. Keywords: anxiety, communication, domain, mediation, adults

  20. Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadort, M.; Arntz, A.; Smit, J.H.; Giesen-Bloo, J.; Eikelenboom, M.J.; Spinhoven, P.; Asselt, van T.; Wensing, M.; Dyck, van R.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Schema Therapy (ST) is an integrative psychotherapy based upon a cognitive schema model which aims at identifying and changing dysfunctional schemas and modes through cognitive, experiential and behavioral pathways. It is specifically developed for patients with personality

  1. Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: study design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadort, M.; Arntz, A.; Smit, J.H.; Giesen-Bloo, J.; Eikelenboom, M.; Spinhoven, P.; Asselt, T. van; Wensing, M.J.P.; Dyck, R. van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schema Therapy (ST) is an integrative psychotherapy based upon a cognitive schema model which aims at identifying and changing dysfunctional schemas and modes through cognitive, experiential and behavioral pathways. It is specifically developed for patients with personality disorders.

  2. Image schemas and mimetic schemas in cognitive linguistics and gesture studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cienki, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Image schemas have been a fundamental construct in cognitive linguistics, providing grounds for psychological, philosophical, as well as linguistic research. Given the focus in cognitive linguistics on embodied experience as a fundamental basis for language structure and meaning, the employment of

  3. Exploring revictimization process among Turkish women: The role of early maladaptive schemas on the link between child abuse and partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Sinem; Gençöz, Tülin

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the revictimization process between child abuse and neglect (CAN), and intimate partner violence (IPV) based on the schema theory perspective. For this aim, 222 married women recruited in four central cities of Turkey participated in the study. Results indicated that early negative CAN experiences increased the risk of being exposed to later IPV. Specifically, emotional abuse and sexual abuse in the childhood predicted the four subtypes of IPV, which are physical, psychological, and sexual violence, and injury, while physical abuse only associated with physical violence. To explore the mediational role of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) on this association, first, five schema domains were tested via Parallel Multiple Mediation Model. Results indicated that only Disconnection/Rejection (D/R) schema domains mediated the association between CAN and IPV. Second, to determine the particular mediational roles of each schema, eighteen EMS were tested as mediators, and results showed that Emotional Deprivation Schema and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness Schema mediated the association between CAN and IPV. These findings provided an empirical support for the crucial roles of EMSs on the effect of revictimization process. Clinical implications were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PML Schema Samples: JSNP.xml [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available noNamespaceSchemaLocation=pml.xsd > ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp:JSNP:IMS-JST size=48 count_u...NP /> IMS-JST070162 url=http://snp.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/cgi-bin/SnpInfo.cgi?SNP_ID=IMS-JST...and Technology Agency(JST). /> IMS-JST name=JSNP db=JSNP id=2 lsid=urn:lsid:ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp:JSNP:IMS...-JST> IMS-JST url=http://snp.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ /...GG CTGACGGCAC TGTATACATA GCCCAGCAGA id=9 lsid=urn:lsid:ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp:JSNP:IMS-JST070162> IMS

  5. Quantifier-free induction schema and the least element principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beklemishev, L.D.

    We consider the quantifier-free induction schema and the least element principle in the language of elementary arithmetic enriched by a free function symbol ƒ. Some stronger, iterated versions of these schemata are also considered. We show that the iterated induction schema does not prove the

  6. Family Functioning and Maladaptive Schemas: The Moderating Effects of Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Authoritarian parenting is often shown to be associated with negative outcomes for children, including the development of maladaptive schemas. However, this is not the case for all children who experience Authoritarian parenting. Optimism is examined as a moderator in the relationship between Authoritarian parenting and maladaptive schemas that…

  7. Ontology Evolution: Not the Same as Schema Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noy, Natalya F.; Klein, Michel

    2004-01-01

    As ontology development becomes a more ubiquitous and collaborative process, ontology versioning and evolution becomes an important area of ontology research. The many similarities between database-schema evolution and ontology evolution will allow us to build on the extensive research in schema

  8. A Benchmark for Online Non-Blocking Schema Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a benchmark for measuring the blocking behavior of schema transformations in relational database systems. As a basis for our benchmark, we have developed criteria for the functionality and performance of schema transformation mechanisms based on the characteristics of state of

  9. Influence of Story Schema Development on Children's Attention to Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Jeanne M.; Reeves, Byron

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between development of story schema skills and strategies children adopt for attending to and remembering television narratives. Finds advanced story schema skills were related to reduced processing effort, increased memory of central story content, greater flexibility of allocation strategies, and better coordination…

  10. Titulus Scuola: the new file classification schema for Italian schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Penzo Doria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the new file classification schema national for Italian schools, produced by the Italian Directorate General of Archives of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage, within the project Titulus Scuola. This classification schema represents the starting point for a standard documental system, aimed at the digital administration.

  11. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Garcia-Font

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  12. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-04-05

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  13. Extending Conceptual Schemas with Business Process Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brambilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specification of business processes is becoming a more and more critical aspect for organizations. Such processes are specified as workflow models expressing the logical precedence among the different business activities (i.e., the units of work. Typically, workflow models are managed through specific subsystems, called workflow management systems, to ensure a consistent behavior of the applications with respect to the organization business process. However, for small organizations and/or simple business processes, the complexity and capabilities of these dedicated workflow engines may be overwhelming. In this paper, we therefore, advocate for a different and lightweight approach, consisting in the integration of the business process specification within the system conceptual schema. We show how a workflow-extended conceptual schema can be automatically obtained, which serves both to enforce the organization business process and to manage all its relevant domain data in a unified way. This extended model can be directly processed with current CASE tools, for instance, to generate an implementation of the system (including its business process in any technological platform.

  14. Schema Therapy in Sex Therapy: A Theoretical Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Danny S; Peleg-Sagy, Tal; Doron, Guy

    2016-10-02

    Schema therapy is an integrative approach of psychotherapy developed by Jeffrey E. Young. Its aim is to help clients explore and understand their deep emotional needs and meet them in a healthy manner. It is suitable for complex pathologies, such as comorbidities and personality disorders. In sex therapy, schema therapy can serve as a method for a deep, evidence-based, integrative conceptualization of a client's difficulties and needs. However, its principles have never been demonstrated in sex therapy. In this paper, we briefly review schema therapy and introduce schema domains. We bring a case study of a couple undergoing sex therapy from the cognitive-behavioral perspective. We then return to the same case study, in order to demonstrate the usefulness of a schema therapy conceptualization.

  15. An XML schema for automated data integration in a Multi-Source Information System dedicated to end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Eric; Ben Saïd, Mohamed; Jais, Jean Philippe; Le Mignot, Loic; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Landais, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Data exchange and interoperability between clinical information systems represent a crucial issue in the context of patient record data collection. An XML representation schema adapted to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients was developed and successfully tested against patient data in the dedicated Multi-Source Information System (MSIS) active file (more than 16,000 patient records). The ESRD-XML-Schema is organized into Schema subsets respecting the coherence of the clinical information and enriched with coherent data types. Tests are realized against XML-data files generated in conformity with the ESRD-XML Schema. Manual tests allowed the XML schema validation of the data format and content. Programmatic tests allowed the design of generic XML parsing routines, a portable object data model representation and the implementation of automatic data-exchange flows with the MSIS database system. The ESRD-XML-Schema represents a valid framework for data exchange and supports interoperability. Its modular design offers opportunity to simplify physicians' multiple tasks in order to privilege their clinical work.

  16. Collective Schema, As a New Concept Suggesting and a View to Proverbs from Cognitive Behavioral Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat SANLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Behavioral Tharapy doctrine and clinical accumulation have shown that there is a causal link between moods, paradigms, and assessments. These cognitive contents are named as automatic thoughts and schemas. Rational- adaptive automatic thoughts and schemas while bring to person good mood, irrational-maladaptive automatic thoughts and schemas bring to patology. On the other hand this cognitive structures have fed by accepted culture by society and components of this culture such as songs and proverbs which possess necessity and rules. The basic aim of this study is put forth concept of “collective schema” which will be assessable content in Cognitive Behavioral Approach , and clarifying bases of this concept deal with proverbs. In this sense, adaptive and maladaptive aspects of collective shema concept, have been commented, cognitive disortions which fed by maladaptive schemas deal with collective aspect, have been categorised and illustrated with proverbs. With this study we aimed create a groundwork for previous studies. [JCBPR 2016; 5(2.000: 85-93

  17. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Alireza; Mirzaee, Jafar; Omidbeygi, Maryam; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD. Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Impact of Events Scale (IES). Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness. The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD.

  18. Effect of short-term antidepressant treatment on early maladaptive schemas in patients with major depressive and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Hakan; Atalay, Figen; Bağdaçiçek, Sedat

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of anti-depressant treatment on early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). Eighty patients were self-referred to a psychiatric outpatient clinic and were diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 40) and panic disorder (PD) (n = 40) according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR). These patients were administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF) before and after a 2-month period of antidepressant treatment and were compared with 40 healthy control subjects. Depressive mood states were more likely to activate early maladaptive schemas compared to the anxious mood states, and treating these mood states simply with anti-depressive medications led to significant improvements in the activation of these schemas. We concluded that half of the schemas might be accepted as antidepressant treatment-resistant EMSs, or, in other words, they can be viewed in part as those specific to depressive mood states.

  19. The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Coping Strategies in Substance Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikem Haciomeroglu

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: Current study showed that the substance dependents had more maladaptive unhealthy core beliefs and ineffective coping strategies than a non-clinical control group. These findings support the importance of early maladaptive schemas which might be the underlying factor for the dependency problem, and might prevent the person to deal with the problem with more active and problem focused coping strategies. [JCBPR 2014; 3(3.000: 162-170

  20. Testing Requirements to Manage Data Exchange Specifications in Enterprise Integration - A Schema Design Quality Focus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Ivezic, Nenad [ORNL; Buhwan, Jeong [POSTECH University, South Korea

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the requirements to test W3C XML Schema usage when defining message schemas for data exchange in any large and evolving enterprise integration project. We then decompose the XML Schema testing into four (4) aspects including the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification grammar, the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification semantics, the message schema conformance to design quality testing, and canonical semantics testing of the message schema. We describe these four testing aspects in some detail and point to other related efforts. We further focus to provide some technical details for the message schema design quality testing. As a future work, we describe the requirements for canonical semantics testing and potential solution approaches. Finally, we describe an implementation architecture for the message schema design quality testing.

  1. The prediction of treatment outcomes by early maladaptive schemas and schema modes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Nicola; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Herbst, Nirmal; Külz, Anne Katrin; Nissen, Christoph; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Gross, Ellen; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2014-12-25

    Higher levels of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and schema modes according to schematherapy by Jeffrey Young are present in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy controls. This study examines the relationship of EMS and schema modes to OC symptom severity and the predictive value of EMS and schema modes on treatment outcome in inpatients receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) with Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP). The main assumption was a negative association between the EMS of the domain 'disconnection' and dysfunctional coping and parent schema modes and the treatment outcome. EMS, schema modes, depression and traumatic childhood experiences were measured in 70 patients with OCD. To analyze the predictors, two regression analyses were conducted considering multiple variables, such as depression, as covariates. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher scores on the EMS named failure and emotional inhibition and depressive symptom severity at pretreatment were significantly related to poor outcome and explained a high percentage of the variance in OC symptoms at posttreatment. No influence on the treatment outcome was observed for schema modes, other EMS or other covariates. The results support the approach to extend the CBT with ERP treatment with therapeutic elements focusing on maladaptive schemas, particularly in non-responders.

  2. Maladaptive schemas and psychopathology in adolescence: on the utility of Young’s schema theory in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlierberghe, L.; Braet, C.; Bosmans, G.; Rosseel, Y.; Bogels, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present article reports on two studies that investigated the utility of Young’s cognitive theory Young et al. (Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide, Guilford Publications, New York, 2003) in adolescents. Study 1 focused on the factorial validity of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) in

  3. [The mediating role of the interpersonal schemas between parenting styles and psychological symptoms: a schema focused view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygüt, Gonca; Cakir, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived parenting styles and interpersonal schemas. The second purpose was to investigate the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms. University students (N=94), ages ranging between 17-26, attending to different faculty and classes, have completed Interpersonal Schema Questionnaire, Young Parenting Inventory and Symptom Check List-90. A series of regression analyses revealed that perceived parenting styles have predictive power on a number of interpersonal schemas. Further analyses pointed out that the mediator role of Hostility situation of interpersonal schemas between psychological symptoms and normative, belittling/criticizing, pessimistic/worried parenting styles on the mother forms (Sobel z= 1.94-2.08, p parenting styles (Sobel z= 2.20-2.86, p parenting styles on interpersonal schemas. Moreover, the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms was also observed. Excluding pessimistic/anxious parenting styles, perceived parenting styles of mothers and fathers differed in their relation to psychological symptoms. In overall evaluation, we believe that, although schemas and parental styles have some universalities in relation to their impacts on psychological health, further research is necessary to address their implications and possible paternal differences in our collectivistic cultural context.

  4. Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: Colombian validation [Young Schema Questionnaire – Short Form, Validación en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Helena Londoño Arredondo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form ([YSQ-SF], Young, 1999 and the gender differences in early maladaptive schemas. The study took place in Colombia, where 1392 university students (541 male y 851 female completed the YSQ-SF. The results confirmed the existence of the original 15 first-order factors, in consistency with the 15 theoretical schemas. However, the results for the second-order structure were less conclusive, as both a three second order factor and a five second order factor structures showed similar fit indices. Alpha coefficients for the schemas rated between 0.74 and 0.89. Men scored higher than women on several schemas.

  5. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are clear advantages to using biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, but concerns about clinical and statistical validity and systematic methods to evaluate these aspects hinder their efficient application. Our objective was to review the literature on biomarkers and surrogates...... endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...... level of evidence schema that evaluates biomarkers along 4 domains: Target, Study Design, Statistical Strength, and Penalties. Scores derived from 3 domains the Target that the marker is being substituted for, the Design of the (best) evidence, and the Statistical strength are additive. Penalties...

  6. Implementation of UML Schema to RDBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagni, M.; Ventouras, S.; Parton, G.

    2012-04-01

    Multiple disciplines - especially those within the earth and physical sciences, and increasingly those within social science and medical fields - require Geographic Information (GI) i.e. information concerning phenomena implicitly or explicitly associated with a location relative to the Earth [1]. Therefore geographic datasets are increasingly being shared, exchanged and frequently used for purposes other than those for which they were originally intended. The ISO Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211) together with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) provide a series of standards and guidelines for developing application schemas which should: a) capture relevant conceptual aspects of the data involved; and b) be sufficient to satisfy previously defined use-cases of a specific or cross-domain concerns. In addition, the Hollow World technology offers an accessible and industry-standardised methodology for creating and editing Application Schema UML models which conform to international standards for interoperable GI [2]. We present a technology which seamlessly transforms an Application Schema UML model to a relational database model (RDBM). This technology, using the same UML information model, complements the XML transformation of an information model produced by the FullMoon tool [2]. In preparation for the generation of a RDBM the UML model is first mapped to a collection of OO classes and relationships. Any external dependencies that exist are then resolved through the same mechanism. However, a RDBM does not support a hierarchical (relational) data structure - a function that may be required by UML models. Previous approaches have addressed this problem through use of nested sets or an adjacent list to represent such structure. Our unique strategy addresses the hierarchical data structure issue, whether singular or multiple inheritance, by hiding a delegation pattern within an OO class. This permits the object-relational mapping (ORM) software used to generate the

  7. Diatheses to Depression: The Interactions of Schema Propositions, Schema Structure, and Negative Life Events

    OpenAIRE

    Cankaya, Banu

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from the meta-construct model of cognition (Ingram, 1984; Ingram & Kendall, 1986), the goal of the present study was to examine whether the structural (i.e., self-complexity; SC, Linville, 1985) and propositional components of schemas (dysfunctional attitudes; DAS, Weissman & Beck, 1978), independently and in interaction with each other and stressors, lead to changes in depressive symptoms. The prediction was that if negative self-attributes across different self-aspects in a specifi...

  8. Type Checking with XML Schema in XACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    ACT is an extension of Java for making type-safe XML transformations. Unlike other approaches, XACT provides a programming model based on XML templates and XPath together with a type checker based on data-flow analysis. We show how to extend the data-flow analysis technique used in the XACT system...... to support XML Schema as type formalism. The technique is able to model advanced features, such as type derivations and overloaded local element declarations, and also datatypes of attribute values and character data. Moreover, we introduce optional type annotations to improve modularity of the type checking....... The resulting system supports a flexible style of programming XML transformations and provides static guarantees of validity of the generated XML data....

  9. Symbols and schemas in emotional eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    Emotional eating behaviour has been of interest to psychologists exclusively as a disorder. However, evidence suggests that it is a common aspect of normal food habits, initiated by both positive and negative emotions in order to regulate these. T behaviour thus serves to regain or preserve...... the psycho-mental homeostasis. To explain this phenomenon it is first shown which symbolic meanings are associated with eating and foods. The numerous connotations can be grouped into four basic dimensions: Security and pleasure as self-oriented, and status and prestige as socially oriented emotional symbols....... Particularly the aspects of security and pleasure are suggested to be important motivators for emotional eating. How these symbolic meanings relate to eating as a regulatory device for emotions is explained by a schema- theoretical approach distinguishing between automatic adaptation mechanisms and strategic...

  10. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  11. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  12. Love Schemas, Preferences in Romantic Partners, and Reactions to Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bachman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have proposed that people possess different love schemas and that these schemas may shape romantic preferences and reactions to impending commitments.In Study 1, we tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Men and women will prefer potential dates who possess an “ideal” love schema (i.e., the secure. Hypothesis 2: If the ideal is unavailable, men and women will prefer potential dates whose love schemas are similar to their own. In order to test these hypotheses, men and women from the University of Hawaii, who varied in love schemas, were asked to indicate their preferences for potential romantic partners who varied in physical attractiveness, body type, and love schemas. It was found that people did indeed prefer the ideal (the secure and (secondarily those who were similar to them in attachment style—be it clingy, skittish, casual, or disinterested.Study 2 was designed to test Hypothesis 3: Participants’ love schemas will shape their cognitions, feelings, and behaviors when they find themselves on the brink of making a serious romantic commitment. In order to test this hypothesis, men and women from the University of Hawaii were surveyed. Again, as predicted, it was found that the more strongly men and women endorsed the secure schema, the more calm and confident (and the less fearful and trapped they felt when confronting pending commitments. The more strongly they endorsed the clingy, skittish, fickle, casual, and uninterested schemas, the less confident and calm and the more fearful and trapped they felt when confronting an impending commitment.

  13. A Semantic Analysis of XML Schema Matching for B2B Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewook

    2011-01-01

    One of the most critical steps to integrating heterogeneous e-Business applications using different XML schemas is schema matching, which is known to be costly and error-prone. Many automatic schema matching approaches have been proposed, but the challenge is still daunting because of the complexity of schemas and immaturity of technologies in…

  14. ECG and XML: an instance of a possible XML schema for the ECG telemonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Ricci, Fabrizio L

    2005-03-01

    Management of many types of chronic diseases relies heavily on patients' self-monitoring of their disease conditions. In recent years, Internet-based home telemonitoring systems allowing transmission of patient data to a central database and offering immediate access to the data by the care providers have become available. The adoption of Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) as a W3C standard has generated considerable interest in the potential value of this language in health informatics. However, the telemonitoring systems often work with only one or a few types of medical devices. This is because different medical devices produce different types of data, and the existing telemonitoring systems are generally built around a proprietary data schema. In this paper, we describe a generic data schema for a telemonitoring system that is applicable to different types of medical devices and different diseases, and then we present an architecture for the exchange of clinical information as data, signals of telemonitoring and clinical reports in the XML standard, up-to-date information in each electronic patient record and integration in real time with the information collected during the telemonitoring activities in the XML schema, between all the structures involved in the healthcare process of the patient.

  15. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Patients with and without Migraine and Tension Headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rezaei Dogaheh

    2015-12-01

    Methods:  The present study was of cross sectional and correlational studies. The measures included  Headache Disability Inventory and Young Early Maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire (Short Form. The  population of the study was Tehran adult patients with migraine and tension headache aged 18 to 55  years. The final study sample included 69 participants with migraine or tension headaches and 86 non- clinical samples of both genders. After referring by psychiatrists, they were selected by convenient and  targeted sampling. The two groups were matched based on sex and education. Results: Migraine and tension headache sufferers and non-clinical participants were significantly  different in 9 schemas including Emotional deprivation, Abandonment/instability, Mistrust/abuse, Social  isolation/alienation, Failure to achieve, Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self, Subjugation, Self-sacrifice and  Emotional inhibition. In addition, a series of EMSs could significantly predict 61 percent of the total  change in position of tension headaches or migraine group correctly. Discussion: It seems that EMSs are important factors influencing migraine and tension headaches. The  recognition and manipulation of these schemas along with other medical therapies can result in reducing  the symptoms of the disorder. 

  16. Analysis of Schema.org Usage in the Tourism Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Balcı, Boran Taylan; Şimşek, Umutcan; Kärle, Elias; Fensel, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    Schema.org is an initiative founded in 2011 by the four-big search engine Bing, Google, Yahoo!, and Yandex. The goal of the initiative is to publish and maintain the schema.org vocabulary, in order to facilitate the publication of structured data on the web which can enable the implementation of automated agents like intelligent personal assistants and chatbots. In this paper, the usage of schema.org in tourism domain between years 2013 and 2016 is analysed. The analysis shows the adoption of...

  17. Developing schemas for assessing social competences among unskilled young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2017-01-01

    Personal and social competences are crucial parts of VET competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for vocational education and training, a research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading personal and social...... competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with practitioners, i.e. representatives from workplaces, from municipal youth guidance centres, and from VET colleges. Based on the experiences accrued in developing the schema, the article discusses how personal and social competences can be assessed...

  18. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex generates pre-stimulus theta coherence desynchronization: A schema instantiation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Asaf; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-02-01

    The ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has long been implicated in monitoring of memory veracity, and more recently also in memory schema functions. In our model of strategic retrieval the two are related. We have proposed that the vmPFC has two schema-dependent functions: (i) to establish context-relevant templates against which the output of memory systems can be compared; (ii) to mediate automatic decision monitoring processes to ensure that only those responses that meet the criterion are enacted. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were used to provide evidence that vmPFC supports both functions, and that schema instantiation informs monitoring. Participants viewed pictures of acquaintances, along with those of famous and nonfamous people, and were asked to respond positively only to pictures of individuals they had met (personal familiarity). The Self serves as a super-ordinate cognitive schema, facilitating accurate endorsement of acquaintances and exclusion of non-personal but familiar faces. For the present report we focused on pre-cue tonic oscillatory activity. Controls demonstrated theta coherence desynchronization between medial prefrontal areas, inferotemporal and lateral temporal cortices. These oscillatory coherence patterns were significantly reduced in patients with vmPFC damage, especially in those with clinical histories of spontaneous confabulation. Importantly, these pre-stimulus cortico-cortical desynchronizations predicted post-cue automatic memory activation, as indexed by a familiarity modulation of the face-sensitive posterior cortical N170. Pre-cue desynchronization also predicted early post-cue frontal positive modulation (P230) and response accuracy. The data are consistent with a schema instantiation model that suggests the vmPFC biases posterior neocortical long-term memory representations that enhance automatic memory cue processing and informs frontally-mediated rapid memory monitoring (P230). Damage to these structures can lead

  19. A Review of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Komurcu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Schema Therapy Model (STM is an innovative, integrative therapy developed by Young (1990 that significantly expands on traditional cognitive-behavioral treatments and concepts suggest that schemas improved developmentally. Early maladaptive schemas are pervasive dysfunctional patterns that composed of memories, emotions, cognitions and bodily sensations. They are developed early period of lifespan and get complicated through one’s lifetime (Young, Klosko & Weishaar, 2003. There is a theoretical link between early maladaptive schemas and psychopathology. Researches related to Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD reviewed within the frame of STM in this article. Undertaking studies associated with psychopathology discussed in view of theoretical background and practical outcomes.

  20. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of schema modes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interpretative phenomenological analysis of schema modes in a single case of anorexia nervosa: Part 2. Coping modes, healthy adult mode, superordinate themes, and implications for research and practice.

  1. XML DTD and Schemas for HDF-EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Richard; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) document type definition (DTD) standard for the structure and contents of HDF-EOS files and their contents, and an equivalent standard in the form of schemas, have been developed.

  2. Data Warehouse Maintenance Under Concurrent Schema and Data Updates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xin

    1998-01-01

    .... Recently, proposed view maintenance algorithms tackle the problem of (concurrent) data updates happening at different autonomous ISs, whereas the EVE system addresses the maintenance of a data warehouse after schema changes of ISs...

  3. Schema Design Alternatives for Multi-Granular Data Warehousing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Data warehousing is widely used in industry for reporting and analysis of huge volumes of data at different levels of detail. In general, data warehouses use standard dimensional schema designs to organize their data. However, current data warehousing schema designs fall short in their ability...... that the schema designs are intended to simply store data at the same single level of granularity. This paper on the other hand, presents several extended dimensional data warehousing schema design alternatives to store both detail and aggregated data at different levels of granularity. The paper presents three...... solutions to design the time dimension tables and four solutions to design the fact tables. Moreover, each of these solutions is evaluated in different combinations of the time dimension and the fact tables based on a real world farming case study....

  4. [Schema therapy: an integrative approach for personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Eckhard; Dieckmann, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Schema Therapy (ST) is a comprehensive approach deriving from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of chronic personality problems. ST extends CBT in 3 major issues: 1. The Schema-Mode-Model. 2. The therapeutic relationship. 3. The intensive use of experiential techniques. Schemas are persistent, rigid, and dysfunctional patterns preventing the patient from further personal emotive-interpersonal development. The central focus of the therapeutic process is the relationship between the therapist and the patient. Supported by the therapeutic relationship the patient gets in touch with painful childhood experiences. In ST, the core schemas are identified, put into a biographical context, and weakened by using several specific therapeutic techniques including experiential methods and strategies taken from Gestalt therapy that enrich traditional CBT techniques. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Investigation of schema modes in the eating disordered population

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Gwenllian

    2009-01-01

    Many eating disordered patients fail to respond to traditional cognitive behaviour therapy. As a result it has been suggested that further research needs to be completed to determine the cognitive processes and mechanisms that underpin these disorders. This research aims to empirically test Young’s Schema Mode concept (Young et al., 2003) within the eating disordered population and determine the relationship between schema modes and early maladaptive schemata, experience of ...

  6. Group schema therapy for eating disorders: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Fiona; Smith, Evelyn; Brockman, Rob; Simpson, Susan

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of eating disorders is a difficult endeavor, with only a relatively small proportion of clients responding to and completing standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Given the prevalence of co-morbidity and complex personality traits in this population, Schema Therapy has been identified as a potentially viable treatment option. A case series of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g) yielded positive findings and the study protocol outlined in this article aims to extend upon these preliminary findings to evaluate group Schema Therapy for eating disorders in a larger sample ( n  = 40). Participants undergo a two-hour assessment where they complete a number of standard questionnaires and their diagnostic status is ascertained using the Eating Disorder Examination. Participants then commence treatment, which consists of 25 weekly group sessions lasting for 1.5 h and four individual sessions. Each group consists of five to eight participants and is facilitated by two therapists, at least one of who is a registered psychologist trained on schema therapy. The primary outcome in this study is eating disorder symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include: cognitive schemas, self-objectification, general quality of life, self-compassion, schema mode presentations, and Personality Disorder features. Participants complete psychological measures and questionnaires at pre, post, six-month and 1-year follow-up. This study will expand upon preliminary research into the efficacy of group Schema Therapy for individuals with eating disorders. If group Schema Therapy is shown to reduce eating disorder symptoms, it will hold considerable promise as an intervention option for a group of disorders that is typically difficult to treat. ACTRN12615001323516. Registered: 2/12/2015 (retrospectively registered, still recruiting).

  7. Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Susan G.; Morrow, Emma; van Vreeswijk, Michiel; Reid, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g) in a case series of eight participants with chronic eating disorders and high levels of co-morbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, experiential, and interpersonal strategies, with an emphasis on behavioral change. Specific schema-based strategies focused on bodily felt-sense and body-image, as well as emotional regulation skills. Six attended until end of treatment, two dropp...

  8. Sexual Functioning During Menopause: Schemas, Hormones, and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    John Wu and Mr. Omar Larco lent their expertise in performing the ELISA hormone assays. I also would like to thank all the individuals who allowed me...theorists have postulated that schema formation may be linked to early attachment experiences ( Bowlby , 1969). Schemas are thought to form at a young...population study. Maturitas, 34(1), 17-23. Bowlby , J. (1969). Attachment and loss (vol 1) Attachment. New York: Basic Books. Bowles, C. (1986

  9. Parametric Design of Outdoor Broadcasting Studio Based on Schema Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Li; Zhang Nan; Qing Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    This paper mainly demonstrates that the schema is an important way for the architect to cognize architecture form logic. It connects schema to algorithm of parametric design in order to seek the “algorithm schema” generation in parametric design of architecture. Meanwhile, this paper discusses the generative process and methods of the “algorithm schema” in parametric design of architecture by describing a case of outdoor broadcasting studio of Hunan Economic Radio. It also reveals the importa...

  10. Developing schemas for assessing social competences among unskilled young people

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2017-01-01

    Social competences are crucial parts of vocational education and training (VET) competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for VET, an action research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading social competences. The development included defining the social competences as well as three levels for assessing these competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with the assessors, i.e., representatives from workp...

  11. Metadata Schema Used in OCLC Sampled Web Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous growth of Web resources has made information organization and retrieval more and more difficult. As one approach to this problem, metadata schemas have been developed to characterize Web resources. However, many questions have been raised about the use of metadata schemas such as which metadata schemas have been used on the Web? How did they describe Web accessible information? What is the distribution of these metadata schemas among Web pages? Do certain schemas dominate the others? To address these issues, this study analyzed 16,383 Web pages with meta tags extracted from 200,000 OCLC sampled Web pages in 2000. It found that only 8.19% Web pages used meta tags; description tags, keyword tags, and Dublin Core tags were the only three schemas used in the Web pages. This article revealed the use of meta tags in terms of their function distribution, syntax characteristics, granularity of the Web pages, and the length distribution and word number distribution of both description and keywords tags.

  12. Maladaptive Schemas and Affective Control in Students with Learning Disability: Benefits of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy

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    Nasrollah Vaisi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study intended to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on moderating maladaptive schemas and affective control in students suffering from learning disabilities. Methods: This experimental research was conducted using pretest-posttest and a control group. The population included all the female students who  were studying in the Koohdasht's middle schools (academic year: 2012-2013. The sample included 40 female students suffering from learning disabilities who had been randomly selected out of Koohdasht's middle school students after identification and a structured clinical interview and  they were put into experimental  and control groups (20 students each group. For data collection, Affective Control Scale and Young Schema Questionnaire were used. Results: The results of multivariate covariance analysis showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has significantly decreased maladaptive schemas, depression, anxiety, and anger in subjects (P<0.001. Discussion: This finding represents important implications regarding education and mental health improvement in exceptional students. Therefore, it is recommended to use this  therapeutic  package in schools and clinics as a supplement to other therapies in order to decrease negative emotions and to prevent formation of maladaptive schemas in these students.

  13. Effect of couple’s schema therapy in decreasing couples’ tendency to divorce among divorce-applicant couples

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    Rahman Berdi Ozouni-Davaji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to survey the effect of couple’s schema therapy in reducing the tendency to divorce among divorce applicant couples. An experimental study was carried out in the form of single-subject design. The population study consisted of self-referential or referring couples to counseling centers as well as the counseling center of justice department. Three couples (wife and husband were selected using purposive sampling method. Couple’s schema therapy was conducted during 20 sessions with two-month follow-up. To collect data, demographic checklist and Rusbult tendency to divorce questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using visual analysis, improvement percentage, reliable change index, and Cohen index. The findings showed that couple’s schema therapy decreased tendency to divorce among divorcing couples and this reduction was clinically meaningful and statistically reliable (Reliable Change Index, RCI>1.96, The reduction in the tendency to divorce remained after two months and changes were clinically meaningful and statistically reliable (RCI>1.96, indicating the efficacy of couple’s schema therapy in decreasing the tendency to divorce among couples

  14. Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Alcohol and Opioid Dependent Women: Do Schemas Vary Across Disorders?

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    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that there may be differences between individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence and individuals diagnosed with opioid dependence on co-morbid mental health problems (e.g., personality disorders, mood disorders, etc.). The current study examined whether there were differences in early maladaptive schemas, which are theorized to underlie mental health problems, among women diagnosed with alcohol dependence or opioid dependence who were seeking treatment for their substance use (N = 420). Results showed that opioid dependent women scored higher on 2 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, particularly the schemas of dependence and punitiveness. Overall, these findings suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be largely consistent across women diagnosed with alcohol or opioid dependence. Implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:23494129

  15. The Role of Ontologies in Schema-based Program Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bures, Tomas; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Nistor, Eugen C.

    2004-01-01

    Program synthesis is the process of automatically deriving executable code from (non-executable) high-level specifications. It is more flexible and powerful than conventional code generation techniques that simply translate algorithmic specifications into lower-level code or only create code skeletons from structural specifications (such as UML class diagrams). Key to building a successful synthesis system is specializing to an appropriate application domain. The AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER systems, under development at NASA Ames, operate in the two domains of data analysis and state estimation, respectively. The central concept of both systems is the schema, a representation of reusable computational knowledge. This can take various forms, including high-level algorithm templates, code optimizations, datatype refinements, or architectural information. A schema also contains applicability conditions that are used to determine when it can be applied safely. These conditions can refer to the initial specification, to intermediate results, or to elements of the partially-instantiated code. Schema-based synthesis uses AI technology to recursively apply schemas to gradually refine a specification into executable code. This process proceeds in two main phases. A front-end gradually transforms the problem specification into a program represented in an abstract intermediate code. A backend then compiles this further down into a concrete target programming language of choice. A core engine applies schemas on the initial problem specification, then uses the output of those schemas as the input for other schemas, until the full implementation is generated. Since there might be different schemas that implement different solutions to the same problem this process can generate an entire solution tree. AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER have reached the level of maturity where they enable users to solve interesting application problems, e.g., the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images

  16. Adult age differences in memory for schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in a real-world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prull, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in the inconsistency effect, in which memory is enhanced for schema-inconsistent information compared to schema-consistent information. Young and older adults studied schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in an academic office under either intentional or incidental encoding instructions, and were given two recognition tests either immediately or after 48 hr: A yes/no item recognition test that included modified remember/know judgments and a token recognition test that required determining whether an original object was replaced with a different object with the same name. Young and older adults showed equivalent inconsistency effects in both item and token recognition tests, although older adults reported phenomenologically less rich memories of schema-inconsistent objects relative to young adults. These findings run counter to previous reports suggesting that aging is associated with processing declines at encoding that impair memory for details of schema-inconsistent or distinctive events. The results are consistent with a retrieval-based account in which age-related difficulties in retrieving contextual details can be offset by environmental support.

  17. Early maladaptive schemas associated with dimensional and categorical psychopathology in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Álvaro; Navarro, Sara; Palma, Carol; Farriols, Núria; Aliaga, Ferrán; Salvador, Ana; Aluco, Elena; Martínez, Bárbara; Solves, Laia

    2018-01-01

    To ascertain the foundations for a schema-focused therapy model for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. The sample consisted of 102 borderline personality disorder outpatients. Dimensional psychopathology was assessed using the Scale for Suicidal Ideation, the Aggression Questionnaire, and the Symptom CheckList Revised. Categorical psychopathology was measured using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders, Patient Edition. Stepwise linear/logistic multiple regression analyses were used to determine the predictive role of the schema domains tested by the Young Schema Questionnaire on both types of psychopathology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for those binary outcomes. Regarding dimensional psychopathology, disconnection/rejection predicted greater suicidal ideation (β = .39, p = .002), physical/overt aggressiveness (β = .27, p = .05), and psychotic-like symptoms, such as paranoid ideation (β = .35, p = .003). Other-directedness predicted greater anger/inner aggressiveness (β = .22, p = .05) and internalizing symptoms, such as phobic anxiety (β = .39, p = .001). Regarding categorical psychopathology, disconnection/rejection significantly predicted the presence of lifetime comorbidities with eating disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.99-1.24) and posttraumatic stress disorder (AOR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.04-1.3), resulting in a good balance of sensitivity/specificity, respectively (.97/.96 and .88/.89). Other-directedness significantly predicted the absence of lifetime comorbidity with substance-use disorders (AOR = .74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.95). These relationships remained significant after controlling for confounders (e.g., comorbidity with other personality disorders, clinical global severity). Two schema domains, disconnection/rejection and other-directedness, were directly associated with

  18. [The 5 mental dimensions identified in early maladaptive schemas statistical analysis of Young's schema questionnaire (YSQ-s3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, F; Marie, N; Mehran, F

    2015-09-01

    Schemas represent a stable vision of oneself. Young's schema questionnaire-s3 (YSQ-s3) presents 90 perceptions of oneself, specifying 18 early maladaptive schemas (EMS). We studied the intensity and inter-relations of these 18 EMS and how they pool together into a specific domain. Two hundred and ninety four subjects (294 patients from a French private practice in psychiatry and 12 volunteers) filled in a French version of the YSQ-s3. Item scores range from 1 to 6. Only the scores of 4 "true for me during most of my life" or higher were kept for the statistical analysis. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The EMS mean scores ranged from 3.4 to 12.9 and standard deviations from 5.9 to 9.7. EMS score correlations range from 0.009 to 0.55. The principal component analysis (PCA), that provides linear combinations of each EMS score, yields only one meaningful component. Indeed, the screen plot that provides the eigen values associated with each principal component, suggests keeping only the first component. This component presents a size-effect and represents the "global scores intensity". The hierarchical clustering analysis (HC) fits the 18 EMS in 5 domains (r(2) = 0.4): (1) "avoidance" (with 3 EMS: emotional deprivation, social isolation/alienation, emotional inhibition), (2)"give" (with 1 EMS: self-sacrifice), (3) "take" (with 3 EMS: entitlement/grandiosity, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, approval-seeking/recognition-seeking) (4) "awareness" (with 8 EMS: abandonment/instability, mistrust/abuse, defectiveness/shame, dependence/incompetence, vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment/undeveloped self, failure, subjugation) (5) "faith" (with 3 EMS: negativity/pessimism, unrelenting standards/hyper-criticalness, punitiveness). When the HC analysis is applied to the population (n = 294), it yields 6 classes of patients. The mean score of the 5 domains

  19. SCHEMA CONGRUITY – A BASIS FOR EVALUATING AMBIENT ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS

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    Jurca Maria Alina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical basis for evaluating ambient advertising in relation to the schema. Ambient advertising, a creative form of out-of-home advertising that conveys direct and contextual messages by using and often altering existing elements of the environment in a way that surprises the target audience, appears to be a solution to the increasing clutter from the media. This study draws on the schema congruity theory to offer a better understanding of how consumers are processing information received from advertisements. Schemas are organized structures of knowledge and expectations that consumers develop in order to categorize the incoming information, and that they access every time they are experiencing a new situation. The schema-based approach is important in understanding consumer behavior because consumers are facing an environment filled with similar brands and products promoted by ads that sound and look alike. According to schema congruity theory information perceived as schema congruent offers a confortable feeling of familiarity and generates limited cognitive processing, whereas schema incongruent information generates surprise and triggers extensive cognitive processing in order to help individual make sense of the unusual situation. Taking into consideration the combination of the different levels of expectancy and relevancy there have been identified three congruency situations: extreme congruity, moderate incongruity and extreme incongruity. Existing research shows that moderate incongruent information offers the best results in recall and recognition and also the highest affect levels compared to extreme congruity and extreme incongruity. Based on evidence from literature this study attempts to position ambient advertising in the moderate incongruity category, thus theoretically proving the assumed effectiveness of this promotional tool. Therefore, this paper is a starting point in bringing the

  20. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

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    Ahmadian A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD.Method: Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Impact of Events Scale (IES.Results: Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness.Discussion: The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD. Keywords: veterans, PTSD, depression, anxiety 

  1. The Mediating Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Relation between Co-Rumination and Depression in Young Adults.

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    Michela Balsamo

    Full Text Available Research on co-rumination has investigated its relationship with internalizing symptoms, but few studies have addressed underlying maladaptive cognitive-affective processes that may play an important role in the maintenance of this relation. This study examines if Young's schema domains mediate the relation between co-rumination and depression in a community sample of non-clinical young adults. Participants completed the Co-Rumination Questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire-L3, and Teate Depression Inventory. Correlations and path analysis were calculated for the full sample and separately by gender. The schema domains of Overvigilance/Inhibition and Other-Directedness fully mediated the relation between co-rumination and depression. When analyses were performed separately for males and females, mediation persisted only for females. Findings suggest that among young women, co-rumination with a friend may be associated with depressive symptoms because of its activation of specific maladaptive cognitive schemas. Better understanding of the content and processes underpinning co-rumination may have important implications for the prevention and treatment of depression.

  2. The Mediating Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Relation between Co-Rumination and Depression in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergi, Maria Rita; Klein Murdock, Karla; Saggino, Aristide

    2015-01-01

    Research on co-rumination has investigated its relationship with internalizing symptoms, but few studies have addressed underlying maladaptive cognitive-affective processes that may play an important role in the maintenance of this relation. This study examines if Young’s schema domains mediate the relation between co-rumination and depression in a community sample of non-clinical young adults. Participants completed the Co-Rumination Questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire-L3, and Teate Depression Inventory. Correlations and path analysis were calculated for the full sample and separately by gender. The schema domains of Overvigilance/Inhibition and Other-Directedness fully mediated the relation between co-rumination and depression. When analyses were performed separately for males and females, mediation persisted only for females. Findings suggest that among young women, co-rumination with a friend may be associated with depressive symptoms because of its activation of specific maladaptive cognitive schemas. Better understanding of the content and processes underpinning co-rumination may have important implications for the prevention and treatment of depression. PMID:26488748

  3. Comparison of early maladaptive schemas and psychological well-being in women undergoing cosmetic surgery and normal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature review shows that cosmetic surgery demand is often a consequence of psychological distress. The purpose of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and psychological well-being in women who undergo cosmetic surgery versus normal women. This was a causal-comparative study in which, the statistical population included all individuals intended to have cosmetic surgery reffered to private clinics of the city of Arak for six months in late 2014 and early 2015 (N=1000. Among them, 40 women was selected as the experimental group. A control group matched with the experimenta group consisted of 40 women of normal subjects was also selected according to the convenience sampling. Data were collected using scales of early maladaptive schemas and psychological well-being. The results indicated a significant difference between the two groups of surgical patients and normal participants in terms of maladaptive schemas .In addition, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of psychological well-being. The women who undergo cosmetic surgery had more early maladaptive schemas probably deu to psychological problems and negative attitudes toward their physical conditions. They had low levels of psychological well-being because of the attitude toward their appearance.

  4. Increasing selective exposure to health messages by targeting person versus behavior schemas.

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    Pease, Meridith E; Brannon, Laura A; Pilling, Valerie K

    2006-01-01

    Schema correspondence theory (Brannon and Brock, 1994) was applied to the topic of selective exposure to health information. The following question was asked: When do people prefer to expose themselves to health-relevant information tailored to match their own needs and values (i.e., recipient self-schema matching) versus the values and goals that the healthy behavior brings to mind (i.e., behavior schema matching)? In general, recipient self-schema matched messages tended to be preferred over behavior schema matched messages. However, this tendency was attenuated to the extent that the behavior had a very well defined (prototypical) schema.

  5. [Schema Therapy: An Approach for Treating Narcissistic Personality Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, E; Behary, W

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we review the history of the construct of narcissism and the diagnostic criteria for narcissistic personality disorder. We then discuss some etiological models of narcissism and introduce the model of Jeffrey Young, who developed Schema Therapy (ST) as an alternative to standard cognitive therapy for patients with personality disorders. ST differs from standard cognitive therapies in important respects, including limited reparenting, a focus on the patient's basic needs, and emotional activating techniques in addition to cognitive and behavioral ones. We then discuss Young's theory of basic needs, early maladaptive schemas, and schema modes. According to ST theory, narcissists are traumatized in the schema domain having to do with attachment needs. They are prone to vulnerable emotions in response to narcissistic injuries, although they often do not show these emotions directly. Instead, they use maladaptive coping strategies, resulting in emotional states, known as "schema modes". This includes the Self-Aggrandizer mode and Detached Self-Soother mode, in which a superior, arrogant self-presentation and addictive or compulsive behavior serve a self-regulatory function. These concepts are illustrated by case examples of patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Self-schema in irritable bowel syndrome and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, B B; Garfinkel, P E; Jeejeebhoy, K N; Scher, H; Shulhan, D; Di Gasbarro, I

    1990-01-01

    Some investigators have suggested that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) represents a physiologic expression of an affective disorder. This study investigated whether IBS patients differed in their self-schema from depressed patients. Self-schema refers to a cognitive framework of the individual's beliefs, attitudes, and self-perceptions which is stored in memory and which influences incoming information. The sample consisted of 21 IBS patients, 21 psychiatric outpatients with major depression (MD), and 19 normal controls. All groups were age matched. Subjects completed a structured psychiatric interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), in addition to a test of self-schema, which involved rating and recall of a variety of "depressed" and "nondepressed" content adjectives. Consistent with previous work on self-schema, the MD group recalled significantly more depressed adjectives rated under the self-referent task than the Control group (p less than 0.05) and, also, the IBS group (p less than 0.05). Most striking was the finding that a subgroup of IBS patients who met criteria for MD (43% of the sample) recalled significantly more self-referent nondepressed words (and less self-referent depressed words) than the MD group (p less than 0.05). In other words, IBS patients with MD do not view themselves as depressed. These findings suggest that while some IBS and depressed psychiatric outpatients may share depressive symptoms, these groups can be differentiated by their self-schema.

  7. Do female dieters have an "eating disorder" self-schema?

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    Greer, Sarah; Cooper, Myra

    2016-01-01

    The processing of schema-related information is important in the maintenance of specific eating disorder (ED)-related belief systems and psychopathology. To date, most research on differences in the processing of ED schematic information has used interview or self-report questionnaire measures. Dieting is a known risk factor for EDs and dieters have been included in some studies. However, they have not been compared with non-dieters on a novel, objective measure of ED related schema processing. The current study recruited healthy female volunteers from the community and divided them into dieting (n = 25) and non-dieting (n = 24) groups using rigorous criteria. ED self-schemas with content unrelated to eating, weight and shape were measured using a self-schema processing task. Dieters endorsed significantly more ED relevant words compared to non-dieters, whereas non-dieters rejected significantly more ED relevant words compared to dieters. Reaction times to endorsements and rejections were non-significant when the two groups were compared. In a surprise recall task, dieters recalled significantly more ED relevant words. The results of this study support the presence of ED self-schemas with negative content unrelated to eating, weight and shape in otherwise healthy dieters. Implications for future research and the early identification of individuals vulnerable to EDs are discussed.

  8. A Metadata Schema for Geospatial Resource Discovery Use Cases

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    Darren Hardy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a metadata schema that focuses on GIS discovery use cases for patrons in a research library setting. Text search, faceted refinement, and spatial search and relevancy are among GeoBlacklight's primary use cases for federated geospatial holdings. The schema supports a variety of GIS data types and enables contextual, collection-oriented discovery applications as well as traditional portal applications. One key limitation of GIS resource discovery is the general lack of normative metadata practices, which has led to a proliferation of metadata schemas and duplicate records. The ISO 19115/19139 and FGDC standards specify metadata formats, but are intricate, lengthy, and not focused on discovery. Moreover, they require sophisticated authoring environments and cataloging expertise. Geographic metadata standards target preservation and quality measure use cases, but they do not provide for simple inter-institutional sharing of metadata for discovery use cases. To this end, our schema reuses elements from Dublin Core and GeoRSS to leverage their normative semantics, community best practices, open-source software implementations, and extensive examples already deployed in discovery contexts such as web search and mapping. Finally, we discuss a Solr implementation of the schema using a "geo" extension to MODS.

  9. Early maladaptive schemas in patients with bipolar and unipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdin, Selçuk; Sarisoy, Gökhan; Şahin, Ahmet Rıfat; Arik, Ali Cezmi; Özyıldız Güz, Hatice; Böke, Ömer; Karabekiroğlu, Aytül

    2018-06-01

    The aim of our study is to determine the difference between the bipolar disorder, unipolar disorder and control groups in terms of maladaptive schemes and childhood trauma. Two groups of patients under monitoring with a diagnosis of bipolar or unipolar disorder and one group of healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Each group consisted of 60 subjects. The Young Mania Rating Scale and Beck Depression Inventory were used to confirm that patients were in remission. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 were used to identify childhood traumas and early maladaptive schemas. In bipolar disorder, a positive, low power correlation was observed between the vulnerability to threats schema and emotional, physical and sexual abuse. In the unipolar disorder group, there was a positive, low power correlation between the emotional inhibition, failure, approval seeking, dependence, abandonment and defectiveness schemas and social isolation, and a positive, moderate correlation between social isolation and emotional abuse. Individuals with bipolar disorder suffered greater childhood trauma compared to subjects with unipolar disorder and healthy individuals. Greater maladaptive schema activation were present in individuals with bipolar disorder compared to those with unipolar disorder and healthy individuals.

  10. Body schema building during childhood and adolescence: a neurosensory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaiante, C; Barlaam, F; Cignetti, F; Vaugoyeau, M

    2014-01-01

    In order to perceive and act in its environment, the individual's body and its interactions with the sensory and social environment are represented in the brain. This internal representation of the moving body segments is labeled the body schema. Throughout life, body schema develops based on the sensory information used by the moving body and by its interactions with the environment including other people. Internal representations including body schema and representations of the outside world develop with learning and actions throughout ontogenesis and are constantly updated based on different sensory inputs. The aim of this review is to present some concepts and experimental data about body schema, internal representations and updating process during childhood and adolescence, as obtained using a neurosensory approach. From our developmental studies, it was possible to explore the slow maturation of the sensorimotor representations by examining the anticipatory control. By manipulating proprioceptive and visual information, which are at the heart of the construction of body schema, we wished to highlight notable differences between adolescents and young adults on both a postural and perceptual level, which confirms the late maturation of multisensory integration for central motor control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Web Database Schema Identification through Simple Query Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling; Zhou, Lizhu

    Web databases provide different types of query interfaces to access the data records stored in the backend databases. While most existing works exploit a complex query interface with multiple input fields to perform schema identification of the Web databases, little attention has been paid on how to identify the schema of web databases by simple query interface (SQI), which has only one single query text input field. This paper proposes a new method of instance-based query probing to identify WDBs' interface and result schema for SQI. The interface schema identification problem is defined as generating the fullcondition query of SQI and a novel query probing strategy is proposed. The result schema is also identified based on the result webpages of SQI's full-condition query, and an extended identification of the non-query attributes is proposed to improve the attribute recall rate. Experimental results on web databases of online shopping for book, movie and mobile phone show that our method is effective and efficient.

  12. Schema change without schema therapy: the role of early maladaptive schemata for a successful treatment of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Ingo; Alfter, Susanne; Geiser, Franziska; Liedtke, Reinhard; Conrad, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemata (EMS) have repeatedly been shown to be associated with several psychopathological conditions, including depression. Schema therapy proposes interventions that aim at altering EMS. In the present study, we examined the effect of an integrative psychodynamic inpatient therapy without explicit focus on EMS in a sample with major depression. Forty-seven (38 female, 9 male) patients filled out the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) at the beginning and end of the treatment. Results revealed that EMS were significantly reduced in three out of five schema domains. Strong endorsement of EMS at the beginning of treatment tended to predict symptom reduction. More importantly, the reduction of symptom distress during treatment was strongly associated with a reduction in EMS of the schema domain Impaired Autonomy/Performance. We discuss that changes in EMS are highly relevant for changes in symptom distress but that EMS can not only be changed by schema therapy but also by other approaches, like psychodynamic therapy.

  13. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  14. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-06-01

    Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.

  15. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  16. Basic Emotions, Natural Kinds, Emotion Schemas, and a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E

    2007-09-01

    Research on emotion flourishes in many disciplines and specialties, yet experts cannot agree on its definition. Theorists and researchers use the term emotion in ways that imply different processes and meanings. Debate continues about the nature of emotions, their functions, their relations to broad affective dimensions, the processes that activate them, and their role in our daily activities and pursuits. I will address these issues here, specifically in terms of basic emotions as natural kinds, the nature of emotion schemas, the development of emotion-cognition relations that lead to emotion schemas, and discrete emotions in relation to affective dimensions. Finally, I propose a new paradigm that assumes continual emotion as a factor in organizing consciousness and as an influence on mind and behavior. The evidence reviewed suggests that a theory that builds on concepts of both basic emotions and emotion schemas provides a viable research tool and is compatible with more holistic or dimensional approaches. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  17. Generating XML schemas for DICOM structured reporting templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luyin; Lee, Kwok Pun; Hu, Jingkun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a methodology to transform programmatically structured reporting (SR) templates defined by the Digital Imaging and Communications for Medicine (DICOM) standard into an XML schema representation. Such schemas can be used in the creation and validation of XML-encoded SR documents that use templates. Templates are a means to put additional constraints on an SR document to promote common formats for specific reporting applications or domains. As the use of templates becomes more widespread in the production of SR documents, it is important to ensure validity of such documents. The work described in this paper is an extension of the authors' previous work on XML schema representation for DICOM SR. Therefore, this paper inherits and partially modifies the structure defined in the earlier work.

  18. Cultural schemas for racial identity in Canadian television advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Shyon; Ho, Loretta

    2014-05-01

    What meanings are attached to race in advertising? We analyze a sample of prime-time Canadian television advertising to identify cultural schemas for what it means to be White, Black, and East/Southeast Asian. Our empirical focus is on food and dining advertising. Through quantitative content analysis of associations between race and food subtypes, we show that there are systematic differences in the types of foods that groups are associated with. Through a qualitative content analysis of the commercials, we illuminate these quantitative patterns and discuss six cultural schemas for racial identity. The schemas allow for both diversity and privilege in the representation of Whites, and poignant contrasts regarding status and emotionality in the narrow representations of the other two groups.

  19. The Schema.org Datasets Schema: Experiences at the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Billingsley, B. W.; Harper, D.; Kovarik, J.

    2014-12-01

    Data discovery, is still a major challenge for many users. Relevant data may be located anywhere. There are currently no existing universal data registries. Often users start with a simple query through their web browser. But how do you get your data to actually show up near the top of the results? One relatively new way to accomplish this is to use schema.org dataset markup in your data pages. Theoretically this provides web crawlers the additional information needed so that a query for data will preferentially return those pages that were marked up accordingly. The National Snow and Ice Data Center recently implemented an initial set of markup in the data set pages returned by its catalog. The Datasets data model, our process, challenges encountered and results will be described.

  20. Early maladaptive schemas in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Lam, Alexandra P; Breit, Sigrid; Lücke, Caroline; Müller, Helge H; Matthies, Swantje

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate sets of dysfunctional cognitive beliefs and behavioural tendencies according to Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy model. Sets of dysfunctional beliefs (maladaptive schemas) were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2) in 78 adult ADHD patients and 80 control subjects. Patients with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group on almost all maladaptive schemas. The 'Failure', 'Defectiveness/Shame', 'Subjugation' and 'Emotional Deprivation' schemas were most pronounced in adult ADHD patients, while only 'Vulnerability to Harm or Illness' did not differ between the two groups. The schemas which were most pronounced in adult patients with ADHD correspond well with their learning histories and core symptoms. By demonstrating the existence of early maladaptive schemas in adults suffering from ADHD, this study suggests that schema theory may usefully be applied to adult ADHD therapy.

  1. Schema for the LANL infrasound analysis tool, infrapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannemann, Fransiska Kate [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marcillo, Omar Eduardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this document is to define the schema used for the operation of the infrasound analysis tool, infrapy. The tables described by this document extend the CSS3.0 or KB core schema to include information required for the operation of infrapy. This document is divided into three sections, the first being this introduction. Section two defines eight new, infrasonic data processing-specific database tables. Both internal (ORACLE) and external formats for the attributes are defined, along with a short description of each attribute. Section three of the document shows the relationships between the different tables by using entity-relationship diagrams.

  2. Parametric Design of Outdoor Broadcasting Studio Based on Schema Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly demonstrates that the schema is an important way for the architect to cognize architecture form logic. It connects schema to algorithm of parametric design in order to seek the “algorithm schema” generation in parametric design of architecture. Meanwhile, this paper discusses the generative process and methods of the “algorithm schema” in parametric design of architecture by describing a case of outdoor broadcasting studio of Hunan Economic Radio. It also reveals the importance of “algorithm schema” for the cognition and architectural form logic generation.

  3. Effects of schema group therapy in older outpatients : A proof of concept study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, A.C.; Rossi, G.; Schoevaars, M.; van der Feltz, C.M.; van Alphen, S.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Short-term group schema cognitive behavior therapy (SCBT-g) showed improvements in overall symptomatology, early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and schema modes, both in adults and adolescents with personality disorder (PD) features and long-standing mood disorders. However, no research has yet been

  4. 77 FR 46986 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Availability of Draft XML Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...] Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Availability of Draft XML Schema AGENCY: Federal... Regulatory Commission is making available on its Web site ( http://www.ferc.gov ) a draft of the XML schema... Supplementary Information Section below for details. DATES: The draft XML Schema is now available at the links...

  5. ECG Rhythm Analysis with Expert and Learner-Generated Schemas in Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Sarah; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Sibbald, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although instruction using expert-generated schemas is associated with higher diagnostic performance, implementation is resource intensive. Learner-generated schemas are an alternative, but may be limited by increases in cognitive load. We compared expert- and learner-generated schemas for learning ECG rhythm interpretation on diagnostic accuracy,…

  6. Comparison of early maladaptive schemas and psychological well-being in women undergoing cosmetic surgery and normal women

    OpenAIRE

    Moslem Abbasi; Arash Aghighi; Parviz Porzoor; Mojtaba Dehqan

    2017-01-01

    Literature review shows that cosmetic surgery demand is often a consequence of psychological distress. The purpose of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and psychological well-being in women who undergo cosmetic surgery versus normal women. This was a causal-comparative study in which, the statistical population included all individuals intended to have cosmetic surgery reffered to private clinics of the city of Arak for six months in late 2014 and early 2015 (N=1000). Among ...

  7. Enabling knowledge representation on the Web by extending RDF Schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, Jeen; Klein, Michel; Decker, Stefan; Fensel, Dieter; Van Harmelen, Frank; Horrocks, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a widespread interest has emerged in using ontologies on the Web. Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) is a basic tool that enables users to define vocabulary, structure and constraints for expressing meta data about Web resources. However, it includes no provisions for formal

  8. Schema Learning, and Its Possible Links to Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Anne

    Using similar research in Britain as a basis, a study in New Zealand explored schema learning in young children. The primary purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a curriculum intervention designed to increase the richness and amount of stimulation teachers and parents give 4-year-olds in response to observations of children's…

  9. Developing Schemas for Assessing Social Competences among Unskilled Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarkrog, Vibe; Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Social competences are crucial parts of vocational education and training (VET) competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for VET, an action research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading social competences. The development included defining the social competences…

  10. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassbinder, E.; Schweiger, U.; Martius, D.; Brand-de Wilde, O.; Arntz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However,

  11. [The Jung model of active style of schema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłodek, Ewa; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2011-12-01

    Yung was of an opinion that the borderline personality as a pathology results from the experiences of a frightened and violence-experiencing child who is left to their own devices in the hostile world. In that situation, the child, longing for safety, simultaneously experiences fear of abuse, hurt and rejection and remains distrustful. In order to understand the dramatic changes in the individual's behaviour, in case of the borderline personality disorders, Yung developed the concept, presented by Aaron Beck at the therapeutic workshops in the 1980s. Beck's concept was based upon the assumption that some pathological states expressed strong emotional states, experienced in childhood on the basis of regression. Yung presented them in the form of conceptualization in the categories of the active styles of schema. Apart from the states of regression, he also differentiated less regressive styles of schema. The style of schema should be interpreted as a pattern of experiencing, thinking and behaviour, based upon a determined set of schema, and characterized by independence from other styles.

  12. Argumentation Schema and the Myside Bias in Written Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Britt, M. Anne; Butler, Jodie A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cognitive argumentation schema for written arguments and presents three empirical studies on the "myside" bias--the tendency to ignore or exclude evidence against one's position. Study 1 examined the consequences of conceding, rebutting, and denying other-side information. Rebuttal led to higher ratings of…

  13. PRISM: Enmeshment of illness and self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Fiona; Sharpe, Louise; Schrieber, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) is a recently developed tool purported to assess burden of suffering due to illness. The nature of the PRISM task suggests a conceptual link to the illness self-schema construct hypothesised to be present in some individuals with chronic illness. This study investigates the relationship between PRISM and schema as measured by cognitive bias. 43 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) completed an information-processing task involving endorsement of positive and negative illness words as descriptors of themselves, followed by free recall of the words. The outcome measures were endorsement and recall bias for negative illness words. Patients also completed the PRISM task and were assessed on other physical and psychological variables. PRISM did not correlate significantly with age, depression, functional impairment or disease activity. In a multiple regression analysis, only recall bias made an independent contribution to PRISM. Illness self-schema appears to play a significant role in determining the way in which SLE patients complete the PRISM task. This is discussed in light of a schema enmeshment model recently proposed in the cognitive bias literature. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. XML Schema of PaGE-OM: fuge.xsd [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ://www.omg.org/spec/PAGE-OM/20090722/snp schemaLocation=snp.xsd/> ..._source type=fuge:Ontology_source/> _source> ...ogy_term/> _term> Ontology term, defined in more detail in FuGE (http://fuge.sourceforge.net/). This

  15. Parental Practices and the Development of Maladaptive Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunty, Amy L.; Buri, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between Young's (1999) Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and several parental variables was investigated. The parental variables of interest were: (a) Nurturance, (b) Authority, (c) Intrusiveness, (d) Psychological Control, (e) Overprotection, and (f) Parentification. Regression analyses revealed that these parental practices…

  16. Schema Theory and Literary Texts: Anthony Burgess' Nadsat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladsky, Rita K.

    1992-01-01

    Burgess' novel, "A Clockwork Orange," is discussed as a perfect example of schema theory in operation. The book's overwhelming linguistic accomplishment is based on Nadsat, a language coined by Burgess and described as bits of rhyming slang, gypsy talk, with Slavic roots and propaganda components. (seven references) (LB)

  17. Exploiting emergent schemas to make RDF systems more efficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Minh Duc; Boncz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We build on our earlier finding that more than 95% of the triples in actual RDF triple graphs have a remarkably tabular structure, whose schema does not necessarily follow from explicit metadata such as ontologies, but for which an RDF store can automatically derive by looking at the data using

  18. Developing Schemas for Assessing Social Competences among Unskilled Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibe Aarkrog

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social competences are crucial parts of vocational education and training (VET competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for VET, an action research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading social competences. The development included defining the social competences as well as three levels for assessing these competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with the assessors, i.e., representatives from workplaces, municipal youth guidance centres, and VET colleges. There were two main findings. First, the definitions of the competences and the levels for assessing the competences are related to the context in which the competences should be developed. Second, even though the definitions should be related to the specific contexts, to be manageable they should not be too elaborate. The aim of the project being to develop a schema that practitioners in general can use for assessing young peoples' social competences in relation to work-based training, the study concludes that further research is needed to clarify whether the schema can be used without instruction or training.

  19. Representation of categories: metaphorical use of the container schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Pecher, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were

  20. An interpretative phenomenological analysis of schema modes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interpretative phenomenological analysis of schema modes in a single case of anorexia nervosa: Part 1. Background, method, and child ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  1. Deficits in agency in schizophrenia, and additional deficits in body image, body schema and internal timing, in passivity symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyran Trent Graham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia, particularly those with passivity symptoms, may not feel in control of their actions, believing them to be controlled by external agents. Cognitive operations that contribute to these symptoms may include abnormal processing in agency, as well as body representations that deal with body schema and body image. However, these operations in schizophrenia are not fully understood, and the questions of general versus specific deficits in individuals with different symptom profiles remain unanswered. Using the projected hand illusion (a digital video version of the rubber hand illusion with syn-chronous and asynchronous stroking (500 ms delay, and a hand laterality judgment task, we assessed sense of agency, body image and body schema in 53 people with clinically stable schizophrenia (with a current, past, and no history of passivity symptoms and 48 healthy controls. The results revealed a stable trait in schizophrenia with no difference be-tween clinical subgroups (sense of agency, and some quantitative (specific differences de-pending on the passivity symptom profile (body image and body schema. Specifically, a reduced sense of self-agency was a common feature of all clinical subgroups. However, subgroup comparisons showed that individuals with passivity symptoms (both current and past had significantly greater deficits on tasks assessing body image and body schema, relative to the other groups. In addition, patients with current passivity symptoms failed to demonstrate the normal reduction in body illusion typically seen with a 500 ms delay in visual feedback (asynchronous condition, suggesting internal timing problems. Altogether, the results underscore self-abnormalities in schizophrenia, provide evidence for both trait abnormalities and state changes specific to passivity symptoms, and point to a role for internal timing deficits as a mechanistic explanation for external cues becoming a possible source of self

  2. The effect of age on cultural schema: The case of Shekaste-nafsi (modesty) in Persian

    OpenAIRE

    Shirinbakhsh, Salva; Eslami Rasekh, Abbass

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of a cultural schema, this work focuses on the effect of age as a social variable on the instantiation of Persian cultural schema referred to as Shekaste-nafsi (modesty) in compliment responses. The schema motivates speakers to evade the compliment by lowering themselves and raising the other. This study seeks to quantitatively and qualitatively examine the pattern of schema activation in Persian cultural setting. The thrust of the study is to see ‘how’ the schema is pra...

  3. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Q. da Luz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight.

  4. Play for the development of body schema and spatial and temporal orientation: analysis of an intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Domiciano Franco de Campos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childhood is a significant stage in human development in which many skills are developed influencing learning progress. Play is an activity of children’s daily lives that enhances cognitive, social, emotional, and psychomotor abilities. Objective: Evaluate the results of an intervention for a child with delayed development of body schema and spatial and temporal orientation. Method: This study adopted the semi-experimental design type of pre and post-test. The Motor Development Scale (MDS was applied in a four-year-old child. From the MDS results, an intervention plan was prepared concerning games that stimulate the previously mentioned acquisitions. The implementation of the plan lasted two months and the child was evaluated before and at the end of the intervention. The JT method was adopted for data analysis and verification of significant and reliable clinical changes. Results: The child achieved significant change in the three items assessed. In terms of clinical significance, the child changed status on spatial organization, becoming part of the functional population. Body schema remained in the dysfunctional population and the child’s temporal orientation was in the range of uncertainty. Conclusion: The results showed positive and reliable changes in the evaluated items, confirming the positive effect of play as an occupational therapeutic resource present in the developmental intervention program. It emphasizes the importance of conducting further studies with a larger number of participants for new data and findings on the use of play in interventions into psychomotor development.

  5. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Felipe Q.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A.; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C.; da S. Oliveira, Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight. PMID:28264484

  6. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Felipe Q; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C; da S Oliveira, Margareth

    2017-02-28

    Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants-53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight-were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight.

  7. Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: the mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive models state that cognitions are organized hierarchically, so that the underlying schemas affect behavior via more automatic, superficial cognitive processes. This study aimed to demonstrate that early maladaptive schemas predict anxious automatic thoughts, and to show that such automatic thoughts act as mediators between schemas and prospective changes in social anxiety symptoms. The study also examined an alternative reverse model in which schemas acted as mediators between automatic thoughts and social anxiety. A total of 1052 adolescents (499 girls and 553 boys; M(age)=13.43; SD(age)=1.29) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, socially anxious automatic thoughts, and social anxiety symptoms at Times 1, 2, and 3. The results revealed bidirectional longitudinal relationships among schemas and automatic thoughts that were consistent in content (e.g., the disconnection/rejection schemas and automatic thoughts of negative self-concept). Furthermore, the automatic thoughts of anticipatory negative evaluation by others at Time 2 mediated the relationship between the other-directedness schemas at Time 1 and social anxiety symptoms at Time 3. These findings are consistent with hierarchical cognitive models of social anxiety given that deeper schemas predict more surface-level thoughts. They also support that these more surface-level thoughts contribute to perpetuating schemas. Finally, results show that early maladaptive schemas of the other-directedness domain play a relevant role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prosocial self-schemas, self-awareness, and children's prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froming, W J; Nasby, W; McManus, J

    1998-09-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that a child's prosocial self-schema predicts prosocial behavior. In Study 1, only self-aware boys showed a self-schema-behavior relation. Study 2 altered both salience of donating opportunity and relationship of recipient to donor. The hypothesized Self-Awareness x Self-Schema interaction was significant, and there were no gender differences. Study 3 systematically manipulated the salience of the donating opportunity. All participants were self-aware. For boys in high and low salience conditions, prosocial self-schema predicted donating behavior. For girls, prosocial self-schema predicted behavior only in the high salience condition. The findings demonstrate that self-schemas can regulate behavior when participants are self-aware. Girls, however, may require higher salience of the donating opportunity for the self-schema to affect their behavior.

  9. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Substance Use Patients and their Intimate Partners: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has documented that substance users have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may underlie their substance use and that treatment that addresses these schemas may result in improved outcomes. Research has also shown that intimate partners of substance users have a number of mental and physical health problems, although no known research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of these relationship partners. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance use treatment patients and their intimate partners (N = 80). Findings showed that both patients and intimate partners had a number of problematic early maladaptive schemas; that patients scored significantly higher than their intimate partners on a few early maladaptive schemas; and that patient and intimate partner schemas may be interrelated. Implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22745593

  10. Real-Time Discovery Services over Large, Heterogeneous and Complex Healthcare Datasets Using Schema-Less, Column-Oriented Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Dunning, Ted [MapR Technologies; Charlie, Frasure [PYA Analytics

    2016-01-01

    We present a service platform for schema-leess exploration of data and discovery of patient-related statistics from healthcare data sets. The architecture of this platform is motivated by the need for fast, schema-less, and flexible approaches to SQL-based exploration and discovery of information embedded in the common, heterogeneously structured healthcare data sets and supporting components (electronic health records, practice management systems, etc.) The motivating use cases described in the paper are clinical trials candidate discovery, and a treatment effectiveness analysis. Following the use cases, we discuss the key features and software architecture of the platform, the underlying core components (Apache Parquet, Drill, the web services server), and the runtime profiles and performance characteristics of the platform. We conclude by showing dramatic speedup with some approaches, and the performance tradeoffs and limitations of others.

  11. Age differences and schema effects in memory for crime information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Amy A; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Allison, Meredith; Stephens, Joseph D W

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: This study investigated age-related differences in memory for crime information. Older adults have been found to rely more than young adults on schema- and stereotype-based processing in memory, and such age differences may have implications in the criminal justice system. Some prior research has examined schema-based processing among older adults in legal settings, but no studies have tested for schema effects on older adults' memory for specific details of a crime. Older adults (N = 56, ages 65-93) and young adults (N = 52, ages 18-22) read a passage about a criminal suspect's "bad" or "good" childhood, and then read a crime report containing incriminating, exonerating, and neutral details with regard to the suspect. Participants were subsequently tested on recognition of accurate versus altered details from the crime report. Participants also rated the suspect"s guilt, and completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. Correct and false recognition rates were analyzed with ANOVA to compare means across age group, evidence type, and background type, and guilt ratings were analyzed with linear regression using neuropsychological scores as predictors. Among older adults, an interaction was found between evidence type (incriminating/exonerating) and suspect's background (good/bad childhood) in false recognition of altered details from the crime report, supporting the hypothesis that schema-based processing influenced older adult memory from crime information. Additionally, although guilt ratings were not related to the suspect's background for either age group, they were predicted by older adults' short-delay recall (β = -.37), suggesting that cognitive decline may play a role in older adults' interpretations of evidence. The findings suggest reduced cognitive capacity in older adults increases schema-based processing in memory for crime information, and are consistent with research in other domains that has demonstrated greater schema

  12. Lacan’s construction and deconstruction of the schema of the two mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn eVanheule

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteen fifties Jacques Lacan developed a set-up with a concave mirror and a plane mirror, based on which he described the nature of human identification. He also formulated ideas on how psychoanalysis, qua clinical practice, responds to identification. In this paper Lacan’s schema of the two mirrors is described in detail and the theoretical line of reasoning he aimed to articulate with aid of this spatial model is discussed. It is argued that Lacan developed his double-mirror device to clarify the relationship between the drive, the ego, the ideal ego, the ego ideal, the other and the Other. This model helped Lacan describe the dynamics of identification and explain how psychoanalytic treatment works. He argued that by working with free association, psychoanalysis aims to articulate unconscious desire, and bypass the tendency of the ego for misrecognition. The reasons why Lacan stressed the limits of his double-mirror model and no longer considered it useful from the early nineteen sixties onward are examined. It is argued that his concept of the gaze, which he qualifies as a so-called ‘object a,’ prompted Lacan move away from his double-mirror set-up. In those years Lacan gradually began to study the tension between drive and signifier. The schema of the two mirrors, by contrast, focused on the tension between image and signifier, and missed the point Lacan aimed to address in this new era of his work.

  13. An Investigation of the Relationship between Maladaptive Primary Schemas and Happiness in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davood Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maladaptive Primary Schemas are fighting for their survival. On the other hand, several variables can relate to adolescents’ identity. One of these variables is happiness. This research was conducted to determine the relationship between happiness and maladaptive primary schemas in male and female adolescents and also comparing the level of happiness and use of this schemas in students. Methods: This research was a correlational study, which its sample size was estimated to be 212 subjects, who were selected using random sampling. Data collection tools were Young Schema Questionnaire and Oxford Happiness Inventory. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient and spontaneous regression. Results: There was significant relationships between happiness and distrust/abuse and obedience schemas in males and entitlement/grandiosity schemas and unrelenting standards in females. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that boys who have obedience schema have higher level of happiness compared to those who do not have this schema, and boys who have distrust/abuse schema have lower level of happiness. Also, girls who have entitlement/grandiosity schema have higher level of happiness.

  14. What is a memory schema? A historical perspective on current neuroscience literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Vanessa E; Gilboa, Asaf

    2014-01-01

    The term "schema" has been used to describe vastly different knowledge structures within the memory neuroscience literature. Ambiguous terminology hinders cross-study comparisons and confounds interpretation of the suggested role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in schema functions. Based on an extensive review of the psychological literature, we propose a framework for distinguishing memory schemas from other knowledge structures. The framework includes a definition of schema as possessing four necessary and sufficient features, and four additional features schemas are sensitive to, which are not required but do play a frequent and central role in schema functions. Necessary schema features are (1) an associative network structure, (2) basis on multiple episodes, (3) lack of unit detail, and (4) adaptability. Features schemas are sensitive to are (5) chronological relationships, (6) hierarchical organization, (7) cross-connectivity, and (8) embedded response options. Additionally, we suggest that vmPFC activity observed in studies of schemas corresponds with participants' coordination of existing schemas with ongoing task demands. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke T R van Kesteren

    Full Text Available Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently supported in the literature, with differential schema effects reported for different types of memory, different retrieval cues, and the possibility of time-dependent effects related to consolidation processes. To examine these effects more directly, we tested participants on two different types of memory (item recognition and associative memory for newly encoded visuo-tactile associations at different study-test intervals, thus probing memory retrieval accuracy for schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items and associations at different time points (t = 0, t = 20, and t = 48 hours after encoding. Results show that the schema effect on visual item recognition only arises after consolidation, while the schema effect on associative memory is already apparent immediately after encoding, persisting, but getting smaller over time. These findings give further insight into different factors influencing the schema effect on memory, and can inform future schema experiments by illustrating the value of considering effects of memory type and consolidation on schema-modulated retrieval.

  16. XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Lyubomir; Lyal, Christopher Hc; Weitzman, Anna; Morse, David R; King, David; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Morris, Robert A; Catapano, Terry; Agosti, Donat

    2011-01-01

    We review the three most widely used XML schemas used to mark-up taxonomic texts, TaxonX, TaxPub and taXMLit. These are described from the viewpoint of their development history, current status, implementation, and use cases. The concept of "taxon treatment" from the viewpoint of taxonomy mark-up into XML is discussed. TaxonX and taXMLit are primarily designed for legacy literature, the former being more lightweight and with a focus on recovery of taxon treatments, the latter providing a much more detailed set of tags to facilitate data extraction and analysis. TaxPub is an extension of the National Library of Medicine Document Type Definition (NLM DTD) for taxonomy focussed on layout and recovery and, as such, is best suited for mark-up of new publications and their archiving in PubMedCentral. All three schemas have their advantages and shortcomings and can be used for different purposes.

  17. Lover and learner: Exploring relational schema change following relationship dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Julie A; Øverup, Camilla S; Acitelli, Linda K

    2018-03-27

    Romantic relationships are known to be very influential, but less is known about how these relationships, and particularly the breakup of these relationships, may affect individuals' relational schemas, or their expectations for relationships. Undergraduate students reported on how their views of themselves, romantic partners, and relationships changed after breaking up with a past partner. Results suggest that relational schemas change following relationship dissolution and that there are both positive and negative aspects to this change. There was also some evidence that aspects of the past relationship predicted change and the valence of change, and that change and the valence of change were related to aspects of current relationship quality. These results are an important first step in understanding how past romantic relationships influence people's expectations about relationships and, by extension, their health and wellbeing.

  18. Conjugate schema and basis representation of crossover and mutation operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi, S T

    1998-01-01

    In genetic search algorithms and optimization routines, the representation of the mutation and crossover operators are typically defaulted to the canonical basis. We show that this can be influential in the usefulness of the search algorithm. We then pose the question of how to find a basis for which the search algorithm is most useful. The conjugate schema is introduced as a general mathematical construct and is shown to separate a function into smaller dimensional functions whose sum is the original function. It is shown that conjugate schema, when used on a test suite of functions, improves the performance of the search algorithm on 10 out of 12 of these functions. Finally, a rigorous but abbreviated mathematical derivation is given in the appendices.

  19. Joint Probabilistic Reasoning About Coreference and Relations of Univeral Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The fact that the Government formulated or supplied the drawings, specifications...instance, Freebase [1], despite its wide coverage, has no criticized or scientist -at relations. Of course, a fixed schema also does not provide...correspond to semantics of the objects involved and can be used for prediction, inference, and logic of discovering/adding facts of a knowledge base

  20. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind?s Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children?s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind?s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 20...

  1. A general XML schema and SPM toolbox for storage of neuro-imaging results and anatomical labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keator, David Bryant; Gadde, Syam; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Taylor, Derek V; Potkin, Steven G

    2006-01-01

    With the increased frequency of multisite, large-scale collaborative neuro-imaging studies, the need for a general, self-documenting framework for the storage and retrieval of activation maps and anatomical labels becomes evident. To address this need, we have developed and extensible markup language (XML) schema and associated tools for the storage of neuro-imaging activation maps and anatomical labels. This schema, as part of the XML-based Clinical Experiment Data Exchange (XCEDE) schema, provides storage capabilities for analysis annotations, activation threshold parameters, and cluster and voxel-level statistics. Activation parameters contain information describing the threshold, degrees of freedom, FWHM smoothness, search volumes, voxel sizes, expected voxels per cluster, and expected number of clusters in the statistical map. Cluster and voxel statistics can be stored along with the coordinates, threshold, and anatomical label information. Multiple threshold types can be documented for a given cluster or voxel along with the uncorrected and corrected probability values. Multiple atlases can be used to generate anatomical labels and stored for each significant voxel or cluter. Additionally, a toolbox for Statistical Parametric Mapping software (http://www. fil. ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/) was created to capture the results from activation maps using the XML schema that supports both SPM99 and SPM2 versions (http://nbirn.net/Resources/Users/ Applications/xcede/SPM_XMLTools.htm). Support for anatomical labeling is available via the Talairach Daemon (http://ric.uthscsa. edu/projects/talairachdaemon.html) and Automated Anatomical Labeling (http://www. cyceron.fr/freeware/).

  2. The role of anxiety and depression on acceptance and action, considering emotional schemas in diabetics of Birjand (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Elham; Shahabizadeh, Fatemeh; Mahmoodirad, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common noncommunicable diseases around the world that accompanies assorted psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression due to being chronic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anxiety and depression on acceptance and action, considering emotional schemas of diabetics referring to diabetes clinics of health centers in Birjand, Iran. This study was conducted in 2016 and was a correlational study with a structural equation modeling approach. The statistical population of this study were all men and women with type 2 diabetes in Birjand, with an active health record in health centers of this county. To collect data, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) and Leahy Emotional Schema Scale (LESS) were employed. Using SPSS19 and LISREL, data were analyzed via multiple regression and modeling at p≤0.05. In general, 350 subjects entered the study, most of whom were between 50 and 60 years of age and of whom, (47.7%) were women. Results show that depression has had a negative contribution in predicting quality of life (p=0.0001). In addition, results demonstrated the negative relation of anxiety and depression in predicting no emotional avoidance (flexibility) (p=0.0001). Anxiety and rumination had a positive effect and emotional unawareness had a negative effect on predicting no emotional avoidance (p=0.0001). Results of this study showed that by reducing adaptive emotional schemas, emotions reduce psychological flexibility and increase emotional avoidance. In addition, by increasing non-adaptive emotional schemas, it increases no flexibility and emotional avoidance that finally reduces quality of life as well as acceptance and action.

  3. Cultural schema and design activity in an architectural design studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Ketizmen Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the cognitive activities and on the structure and quality of knowledge flow involved in architectural design education is increasing. These studies generally focus on the interaction between student and instructor, including processes such as producing ideas, solving display problems, and integrating design strategies. These studies commonly include computational evaluations and confirmation of the coding of knowledge. They may also include the determination of designer׳s thoughts and cognitive actions of design process, as well as the analysis and digitization of verbal protocols during the design process. In most of these studies, the designer׳s cultural and psychological components are not considered. Accordingly, research on the effects of designers’ cultural schema on design activity in design studios is limited. This study aimed to solve this problem by analyzing the relationship between design activity and the designer׳s cultural schema in a design studio. We performed an experimental study based on a specific conceptual framework and a research model aimed at identifying the relationships among cultural schemas, the architectural design process, and design studios.

  4. On the effectiveness of XML schema validation for countering XML signature wrapping attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Meyer, Christopher; Somorovsky, Juraj

    2011-01-01

    In the context of security of Web Services, the XML Signature Wrapping attack technique has lately received increasing attention. Following a broad range of real-world exploits, general interest in applicable countermeasures rises. However, few approaches for countering these attacks have been...... investigated closely enough to make any claims about their effectiveness. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of the specific countermeasure of XML Schema validation in terms of fending Signature Wrapping attacks. We investigate the problems of XML Schema validation for Web Services messages......, and discuss the approach of Schema Hardening, a technique for strengthening XML Schema declarations. We conclude that XML Schema validation with a hardened XML Schema is capable of fending XML Signature Wrapping attacks, but bears some pitfalls and disadvantages as well....

  5. Job Satisfaction and Employee's Self-Schema at Workplace: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrad, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and self-schema amongst employees at the workplace. The results of the study revealed that self-schema derived from feelings and attitudes of employees based on their satisfaction at the workplace; and, explained that employees' schemas are various, completely. This study likewise considered on job satisfaction as a main organizational factor that increases the amount of performance and presence of empl...

  6. Sexual Self Schema as a Moderator of Sexual and Psychological Outcomes for Gynecologic Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Kristen M.; Andersen, Barbara L.; Fowler, Jeffrey M.; Maxwell, G. Larry

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Gynecologic cancer patients are at high risk for emotional distress and sexual dysfunction. The present study tested sexual self schema as an individual difference variable that might be useful in identifying those at risk for unfavorable outcomes. First, we tested schema as a predictor of sexual outcomes,including bodychangestress. Second,we examined schema as a contributor to broader quality of life outcomes, specifically as a moderator of the relationship between sexual satisfacti...

  7. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a su...

  8. The flesh and blood of embodied understanding: the source-path-goal schema in animation film

    OpenAIRE

    Forceville, C.; Jeulink, M.

    2011-01-01

    According to Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT), the Source-Path-Goal (SPG) schema constitutes a central concept in cognition. Apart from literally structuring "movement," SPG also shapes our understanding of "purposive activity," including questing and story-telling. A problem in CMT, however, is that the existence of image schemas is almost exclusively postulated on the basis of verbal expressions. To examine the claim that people recruit image schemas such as SPG to make sense of life, it is...

  9. The Role of the Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Schema in Womenn’s Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    جعفر حسني

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of emotional intelligence and emotional schema in marital satisfaction among women. A sample of 200 married women (100 employed and 100 household women was selected randomly and completed measures of emotional schemas, emotional intelligence, and marital satisfaction. The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that attention and clarity components of emotional intelligence are significant predictors of most marital satisfaction dimensions. Also, blame, agreement, simplistic view of emotions and higher values towards emotional schemas predicted different dimensions of marital satisfaction. Based on the findings it can be concluded that the emotional intelligence and effective emotional schema play a key role in marital satisfaction.

  10. JSON Schema for Attribute-based Access Control for Network Resource Security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Linklater, G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available the features provided to XACML by XML Schema. Index Terms—JSON Schema; Access Control; Authorization; Security; Attribute-based Access Control; ABAC; Internet of Things; IoT; Server-to-Server; Machine-to-Machine; S2S; M2M; Network Security I. INTRODUCTION... with the requirements of ABAC. • Section V discusses the viability of JSON Schema as a replacement for XML Schema in the creation of a new JSON-based ABAC standard. This section also discusses possible future work that arose out of the conclusions drawn in this document...

  11. Stress leads to aberrant hippocampal involvement when processing schema-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a mental schema, has critical impact on how we organize, interpret, and process incoming information. Recent findings indicate that the use of an existing schema is coordinated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), communicating with parietal areas. The hippocampus, however, is crucial for encoding schema-unrelated information but not for schema-related information. A recent study indicated that stress mediators may affect schema-related memory, but the underlying neural mechanisms are currently unknown. Here, we thus tested the impact of acute stress on neural processing of schema-related information. We exposed healthy participants to a stress or control manipulation before they processed, in the MRI scanner, words related or unrelated to a preexisting schema activated by a specific cue. Participants' memory for the presented material was tested 3-5 d after encoding. Overall, the processing of schema-related information activated the mPFC, the precuneus, and the angular gyrus. Stress resulted in aberrant hippocampal activity and connectivity while participants processed schema-related information. This aberrant engagement of the hippocampus was linked to altered subsequent memory. These findings suggest that stress may interfere with the efficient use of prior knowledge during encoding and may have important practical implications, in particular for educational settings. © 2018 Vogel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. A Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas in Crystal Addicted Individuals and Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Asadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present research was to compare early maladaptive schemas in crystal addicted individuals and normal individuals. Method: In this ex post facto research, two groups of subjects (normal adolescent=30 and addicted adolescent=30 were selected via cluster sampling and convenience sampling respectively. Yang early maladaptive schemas questionnaire were conducted, then data were analyzed using multiple analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that there was significant difference between both groups in early maladaptive schemas. Conclusion: The findings provided empirical support for the proposition that early maladaptive schemas may influence on tendency of adolescent toward substance abuse.

  13. [Effects of specificity of schema on false recall: an analysis from the viewpoint of eyewitness testimony].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Hirose, Takehiko; Takaoka, Masako

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two levels of specificity of schema on generation of false recall. One level is widely applied to things and is shared by the general public (less specific schema) and the other is specifically applied to individual things (more specific schema). Sixty female undergraduates watched a video. After two days, they were required to recall the contents of the story. Students were divided into two groups according to whether they have the more specific schema or not. In each group, they were assigned to either free recall task or reality monitoring task. The results showed that (1) the amounts of false recall by the group having the less specific schema only decreased by reality monitoring. (2) The group having the more specific schema had no differential effects on false recall for both tasks. (3) The effect of specificity of schema on false recall was not observed for the scene which did not activate the more specific schema. These results were discussed in terms of the levels of specificity of schema and effectiveness of reality monitoring for eyewitness memory.

  14. The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

  15. Sexual Self-Schemas in the Real World: Investigating the Ecological Validity of Language-Based Markers of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Meston, Cindy M; Boyd, Ryan L

    2017-06-01

    This is the first study to examine language use and sexual self-schemas in natural language data extracted from posts to a large online forum. Recently, two studies applied advanced text analysis techniques to examine differences in language use and sexual self-schemas between women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse. The aim of the current study was to test the ecological validity of the differences in language use and sexual self-schema themes that emerged between these two groups of women in the laboratory. Archival natural language data were extracted from a social media website and analyzed using LIWC2015, a computerized text analysis program, and other word counting approaches. The differences in both language use and sexual self-schema themes that manifested in recent laboratory research were replicated and validated in the large online sample. To our knowledge, these results provide the first empirical examination of sexual cognitions as they occur in the real world. These results also suggest that natural language analysis of text extracted from social media sites may be a potentially viable precursor or alternative to laboratory measurement of sexual trauma phenomena, as well as clinical phenomena, more generally.

  16. Body schema and midline sensation influenced by unilateral manual stimulation of lower extremity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Barth, Lasse; Skeie, Sindre

    Relevance: Clinical experience advocates manual stimulation in order to increase the sensation of the body and adjust the body schema. Unilateral treatment may affect the midline sensation and weight distribution in a standing position, but little evidence is available to support this procedure....... Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether one-sided manual stimulation of one leg would influence the midline perception and weight distribution in standing position. Methods/analysis: Twenty-one healthy young people received unilateral manual stimulation of the lower extremities...... alignment was seen as a response to unilateral massage. It may be suggested, that the manipulated midline sensation and weight distribution reflects a state in which the participant's attention to a greater extent has been directed towards a specific body part due to the manual sensory stimulation. Impact...

  17. Short-term group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adults with personality disorders and personality disorder features: associations with changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; van Goor, Michiel; Huibers, Marcus; Arntz, Arnoud; Butz, Betty; Bernstein, David

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to document the effects of a group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (SCBT-g; van Vreeswijk & Broersen, 2006) on global symptomatic distress in young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features. We also sought to determine the stability of maladaptive schemas, schema modes, and coping responses throughout treatment as well as relations among these variables with improvement in symptomatic distress during treatment. Twenty-six young adults (mean age 22.5 years; range: 18-29 years) with a primary diagnosis of a DSM-IV Cluster-B or Cluster-C personality disorder or with personality disorder features participated in the 20-session SCBT-g protocol. Global symptomatic distress decreased substantially from pre-treatment to post-treatment (d = 0.81). Maladaptive schemas, schema modes and dysfunctional coping responses decreased with medium to large effect sizes (d's = 0.56 and 0.98, respectively), however decrease in maladaptive schemas was not significant after controlling for symptomatic distress. Adaptive schema modes increased slightly (d = 0.40) throughout treatment. Baseline levels of maladaptive schemas predicted symptomatic distress concurrently and at mid-treatment but not at post-treatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that SCBT-g might be an effective treatment for young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features in terms of improvements in global symptomatic distress and underlying vulnerability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A schema theory analysis of students' think aloud protocols in an STS biology context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Catherine Louise

    This dissertation study is a conglomerate of the fields of Science Education and Applied Cognitive Psychology. The goal of this study is to determine what organizational features and knowledge representation patterns high school students exhibit over time for issues pertinent to science and society. Participants are thirteen tenth grade students in a diverse suburban-urban classroom in a northeastern state. Students' think alouds are recorded, pre-, post-, and late-post treatment. Treatment consists of instruction in three Science, Technology, and Society (STS) biology issues, namely the human genome project, nutrition and health, and stem cell research. Coding and analyses are performed using Marshall's knowledge representations---identification knowledge, elaboration knowledge, planning knowledge, and execution knowledge, as well as qualitative research analysis methods. Schema theory, information processing theory, and other applied cognitive theory provide a framework in which to understand and explain students' schema descriptions and progressions over time. The results show that students display five organizational features in their identification and elaboration knowledge. Students also fall into one of four categories according to if they display prior schema or no prior schema, and their orientation "for" or "against," some of the issues. Students with prior schema and orientation "against" display the most robust schema descriptions and schema progressions. Those with no prior schemas and orientation "against" show very modest schema progressions best characterized by their keyword searches. This study shows the importance in considering not only students' integrated schemas but also their individual schemes. A role for the use of a more schema-based instruction that scaffolds student learning is implicated.

  19. Use of Schema on Read in Earth Science Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Hegde, M.; Smit, C.; Pilone, P.; Pham, L.

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, NASA Earth Science data archives have file-based storage using proprietary data file formats, such as HDF and HDF-EOS, which are optimized to support fast and efficient storage of spaceborne and model data as they are generated. The use of file-based storage essentially imposes an indexing strategy based on data dimensions. In most cases, NASA Earth Science data uses time as the primary index, leading to poor performance in accessing data in spatial dimensions. For example, producing a time series for a single spatial grid cell involves accessing a large number of data files. With exponential growth in data volume due to the ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolution of the data, using file-based archives poses significant performance and cost barriers to data discovery and access. Storing and disseminating data in proprietary data formats imposes an additional access barrier for users outside the mainstream research community. At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC), we have evaluated applying the "schema-on-read" principle to data access and distribution. We used Apache Parquet to store geospatial data, and have exposed data through Amazon Web Services (AWS) Athena, AWS Simple Storage Service (S3), and Apache Spark. Using the "schema-on-read" approach allows customization of indexing—spatial or temporal—to suit the data access pattern. The storage of data in open formats such as Apache Parquet has widespread support in popular programming languages. A wide range of solutions for handling big data lowers the access barrier for all users. This presentation will discuss formats used for data storage, frameworks with support for "schema-on-read" used for data access, and common use cases covering data usage patterns seen in a geospatial data archive.

  20. Use of Schema on Read in Earth Science Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Smit, Christine; Pilone, Paul; Petrenko, Maksym; Pham, Long

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, NASA Earth Science data archives have file-based storage using proprietary data file formats, such as HDF and HDF-EOS, which are optimized to support fast and efficient storage of spaceborne and model data as they are generated. The use of file-based storage essentially imposes an indexing strategy based on data dimensions. In most cases, NASA Earth Science data uses time as the primary index, leading to poor performance in accessing data in spatial dimensions. For example, producing a time series for a single spatial grid cell involves accessing a large number of data files. With exponential growth in data volume due to the ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolution of the data, using file-based archives poses significant performance and cost barriers to data discovery and access. Storing and disseminating data in proprietary data formats imposes an additional access barrier for users outside the mainstream research community. At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC), we have evaluated applying the schema-on-read principle to data access and distribution. We used Apache Parquet to store geospatial data, and have exposed data through Amazon Web Services (AWS) Athena, AWS Simple Storage Service (S3), and Apache Spark. Using the schema-on-read approach allows customization of indexing spatially or temporally to suit the data access pattern. The storage of data in open formats such as Apache Parquet has widespread support in popular programming languages. A wide range of solutions for handling big data lowers the access barrier for all users. This presentation will discuss formats used for data storage, frameworks with This presentation will discuss formats used for data storage, frameworks with support for schema-on-read used for data access, and common use cases covering data usage patterns seen in a geospatial data archive.

  1. OFFl Models: Novel Schema for Dynamical Modeling of Biological Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Brandon Ogbunugafor

    Full Text Available Flow diagrams are a common tool used to help build and interpret models of dynamical systems, often in biological contexts such as consumer-resource models and similar compartmental models. Typically, their usage is intuitive and informal. Here, we present a formalized version of flow diagrams as a kind of weighted directed graph which follow a strict grammar, which translate into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs by a single unambiguous rule, and which have an equivalent representation as a relational database. (We abbreviate this schema of "ODEs and formalized flow diagrams" as OFFL. Drawing a diagram within this strict grammar encourages a mental discipline on the part of the modeler in which all dynamical processes of a system are thought of as interactions between dynamical species that draw parcels from one or more source species and deposit them into target species according to a set of transformation rules. From these rules, the net rate of change for each species can be derived. The modeling schema can therefore be understood as both an epistemic and practical heuristic for modeling, serving both as an organizational framework for the model building process and as a mechanism for deriving ODEs. All steps of the schema beyond the initial scientific (intuitive, creative abstraction of natural observations into model variables are algorithmic and easily carried out by a computer, thus enabling the future development of a dedicated software implementation. Such tools would empower the modeler to consider significantly more complex models than practical limitations might have otherwise proscribed, since the modeling framework itself manages that complexity on the modeler's behalf. In this report, we describe the chief motivations for OFFL, carefully outline its implementation, and utilize a range of classic examples from ecology and epidemiology to showcase its features.

  2. SCHeMA open and modular in situ sensing solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercier-Waeber, Marie Louise; Novellino, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Marine environments are highly vulnerable and influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on the ecosystem equilibrium, on living resources and, ultimately, on human health. Identification of relevant types of hazards at the appropriate temporal and spatial scale is crucial to detect their sources and origin, to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution, and to ultimately evaluate and manage their risks and consequences preventing economic losses. This can be addressed only by the development of innovative, compact, rugged, automated, sensor networks allowing long-term monitoring. Development of such tools is a challenging task as it requires many analytical and technical innovations. The FP7-OCEAN 2013-SCHeMA project aims to contribute to meet this challenge by providing an open and modular sensing solution for autonomous in situ high resolution mapping of a range of anthropogenic and natural chemical compounds (trace metals, nutrients, anthropogenic organic compounds, toxic algae species and toxins, species relevant to the carbon cycle). To achieve this, SCHeMA activities focus on the development of : 1) an array of miniature sensor probes taking advantage of various innovative solutions, namely: (polymer-based) gel-integrated sensors; solid state ion-selective membrane sensors coupled to an on-line desalination module; mid-infrared optical sensors; optochemical multichannel devices; enOcean technology; 2) dedicated hardware, firmware and software components allowing their plug-and-play integration, localization as well as wireless bidirectional communication via advanced OGC-SWE wired/wireless dedicated interfaces; 3) a web-based front-end system compatible with EU standard requirements and principles (INSPIRE, GEO/GEOSS) and configured to insure easy interoperability with national, regional and local marine observation systems. This lecture will present examples of

  3. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to approach in this essay the technical paths used to represent hibrid documents in online environment using specific standars. The multimedia contents increase and the diverse storage formats need refined instruments for the search and retrieval process. Dedicated applications require a high level of interperability therefore the necesity of standardization. This study tries to argument theoretically the need to set and reflect logically the media objects properties in metadata schema and to illustrate the importance of ontologies and taxonomies in online environment representation.

  4. SU-E-J-251: Incorporation of Pre-Therapy 18F-FDG Uptake with CT Texture Features in a Predictive Model for Radiation Pneumonitis Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, G; Cunliffe, A; Armato, S; Al-Hallaq, H [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Castillo, R [Univ Texas Medical Branch of Galveston, Pearland, TX (United States); Pham, N [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Guerrero, T [Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the addition of standardized uptake value (SUV) statistical variables to CT lung texture features can improve a predictive model of radiation pneumonitis (RP) development in patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods: Anonymized data from 96 esophageal cancer patients (18 RP-positive cases of Grade ≥ 2) were retrospectively collected including pre-therapy PET/CT scans, pre-/posttherapy diagnostic CT scans and RP status. Twenty texture features (firstorder, fractal, Laws’ filter and gray-level co-occurrence matrix) were calculated from diagnostic CT scans and compared in anatomically matched regions of the lung. The mean, maximum, standard deviation, and 50th–95th percentiles of the SUV values for all lung voxels in the corresponding PET scans were acquired. For each texture feature, a logistic regression-based classifier consisting of (1) the average change in that texture feature value between the pre- and post-therapy CT scans and (2) the pre-therapy SUV standard deviation (SUV{sub SD}) was created. The RP-classification performance of each logistic regression model was compared to the performance of its texture feature alone by computing areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). T-tests were performed to determine whether the mean AUC across texture features changed significantly when SUV{sub SD} was added to the classifier. Results: The AUC for single-texturefeature classifiers ranged from 0.58–0.81 in high-dose (≥ 30 Gy) regions of the lungs and from 0.53–0.71 in low-dose (< 10 Gy) regions. Adding SUVSD in a logistic regression model using a 50/50 data partition for training and testing significantly increased the mean AUC by 0.08, 0.06 and 0.04 in the low-, medium- and high-dose regions, respectively. Conclusion: Addition of SUVSD from a pre-therapy PET scan to a single CT-based texture feature improves RP-classification performance on average. These findings demonstrate the potential for

  5. Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Parenting Origins in Patients with Opioid Abuse and Non-Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Kakavand

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. "nMethod: The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form; and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. "nResults: Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. The analysis showed that the means for schemas between opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers were different. Chi square test showed that parenting origins were significantly associated with their related schemas. "nConclusion:  The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers were more than non-opioid abusers ; and parenting origins were related to their Corresponding schemas.

  6. The effect of schema therapy on reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression in nursing and midwifery students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Maleki

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: schema therapy is an effective method to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in nursing and midwifery students. Counselors and therapist can use schema therapy to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression disorder.

  7. Gambling and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Alcohol Users: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Gambling problems are overrepresented among men seeking treatment for substance use problems, including alcohol dependence. Early maladaptive schemas are overrepresented among substance users, although no known study has examined the early maladaptive schemas of men with potential gambling problems. The current study examined the relations among potential gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas among a sample of alcohol dependent men seeking treatment at a residential substance use facility (N = 628). Using pre-existing patient records of self-report measures for early maladaptive schemas and potential gambling problems, results showed that a number of early maladaptive schemas were associated with gambling. Men with potential gambling problems scored significantly higher than non-problem gamblers on a number of early maladaptive schemas. These results suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be an important underlying characteristic for gambling problems, and that substance use treatment programs should considering screening for and targeting gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas. PMID:23493841

  8. Schema and Locus of Control as Predictors of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Akbarikia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the correlation of maladjusted schema and locus of control with OCD, with the emphasis on cognitive approach to OCD. Method: In this study, 273 Iranian participants were selected; of whom,30% were male and 70% were female. Participants’age ranged from 19 to 34 and the mean age for the sample was 23.42(SD=2.46. Participants completed questionnaire batteries including measure of Levenson Locus of Control, Young Schema Scale and Y –bocsOCD Scale. One sample consisted of patients with a primary OCD according to DSM-IV criteria. The other sample selected for this cross-sectional study was university students.Result: Regression statistics item and reliability analysis were calculated with SPSS and LISREL software. Obsessive compulsive disorder was significantly predicted with both schema and powerful others’ locus of control, as these relations were large but association schema with OCDwas larger than the correlation OCD with powerful others (OCD with schema p.v<0.001 β=.47 and OCD with powerful others p.v<0.001 β=.15.Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that schema and powerful others type of locus of control, were significantly related to both total OCD symptom severity and also to other sub scale of OCD. It is important to mention that schema can significantly predict all symptoms dimension of OCD. Furthermore, the analyses showed that schema was a strong predictor for obsessive thinking.

  9. Young Adolescents' Gender-, Ethnicity-, and Popularity-Based Social Schemas of Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Social schemas can influence the perception and recollection of others' behavior and may create biases in the reporting of social events. This study investigated young adolescents' (N = 317) gender-, ethnicity-, and popularity-based social schemas of overtly and relationally aggressive behavior. Results indicated that participants associated overt…

  10. The "Mother" of All Schemas: Creating Cognitive Dissonance in Children's Fantasy Literature Using the Mother Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovich, Einat Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…

  11. XSAMS: XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules and Solids. Summary report of an IAEA Consultants' Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    Experts on atomic and molecular data and their exchange met at National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-City, Japan, to review progress in the implementation of XSAMS, the XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules and Solids, and to discuss further development of the Schema. The proceedings of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  12. Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

  13. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  14. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  15. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Fernández, Guillén

    2013-01-01

    Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongrSaveuent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always

  16. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  17. Stress Leads to Aberrant Hippocampal Involvement When Processing Schema-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a mental schema, has critical impact on how we organize, interpret, and process incoming information. Recent findings indicate that the use of an existing schema is coordinated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), communicating with parietal areas. The hippocampus, however, is crucial for encoding…

  18. The Schema Axiom as Foundation of a Theory for Measurement and Representation of Consciousness. No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierschenk, Bernhard

    In this study, the Kantian schema has been applied to natural language expression. The novelty of the approach concerns the way in which the Kantian schema interrelates the analytic with the synthetic mode in the construction of the presented formalism. The main thesis is based on the premise that the synthetic, in contrast to the analytic,…

  19. The Evolution of a Coding Schema in a Paced Program of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Charlene A.; Cudney, Shirley; Sullivan, Therese

    2010-01-01

    A major task involved in the management, analysis, and integration of qualitative data is the development of a coding schema to facilitate the analytic process. Described in this paper is the evolution of a coding schema that was used in the analysis of qualitative data generated from online forums of middle-aged women with chronic conditions who…

  20. Analysis of the blocking behaviour of schema transformations in relational database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    In earlier work we have extended the TPC-C benchmark with basic and complex schema transformations. This paper uses this benchmark to investigate the blocking behaviour of online schema transformations in PostgreSQL, MySQL and Oracle 11g. First we discuss experiments using the data definition

  1. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesteren, M.T. van; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Ruiter, D.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently

  2. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Potential Role of Conflict Resolution Schemas in Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…

  4. Specific Dysphoric Symptoms Are Predicted by Early Maladaptive Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Trincas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings.

  5. Exploring mechanisms of change in schema therapy for chronic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; DeRubeis, Robert; Arntz, Arnoud; Peeters, Frenk; Lobbestael, Jill; Huibers, Marcus J H

    2018-03-01

    The underlying mechanisms of symptom change in schema therapy (ST) for chronic major depressive disorder (cMDD) have not been studied. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of two potentially important mechanisms of symptom change, maladaptive schemas (proxied by negative idiosyncratic core-beliefs) and the therapeutic alliance. We drew data from a single-case series of ST for cMDD. Patients with cMDD (N = 20) received on average 78 repeated weekly assessments over a course of up to 65 individual sessions of ST. Focusing on repeated assessments within-individuals, we used mixed regression to test whether change in core-beliefs and therapeutic alliance preceded, followed, or occurred concurrently with change in depressive symptoms. Changes in core-beliefs did not precede but were concurrently related to changes in symptoms. Repeated goal and task agreement ratings (specific aspects of alliance) of the same session, completed on separate days, were at least in part associated with concurrent changes in symptoms. By design this study had a small sample-size and no control group. Contrary to what would be expected based on theory, our findings suggest that change in core-beliefs does not precede change in symptoms. Instead, change in these variables occurs concurrently. Moreover, alliance ratings seem to be at least in part colored by changes in current mood state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Grounded Perceptual Schemas: Developmental Acquisition of Spatial Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Amitabha; Sarkar, Mausoom

    Hand-engineered definitions of spatial categories are increasingly seen as brittle and spatial concepts in human interactions may need to learn these in terms of perceptually grounded "image schemas". Here, we present a developmental approach for the acquisition of grounded spatial schemas in a perceptual agent. We assume a capability for dynamic visual attention, and perceptual notions of wholeness and proximity. We first learn perceptual-object to linguisticname mappings from simple 2D multi-agent visual streams co-occurring with word-separated utterances. Mutual information based statistical measures are seen to be sufficient to identify nominal participants in a simple discourse, based on a synthetic model of dynamic visual attention. Next, we use this knowledge of nominals to ground the semantics of spatial relations in language.We show that a notion of proximity between perceptual objects is sufficient to obtain a pre-verbal notion of graded spatial poses. Once linguistic data is superimposed on this, simple associative structures lead to distinctions such as "in" or "out". Finally we also show how this can lead to a model of actions, where verbs are learned along with the associated argument structures.

  7. Role of Father–Child Relational Quality in Early Maladaptive Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirpoor, Nader; Gholamyzarch, Morteza; Tamaddonfard, Mohsen; Khoosfi, Helen; Ganjali, Ali Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary maladaptive schemas, which are the basis of high-risk behavior and psychological disorders, result from childhood experiences with significant objects, such as fathers, in different developmental phases. Objectives This endeavor examined the role of the father in predicting these schemas. Patients and Methods A total of 345 Islamic Azad University students (Qom Branch) who were chosen through convenience sampling completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Parent–Child Relationship Survey. Results A multivariate regression analysis indicated that anumber of aspects of the father–child relationship, including care, emotional interaction, positive affection, the effective relationship, and excessive support, predict particular schemas. Conclusions Therefore, these findings suggested that psychotherapists examine the different aspects of the father–child relationship when restructuring schemas. PMID:24971232

  8. Explaining sex differences in managerial career satisfier preferences: the role of gender self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Kimberly A; Veiga, John F; Powell, Gary N

    2006-03-01

    Using survey data from 400 managers, the authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. Female gender self-schema, represented by femininity and family role salience, completely mediated the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for socioemotional career satisfiers. However, male gender self-schema, represented by masculinity and career role salience, did not mediate the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for status-based career satisfiers. As expected, male managers regarded status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers did. The proposed conceptualization of male and female gender self-schemas, which was supported by the data, enhances understanding of adult self-schema and work-related attitudes and behavior.

  9. The self-schema model: a theoretical approach to the self-concept in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, K F

    1996-04-01

    Over the last several decades, the self-concept has been implicated as a important determinant of eating disorders (ED). Although considerable progress has been made, questions remain unanswered about the properties of self-concept that distinguish women with an ED from other populations, and mechanisms that link the self-concept to the disordered behaviors. Markus's self-schema model is presented as a theoretical approach to explore the role of the self-concept in ED. To show how the schema model can be integrated with existing work on the self-concept in ED, a framework is proposed that addresses the number, content, and accessibility of the self-schemas. More specifically, it is posited that a limited collection of positive self-schemas available in memory, in combination with a chronically and inflexibly accessible body-weight self-schema, lead to the disordered behaviors associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

  10. [Independent and interdependent self-schema in Japanese adolescents and elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Toshitake

    2007-12-01

    The study investigated the functions of self-schema pertaining to independent and interdependent self-construal. Four groups of participants, who had (a) independent schema, (b) interdependent schema, (c) both schemata, or (d) neither schema (aschematic), were compared in cognitive performance on a schema-relevant information processing task. Study I, with college students, found that interdependent schemata were used in the task by the interdependent (b) and the both (c) group, but independent schemata were not used by the independent (a) and the both (c) group. Study II, with aged participants, found that not only the interdependent schemata were used by the interdependent (b) and the both (c) group, but also independent schemata were used by the independent (a) and the both (c) group. These findings provide evidence for Takata's (2004) hypotheses that the interdependent self is internalized in adolescence and the independent self develops after adulthood in Japanese culture.

  11. Why Did This Happen to Me? Cognitive Schema Disruption and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2010-01-01

    Many trauma researchers have proposed cognitive schemas as a heuristic device to understand the elusive process of integrating traumatic events. We examined the schemas of a sample (N = 257) of female participants classified by exposure to sexual trauma, nonsexual trauma, and no trauma experience. Cognitive schema was assessed with the Traumatic…

  12. Relationship between early maladaptive schemas and safe communications in married students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mahmoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemata are patterns or profound themes which include memories, excitements, cognitions and physical emotions which are formed in childhood or adolescence, sustain in journey of life. This study aimed to investigate relationship between early maladaptive schemas and safe communications in students. 226 married students (113 women and 113 men in 23-33 age range were selected and filled young schema questionnaire - short form with 75 items and 14 sub-scales and scale of safe communications including religious attitudes, efforts to improve relations and emotional relationship. Results indicated that there is significant negative relationship between early maladaptive schemas and total score of safe communications. As well as all aspects of early maladaptive schemas (except loss and disease vulnerability and sacrifice have significant negative correlation with emotional relationship aspect and all aspects of early maladaptive schemas (except suffering and sacrifice aspect have significant negative correlation with religious attitude. Moreover, all aspects of early maladaptive schemas (except loss and disease vulnerability and sacrifice have significant negative correlation with effort to improve relations aspect. This study showed that early maladaptive schemas affect safe communications between couples in adulthood.

  13. Schema and locus of control as predictors of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarikia, Hamidreza; Gasparyan, Khachatur

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the correlation of maladjusted schema and locus of control with OCD, with the emphasis on cognitive approach to OCD. In this study, 273 Iranian participants were selected; of whom, 30% were male and 70% were female. Participants' age ranged from 19 to 34 and the mean age for the sample was 23.42(SD=2.46). Participants completed questionnaire batteries including measure of Levenson Locus of Control, Young Schema Scale and Y -bocsOCD Scale. One sample consisted of patients with a primary OCD according to DSM-IV criteria. The other sample selected for this cross-sectional study was university students. Regression statistics item and reliability analysis were calculated with SPSS and LISREL software. Obsessive compulsive disorder was significantly predicted with both schema and powerful others' locus of control, as these relations were large but association schema with OCDwas larger than the correlation OCD with powerful others (OCD with schema p.vschema and powerful others type of locus of control, were significantly related to both total OCD symptom severity and also to other sub scale of OCD. It is important to mention that schema can significantly predict all symptoms dimension of OCD. Furthermore, the analyses showed that schema was a strong predictor for obsessive thinking.

  14. Young Schema Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Specificity in Relation to Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulei; Wang, Jianping; Yu, Wei; He, Li; Oei, Tian P S

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the factor structure of Young Schema Questionnaire-short form (YSQ-SF) in a sample of Chinese adolescents, and to explore which maladaptive schemas were associated with anxiety symptoms. YSQ-SF was administered to 983 nonclinical Chinese adolescents aged 13-17 years. Confirmatory factor analyses with weighted least squares means and variance adjusted estimation were conducted to examine the factor structure of YSQ-SF. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify schemas associated with anxiety symptoms. A bifactor model with 15 correlated factors fitted the data better than other priori defined models. Stepwise regressions showed Vulnerability to harm, Abandonment, Emotional inhibition, Subjugation, and Unrelenting standards schemas were associated with anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, different anxiety symptoms were associated with common and distinctive schemas. Maladaptive schemas were already stably formed in Chinese adolescents, however there's no robust evidence for the existence of domain. The explanatory value of maladaptive schemas for understanding psychopathology of anxiety in adolescence is discussed.

  15. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-09-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a substance use disorder than the general population. Toward this end, we examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men in a residential substance use treatment facility ( N = 106). Utilizing pre-existing patient records, results demonstrated unique associations between early maladaptive schema domains and aggression depending on the type of aggression and schema domain examined, even after controlling for substance use, antisocial personality, age, and education. The Impaired Limits domain was positively associated with verbal aggression, aggressive attitude, and overall aggression, whereas the Disconnection and Rejection domain was positively associated with physical aggression. These findings are consistent with social-cognitive models of aggression and advance our understanding of how early maladaptive schemas may influence aggression. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  16. The explanatory power of Schema Theory: theoretical foundations and future applications in Ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Katherine L; Stanton, Neville A

    2013-01-01

    Schema Theory is intuitively appealing although it has not always received positive press; critics of the approach argue that the concept is too ambiguous and vague and there are inherent difficulties associated with measuring schemata. As such, the term schema can be met with scepticism and wariness. The purpose of this paper is to address the criticisms that have been levelled at Schema Theory by demonstrating how Schema Theory has been utilised in Ergonomics research, particularly in the key areas of situation awareness, naturalistic decision making and error. The future of Schema Theory is also discussed in light of its potential roles as a unifying theory in Ergonomics and in contributing to our understanding of distributed cognition. We conclude that Schema Theory has made a positive contribution to Ergonomics and with continued refinement of methods to infer and represent schemata it is likely that this trend will continue. This paper reviews the contribution that Schema Theory has made to Ergonomics research. The criticisms of the theory are addressed using examples from the areas of situation awareness, decision making and error.

  17. PERANGKAT LUNAK ANTAR MUKA GRAFIS SCHEMA DAN CUBE EDITOR MS ANALYSIS SERVICE BERBASIS WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Johan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplikasi Web telah menjadi bagian yang tidak terpisahkan lagi dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Seiring dengan meningkatnya teknologi internet membuat seorang administrator tidak perlu berada didepan komputer server untuk dapat melakukan pekerjaan administratif seperti membuat analisis proses secara online dari sebuah schema database untuk dibuat schema cube (data warehousing dan melakukan perubahan pada schema yang sudah dibuat.Untuk dapat melakukan hal tersebut SQL Server 7.0 maupun SQL Server 2000 telah menyediakan fasilitas pengaksesan tabel dimensi, cube, relasi dan koneksi database dalam Analysis Manager menggunakan DSO (Decision Support Object library component MS OLAP. Dengan adanya DSO connection, seorang administrator dapat memanipulasi schema, tabel, cube, dimension, relasi suatu schema cube dari database SQL Server secara langsung dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman yang mendukung, seperti MS Visual Basic, VBScript, MS Visual C++, MS.Net. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat aplikasi berbasis web yang merupakan tahap awal dari OLAP (Online Analytical Processing suatu schema database dengan menggunakan SQL Analysis Service, Analysis Manager yang memungkinkan seorang administrator database untuk dapat melakukan pekerjaan administratif khususnya membuat schema dan cube (fact table dari database yang dianalisis, membuat dan mengedit dimensi, dimana saja tanpa harus berada di komputer server. Kata Kunci : DSO, Cube, Measure,GUI, dimensi, fact table, ADO MD, SQL DMO, OLAP.

  18. Healthy-eater self-schema and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults.

  19. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we aim to investigate knowledge as approach of describing possible worlds through classification schema, taxonomies, ontologies and semantic web. We focus on the historical background and the methods of culture and civilization representation. In this regard, we studied the ancient concern to classify knowledge, from the biblical period when the Tree Metaphor concentrated the essence of knowledge, to the Francis Bacon classification and then Paul Otlet and we analysed the languages used in the scientific fields and then in the information science filed, emphasizing on the improvements of the ICT: hypertext and semantic web. We paid a special attention to the knowledge construction through math language and exchange standards. The reason of the approach comes from the logic and philosophic base of the knowledge representation that underline the idea that only properly structured scientific domains ensure the progress of the society.

  20. Emotion regulation in schema therapy and dialectical behavior therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fassbinder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Schema therapy (ST and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross’ process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g. lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect. These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogues and imagery rescripting.

  1. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567

  2. Sexual self-schema and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Carpenter, Kristen M

    2015-04-01

    The years following prostate cancer treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schema (SSS) is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Men (N = 66) treated for localized prostate cancer in the preceding 2 years were assessed at T1 and 4 months later (T2). Questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Sexual Self-schema Scale for Men, Sexual Experience Scale, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.25, p < 0.05). Results showed significant interactions between SSS and sexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Towards the XML schema measurement based on mapping between XML and OO domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Gordana; Budimac, Zoran; Heričko, Marjan; Pušnik, Maja

    2017-07-01

    Measuring quality of IT solutions is a priority in software engineering. Although numerous metrics for measuring object-oriented code already exist, measuring quality of UML models or XML Schemas is still developing. One of the research questions in the overall research leaded by ideas described in this paper is whether we can apply already defined object-oriented design metrics on XML schemas based on predefined mappings. In this paper, basic ideas for mentioned mapping are presented. This mapping is prerequisite for setting the future approach to XML schema quality measuring with object-oriented metrics.

  4. The interaction between schema matching and record matching in data integration (extended abstract)

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-05-18

    Schema Matching (SM) and Record Matching (RM) are two necessary steps in integrating multiple relational tables of different schemas, where SM unifies the schemas and RM detects records referring to the same real-world entity. The two processes have been thoroughly studied separately, but few attention has been paid to the interaction of SM and RM. In this work we find that, even alternating them in a simple manner, SM and RM can benefit from each other to reach a better integration performance (i.e., in terms of precision and recall). Therefore, combining SM and RM is a promising solution for improving data integration.

  5. A Multianalyzer Machine Learning Model for Marine Heterogeneous Data Schema Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges that marine heterogeneous data integration faces are the problem of accurate schema mapping between heterogeneous data sources. In order to improve the schema mapping efficiency and get more accurate learning results, this paper proposes a heterogeneous data schema mapping method basing on multianalyzer machine learning model. The multianalyzer analysis the learning results comprehensively, and a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation system is introduced for output results’ evaluation and multi factor quantitative judging. Finally, the data mapping comparison experiment on the East China Sea observing data confirms the effectiveness of the model and shows multianalyzer’s obvious improvement of mapping error rate.

  6. Manipulation of the body schema - Unilateral manual stimulation of lower extremity influences weight distribution in standing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessoe, Uffe; Barth, Lasse; Skeie, Sindre; McGirr, Kate

    2017-07-01

    Clinical experience advocates sensory stimulation to increase the body sensation and adjust the body schema, which may be disturbed in some patients. Unilateral massage may affect the body midline orientation, but little evidence is available to support the effect of this practice. Twenty-one healthy young people participated in this experimental study. Two force plates measured weight distribution between the legs in standing position before and after unilateral manual stimulation of the lower extremities. Stimulation of the leg with initial least weight-bearing increased the load on this leg significantly from 48.2% to 49.0% and a similar but reverse effect was seen when stimulating the contra-lateral leg. When analysing the data with respect to stimulation of the non-dominant leg, the stimulation increased the weight-bearing on this leg from 49.6% to 51.3%. These findings indicate that external afferent stimuli may enhance the body perception and influence the body schema and midline orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Writing Approach to Reading Comprehension--Schema Theory in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Arts, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes a sequence of instructional strategies for teaching writing, based on schema theory, to help young readers with comprehension and structure. The sequence includes "factstorming," categorizing facts, collaborative drafting, sequencing paragraphs, drafting introductions and conclusions, organizing parts, interpreting similar…

  8. Are maladaptive schema domains and perfectionism related to body image concerns in eating disorder patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Liesbet; Braet, Caroline; Vandereycken, Walter; Claes, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Both maladaptive schemas (MS) and perfectionism have been associated with eating pathology. However, previous research has not examined these variables simultaneously and has not studied possible mediating relationships between MS and multidimensional perfectionism for body image concerns in eating disorder (ED) patients. Eighty-eight female ED patients completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and the Body Attitude Test. Body image concerns were found to be positively related to Personal Standards (PS) and Evaluative Concerns (EC) perfectionism and all five schema domains. PS Perfectionism was positively associated with Disconnection, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. EC Perfectionism was positively related to Disconnection, Impaired Autonomy, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. Moreover, EC perfectionism was found to be a significant mediator in the relationship between the schema domains Impaired Autonomy and Overvigilance and body image concerns. These findings denote the importance to address both core beliefs and perfectionism in ED treatment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Whether social schema violations help or hurt creativity depends on need for structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocłowska, M.A.; Baas, M.; Crisp, R.J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although people and events that disconfirm observers’ expectancies can increase their creativity, sometimes such social schema violations increase observers’ rigidity of thought and undermine creative cognition. Here we examined whether individual differences in the extent to which people prefer

  10. Racial-ethnic self-schemas: Multi-dimensional identity-based motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Daphna

    2008-01-01

    Prior self-schema research focuses on benefits of being schematic vs. aschematic in stereotyped domains. The current studies build on this work, examining racial-ethnic self-schemas as multi-dimensional, containing multiple, conflicting, and non-integrated images. A multidimensional perspective captures complexity; examining net effects of dimensions predicts within-group differences in academic engagement and well-being. When racial-ethnicity self-schemas focus attention on membership in both in-group and broader society, engagement with school should increase since school is not seen as out-group defining. When racial-ethnicity self-schemas focus attention on inclusion (not obstacles to inclusion) in broader society, risk of depressive symptoms should decrease. Support for these hypotheses was found in two separate samples (8th graders, n = 213, 9th graders followed to 12th grade n = 141). PMID:19122837

  11. Job Satisfaction and Employee’s Self-Schema at Workplace: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mehrad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and self-schema amongst employees at the workplace. The results of the study revealed that self-schema derived from feelings and attitudes of employees based on their satisfaction at the workplace; and, explained that employees' schemas are various, completely. This study likewise considered on job satisfaction as a main organizational factor that increases the amount of performance and presence of employees at the workplace. Also, it focused on self-schema that pivotal role in employees believes about themselves. Moreover, lack of attention to job satisfaction that influenced on employees' scheme appeared some abnormal organizational behaviors at workplace. Thus, the present study supports job satisfaction to achieve appropriate scheme among employees at the workplace.

  12. Self-schema and social comparison explanations of body dissatisfaction: a laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-03-01

    The current study was an investigation of the self-schema and social comparison theories of body dissatisfaction. The social comparison manipulation consisted of exposure to one of three levels of comparison figure: upward, downward, or no comparison. Two different imagery exercises served to prime either a participants' appearance self-schema, or a non-appearance schema. Participants completed state measures of body image and mood at pre- and posttest. Results indicated no significant interaction between priming and social comparison and no significant main effect for priming. However, there was a significant effect of social comparison, such that those in the downward comparison condition showed an increase in body satisfaction and positive mood. Results are discussed in the context of self-schema theory and social comparison, and suggestions are given for future research that might further shed light on these theoretical approaches for understanding body dissatisfaction.

  13. Schema architecture and their relationships to transaction processing in distributed database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apers, Peter M.G.; Scheuermann, P.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the different types of schema architectures which could be supported by distributed database systems, making a clear distinction between logical, physical, and federated distribution. We elaborate on the additional mapping information required in architecture based on logical distribution

  14. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  15. Choosing the Right Path: Image Schema Theory as a Foundation for Concept Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedblom, Maria M.; Kutz, Oliver; Neuhaus, Fabian

    2015-12-01

    Image schemas are recognised as a fundamental ingredient in human cognition and creative thought. They have been studied extensively in areas such as cognitive linguistics. With the goal of exploring their potential role in computational creative systems, we here study the viability of the idea to formalise image schemas as a set of interlinked theories. We discuss in particular a selection of image schemas related to the notion of `path', and show how they can be mapped to a formalised family of microtheories reflecting the different aspects of path following. Finally, we illustrate the potential of this approach in the area of concept invention, namely by providing several examples illustrating in detail in what way formalised image schema families support the computational modelling of conceptual blending.

  16. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  17. Schema Modes and Dissociation in Borderline Personality Disorder/Traits in Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    HODA LAGHA BARAZANDEH

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the schema modes present in adolescents/youth with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and assess the relationship between schema modes and dissociation. Recruitment of 42 BPD patients from Monash Health enabled comparison with 42 non-patients, who were recruited from the community. Patients with BPD scored significantly higher than non-patients in all maladaptive modes except narcissistic modes (bully/attack and self-aggrandizer modes). Step-wise regression sh...

  18. MS SQL Server 7.0 as a Platform for a Star Join Schema Data Warehouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto; Alnor, Karl

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we construct a Star Join Schema and show how this schema can be created using the basic tools delivered with SQL Server 7.0. Major objectives are to keep the operational database unchanged so that data loading can be done without disturbing the business logic of the operational...... database. The operational data base is an expanded version of the Pubs database....

  19. Therapy of anorexia and Young’s early maladaptive schemas. Longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Young’s early maladaptive schemas are defined as convictions about oneself acquired in childhood, formed by a child in response to deprivation of his or her basic needs, especially in the area of relationships. In the case of anorexia, the role of the family and relations is emphasized as crucial for the genesis of this disorder. The aim of the research was to investigate whether Young’s early maladaptive schemas change during the therapy, which would prognosticate higher treatment efficiency. Participants and procedure The study group included 30 women suffering from anorexia, starting their 6-week therapeutic program. The procedure included double measurement: during the administration and discharge. The respondents filled in the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 (twice, the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS adapted by Juczyński (twice, and a demographic chart (once. Results The intensity of all schemas decreased after completion of the therapeutic program; the differences were mostly statistically significant. The composition of the most intense schemas did not change significantly: unrelenting standards and abandonment were the highest during both measurements. What changed were the interrelations between the schemas. They are also connected with the acceptance of the illness (the weaker they are, the greater the acceptance, and the stronger the relations and with psychological well-being, especially during the post-therapy measurement. Conclusions The schemas seem to be significant from the perspective of understanding anorexia. They are susceptible to be changed by integrative therapies. Nevertheless, it seems that in order to achieve a durable change, schema therapy should be applied.

  20. Relationships between early alcohol experiences, drinker self-schema, drinking and smoking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F

    2018-02-23

    Drinking and smoking commonly co-occur in undergraduate students. Although an identity as a drinker is a known predictor of alcohol use and alcohol problems, and early evidence suggests that it also predicts smoking, the role of these behaviors in the development of an identity as a drinker is unknown. In this study, we conceptualized a drinker identity as an enduring memory structure referred to as a self-schema, and conducted a preliminary investigation of the relationships between early drinking experiences, drinker self-schema, and alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students. Three-hundred thirty undergraduates who reported current alcohol and tobacco use were recruited for an on-line survey study. Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use in the past 30 days, drinker self-schema, and early experiences with alcohol were measured. Structural equation modeling showed parental alcohol problems were associated with early onset of drinking. Early onset of drinking and high school friends' drinking were associated with more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in high school. Alcohol problems during high school were associated with high drinker self-schema scores, which were associated with high frequency of alcohol and tobacco use during college. The indirect effects through the drinker self-schema were significant. Though cross-sectional, this preliminary examination supports theoretical predictions that early alcohol experiences may contribute to development of the drinker self-schema, which as expected, was positively associated with alcohol and tobacco use in college. Longitudinal studies that track the unfolding of drinking behavior and the contextual factors that are associated with it on the development of the self-drinker schema are essential to confirm the theoretical model. If supported, implications for intervention at different developmental stages to prevent early onset of drinking, limit adolescent alcohol use, and modify the development of a

  1. Effects of drinker self-schema on drinking- and smoking-related information processing and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuie; Stein, Karen F; Corte, Colleen

    2018-01-02

    Co-occurrence of drinking and smoking is prevalent in undergraduate students. A drinker self-schema-cognition about the self as the drinker-is a common identity in undergraduates and a well-known predictor of drinking behaviors. Given that smoking commonly occurs in the context of drinking, a drinker self-schema may be a cognitive mechanism to motivate co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use (i.e., cross-substance facilitation hypothesis). This study was to determine whether the drinker self-schema influences the processing of drinking- and smoking-related information and facilitates the co-occurrence of alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students who drink and smoke but do not self-identify as smokers. This study was the second phase of a 2-phase study. Of the 330 who completed phase 1 (online survey), 99 completed the phase 2 study. Phase 2 was an in-person session that included a computerized information processing task to measure endorsements and response latencies for drinking- and smoking-related attributes, and a computerized Timeline Followback that was used to measure 90-day alcohol- and tobacco-use behaviors. The 5-item drinker self-schema scale, administered in phase 1, was used to measure the strength of the drinker self-schema. A higher drinker self-schema score was associated with more endorsements of positive attributes for drinking and smoking, fewer endorsements of negative attributes for smoking, faster processing of agreements with positive alcohol-use-related attributes, higher levels of drinking and smoking, and more days of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use. Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the cross-substance facilitation hypothesis that the drinker self-schema facilitates the processing of not only drinking-related but also smoking-related stimuli and behaviors. Undergraduates who have higher drinker self-schema scores may be vulnerable to co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use.

  2. Early maladaptive schemas and level of depression in alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Jabłoński

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether a link exists between early maladaptive schemas identified by Young et al. and depression in alcoholics. The relationships of schemas with selected alcohol dependence variables and suicidal thoughts in alcoholics were also checked. Material and methods: Seventy-seven alcohol addicts participated in the study – 19 women and 58 men. Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3, Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI and Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST were used. Results: Based on the results obtained, 16 out of 18 schemas are positively and statistically correlated with depression among alcoholics. The strongest relationships were noted for emotional deprivation, social isolation/alienation and subjugation. Correlations between the schemas and the severity of addiction and the age of drinking initiation were also found. Differences in the intensity of some schemas occurred between people experiencing suicidal thoughts and people without these thoughts. Conclusions: There is a need to consider inclusion therapy focused on changing maladaptive schemas in alcoholics. This is especially true of the schemas of social isolation, emotional deprivation and subjugation. There is also a need for further research in this area.

  3. Change Mechanisms of Schema-Centered Group Psychotherapy with Personality Disorder Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Zorn, Peter; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study addressed the temporal properties of personality disorders and their treatment by schema-centered group psychotherapy. It investigated the change mechanisms of psychotherapy using a novel method by which psychotherapy can be modeled explicitly in the temporal domain. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: 69 patients were assigned to a specific schema-centered behavioral group psychotherapy, 26 to social skills training as a control condition. The largest diagnostic subgroups were n...

  4. Short-term group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adults with personality disorders and personality disorder features: Associations with changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes and coping styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, F.; van Goor, M.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Arntz, A.; Butz, B.; Bernstein, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to document the effects of a group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (SCBT-g; van Vreeswijk & Broersen, 2006) on global symptomatic distress in young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features. We also sought to determine the

  5. [Effects of construct accessibility and self-schema on person memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, H

    1991-10-01

    The present study investigated the relationship among construct accessibility, self-schema and person memory. Three hundred and thirty-four subjects received 40 behavioral descriptions of a stimulus person, consisting of eight specific behaviors on each of five trait-dimensions. Subjects also rated personality traits of their acquaintances and themselves on nine-point bipolar scales and ranked the importance of the five trait-dimensions. Weights, which subjects assigned to each of the five dimensions, were calculated as indices of construct accessibility. Self-schema scores of each subject were also calculated based on his/her ratings. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the dimensional weights and self-schema scores were positively correlated with the recall performance of the descriptions of the stimulus person. The schematics recalled significantly more descriptions than the aschematics, whether their self-schema was positive or negative. Subjects who had positive self-schema showed higher construct accessibility than the aschematics. It was argued that the relationship between construct accessibility and self-schema might be affected by motivational factors such as self-esteem.

  6. Continued Bullying Victimization in Adolescents: Maladaptive Schemas as a Mediational Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Fernández-González, Liria; González-Cabrera, Joaquín M; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    Bullying victimization in adolescence is a significant social problem that can become persistent over time for some victims. However, there is an overall paucity of research examining the factors that contribute to continued bullying victimization. Schema therapy proposes a model that can help us understand why bullying victimization can be persistent for some victims. This study examines the role of maladaptive schemas, the key concept in schema therapy, as a mechanism of continued bullying victimization. The hypothesis was that maladaptive schemas of rejection mediate the predictive association between victimization in both the family and at school and future bullying victimization. Social anxiety was also considered, as previous research suggests that it can increase the risk of victimization. The participants were 1328 adolescents (45% female) with a mean age of 15.05 years (SD = 1.37), who completed questionnaires at three time points with a 6-month interval between them. Time 2 maladaptive schemas of rejection significantly mediated the predictive association from Time 1 bullying victimization, family abuse and social anxiety to Time 3 bullying victimization. The findings pertaining to potentially malleable factors, such as maladaptive schemas that maintain continued interpersonal victimization, have important implications for prevention and treatment strategies with adolescents.

  7. Maladaptive interpersonal schemas as sensitive and specific markers of borderline personality disorder among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Tanis, Thachell; Ardalan, Firouz; Yaseen, Zimri; Galynker, Igor

    2016-08-30

    Diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mood and psychotic disorders characterized by major mood episodes (i.e., major depressive, bipolar and schizoaffective disorder) share marked overlap in symptom presentation, complicating differential diagnosis. The current study tests the hypothesis that maladaptive interpersonal schemas (MIS) are characteristic of BPD, but not of the major mood disorders. One hundred psychiatric inpatients were assessed by SCID I, SCID II and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2). Logistic regression analyses tested the association between MIS (measured by the YSQ-S2) and BPD, bipolar, major depressive and schizoaffective disorder. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses assessed the sensitivity and specificity of MIS as a marker of BPD. After covariation for comorbidity with each of the 3 mood disorders, BPD was robustly associated with 4 out of 5 schema domains. In contrast, only one of fifteen regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between any mood disorder and schema domain after covariation for comorbid BPD. ROC analyses of the 5 schema domains suggested Disconnection/Rejection had the greatest power for identification of BPD cases. These data support the specific role of maladaptive interpersonal schemas in BPD and potentially contribute to greater conceptual clarity about the distinction between BPD and the major mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploration of trauma, dissociation, maladaptive schemas and auditory hallucinations in a French sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolon, Catherine; Seillé, Jade; Raffard, Stéphane

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of the present study was to explore the associations between several key variables that have been shown to partially mediate the link between specific trauma exposure and auditory hallucinations (AH), that is, maladaptive schemas and dissociation in the general population. In total, 425 voluntary participants were recruited from the general population and completed online the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Young schema questionnaire, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, and the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale. Data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling. Our model showed that: (1) sexual and emotional abuse impact on AH both through the effect of maladaptive schemas and dissociation; (2) physical abuse impact on AH only through the effect of dissociation. More specifically, we found that four maladaptive schemas impact on AH: Abandonment, Vulnerability, Self-sacrifice and Subjugation. Overall, our findings indicate that specific early maladaptive schemas may play a fundamental role in the association between exposure to trauma and auditory hallucination together with dissociation symptoms in the general population. Consequently, our study suggest considering maladaptive schemas as an important therapeutic target when working with individuals experiencing AH with or without a psychiatry disorder.

  9. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: implications from connectionist modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Rie; Hartono, Pitoyo; Abe, Jun-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (Learning Network for Tonal Schema, LeNTS) was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical 'scale' sensitivity early and 'harmony' sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a) the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b) the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and (c) the learning principles of schema acquisition may be culturally invariant while the acquired tonal schemas are varied with exposed culture-specific music.

  10. Measuring Individual Differences in the Perfect Automation Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Stephanie M; Unnerstall, Jennifer L; Lee, Deborah; Huber, Kelli

    2015-08-01

    A self-report measure of the perfect automation schema (PAS) is developed and tested. Researchers have hypothesized that the extent to which users possess a PAS is associated with greater decreases in trust after users encounter automation errors. However, no measure of the PAS currently exists. We developed a self-report measure assessing two proposed PAS factors: high expectations and all-or-none thinking about automation performance. In two studies, participants responded to our PAS measure, interacted with imperfect automated aids, and reported trust. Each of the two PAS measure factors demonstrated fit to the hypothesized factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity when compared with propensity to trust machines and trust in a specific aid. However, the high expectations and all-or-none thinking scales showed low intercorrelations and differential relationships with outcomes, suggesting that they might best be considered two separate constructs rather than two subfactors of the PAS. All-or-none thinking had significant associations with decreases in trust following aid errors, whereas high expectations did not. Results therefore suggest that the all-or-none thinking scale may best represent the PAS construct. Our PAS measure (specifically, the all-or-none thinking scale) significantly predicted the severe trust decreases thought to be associated with high PAS. Further, it demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties across two samples. This measure may be used in future work to assess levels of PAS in users of automated systems in either research or applied settings. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  11. The Attention Schema Theory: A Foundation for Engineering Artificial Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. A. Graziano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the attention schema theory is to explain how an information-processing device, the brain, arrives at the claim that it possesses a non-physical, subjective awareness and assigns a high degree of certainty to that extraordinary claim. The theory does not address how the brain might actually possess a non-physical essence. It is not a theory that deals in the non-physical. It is about the computations that cause a machine to make a claim and to assign a high degree of certainty to the claim. The theory is offered as a possible starting point for building artificial consciousness. Given current technology, it should be possible to build a machine that contains a rich internal model of what consciousness is, attributes that property of consciousness to itself and to the people it interacts with, and uses that attribution to make predictions about human behavior. Such a machine would “believe” it is conscious and act like it is conscious, in the same sense that the human machine believes and acts.

  12. Medical and Transmission Vector Vocabulary Alignment with Schema.org

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William P.; Chappell, Alan R.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-04-21

    Available biomedical ontologies and knowledge bases currently lack formal and standards-based interconnections between disease, disease vector, and drug treatment vocabularies. The PNNL Medical Linked Dataset (PNNL-MLD) addresses this gap. This paper describes the PNNL-MLD, which provides a unified vocabulary and dataset of drug, disease, side effect, and vector transmission background information. Currently, the PNNL-MLD combines and curates data from the following research projects: DrugBank, DailyMed, Diseasome, DisGeNet, Wikipedia Infobox, Sider, and PharmGKB. The main outcomes of this effort are a dataset aligned to Schema.org, including a parsing framework, and extensible hooks ready for integration with selected medical ontologies. The PNNL-MLD enables researchers more quickly and easily to query distinct datasets. Future extensions to the PNNL-MLD will include Traditional Chinese Medicine, broader interlinks across genetic structures, a larger thesaurus of synonyms and hypernyms, explicit coding of diseases and drugs across research systems, and incorporating vector-borne transmission vocabularies.

  13. Effects of schema group therapy in older outpatients: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, A C; Rossi, G; Schoevaars, M; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M; van der Feltz, C; van Alphen, S P J

    2014-10-01

    Short-term group schema cognitive behavior therapy (SCBT-g) showed improvements in overall symptomatology, early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and schema modes, both in adults and adolescents with personality disorder (PD) features and long-standing mood disorders. However, no research has yet been carried out on the effect in older adults. Therefore, in a proof of concept study, we explored the effect of SCBT-g in older outpatients with PD features and longstanding mood disorders. Thirty-one older outpatients, aged 60-78 years with PD features and/or longstanding mood disorders were included in a proof of concept study with pre-mid-post design. Primary outcome was psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory) and intermediate outcomes were EMS (Young Schema Questionnaire) and schema modes (Schema Mode Inventory), assessed at baseline, mid-treatment and end-of-treatment. Paired samples t-tests were conducted, and Cohen's d effect sizes reported for pre mid- and post-treatment. As proof of concept analysis, hierarchical regression analyses with residual change scores were used to analyse whether early process changes in EMS (intermediate outcomes) predicted later outcome changes in symptoms. SCBT-g led to significant improvement in all three measures of psychological symptoms, EMS and modes with medium effect sizes. Pre-treatment to mid-treatment changes in schema severity predicted symptom improvement from mid- to end-of-treatment. This proof of concept study shows that SCBT-g has potential to change EMS and to show significant effect at symptom level in older outpatients with PD features. A control condition in a randomized controlled trial is a necessary step for further research.

  14. Early Maladaptive Schemas Related to Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective and methodology: Cognitive theory of depression has begun to examine the difference between bipolar and unipolar depression in the context of thinking features. Yet, little is known about the same and seperated points of bipolar and unipolar depression. The objective is evaluating relationship between cognitive schemas of bipolar and unipolar patients. Bipolar and unipolar depression patients and a control group were enrolled in the study. Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Scale and Young Schema Questionnaire were administered to the groups. Results: There was significant difference between unipolar and control groups in “Abandonment/instability”. In “mistrust/ abuse” significant difference was between unipolar and bipolar and between unipolar and control groups. ln “entitlement/self-centeredness” difference was between unipolar and control groups. In all other schemas, difference was between unipolar and control and bipolar and control groups. In these schemas, control group had significantly lower scores than others. Unipolar and bipolar groups were similar. Conclusion: In patient groups, schemas like defectiveness, incompetence, failure, vulnerability to danger and undeveloped self were indicative of low self-perception. This case draws attention to distortions in self-perception. When the absence of difference between bipolar and controls in “mistrust/abuse” and “abandonment/instability” schemas is evaluated in terms of cognitive triad, it is suggested that environmental perspective in this group of patients did not exhibit pessimistic features. The only significantly different schema between unipolar and bipolar groups was “mistrust/ abuse”. This suggests that bipolar group didn’t have negative thoughts like unipolar patients about the perception of the enviroment.

  15. Schema-based learning of adaptable and flexible prey- catching in anurans II. Learning after lesioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbacho, Fernando; Nishikawa, Kiisa C; Weerasuriya, Ananda; Liaw, Jim-Shih; Arbib, Michael A

    2005-12-01

    The previous companion paper describes the initial (seed) schema architecture that gives rise to the observed prey-catching behavior. In this second paper in the series we describe the fundamental adaptive processes required during learning after lesioning. Following bilateral transections of the hypoglossal nerve, anurans lunge toward mealworms with no accompanying tongue or jaw movement. Nevertheless anurans with permanent hypoglossal transections eventually learn to catch their prey by first learning to open their mouth again and then lunging their body further and increasing their head angle. In this paper we present a new learning framework, called schema-based learning (SBL). SBL emphasizes the importance of the current existent structure (schemas), that defines a functioning system, for the incremental and autonomous construction of ever more complex structure to achieve ever more complex levels of functioning. We may rephrase this statement into the language of Schema Theory (Arbib 1992, for a comprehensive review) as the learning of new schemas based on the stock of current schemas. SBL emphasizes a fundamental principle of organization called coherence maximization, that deals with the maximization of congruence between the results of an interaction (external or internal) and the expectations generated for that interaction. A central hypothesis consists of the existence of a hierarchy of predictive internal models (predictive schemas) all over the control center-brain-of the agent. Hence, we will include predictive models in the perceptual, sensorimotor, and motor components of the autonomous agent architecture. We will then show that predictive models are fundamental for structural learning. In particular we will show how a system can learn a new structural component (augment the overall network topology) after being lesioned in order to recover (or even improve) its original functionality. Learning after lesioning is a special case of structural

  16. A schema for knowledge representation and its implementation in a computer-aided design and manufacturing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamir, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Modularity in the design and implementation of expert systems relies upon cooperation among the expert systems and communication of knowledge between them. A prerequisite for an effective modular approach is some standard for knowledge representation to be used by the developers of the different modules. In this work the author presents a schema for knowledge representation, and apply this schema in the design of a rule-based expert system. He also implements a cooperative expert system using the proposed knowledge representation method. A knowledge representation schema is a formal specification of the internal, conceptual, and external components of a knowledge base, each specified in a separate schema. The internal schema defines the structure of a knowledge base, the conceptual schema defines the concepts, and the external schema formalizes the pragmatics of a knowledge base. The schema is the basis for standardizing knowledge representation systems and it is used in the various phases of design and specification of the knowledge base. A new model of knowledge representation based on a pattern recognition interpretation of implications is developed. This model implements the concept of linguistic variables and can, therefore, emulate human reasoning with linguistic imprecision. The test case for the proposed schema of knowledge representation is a system is a cooperative expert system composed of two expert systems. This system applies a pattern recognition interpretation of a generalized one-variable implication with linguistic variables.

  17. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    level of evidence schema that evaluates biomarkers along 4 domains: Target, Study Design, Statistical Strength, and Penalties. Scores derived from 3 domains the Target that the marker is being substituted for, the Design of the (best) evidence, and the Statistical strength are additive. Penalties......OBJECTIVE: There are clear advantages to using biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, but concerns about clinical and statistical validity and systematic methods to evaluate these aspects hinder their efficient application. Our objective was to review the literature on biomarkers and surrogates...... are then applied if there is serious counterevidence. A total score (0 to 15) determines the level of evidence, with Level 1 the strongest and Level 5 the weakest. It was proposed that the term "surrogate" be restricted to markers attaining Levels 1 or 2 only. Most stakeholders agreed that this operationalization...

  18. The attention schema theory: a mechanistic account of subjective awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor W. Webb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently proposed the attention schema theory, a novel way to explain the brain basis of subjective awareness in a mechanistic and scientifically testable manner. The theory begins with attention, the process by which signals compete for the brain’s limited computing resources. This internal signal competition is partly under a bottom-up influence and partly under top-down control. We propose that the top-down control of attention is improved when the brain has access to a simplified model of attention itself. The brain therefore constructs a schematic model of the process of attention, the ‘attention schema’, in much the same way that it constructs a schematic model of the body, the ‘body schema’. The content of this internal model leads a brain to conclude that it has a subjective experience. One advantage of this theory is that it explains how awareness and attention can sometimes become dissociated; the brain’s internal models are never perfect, and sometimes a model becomes dissociated from the object being modeled. A second advantage of this theory is that it explains how we can be aware of both internal and external events. The brain can apply attention to many types of information including external sensory information and internal information about emotions and cognitive states. If awareness is a model of attention, then this model should pertain to the same domains of information to which attention pertains. A third advantage of this theory is that it provides testable predictions. If awareness is the internal model of attention, used to help control attention, then without awareness, attention should still be possible but should suffer deficits in control. In this article, we review the existing literature on the relationship between attention and awareness, and suggest that at least some of the predictions of the theory are borne out by the evidence.

  19. Semantic validation of standard-based electronic health record documents with W3C XML schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinner, C; Janzek-Hawlat, S; Sibinovic, S; Duftschmid, G

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine whether W3C XML Schema provides a practicable solution for the semantic validation of standard-based electronic health record (EHR) documents. With semantic validation we mean that the EHR documents are checked for conformance with the underlying archetypes and reference model. We describe an approach that allows XML Schemas to be derived from archetypes based on a specific naming convention. The archetype constraints are augmented with additional components of the reference model within the XML Schema representation. A copy of the EHR document that is transformed according to the before-mentioned naming convention is used for the actual validation against the XML Schema. We tested our approach by semantically validating EHR documents conformant to three different ISO/EN 13606 archetypes respective to three sections of the CDA implementation guide "Continuity of Care Document (CCD)" and an implementation guide for diabetes therapy data. We further developed a tool to automate the different steps of our semantic validation approach. For two particular kinds of archetype prescriptions, individual transformations are required for the corresponding EHR documents. Otherwise, a fully generic validation is possible. In general, we consider W3C XML Schema as a practicable solution for the semantic validation of standard-based EHR documents.

  20. Identifying the Structure and Effect of Drinking-Related Self-Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, Lisa H; Strobbe, Stephen; Stein, Karen Farchaus; Giordani, Bruno J; Hagerty, Bonnie M; Pressler, Susan J

    2017-07-01

    Self-schemas have received increased attention as favorable targets for therapeutic intervention because of their central role in self-perception and behavior. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify, evaluate, and synthesize existing research pertaining to drinking-related self-schemas. Russell's integrative review strategy guided the search. Sixteen published works were identified, meeting criteria for evaluation ( n = 12 data-based publications and n = 4 models). The retrieved data-based publications rated fair-good using Polit and Beck's criteria; the overall body of literature rated "B" using Grimes and Schulz criteria. Retrieved models rated 4 to 7 using Fitzpatrick and Whall's criteria. The existing literature strongly supports the availability of a drinking-related self-schema among moderate-to-heavy drinking samples, and suggests a positive relationship between elaboration and drinking behavior. The relationship between valenced content of the schema and drinking behavior remains unexplored. Identifying variation in the structural properties of drinking-related self-schemas could lay the foundation for future interventions.

  1. Negative self-schemas and the onset of depression in women: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jon; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo; Wolke, Dieter

    2005-04-01

    Beck's cognitive theory of depression has received little empirical support. To test whether those with negative self-schemas were at risk of onset of depression. Data were collected by postal questionnaire from 12,003 women recruited during early pregnancy; questionnaires included measures of depressive symptoms and negative self-schemas. Regular questionnaires were sent during pregnancy and following childbirth. Of 8540 women not depressed when recruited, 8.6% (95% CI 8.0-9.2) became depressed 14 weeks later. Those in the highest tertile for negative self-schema score were more likely to become depressed than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio 3.04, 95% CI 2.48-3.73). The association remained after adjustment for baseline depressive symptoms and previous depression (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.27-2.02) and was of similar magnitude for onset 3 years later. Holding a negative self-schema is an independent risk factor for the onset of depression in women. This finding supports a key element of Beck's cognitive theory. Understanding more about how negative self-schemas arise should help inform preventive policies.

  2. The Comparison of Maladaptive Schema and Lifestyles in Drug Dependence and Non-Drug Dependence People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Purmohammad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and life styles in drug dependences and normal population to recognize their role in drug dependence. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and life styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. Methods: The method of this research were post-facto and sectional styles. The population were included of 100 drug dependence adults and 100 non-drug dependence who were selected by at-reach methods. Young early maladaptive schema-short form and Basic Adlerian scales for interpersonal success-adult form questionnaires were used. Findings: the results showed that there were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and life styles in groups under research. Conclusion: the study showed that drug dependence people suffer from high levels of early maladaptive schemas and their life styles are maladaptive. As a result, in prediction of dependence to drug and in treating it too much attention must be given to cognitive factors.

  3. Baby schema in human and animal faces induces cuteness perception and gaze allocation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eBorgi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The baby schema concept was originally proposed as a set of infantile traits with high appeal for humans, subsequently shown to elicit caretaking behavior and to affect cuteness perception and attentional processes. However, it is unclear whether the response to the baby schema may be extended to the human-animal bond context. Moreover, questions remain as to whether the cute response is constant and persistent or whether it changes with development. In the present study we parametrically manipulated the baby schema in images of humans, dogs and cats. We analyzed responses of 3-6-year-old children, using both explicit (i.e. cuteness ratings and implicit (i.e. eye gaze patterns measures. By means of eye-tracking, we assessed children’s preferential attention to images varying only for the degree of baby schema and explored participants’ fixation patterns during a cuteness task. For comparative purposes, cuteness ratings were also obtained in a sample of adults. Overall our results show that the response to an infantile facial configuration emerges early during development. In children, the baby schema affects both cuteness perception and gaze allocation to infantile stimuli and to specific facial features, an effect not simply limited to human faces. In line with previous research, results confirm human positive appraisal towards animals and inform both educational and therapeutic interventions involving pets, helping to minimize risk factors (e.g. dog bites.

  4. A Comparative Study of Cognitive Schemas of HRM During Economic Crisis in Two Slovenian Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arzenšek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to present a qualitative studyof HRM schemas in the recent economic crisis in Slovenia. Cognitiveschemas influence perception and behavior and serve aspowerful sense-making frameworks. In-depth interviews with 16ceos, HR executives and trade unionists from the production andservice sectors and analyses of annual reports were conducted tofind the content of their HRM schemas. In addition, a comparisonbetween schemas from companies from both sectors was made.Results reveal that HRM schemas in companies from the financialsector include more ‘HRM is bureaucratic’ attributes, whereas incompanies from the automotive sector ‘HRM is strategic’ attributesprevail. In companies’ annual reports, the socially responsiblerole of HRM toward employees is only moderately present. Whilethe crisis in 1990s was an influential factor for the sense-makingand ‘flexibility is crucial’ attribution in companies in the automotivesector, the current HRM schema in selected companies fromthe financial sector was influenced by the occurrence of conjuncture.

  5. Improving the Measurement of Shared Cultural Schemas with Correlational Class Analysis: Theory and Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Boutyline

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of shared cultural schemas is a central methodological challenge for the sociology of culture. Relational Class Analysis (RCA is a recently developed technique for identifying such schemas in survey data. However, existing work lacks a clear definition of such schemas, which leaves RCA’s accuracy largely unknown. Here, I build on the theoretical intuitions behind RCA to arrive at this definition. I demonstrate that shared schemas should result in linear dependencies between survey rows—the relationship usually measured with Pearson’s correlation. I thus modify RCA into a “Correlational Class Analysis” (CCA. When I compare the methods using a broad set of simulations, results show that CCA is reliably more accurate at detecting shared schemas than RCA, even in scenarios that substantially violate CCA’s assumptions. I find no evidence of theoretical settings where RCA is more accurate. I then revisit a previous RCA analysis of the 1993 General Social Survey musical tastes module. Whereas RCA partitioned these data into three schematic classes, CCA partitions them into four. I compare these results with a multiple-groups analysis in structural equation modeling and find that CCA’s partition yields greatly improved model fit over RCA. I conclude with a parsimonious framework for future work.

  6. A comparative study of early maladaptive schemas in obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Seung Jae

    2015-12-30

    Schema theory and therapy may be an additional therapeutic approach to identify and treat chronic psychological problems, namely early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and panic disorder (PAD). In the current study, we investigated the characteristics in EMSs between patients with OCD and PAD. Fifty-one patients with OCD, 46 patients with PAD, and 70 normal controls participated in this study. EMSs and depressive symptoms were measured using the Young Schema Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively. Analysis of covariance was conducted with age, sex, BDI score, and education level as covariates to assess group differences. Direct comparisons among the three groups revealed that the defectiveness/shame and social isolation/alienation schemas were prominently activated in patients with OCD, whereas the vulnerability to harm or illness and self-sacrifice were activated in patients with PAD. In subgroup analysis, these differences were observed between subgroups with lower BDI scores, but not between the patient subgroups with higher BDI scores. However, the differences between the patient groups in the defectiveness/shame and vulnerability to harm or illness schemas almost reached significance. Patients with OCD and PAD differed in particular EMS characteristics, which could have potential therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Maladaptive Schemas: A Comparison Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; Nielsen Straarup, Krista; Halvorsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    It is still unclear how bipolar disorder (BD) differentiates from major depressive disorder (MDD) outside major mood episodes. To further elucidate this area, the present study compared the two mood disorders in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) during remission. The sample consisted of 49 participants with BD and 30 participants with MDD who were currently in remission. The participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire. The BD group scored significantly higher than the MDD group on seven EMSs: abandonment, failure to achieve, insufficient self-control, subjugation, unrelenting standards, enmeshment and entitlement. By suggesting that EMSs are more severe in BD compared with MDD, the findings highlight potential vulnerabilities in BD, which merit further examination in terms of their underlying causes and potential treatment implications. Early maladaptive schemas are relevant psychological dimensions to consider in remitted phases of major mood disorders. Findings from the current study suggest that early maladaptive schemas are more prevalent in adults with bipolar disorder compared to adults with major depressive disorder when measured during remission. Interventions targeting early maladaptive schemas may be valuable in treatment of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: Implications from connectionist modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMatsunaga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (LeNTS was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical ‘scale’ sensitivity early and ‘harmony’ sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and (c the learning principles of schema acquisition may be culturally invariant while the acquired tonal schemas are varied with exposed culture-specific music.

  9. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  10. Learning causes reorganization of neuronal firing patterns to represent related experiences within a hippocampal schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sam; Robinson, Nick T M; Herrera, Lauren; Churchill, Jordana C; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-06-19

    According to schema theory as proposed by Piaget and Bartlett, learning involves the assimilation of new memories into networks of preexisting knowledge, as well as alteration of the original networks to accommodate the new information. Recent evidence has shown that rats form a schema of goal locations and that the hippocampus plays an essential role in adding new memories to the spatial schema. Here we examined the nature of hippocampal contributions to schema updating by monitoring firing patterns of multiple CA1 neurons as rats learned new goal locations in an environment in which there already were multiple goals. Before new learning, many neurons that fired on arrival at one goal location also fired at other goals, whereas ensemble activity patterns also distinguished different goal events, thus constituting a neural representation that linked distinct goals within a spatial schema. During new learning, some neurons began to fire as animals approached the new goals. These were primarily the same neurons that fired at original goals, the activity patterns at new goals were similar to those associated with the original goals, and new learning also produced changes in the preexisting goal-related firing patterns. After learning, activity patterns associated with the new and original goals gradually diverged, such that initial generalization was followed by a prolonged period in which new memories became distinguished within the ensemble representation. These findings support the view that consolidation involves assimilation of new memories into preexisting neural networks that accommodate relationships among new and existing memories.

  11. Rape-related cognitive distortions: Preliminary findings on the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the important focus on the notion of cognitive distortions in the sexual offending area, the relevance of underlying cognitive schemas in sexual offenders has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and cognitive distortions in rapists. A total of 33 men convicted for rape completed the Bumby Rape Scale (BRS), the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short form-3 (YSQ-S3), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Results showed a significant relationship between the impaired limits schematic domain and the Justifying Rape dimension of the BRS. Specifically, after controlling for psychological distress levels and social desirability tendency, the entitlement/grandiosity schema from the impaired limits domain was a significant predictor of cognitive distortions related to Justifying Rape themes. Overall, despite preliminary, there is some evidence that the Young's Schema-Focused model namely the impaired limits dimension may contribute for the conceptualization of cognitive distortions in rapists and further investigation is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-therapy {sup 18}F-FDG PET quantitative parameters help in predicting the response to radioimmunotherapy in non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazaentre, Thomas [CHU Lille, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Fonctionnelle, Lille (France); Hopital Saint Jean, Perpignan (France); Morschhauser, Franck [CHU Lille, Service des Maladies du Sang, Lille (France); Vermandel, Maximilien [CHU Lille, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Fonctionnelle, Lille (France); Univ Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); INSERM U703, Lille (France); Betrouni, Nacim [INSERM U703, Lille (France); Prangere, Thierry [CHU Lille, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Fonctionnelle, Lille (France); Steinling, Marc [CHU Lille, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Fonctionnelle, Lille (France); Univ Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Huglo, Damien [CHU Lille, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Fonctionnelle, Lille (France); Univ Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); INSERM U703, Lille (France); Hopital Huriez, CHU de Lille, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Imagerie Fonctionnelle, Lille cedex (France)

    2010-03-15

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a new treatment option for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Response to RIT currently remains difficult to predict using conventional prognostic factors and could be refined using functional imaging. The goal of this work is to evaluate the value of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in predicting response to Yttrium 90-labeled monoclonal antibodies for patients with NHL. Thirty-five patients with NHL who had undergone {sup 18}F-FDG PET prior to RIT with either {sup 90}Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (group A; n=17) or {sup 90}Y-epratuzumab tetraxetan (group B; n=18) were included in this retrospective study. Four functional criteria were determined for each tumour lesion in a given patient: maximum and mean standard uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean), functional lesion volume (LVol) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG, product of the volume and the SUVmean). For each patient, we determined highest SUVmax and SUVmean, cumulative TLG (TLGcum) and sum of all LVol (TVol) and compared their predictive value on response (complete or partial response according to IWC) to RIT with those of conventional prognostic factors in group A and B. A total of 154 lesions were analysed. Nineteen patients (54%) responded to RIT according to IWC. In group A, response rate was 54, 75 and 75% in patients with a SUV max <20 g/ml, a TVol <100 ml and a TLGcum <1060 g, respectively while no patient above these thresholds responded (p < 0.005). In group B, the response rate was 93% for with SUVmax <15 g/ml while no patient above this threshold responded. With TLGcum below 1,360 g, 100% of the patient responded, compared with 37% of patients whose TLGcum was above this threshold (p < 0.05). By contrast, conventional prognostic factors failed to predict response. Our preliminary results indicate that pre-therapy {sup 18}F-FDG PET functional parameters such as SUVmax and TLG may help predicting more accurately response to single agent

  13. The meaning of the body schema in reaching maturity during late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirucka Beata

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research presented in this paper was to investigate whether an association existed between the activation of the body schema and reaching adulthood among people in late adolescence. Three activities that are known to enjoy popularity among young people were analysed, namely: dancing, playing computer games that require motor involvement (e.g. Kinect, and playing computer games of an educational and entertaining character. It was assumed that the chosen forms of activity correspond to three levels of activation of the body schema. The following research methods have been applied to this study: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES, the Defence Style Questionnaire (DSQ, and the Bodily Self Representation Questionnaire. The study has proven that the activation of body schema through dance is significantly related to high self-esteem and the use of mainly mature and neurotic defence mechanisms in threat situations.

  14. Determining Women’s Sexual Self-Schemas Through Advanced Computerized Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M.; Boyd, Ryan L.; Pulverman, Carey S.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    The meaning extraction method (MEM), an advanced computerized text analysis technique, was used to analyze women’s sexual self-schemas. Participants (n = 239) completed open-ended essays about their personal feelings associated with sex and sexuality. These essays were analyzed using the MEM, a procedure designed to extract common themes from natural language. Using the MEM procedure, we extracted seven unique themes germane to sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism. Each of these themes is comprised of frequently used words across the participants’ descriptions of their sexual selves. Significant differences in sexual self-schemas were observed to covary with age, relationship status, and sexual abuse history. PMID:26146161

  15. Early Maladaptive Schemas Related to Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKÝLÝ

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: In patient groups, schemas like defectiveness, incompetence, failure, vulnerability to danger and undeveloped self were indicative of low self-perception. This case draws attention to distortions in self-perception. When the absence of difference between bipolar and controls in “mistrust/abuse” and “abandonment/instability” schemas is evaluated in terms of cognitive triad, it is suggested that Environmental perspective in this group of patients did not exhibit pessimistic features. The only significantly different schema between unipolar and bipolar groups was “mistrust/abuse”. This suggests that bipolar group didn’t have negative thoughts like unipolar patients about the perception of the enviroment. [JCBPR 2012; 1(3.000: 145-151

  16. Determining women's sexual self-schemas through advanced computerized text analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Boyd, Ryan L; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-08-01

    The meaning extraction method (MEM), an advanced computerized text analysis technique, was used to analyze women's sexual self-schemas. Participants (n=239) completed open-ended essays about their personal feelings associated with sex and sexuality. These essays were analyzed using the MEM, a procedure designed to extract common themes from natural language. Using the MEM procedure, we extracted seven unique themes germane to sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism. Each of these themes is comprised of frequently used words across the participants' descriptions of their sexual selves. Significant differences in sexual self-schemas were observed to covary with age, relationship status, and sexual abuse history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Cognitive Schemas Based on the Presence of Anxiety Disorder among Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri ASLAN

    2012-12-01

    Results: Disconnection, rejection, impaired autonomy self-manifestation, extreme vigilance, unrelenting standards, other-directedness, and impaired limits schema domain scores were significantly higher in coronary artery disease patients with anxiety disorder comorbidity compared to coronary artery disease patients without anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Our study has revealed significant differences in cognitive profiles of coronary artery disease patients with comorbidity of anxiety disorders. These findings show the importance of cognitive profiles which were observed in coronary artery disease patients with anxiety disorders. Schema-focused approach might be useful in the treatment of such patients. Further studies with schema-focused therapy approaches are needed to illustrate the issue. [JCBPR 2012; 1(3.000: 171-177

  18. Eating disorder behavior and early maladaptive schemas in subgroups of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt; Tölgyes, Tamás; Czobor, Pál; Simon, Lajos

    2010-06-01

    To examine relationship between Eating Disorder Behaviors (EDB) and Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) across eating disorder (ED) subgroups. EMS and ED behaviors were measured by Young Schema Questionnaire and Eating Behavior Severity Scale, respectively, among patients diagnosed with Restrictive or Binge/purging Anorexia, or bulimia nervosa. Canonical component analysis showed significant association between ED behaviors and EMSs. Canonical factor-pairs (EDB and EMS) revealed specific associations between certain patterns of EDBs, including binge-purging and physical exercise, and certain patterns of maladaptive cognitive schema, including Emotional deprivation, Abandonment, Enmeshments, Subjugation, and Emotional inhibition. ED subgroups significantly differred between the EMS and EDB canonical factors, respectively. Our findings indicate that EMS and EDB are associated, and that the factors that potentially mediate the association differ significantly among ED subgroups. These results are consistent with the notion that EMSs play a specific role in the development and maintenance of ED behaviors.

  19. Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: role of maladaptive beliefs and schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Berman, Noah C; Keshaviah, Aparna; Schwartz, Rachel A; Steketee, Gail

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify mechanisms of change in individuals with moderately severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) receiving cognitive therapy (CT). Thirty-six adults with OCD received CT over 24 weeks. At weeks 0, 4/6, 12, 16/18, and 24, independent evaluators assessed OCD severity, along with obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas. To examine mechanisms of change, we utilized a time-varying lagged regression model with a random intercept and slope. Results indicated that perfectionism and certainty obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency and incompetence significantly mediated (improved) treatment response. In conclusion, cognitive changes in perfectionism/certainty beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency/incompetence precede behavioral symptom reduction for OCD patients. Targeting these mechanisms in future OCD treatment trials will emphasize the most relevant processes and facilitate maximum improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Adaptation of CROTIS Data Model and Generation of GML Application Schema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Biljecki

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Through the project Production of an object-oriented conceptual data model and production of GML application schema, the CROTIS data model is fully conformed to the latest ISO and OGC standards. A new data model, a new schema for data exchange and a new data catalogue have been encompassed within the project. The main elements of the project are presented in this article. The modelling was done for the purpose of data model improvement, according to standards that provide the methods and properties for display of model objects and model attributes. UML (Unified Modelling Language is used for formal description of the data. A logical data model in UML enables the implementation of GIS, including the database as well. The automatic generation of a GML application schema was developed from UML. Data description is contained in the data catalogue, which resulted automatically from data model.Ključne riječi

  1. Implicit associations between pain and self-schema in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; De Houwer, Jan; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Van Damme, Stefaan; De Schryver, Maarten; Crombez, Geert

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pain often interferes with daily functioning, and may become a threat to an individual's sense of self. Despite the development of a recent theoretical account focussing upon the relationship between the presence of chronic pain and a person's self, research investigating this idea is limited. In the present study we aimed to (1) compare the strength of association between self- and pain schema in patients with chronic pain and healthy control subjects and (2) research whether the strength of association between self- and pain-schema is related to particular pain-related outcomes and individual differences of patients with chronic pain. Seventy-three patients with chronic pain (M(age) = 49.95; SD = 9.76) and 53 healthy volunteers (M(age) = 48.53; SD = 10.37) performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess the strength of association between pain- and self-schema. Patients with chronic pain also filled out self-report measures of pain severity, pain suffering, disability, depression, anxiety, acceptance, and helplessness. Results indicated that the pain- and self-schema were more strongly associated in patients with chronic pain than in healthy control subjects. Second, results indicated that, in patients with chronic pain, a stronger association between self- and pain-schema, as measured with the IAT, is related to a heightened level of pain severity, pain suffering, anxiety, and helplessness. Current findings give first support for the use of an IAT to investigate the strength of association between self- and pain-schema in patients with chronic pain and suggest that pain therapies may incorporate techniques that intervene on the level of self-pain enmeshment. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Building on prior knowledge: schema-dependent encoding processes relate to academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-10-01

    The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite their fundamental importance. A preexisting schema has been shown to enhance memory by influencing the balance between activity within the medial-temporal lobe and the medial pFC during mnemonic processes such as encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Specifically, correctly encoding and retrieving information that is related to preexisting schemas appears rather related to medial prefrontal processing, whereas information unrelated or inconsistent with preexisting schemas rather relates to enhanced medial temporal processing and enhanced interaction between these structures. To further investigate interactions between these regions during conceptual encoding in a real-world university setting, we probed human brain activity and connectivity using fMRI during educationally relevant conceptual encoding carefully embedded within two course programs. Early second-year undergraduate biology and education students were scanned while encoding new facts that were either related or unrelated to the preexisting conceptual knowledge they had acquired during their first year of study. Subsequently, they were tested on their knowledge of these facts 24 hr later. Memory scores were better for course-related information, and this enhancement was associated with larger medial-prefrontal, but smaller medial-temporal subsequent memory effects. These activity differences went along with decreased functional interactions between these regions. Furthermore, schema-related medial-prefrontal subsequent memory effects measured during this experiment were found to be predictive of second-year course performance. These results, obtained in a real-world university setting, reveal brain

  3. The Effects of Schema-Based Instruction on the Mathematical Problem Solving of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examines the effects of schema instruction on the problem-solving performance of four second-grade students with emotional and behavioral disorders. The existence of a functional relationship between the schema instruction intervention and problem-solving accuracy in mathematics is examined through a single case experiment using…

  4. Schema-Based Strategy Instruction and the Mathematical Problem-Solving Performance of Two Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Corey; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of schema instruction on the mathematical problem solving of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD). The participants were two fourth-grade students identified with EBD. The intervention package consisted of schema instruction, strategy instruction on problem-solving heuristics…

  5. Attachment insecurities and the processing of threat-related information: Studying the schemas involved in insecure people's coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Mikulincer, Mario; Shaver, Phillip R

    2011-07-01

    In 6 studies we examined procedural, scriptlike knowledge associated with 2 different kinds of attachment insecurity: anxiety and avoidance. The studies examined associations between attachment insecurities, the cognitive accessibility of sentinel and rapid fight-flight schemas, and the extent to which these schemas guide the processing of threat-related information and actual behavior during an experimentally induced threatening event. Anxious attachment was associated with (a) greater accessibility of the sentinel schema in narratives of threatening events; (b) faster, deeper, and more schema-biased processing of information about components of the sentinel schema; and (c) quicker detection of a threat. Avoidant attachment was associated with greater accessibility of the rapid fight-flight schema in narratives of threatening events and faster, deeper, and more schema-biased processing of information about components of the schema. We discuss implications of the findings for understanding the cognitive aspects of insecure people's coping strategies in threatening situations, as well as the potential benefits of these strategies to the people who enact them and to the groups to which they belong. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Developing Connectivist Schemas for Geological and Geomorphological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, B.

    2012-12-01

    Teaching geology is difficult; students need to grasp changes in time over three dimensions. Furthermore, the scales and rates of change in four dimensions may vary over several orders of magnitude. Geological explanations incorporate ideas from physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, lectures and textbooks provide a basic framework but they need to be amplified by laboratories and fieldwork involving active student participation and engagement. Being shown named 'things' is only a start to being able to being able to inculcate geological thinking that requires a wide and focused viewpoints. Kastens and Ishikawa (2006) suggested five aspects of thinking geologically, summarised as: 1. Observing, describing, recording, communicating geologically entities (ie basic cognitive skills) 2. (mentally) manipulating these entities 3. interpreting them via causal relationships 4. predicting other aspects using the basic knowledge (to create new knowledge) 5. using cognitive strategies to develop new ways of interpreting gained knowledge. These steps can be used follow the sequence from 'known' through 'need to know' to using knowledge to gain better geologic explanation, taken as enquiry-based or problem solving modes of education. These follow ideas from Dewey though Sternberg's 'thinking styles' and Siemens' connectivist approaches. Implementation of this basic schema needs to be structured for students in a complex geological world in line with Edelson's (2006) 'learning for' framework. In a geomorphological setting, this has been done by showing students how to interpret a landscape (landform, section etc) practice their skills and thus gain confidence with a tutor at hand. A web-based device, 'Virtorial' provides scenarios for students to practice interpretation (or even be assessed with). A cognitive tool is provided for landscape interpretation by division into the recognition of 'Materials' (rock, sediments etc), Processes (slope, glacial processes etc) and

  7. Schema and Locus of Control as Predictors of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Akbarikia, Hamidreza; Gasparyan, Khachatur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the correlation of maladjusted schema and locus of control with OCD, with the emphasis on cognitive approach to OCD. Method: In this study, 273 Iranian participants were selected; of whom,30% were male and 70% were female. Participants’age ranged from 19 to 34 and the mean age for the sample was 23.42(SD=2.46). Participants completed questionnaire batteries including measure of Levenson Locus of Control, Young Schema Scale and Y –bocsOCD Scale. One samp...

  8. XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules and Solids (XSAMS). Summary report of an IAEA consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2011-12-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules and Solids (XSAMS)' was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD, United States of America, 3-5 October 2011. Objectives of the meeting were to review and discuss developments of the Schema made during 2011 in connection with implementations on databases associated with the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) and to agree on the adoption of an international standard XSAMS version 1.0. The proceedings of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  9. P03.03. Body Schema and Feldenkrais®: Effects Upon Subjects With Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care, Alleviating Pain Background and Purpose: Back problems continue to be the number one symptom disorder for consulting complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners. Neuroscience continues to indicate that the human brain undergoes a process of somato-topic cortical reorganization in association with sustained states of chronic pain. Feldenkrais® practitioners aim to create individualized multimodal learning experiences that are believed to clarify an improved neuroplasticity-based change in the cognitive construct of one's own body schema. A specific protocol is applied to observe some responses in subjects with mechanical, non-specific low back pain (LBP) in a clinical practice setting. Methods: Forty subjects (30 female, 10 male) diagnosed with persistent LBP attended a Feldenkrais®-based physical therapy intervention series of sessions while assessing usual baseline measures—including Pain Intensity on VAS and observations of Gait Quality. Using anatomical skeleton models and proprioceptive touch, 3 inquiries for primary learning conditions were made for clarifying anatomical imagery including (1) The Hip Socket axis of rotation, (2) Inner ilia pelvis as an inner bridge of leg support, and (3) correlating the vestibular apparatus in combination with global Feldenkrais® movements. No attention was given to treating isolated lumbar segments directly. Results: All conditions were novel interpretations of body awareness for subject's previous notions of body schema. Pain on VAS reduced from 6/10 average to 2/10. All subjects had a more balanced gait. Conclusions: Body schema–based somatic education interventions, like the Feldekrais® method, deserve further investigation and do not appear to rely on treating the anatomical regions of perceived involvement directly.

  10. Migration to the GLUE 2.0 information schema in the LCG/EGEE/EGI production Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Stephen; Field, Laurence; Horat, David

    2011-12-01

    The GLUE information schema has been in use in the LCG/EGEE production Grid since the first version was released in 2002. In 2008 a major redesign of GLUE, version 2.0, was defined in the context of the Open Grid Forum. The implementation of the publication and use of the new schema is a complex process which needs to be carefully managed to avoid any disruption to the production service, especially in the light of the end of the EGEE project and the transition to the new middleware and operational structures in EGI. In this paper we discuss the LDAP rendering of the schema, the upgrading of the Grid information system to allow both schemas to be used in parallel, the design and rollout of information providers, and the plans for migrating client software which uses the schema information. In particular we consider the implications for the specific requirements of the LCG project, especially regarding storage systems, accounting and monitoring.

  11. Migration to the GLUE 2.0 information schema in the LCG/EGEE/EGI production Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen; Field, Laurence; Horat, David

    2011-01-01

    The GLUE information schema has been in use in the LCG/EGEE production Grid since the first version was released in 2002. In 2008 a major redesign of GLUE, version 2.0, was defined in the context of the Open Grid Forum. The implementation of the publication and use of the new schema is a complex process which needs to be carefully managed to avoid any disruption to the production service, especially in the light of the end of the EGEE project and the transition to the new middleware and operational structures in EGI. In this paper we discuss the LDAP rendering of the schema, the upgrading of the Grid information system to allow both schemas to be used in parallel, the design and rollout of information providers, and the plans for migrating client software which uses the schema information. In particular we consider the implications for the specific requirements of the LCG project, especially regarding storage systems, accounting and monitoring.

  12. The identity impairment model: a longitudinal study of self-schemas as predictors of disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    There is broad consensus that the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa stem from fundamental disturbances in identity development, but theoretically based empirical support is lacking. To extend work on the identity impairment model by investigating the relationship between organizational properties of the self-concept and change in disordered eating behaviors (DEB) in an at-risk sample of college women transitioning between freshman and sophomore years. The number, valence, and organization of self-schemas; availability of a fat body weight self-schema; and DEB were measured at baseline in the freshman year and 6 and 12 months later in a community-based sample of college women engaged in subthreshold DEB (n = 77; control: n = 41). Repeated-measures analyses of variances were used to examine group differences, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict disordered eating behaviors. Women in the DEB group had more negative self-schemas at baseline and showed information-processing evidence of a fat self-schema compared with the controls. The groups did not differ in the number of positive self-schemas or interrelatedness. The number of negative self-schemas predicted increases in the level of DEB at 6- and 12-month follow-up, and these effects were mediated through the fat self-schema. The number of positive self-schemas predicted the fat self-schema score but was not predictive of increases in DEB. Interrelatedness of the self-concept was not a significant predictor in this model. Impairments in overall collection of identities are predictive of the availability in memory of a fat self-schema, which in turn is predictive of increases in DEB during the transition to college in a sample of women at risk for an eating disorder. Therefore, organizational properties of the self-concept may be an important focus for effective primary and secondary prevention.

  13. [Living environment and activation of early maladaptive schemas specific to the elderly: Comparative study among 80 individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, S; Kazour, F; Kazour, G

    2015-06-01

    Early maladaptive schemas described by Young may be identified in the elderly. They represent models and themes of emotions, memories, thoughts and bodily sensations experienced by the individual. This study aims to evaluate the activation of early maladaptive thoughts in the elderly depending on their living environment. The Young Schema Questionnaire--short form--was administered to 80 elderly individuals (40 living in a nursing home, and 40 in their own home with at least one person). The studied schemas that were most relevant to the elderly were the maladaptive schemas of abandonment, emotional deprivation, mistrust, exclusion, dependency, vulnerability and emotional overcontrol. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to eliminate dementia or depression among individuals. Individuals living in a nursing home, compared to their controls had increased activation of schemas of emotional deprivation (22.5% vs. 7.5%), abandonment (15% vs. 0%), mistrust (32.5% vs. 2.5%), exclusion (7.5% vs. 0%), and emotional overcontrol (25% vs. 2.5%). The activation of maladaptive schemas was significantly elevated in nursing homes for those 5 schemas, while there was no difference in activation between the 2 groups concerning the schemas of dependency and vulnerability. The activation of early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust, exclusion, and emotional overcontrol is higher in individuals living in nursing homes compared to a control group of individuals living in their homes with at least one companion. This schema activation may be related to a lack of emotional and family support in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation of a Schema Theory-Based Knowledge Delivery System for Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, W. S., Jr.; Mavor, Anne S.

    A future, automated, interactive, knowledge delivery system for use by researchers was tested using a manual cognitive model. Conceptualized from schema/frame/script theories in cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence, this hypothetical system was simulated by two psychologists who interacted with four researchers in microbiology to…

  15. Schema therapy for patients with chronic depression: a single case series study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malogiannis, I.A.; Arntz, A.; Spyropoulou, A.; Tsartsara, E.; Aggeli, A.; Karveli, S.; Vlavianou, M.; Pehlivanidis, A.; Papadimitriou, G.N.; Zervas, I.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: This study tested the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for patients with chronic depression. Methods: Twelve patients with a diagnosis of chronic depression participated. The treatment protocol consisted of 60 sessions, with the first 55 sessions offered weekly and the

  16. The reliability and factor structure of Thai Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulsriprasert, Chaiyun; Phukao, Darunee; Kanjanawong, Suree; Meemon, Natthani

    2016-12-01

    Previous research which documented the psychometric properties of Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) was conducted in Western countries. The current research examined the reliability and factor structure of the Thai version of the Young Schema-Short From-3 (YSQ-S3). The participants were 622 undergraduates (62% females) recruited from three universities in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Results suggested acceptable internal consistency of 18 early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) (Cronbach's α range from 0.619 to 0.846). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the factor structures of 18 EMSs. The results failed to support Young's theoretical schema domain. The authors indicated a four-factor solution as the best alternative second-order model for this population. In conclusion, the Thai version of YSQ-S3 is psychometrically sound questionnaire that can be utilized for assessing EMS, both for research and practice purposes. The current study further provides evidence supporting the existence of 18 EMSs in the non-Western context. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Validation of an Instrument and Testing Protocol for Measuring the Combinatorial Analysis Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.; Harty, Harold

    1979-01-01

    Designs a testing situation to examine the presence of combinatorial analysis, to establish construct validity in the use of an instrument, Combinatorial Analysis Behavior Observation Scheme (CABOS), and to investigate the presence of the schema in young adolescents. (Author/GA)

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Young Hee; Rim, Hyo Deog; Won, Seung Hee; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-07-01

    The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) is a self-report measure of early maladaptive schemas and is currently in its third revision; it is available in both long (YSQ-L3) and short (YSQ-S3) forms. The goal of this study was to develop a Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and establish its psychometric properties in a Korean sample. A total of 542 graduate medical students completed the Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and several other psychological scales. A subsample of 308 subjects completed the Korean YSQ-S3 both before and after a 2-year test-retest interval. Correlation, regression, and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the data. The internal consistency of the 90-item Korean YSQ-S3 was 0.97 and that of each schema was acceptable, with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.90. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.46 to 0.65. Every schema showed robust positive correlations with most psychological measures. The confirmatory factor analysis for the 18-factor structure originally proposed by Young, Klosko, and Weishaar (2003) showed that most goodness-of-fit statistics were indicative of a satisfactory fit. These findings support the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the YSQ-S3.

  19. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…

  20. The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: A Construct Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Brian A.; Campbell, Linda F.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.; Petrocelli, John V.

    2002-01-01

    N.B. Schmidt, T.E. Joiner, J.E. Young, and M.J. Telch (1995) provided preliminary construct validity for scores from J.E. Young's (1990) 205-item Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire. The present study extends this work by examining the construct validity of scores from the shorter 75-item version of this instrument-the Early Maladaptive Schema…

  1. Effect of Content Schema, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension on Translation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kafipour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Schemata refer to all kinds of knowledge which are gained throughout the lifetime. Few studies tried to integrate schema theory and the next two crucial factors in translation and learning which are vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Thus, the present research aimed at delineating the potential effect of these three factors on translation performance of Iranian undergraduate students majoring in translator training. To this end, 172 Iranian undergraduate students majoring in translator training were selected based on two-step cluster sampling. To collect data, the participants answered a set of 6 open-ended questions to measure the students’ content schema along with a vocabulary size test, reading comprehension test, and translation task. To analyze data, Pearson correlation coefficient as well as stepwise multiple regressions was conducted through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data analysis indicated that the independent variables significantly correlated with translation performance. In addition, multiple regressions analysis specified reading comprehension as the main contributing variable and content schema as the second in students’ translation performance. It also showed that vocabulary knowledge could not be a predicting factor in translation performance of the learners; the reason may refer to the inseparable component of their translation task that is dictionary. The results highlighted the role of content schema in translation performance of the learners.

  2. Implications of Schema-based Pre-Reading Tasks in Facilitating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences ... A One-Group Pre-Test-Post-test Design (Creswell, 2009:160) was used to test the significance of schema-based pre-reading tasks (SBPRT) in facilitating reading comprehension. ... It was meant to identify the level of achievement of the students in reading comprehension.

  3. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641

  4. Discrete mathematics, formal methods, the Z schema and the software life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    The proper role and scope for the use of discrete mathematics and formal methods in support of engineering the security and integrity of components within deployed computer systems are discussed. It is proposed that the Z schema can be used as the specification language to capture the precise definition of system and component interfaces. This can be accomplished with an object oriented development paradigm.

  5. Image Schemas in Clock-Reading: Latent Errors and Emerging Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    An embodied view of mathematical cognition should account not only for how we use our bodies to think and communicate mathematically but also how our bodies equip us to conceive of mathematical ideas. Research in cognitive semantics claims that the human conceptual capacity rests on a foundation of image schemas: topological patterns of spatial…

  6. Predicting tendency to abuse drugs based early maladaptive schemas and perfectionism in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afsaneh mansourijalilian

    2015-03-01

    For analyzing the obtained data, stepwise regression method was used. Results: The results of this study showed that the schema, mistrust/Abuse, dependence/Incompetence, subjugation and restraint/ discipline insufficient predicting tendency to drug abuse. Conclusion: the results indicated that the negative perfectionism predicting tendency to drug abuse, however, the positive perfectionism cannot predict tendency to drug abuse

  7. Using a New Schema Approach with Primary at Risk Students in Word Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiripour, Parveneh; Dossey, John Arthur; Shahvarni, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    This comparative study of two approaches contrasts a schema-based approach to represent a solution approach to solving whole number contextual problems for grades 2 and 3 with the traditional textbook approach. The participants are 9 to 11- year-old Afghani refugee students enrolled in non-public schools administered by NGO organization in Iran.…

  8. 78 FR 28732 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Availability of Draft XML Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ...] Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Availability of Draft XML Schema AGENCY: Federal... Language (XML) needed to make Electric Quarterly Report (EQR) filings with one of the new filing processes... the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Section below for details. DATES: The XML is now available at the links...

  9. The XSD-Builder Specification Language—Toward a Semantic View of XML Schema Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Joseph; Cheung, San Kuen

    In the present database market, XML database model is a main structure for the forthcoming database system in the Internet environment. As a conceptual schema of XML database, XML Model has its limitation on presenting its data semantics. System analyst has no toolset for modeling and analyzing XML system. We apply XML Tree Model (shown in Figure 2) as a conceptual schema of XML database to model and analyze the structure of an XML database. It is important not only for visualizing, specifying, and documenting structural models, but also for constructing executable systems. The tree model represents inter-relationship among elements inside different logical schema such as XML Schema Definition (XSD), DTD, Schematron, XDR, SOX, and DSD (shown in Figure 1, an explanation of the terms in the figure are shown in Table 1). The XSD-Builder consists of XML Tree Model, source language, translator, and XSD. The source language is called XSD-Source which is mainly for providing an environment with concept of user friendliness while writing an XSD. The source language will consequently be translated by XSD-Translator. Output of XSD-Translator is an XSD which is our target and is called as an object language.

  10. Self-regulation versus habit: the influence of self-schema on fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allom, Vanessa; Mullan, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the determinants of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption with the application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the additional variables of self-schema, habit and self-regulation. While it has been shown that those with a healthy-eater self-schema are more likely to carry out their healthy dietary intentions, the underlying processes that influence this relationship have received limited empirical attention. Recent findings on dietary behaviour suggest that self-regulatory ability and habit strength may have dissimilar effects on the intention-behaviour relationship within schematics and non-schematics. Self-report questionnaires regarding F&V consumption cognitions and two tests of self-regulation were administered to 209 university students. One week later, participants completed questionnaires on their behaviour. The TPB significantly predicted intentions and prospective behaviour. Self-schema did not moderate the relationship between intention and behaviour. However, within healthy-eater schematics, those with high intention and high self-regulatory ability were more likely to consume F&V, while within non-schematics, those with low intention and high habit strength were more likely to consume F&V. The findings support the use of the TPB in predicting F&V consumption and the validity of the self-schema distinction. Implications for designing interventions are discussed.

  11. African Americans: Race as a Self-Schema Affecting Physical Activity Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Louis Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines theoretical and empirical contributions to racial differences in spot performance and describes a framework for viewing race as a movement self-schema. The roles of television, modeling, expectation theory, and sociological influences are discussed as possible activators of racial movement self-schemata. (JB)

  12. Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Asselt Thea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schema Therapy (ST is an integrative psychotherapy based upon a cognitive schema model which aims at identifying and changing dysfunctional schemas and modes through cognitive, experiential and behavioral pathways. It is specifically developed for patients with personality disorders. Its effectiveness and efficiency have been demonstrated in a few randomized controlled trials, but ST has not been evaluated in regular mental healthcare settings. This paper describes the study protocol of a multisite randomized 2-group design, aimed at evaluating the implementation of outpatient schema therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD in regular mental healthcare and at determining the added value of therapist telephone availability outside office hours in case of crisis. Methods/Design Patient outcome measures will be assessed with a semi-structured interview and self-report measures on BPD, therapeutic alliance, quality of life, costs and general psychopathology at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 36 months. Intention-to-treat analyses will be executed with survival analysis for dichotomous variables, and one-sample t-tests and ANCOVAs for continuous variables with baseline as covariate and condition as between group factor. All tests will be two-tailed with a significance level of 5%. Discussion The study will provide an answer to the question whether ST can be effectively implemented and whether phone support by the therapist has an additional value. Trial Registration The Dutch Cochrane Center, NTR (TC = 1781.

  13. Evaluation of Cognitive Schemas Based on the Presence of Anxiety Disorder among Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huri ASLAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between psychological factors and cardiac diseases has been concerned for a long but our knowledge about the cognitive profiles which could be important etiological factor in cardiac disease and comorbid psychiatric disorders is limited. In this study, we aimed to compare the cognitive profiles of coronary artery disease patients with or without comorbid anxiety disorder. Method: A total of 35 coronary artery disease patients with anxiety disorder and 20 coronary artery disease patients without comorbid anxiety disorders were enrolled into the study. Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 were applied to each participant. Results: Disconnection, rejection, impaired autonomy self-manifestation, extreme vigilance, unrelenting standards, other-directedness, and impaired limits schema domain scores were significantly higher in coronary artery disease patients with anxiety disorder comorbidity compared to coronary artery disease patients without anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Our study has revealed significant differences in cognitive profiles of coronary artery disease patients with comorbidity of anxiety disorders. These findings show the importance of cognitive profiles which were observed in coronary artery disease patients with anxiety disorders. Schema-focused approach might be useful in the treatment of such patients. Further studies with schema-focused therapy approaches are needed to illustrate the issue.

  14. Empathy, Perspective Taking and Personal Values as Predictors of Moral Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myyrya, Liisa; Juujarvi, Soile; Pesso, Kaija

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between empathy variables, personal values and moral reasoning. The impact of empathic concern, perspective taking and personal values measured by the Portrait Value Questionnaire on moral schemas measured by the Defining Issues Test was investigated among 599 students from a university of…

  15. A General Schema for Constructing One-Point Bases in the Lambda Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a schema for constructing one-point bases for recursively enumerable sets of lambda terms. The novelty of the approach is that we make no assumptions about the terms for which the one-point basis is constructed: They need not be combinators and they may contain constants...

  16. The Role of Marital Burnout and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Marital Satisfaction between Young Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Kebritchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the fundamental role of the family structure and the importance of proper marriages in modern society as well as the important role of childhood and its effect on marital relations in adulthood, this study aimed to investigate the role of burnout, early maladaptive schemas and style in marital satisfaction among young couples. This study is a correlation (multiple regressions and descriptive research. The sample consisted of 100 couples (100 females and 100 males, couples aged 20 to 35 years with a high school diploma or higher education who were randomly chosen from student couples of Tehran and Karaj Kharazmi university or other couples out of university which filled out four questionnaires. Following questionnaires were used as research tools: Pines’ Couple Burnout Measure (CBM, Enrich’s Marital Satisfaction (Enrich, Yang’s early maladaptive schemas (EMSQ-R.[6][8]. Results showed that there were three interactive relationships among these variables, so that all three variables were investigated and separately explained concerning marital satisfaction. There was a significant negative correlation between marital burnout and all other subscales and marital satisfaction, and a significant positive correlation between marital burnout and all maladaptive schemas except emotional deprivation schema.

  17. Building on Prior Knowledge: Schema-dependent Encoding Processes Relate to Academic Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesteren, M.T.R. van; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Ruiter, D.; Morris, R.G.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite

  18. Building on prior knowledge : schema-dependent encoding processes relate to academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite

  19. Image Schemas in Verb-Particle Constructions: Evidence from a Behavioral Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive linguists claim that verb-particle constructions are compositional and analyzable, and that the particles contribute to the overall meaning in the form of image schemas. This article examined this claim with a behavioral experiment, in which participants were asked to judge the sensibility of short sentences primed by image-schematic…

  20. [Neuroscience and collective memory: memory schemas linking brain, societies and cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Nicolas; Gagnepain, Pierre; Peschanski, Denis; Eustache, Francis

    2015-01-01

    During the last two decades, the effect of intersubjective relationships on cognition has been an emerging topic in cognitive neurosciences leading through a so-called "social turn" to the formation of new domains integrating society and cultures to this research area. Such inquiry has been recently extended to collective memory studies. Collective memory refers to shared representations that are constitutive of the identity of a group and distributed among all its members connected by a common history. After briefly describing those evolutions in the study of human brain and behaviors, we review recent researches that have brought together cognitive psychology, neuroscience and social sciences into collective memory studies. Using the reemerging concept of memory schema, we propose a theoretical framework allowing to account for collective memories formation with a specific focus on the encoding process of historical events. We suggest that (1) if the concept of schema has been mainly used to describe rather passive framework of knowledge, such structure may also be implied in more active fashions in the understanding of significant collective events. And, (2) if some schema researches have restricted themselves to the individual level of inquiry, we describe a strong coherence between memory and cultural frameworks. Integrating the neural basis and properties of memory schema to collective memory studies may pave the way toward a better understanding of the reciprocal interaction between individual memories and cultural resources such as media or education. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  1. The Influence of Teachers' Schema in Teaching Reading on Students' Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmalah, Putri

    2013-01-01

    This paper tells about teachers' schema in teaching reading. Based on some articles that the writer given, there are teachers who success in teaching reading and who are failed. The one of the cause why they are failed is because they did not apply the complete activities (pre-reading activities, while-reading and post-reading) in teaching…

  2. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  3. Trait Anxiety in College Students: The Role of the Approval Seeking Schema and Separation Individuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders appear to be on the rise among college students and are having a significant effect on their attrition, with anxiety identified as one of the most common presenting issues. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the relationships between separation individuation and the early maladaptive schema of approval seeking with…

  4. Effects of Multimedia and Schema Induced Analogical Reasoning on Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, R. Z.; Yang, W.; Garcia, D.; McCadden, E. P.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of multimedia and schema induced analogical reasoning on science learning. It involves 89 fourth grade elementary students in the north-east of the United States. Participants are randomly assigned into four conditions: (a) multimedia with analogy; (b) multimedia without analogy; (c) analogy without…

  5. Does Accessibility of Positive and Negative Schema Vary by Child Physical Abuse Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L.; Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Farc, Magdalena M.; Irwin, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in accessibility of positive and negative schema in parents with high and low risk for child physical abuse (CPA). Methods: This study combined picture priming and lexical decision making methods to assess the accessibility of positive and negative words following presentation of child and adult faces. The child…

  6. The flesh and blood of embodied understanding: the source-path-goal schema in animation film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.; Jeulink, M.

    2011-01-01

    According to Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT), the Source-Path-Goal (SPG) schema constitutes a central concept in cognition. Apart from literally structuring "movement," SPG also shapes our understanding of "purposive activity," including questing and story-telling. A problem in CMT, however, is

  7. Generic, network schema agnostic sparse tensor factorization for single-pass clustering of heterogeneous information networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibing Wu

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous information networks (e.g. bibliographic networks and social media networks that consist of multiple interconnected objects are ubiquitous. Clustering analysis is an effective method to understand the semantic information and interpretable structure of the heterogeneous information networks, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, most studies assume that heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bi-typed networks or star network schema, and they can only cluster one type of object in the network each time. In this paper, a novel clustering framework is proposed based on sparse tensor factorization for heterogeneous information networks, which can cluster multiple types of objects simultaneously in a single pass without any network schema information. The types of objects and the relations between them in the heterogeneous information networks are modeled as a sparse tensor. The clustering issue is modeled as an optimization problem, which is similar to the well-known Tucker decomposition. Then, an Alternating Least Squares (ALS algorithm and a feasible initialization method are proposed to solve the optimization problem. Based on the tensor factorization, we simultaneously partition different types of objects into different clusters. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework, STFClus, can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and can outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as a generally applicable single-pass clustering method for heterogeneous network which is network schema agnostic.

  8. Schema-Based Analysis of Gendered Self-Disclosure in Persian: Writing for Dating Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadady, Ebrahim; Mehr, Somayeh Javadi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a textual analysis of letters written by 21 male and 21 female participants in Persian. Each writer wrote two letters, one to a dating service and another one to a hypothetical person chosen and introduced by the center. Therefore, a total of 84 letters were collected from the participants. Schema theory was used to find the…

  9. Gender Schema and Prejudicial Recall: How Children Misremember, Fabricate, and Distort Gendered Picture Book Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Children's perceptions of gender are greatly influenced by the illustrations/text they encounter in picture books. While transacting with authentic literature, children build gender schema that guide processing of subsequent information. This knowledge can bias memory to a point where children misremember or distort information to make it fit…

  10. Dissociation and Variability of Adult Attachment Dimensions and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Sexual and Violent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elina; Beech, Anthony R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of constructs that may indicate the presence of disorganized attachment style in sexual and violent offenders. Constructs measured were dissociation, variability on self-report measures of attachment style and early maladaptive schemas, and variability in observed behavior. Data on variability…

  11. Grasp Learning by Means of Developing Sensorimotor Schemas and Generic World Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Popovic, Mila; Bodenhagen, Leon

    2011-01-01

    We present a cognitive system in which grasping competences are coded by means of a formalisation of sensory motor schemas in terms of so called ‘object action complexes’ (OACs). OACs define the knowledge of the system via the effects and precondition of certain behavioural patterns, and also code...

  12. The embodied nature of medical concepts: image schemas and language for PAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Velasco, Juan Antonio; Tercedor Sánchez, Maribel

    2014-08-01

    Cognitive linguistics assumes that knowledge is both embodied and situated as far as it is acquired through our bodily interaction with the world in a specific environment (e.g. Barsalou in Lang Cogn Process 18:513-562, 2003; Connell et al. in PLoS One 7:3, 2012). Therefore, embodiment provides an explanation to the mental representation and linguistic expression of concepts. Among the first, we find multimodal conceptual structures, like image schemas, which are schematic representations of embodied experiences resulting from our conceptualization of the surrounding environment (Tercedor Sánchez et al. in J Spec Transl 18:187-205, 2012). Furthermore, the way we interact with the environment and its objects is dynamic and configures how we refer to concepts both by means of images and lexicalizations. In this article, we investigate how image schemas underlie verbal and visual representations. They both evoke concepts based on exteroception, interoception and proprioception which can be lexicalized through language. More specifically, we study (1) a multimodal corpus of medical texts to examine how image schemas lexicalize in the language of medicine to represent specialized concepts and (2) medical pictures to explore the depiction of image-schematic concepts, in order to account for the verbal and visual representation of embodied concepts. We explore the concept PAIN, a sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, using corpus analysis tools (Sketch Engine) to extract information about the lexicalization of underlying image schemas in definitions and defining contexts. Then, we use the image schemas behind medical concepts to consistently select images which depict our experience of pain and the way we understand it. Finally, such lexicalizations and visualizations will help us assess how we refer to PAIN both verbally and visually.

  13. Self-schema as a non-drinker: a protective resource against heavy drinking in Mexican-American college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Stein, Karen F; Corte, Colleen; Steffen, Alana

    2017-03-21

    Alcohol use is considered less acceptable for women than men in the Mexican culture. However, recent studies of Mexican-American (MA) women show that prevalence and rates of alcohol use are escalating, particularly in those with high acculturation to Western standards. Building on recent studies that demonstrated that drinking-related identities (self-schemas) are important predictors of alcohol use in college populations, this secondary data analysis investigated the association between acculturation, MA cultural values, and acculturative stress, drinking-related self-schemas and heavy drinking over time in college-enrolled MA women. Data were drawn from a 12-month longitudinal study of self-schemas and health-risk behaviors in 477 college-enrolled MA women. Drinking-related self-schemas, acculturation, MA cultural values and acculturative stress were measured at baseline, and heavy drinking was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Thirty-six percent of women had a non-drinker self-schema but only 3% had a drinker self-schema. Higher spirituality was protective against heavy drinking, and this effect can be partially explained by presence of a non-drinker self-schema. Interventions that emphasize the personal relevance of being a non-drinker and support the importance of spirituality may help to prevent heavy drinking in MA college women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Hablo Inglés y Español: Cultural Self-Schemas as a Function of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriana Rodríguez-Arauz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that bilingual individuals experience a “double personality,” which allows them to shift their self-schemas when they are primed with different language modes. In this study, we examine whether self-schemas change in Mexican-American (N = 193 bilinguals living in the U.S. when they provide open-ended personality self-descriptions in both English and Spanish. We used the Meaning Extraction Helper (MEH software to extract the most salient self-schemas that influence individuals' self-defining process. Following a qualitative-inductive approach, words were extracted from the open-ended essays and organized into semantic clusters, which were analyzed qualitatively and named. The results show that as expected, language primed bilinguals to think about different self-schemas. In Spanish, their Mexican self-schemas were more salient; whereas, in English their U.S. American self-schemas were more salient. Similarities of self-schemas across languages were assessed using a quantitative approach. Language differences and similarities in theme definition and implications for self-identity of bilinguals are discussed.

  15. Neural activation patterns during retrieval of schema-related memories: differences and commonalities between children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Garvin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Shing, Yee Lee

    2017-11-01

    Schemas represent stable properties of individuals' experiences, and allow them to classify new events as being congruent or incongruent with existing knowledge. Research with adults indicates that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in memory retrieval of schema-related information. However, developmental differences between children and adults in the neural correlates of schema-related memories are not well understood. One reason for this is the inherent confound between schema-relevant experience and maturation, as both are related to time. To overcome this limitation, we used a novel paradigm that experimentally induces, and then probes for, task-relevant knowledge during encoding of new information. Thirty-one children aged 8-12 years and 26 young adults participated in the experiment. While successfully retrieving schema-congruent events, children showed less medial PFC activity than adults. In addition, medial PFC activity during successful retrieval correlated positively with children's age. While successfully retrieving schema-incongruent events, children showed stronger hippocampus (HC) activation as well as weaker connectivity between the striatum and the dorsolateral PFC than adults. These findings were corroborated by an exploratory full-factorial analysis investigating age differences in the retrieval of schema-congruent versus schema-incongruent events, comparing the two conditions directly. Consistent with the findings of the separate analyses, two clusters, one in the medial PFC, one in the HC, were identified that exhibited a memory × congruency × age group interaction. In line with the two-component model of episodic memory development, the present findings point to an age-related shift from a more HC-bound processing to an increasing recruitment of prefrontal brain regions in the retrieval of schema-related events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Study of early maladaptive Schemas in Men Dependent on Drugs and those Not Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Firoozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives of the Study Dependence on drugs is a prevalent problem throughout the world, in general and in Iran, in particular. Such a phenomenon is associated with numerous negative consequences. Given the changes in the consumption patterns in different countries, especially in Iran, and the abuse of drugs, identifying the factors which may pave the way for drug abuse is absolutely essential, which can be taken into account in setting the objectives of therapy programs. Cognizant of this, the present study has sought to study early maladaptive schemas in men dependent on drugs and those that are not. Materials and Method: The research design adopted in the present study was causal-comparative. The populaiton of interest was all the men dependent on drugs in the city of Yasouj, who had presented to recovery centers affiliated to welfare organization and Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in the year 2014 and were undergoing treatment. Using multi-stage cluster sampling, initially out of 23 centers for recovery programs, four centers were randomly chosen. Following that, out of each center, 20 and in total, 80 clients were chosen as the sample through convenience sampling. In addition, 80 men not dependent on drugs were chosen through matching with the sample dependent on drugs in terms of age, gender and locality. For the purpsoe of measuing early maladaptive schemas, we made use of the short version of Young’s early maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire. In order to determine the prevalent schemas in men dependent on drugs and those not dependent and the difference between the two groups, use was made of independent-sample t-test and effect size (d. Findings: The findings suggest that mean values of those dependent on drugs in all the schemas in quesiton were significantly higher than those of men not dependent. Although the difference in effect size of all schemas fell in the domain of the large effect, the largest

  17. The cultural life script as cognitive schema: How the life script shapes memory for fictional life stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    with the life script, memory for its valence was reconstructed to fit the script (in Study 2); and, third, intrusions in recall were disproportionately for life script events (in Study 3), though that was not the case in recognition (in Study 1). We conclude that the life script serves as a cognitive schema......We tested, across three studies, the effect of the cultural life script on memory and its phenomenological properties. We focused, in particular, on the mnemonic effects of both schema-consistency and frequency in the life script. In addition to testing recognition (in Study 1) and recall (in...... either recognition or recall. We also attained three additional, complementary effects: First, schema-inconsistent events received remember ratings more often than schema-consistent events (in Study 2, with a trend to this effect in Study 1); second, where an event’s emotional valence was inconsistent...

  18. Responding to the treatment challenge of patients with severe BPD: results of three pilot studies of inpatient schema therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, N.; Lieb, K.; Arntz, A.; Shaw, I.A.; Farrell, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schema Therapy (ST), a psychotherapy model integrating cognitive, experiential and behavioural interventions, was initially developed and evaluated as an outpatient treatment for patients with severe and chronic disorders, among them Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Two randomized

  19. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder : A comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sempertegui Vallejo, G.A.; Karreman, A.; Arntz, A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a serious psychiatric disorder for which the effectiveness of the current pharmacotherapeutical and psychotherapeutic approaches has shown to be limited. In the last decades, schema therapy has increased in popularity as a treatment of borderline personality

  20. Anatomic-physiological schema of the gastrointestinal tract, to be taken in account in determining the levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, C.

    1964-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological data of the gastrointestinal tract of adults and children were summarized in a standard schema, to be used in calculating the levels of radioactive contamination, in the food chain. (author) [fr

  1. Sexual self-schema and sexual morbidity among gynecologic cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, B L; Woods, X A; Copeland, L J

    1997-04-01

    Longitudinal research indicates that approximately 50% of women treated for gynecologic cancer have sexual dysfunctions as they recover and become cancer survivors. This outcome occurs in the context of satisfactory quality of life in other domains. This study, comparing gynecologic cancer survivors (n = 61) and gynecologically healthy women (n = 74), documents the reliability of the latter observations with measures of quality of life (general, depressive symptoms, social contacts, and stress), sexual functioning, and health. Of added importance are analyses focused on variables that may predict risk for sexual morbidity. Specifically, sexual self-schema is tested as an important, sexually relevant individual difference. In regression analyses that controlled for estimates of precancer sexual behavior (intercourse frequency), extent of disease-treatment, and menopausal symptoms, sexual self-schema accounted for significant variance in predicting current sexual behavior and responsiveness.

  2. Gender Differences in Maladaptive Cognitive Schema in Orphans in Dakahlia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the gender differences of maladaptive cognitive schema among orphans in Dakahlia governorate orphanages. A cross-sectional comparative study included 152 orphan boys and 48 orphan girls in all orphanages homes in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. Data collection tools included a structured interview questionnaire for personal data; early maladaptive schema questionnaire-short form (EMSQ-SF. The mean score of the total YSQ and all the subscales, except self-sacrifice and unrelenting standards, are significantly higher among females than males. Attention should be given to the psychological care of the orphans especially security, trust, confidence, and autonomy with more attention to orphan girls.

  3. Substance Abuse Counselors’ Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors’ personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. Methods A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Results Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients’ struggles. Discussion Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors’ recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments. PMID:28626597

  4. Substance Abuse Counselors' Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors' personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients' struggles. Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors' recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments.

  5. Implicit and explicit self-schema in active deluded, remitted deluded, and depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Diez-Alegría, Cristina; Hernández-Lloreda, María J; Moreno, Marta Nieto

    2008-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the hypothesis that patients with persecutory delusions would show a depressive-type self-concept when assessed with implicit measures of self-schema (i.e., a free recall test of self-relevant adjectives) but would show a normal self-concept when assessed with explicit measures (i.e., a self-concept questionnaire and a task requiring endorsement of self-relevant adjectives). The sample consisted of 136 participants (40 acute deluded participants, 25 remitted deluded participants, 35 depressed patients and 36 normal controls). Our results revealed that both groups of deluded participants showed no significant discrepancy between explicit and implicit measures of self-concept. These findings do not support the hypothesis of an implicit negative cognitive schema in persecutory deluded participants.

  6. Ontology-Based Big Dimension Modeling in Data Warehouse Schema Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    partitioning, vertical partitioning and their hybrid. We formalize the design methods and propose an algorithm that describes the modeling process from an OWL ontology to a data warehouse schema. In addition, this paper also presents an effective ontology-based tool to automate the modeling process. The tool......During data warehouse schema design, designers often encounter how to model big dimensions that typically contain a large number of attributes and records. To investigate effective approaches for modeling big dimensions is necessary in order to achieve better query performance, with respect...... to response time. In most cases, the big dimension modeling process is complicated since it usually requires accurate description of business semantics, multiple design revisions and comprehensive testing. In this paper, we present the design methods for modeling big dimensions, which include horizontal...

  7. Childhood emotional maltreatment and later psychological distress among college students: the mediating role of maladaptive schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Crawford, Emily; Del Castillo, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Theoretically, exposure to experiences of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in childhood may threaten the security of attachment relationships and result in maladaptive models of self and self-in-relation to others. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which EA and EN treatment by parents contributed uniquely to young adult maladaptive long-term outcome with respect to symptoms of anxiety, depression, and dissociation. The extent to which the relationships between EA and EN and later symptoms were mediated by specific internalized maladaptive interpersonal schemas was also explored. Questionnaires completed by 301 college men and women (52% female) assessed perceptions of experiences of childhood abuse and neglect, exposure to parental alcoholism, current symptoms of psychological distress, and endorsement of maladaptive interpersonal schemas. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that perceptions of childhood EA and EN each continued to exert an influence on later symptoms after controlling for gender, income, parental alcoholism, and other child abuse experiences. Both EA and EN were associated with later symptoms of anxiety and depression and were mediated by schemas of vulnerability to harm, shame, and self-sacrifice. Only EN was related to later symptoms of dissociation; this relationship was mediated by the schemas of shame and vulnerability to harm. The findings are discussed from an attachment perspective, focusing on how early interactions with parents contribute to the development of internal working models of self and self-in-relation to others that influence later cognitive schemas and psychological adjustment. Although emotional abuse and emotional neglect are the least studied of all forms of child maltreatment, they may be the most prevalent. The current findings suggest that how college students have evaluated and internalized these experiences may be even more important than the events themselves in determining

  8. Integrating Social Justice into the Practice of CBFT: A Critical Look at Family Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth O; McDowell, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Many families come to therapy struggling with the negative consequence of social inequity. Family therapy modalities have been developed to address these negative consequences and attend to power and social equity (Transformative family therapy: Just families in a just society. Boston, MA: Pearson Education; Socio-emotional relationship therapy. New York, NY: Springer). We argue that many family therapy modalities can be adapted to include social equity (Applying critical social theory in family therapy practice. AFTA Springer Series. New York, NY: Springer Publishing). Specifically, cognitive behavioral family therapy can be used to address the inequality in social systems that negatively affect the family system. We focus on schema formation and suggest an emphasis on societal schemas within the therapy milieu as a tool to help families see how societal inequality can affect the problems faced in family life. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  9. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Bipolar Disorder Patients With and Without Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr

    2016-03-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are at an increased risk of attempted and completed suicide. To elucidate the beliefs and assumptions associated with suicidality in BD, the present study compared BD patients with and without a history of suicide attempt in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). The sample consisted of 49 remitted BD patients who completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Version. Information on suicide attempts was obtained through interviews combined with medical records. Compared with BD patients without suicide attempts, the BD patients with suicide attempts scored significantly higher on 3 EMSs: social isolation, practical incompetence, and entitlement. The findings suggest that specific EMSs may be implicated in suicidal behaviors in BD. These results have implications for the assessment and treatment of suicidality in BD.

  10. Relationship between parenting and cognitive schemas in a group of male adult offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica ePellerone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the correlation of retrospective ratings on parental binding with cognitive patterns in the inmates for property crimes. The participant group comprehended 248 adults men, including 130 marked out as offenders (the experimental group, aged between 19 and 70, currently serving sentences in the Cavadonna prison in Siracusa, and 118 marked out as non-offenders (the control group, aged between 20 and 70, living in Siracusa (Sicily.The instruments used were the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, and the Young Schema Questionnaire-3 (YSQ. The preliminary analysis showed an high percentage of offenders who experienced an affectionate constraint parenting. Offenders scored significantly higher than the non-offenders on the level of paternal control and the YSQ subscales. The study underlines the influence of maternal care on most of the cognitive schemas, and the role of father’s control on the tendency to social isolation and defectiveness in the offenders.

  11. Early maladaptive schemas and suicidal risk in an Iranian sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Vahid; Sharifi Bastan, Farangis; Samimi Ardestani, Mehdi; Jamaati Ardakani, Razieh

    2017-09-01

    There are few studies on suicidal risk and its related factors in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study investigated the associations of early maladaptive schemas, OC symptom dimensions, OCD severity, depression and anxiety with suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in OCD patients. Sixty OCD outpatients completed the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI), the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). 51.7% of patients had lifetime suicide attempts and 75% had suicidal ideation. OCD patients with lifetime suicide attempts exhibited significantly higher scores on early maladaptive schemas than those without such attempts. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the mistrust/abuse schema and the OC symptom dimension of unacceptable thoughts explained lifetime suicide attempts. The mistrust/abuse schema, unacceptable thoughts and depression significantly predicted suicidal ideation. These findings indicated that the mistrust/abuse schema may contribute to high suicidality in OCD patients. Also, patients suffering from unacceptable thoughts need to be assessed more carefully for warning signs of suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots ( n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence ( n = 45). Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots.

  13. Pain rating schema: three distinct subgroups of individuals emerge when rating mild, moderate, and severe pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey-Law, Laura A; Lee, Jennifer E; Wittry, Alex M; Melyon, Myles

    2013-01-01

    While the validity of pain assessment has been well documented, the underlying schema (ie, organized, preconceived ideas) of how individuals interpret numerical pain ratings is not well understood. This study's objectives were to examine numerical pain intensity ratings, from (0 to 10 cm on the visual analog scale [VAS]) across multiple severities of commonly experienced acute pain conditions to determine whether the ratings differed between these pain conditions and/or between individuals. A community sample (N=365, 66% female) rated their anticipated pain intensity (VAS) for threshold, mild, moderate, severe, and tolerance level, using several common pain conditions: headache, toothache, joint injury, delayed-onset muscle soreness, burns, and "general pain." CLUSTER ANALYSIS REVEALED THREE SUBGROUPS OF INDIVIDUALS, SUGGESTING THREE TYPES OF UNDERLYING PAIN RATING SCHEMA: 1) Low Rating subgroup (low VAS pain intensity ratings across all the pain severity categories); 2) Low/High Rating subgroup (low VAS pain intensity rating for mild, but high VAS pain intensity rating for severe pain); and 3) High Rating subgroup (high VAS pain intensity ratings across all the pain severity categories). Overall, differences between pain conditions were small: muscle soreness pain intensity was consistently rated lower than the other pain types across severities. The highest pain ratings varied between joint injury and general pain, depending on severity level. No effects of sex or current experience of pain were noted. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT: 1) three distinct pain schemas were present in this community-based sample, indicating significant variation in how pain scales are utilized and/or interpreted between clusters of individuals; 2) pain ratings vary by condition, but these differences are minor; and 3) pain rating schemas are not significantly different between males and females or between individuals with and without current pain.

  14. A conceptual schema for government purchasing arrangements for Australian alcohol and other drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Hull, Philip; Berends, Lynda; Chalmers, Jenny; Lancaster, Kari

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a conceptual schema for government purchasing of alcohol and other drug treatment in Australia which could encompass the diversity and variety in purchasing arrangements, and facilitate better decision-maker by purchasers. There is a limited evidence base on purchasing arrangements in alcohol and drug treatment despite the clear impact of purchasing arrangements on both treatment processes and treatment outcomes. The relevant health and social welfare literature on purchasing arrangements was reviewed; data were collected from Australian purchasers and providers of treatment giving detailed descriptions of the array of purchasing arrangements. Combined analysis of the literature and the Australian purchasing data resulted in a draft schema which was then reviewed by an expert committee and subsequently finalised. The conceptual schema presented here was purpose-built for alcohol and other drug treatment, with its overlap between health and social welfare services. It has three dimensions: 1. The ways in which providers are chosen; 2. The ways in which services are paid for; and 3. How price is managed. Distinguishing between the methods for choosing providers (such as competitive or individually negotiated processes) from the way in which organisations are paid for their provision of treatment (such as via a block grant or payment for activity) provides conceptual clarity and enables closer analysis of each mechanism. Governments can improve health and wellbeing by making informed decisions about the way they purchase and fund alcohol and other drug treatment. Research comparing different purchasing arrangements can provide a vital evidence-base to inform funders; however a first step is to accurately and consistently categorise current approaches against a typology or conceptual schema. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maladaptive Schemas as a Predictor of Residential Treatment Outcomes in Females with Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cullum, Jodi Leigh

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship between maladaptive schemas and treatment outcomes of adolescent and adult women with an eating disorder receiving residential treatment. Existing data were obtained from 67 females aged 11 to 47 years (m =18.61) that had entered residential treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) at a Western United States residential eating disorder treatment facility. Pre- and posttreat...

  16. The meaning of the body schema in reaching maturity during late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Mirucka Beata

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this paper was to investigate whether an association existed between the activation of the body schema and reaching adulthood among people in late adolescence. Three activities that are known to enjoy popularity among young people were analysed, namely: dancing, playing computer games that require motor involvement (e.g. Kinect), and playing computer games of an educational and entertaining character. It was assumed that the chosen forms of activity ...

  17. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Eating Disordered Patients With or Without Non-Suicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Els; Dierckx, Eva; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Claes, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) in function of eating disorder (ED) subtypes (restrictive/bulimic) and the presence/absence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Female inpatients (N = 491) completed the Young Schema Questionnaire and the Self-Injury Questionnaire. The influence of ED subtype and the presence/absence of NSSI and their interaction on the EMS were investigated by means of a MANCOVA. The results showed main effects of ED subtype and the presence of NSSI on EMS. Patients with bulimia scored significantly higher on insufficient self-control and emotional deprivation, which are more related to cluster B compared with restrictive patients, whereas restrictive patients scored significantly higher on social undesirability, failure to achieve, subjugation and unrelenting standards compared with patients with bulimia that are more related to cluster C. Patients with ED with NSSI reported significantly higher EMS levels compared with patients without NSSI, suggesting that they could be of particular interest to benefit from schema therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. XML schemas for common bioinformatic data types and their application in workflow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Philipp N; Krüger, Jan; Hartmeier, Sven; Schwarzer, Knut; Löwenthal, Kai; Mersch, Henning; Dandekar, Thomas; Giegerich, Robert

    2006-11-06

    Today, there is a growing need in bioinformatics to combine available software tools into chains, thus building complex applications from existing single-task tools. To create such workflows, the tools involved have to be able to work with each other's data--therefore, a common set of well-defined data formats is needed. Unfortunately, current bioinformatic tools use a great variety of heterogeneous formats. Acknowledging the need for common formats, the Helmholtz Open BioInformatics Technology network (HOBIT) identified several basic data types used in bioinformatics and developed appropriate format descriptions, formally defined by XML schemas, and incorporated them in a Java library (BioDOM). These schemas currently cover sequence, sequence alignment, RNA secondary structure and RNA secondary structure alignment formats in a form that is independent of any specific program, thus enabling seamless interoperation of different tools. All XML formats are available at http://bioschemas.sourceforge.net, the BioDOM library can be obtained at http://biodom.sourceforge.net. The HOBIT XML schemas and the BioDOM library simplify adding XML support to newly created and existing bioinformatic tools, enabling these tools to interoperate seamlessly in workflow scenarios.

  19. The Interaction Between Schema Matching and Record Matching in Data Integration

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2016-09-20

    Schema Matching (SM) and Record Matching (RM) are two necessary steps in integrating multiple relational tables of different schemas, where SM unifies the schemas and RM detects records referring to the same real-world entity. The two processes have been thoroughly studied separately, but few attention has been paid to the interaction of SM and RM. In this work, we find that, even alternating them in a simple manner, SM and RM can benefit from each other to reach a better integration performance (i.e., in terms of precision and recall). Therefore, combining SM and RM is a promising solution for improving data integration. To this end, we define novel matching rules for SM and RM, respectively, that is, every SM decision is made based on intermediate RM results, and vice versa, such that SM and RM can be performed alternately. The quality of integration is guaranteed by a Matching Likelihood Estimation model and the control of semantic drift, which prevent the effect of mismatch magnification. To reduce the computational cost, we design an index structure based on q-grams and a greedy search algorithm that can reduce around 90 percent overhead of the interaction. Extensive experiments on three data collections show that the combination and interaction between SM and RM significantly outperforms previous works that conduct SM and RM separately.

  20. Preliminary Findings on Men's Sexual Self-Schema and Sexual Offending: Differences Between Subtypes of Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Available literature suggests that sexual self-schemas (i.e., cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself) influence sexual behavior. Nonetheless, there is a lack of research regarding their role in sexual offending. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the men's sexual self-schema dimensions (passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal) and different types of sexual-offending behavior. A total of 50 rapists, 65 child molesters (21 pedophilic, 44 nonpedophilic), and 51 nonsexual offenders answered the Men's Sexual Self-Schema Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression, controlling for age, school education, psychological distress, and social desirability. Results showed that rapists as well as nonsexual offenders were more likely to hold the powerful-aggressive sexual self-view compared to pedophilic and nonpedophilic child molesters. Overall, findings seem to be consistent with both a sociocultural component of aggression and the general cognitive profile of offenders. If further research corroborates these preliminary findings, sexual self-concept may be integrated into a comprehensive multifactorial approach of offending behavior.

  1. Effects of self-schema elaboration on affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L E; Stahlberg, D; Dauenheimer, D

    2000-02-01

    The basic assumption of the integrative self-schema model (ISSM; L.-E. Petersen, 1994; L.-E. Petersen, D. Stahlberg, & D. Dauenheimer, 1996; D. Stahlberg, L.-E. Petersen, & D. Dauenheimer, 1994, 1999) is that self-schema elaboration (schematic vs. aschematic) affects reactions to self-relevant information. This assumption is based on the idea that schematic dimensions occupy a more central position in the cognitive system than aschematic dimensions. In the first study, this basic prediction could be clearly confirmed: The results showed that schematic dimensions possessed stronger cognitive associations with other self-relevant cognitions as well as a higher resistance to change than aschematic dimensions did. In the second study, the main assumptions of the ISSM concerning the affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant feedback were tested: The ISSM proposes that, on schematic dimensions, reactions to self-relevant feedback will most likely follow principles of self-consistency theory, whereas on aschematic dimensions positive feedback should elicit the most positive reactions that self-enhancement theory would predict. The experimental results clearly confirmed the hypotheses derived from the ISSM for affective reactions. Cognitive reactions, however, were in line with self-consistency principles and were not modified by the elaboration of the self-schema dimension involved.

  2. Onomatopoeias: a new perspective around space, image schemas and phoneme clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catricalà, Maria; Guidi, Annarita

    2015-09-01

    Onomatopoeias (onomatopoeias since Cratilo's analysis of the analogical dimension of verbal language. Nonetheless, it is still difficult to accept a (semantic, functional or grammatical) descriptive and explicative model of onomatopoeia, because the rules that constrain processes of selection and construction remain idiosyncratic and variable (Dogana in Le parole dell'incanto. FrancoAngeli, Milano, 2002; Catricalà 2011). This article proposes a classification model based on spatial cognition criteria. The hypothesis (Catricalà 2011) is that onomatopoeias are related to image schemas (Johnson in The body in the mind. University Press, Chicago, 1987), i.e. to the visual mapping of a movement. We also refer to force dynamic (Talmy in Language typology and lexical description, pp 36-149, 1985; Jackendoff in Semantic structures. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1990) as a basic model of conceptual maps (Langacker in Grammar and conceptualization. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 1999). Categories are related to the presence of specific phonemes and phoneme clusters, while visual patterns correspond to different image schemas. The association between specific categories of pseudo-onomatopoeias and specific spatial/movement patterns is also the object of an experiment focused on onomatopoeia interpretation. Most part of data confirms a correlation between image schemas as CONTAINER/CONTAINMENT (crunch, plop) or SOURCE-PATH-GOAL (tattarrattat 'shots') and an occlusive consonant, while liquid and trill consonants correlate with PATH (vroom).

  3. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years.

  4. The psychology of thinking before the cognitive revolution: Otto Selz on problems, schemas, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hark, Michel

    2010-02-01

    Otto Selz has been hailed as one of the most important precursors of the cognitive revolution, yet surprisingly few studies of his work exist. He is often mentioned in the context of the Würzburg School of the psychology of thinking and sometimes in the context of Gestalt psychology. In this paper, it is argued that Selz's emphasis on the role of problems and schemas in the direction of thought processes and creativity sets him apart from the program of the Würzburg School. On the other hand, by developing a theory of thinking that is exclusively at the intentional level, Selz also differs from psychologists that take physics as a model for psychology, such as the Gestalt psychology of Wolfgang Kihler. Special emphasis is given in this paper to Selz's use of the concept of problem or task and the concept of the schema. It is further argued that the concept of the schema is the result of Selz's adaptation of the theory of relations as developed by the philosopher Meinong. The paper begins with a sketch of Selz's life that ended so tragically.

  5. Early maladaptive schemas and functional impairment in remitted bipolar disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr

    2012-12-01

    Previous research indicates that low self-esteem is associated with functional impairment in remitted bipolar disorder patients. The present study aimed to elucidate this area further by exploring the relationship between different self-schemas and key functional outcome domains. The study consisted of 49 remitted bipolar disorders patients who completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Version (YSQ-S3) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the schemas Social Isolation, Failure to Achieve, Dependence, Vulnerability to Harm and Illness, Emotional Inhibition, Insufficient Self-Control, and Pessimism accounted for 28% of the variance in functional impairment when controlling for length of remission and subsyndromal depressive symptoms. The WSAS as a self-report scale measures the patients' perception of own functioning and is therefore not an objective measure of functioning. The findings delineate specific psychological vulnerabilities which are likely to be implicated in functional impairment in bipolar disorder and as such warrant further examination in terms of their causal mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Neural representation of human body schema and corporeal self-consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo

    2014-04-01

    The human brain processes every sensation evoked by altered posture and builds up a constantly changing postural model of the body. This is called a body schema, and somatic signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints, i.e. proprioceptive signals, largely contribute its formation. Recent neuroimaging techniques have revealed neuronal substrates for human body schema. A dynamic limb position model seems to be computed in the central motor network (represented by the primary motor cortex). Here, proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals from muscle spindles are transformed into motor commands, which may underlie somatic perception of limb movement and facilitate its efficient motor control. Somatic signals originating from different body parts are integrated in the course of hierarchical somatosensory processing, and activity in higher-order somatosensory parietal cortices is capable of representing a postural model of the entire body. The left fronto-parietal network associates internal motor representation with external object representation, allowing the embodiment of external objects. In contrast, the right fronto-parietal regions connected by the most inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus fibers seem to have the functions of monitoring bodily states and updating body schema. We hypothesize that activity in these right-sided fronto-parietal regions is deeply involved in corporeal self-consciousness.

  7. Automated Creation of Datamarts from a Clinical Data Warehouse, Driven by an Active Metadata Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Charles L.; Kohlmiller, Paul H.; Stutman, Harris

    1998-01-01

    A methodology and toolkit are described which enable the automated metadata-driven creation of datamarts from clinical data warehouses. The software uses schema-to-schema transformation driven by an active metadata repository. Tools for assessing datamart data quality are described, as well as methods for assessing the feasibility of implementing specific datamarts. A methodology for data remediation and the re-engineering of operational data capture is described.

  8. Scalable EEG interpretation using Deep Learning and Schema Descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Picone, Joseph; Obeid, Iyad; Harabagiu, Sanda

    2016-01-01

    •Focus on addressing a critical market gap in EEG technology – real-time seizure detection for intensive care unit (ICU) and epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) applications. •The ability to auto-scan EEGs and predict seizures in advance will be a transformational clinical technology. Existing products that seek to increase accuracy and productivity via automatic analysis are limited by high rates of false positives, overwhelming healthcare providers with misleading ...

  9. Effects of muscle dysmorphia, social comparisons and body schema priming on desire for social interaction: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Agthe, Maria; Yanagida, Takuya; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2017-06-15

    Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a relatively young diagnosis referring to the desire for a high degree in lean muscle mass, while simultaneously believing that one is insufficiently muscular, mostly found in men. It goes along with a risk for social withdrawal to maintain rigid exercise and dietary regimen. The aim of the current study was thus, to explore differences in men with and without a risk for muscle dysmorphia regarding their desire for social interaction. Furthermore, we investigated potential effects of individual social comparison tendencies (the tendency to compare oneself with persons who are perceived to be superior or inferior to oneself on a certain dimension) and of one's own body schema on the desire for social interaction. One hundred physically active, college aged Austrian men were recruited via social media and flyers at fitness centers and the sports department of the University of Vienna. Participants were randomly assigned to a priming condition evoking their own body schema or a control condition and had to state their desire for social interaction with male or female stimulus persons of high or average attractiveness. We conducted a 2 (group of participant; men with vs. without a risk for MD) × 2 (priming condition; priming vs. non-priming) × 2 (attractiveness of stimulus person; highly attractive vs. less attractive) experimental design with different social comparison tendencies as covariates. Men with a risk for muscle dysmorphia showed lesser desire for social interaction than men without this risk, which can be seen as a risk factor for psychopathological outcomes. Generally, men with and without a risk for muscle dysmorphia did not differ with regard to their preferences for attractive stimulus persons as subjects for social interaction. We confirmed the notion that a tendency for downward social comparisons goes along with a diminished desire for social interaction. This study showed that men with a risk for muscle dysmorphia

  10. Schema Driven Construction of Future Autobiographical Traumatic Events: The Future is Much More Troubling than the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Research on future episodic thought has produced compelling theories and results in cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and clinical psychology. To integrate these using basic concepts and methods from autobiographical memory research, 76 undergraduates remembered past and imagined future positive and negative events that had or would have a major impact on them. Correlations of the online ratings of visual and auditory imagery, emotion, and other measures demonstrated that individuals used the same processes to the same extent to remember past and construct future events. These measures predicted the theoretically important metacognitive judgment of past reliving and future ‘preliving’ in similar ways. Future negative events had much higher scores than past negative events on standardized tests of reactions to traumatic events, scores in the range that would qualify for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which was replicated (n = 52) to check for order effects. Consistent with earlier work, future events had less sensory vividness. Thus, the imagined symptoms of future events were unlikely to be caused by sensory vividness. To confirm this, 63 undergraduates produced numerous added details between two constructions of the same negative future events, removing deficits in rated vividness with no increase in the standardized tests of reactions to traumatic events. Neuroticism predicted individuals’ reactions to negative past events but did not predict imagined reactions to future events. This set of novel methods and findings are interpreted in the contexts of the literatures of episodic future thought, autobiographical memory, PTSD, and classic schema theory. PMID:23607632

  11. Responding to the treatment challenge of patients with severe BPD: results of three pilot studies of inpatient schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Neele; Lieb, Klaus; Arntz, Arnoud; Shaw, Ida A; Farrell, Joan

    2014-05-01

    Schema Therapy (ST), a psychotherapy model integrating cognitive, experiential and behavioural interventions, was initially developed and evaluated as an outpatient treatment for patients with severe and chronic disorders, among them Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Two randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of ST for BPD, delivered in an individual or group format, in the outpatient setting. However, the most severely impaired BPD patients are referred to inpatient treatment due to suicidality and severe self-harm. Specialized inpatient treatment programs are limited, with little evaluative research. The pilot studies are designed to be first steps in naturalistic clinical settings to evaluate the effects of an intensive inpatient ST treatment program. This report presents the results of three independent uncontrolled pilot studies with a total of 92 BPD patients. The programs combine individual and group modalities and are consistent theoretically with the ST model for BPD patients. RESULTS show that inpatient ST can significantly reduce symptoms of severe BPD and global severity of psychopathology with effect sizes ranging from Cohen's d = 2.84 to Cohen's d = .43. Differences in the effect sizes across the three pilot studies could be explained by length of treatment, number of group psychotherapists and their training. Although there are limitations to the presented pilot studies such as differences in the samples, treatment settings, variations in the treatment itself and the use of different measures, which may have influenced outcome, they are a starting point for describing and evaluating inpatient treatment for BPD in naturalistic settings.

  12. Multi-facetted Metadata - Describing datasets with different metadata schemas at the same time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Klump, Jens; Bertelmann, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Inspired by the wish to re-use research data a lot of work is done to bring data systems of the earth sciences together. Discovery metadata is disseminated to data portals to allow building of customized indexes of catalogued dataset items. Data that were once acquired in the context of a scientific project are open for reappraisal and can now be used by scientists that were not part of the original research team. To make data re-use easier, measurement methods and measurement parameters must be documented in an application metadata schema and described in a written publication. Linking datasets to publications - as DataCite [1] does - requires again a specific metadata schema and every new use context of the measured data may require yet another metadata schema sharing only a subset of information with the meta information already present. To cope with the problem of metadata schema diversity in our common data repository at GFZ Potsdam we established a solution to store file-based research data and describe these with an arbitrary number of metadata schemas. Core component of the data repository is an eSciDoc infrastructure that provides versioned container objects, called eSciDoc [2] "items". The eSciDoc content model allows assigning files to "items" and adding any number of metadata records to these "items". The eSciDoc items can be submitted, revised, and finally published, which makes the data and metadata available through the internet worldwide. GFZ Potsdam uses eSciDoc to support its scientific publishing workflow, including mechanisms for data review in peer review processes by providing temporary web links for external reviewers that do not have credentials to access the data. Based on the eSciDoc API, panMetaDocs [3] provides a web portal for data management in research projects. PanMetaDocs, which is based on panMetaWorks [4], is a PHP based web application that allows to describe data with any XML-based schema. It uses the eSciDoc infrastructures

  13. "Two souls, two thoughts," two self-schemas: double consciousness can have positive academic consequences for African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Tiffany N; Markus, Hazel Rose; Taylor, Valerie Jones

    2015-04-01

    African Americans can experience a double consciousness-the two-ness of being an American and an African American. The present research hypothesized that: (a) double consciousness can function as 2 self-schemas-an independent self-schema tied to mainstream American culture and an interdependent self-schema tied to African American culture, and (b) U.S. educational settings can leverage an interdependent self-schema associated with African American culture through inclusive multicultural practices to facilitate positive academic consequences. First, a pilot experiment and Studies 1 and 2 provided evidence that double consciousness can be conceptualized as 2 self-schemas. That is, African Americans shifted their behavior (e.g., cooperation) in schema-relevant ways from more independent when primed with mainstream American culture to more interdependent when primed with African American culture. Then, Studies 3 and 4 demonstrated that incorporating African American culture within a university setting enhanced African Americans' persistence and performance on academic-relevant tasks. Finally, using the Gates Millennium Scholars dataset (Cohort 1), Study 5 conceptually replicated Studies 3 and 4 and provided support for one process that underlies the observed positive academic consequences. Specifically, Study 5 provided evidence that engagement with African American culture (e.g., involvement with cultural events/groups) on college campuses makes an interdependent self-schema more salient that increases African American students' sense of academic fit and identification, and, in turn, enhances academic performance (self-reported grades) and persistence (advanced degree enrollment in a long-term follow-up). The discussion examines double consciousness as a basic psychological phenomenon and suggests the intra- and intergroup benefits of inclusive multicultural settings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Comparison of prognosis values of pre therapy PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. and MRI in the uterus cervix cancer; Comparaison des valeurs pronostiques des TEP-TDM au 18F-FDG et IRM pretherapeutiques dans le cancer du col de l'uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chastan, M.; Baron, M.; Diologent, B.; Edet Sanson, A.; Guernou, M.; Vera, P.; Hitzel, A. [Centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen, (France); Manrique, A. [GIP Cyceron, Caen, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The objective is to compare the prognosis value of the pre-therapy pelvis PET--T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. and MRI in the uterine cervix carcinoma. The conclusions: in the uterine cervix carcinomas, the existence of a pelvis ganglion injury on the pre-therapy PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. is a prognosis factor independent of recurrence and death at one year. The MRI does not bring any additional information relative to the prognosis of the disease. (N.C.)

  15. Borderline Personality Features in Students: the Predicting Role of Schema, Emotion Regulation, Dissociative Experience and Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Seyede Fateme; Arshadi, Nasrin; Zargar, Yadolla; Mehrabizade Honarmand, Mahnaz; Hajjari, Zahra

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that early maladaptive schemas, emotional dysregulation are supposed to be the defining core of borderline personality disorder. Many studies have also found a strong association between the diagnosis of borderline personality and the occurrence of suicide ideation and dissociative symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between borderline personality features and schema, emotion regulation, dissociative experiences and suicidal ideation among high school students in Shiraz City, Iran. In this descriptive correlational study, 300 students (150 boys and 150 girls) were selected from the high schools in Shiraz, Iran, using the multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected using some instruments including borderline personality feature scale for children, young schema questionnaire-short form, difficulties in emotion-regulation scale (DERS), dissociative experience scale and beck suicide ideation scale. Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression analysis. The results showed a significant positive correlation between schema, emotion regulation, dissociative experiences and suicide ideation with borderline personality features. Moreover, the results of multivariate regression analysis suggested that among the studied variables, schema was the most effective predicting variable of borderline features (P borderline personality features.

  16. Identification of Early Maladaptive Schemas Based on Young Questionnaire in High School Girls of Qom City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Schema is a cognitive and emotional pattern, which can affect individual behaviors. This study was performed to investigate mental health problems and personality characteristics in female students in Qom city. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 151 female students of Qom high schools in three disciplines of Mathematical Sciences, Humanities, and Experimental Sciences in 2011-2012 academic years. Sampling was performed in two steps; first cluster sampling and then stratified sampling with proportional allocation to each cluster. Participants answered a 75-question questionnaire, “Young Early Maladaptive Schemas”. Data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis, spearman correlation coefficient, and Lambda statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 15±1.5 years. Unrelenting standards schemas (in domain of over vigilance/inhibition, failure and dependency (in dimension of impaired autonomy, and defectiveness and shame (in dimension of disconnection and rejection had the highest mean scores, respectively. None of the mean scores had a significant difference according to three academic groups. But the correlation between the schemas was statistically significant in the academic groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In this study, 2 out of the 4 schemas with the highest mean belonged to impaired performance domain. Given that this schema is formed by parental behavior during childhood, therefore, one of the strategies can be training of parents to improve children’s confidence and not over caring of them.  

  17. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR on depression symptoms and emotional schema inwomen with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Naderi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: mindfulness has an important role in depression. The present study investigatedthe impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR on emotional schema and depression symptoms in women with major depressive disorder. Method:In this experimental pretest-posttest study, twenty four patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD were selected by convenience sampling and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received MBSR therapy over two months. Beck Depression Questionnaire and Leahy Emotional Schema Scale (LESS were used to collect the data in the pre-test, post-test and two-month follow-up. Data were analyzed by mixed analysis of variance. Results: MBSR significantly reduced the symptoms of depression (P<0.01 and maladaptive emotional schemas (p<0.01, and increased adaptive emotional schemas (P<0.01 in experimental group in the post-test and follow-up. Conclusion:The results of this study revealed the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in reducing the severity of depression and maladaptive emotional schema in depressed patients.

  18. Changes in the sexual self-schema of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse following expressive writing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Boyd, Ryan L; Stanton, Amelia M; Meston, Cindy M

    2017-03-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about the sexual self that influence the processing of sexually pertinent information and guide sexual behavior. Until recently sexual self-schemas were exclusively assessed with self-report instruments. Recent research using the meaning extraction method, an inductive method of topic modeling, identified 7 unique themes of sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism from essays of 239 women (Stanton, Boyd, Pulverman, & Meston, 2015). In the current study, these themes were used to examine changes in theme prominence after an expressive writing treatment. Women (n = 138) with a history of childhood sexual abuse completed a 5-session expressive writing treatment, and essays on sexual self-schemas written at pretreatment and posttreatment were examined for changes in themes. Women showed a reduction in the prominence of the abuse, family and development, virginity, and attraction themes, and an increase in the existentialism theme. This study supports the validity of the 7 themes identified by Stanton and colleagues (2015) and suggests that expressive writing may aid women with a history of sexual abuse to process their abuse history such that it becomes a less salient aspect of their sexual self-schemas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The role of early maladaptive schemas in predicting exposure and response prevention outcome for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Aashild Tellefsen; Vogel, Patrick A; Launes, Gunvor; Haaland, Vegard Øksendal; Hansen, Bjarne; Solem, Stian; Himle, Joseph A

    2011-11-01

    This is the first study that explores whether early maladaptive schemas are related to treatment outcome for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The sample consisted of 88 outpatients with a diagnosis of OCD who completed exposure and response prevention treatment. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory and Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form were administered before and after treatment. Regression analyses using post-treatment Y-BOCS as the dependent variable indicated that higher scores on the abandonment schema at pre-treatment were related to poor outcome and explained 7% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment. Higher scores on the self-sacrifice schema at pre-treatment were related to good outcome and explained 6% of the variance in obsessive-compulsive symptoms at post-treatment. During treatment, only changes in the failure schema were significantly related to good outcome and explained 18% of the variance in symptoms at post-treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of distress tolerance in the relationship between cognitive schemas and alcohol problems among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Raluca M; Sistad, Rebecca E; Simons, Jeffrey S; Hansen, Jamie

    2018-03-01

    The current study tested the role of distress tolerance in the relationship between three early maladaptive cognitive schemas (Abandonment, Defectiveness/Shame, and Insufficient Self-Control) and alcohol problems among college students (N=364). Previous research suggests that maladaptive cognitive schemas may be a risk factor for alcohol-related problems. However, the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. One's tolerance for emotional distress may play an important role in understanding the nature of this association. We tested a structural equation model where distress tolerance was expected to explain or moderate associations between early maladaptive schemas and alcohol outcomes. Results indicated distress tolerance partially mediated the relationships between schemas of Abandonment and Insufficient Self-Control and alcohol problems. Distress tolerance also significantly moderated the relationship between the Defectiveness/Shame schema and alcohol-related problems, reducing the strength of the association. Distress tolerance is a modifiable risk factor and the results of this study support the inclusion of emotional regulation strategies in the prevention and treatment of alcohol problems among young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SCHEMA recombination of a fungal cellulase uncovers a single mutation that contributes markedly to stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelman, Pete; Snow, Christopher D; Smith, Matthew A; Yu, Xinlin; Kannan, Arvind; Boulware, Kevin; Villalobos, Alan; Govindarajan, Sridhar; Minshull, Jeremy; Arnold, Frances H

    2009-09-25

    A quantitative linear model accurately (R(2) = 0.88) describes the thermostabilities of 54 characterized members of a family of fungal cellobiohydrolase class II (CBH II) cellulase chimeras made by SCHEMA recombination of three fungal enzymes, demonstrating that the contributions of SCHEMA sequence blocks to stability are predominantly additive. Thirty-one of 31 predicted thermostable CBH II chimeras have thermal inactivation temperatures higher than the most thermostable parent CBH II, from Humicola insolens, and the model predicts that hundreds more CBH II chimeras share this superior thermostability. Eight of eight thermostable chimeras assayed hydrolyze the solid cellulosic substrate Avicel at temperatures at least 5 degrees C above the most stable parent, and seven of these showed superior activity in 16-h Avicel hydrolysis assays. The sequence-stability model identified a single block of sequence that adds 8.5 degrees C to chimera thermostability. Mutating individual residues in this block identified the C313S substitution as responsible for the entire thermostabilizing effect. Introducing this mutation into the two recombination parent CBH IIs not featuring it (Hypocrea jecorina and H. insolens) decreased inactivation, increased maximum Avicel hydrolysis temperature, and improved long time hydrolysis performance. This mutation also stabilized and improved Avicel hydrolysis by Phanerochaete chrysosporium CBH II, which is only 55-56% identical to recombination parent CBH IIs. Furthermore, the C313S mutation increased total H. jecorina CBH II activity secreted by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression host more than 10-fold. Our results show that SCHEMA structure-guided recombination enables quantitative prediction of cellulase chimera thermostability and efficient identification of stabilizing mutations.

  2. Change mechanisms of schema-centered group psychotherapy with personality disorder patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Tschacher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study addressed the temporal properties of personality disorders and their treatment by schema-centered group psychotherapy. It investigated the change mechanisms of psychotherapy using a novel method by which psychotherapy can be modeled explicitly in the temporal domain. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: 69 patients were assigned to a specific schema-centered behavioral group psychotherapy, 26 to social skills training as a control condition. The largest diagnostic subgroups were narcissistic and borderline personality disorder. Both treatments offered 30 group sessions of 100 min duration each, at a frequency of two sessions per week. Therapy process was described by components resulting from principal component analysis of patients' session-reports that were obtained after each session. These patient-assessed components were Clarification, Bond, Rejection, and Emotional Activation. The statistical approach focused on time-lagged associations of components using time-series panel analysis. This method provided a detailed quantitative representation of therapy process. It was found that Clarification played a core role in schema-centered psychotherapy, reducing rejection and regulating the emotion of patients. This was also a change mechanism linked to therapy outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The introduced process-oriented methodology allowed to highlight the mechanisms by which psychotherapeutic treatment became effective. Additionally, process models depicted the actual patterns that differentiated specific diagnostic subgroups. Time-series analysis explores Granger causality, a non-experimental approximation of causality based on temporal sequences. This methodology, resting upon naturalistic data, can explicate mechanisms of action in psychotherapy research and illustrate the temporal patterns underlying personality disorders.

  3. Change Mechanisms of Schema-Centered Group Psychotherapy with Personality Disorder Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Zorn, Peter; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Background This study addressed the temporal properties of personality disorders and their treatment by schema-centered group psychotherapy. It investigated the change mechanisms of psychotherapy using a novel method by which psychotherapy can be modeled explicitly in the temporal domain. Methodology and Findings 69 patients were assigned to a specific schema-centered behavioral group psychotherapy, 26 to social skills training as a control condition. The largest diagnostic subgroups were narcissistic and borderline personality disorder. Both treatments offered 30 group sessions of 100 min duration each, at a frequency of two sessions per week. Therapy process was described by components resulting from principal component analysis of patients' session-reports that were obtained after each session. These patient-assessed components were Clarification, Bond, Rejection, and Emotional Activation. The statistical approach focused on time-lagged associations of components using time-series panel analysis. This method provided a detailed quantitative representation of therapy process. It was found that Clarification played a core role in schema-centered psychotherapy, reducing rejection and regulating the emotion of patients. This was also a change mechanism linked to therapy outcome. Conclusions/Significance The introduced process-oriented methodology allowed to highlight the mechanisms by which psychotherapeutic treatment became effective. Additionally, process models depicted the actual patterns that differentiated specific diagnostic subgroups. Time-series analysis explores Granger causality, a non-experimental approximation of causality based on temporal sequences. This methodology, resting upon naturalistic data, can explicate mechanisms of action in psychotherapy research and illustrate the temporal patterns underlying personality disorders. PMID:22745811

  4. Effective sharing of health records, maintaining privacy: a practical schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neame, Roderick

    2013-01-01

    .). For added security, as well as for trustworthiness, a method of verifying authenticity, integrity and authorship is required, which can be provided using a public key infrastructure (PKI) for cryptography (2). The second part of the solution is to give control over record access and sharing to the patient (or their identified representative), enabling them to authorise access by providing the index and access keys to their records. This can be done using a token (fe.g. smart card) or a secure online index which holds these details: this serves to relieve the formal record keeper of responsibility for external access control and privacy (internal access control and privacy can remain an institutional responsibility). The third part of the solution is to process the content of the stored records such that there is a 'plain English' copy, as well as an electronic copy which is coded and marked up using XML tags for each data element to signify 'type' (e.g. administrative, financial, operational, clinical etc.) and sub-types (e.g. diagnosis, medication, procedure, investigation result etc.). This ensures that the recipient can always read the data using a basic browser, but can readily manipulate and re-arrange the data for display and storage if they have a more sophisticated installation.

  5. a Schema on Generalized Continuous, Generalized Closed and Generalized Open Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Zabidin; Sidek, Abd Halim A.; Kiliçman, Adem

    2010-11-01

    Let f: (X, τ)⟼(Y,σ) be a map from a topological space X into another topological space Y. For any subset U of X, let H(U) be the proposition that U is a certain generalized closed or generalized open set of X. For any subset V of Y let G (V) be the proposition that V is a certain generalized closed or generalized open set of Y. We use schemas F (G( V), H (U)) and Z(G(V), H(U)) to describe generalized continuous and generalized closed or generalized open functions, respectively. Finally the relationship among these functions are investigated.

  6. Procrastination and suicide proneness: A moderated-mediation model for cognitive schemas and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibert, Jeffrey; LeLeux-LaBarge, Kayla; Tarantino, Nicholas; Yancey, Thresa; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect paths between procrastination and suicide proneness while considering gender differences. Participants included 547 undergraduates from a southeastern university. Procrastination was positively related to suicide proneness for both genders, although this relation was stronger for women. Moderated-mediation analyses with bootstrapping highlighted insufficient self-control schemas as a mediator in the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness. However, indirect pathways did not vary by gender. Results represent an extension of the Procrastination-Health Model by highlighting the contribution of cognitive factors in explaining the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness.

  7. Teaching Reading Comprehension on Analytical Exposition Text Through Schema Activation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Melda, Dida; Rosnija, Eni; Suhartono, Luwandi

    2013-01-01

    This research is focused on teaching reading comprehension on analytical exposition text through schema activation strategy. It is a pre experimental design with one group pre-test and post-test design. The subject is Grade XI IPA 1 of the eleventh grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Sekadau in academic year 2012/2013, numbering twenty nine students. The data were collected by giving 30 multiple choice items to the 29 students. The data were analyzed by t-test and effect size formula. The result i...

  8. The Comparative Analysis of Micro-reading and Traditional Reading Based On Schema Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Micro-reading is a new way of reading depended on short messages of mobile phones, network articles and short literary forms, which impacts greatly on traditional way of reading. The effect of "micro-reading" is deeper especially for those growing middle school students and college students. Aiming at the problem with the development of college students' micro-reading and based on the influence of schema theory on the research of cognition of reading, this paper is to analyze the comparison b...

  9. Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women-Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Polish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Konrad S; Kowalczyk, Robert; Kurpisz, Jacek; Normantowicz-Zakrzewska, Małgorzata; Krasowska, Aleksandra

    2018-02-17

    The sexual self-schema is a part of a broader concept of the self that is believed to be crucial for intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual relationships. To develop and perform psychometric validation of the Polish version of the Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women (SSSS-W-PL). 561 women 18 to 55 years old were included in the final analysis. Linguistic validation was performed in 4 steps in line with the MAPI Institute guidelines. Convergent validity was calculated using the Pearson r product-moment coefficient between different measures of sexuality (attitudes and experience, behavior, arousal, romantic relationship) and SSSS-W-PL total and factor scores. To test discriminant validity, we applied hierarchical regression analyses predicting the number of lifetime sexual partners, self-rating as a sexual person (1 item, "I feel sexually attractive"; on a 5-point Likert scale), and arousability, with independent variables being extraversion (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and the SSSS-W-PL (total and factor scores). Sexual self-schema was measured by the SSSS-W-PL, whereas arousability was measured by the arousal/excitement scale of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. The mean age of the study population was 29.0 ± 7.6 years. The final scale consisted of 24 adjectives grouped within 4 factors: romantic, passionate, direct, and embarrassed. The 4-factor model accounted for 39% of the variance. The Cronbach α was 0.74 for the SSSS-W-PL total score and 0.61 to 0.84 for individual factors. Test-retest reliability of the scale after 2- to 8-week intervals was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.82-0.86, P validity of the SSSS-W-PL. The SSSS-W-PL might be helpful in consulting and/or providing sexual therapy to gynecologic cancer survivors or women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Nowosielski K, Jankowski KS, Kowalczyk R, et al. Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women-Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Polish

  10. Effect of Pathological Narcissism on Development of Early Maladaptive Schemas in Men Seeking Alcohol Use Disorders Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Anli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that pathological narcissism of alcoholic individuals cause cognitive maladaptive schemas that lead to alcohol use disorders. We assessed the charts of 206 male patients with a diagnosis of alcohol use disorders according to DSM-5 that represent all male patients admitted into Bakirkoy Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Education and Research Hospital Alcohol and Drug Research, Treatment and Training Center (AMATEM during this period. The control group consisted of 102 male participants without any problems related to alcohol use or any other psychiatric diagnosis Data collection tools were Young Schema Qustionnaire and ndash;Short Form, Self Psychology Inventory and Sociodemographic Data Form. According to our results there is a statistically significant difference between alcohol use disorders and normal group in terms of pathological narcissism and early maladaptive schemas.. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(1.000: 63-74

  11. XSAMS: XML schema for atomic and molecular data and particle solid interaction. Summary report of an IAEA consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, D.

    2009-02-01

    Advanced developments in computer technologies offer exciting opportunities for new distribution tools and applications in various fields of physics. The convenient and reliable exchange of data is clearly an important component of such applications. Therefore, in 2003, the A and M Data Unit initiated within the collaborative efforts of the DCN (Data Centres Network) a new standard for atomic, molecular and particle surface interaction data exchange (AM/PSI) based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language). The schema is named XSAMS which stands for 'XML Schema for Atoms Molecules and Solids'. A working group composed of staff from the IAEA, NIST, ORNL and Observatoire Paris-Meudon meets biannually to discuss progress made on XSAMS, and to foresee new developments and actions to be taken to promote this standard for AM/PSI data exchange. Such a meeting was held on 27 October 2008, and the discussions and progress made in the schema are considered within this report. (author)

  12. Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form Version 3 (YSQ-S3): Preliminary validation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katelyn; Brockman, Robert; Bailey, Phoebe E; Kneebone, Ian I

    2017-11-10

    The aim of the current study was to establish the reliability and validity of one of the most used schema questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form Version 3 (YSQ-S3) in older adults. 104 participants aged 60-84 years were recruited. They were administered a battery of questionnaires, including the YSQ-S3, Young-Atkinson Mode Inventory (YAMI), Germans (Personality) Screener, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) and the Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS). The YSQ-S3 was completed a second time by 83 participants a median of 12 days later. Satisfactory internal consistency reliability was found for 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas (EMS) of the YSQ-S3. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory for 17 of 18 EMS. Convergent validity was evident from significant correlations between the EMS of the YSQ-S3 and the vulnerable child and angry child schema modes from the YAMI. Congruent validity was evident from correlations of the majority of the EMS with the GDS, the GAI, German's (Personality) Screener and the BPNS measure. By and large the YSQ-S3 demonstrates internal and test re-test reliability in as well as congruent and convergent validity, in older adults. This suggests the YSQ-S3 may be of use in work establishing the utility of schema therapy in this population, and that schema therapy with older people warrants further exploration. Notwithstanding this some re-development of some EMS items appears to be required for the YSQ-S3 to be more relevant to older people.

  13. Do cognitive schema mediate the association between childhood trauma and being at ultra-high risk for psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah-Kusi, E; Fisher, H L; Petros, N; Wilson, R; Mondelli, V; Garety, P A; Mcguire, P; Bhattacharyya, S

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to childhood trauma has been associated with psychotic symptoms, being at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Negative self-beliefs have been shown to partially mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and paranoia and have been shown to be characteristic of patients with psychosis. However, whether the association between childhood trauma and being at high risk of developing psychosis (e.g., UHR) and paranoia symptoms is mediated by altered cognitive schema is unknown and warrants investigation to inform preventive interventions. Data was collected on 30 UHR patients from Outreach and Support in South London about exposure to childhood trauma, cognitive schema, paranoia and cannabis use. Relative to healthy controls (n = 38), UHR patients were significantly more likely to report exposure to various types of childhood trauma (emotional and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect), had more negative schema and less positive schema about themselves and others, and were more likely to use cannabis more than once a month. Emotional neglect was found to be significantly associated with UHR status even after controlling for the effects of previous exposure to cannabis use (b = 0.262, 95% CI: 0.115-0.408), and this association was partially mediated by negative self-schema (b = 0.045, 95% CI: 0.004-0.159). Similarly, emotional neglect was significantly associated with paranoia (b = 1.354, 95% CI: 0.246-2.462), and this association was partially mediated by negative self-schema (b = 0.988, 95% CI: 0.323-1.895). These findings provide preliminary evidence about the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the association between childhood trauma and later risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  15. Competent Children and Their Teachers: Learning about Trajectories and Other Schemas. A Report from the Action Research Component of the Competent Children Longitudinal Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Anne; And Others

    This study examined curriculum change involving teacher development based on the intellectual development of teachers, parents, and children by means of the theory of schema development. The paper describes constructivist pedagogy and schema and their importance for young children's learning, then reports on a qualitative study of over 300…

  16. The relation between antisocial and borderline personality symptoms and early maladaptive schemas in a treatment seeking sample of male substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to have antisocial and borderline personality disorder than non-substance abusers. Recently, research has examined the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders, as early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie personality disorders. However, there is a dearth of research on the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. The current study examined the relations among early maladaptive schemas and antisocial and borderline personality within in a sample of men seeking substance abuse treatment (n = 98). Results demonstrated that early maladaptive schema domains were associated with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment and research are discussed. Antisocial (ASPD) and Borderline (BPD) personality disorder symptoms are prevalence among individuals seeking substance abuse treatment. Early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie the development of ASPD and BPD symptoms, and are also prevalence among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Findings from the current study suggest that specific early maladaptive schema domains predict ASPD and BPD symptoms in a substance abuse treatment seeking sample of adult males. The treatment of ASPD and BPD among men seeking substance use treatment may want to focus on early maladaptive schemas. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules and Solids (XSAMS). Summary Report of an IAEA Consultants’ Meeting. Proceedings of a conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2013-12-01

    A Consultants’ Meeting on “XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules and Solids (XSAMS)” was held in conjunction with the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) Cycle Three Project Meeting on the Campus of the University of Vienna on 20-22 February 2012. The meeting was to agree on the adoption of an international standard XSAMS version 1.0 and to discuss implementation activities and user experience with the schema. The proceedings of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  18. Etiological correlates of vaginismus: sexual and physical abuse, sexual knowledge, sexual self-schema, and relationship adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissing, Elke D; Binik, Yitzchak M; Khalifé, Samir; Cohen, Deborah; Amsel, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sexual and physical abuse, sexual self-schema, sexual functioning, sexual knowledge, relationship adjustment, and psychological distress in 87 women matched on age, relationship status, and parity and assigned to 3 groups--vaginismus, dyspareunia/vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS), and no pain. More women with vaginismus reported a history of childhood sexual interference, and women in both the vaginismus and VVS groups reported lower levels of sexual functioning and a less positive sexual self-schema. Lack of support for traditionally held hypotheses concerning etiological correlates of vaginismus and the relationship between vaginismus and dyspareunia are discussed.

  19. A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance.

  20. Cognitive Schemas in Placebo and Nocebo Responding: Role of Autobiographical Memories and Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Danielle J P; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; Heijmans, Naomi; Hermans, Dirk; Debeer, Elise; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Evers, Andrea W M

    2017-03-01

    Placebo effects are presumed to be based on one's expectations and previous experience with regard to a specific treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the specificity and valence of memories and expectations with regard to itch in experimentally induced placebo and nocebo itch responses. It was expected that cognitive schemas with more general and more negative memories and expectations with regard to itch contribute to less placebo itch responding. Validated memory tasks (ie, the Autobiographical Memory Test and the Self-referential Endorsement and Recall Task) and expectation tasks (ie, Future Event Task and the Self-referential Endorsement and Recall Task) were modified for physical symptoms, including itch. Specificity and valence of memories and expectations were assessed prior to a placebo experiment in which expectations regarding electrical itch stimuli were induced in healthy participants. Participants who were more specific in their memories regarding itch and who had lesser negative itch-related expectations for the future were more likely to be placebo itch responders. There were no significant differences in effects between the nocebo responders and nonresponders. The adapted tasks for assessing cognitive (memory and expectations) schemas on itch seem promising in explaining interindividual differences in placebo itch responding. Future research should investigate whether similar mechanisms apply to patients with chronic itch. This knowledge can be used for identifying patients who will benefit most from the placebo component of a treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.