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Sample records for pre-test basal cortisol

  1. Evaluation of Basal Serum or Plasma Cortisol Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, A.J.; Langlois, D.K.; Refsal, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies that included limited numbers of affected dogs have suggested basal cortisol concentrations ?55 nmol/L (2 ?g/dL) are sensitive, but nonspecific, for a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism. A detailed assessment of the diagnostic utility of basal cortisol concentrations is warranted. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the utility of basal cortisol concentrations for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in a large number of dogs, including those with and without serum ele...

  2. Towards a biopsychological understanding of costly punishment: the role of basal cortisol.

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    Stefan Pfattheicher

    Full Text Available Recent findings have documented a negative relation of basal endogenous cortisol and aggression after a provocation (i.e., reactive aggression in humans. We build on these findings and investigated the relation of endogenous cortisol and reactive aggression in a social dilemma situation, that is, costly punishment of individuals who did not appropriately contribute to a common group project. Specifically, we predicted that basal cortisol is negatively related to costly punishment of uncooperative individuals. In the present study, basal cortisol was assessed prior to a public goods game with the option to punish other group members. In line with previous research on reactive aggression and basal cortisol, we found that basal cortisol was indeed negatively related to costly punishment. The findings are important for understanding costly punishment because this tendency has been documented as a possible basis for the evolution of cooperation.

  3. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health : Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Ormel, Johan

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to

  4. Evaluation of Basal Serum or Plasma Cortisol Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A J; Langlois, D K; Refsal, K R

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies that included limited numbers of affected dogs have suggested basal cortisol concentrations ≤55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) are sensitive, but nonspecific, for a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism. A detailed assessment of the diagnostic utility of basal cortisol concentrations is warranted. To evaluate the utility of basal cortisol concentrations for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in a large number of dogs, including those with and without serum electrolyte abnormalities. Five hundred and twenty-two dogs, including 163 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism, 351 dogs with nonadrenal gland illness, and 8 dogs with equivocal results. Retrospective study. Basal and post-ACTH cortisol concentrations and sodium and potassium concentrations were collected from medical records. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for basal cortisol concentrations by standard methodologies. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were determined for various cut-points. The area under the ROC curve was 0.988 and was similarly excellent regardless of serum electrolyte concentrations. At the most discriminatory cut-point of 22 nmol/L (0.8 μg/dL), sensitivity and specificity were 96.9 and 95.7%, respectively. A basal cortisol concentration of ≤55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) resulted in a sensitivity of 99.4%. Conversely, a basal cortisol concentration of ≤5.5 nmol/L (0.19 μg/dL) resulted in a specificity of 99.1%. Similar to findings in previous studies, basal cortisol concentrations >55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) are useful in excluding a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism. Interestingly, excellent specificities and positive predictive values were observed at lower cut-point cortisol concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Basal Serum Cortisol Concentration as a Screening Test for Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bovens, C.; Tennant, K.; Reeve, J.; Murphy, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration is used as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, but is not well characterized. Objectives To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism in a population of dogs with a clinical suspicion of hypoadrenocorticism. Animals Four hundred and fifty dogs with nonadrenal gland illness and 14 dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism were included. Methods Retro...

  6. Basal hypersecretion of cortisol in relation to abnormal dexamethasone suppression test response in depression.

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    Cabranes-Diaz, J A; Almoguera, I; Ayuso, J L; Garcia-Camba, E; Prensa, A

    1986-01-01

    The activity of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal axis was evaluated in a group of patients with primary affective disorder by correlation of basal cortisol hypersecretion and abnormal response to dexamethasone suppression test (DST). The increase in basal cortisol was not found to be responsible for suppression failure. Moreover, this biochemical abnormality was common in the groups of psychiatric patients studied, although the physiopathologic mechanisms involved are different. Further research is necessary to clarify the results.

  7. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

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    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  8. Basal serum cortisol concentration as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.

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    Bovens, C; Tennant, K; Reeve, J; Murphy, K F

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration is used as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, but is not well characterized. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism in a population of dogs with a clinical suspicion of hypoadrenocorticism. Four hundred and fifty dogs with nonadrenal gland illness and 14 dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism were included. Retrospective case-control study. The records of all dogs having had an ACTH stimulation test performed between January 2005 and September 2011 at the University of Bristol were reviewed. Dogs were included if the test was performed as a screening for hypoadrenocorticism. The sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol concentration to detect dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were calculated using 2 cut-offs and compared to the gold standard ACTH stimulation test. Using a cut-off of ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity of basal cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism were 100% and 63.3%, respectively, whereas for a cut-off of ≤1 μg/dL (≤28 nmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 91.8%, respectively. Measurement of basal serum cortisol is useful as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs using a cut-off of ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L), and the disease is unlikely with a basal serum cortisol >2 μg/dL (>55 nmol/L). A basal serum cortisol ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L) cannot be used to diagnose hypoadrenocorticism, and an ACTH stimulation test should be performed in these cases. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

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    Juliana N Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries.Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in both populations.Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants.These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  10. The social endocrinology of dominance: basal testosterone predicts cortisol changes and behavior following victory and defeat.

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    Mehta, Pranjal H; Jones, Amanda C; Josephs, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    Past research suggests that individuals high in basal testosterone are motivated to gain high status. The present research extends previous work by examining endocrinological and behavioral consequences of high and low status as a function of basal testosterone. The outcome of a competition--victory versus defeat--was used as a marker of status. In Study 1, high testosterone men who lost in a dog agility competition rose in cortisol, whereas high testosterone men who won dropped in cortisol. Low testosterone men's cortisol changes did not depend on whether they had won or lost. Study 2 replicated this pattern of cortisol changes in women who participated in an experimental laboratory competition, and Study 2 extended the cortisol findings to behavior. Specifically, high testosterone winners chose to repeat the competitive task, whereas high testosterone losers chose to avoid it. In contrast, low testosterone winners and losers did not differ in their task preferences. These results provide novel evidence in humans that basal testosterone predicts cortisol reactivity and behavior following changes in social status. Implications for the social endocrinology of dominance are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A longitudinal study of basal cortisol in infants : Intra-individual variability, circadian rhythm and developmental trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weerth, C.; Van Geert, P. L. C.

    2002-01-01

    Mothers with normally developing babies were visited in their homes during 13 consecutive weeks, when the babies were around 5-8 months of age. Basal salival cortisol measures were taken for both the baby and the mother on arrival. The infants' basal cortisol decreased linearly with age, was

  12. Cortisol basal em asmáticos em uso de duas diferentes doses de propionato de fluticasona Basal cortisol in asthmatics on two different doses of fluticasone propionate

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    Cláudia R. de Andrade

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os valores de cortisol basal em asmáticos persistentes em uso de propionato de fluticasona inalatório na dose de 200 ou 300 mcg/dia. MÉTODOS: O diagnóstico e a classificação da gravidade da asma basearam-se nas recomendações do Global Initiative for Asthma. Pacientes menores de 11 anos receberam fluticasona na dose de 200 mcg/dia, e aqueles com mais de 11 anos receberam 300 mcg/dia. Após 10 semanas de tratamento, a dosagem do cortisol foi realizada para avaliação da função adrenal. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 41 pacientes (65,9% do sexo masculino entre 6 e 18 anos. Não houve diferença significativa entre as médias de cortisol basal nos pacientes que receberam 200 mcg/dia de propionato de fluticasona (n = 13 e naqueles que receberam 300 mcg/dia (n = 28. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados mostram que doses baixas a moderadas de propionato de fluticasona não causam supressão adrenal.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate basal plasma cortisol in persistent asthmatics on inhaled fluticasone propionate 200 mcg/day and 300 mcg/day. METHODS: Asthma diagnosis and classification was based on Global Initiative for Asthma recommendations. Patients aged 11 years old or less received fluticasone propionate 200 mcg/day and those older than 11 years received 300 mcg/day. After 10 weeks of treatment, plasma cortisol levels were monitored to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. RESULTS: Forty-one patients (65.9% males aged 6 to 18 years old were evaluated. No statistical differences were found between plasma cortisol levels in patients who received 200 mcg/day (n = 13 and those who received 300 mcg/day (n = 28. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that low and moderate doses of fluticasone propionate do not cause adrenal suppression.

  13. Use of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentrations to rule out a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs: 123 cases (2000-2005).

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    Lennon, Elizabeth M; Boyle, Tonya E; Hutchins, Rae Grace; Friedenthal, Arit; Correa, Maria T; Bissett, Sally A; Moses, Lorra S; Papich, Mark G; Birkenheuer, Adam J

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration can be used as a screening test to rule out hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. Retrospective case-control study. 110 dogs with nonadrenal gland illnesses and 13 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism. Sensitivity and specificity of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentrations of either dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were estimated by use of the ACTH stimulation test as the gold standard. Basal cortisol concentrations of dogs with hypoadrenocorticism. For basal cortisol concentrations of cortisol concentrations had high negative predictive values over a wide range of prevalence rates and can be used to rule out a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism. Dogs with basal cortisol concentrations > 2 microg/dL that are not receiving corticosteroids, mitotane, or ketoconazole are highly unlikely to have hypoadrenocorticism. However, if the basal cortisol concentration is

  14. Basal blood DHEA-S/cortisol levels predicts EMDR treatment response in adolescents with PTSD.

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    Usta, Mirac Baris; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Say, Gokce Nur; Bozkurt, Abdullah; Şahin, Berkan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray

    2018-04-01

    In literature, recent evidence has shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and HPA axis hormones may predict the psychotherapy treatment response in patients with PTSD. In this study, it was aimed to investigate changing cortisol and DHEA-S levels post-eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and the relationship between treatment response and basal cortisol, and DHEA-S levels before treatment. The study group comprised 40 adolescents (age, 12-18 years) with PTSD. The PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Post-traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI) and the blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured with the chemiluminescence method before and after treatment. A maximum of six sessions of EMDR therapy were conducted by an EMDR level-1 trained child psychiatry resident. Treatment response was measured by the pre- to post-treatment decrease in self-reported and clinical PTSD severity. Pre- and post-treatment DHEA-S and cortisol levels did not show any statistically significant difference. Pre-treatment CDI scores were negatively correlated with pre-treatment DHEA-S levels (r: -0.39). ROC analysis demonstrated that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio predicts treatment response at a medium level (AUC: 0.703, p: .030, sensitivity: 0.65, specificity: 0.86). The results of this study suggested that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio may predict treatment response in adolescents with PTSD receiving EMDR therapy. The biochemical parameter of HPA-axis activity appears to be an important predictor of positive clinical response in adolescent PTSD patients, and could be used in clinical practice to predict PTSD treatment in the future.

  15. Chronic Stress and Adolescents' Mental Health: Modifying Effects of Basal Cortisol and Parental Psychiatric History. The TRAILS Study.

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    Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Hartman, Catharina A; Nederhof, Esther; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Dietrich, Andrea; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Ormel, Johan

    2015-08-01

    Large individual differences in adolescent mental health following chronic psychosocial stress suggest moderating factors. We examined two established moderators, basal cortisol and parental psychiatric history, simultaneously. We hypothesized that individuals with high basal cortisol, assumed to indicate high context sensitivity, would show relatively high problem levels following chronic stress, especially in the presence of parental psychiatric history. With Linear Mixed Models, we investigated the hypotheses in 1917 Dutch adolescents (53.2% boys), assessed at ages 11, 13.5, and 16. Low basal cortisol combined with the absence of a parental psychiatric history increased the risk of externalizing but not internalizing problems following chronic stress. Conversely, low basal cortisol combined with a substantial parental psychiatric history increased the risk of internalizing but not externalizing problems following chronic stress. Thus, parental psychiatric history moderated stress- cortisol interactions in predicting psychopathology, but in a different direction than hypothesized. We conclude that the premise that basal cortisol indicates context sensitivity may be too crude. Context sensitivity may not be a general trait but may depend on the nature of the context (e.g., type or duration of stress exposure) and on the outcome of interest (e.g., internalizing vs. externalizing problems). Although consistent across informants, our findings need replication.

  16. Basal or stress-induced cortisol and asthma development : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Nienke M; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    We examined the association between: 1) cortisol levels and asthma or asthma development; 2) cortisol levels upon stress and asthma. In addition, we performed a post hoc meta-analysis on results from the literature. Cortisol, cortisol upon stress, asthma (doctor diagnosis of asthma and/or symptoms

  17. Football fan aggression: the importance of low Basal cortisol and a fair referee.

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    Leander van der Meij

    Full Text Available Fan aggression in football (soccer is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74 saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants' favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result.

  18. Football Fan Aggression: The Importance of Low Basal Cortisol and a Fair Referee

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    van der Meij, Leander; Almela, Mercedes; van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74) saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants’ favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result. PMID:25844939

  19. Football fan aggression: the importance of low Basal cortisol and a fair referee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Klauke, Fabian; Moore, Hannah L; Ludwig, Yannick S; Almela, Mercedes; van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan aggression. To do so, football fans (n = 74) saw a match summary in which their favorite team lost against their most important rival. Next, we measured levels of aggression with the hot sauce paradigm, in which fans were given the opportunity to administer a sample of hot sauce that a rival football supporter had to consume. To investigate if media exposure had the ability to reduce aggression, before the match fans saw a video in which fans of the rival team commented in a neutral, negative, or positive manner on their favorite team. Results showed that the media exposure did not affect aggression. However, participants displayed high levels of aggression and anger after having watched the match. Also, aggression was higher in fans with lower basal cortisol levels, which suggests that part of the aggression displayed was proactive and related to anti-social behavior. Furthermore, aggression was higher when the referee was blamed and aggression was lower when the performance of the participants' favorite team was blamed for the match result. These results indicate that aggression increased when the match result was perceived as unfair. Interventions that aim to reduce football fan aggression should give special attention to the perceived fairness of the match result.

  20. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

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    Wen-Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls. NAFLD was an independent associated factor for ACTH levels in male IHH patients. These preliminary findings provided evidence of the relationship between basal serum ACTH and NAFLD in male IHH patients.

  1. Níveis séricos de cortisol basal em ratos sob tratamento oral com kefir

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    Bárbara de Oliveira Prado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A via de metabolismo do kefir ainda é desconhecida em muitas funções, pois há poucos estudos que a evidenciam. Assim a proposta do presente estudo é avaliar o efeito do kefir sobre os níveis séricos de cortisol basal. Um Estudo experimental em que foram utilizados 60 ratos, machos, wistar, peso de 180±30g, sendo 20 animais de experimento por 07, 14 e 21dias, divididos em Kefir 20g/200ml (GK; Dexametasona 0,125mg/kg (GD; Ranitidina 0,85mg/kg (GR; Omeprazol 0,68mg/kg (GO; Controle água ad libitum (GCO. Os resultados foram avaliados pelo Software BioEstat 5.0, e para verificação do nível de significância (α<5% usou-se a ANOVA com o teste Tukey-kramer e Bartlett’s test. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que o cortisol basal (µg/dL do sangue de 60 ratos (Rattus norvegicus submetidos ao tratamento, com D7 (P<0.05, evidenciou no GR uma média representativa sobre os demais grupos com 2.2075 μg/dl, e desvio padrão (SD de 0.4329 μg/dl. Já em D14, as alterações evidenciadas foram relativamente mínimas e pouco representativas, com D21 quando relacionado o GO e GR (P<0.01, ao que tange a relação entre o GK e o GD apresentou diferenças significativas (P< 0,001. A média no GK foi de 3,4 μg/dl com um SD de 0,3238 μg/dl sobre os demais grupos experimentais, o GD apresentou níveis muito baixos de cortisol com 0,0275μg/dl e o SD de 0,009574 μg/dl. Conclui-se que o Kefir, quando consumido em doses contínuas e diariamente, repercutiu na elevação dos níveis séricos de cortisol. Não foi possível estabelecer a via de mecanismo que tenha contribuído para tal, entretanto, esse aumento ocorreu sem que os animais sofressem qualquer tipo de dano, ou seja, os animais submetidos ao tratamento com kefir mostraram-se mais vistosos, pelagem firme e com brilho, esboçando aspecto saudável.

  2. Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans.

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    Smriga, Miro; Ando, Toshihiko; Akutsu, Masahisa; Furukawa, Yasushi; Miwa, Kiyoshi; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2007-04-01

    Dietary supplementation with an essential amino acid L-lysine has been shown to reduce chronic anxiety in humans with low dietary intake of L-lysine. A combination of L-lysine and L-arginine has been documented to normalize hormonal stress responses in humans with high trait anxiety. The present study was carried out in one hundred eight healthy Japanese adults. The aim of study was to find out whether a week-long oral treatment with L-lysine (2.64 g per day) and L-arginine (2.64 g per day) reduces trait and stress-induced state anxiety and basal levels of stress hormones. We confirmed that, without regard to gender, the amino acid treatment significantly reduced both trait anxiety and state anxiety induced by cognitive stress battery. In addition, we found that the treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine decreased the basal levels of salivary cortisol and chromogranin-A (a salivary marker of the sympatho-adrenal system) in male subjects. These results of this double-blind, placebo controlled and randomized study confirm the previous findings in humans and animals and point to a combination of L-lysine and L-arginine as a potentially useful dietary intervention in otherwise healthy humans with high subjective levels of mental stress and anxiety.

  3. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.

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    Wang, Wen-Bo; She, Fei; Xie, Li-Fang; Yan, Wen-Hua; Ouyang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Bao-An; Ma, Hang-Yun; Zang, Li; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2016-05-20

    Prolonged gonadal hormone deficiency in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) may produce adverse effects on the endocrine homeostasis and metabolism. This study aimed to compare basal serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels between male IHH patients and healthy controls. Moreover, this study compared the basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and also evaluated the relationship between basal HPA axis and NAFLD in male IHH patients. This was a retrospective case-control study involving 75 Chinese male IHH patients (mean age 21.4 ± 3.8 years, range 17-30 years) and 135 healthy controls after matching for gender and age. All subjects underwent physical examination and blood testing for serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, ACTH, and cortisol and biochemical tests. Higher basal serum ACTH levels (8.25 ± 3.78 pmol/L vs. 6.97 ± 2.81 pmol/L) and lower cortisol levels (366.70 ± 142.48 nmol/L vs. 452.82 ± 141.53 nmol/L) were observed in male IHH patients than healthy subjects (all p<0.05). IHH patients also showed higher metabolism parameters and higher prevalence rate of NAFLD (34.9% vs. 4.4%) than the controls (all P < 0.05). Basal serum ACTH (9.91 ± 4.98 pmol/L vs. 7.60 ± 2.96 pmol/L) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (2123.7 ± 925.8 μg/L vs. 1417.1 ± 498.4 μg/L) levels were significantly higher in IHH patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD (all P < 0.05). We also found that basal serum ACTH levels were positively correlated with NAFLD (r = 0.289,p<0.05) and triglyceride levels (r = 0.268, P< 0.05) in male IHH patients. Furthermore, NAFLD was independently associated with ACTH levels in male IHH patients by multiple linear regression analysis. The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls. NAFLD was an independent associated

  4. Effects of basal and acute cortisol on cognitive flexibility in an emotional task switching paradigm in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierolf, A.M.; Arlt, L.E.; Roelofs, K.; Kölsch, M.; Hülsemann, M.J.; Schächinger, H.; Naumann, E.

    2016-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is assumed to influence cognitive functions. While cortisol-induced alterations of declarative memory in particular are well-investigated, considerably less is known about its influence on executive functions. Moreover, most research has been focused on slow effects, and

  5. Brief training of psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology-based meditation (PNEIMED) reduces stress symptom ratings and improves control on salivary cortisol secretion under basal and stimulated conditions.

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    Bottaccioli, Francesco; Carosella, Antonia; Cardone, Raffaella; Mambelli, Monica; Cemin, Marisa; D'Errico, Marcello M; Ponzio, Elisa; Bottaccioli, Anna Giulia; Minelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Meditation is proposed as an anti-stress practice lowering allostatic load and promoting well-being, with brief formats providing some of the benefits of longer interventions. PsychoNeuroEndocrinoImmunology-based meditation (PNEIMED) combines the teaching of philosophy and practice of Buddhist meditation with a grounding in human physiology from a systemic and integrative perspective. We evaluated the effects of four-day PNEIMED training (30 h) on subjective and objective indices of stress in healthy adults. A non-randomized, controlled, before-and-after study was conducted. Participants (n = 125, mostly health practitioners) answered a questionnaire rating stress symptom before (T0) and after (Tf) a PNEIMED course. In an additional sample (n = 40; smokers, overweight persons, women taking contraceptives, and subjects with oral pathologies were excluded), divided into PNEIMED-attending (intervention, n = 21) and non-meditating (control, n = 19) groups, salivary cortisol was measured upon awakening and during a challenging mental task. Self-rated distress scores were highly reduced after the PNEIMED course. In the intervention group, improvement of psychological well-being was accompanied by decrease in cortisol levels at awakening. No T0-vs-Tf changes in distress scores and morning cortisol were found in controls. Based on baseline-to-peak increment of cortisol response at T0, 26 subjects (n = 13 for each group) were classified as task-responders. The amplitude and duration of the cortisol response decreased after PNEIMED, whereas no effects were found in controls. Brief PNEIMED training yields immediate benefits, reducing distress symptoms and adrenocortical activity under basal and stimulated conditions. PNEIMED may represent an effective practice to manage stress and anxiety, particularly among subjects facing a multitude of job-related stressors, such as healthcare workers. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Voluntary timing of food intake increases weight gain and reduces basal plasma cortisol levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaren, Peter H M; van Dalen, Stephanie C M; Atsma, Wim; Spanings, F A Tom; Hendriks, Jasper; Flik, Gert

    2013-10-02

    We investigated the effect of timing of food intake on growth in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Juvenile carp were demand-fed for 22 days using a computerized pendulum feeder that registered meal requests. Controls were pair-fed at 10:00 h, both groups were kept at 12L:12D (lights on at 06:30 h). Demand-fed fish displayed highest food intake at 22:00 h, and the lowest at 10:00. After 22 days, demand-fed fish had grown by 20% of their initial body weight, compared to 4% of the pair-fed control. Plasma cortisol levels in demand-fed fish were remarkably low and stable, whereas in the control group levels had increased 60-fold at 10:00 h compared to 22:00 h. Hepatic mRNA expression of leptin-a1 and leptin-a2 also differed markedly between groups and time points, with leptin-a2 expression being lowest in the demand-fed group at the time point of lowest food intake. We conclude that timing of food intake is an important determinant of endocrine status, growth and welfare. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinação do valor de referência para o cortisol basal sérico em população pediátrica sem doença adrenal

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Botelho Barra

    2012-01-01

    A medida do cortisol basal reflete a atividade hipotalâmica-hipofisária-adrenal. É utilizada na avaliação da integridade da resposta do eixo, principalmente em pacientes submetidos a longos períodos de tratamento glicocorticoide, por apresentarem maior risco de supressão adrenal. Em pediatria, a supressão adrenal deve ser sempre considerada em crianças que receberam doses suprafisiológicas de glicocorticoides por mais de duas semanas. Nessas condições, há risco de crise adrenal mesmo em vigên...

  8. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    Patients with functional amenorrhea have raised central dopaminergic activity and opioid-mediated GnRH inhibition leading to inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function. In the present study, basal serum cortisol and ACTH levels were measured in normoprolactinemic amenorrheic patients...... with (N = 14) and without (N = 7) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Basal serum cortisol levels was significantly (P less than 0.01) elevated in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea compared with normal women. Basal serum cortisol was significantly (P less than 0.02) elevated in amenorrheic...... with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea have elevated basal serum cortisol, the reason probably being hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Secondly that dopaminergic blockade with metoclopramide stimulates ACTH and cortisol secretion in patients presumed to have raised dopaminergic activity....

  9. Cortisol in hair and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalder, T.; Kirschbaum, C.; Alexander, N.; Bornstein, S.R.; Gao, W.; Miller, R.; Stark, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Fischer, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Although exposure to supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids is known to contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), the importance of physiological variation in basal cortisol secretion is less clear. This issue can be addressed by using hair cortisol analysis,

  10. Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning is characterized by the baseline production of cortisol following a circadian rhythm, as well as by the superimposed production of cortisol in response to a stressor. However, it is relatively unknown whether the basal cortisol circadian rhythm

  11. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  12. 40 CFR 89.406 - Pre-test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pre-test procedures. 89.406 Section 89.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures § 89.406 Pre-test procedures. (a) Allow a minimum of 30 minutes warmup in the standby or operating...

  13. Basal hypercortisolism and trauma in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakvis, Patricia; Spinhoven, Philip; Giltay, Erik J; Kuyk, Jarl; Edelbroek, Peter M; Zitman, Frans G; Roelofs, Karin

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have indicated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are associated with psychological trauma, but only a few studies have examined the associations with neurobiologic stress systems, such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-product cortisol. We tested several relevant HPA-axis functions in patients with PNES and related them to trauma history. Cortisol awakening curve, basal diurnal cortisol, and negative cortisol feedback (using a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) were examined in 18 patients with PNES and 19 matched healthy controls (HCs) using saliva cortisol sampling on two consecutive days at 19 time points. Concomitant sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed by analyzing saliva alpha-amylase (sAA). Patients with PNES showed significantly increased basal diurnal cortisol levels compared to HCs. This effect was driven mainly by patients reporting sexual trauma who showed a trend toward higher cortisol levels as compared to patients without a sexual trauma report. Importantly, the increased basal diurnal cortisol levels in patients were not explained by depression, medication, or smoking, or by current seizures or group differences in SNS activity. This is the first study showing that basal hypercortisolism in patients with PNES is independent of the acute occurrence of seizures. In addition, basal hypercortisolism was more pronounced in traumatized patients with PNES as compared to nontraumatized patients with PNES. These findings suggest that HPA-axis activity provides a significant neurobiologic marker for PNES.

  14. Attenuated salivary cortisol response after exercise test in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Ieteke; Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    Objective: The clinical relevance of lower basal cortisol levels in children with asthma is unclear. We compared the salivary cortisol response after a standardized exercise test in children with asthma versus the salivary cortisol response in healthy children. Methods: Nineteen prepubertal children

  15. Measuring cortisol in hair and saliva from dogs: coat color and pigment differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A; Hayssen, V

    2010-10-01

    Cortisol concentrations are frequently measured from a variety of sources including blood, saliva, urine, and feces to quantify stress in dogs. However, a need still exists for less intrusive collection methods in domestic animals and for more efficient means of measuring basal cortisol. The objectives of the present study were to minimize restraint for saliva sampling, to validate hair for basal cortisol measurement in dogs, and to determine concentrations of cortisol within the hair shaft and in relation to hair color. Using food luring, 79% of dogs required no restraint for saliva collection. Salivary and hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated (P = 0.001), thus validating hair as a medium for basal cortisol quantification. Black dogs had less cortisol than nonblack dogs (P = 0.039) in hair, but not saliva. Across dogs, the average amount of cortisol did not differ between proximal and distal hair sections (P = 0.348). However, for 7 of the 9 dogs, more cortisol was present in the distal portions of the hair. We observed a difference in cortisol concentrations among hairs of different colors from individual dogs (P = 0.001). From the same 7 x 7 cm ischiatic patch from the same dog, black (eumelanin) hairs were consistently lower in cortisol than yellow (pheomelanin) hairs, and cortisol concentrations of agouti hairs were intermediate. This is the first evidence that hair of different colors might sequester cortisol differently. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 90.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... during service accumulation is allowed only in accordance with § 90.118. (b) Engine pre-test preparation... by § 90.324(a). If necessary, allow the heated sample line, filters, and pumps to reach operating...

  17. 40 CFR 91.408 - Pre-test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....408 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... accordance with § 91.117. (b) Engine pre-test preparation. (1) Drain and charge the fuel tank(s) with the..., including the sample probe, using mode 1 from Table 2 in appendix A of this subpart. The emission sampling...

  18. Cortisol secretion in patients with normoprolactinemic amenorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Hagen, C; Andersen, A N

    1988-01-01

    Patients with functional amenorrhea have raised central dopaminergic activity and opioid-mediated GnRH inhibition leading to inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian function. In the present study, basal serum cortisol and ACTH levels were measured in normoprolactinemic amenorrheic patients w...... diabetic patients compared with menstruating diabetic women. In the amenorrheic groups both cortisol and ACTH levels increased significantly (P less than 0.01) after dopamine D-2 receptor blockade, whereas no hormonal changes occurred in the control groups. It is concluded that patients...

  19. Cortisol and finfish welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, T.; Yildiz, H.Y.; López-Olmeda, J.; Spedicato, M.T.; Tort, L.; Overli, O.; Martins, C.I.

    2012-01-01

    Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and

  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  1. Choreographer Pre-Testing Code Analysis and Operational Testing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Harrison, Christopher B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Perr, C. W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hurd, Steven A [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Choreographer is a "moving target defense system", designed to protect against attacks aimed at IP addresses without corresponding domain name system (DNS) lookups. It coordinates actions between a DNS server and a Network Address Translation (NAT) device to regularly change which publicly available IP addresses' traffic will be routed to the protected device versus routed to a honeypot. More details about how Choreographer operates can be found in Section 2: Introducing Choreographer. Operational considerations for the successful deployment of Choreographer can be found in Section 3. The Testing & Evaluation (T&E) for Choreographer involved 3 phases: Pre-testing, Code Analysis, and Operational Testing. Pre-testing, described in Section 4, involved installing and configuring an instance of Choreographer and verifying it would operate as expected for a simple use case. Our findings were that it was simple and straightforward to prepare a system for a Choreographer installation as well as configure Choreographer to work in a representative environment. Code Analysis, described in Section 5, consisted of running a static code analyzer (HP Fortify) and conducting dynamic analysis tests using the Valgrind instrumentation framework. Choreographer performed well, such that only a few errors that might possibly be problematic in a given operating situation were identified. Operational Testing, described in Section 6, involved operating Choreographer in a representative environment created through EmulyticsTM . Depending upon the amount of server resources dedicated to Choreographer vis-á-vis the amount of client traffic handled, Choreographer had varying degrees of operational success. In an environment with a poorly resourced Choreographer server and as few as 50-100 clients, Choreographer failed to properly route traffic over half the time. Yet, with a well-resourced server, Choreographer handled over 1000 clients without missrouting. Choreographer

  2. Salivary cortisol assessment in the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, S.E.; Maxwell, J.U.; Barron, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, short and sensitive direct radio-immunoassay technique for the determination of salivary cortisol concentration was employed to assess saliva as a medium for evaluating cortisol response during endocrine testing in 9 controls and 40 patients. Results in controls suggested that an adequate salivary cortisol response to insulin hypoglycaemia was an increase of 150% above the basal value with a minimum peak of 15 nmol/l. Thirty-three patients were classified as being either good or poor responders to insulin hypoglycaemia on the basis of criteria for plasma cortisol levels. When the defined salivary cortisol response was used for assessment, all 33 patients were correctly categorized into the same response groups. The salivary cortisol response to intramuscular tetracosactin in 3 patients and an intravenous dexamethasone infusion in 4 patients confirmed the value of saliva as an assay medium. These studies show that the salivary cortisol response parallels that of total plasma cortisol in all cases. However, with sampling at short intervals a lag in secretion of the free fraction from the plasma into the saliva becomes apparent. The relative change in cortisol levels from the basal value is greater in saliva than in plasma

  3. Cortisol urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). This is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain. Cortisol affects many different body systems. It plays a role in: Bone growth Blood pressure control Immune system function Metabolism of ...

  4. Cortisol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain. Cortisol affects many different body systems. It plays a role in: Bone growth Blood pressure control Immune system function Metabolism of ...

  5. Cortisol level modulated by integrative meditation in a dose-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yaxin; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Posner, Michael I

    2014-02-01

    Prior research has shown that an additional training session immediately after acute stress decreases release of salivary cortisol in a college student group trained with 5-day integrative body-mind training (IBMT) in comparison with a control group given the same amount of relaxation training. However, 5 days of training does not influence the basal secretion of cortisol. The current study seeks to extend this finding and determine whether increasing amounts of IBMT will decrease the basal cortisol level, suggesting reduced stress to daily activities. Thirty-four Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned either to 4 weeks of IBMT or a relaxation control. Salivary cortisol levels at baseline before training and the three stages of a stress intervention test (i.e. rest, stress and additional 20-min practice) after 2 and 4 weeks of training were assessed. The basal cortisol level decreased significantly in the IBMT but not in relaxation group after 2 and 4 weeks of training. An additional IBMT practice session immediately after acute stress produced significantly lower cortisol release for the IBMT group in comparison with relaxation at weeks 2 and 4. The results indicate that IBMT produces a change in the basal endocrine system and larger acute effects as the dose of training increases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Salivary cortisol in panic attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D; Pauls, J; Broocks, A; Hajak, G; Ruther, E

    Objective: Documentation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance in panic disorder has been inconsistent. Increased cortisol levels have been associated with altered HPA function due to stress. The authors examined salivary cortisol levels in spontaneously occurring, unprovoked

  7. Diurnal cortisol rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Anette; Endresen Reme, Silje; Tangen, Tone

    2015-01-01

    the day and the somatization scale from HSCL-25 (dizziness or lack of energy, lack of sexual interest, the feeling that everything requires substantial efforts, difficulties to fall asleep, headache). The results indicate that cortisol, may not be directly associated with psychopathology, such as anxiety......Dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-activity has been associated with low back pain (LBP). The underlying mechanisms are not fully explained, but psychological mechanisms are considered important. In this study we examine the association between psychiatric disorders/symptoms measured...... with different instruments, and cortisol in a population with LBP. Participants (n=305) sick-listed 2-10 months due to non-specific LBP were included in the study. The screening instruments were the MINI-interview, HADS and HSCL-25. Saliva cortisol were measured on 2 consecutive days; at awakening, 30min later...

  8. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, I A; Fasanmade, O A; Ogbera, A O; Ohwovoriole, A E

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or under production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity. Some literature describes reduced serum cortisol levels in obesity, however, this is not a well-recognized phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum cortisol levels. Seventy healthy participants agreed to take part in the study. The anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist and hip circumferences) were done. Exclusion criteria include those with a history of adrenal/pituitary disease or medications altering cortisol level. The basal cortisol (BC) sample was taken at 8 a.m. immediately before administration of an intravenous bolus injection of 250 μg adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). BMI categories were defined as normal and high if BMI was 18.5-24.99 kg/m² and ≥ 25 kg/m², respectively. Forty (57.1%) participants had normal BMI while 30 (42.9%) participants had BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² (P0 = 0.053). The mean BC level was lower in participants with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² but not significant. There was a negative correlation between BMI and BC level ( r = -0.205, P = 0.88) while a positive correlation existed between stimulated cortisol level and BMI (r = 0.009, P = 0.944). Persons with BMI above 25 kg/m² had lower BC level though not statistically significant, the trend was noticed. Subjecting people whose BMI is above 25 kg/m² to further stimulation with ACTH because of low BC is not advised because their response to ACTH stimulation was similar to those who have normal BMI.

  9. Attenuated salivary cortisol response after exercise test in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Ieteke; Heijsman, Sigrid M; Koers, Nicoline F; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S; Veeger, Nic J G M; Kamps, Arvid W A

    2015-03-01

    The clinical relevance of lower basal cortisol levels in children with asthma is unclear. We compared the salivary cortisol response after a standardized exercise test in children with asthma versus the salivary cortisol response in healthy children. Nineteen prepubertal children with asthma and 20 prepubertal healthy children performed a standardized exercise test twice. Salivary cortisol levels were determined before exercise and immediately and 15 min after exercise. Morning salivary cortisol levels were determined from saliva collected at home. Salivary cortisol levels increased in 84.2% of the healthy children compared to 35.0% in children with asthma after the 20-m shuttle-run test. Median increase in salivary cortisol levels was 200.3% [95% confidence interval (CI), 141.8-346.1] in healthy children compared to 89.8% (95% CI, 56.9-181.6) in children with asthma. The response was not related to the morning salivary cortisol level or maintenance dose of inhaled corticosteroids. The mean time to exhaustion of both shuttle-run tests was significantly shorter in children with asthma (mean difference 1.4 min; 95% CI, 0.7-2.3). None of the children had to stop because of dyspnea. Our study demonstrates that children with asthma using a maintenance dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have an attenuated salivary cortisol response compared with healthy children.

  10. Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jason J; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A; Forsyth, John P; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hair Cortisol in Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu

    2017-01-01

    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors...

  12. Cortisol stress response is positively correlated with central obesity in obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) before and after cognitive-behavioral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Marci E; Geliebter, Allan; Lorence, Margarita

    2004-12-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported trigger of binge eating, and high cortisol levels are positively related to both central body fat and food intake after laboratory stress. We therefore examined waist circumference (WHR) and cortisol stress responsivity after a cold pressor stress test (CPT) in 22 obese (BMI > 27) women (11 BED, 11 non-BED). BMI and WHR did not differ between groups. The BED group had higher morning basal cortisol than the non-BED group (P = .03) and greater AUC cortisol after CPT, after controlling for AUC insulin (P = .04). In the BED group, WHR was related to AUC cortisol (P = .002) and peak cortisol stress responsivity (P = .003). Twenty (10 non-BED, 10 BED) were randomized to a 6-week treatment program (CBT + Diet) or Wait-List (WL) control group. There were no BED group or treatment-group differences in WHR, morning basal cortisol, or AUC cortisol after CPT. The relationship between WHR and both AUC cortisol (P = .002) and peak cortisol stress responsivity after CPT (P = .008) remained significant in the BED group. In BED, there is a hyperactive HPA axis related to abdominal obesity that persists even after treatment, suggesting that cortisol might be a primary factor in the disorder.

  13. Circadian variations in melatonin and cortisol in patients with cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, G; Sharma, V P; Verma, N S

    2016-05-01

    In cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI), afferent and efferent circuits that influence the basal production of melatonin and cortisol may be disrupted and hence disrupt the basal functions of human physiology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess circadian changes, if any, in serum cortisol and melatonin in patients with CSCI. Serum levels of cortisol and melatonin were measured at 6-h intervals of the day (0600, 1200, 1800 and 0000 hours) in 22 CSCI patients, as well as 22 healthy controls. Significantly higher melatonin levels were observed in the patient group in morning hours, whereas a significantly lower level of melatonin was found during the night time in the patient group than in the control group. Moreover, significantly higher values were obtained in the evening and night time serum cortisol levels among the patients compared with controls. Further, when the mean values of cortisol throughout the day were tested among patient and control groups similar circadian rhythm was found. The only difference being that serum cortisol declined much more in controls in evening and night samples as compared with CSCI patients. We conclude that circadian variations exist in the circulating levels of serum cortisol and melatonin in patients with CSCI. Low levels of melatonin secretion during night may contribute to the pervasive sleep disruption and increased pain perception.

  14. Basal cell nevus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nevus syndrome Basal cell nevus syndrome - face References Evans DG, Farndon PA. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  15. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity......The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  17. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  18. Endogenous cortisol reactivity moderates the relationship between fear inhibition to safety signals and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, Daniel V; Palmer, Matthew A; Malhi, Gin S; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2017-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are commonly associated with impairments in extinguishing fear to signals previously associated with danger, and also with inhibiting fear to safety signals. Previous studies indicate that PTSS are associated with low cortisol activity, and cortisol is shown to facilitate fear extinction. Few studies have examined the influence of cortisol reactivity on fear extinction in PTSS. We used a standardized fear conditioning and extinction paradigm to investigate the relationship between fear extinction and endogenous salivary cortisol activity in participants with high PTSS (n=18), trauma-exposed controls (n=33), and non-trauma-exposed controls (n=27). Skin conductance response (SCR) was used as an index of conditioned responding. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, and 20min post-fear acquisition for basal and reactive cortisol levels, respectively. PTSS participants demonstrated a slower rate of extinction learning during the early extinction phase. A moderation analysis revealed that cortisol reactivity was a significant moderator between fear inhibition to the safety signal (CS-) during early extinction and PTSS, but not to the threat signal (CS+). Specifically, this interaction was significant in two ways: (1) participants with elevated cortisol reactivity showed lower PTSS as fear inhibition improved; and (2) participants with low cortisol reactivity showed higher PTSS as fear inhibition improved. The findings of the present study show that the relationship between fear inhibition and cortisol reactivity is complex, and suggest that cortisol reactivity shapes safety signal learning in PTSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Kuras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR. Healthy adults aged 18–65 (n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R2 = 0.21, as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R2 = 0.22, but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R2 = 0.12. Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  20. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Yuliya I; Assaf, Naomi; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Fiksdal, Alexander; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR). Healthy adults aged 18-65 ( n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R 2 = 0.21), as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R 2 = 0.22), but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R 2 = 0.12). Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  1. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  2. Extraction-free cortisol assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method for determining the concentration of cortisol in a serum sample comprises: (a) incubating the sample, labelled cortisol and an effective amount of deblocking agent in an aqueous medium with a composite comprising anti-cortisol antibodies fixed in active form onto the surfaces of a negatively charged support material, the incubation being carried out at a pH of from 4.0 to 6.5 and under conditions sufficient to result in the formation of immunochemical complexes on the composite, some of which complexes comprise labelled cortisol; (b) separating the composite from the incubation medium; (c) determining the amount of label on the separated composite or in the remaining incubation medium; and (d) relating the determination of (c) to a standard to determine the cortisol concentration in the sample. (author)

  3. Achievement of course outcome in vector calculus pre-test questions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Keywords: pre-test; course outcome; bloom taxanomy; Rasch measurement model; vector calculus. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  4. Targeting as the basis for pre-test market of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniaristanto, Zakaria, R.; Saputri, V. H. L.; Sutopo, W.; Kadir, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses about market segmentation and targeting as a first step in pre-test market of a new technology. The benefits of targeting towards pre-test market are pre-test market can be conducted to focus on selected target markets so there is no bias during the pre-test market. In determining the target market then do some surveys to identify the state of market in the future, so that the marketing process is not misplaced. Lithium ion battery which is commercialized through start-up companies is the case study. This start-up companies must be able to respond the changes and bring in customers as well as maintain them so that companies can survive and evolve to achieve its objectives. The research aims to determine market segments and target market effectively. Marketing strategy (segmentation and targeting) is used to make questionnaire and cluster analysis in data processing. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling and have obtained data as many as 80 samples. As the results study, there are three segments for lithium ion battery with their own distinguished characteristics and there are two segments that can be used as the target market for the company.

  5. Free Fall Misconceptions: Results of a Graph Based Pre-Test of Sophomore Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    A partially unusual behaviour was found among 14 sophomore students of civil engineering who took a pre test for a free fall laboratory session, in the context of a general mechanics course. An analysis contemplating mathematics models and physics models consistency was made. In all cases, the students presented evidence favoring a correct free…

  6. Cortisol in schizophrenia: No association with tobacco smoking, clinical symptoms or antipsychotic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Uzun, Suzana; Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Kozumplik, Oliver; Svob Strac, Dubravka; Mimica, Ninoslav; Hirasawa-Fujita, Mika; Domino, Edward F; Pivac, Nela

    2017-07-03

    Cigarette smoking is associated with higher cortisol levels in healthy subjects. In schizophrenia this relationship is not clear. There are divergent results on the association between cortisol with smoking, clinical symptoms and medication in schizophrenia. This study evaluated this association in 196 Caucasian inpatients with schizophrenia (51.30±26.68years old), subdivided into 123 smokers and 73 non-smokers. Basal salivary cortisol levels were measured twice, at 08.00 and 09.00AM, 90-120min after awakening. The effect of smoking on cortisol was evaluated according to current smoking status, the number of cigarettes/day and the nicotine addiction intensity. The influence of clinical symptoms and/or antipsychotic medication on cortisol was determined using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and chlorpromazine equivalent doses. Non-smokers were older, received lower doses of antipsychotics, had higher PANSS scores, and had longer duration of illness than smokers. Salivary cortisol was similar in schizophrenic patients subdivided according to the smoking status, the number of cigarettes/day and nicotine addiction intensity. No significant correlation was found between salivary cortisol and PANSS scores, chlorpromazine equivalent doses, age of onset or the duration of illness. The findings revealed no association between salivary cortisol and smoking, nicotine addiction intensity, or clinical symptoms. Our preliminary data showed no correlation between salivary cortisol and chlorpromazine equivalent doses and/or antipsychotic medication. Our findings suggest that smoking does not affect the cortisol response in schizophrenic patients as it has been shown in healthy individuals. Future studies should investigate a possible desensitization of the stress system to smoking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  8. Tracing Differential Pathways of Risk: Associations among Family Adversity, Cortisol, and Cognitive Functioning in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suor, Jennifer H.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.

    2015-01-01

    Guided by family risk and allostasis theoretical frameworks, the present study utilized a prospective longitudinal design to examine associations among family risk experiences, basal cortisol patterns, and cognitive functioning in children. The sample included 201 low-income children living within a midsize city in the Northeastern United States.…

  9. Child abuse, disruptive behavior disorders, depression, and salivary cortisol levels among institutionalized and community-residing boys in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Hruschka, Daniel J; Kohrt, Holbrook E; Carrion, Victor G; Waldman, Irwin D; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is related to childhood disruptive behavior disorders and to exposure to abuse and neglect. This study explores the relationship of diurnal salivary cortisol levels with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and caregiver attitudes toward physical punishment among boys in Mongolia. Salivary cortisol was collected in the home or institution 4 times daily for 4 days from 46 boys, aged 4-10 years, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Caregivers rated child disruptive behavior symptoms, attitudes toward physical punishment, and community violence exposures. Mixed effects models were used to estimate the association of psychopathology and caregiver attitudes with salivary cortisol levels. Boys meeting criteria for ODD displayed consistently lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels compared to boys without ODD diagnoses. Controlling for ODD diagnosis, boys with depression showed higher cortisol levels throughout the day. No other diagnosis was associated with cortisol levels. Psychiatric diagnosis accounted for 17% of between individual variations in cortisol levels unexplained by the covariates. In a separate model, caregivers' beliefs regarding physical punishment accounted for 11% of between individual differences: boys with caregivers who stated physical punishment was necessary for discipline displayed hypocortisolism. Institutionalization did not associate with cortisol levels. Salivary cortisol data from a non-Western naturalistic setting support an association of reduced basal HPA activity with disruptive behavior disorders and caregiver attitudes toward discipline. These findings suggest HPA functioning may be a reflection of or mediate disruptive behavior disorders in children across ethnic and cultural settings. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Neonatal procedural pain and preterm infant cortisol response to novelty at 8 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Ruth E; Weinberg, Joanne; Whitfield, Michael F

    2004-07-01

    Stress systems may be altered in the long term in preterm infants for multiple reasons, including early exposure to procedural pain in neonatal intensive care. This question has received little attention beyond hospital discharge. Stress responses (cortisol) to visual novelty in preterm infants who were born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; neonatal exposure to procedural pain and morphine in the neonatal intensive care unit. Seventy-six infants, 54 preterm (neonatal skin-breaking procedures. In contrast, cortisol responses to novelty were predicted equally well by neonatal pain or GA at birth. No relationship between morphine dosing and cortisol response was demonstrated in these infants. ELGA preterm infants show a different pattern of cortisol levels before and after positive stimulation of visual novelty than more maturely born, VLGA preterm and term-born infants. Exposure to high numbers of skin-breaking procedures may contribute to "resetting" basal arousal systems in preterm infants.

  11. Salivary cortisol differs with age and sex and shows inverse associations with WHR in Swedish women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on cortisol have focused on smaller, selected samples. We therefore aimed to sex-specifically study the diurnal cortisol pattern and explore its association with abdominal obesity in a large unselected population. Methods In 2001–2004, 1811 men and women (30–75 years were randomly selected from the Vara population, south-western Sweden (81% participation rate. Of these, 1671 subjects with full information on basal morning and evening salivary cortisol and anthropometric measurements were included in this cross-sectional study. Differences between groups were examined by general linear model and by logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Morning and Δ-cortisol (morning – evening cortisol were significantly higher in women than men. In both genders older age was significantly associated with higher levels of all cortisol measures, however, most consistently with evening cortisol. In women only, age-adjusted means of WHR were significantly lower in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of morning cortisol (p = 0.036 and Δ-cortisol (p Conclusion In summary, our findings of generally higher cortisol levels in women than men of all ages are novel and the stronger results seen for Δ-cortisol as opposed to morning cortisol in the association with WHR emphasise the need of studying cortisol variation intra-individually. To our knowledge, the associations in this study have never before been investigated in such a large population sample of both men and women. Our results therefore offer important knowledge on the descriptive characteristics of cortisol in relation to age and gender, and on the impact that associations previously seen between cortisol and abdominal obesity in smaller, selected samples have on a population level.

  12. Pre-testing nutrition education materials for elderly care-givers in Boipatong

    OpenAIRE

    Gaede, Rolf J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The paper deals with issues and concerns relating to the process of pre-testing visual illustrations used in educational material in a community communication setting. The first part of the paper discusses how selected aspects of nutrition education materials meant for elderly care givers in Boipatong were pre‐tested using questionnaires (n=55) and focus group discussions in order to establish the target group’s views and opinions about different types of visual illustration appro...

  13. Diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting He

    Full Text Available A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase was performed in January 2015 to examine the available literature on validated diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease and to describe the characteristics of the models. Studies that were designed to develop and validate diagnostic models of pre-test probability for stable coronary artery disease were included. Data regarding baseline patient characteristics, procedural characteristics, modeling methods, metrics of model performance, risk of bias, and clinical usefulness were extracted. Ten studies involving the development of 12 models and two studies focusing on external validation were identified. Seven models were validated internally, and seven models were validated externally. Discrimination varied between studies that were validated internally (C statistic 0.66-0.81 and externally (0.49-0.87. Only one study presented reclassification indices. The majority of better performing models included sex, age, symptoms, diabetes, smoking, and hyperlipidemia as variables. Only two diagnostic models evaluated the effects on clinical decision making processes or patient outcomes. Most diagnostic models of the pre-test probability of stable coronary artery disease have had modest success, and very few present data regarding the effects of these models on clinical decision making processes or patient outcomes.

  14. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...

  15. Perceived parental care during childhood, ACTH, cortisol and nicotine dependence in the adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, Gilberto; Manfredini, Matteo; Somaini, Lorenzo; Milano, Giulia; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Donnini, Claudia

    2016-11-30

    Studies evidenced the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and tobacco smoking in adulthood. An appropriate parenting style has been found to be associated with children's less frequent tobacco consumption. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity could represent the potential link between ACEs, mood disorders and smoking susceptibility. We studied a sample of 50 male smokers, affected by nicotine dependence and 50 controls who never smoked. Self-reported retrospective perception of neglect (Child Experience of Care and Abuse: CECA-Q questionnaire), age of smoking onset, number of cigarette/day, psychiatric symptoms (Symptoms Check List 90 scale: SCL 90) and basal level of ACTH and cortisol have been evaluated. Total SCL-90 scores, CECA-Q values and cortisol plasma level were significantly higher among smokers. Cortisol and ACTH values showed a significant direct correlation with CECA-Q and SCL90 total score and an inverse significant correlation with the age of smoking. Cortisol and ACTH did not correlate with the number of cigarette smoked. Once controlled for SCL90 and CECA-Q with multiple regression measures, the association between smoking and hormone levels reversed, suggesting that increased cortisol and ACTH basal levels were attributable to preexisting conditions such as early-life exposure to emotional neglect, psychological problems and a predisposition to addictive behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cortisol-treated zebrafish embryos develop into pro-inflammatory adults with aberrant immune gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen I. Hartig

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic early-life stress increases adult susceptibility to numerous health problems linked to chronic inflammation. One way that this may occur is via glucocorticoid-induced developmental programming. To gain insight into such programming we treated zebrafish embryos with cortisol and examined the effects on both larvae and adults. Treated larvae had elevated whole-body cortisol and glucocorticoid signaling, and upregulated genes associated with defense response and immune system processes. In adulthood the treated fish maintained elevated basal cortisol levels in the absence of exogenous cortisol, and constitutively mis-expressed genes involved in defense response and its regulation. Adults derived from cortisol-treated embryos displayed defective tailfin regeneration, heightened basal expression of pro-inflammatory genes, and failure to appropriately regulate those genes following injury or immunological challenge. These results support the hypothesis that chronically elevated glucocorticoid signaling early in life directs development of a pro-inflammatory adult phenotype, at the expense of immunoregulation and somatic regenerative capacity.

  17. The effect of an adverse psychological environment on salivary cortisol levels in the elderly differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Ancelin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: An adverse psychological environment (e.g. stressful events or depression has been shown to influence basal cortisol levels and cortisol response to stress. This differs depending on the adverse stimuli, but also varies across individuals and may be influenced by genetic predisposition. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR is a strong candidate in this regard. Objective: To investigate how stressful life events and depression are associated with diurnal cortisol levels in community-dwelling elderly and determine whether this varies according to genetic variability in the 5-HTTLPR. Methods: This population-based study included 334 subjects aged 65 and older (mean (SD = 76.5 (6.3. Diurnal cortisol was measured on two separate days, under quiet (basal and stressful conditions. The number of recent major stressful events experienced during the past year was assessed from a 12-item validated questionnaire as an index of cumulative recent stressful events. Lifetime trauma was evaluated using the validated Watson's PTSD inventory, which evaluates the most severe traumatic or frightening experience according to DSM criteria. Depression was defined as having a Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI diagnosis of current major depressive disorder or high levels of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale ≥16. 5-HTTLPR genotyping was performed on blood samples. Results: Exposure to stressful life events was associated with lower basal evening cortisol levels overall, and in the participants with the 5-HTTLPR L allele but not the SS genotype. The greatest effects (over 50% decrease, p < 0.001 were observed for the LL participants having experienced multiple recent stressful events or severe lifetime traumas. Participants with the L allele also had higher evening cortisol stress response. Conversely, depression tended to be associated with a 42

  18. Evaluation of cortisol precursors for the diagnosis of pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Boretti, F S; Wenger, M; Maser-Gluth, C; Reusch, C E

    2008-05-24

    The serum concentrations of cortisol, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 21-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycortisol were measured in 19 healthy dogs, 15 dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (pdh) and eight dogs with other diseases before and one hour after an injection of synthetic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (acth). At both times the dogs with pdh had significantly higher concentrations of cortisol, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-deoxycortisol than the healthy dogs. Basal 11-deoxycortisol concentrations were also significantly higher in dogs with pdh compared with healthy dogs. When compared with the dogs with other diseases, the dogs with pdh had significantly higher basal and post-acth cortisol and basal 21-deoxycortisol, and significantly lower post-acth 11-deoxycortisol concentrations. The dogs with other diseases had significantly higher post-acth cortisol, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 11-deoxycortisol concentrations than the healthy dogs. In general, the post-acth concentrations of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol and 21-deoxycortisol were more variable than the post-acth concentrations of cortisol, resulting in large overlaps of the concentrations of these hormones between the three groups. A two-graph receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to maximise the sensitivity and specificity of each hormone for diagnosing hypercortisolism; it showed that the post-acth concentration of cortisol had the highest sensitivity and specificity. The overlaps between the healthy dogs, the dogs with pdh and the dogs with other diseases suggested that the individual precursor hormones would not be useful as a screening test for hypercortisolism.

  19. The relationship between Type D personality and physical health complaints is mediated by perceived stress and anxiety but not diurnal cortisol secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Riccalton, Victoria C; Kelly-Hughes, Denise H; Craw, Olivia A; Allen, Sarah F; O'Connor, Daryl B; Wetherell, Mark A

    2018-02-05

    Type D personality has been associated with minor health complaints in the general population and dysregulation of basal cortisol secretion in coronary patients. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) whether there is an association between Type D personality and basal cortisol secretion in the general population, and (ii) whether subjective measures of stress and anxiety, as well as indices of basal cortisol secretion, mediate the relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms in this group. Self-report measures of stress, trait anxiety and physical symptoms were provided by 101 individuals aged 18-45 years. Saliva samples were also provided over two consecutive "typical" days, to enable indices of the cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol profile to be determined. There was a significant relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms, which was fully mediated by subjective stress and anxiety. However, there were no significant relationships between Type D personality and the basal cortisol indices. These findings suggest that the association between Type D personality and minor health complaints in the general population can be explained by feelings of stress and anxiety, but a precise biological mechanism for this link is yet to be elucidated.

  20. Stress and cortisol responses in men: differences according to facial symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2017-11-01

    Stress response is associated with increased activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Chronic stress-induced elevation in cortisol may alter its own negative regulation with multiple long-term consequences for physical and psychological health. One of the most reliable physical traits associated with mental, apparent physical health, and competitiveness is the degree of facial fluctuating asymmetry. However, to our knowledge there are no studies regarding the relationship between cortisol levels, facial symmetry and male competitiveness, and how cortisol changes after a stressful test depending on these traits. Here, a group of 100 college men were photographed to obtain their facial asymmetry levels. They then, answered the perceived stress scale and the intrasexual competition test and donated two saliva samples (pre-and post-test sample) to measure the change in their cortisol levels after a stressful test. We found that basal cortisol levels were positively correlated with both perceived stress and competitiveness, but not with facial fluctuating asymmetry. Cortisol levels increased in most symmetrical men after a short stressful test, but it decreased in most asymmetrical men. The results suggest differences in endocrine responses according to facial fluctuating asymmetry in men and how these responses could be related to the maintenance of social status.

  1. Evaluation of urinary cortisol excretion by radioimmunoassay through two methods (extracted and non-extracted)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Kohek, M.B. da; Mendonca, B.B. de; Nicolau, W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the feasibility, sensitivity and specificity of both methods (extracted versus non-extracted) in the hypercortisolism diagnosis. It used Gamma Coat 125 cortisol Kit provided by Clinical Assays, Incstar, USA, for both methods extracting it with methylene chloride in order to measure the extracted cortisol. It was performed 32 assays from which it was obtained from 0.1 to 0.47 u g/d l of sensitivity. The intra-run precision was varied from 8.29 +- 3.38% and 8.19 +-4.72% for high and low levels, respectively for non-extracted cortisol, and 9.72 +- 1.94% and 9.54 +- 44% for high and low levels, respectively, for extracted cortisol. The inter-run precision was 15.98% and 16.15% for high level of non-extracted cortisol, respectively. For the low level it obtained 17.25% and 18.59% for non-extracted and extracted cortisol respectively. It was evaluated 24-hour urine basal samples from 43 normal subjects, and 53 obese (body mass index > 30) and 53 Cushing's syndrome patients. The sensitivity of the methods were similar (100% and 98.1% for non-extracted and extracted methods, respectively) and the specificity was the same for both methods (100%). It was noticed a positive correlation between the two methods in all the groups studied (p s syndrome. (author)

  2. A well test analysis method accounting for pre-test operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, D.B.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2003-01-01

    We propose to use regular monitoring data from a production or injection well for estimating the formation hydraulic properties in the vicinity of the wellbore without interrupting the operations. In our approach, we select a portion of the pumping data over a certain time interval and then derive our conclusions from analysis of these data. A distinctive feature of the proposed approach differing it form conventional methods is in the introduction of an additional parameter, an effective pre-test pumping rate. The additional parameter is derived based on a rigorous asymptotic analysis of the flow model. Thus, we account for the non-uniform pressure distribution at the beginning of testing time interval caused by pre-test operations at the well. By synthetic and field examples, we demonstrate that deviation of the matching curve from the data that is usually attributed to skin and wellbore storage effects, can also be interpreted through this new parameter. Moreover, with our method, the data curve is matched equally well and the results of the analysis remain stable when the analyzed data interval is perturbed, whereas traditional methods are sensitive to the choice of the data interval. A special efficient minimization procedure has been developed for searching the best fitting parameters. We enhanced our analysis above with a procedure of estimating ambient reservoir pressure and dimensionless wellbore radius. The methods reported here have been implemented in code ODA (Operations Data Analysis). A beta version of the code is available for free testing and evaluation to interested parties

  3. Pre-test CFD Calculations for a Bypass Flow Standard Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Johnson

    2011-11-01

    The bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is the flow that occurs between adjacent graphite blocks. Gaps exist between blocks due to variances in their manufacture and installation and because of the expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. Although the temperature of fuel compacts and graphite is sensitive to the presence of bypass flow, there is great uncertainty in the level and effects of the bypass flow. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program at the Idaho National Laboratory has undertaken to produce experimental data of isothermal bypass flow between three adjacent graphite blocks. These data are intended to provide validation for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of the bypass flow. Such validation data sets are called Standard Problems in the nuclear safety analysis field. Details of the experimental apparatus as well as several pre-test calculations of the bypass flow are provided. Pre-test calculations are useful in examining the nature of the flow and to see if there are any problems associated with the flow and its measurement. The apparatus is designed to be able to provide three different gap widths in the vertical direction (the direction of the normal coolant flow) and two gap widths in the horizontal direction. It is expected that the vertical bypass flow will range from laminar to transitional to turbulent flow for the different gap widths that will be available.

  4. A fluorimetric assay for cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Daniel; Schmid, Rolf D; Dragan, Calin-Aurel; Bureik, Matthias; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2005-09-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive fluorimetric assay for the quantitative determination of cortisol is reported. The assay is based on the formation of a fluorescent dye when cortisol is incubated with a mixture of sulfuric acid and acetic acid. The fluorescence spectrum recorded for the resulting dye shows a maximum extinction at 475 nm and a maximum emission at 525 nm. The solvent 2-methyl-4-pentanone was used for extraction and was found to act as a fluorescence amplifier. A limit of detection of 2.7 muM was achieved, making it possible to forego solvent evaporation. The assay suffers minor interference from 11-deoxycortisol which exhibits low fluorescence at lambda (ex): 460 nm; lambda (em): 505 nm. Typical standard deviations were below 4%. We validated the assay using a biotransformation with recombinant Schizosaccharomyces pombe which regioselectively hydroxylates 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol. The method described herein is suitable for preliminary screening of microorganisms capable of steroid hydroxylation.

  5. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  6. Effect of service dogs on salivary cortisol secretion in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Robert; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fecteau, Stéphanie; Champagne, Noël; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Lupien, Sonia

    2010-09-01

    Children with Autism Syndrome Disorders (ASDs) exhibit social, communicative, and behavioral deficits. We know that human interaction with dogs, which is thought to serve as a social catalyst, results in a decrease of cortisol levels in healthy adults. Introducing service dogs to children with ASD is an attractive idea that has received growing attention in recent decades. However, no study has measured the physiological impact of service dogs on these children. Therefore, the goal of our study was to assess the effects of service dogs on the basal salivary cortisol secretion of children with ASD. We measured the salivary cortisol levels of 42 children with ASD in three experimental conditions; prior to and during the introduction of a service dog to their family, and after a short period during which the dog was removed from their family. We compared average cortisol levels and Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) before and during the introduction of the dog to the family and after its withdrawal. We found that the introduction of service dogs translated into a statistically significant diminished CAR. Before the introduction of service dogs, we measured a 58% increase in morning cortisol after awakening, which diminished to 10% when service dogs were present. The increase in morning cortisol jumped back to 48% once the dogs were removed from the families (pdogs did not have an effect on the children's average diurnal cortisol levels. These results show that the CAR of children with ASD is sensitive to the presence of service dogs, which lends support to the potential behavioral benefits of service dogs for children with autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diurnal cortisol rhythms in Tsimane' Amazonian foragers: new insights into ecological HPA axis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Colleen H

    2012-02-01

    Although a growing body of research has documented important pathways by which the HPA axis mediates the interface between the psychosocial world and individual health, there is a paucity of data from nonwestern populations, particularly from those populations with distinct nutritional and infectious disease ecologies. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to document variation in diurnal cortisol rhythms among the Tsimane', a remote population in the Bolivian Amazon, (2) to explore this variation by age and by gender, and (3) to compare diurnal rhythms from this study to other population based studies of cortisol conducted in industrialized nations. Salivary cortisol samples were collected twice daily, immediately upon waking and before bed, for three consecutive days from 303 participants (age 1.6-82 years, 1564 samples) in conjunction with the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS). Cortisol rhythms showed strong age effects across the developmental span, with basal levels and slopes increasing into adulthood, although individuals older than 60 years demonstrated a precipitous flattening of the diurnal slope. Cortisol profiles were elevated in adult females compared to their age-matched male counterparts, and diurnal slopes, as well as mean cortisol concentrations among the Tsimane' were the lowest reported in any population based study of HPA axis function. Although the within-population variation in cortisol profiles was consistent with the established correlates of time of day, age, and sex, the between-population comparisons revealed dramatically lower levels of HPA activity among the Tsimane'. This study provides a benchmark against which to reference cortisol levels from industrialized populations, and expands the range of documented variation in HPA axis function in a nonwestern context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Victims of rape show increased cortisol responses to trauma reminders: a study in individuals with war- and torture-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2012-02-01

    Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without rape among the traumatic events experienced. Participants of both groups (raped vs. non-raped) fulfilled DSM-IV criteria of PTSD. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points during a standardized clinical interview: once before and twice after assessing individual traumatic experiences. Results show that groups did not differ in basal plasma and salivary cortisol levels. However, differential salivary cortisol responses were observed in PTSD patients who had been raped compared to those who had not been raped (prape (praped showed a significant cortisol increase when reminded of their traumatic events (p<.001). This effect was not found in plasma cortisol. Our results indicate that the type of traumatic stress experienced contributes to cortisol responses during the confrontation with trauma-related material. We hypothesize, that the nearness of the perpetrator during the traumatic event might shape later psychophysiological responding to trauma reminders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  10. Basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Seven cases of basal cell carcinoma are reported in this paper. The incidence of this disease is two percent of all malignancies seen at the Miraj Medical Centre, Miraj, Maharashtra. There were five male and two female patients in this series. The youngest patient was 40 years old and the oldest 70 years. The average age of the patients was 57.3 years. All the cases in the series had lesions confined to the head and neck region. Radiation therapy was given to all the seven cases which was the primary form of treatment in five cases. In two cases surgical excision had been done and the growth in both the cases had recurred. Radiation therapy is considered more ideal and suitable in the treatment of basal cell carcinomas. (auth.)

  11. Oxytocin and prolactin suppress cortisol responses to acute stress in both lactating and non-lactating sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C J

    1997-08-01

    Cortisol response to stress appears to differ between lactating and non-lactating animals. Lactating (14 d post partum) and non-lactating sheep were fitted with probes so that drugs and hormones could be infused directly into the posterior pituitary and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The animals were also fitted with instruments to allow monitoring of heart rate, body temperature and blood cortisol levels. Their reactions to a source of acute stress (a barking dog) were then followed, with or without drug and hormone manipulation. Results in both lactating and non-lactating animals indicated shortcomings in the use of cortisol as a stress indicator. Infusing prolactin and oxytocin into either the posterior pituitary or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus suppressed cortisol responsiveness to stress in both lactating and non-lactating animals (the latter to a greater extent). In the absence of drugs, lactating animals had a slightly higher basal level of cortisol and a lower cortisol response to stress than their non-lactating counterparts. Despite suppression of cortisol responses, with or without drugs, other indicators of stress still changed with the presence of a barking dog, suggesting the complexity of control involved in stress responses.

  12. TOPFLOW-PTS experiments. pre-test calculations with NEPTUNE{sub C}FD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A., E-mail: alain-cc.martin@edf.fr [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Heib, C.; Dubois, F., E-mail: caroline.heib@irsn.fr, E-mail: franck.dubois@irsn.fr [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Raynaud, C.; Peturaud, P., E-mail: christelle.raynaud@edf.fr, E-mail: pierre.peturaud@edf.fr [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Huvelin, F.; Barbier, A., E-mail: fabien.huvelin@areva.com, E-mail: anthony.barbier@areva.com [AREVA-NP, Paris la Defense (France)

    2011-07-01

    Hypothetical Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident is identified as one of the most severe transients leading to a potential huge Pressurized Thermal Shock on the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This may result in two-phase flow configurations in the cold legs, according to the operating conditions, and to reliably assess the RPV wall integrity, advanced two-phase flow simulations are required. Related needs in development and/or validation of these advanced models are important, and the on-going TOPFLOW-PTS experimental program was designed to provide a well documented data base to meet these needs. This paper focuses on pre-test NEPTUNE{sub C}FD simulations of TOPFLOW-PTS experiments; these simulations were performed to (i) help in the definition of the test matrix and test procedure, and (ii) check the presence of the different key physical phenomena at the mock-up scale. (author)

  13. Winning isn't everything: mood and testosterone regulate the cortisol response in competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Zilioli

    Full Text Available Dominance contests are recurrent and widespread causes of stress among mammals. Studies of activation of the stress axis in social defeat - as reflected in levels of adrenal glucocorticoid, cortisol - have generated scattered and sometimes contradictory results, suggesting that biopsychological individual differences might play an important mediating role, at least in humans. In the context of a larger study of the regulation of endocrine responses to competition, we evaluated the notion that mood states, such as self-assurance and hostility, may influence cortisol reactivity to dominance cues via an interplay with baseline testosterone, considered as a potential marker of individual differences in dominance. Seventy healthy male university students (mean age 20.02, range 18-26 provided saliva samples before and after competing for fifteen minutes on a rigged computer task. After a winner was determined, all participants were assessed on their mood states through a standardized psychometric instrument (PANAS-X. Among winners of a rigged videogame competition, we found a significant interaction between testosterone and self-assurance in relation to post-competition cortisol. Specifically, self-assurance was associated with lower post-competition cortisol in subjects with high baseline testosterone levels, but no such relationship was observed in subjects with lower baseline testosterone levels. In losers of the competition no interaction effect between basal testosterone and hostility was observed. However, in this subgroup a significant negative relationship between basal testosterone and post-competition cortisol was evident. Overall, these findings provide initial support for the novel hypothesis that biological motivational predispositions (i.e. basal testosterone and state (i.e. mood changes may interact in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation after a social contest.

  14. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  15. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cortisol Measures Across the Weight Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Melanie; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Dichtel, Laura E; Klibanski, Anne; Miller, Karen K

    2015-09-01

    There are conflicting reports of increased vs decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in obesity; the most consistent finding is an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and morning cortisol. In anorexia nervosa (AN), a low-BMI state, cortisol measures are elevated. This study aimed to investigate cortisol measures across the weight spectrum. This was a cross-sectional study at a clinical research center. This study included 60 women, 18-45 years of age: overweight/obese (OB; N = 21); AN (N = 18); and normal-weight controls (HC; N = 21). HPA dynamics were assessed by urinary free cortisol, mean overnight serum cortisol obtained by pooled frequent sampling every 20 minutes from 2000-0800 h, 0800 h serum cortisol and cortisol-binding globulin, morning and late-night salivary cortisol, and dexamethasone-CRH testing. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Cortisol measures demonstrated a U-shaped relationship with BMI, nadiring in the overweight-class I obese range, and were similarly associated with visceral adipose tissue and total fat mass. Mean cortisol levels were higher in AN than OB. There were weak negative linear relationships between lean mass and some cortisol measures. Most cortisol measures were negatively associated with postero-anterior spine and total hip BMD. Cortisol measures are lowest in overweight-class I obese women-lower than in lean women. With more significant obesity, cortisol levels increase, although not to as high as in AN. Therefore, extreme underweight and overweight states may activate the HPA axis, and hypercortisolemia may contribute to increased adiposity in the setting of caloric excess. Hypercortisolemia may also contribute to decreased BMD and muscle wasting in the setting of both caloric restriction and excess.

  17. Future of newer basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, S. V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Basal insulin have been developed over the years. In recent times newer analogues have been added to the armanentarium for diabetes therapy. This review specifically reviews the current status of different basal insulins

  18. Relationship between Social Rank and Cortisol and Testosterone concentrations in Male Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Czoty, Paul W.; Gould, Robert W.; Nader, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In nonhuman primate social groups, biological differences related to social status have proven useful in investigating mechanisms of sensitivity to various disease states. Physiological and neurobiological differences between dominant and subordinate monkeys have been interpreted in the context of chronic social stress. The present experiments were designed to investigate the relationships between basal cortisol and testosterone concentrations and the establishment and maintenance of the soci...

  19. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  20. Facebook behaviors associated with diurnal cortisol in adolescents: Is befriending stressful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Facebook(©) is changing the way people interact and socialize. Despite great interest in psychology and sociology, little is known about Facebook behaviors in relation to physiological markers of stress. Given that the brain undergoes important development during adolescence and that glucocorticoids--a major class of stress hormones-are known to modulate its development, it is important to study psychosocial factors that may influence secretion of stress hormones during adolescence. The goal of the present study was to explore the associations between Facebook behaviors (use frequency, network size, self-presentation and peer-interaction) and basal levels of cortisol among adolescent boys and girls. Eighty-eight adolescents (41 boys, 47 girls) aged between 12 and 17 (14.5 ± 1.8) were recruited. Participants provided four cortisol samples per day for two non-consecutive weekdays. Facebook behaviors were assessed in accordance with the existing literature. Well-validated measures of perceived stress, perceived social support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were also included. A hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for sex, age, time of awakening, perceived stress, and perceived social support, cortisol systemic output (area under the curve with respect to ground) was positively associated with the number of Facebook friends and negatively associated with Facebook peer-interaction. No associations were found among depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and cortisol. These results provide preliminary evidence that Facebook behaviors are associated with diurnal cortisol concentrations in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cortisol in human milk predicts child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Le, Tran Bao; Chung, Anna; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M

    2016-12-01

    Breastfeeding has been linked to lower rates of childhood obesity. Human milk contains cortisol, known to regulate glucose storage and metabolism. The aim of this study was to to test the hypothesis that early exposure to cortisol in human breast milk helps to modulate infant body mass index (BMI) trajectories over the first 2 years of life. Growth curve modeling was used to examine whether infant exposure to cortisol in human milk at 3 months predicted changes in child body mass index percentile (BMIP) at 6, 12, and 24 months of age in 51 breastfeeding mother-child pairs. Infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels at 3 months were less likely to exhibit BMIP gains over the first 2 years of life, compared with infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. By age 2, infants exposed to higher milk cortisol levels had lower BMIPs than infants exposed to lower milk cortisol. Milk cortisol was a stronger predictor of BMIP change in girls than boys. Cortisol exposure through human milk may help to program metabolic functioning and childhood obesity risk. Further, because infant formula contains only trace amounts of glucocorticoids, these findings suggest that cortisol in milk is a novel biological pathway through which breastfeeding may protect against later obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lucertini

    Full Text Available Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded, by measuring in saliva: i daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h; and ii the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10 and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12 groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF, the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seum Chung

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer, predominantly affecting the head and neck, and can be diagnosed clinically in most cases. Metastasis of BCC is rare, but localised tissue invasion and destruction can lead to morbidity.Risk factors for BCC include tendency to freckle, degree of sun exposure, excessive sun-bed use, and smoking.Incidence of BCC increases markedly after the age of 40 years, but incidence in younger people is rising, possibly as a result of inc...

  4. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Bulur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors.

  5. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC.

  6. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome......This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  7. Correlation of cortisol in 1-cm hair segment with salivary cortisol in human: hair cortisol as an endogenous biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaozhen; Gao, Wei; Li, Jifeng; Qiao, Ting; Jin, Jing; Deng, Huihua; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-09-09

    Cortisol level in human hair would be an endogenous biomarker for the retrospective assessment of long-term central hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity. However, no direct evidence supports that blood-related diffusion is a biologically endogenous source of hair cortisol in humans. The present study aims to validate the direct correlation between cortisol in 1-cm hair segments and salivary cortisol in healthy humans. We collected three saliva samples from the same participant at Time 1, Time 2 (1 week later) and Time 3 (2 weeks later), and hair 4 weeks later. Cortisol levels in 1-cm hair segments and saliva were determined with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Salivary cortisol at Time 1 was significantly associated with that at Time 2 (r=0.514, p=0.003), but not with that at Time 3 (r=0.187, p=0.305); and the one at Time 2 was significantly associated with that at Time 3 (r=0.380, p=0.032). Hair cortisol was significantly correlated with salivary cortisol at Time 2 (r=0.389, pdiffusion mechanism is a biologically endogenous source of hair cortisol.

  8. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  9. Pre-test analysis for identification of natural circulation instabilities in TALL-3D facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kööp, Kaspar; Jeltsov, Marti; Grishchenko, Dmitry; Kudinov, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Global optimum search method was used to identify a region of instability. • Parametric study was used for detailed investigation of system behavior modes. • The results include identification of sustained mass flow rate oscillations. • Recommendations are made for selection of optimal experimental conditions. - Abstract: TALL-3D facility is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) thermal-hydraulic loop designed to provide experimental data on thermal-hydraulics phenomena for validation of stand-alone and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Pre-test analysis is crucial for proper choice of experimental conditions at which the experimental data would be most useful for code validation and benchmarking. The goal of this work is to identify these conditions at which the experiment is challenging for the STH codes yet minimizes the 3D-effects from the test section on the loop dynamics. The analysis is focused on the identification of limit cycle flow oscillations in the TALL-3D facility main heater leg using a global optimum search tool GA-NPO to find a general region in the parameter space where oscillatory behavior is expected. As a second step a grid study is conducted outlining the boundaries between different stability modes. Phenomena, simulation results and methodology for selection of the test parameters are discussed in detail and recommendations for experiments are provided.

  10. Pre-test analysis for identification of natural circulation instabilities in TALL-3D facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kööp, Kaspar, E-mail: kaspar@safety.sci.kth.se; Jeltsov, Marti, E-mail: marti@safety.sci.kth.se; Grishchenko, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@safety.sci.kth.se; Kudinov, Pavel, E-mail: pavel@safety.sci.kth.se

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Global optimum search method was used to identify a region of instability. • Parametric study was used for detailed investigation of system behavior modes. • The results include identification of sustained mass flow rate oscillations. • Recommendations are made for selection of optimal experimental conditions. - Abstract: TALL-3D facility is a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) thermal-hydraulic loop designed to provide experimental data on thermal-hydraulics phenomena for validation of stand-alone and coupled System Thermal Hydraulics (STH) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. Pre-test analysis is crucial for proper choice of experimental conditions at which the experimental data would be most useful for code validation and benchmarking. The goal of this work is to identify these conditions at which the experiment is challenging for the STH codes yet minimizes the 3D-effects from the test section on the loop dynamics. The analysis is focused on the identification of limit cycle flow oscillations in the TALL-3D facility main heater leg using a global optimum search tool GA-NPO to find a general region in the parameter space where oscillatory behavior is expected. As a second step a grid study is conducted outlining the boundaries between different stability modes. Phenomena, simulation results and methodology for selection of the test parameters are discussed in detail and recommendations for experiments are provided.

  11. Seasonal Variation in Human Salivary Cortisol Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2008-01-01

    is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women...... 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time...

  12. Positive upshots of cortisol in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Lindsay T; Zeiders, Katharine H; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Adam, Emma K

    2016-06-01

    Cortisol, the major physiological end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is usually associated with stress and negative affect. However, a new body of research highlights the complex, adaptive significance of elevated cortisol within individuals in everyday life. Whereas most studies do not have the power to test the dynamic transactions between cortisol and affect within a person throughout the entire waking day, we employed an intensive study protocol analyzing hourly diary reports of affect in relation to hourly salivary cortisol samples among 24 healthy adults from morning to bedtime, across 2 consecutive weekdays (N = 862 total samples). Utilizing multileveling modeling and focusing on within-person effects, we examined whether momentary increases in cortisol could be mood protective, or energy enhancing, in everyday life, supporting the cortisol boost hypothesis. Results revealed no significant associations between cortisol and current affective state; however, within-person increases in cortisol were significantly associated with subsequent rises in activeness, alertness, and relaxation, and trend-level reductions in stress and nervousness. This study adds to growing evidence that cortisol plays a positive role in regulating affect in everyday life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels in Dog Owners and Their Dogs Are Associated with Behavioral Patterns: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Maria; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Nilsson, Anne; Gustafson, Lise-Lotte; Hydbring-Sandberg, Eva; Handlin, Linda

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that dog-owner interaction results in increasing oxytocin levels in owners and dogs, decreasing cortisol levels in owners but increasing cortisol levels in dogs. The present study aimed to further investigate whether oxytocin and cortisol levels in the previously tested owners and dogs were associated with their behaviors during the interaction experiment. Ten female volunteer dog-owners and their male Labrador dogs participated in a 60 min interaction experiment with interaction taking place during 0-3 min and blood samples for analysis of oxytocin and cortisol were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The entire experiment was videotaped and the following variables were noted; the different types (stroking, scratching, patting and activating touch, i.e., scratching and patting combined) as well as the frequency of touch applied by the owner, the number of times the owner touched her dog, the dog's positions and time spent in each position. Correlations were analyzed between the behavioral variables and basal oxytocin levels, maximum oxytocin levels, delta oxytocin levels, basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels at 15 min. Owners with low oxytocin levels before and during the interaction touched their dogs more frequently (0 min: R s = -0.683, p = 0.042; oxytocin maximum: R s = -0.783, p = 0.013). The lower the dogs' oxytocin levels during the interaction, the more stroking they received ( R s = -0.717, p = 0.041). The more frequently activating touch was applied by the owner, the higher the dogs' cortisol levels became (15 min: R s = 0.661, p = 0.038). The higher the owners' maximum oxytocin level the fewer position changes the dogs made ( R s = -0.817, p = 0.007) and the shorter time they spent sitting ( R s = -0.786, p = 0.036), whereas the higher the owners' basal cortisol levels, the longer time the dogs spent standing (0 min: R s = 0.683, p = 0.041). In conclusion, oxytocin and cortisol levels, both in dogs and in their

  15. Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels in Dog Owners and Their Dogs Are Associated with Behavioral Patterns: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Petersson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that dog–owner interaction results in increasing oxytocin levels in owners and dogs, decreasing cortisol levels in owners but increasing cortisol levels in dogs. The present study aimed to further investigate whether oxytocin and cortisol levels in the previously tested owners and dogs were associated with their behaviors during the interaction experiment. Ten female volunteer dog–owners and their male Labrador dogs participated in a 60 min interaction experiment with interaction taking place during 0–3 min and blood samples for analysis of oxytocin and cortisol were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The entire experiment was videotaped and the following variables were noted; the different types (stroking, scratching, patting and activating touch, i.e., scratching and patting combined as well as the frequency of touch applied by the owner, the number of times the owner touched her dog, the dog’s positions and time spent in each position. Correlations were analyzed between the behavioral variables and basal oxytocin levels, maximum oxytocin levels, delta oxytocin levels, basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels at 15 min. Owners with low oxytocin levels before and during the interaction touched their dogs more frequently (0 min: Rs = -0.683, p = 0.042; oxytocin maximum: Rs = -0.783, p = 0.013. The lower the dogs’ oxytocin levels during the interaction, the more stroking they received (Rs = -0.717, p = 0.041. The more frequently activating touch was applied by the owner, the higher the dogs’ cortisol levels became (15 min: Rs = 0.661, p = 0.038. The higher the owners’ maximum oxytocin level the fewer position changes the dogs made (Rs = -0.817, p = 0.007 and the shorter time they spent sitting (Rs = -0.786, p = 0.036, whereas the higher the owners’ basal cortisol levels, the longer time the dogs spent standing (0 min: Rs = 0.683, p = 0.041. In conclusion, oxytocin and cortisol levels, both in

  16. Development of new risk score for pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease based on coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population.

  17. Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melissa A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Methods Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p ≤ 0.0001. In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p ≤ 0.33. Conclusion The video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about rapid HIV testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients

  18. Comparison of patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test fundamentals by information delivery format in an emergency department setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; Gee, Erin M; Clark, Melissa A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Seage, George R; DeGruttola, Victor G

    2007-01-01

    Background Two trials were conducted to compare emergency department patient comprehension of rapid HIV pre-test information using different methods to deliver this information. Methods Patients were enrolled for these two trials at a US emergency department between February 2005 and January 2006. In Trial One, patients were randomized to a no pre-test information or an in-person discussion arm. In Trial Two, a separate group of patients were randomized to an in-person discussion arm or a Tablet PC-based video arm. The video, "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?", and the in-person discussion contained identical Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-suggested pre-test information components as well as information on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. Participants were compared by information arm on their comprehension of the pre-test information by their score on a 26-item questionnaire using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results In Trial One, 38 patients completed the no-information arm and 31 completed the in-person discussion arm. Of these 69 patients, 63.8% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 66.7% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the in-person discussion arm was higher than for the no information arm (18.7 vs. 13.3, p ≤ 0.0001). In Trial Two, 59 patients completed the in-person discussion and 55 completed the video arms. Of these 114 patients, 50.9% had twelve years or fewer of formal education and 68.4% had previously been tested for HIV. The mean score on the questionnaire for the video arm was similar to the in-person discussion arm (20.0 vs. 19.2; p ≤ 0.33). Conclusion The video "Do you know about rapid HIV testing?" appears to be an acceptable substitute for an in-person pre-test discussion on rapid HIV testing with OraQuick®. In terms of adequately informing ED patients about rapid HIV testing, either form of pre-test information is preferable than for patients to receive no pre-test

  19. Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerth, C. de; Zijl, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cortisol is the final product of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is secreted in a pulsatile fashion that displays a circadian rhythm. Infants are born without a circadian rhythm in cortisol and they acquire it during their first year of life. Studies do not

  20. A systematic review of the effect of pre-test rest duration on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of toe and ankle blood pressure is commonly used to evaluate peripheral vascular status, yet the pre-test rest period is inconsistent in published studies and among practitioners, and could affect results. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate all research that has investigated the effect of different periods of pre-test rest on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure. Methods The following databases were searched up to April 2012: Medline (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1947), CINAHL (from 1937), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (from 1800). No language or publication restrictions were applied. Eighty-eight content experts and researchers in the field were contacted by email to assist in the identification of published, unpublished, and ongoing studies. Studies evaluating the effect of two or more pre-test rest durations on toe or ankle systolic blood pressure were eligible for inclusion. No restrictions were placed on participant characteristics or the method of blood pressure measurement. Outcomes included toe or ankle systolic blood pressure and adverse effects. Abstracts identified from the search terms were independently assessed by two reviewers for potential inclusion. Results 1658 abstracts were identified by electronic searching. Of the 88 content experts and researchers in the field contacted by email a total of 33 replied and identified five potentially relevant studies. No studies were eligible for inclusion. Conclusions There is no evidence of the effect of different periods of pre-test rest duration on toe and ankle systolic blood pressure measurements. Rigorous trials evaluating the effect of different durations of pre-test rest are required to direct clinical practice and research. PMID:24708870

  1. Coordination of the cortisol and testosterone responses: A dual axis approach to understanding the response to social status threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Tackett, Jennifer L; Lechtreck, Maria T; Browning, Wesley R

    2015-12-01

    For many people, competitions, status challenges, and being evaluated by others result in increases in cortisol as well as testosterone. It is argued that physiological processes work in a coordinated fashion when facing social evaluative-competitive situations. Such a coordinated response may be part of an evolved system, monitoring and responding to threats to one's social status. In two studies, using within-person multi-level analyses, we tested the hypothesis that adult men, pre/early pubertal boys, and pre/early pubertal girls show a coordinated response in cortisol and testosterone (i.e., coupling of cortisol and testosterone responses) during a social evaluative situation. In Study 1, 85 men delivered speeches and performed difficult arithmetic tasks in front of critical evaluators, prepared for a competition, and provided multiple saliva samples throughout the procedure for cortisol and testosterone assays. In Study 2, 79 boys and 74 girls underwent similar procedures as in Study 1. Within-person analyses suggested that cortisol and testosterone responses were indeed positively associated for all three groups (men, boys, and girls). That is, on average a participant's cortisol and testosterone levels tended to rise and fall together throughout the procedure, suggesting that cortisol and testosterone show coordinated activation and deactivation (coupling) during social status threats. Furthermore, men with higher anxiety during the stressor tasks (Study 1; coded by raters from video recordings) and both boys and girls with higher parent reported trait negative affectivity (Study 2) had stronger coupling. Men (Study 1) higher in self-reported trait dominance and verbal dominance (coded by raters from video recordings during the stressor), and lower in basal testosterone had weaker coupling. A coordinated hormone response may have important adaptive functions when dealing with status threats; cortisol can mobilize energy resources and testosterone can

  2. of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sobjanek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Polymorphic variants of MCP-1 and RANTES genes and their protein serum levels have been implicated in the increased risk and severity of several malignancies. However, the subject has not been explored in basal cell carcinoma (BCC patients so far. Aim : To investigate the association between monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 (–2518 A/G and RANTES (–403 G/A polymorphism and risk and clinical course of BCC. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 150 unrelated patients with BCC and 140 healthy, unrelated, age- and sex-matched volunteers. The polymorphisms were analysed using the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method (ARMS-PCR and single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR. Serum cytokine levels were measured with ELISA. Results : The presence of the MCP-1 –2518 GG genotype was statistically more frequent in BCC patients and it increased the risk of BCC (OR = 2.63, p = 0.003. Genotype –330 GG was statistically more common in patients with less advanced tumours (OR = 2.8, p = 0.017. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 serum level was statistically higher with GG genotype. In the BCC group MCP-1 serum levels were decreased. Neither polymorphic variants of RANTES nor the chemokine serum concentration differed significantly between the study groups. Conclusions : These findings suggest that –2518 A/G MCP-1 polymorphism may be involved in BCC pathogenesis.

  3. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma, a distinctive morphologic variant of basal cell carcinoma that presents as a small red macule (dot) or papule, is described on a woman’s thigh. A high index of suspicion is necessary to consider the diagnosis since the tumor mimics a telangiectasia or an angioma. PMID:28670359

  4. New basal temperature and basal melt rate maps of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Yasmina M.; Martin, Carlos; Vaughan, David G.

    2017-04-01

    Ice sheet basal conditions are key to initialize ice flow models and be able to estimate the future of the cryosphere. The thermal conditions are of importance because of the widespread presence of water beneath the Antarctic continent that affects both the ice-dynamics and the mass budget. The melting or freezing at the base of the ice sheet is consequence of several contributions to the heat balance. This includes the geothermal heat flux, the heat conducted or advected through the ice sheet, the latent heat and the friction heat at the interface. Here we present a new basal temperature and a total basal melting rate distributions of Antarctica. For this we use the most recent heat flux map (Martos et al., 2016) and an advanced ice flow model to incorporate the effect of advection and estimate frictional heat. We assume steady state conditions to estimate the basal properties. We found higher basal melting rates in West Antarctica than in East Antarctica as well as in the coastal regions of the continent and ice shelves. The spatial variation of our new basal temperature and basal melting rate distributions are greater than previously proposed which will help to unveil the Antarctic subglacial hydrology.

  5. Using cognitive pre-testing methods in the development of a new evidenced-based pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S; Nixon, J; Keen, J; Muir, D; Wilson, L; McGinnis, E; Stubbs, N; Dealey, C; Nelson, E A

    2016-11-16

    Variation in development methods of Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments has led to inconsistent inclusion of risk factors and concerns about content validity. A new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary Or Secondary Evaluation Tool - PURPOSE-T was developed as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) funded Pressure Ulcer Research Programme (PURPOSE: RP-PG-0407-10056). This paper reports the pre-test phase to assess and improve PURPOSE-T acceptability, usability and confirm content validity. A descriptive study incorporating cognitive pre-testing methods and integration of service user views was undertaken over 3 cycles comprising PURPOSE-T training, a focus group and one-to-one think-aloud interviews. Clinical nurses from 2 acute and 2 community NHS Trusts, were grouped according to job role. Focus group participants used 3 vignettes to complete PURPOSE-T assessments and then participated in the focus group. Think-aloud participants were interviewed during their completion of PURPOSE-T. After each pre-test cycle analysis was undertaken and adjustment/improvements made to PURPOSE-T in an iterative process. This incorporated the use of descriptive statistics for data completeness and decision rule compliance and directed content analysis for interview and focus group data. Data were collected April 2012-June 2012. Thirty-four nurses participated in 3 pre-test cycles. Data from 3 focus groups, 12 think-aloud interviews incorporating 101 PURPOSE-T assessments led to changes to improve instrument content and design, flow and format, decision support and item-specific wording. Acceptability and usability were demonstrated by improved data completion and appropriate risk pathway allocation. The pre-test also confirmed content validity with clinical nurses. The pre-test was an important step in the development of the preliminary PURPOSE-T and the methods used may have wider instrument development application

  6. Using cognitive pre-testing methods in the development of a new evidenced-based pressure ulcer risk assessment instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Coleman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in development methods of Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment Instruments has led to inconsistent inclusion of risk factors and concerns about content validity. A new evidenced-based Risk Assessment Instrument, the Pressure Ulcer Risk Primary Or Secondary Evaluation Tool - PURPOSE-T was developed as part of a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR funded Pressure Ulcer Research Programme (PURPOSE: RP-PG-0407-10056. This paper reports the pre-test phase to assess and improve PURPOSE-T acceptability, usability and confirm content validity. Methods A descriptive study incorporating cognitive pre-testing methods and integration of service user views was undertaken over 3 cycles comprising PURPOSE-T training, a focus group and one-to-one think-aloud interviews. Clinical nurses from 2 acute and 2 community NHS Trusts, were grouped according to job role. Focus group participants used 3 vignettes to complete PURPOSE-T assessments and then participated in the focus group. Think-aloud participants were interviewed during their completion of PURPOSE-T. After each pre-test cycle analysis was undertaken and adjustment/improvements made to PURPOSE-T in an iterative process. This incorporated the use of descriptive statistics for data completeness and decision rule compliance and directed content analysis for interview and focus group data. Data were collected April 2012-June 2012. Results Thirty-four nurses participated in 3 pre-test cycles. Data from 3 focus groups, 12 think-aloud interviews incorporating 101 PURPOSE-T assessments led to changes to improve instrument content and design, flow and format, decision support and item-specific wording. Acceptability and usability were demonstrated by improved data completion and appropriate risk pathway allocation. The pre-test also confirmed content validity with clinical nurses. Conclusions The pre-test was an important step in the development of the preliminary PURPOSE-T and the

  7. Cortisol evaluation during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Meriem; Donaldson, Malcolm; Aribi, Yamina; Iabassen, Malek; Cherfi, Lyes; Nebbal, Mustapha; Medjaher, Meriem; Haffaf, ElMehdi; Abdennebi, Benaissa; Guenane, Kamel; Djermane, Adel; Kemali, Zahra; OuldKablia, Samia

    2018-05-01

    Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is difficult in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI). To assess the frequency and predictive factors of AI in victims of TBI from Algiers. Between November 2009 and December 2013, TBI victims had a single 8-9 am serum cortisol measurement during the acute postinjury period (0-7 days). AI was defined according to basal cortisol levels of 83, 276 and 414 nmol/L. Variables studied were TBI severity according to Glasgow coma scale, duration of intubation and coma, pupillary status, hypotension, anaemia, brain imaging findings, diabetes insipidus and medication. Insulin tolerance test was performed during the recovery phase, defining AI as peak cortisol 414 nmol/L. Hydrocortisone replacement is advised in TBI patients with morning cortisol <276 nmol/L or those <414 nmol/L with additional risk factors for AI. As acute and subsequent AI are poorly correlated, patients with moderate/severe TBI require adrenal re-evaluation during the recovery phase. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  9. Evaluation of aldosterone-and cortisol levels in blood plasma in normal conditions of ingestion of sodium and potassium, after saline-increase and depletion, in regard to position, and after stimulation with ACTH and angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, H.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for the determination of plasma aldosterone and cortisol, by radioimmunoassay, were performed utilizing highly specific antisera. With this methodology it was possible to evaluate cortisol and aldosterone secretion, in six normal subjects, submitted to a basal rice diet on standing and recumbent positions, the effects of exogenous cortrosyn (β1-24 ACTH) and angiotensin II and the same manoevres with progressively increased Na + content of the diet. Aldosterone basal levels decreased with the increase of Na + content in the diet. However, there were no significant differences between the relative increments observed on the recumbent position, at the three levels of sodium intake. The relative increase of plasma aldosterone after ACTH was similar for each basal level of aldosterone induced by different sodium intakes. The responsiveness of aldosterone secretion to cortrosyn and standing position was similar, with no relation to the sodium intake. The infusion of angiotensin II induced an increase in plasma aldosterone, and the relative increment in the levels of the hormone were higher with high sodium than on the rice diet. The average basal cortisol value at the different levels of sodium intake was significantly different being greater on the basal, rice diet, and there was a decrease in cortisol level after recumbency, with the theree diets. The injection of ACTH induced similar cortisol secretion with no relation to the sodium intake. The infusion of non-hypertensive doses of angiotensin II resulted in an anomalous fall in cortisol level, probably because of 'shunt' of substrates to biosynthesis with the added effect of cortisol diurnal rhythmycity. (Author) [pt

  10. The relationship between 63 days of 24-h urinary free cortisol and hair cortisol levels in 10 healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ockenburg, S. L.; Schenk, H. M.; van der Veen, A.; van Rossum, E. F. C.; Kema, I. P.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interest in measuring cortisol in scalp hair is increasing because of its assumed ability to provide a historical timeline of previous systemic levels of cortisol. Yet, it remains uncertain how well hair cortisol represents the total systemic secretion of cortisol over time. Methods: Ten

  11. Comparison of different coupling CFD–STH approaches for pre-test analysis of a TALL-3D experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papukchiev, Angel, E-mail: angel.papukchiev@grs.de [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching n. Munich (Germany); Jeltsov, Marti; Kööp, Kaspar; Kudinov, Pavel [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lerchl, Georg [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching n. Munich (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Thermal-hydraulic system codes and CFD tools are coupled. • Pre-test calculations for the TALL-3D facility are performed. • Complex flow and heat transfer phenomena are modeled. • Comparative analyses have been performed. - Abstract: The system thermal-hydraulic (STH) code ATHLET was coupled with the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package ANSYS CFX to improve ATHLET simulation capabilities for flows with pronounced 3D phenomena such as flow mixing and thermal stratification. Within the FP7 European project THINS (Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems), validation activities for coupled thermal-hydraulic codes are being carried out. The TALL-3D experimental facility, operated by KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, is designed for thermal-hydraulic experiments with lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant at natural and forced circulation conditions. GRS carried out pre-test simulations with ATHLET–ANSYS CFX for the TALL-3D experiment T01, while KTH scientists perform these analyses with the coupled code RELAP5/STAR CCM+. In the experiment T01 the main circulation pump is stopped, which leads to interesting thermal-hydraulic transient with local 3D phenomena. In this paper, the TALL-3D behavior during T01 is analyzed and the results of the coupled pre-test calculations, performed by GRS (ATHLET–ANSYS CFX) and KTH (RELAP5/STAR CCM+) are directly compared.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  13. Hormonal underpinnings of status conflict: Testosterone and cortisol are related to decisions and satisfaction in the hawk-dove game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pranjal H; Lawless DesJardins, Nicole M; van Vugt, Mark; Josephs, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.Testosterone is theorized to influence status-seeking behaviors such as social dominance and competitive behavior, but supporting evidence is mixed. The present study tested the roles of testosterone and cortisol in the hawk-dove game, a dyadic economic decision-making paradigm in which earnings depend on one's own and the other player's choices. If one person selects the hawk strategy and the other person selects the dove strategy, the player who selected hawk attains a greater financial pay-off (status differentiation). The worst financial outcome occurs when both players choose the hawk strategy (status confrontation). Ninety-eight undergraduate students (42 men) provided saliva samples and played ten rounds of the hawk-dove game with another same-sex participant. In support of the hypothesis that testosterone is related to status concern, individuals higher in basal testosterone made more hawk decisions - decisions that harmed the other player. Acute decreases in cortisol were also associated with more hawk decisions. There was some empirical support for the dual-hormone hypothesis as well: basal testosterone was positively related to satisfaction in the game among low basal-cortisol individuals but not among high basal-cortisol individuals. There were no significant sex differences in these hormonal effects. The present findings align with theories of hormones and status-seeking behavior at the individual level, but they also open up new avenues for research on hormone profiles at the collective level. Our results suggest that the presence of two or more high-testosterone members increases the likelihood of status confrontations over a limited resource that can undermine collective outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafotiou, Chrysanthe; Christaki, Eirini; van den Akker, Erica L T; Wester, Vincent L; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Pervanidou, Panagiota

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, a key mediator of the stress response, has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations as early as in childhood. Scalp hair cortisol has been proposed as a reliable index of long-term circulating cortisol. We aimed to investigate whether obese prepubertal girls have higher scalp hair cortisol than normal-weight controls and whether hair cortisol levels are correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations in these groups. In this cross-sectional study, 25 obese girls and 25 normal-weighted, age-matched girls were enrolled. Anthropometric evaluation, blood chemistry and salivary cortisol measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and areas under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were calculated. Hair cortisol determination was performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hair cortisol concentrations and salivary cortisol AUCs were higher in the obese than the normal-weight girls (p cortisol and BMI Z-score was found (rho = .327, p = .025), while hair cortisol correlated positively with salivary cortisol AUCg (rho = .3, p = .048). We conclude that obese prepubertal girls have higher hair and salivary cortisol concentrations than their age-matched lean counterparts. Hair cortisol assessment seems to be a sensitive method of evaluating systemic cortisol exposure, which is supported by our finding that hair cortisol is associated with salivary concentrations of the hormone. Lay Summary: Cortisol is the key hormone of the stress response. Childhood obesity has been associated with cortisol production dysregulation. Our findings suggest a positive association between obesity in prepubertal girls and elevated cortisol concentrations, measured in saliva and hair.

  15. mt1 Melatonin receptor in the primate adrenal gland: inhibition of adrenocorticotropin-stimulated cortisol production by melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Richter, Hans G; Rojas-García, Pedro; Vergara, Marcela; Forcelledo, María L; Valladares, Luis E; Torrealba, Fernando; Valenzuela, Guillermo J; Serón-Ferré, María

    2003-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin participates in circadian, seasonal, and reproductive physiology. The presence of melatonin binding sites in human brain and peripheral tissues is well documented. However, in the mammalian adrenal gland, low-affinity melatonin binding sites have been detected only in the rat by some but not all authors. Conflicting evidence for a regulatory role of melatonin on adrenal cortisol production, prompted us to investigate this possibility in a New World primate, the capuchin monkey. Expression of melatonin receptors in the adrenal cortex was demonstrated through pharmacological characterization and autoradiographic localization of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites (dissociation constant = 96.9 +/- 15 pM; maximal binding capacity = 3.8 +/- 0.4 fmol/mg protein). The mt1 identity of these receptors was established by cDNA sequencing. Melatonin treatment of dispersed cells and explants from adrenal gland did not affect basal cortisol production. However, cortisol production stimulated by 100 nM ACTH was significantly inhibited by low melatonin concentrations (0.1-100 nM); this inhibitory effect was reversed by the mt1/MT2 melatonin antagonist luzindole. Melatonin also inhibited dibutyril-cAMP-stimulated cortisol production, suggesting that melatonin acts through a cAMP-independent signaling pathway. The present data demonstrate that the primate adrenal gland cortex expresses functional mt1 melatonin receptors and shows that melatonin inhibits ACTH-stimulated cortisol production.

  16. Stress, breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    2002-04-01

    Recent research has shown that regular consumption of breakfast cereal is associated with lower stress levels and reports of better physical and mental health. The present study examined this issue using an objective indicator of stress, salivary cortisol. The results showed that stress was associated with higher cortisol levels and daily consumption of breakfast cereal was associated with lower cortisol levels. Although it was not possible to rule out all the alternative explanations of the association between breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol, analyses did show that the effect could not be accounted for by general health or nutritional status. The effects of breakfast cereal consumption and stress were also independent, which shows that the effects of breakfast found here cannot be due to stress buffering. Further research manipulating the nutrient content of the breakfast cereal is now required to provide further information about the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  17. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  18. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...... either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva...

  19. Social housing conditions around puberty determine later changes in plasma cortisol levels and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sylvia; Harderthauer, Simone; Sachser, Norbert; Hennessy, Michael B

    2007-02-28

    A recent study found that male guinea pigs raised in large, mixed age/sex groups exhibited an unexpected suppression of their cortisol response at 4 mo of age. The present study examined the effect of social experience around the time of puberty on cortisol response suppression and social behavior at 4 mo of age. Males reared in large, mixed age/sex groups were either pair-housed with a female or moved to another large colony at 55 days of age. When tested at 4 mo, pair-housed males exhibited much higher levels of courtship and sexual behavior than did colony-housed males, and a shorter latency to begin courtship when with an unfamiliar adult female. In addition, pair-housed males showed much higher levels of agonistic behavior and a shorter latency to escalated aggression with an unfamiliar adult male. Pair-housed males also had lower basal cortisol concentrations and exhibited a greater increment in cortisol levels when isolated in a novel cage than did colony-housed males. Finally, pair-housed males showed a smaller increment in cortisol levels when with the stimulus female or male than when isolated, but colony-housed males did not. The findings demonstrate that social housing conditions around the time of puberty can have pervasive effects on social behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in 4-mo-old males. Further, these findings are consistent with the notion that changes in HPA activity contribute to social behavior development beyond the time of sexual maturity.

  20. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence.

  1. Football fan aggression: The importance of low basal cortisol and a fair referee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, L.; Klauke, F; Moore, H.L.; Ludwig, Y.S.; Almela, M.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan

  2. Low basal serum cortisol in patients with severe atopic dermatitis : potent topical corticosteroids wrongfully accused

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeck, I.M.; Timmer-de Mik, L.; Lentjes, E.G.; Buskens, E.; Hijnen, D.J.; Guikers, C.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C.A.; de Bruin-Weller, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroids are used extensively to treat inflammatory skin disorders including atopic dermatitis (AD). Several studies have described temporary reversible suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. However, sound evidence of permanent disturbance of adrenal

  3. Adolescent Personality: Associations With Basal, Awakening, and Stress-Induced Cortisol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ormel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between personality facets and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Previous studies have mainly focussed on stress-induced HPA-axis activation. We hypothesized that other characteristics of HPA-axis functioning would have a stronger association with personality based on the neuroendocrine literature. Data (n=343) were used from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large prospective...

  4. Evaluation of a method to measure long term cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenschijn, Laura; Koper, Jan W; Lamberts, Steven W J; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of cortisol are known to induce various symptoms and diseases, e.g. abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Measuring serum, saliva and urine cortisol is limited to one time point. Measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a recently developed method to measure long term cortisol levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hair cortisol is a feasible parameter to measure cortisol exposure. We collected hair samples of 195 healthy individuals, 9 hypercortisolemic and one hypocortisolemic patient and measured hair cortisol levels. Cortisol was extracted from scalp hair using methanol and cortisol levels were measured using a salivary ELISA kit. Measurement of waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure was performed in 46 healthy subjects. We found a positive correlation between hair cortisol and both waist circumference (r=0.392, p=0.007) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r=0.425, p=0.003). No correlations were found between hair cortisol levels and BMI, blood pressure or age. There was no decline in cortisol levels in six consecutive hair segments. Hair cortisol levels were elevated in patients with known hypercortisolism (pcortisol was positively correlated with WHR, suggesting that hair cortisol reflects cortisol exposure at tissue level, which was also supported by elevated hair cortisol levels in hypercortisolemic patients and concordance between hair cortisol levels and clinical disease course. Cortisol levels in hair are slightly influenced by hair treatment but not by natural hair colour, use of hair products, gender or age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Strahler, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme - Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity (Dipl.-Psych. Jana Strahler) The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are two of the major systems playing a role in the adaptation of organisms to developmental changes that threaten homeostasis. The HPA system involves the secretion of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, into the circulatory system. Numerous studies hav...

  6. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Khoury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297, who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48 and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51 who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA. The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous.

  7. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  8. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kontoangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ, the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS, and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI. Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0. One year later (T1, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006<0.05 and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137. Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp=-0.223, P value = 0.010. Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp=-0.247, P=0.023. There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp=-0.220, P=0.043. Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  9. Short- and long-term effects of tactile massage on salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: a randomised controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with limited knowledge about the normal function and effects of non-pharmacological therapies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the study was to analyse the basal diurnal and total secretion of salivary cortisol in short- and long-term aspects of tactile massage (TM). Methods Design: Prospective, Controlled and Randomised Multicentre Trial. Setting and interventions: Forty-five women and men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. Twenty-nine of them were blindly randomised to tactile massage (TM) and 16 of them to the control group, rest to music (RTM). Ten interventions were given during 8 weeks followed by a 26 weeks of follow up. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, 8 pm, and 8 am the next day, on five occasions. With the first and eighth interventions, it was collected immediately before and after intervention. Main outcome measures: The primary aim was to assess and compare cortisol concentrations before and immediately after intervention and also during the follow-up period. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration and severity of PD, effects of interventional time-point of the day, and levodopa doses on cortisol concentration. Results The median cortisol concentrations for all participants were 16.0, 5.8, 2.8, and 14.0 nmol/L at baseline, later reproduced four times without significant differences. Cortisol concentrations decreased significantly after TM intervention but no change in diurnal salivary cortisol pattern was found. The findings of reduced salivary cortisol concentrations immediately after the interventions are in agreement with previous studies. However, there was no significant difference between the TM and control groups. There were no significant correlations between cortisol concentrations and age, gender, BMI, time-point for intervention, time interval between anti

  10. Short- and long-term effects of tactile massage on salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnhage, Carl-Johan; Skogar, Örjan; Borg, Astrid; Larsson, Birgitta; Robertsson, Laila; Andersson, Lena; Andersson, Lena; Backström, Paulina; Fall, Per-Arne; Hallgren, Gunnar; Bringer, Birgitta; Carlsson, Miriam; Lennartsson, Ulla Birgitta; Sandbjörk, Håkan; Lökk, Johan

    2013-12-13

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with limited knowledge about the normal function and effects of non-pharmacological therapies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the study was to analyse the basal diurnal and total secretion of salivary cortisol in short- and long-term aspects of tactile massage (TM). Prospective, Controlled and Randomised Multicentre Trial. Forty-five women and men, aged 50-79 years, were recruited. Twenty-nine of them were blindly randomised to tactile massage (TM) and 16 of them to the control group, rest to music (RTM). Ten interventions were given during 8 weeks followed by a 26 weeks of follow up. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, 8 pm, and 8 am the next day, on five occasions. With the first and eighth interventions, it was collected immediately before and after intervention. The primary aim was to assess and compare cortisol concentrations before and immediately after intervention and also during the follow-up period. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration and severity of PD, effects of interventional time-point of the day, and levodopa doses on cortisol concentration. The median cortisol concentrations for all participants were 16.0, 5.8, 2.8, and 14.0 nmol/L at baseline, later reproduced four times without significant differences. Cortisol concentrations decreased significantly after TM intervention but no change in diurnal salivary cortisol pattern was found. The findings of reduced salivary cortisol concentrations immediately after the interventions are in agreement with previous studies. However, there was no significant difference between the TM and control groups. There were no significant correlations between cortisol concentrations and age, gender, BMI, time-point for intervention, time interval between anti-parkinson pharmacy intake and sampling, levodopa doses, duration, or severity of PD. Diurnal salivary

  11. The relationship between the menstrual cycle and cortisol secretion: Daily and stress-invoked cortisol patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-López, Eva; Santos-Ruiz, Ana; García-Ríos, M Carmen; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Manuel; Rogers, Heather L; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel

    2018-03-29

    The menstrual cycle involves significant changes in hormone levels, causing physical and psychological changes in women that are further influenced by stress. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between menstrual cycle phase and salivary cortisol patterns during the day as well as the salivary cortisol response to the Virtual Reality Version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-VR). Forty two women not taking oral contraceptives (24 in follicular phase and 18 in luteal phase) participated in the study. Five samples of salivary cortisol collected during the day and another five samples of cortisol during the TSST-VR were analyzed. Psychological stress measures and psychopathological symptomatology were also evaluated. A 2 × 4 mixed ANCOVA showed an interaction between the two groups on the TSST-RV invoked cortisol response to the [F(3,42) = 3.681; p = 0.023) where women in luteal phase showed higher cortisol post exposure levels (5.96 ± 3.76 nmol/L) than women in follicular phase (4.31 ± 2.23 nmol/L). No other significant differences were found. Our findings provide evidence that menstrual cycle phase tended to influence cortisol response to laboratory-induced mental stress, with more reactivity observed in the luteal phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of topical dexamethasone applications on insulin, glucose, thyroid hormone and cortisol levels in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, J; Einspanier, A; Ungemach, F R; Abraham, G

    2011-06-01

    The influence of two topical dexamethasone applications (dermal and ototopical) on plasma insulin, glucose, thyroid hormone and cortisol levels was investigated in beagle dogs. Both treatments significantly decreased basal cortisol values, associated with exaggerated rise in insulin (approximately 50%), together with unchanged serum glucose levels. Dermal dexamethasone quickly decreased plasma thyroxin (T4) levels; whereas dexamethasone in ear drops gradually inhibited time-dependently T4 release (18-50%). Both formulations blunted plasma triiodothyronine (T3) levels but the response induced by dermal dexamethasone was stronger than by dexamethasone ear drops. Upon drug withdrawal, insulin secretion returned to baseline a week after treatment cessation, while cortisol, T4 and T3 levels did not reach baseline values. These results suggest that topical glucocorticoids unexpectedly trigger secondary hypothyroidism with concomitant suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis but sensitize the endocrine pancreas, thus, their application needs careful evaluation for surprisingly different effects on endocrine stress axis activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relations between plasma oxytocin and cortisol: The stress buffering role of social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn J. McQuaid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress responses in humans can be attenuated by exogenous oxytocin administration, and these stress-buffering properties may be moderated by social factors. Yet, the influence of acute stressors on circulating endogenous oxytocin levels have been inconsistent, and limited information is available concerning the influence of social support in moderating this relationship. In the current investigation, undergraduate women (N = 67 were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST with either social support available from a close female friend or no social support being available. An additional set of women served as controls. The TSST elicited marked elevations of state anxiety and negative emotions, which were largely attenuated among women who received social support. Furthermore, baseline oxytocin levels were inversely related to women's general feelings of distrust, as well as basal plasma cortisol levels. Despite these associations, oxytocin levels were unaffected by the TSST, and this was the case irrespective of oral contraceptive use or estrogen levels. In contrast, plasma cortisol elevations were elicited by the psychosocial stressor, but only in women using oral contraceptives, an effect that was prevented when social support was available. Taken together, these data provisionally suggest that changes in plasma oxytocin might not accompany the stress attenuating effects of social support on cortisol levels. Moreover, as plasma oxytocin might not reliably reflect brain oxytocin levels, the linkage between oxytocin and prosocial behaviors remains tenuous.

  15. Absence of detectable melatonin and preservation of cortisol and thyrotropin rhythms in tetraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Ayas, N. T.; Shea, S. A.; Brown, R.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The human circadian timing system regulates the temporal organization of several endocrine functions, including the production of melatonin (via a neural pathway that includes the spinal cord), TSH, and cortisol. In traumatic spinal cord injury, afferent and efferent circuits that influence the basal production of these hormones may be disrupted. We studied five subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (three tetraplegic and two paraplegic, all neurologically complete injuries) under stringent conditions in which the underlying circadian rhythmicity of these hormones could be examined. Melatonin production was absent in the three tetraplegic subjects with injury to their lower cervical spinal cord and was of normal amplitude and timing in the two paraplegic subjects with injury to their upper thoracic spinal cord. The amplitude and the timing of TSH and cortisol rhythms were robust in the paraplegics and in the tetraplegics. Our results indicate that neurologically complete cervical spinal injury results in the complete loss of pineal melatonin production and that neither the loss of melatonin nor the loss of spinal afferent information disrupts the rhythmicity of cortisol or TSH secretion.

  16. Persistent amenorrhea and decreased DHEAS to cortisol ratio after recovery from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Alessandra; Sabbadin, Chiara; Minardi, Silvia; Favaro, Angela; Donà, Gabriella; Bordin, Luciana; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2017-04-01

    Persistent amenorrhea is a frequent condition affecting anorexic patients after stable weight recovery. It has been proposed that it could be due to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis linked with persistent hormonal impairments, such as relative hypercortisolemia and hypoleptinemia, and psychological symptoms related to anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of our study was to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal pattern involved in the persistence of amenorrhea after recovery from AN. Eight weight-recovered anorexic patients with amenorrhea were investigated and matched with 10 healthy eumenorrhoic women, comparable for age and BMI. Data showed basal FSH and LH values similar in both groups and a normal pituitaric response to LHRH administration. Morning serum cortisol was normal but significantly higher in patients, while dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) to cortisol ratio, leptin and vitamin D were significantly lower in patients than controls. Women with previous AN presented insulin resistance and two patients showed an overall picture consistent with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In conclusion, long-lasting amenorrhea after recovery from AN is linked with a persistent hypothalamic dysfunction, although other concomitant causes like PCOS and insulin resistance should be considered. Decreased DHEAS to cortisol ratio is a new finding which could be correlated to the persistent hypogonadism.

  17. Cortisol plays central role in biochemical changes during pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pregnancy is known to alter the feedback effect of cortisol on ACTH secretion and decrease the effectiveness of cortisol to inhibit an ACTH response to hypertension. Neither the mechanism nor the physiological significance of these changes in maternal plasma cortisol concentration is fully understood.

  18. Increased scalp hair cortisol concentrations in obese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Veldhorst (M.); G. Noppe (Gerard); M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke); C.B.M. Kok (Chantine); S. Mekic (Selma); J.W. Koper (Jan); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: Pathologically increased cortisol exposure induces obesity, but it is not known whether relatively high cortisol within the physiological range is related to childhood obesity. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare hair cortisol concentrations between obese and

  19. Salivary cortisol concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger-Riggenbach, B; Boretti, F S; Quante, S; Schellenberg, S; Reusch, C E; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of salivary cortisol is a useful diagnostic test for hypercortisolism (HC) in humans. To determine whether measurement of salivary cortisol concentration is a practical alternative to plasma cortisol to diagnose HC, to validate the use of salivary cortisol, and to examine the effect of time of day and sampling location on salivary cortisol. Thirty healthy dogs and 6 dogs with HC. Prospective, observational clinical trial including healthy volunteer dogs and dogs newly diagnosed with HC. Salivary and plasma cortisol concentrations were measured with an immunoassay analyzer. Intra- and interassay variability, linearity, and correlation between salivary and plasma cortisol concentrations were determined. The required 300 microL of saliva could not be obtained in 88/326 samples from healthy dogs and in 15/30 samples from dogs with HC. The intra-assay variability for measurement of salivary cortisol was 5-17.7%, the interassay variability 8.5 and 17.3%, and the observed to expected ratio 89-125%. The correlation (r) between salivary and plasma cortisol was 0.98. The time of day and location of collection did not affect salivary cortisol concentrations. Dogs with HC had significantly higher salivary cortisol values than healthy dogs (10.2 +/- 7.3 nmol/L versus 1.54 +/- 0.97 nmol/L; P cortisol in dogs. However, a broad clinical application of the method seems limited, because of the large sample volume required.

  20. The differential impact of two anesthetic techniques on cortisol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-18

    Jun 18, 2011 ... (mean MAP) and the mean duration of surgery between the two groups; the baseline mean plasma cortisol level was. 88.70 ± 3.85 ... Conclusion: Using plasma cortisol as a measure, bupivacaine-based epidural anesthesia significantly reduces the ..... for surgery influences melatonin and cortisol levels.

  1. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Mar-Apr 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 2. Abstract. Introduction: Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or underproduction of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal ...

  2. Determination of cortisol in blood plasma by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.

    1978-01-01

    A method to measure cortisol in blood plasma is developed using tritium a tracer. Thin-layer chromatographer is used for very accurate separation and determination of cortisol free of impurities. Results show a concentration of 14,02+-5,79 μg/100ml for cortisol in blod. This method appears to be especially useful when interfering substances are present [pt

  3. Pre-Test Analysis Predictions for the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Checkout Tests - TA01 and TA02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the pre-test analysis predictions for the SBKF-P2-CYL-TA01 and SBKF-P2-CYL-TA02 shell buckling tests conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment. The test article (TA) is an 8-foot-diameter aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) orthogrid cylindrical shell with similar design features as that of the proposed Ares-I and Ares-V barrel structures. In support of the testing effort, detailed structural analyses were conducted and the results were used to monitor the behavior of the TA during the testing. A summary of predicted results for each of the five load sequences is presented herein.

  4. Chronic stress in the mother-infant dyad: Maternal hair cortisol, infant salivary cortisol and interactional synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R; St John, Ashley Moore; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2017-05-01

    Stress physiology is shaped by early experience, with enduring effects on health. The relation of chronic maternal physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol, to infants' stress systems and to mother-infant interaction quality has not been established. We examined maternal hair and salivary cortisol, six-month-old infants' salivary cortisol, and mother-infant interaction in 121 mother-infant dyads. High maternal hair cortisol was related to higher infant average salivary cortisol concentration. Maternal hair cortisol and bedtime salivary cortisol were both uniquely related to infant bedtime salivary cortisol. Mothers with higher hair cortisol were more intrusive and had lower positive engagement synchrony with their infants. Maternal intrusiveness moderated the association of maternal hair cortisol and infant salivary cortisol, such that maternal hair and infant average salivary cortisol were related only when mothers were more intrusive. Maternal chronic physiological stress may upregulate infants' developing stress systems, particularly in the context of lower mother-infant interaction quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Basal cell carcinoma does metastasize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgediz, Doruk; Smith, E B; Zheng, Jie; Otero, Jose; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Corvera, Carlos U

    2008-08-15

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) rarely metastasizes. However, this unfortunate outcome can occur, usually in neglected tumors. We report a 52-year-old man with a BCC on the left chest that enlarged and then ulcerated over a 6-year period. Metastasis of the tumor to lymph nodes in the left axilla resulted, but the patient remains free of disease 24 months after wide excision, lymph node dissection, and local radiation therapy to the axilla.

  6. Experience-Driven Differences in Childhood Cortisol Predict Affect-Relevant Brain Function and Coping in Adolescent Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghy, Cory A; Fox, Michelle E; Cornejo, M Daniela; Stodola, Diane E; Sommerfeldt, Sasha L; Westbrook, Cecilia A; Van Hulle, Carol; Schmidt, Nicole L; Goldsmith, H Hill; Davidson, Richard J; Birn, Rasmus M

    2016-11-22

    Stress and emotion involve diverse developmental and individual differences. Partially attributed to the development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the amygdala, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the precise genetic and experiential contributions remain unknown. In previous work, childhood basal cortisol function predicted adolescent resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) and psychopathology. To parse experience-driven (non-genetic) contributions, we investigated these relations with a monozygotic (MZ) twin design. Specifically, we examined whether intrapair differences in childhood afternoon cortisol levels predicted cotwin differences in adolescent brain function and coping. As expected, intrapair differences in childhood cortisol forecast amygdala-perigenual PFC rs-FC (R 2  = 0.84, FWE-corrected p = 0.01), and amygdala recovery following unpleasant images (R 2  = 0.40, FWE-corrected p childhood cortisol evinced relatively lower rs-FC and poorer amygdala recovery in adolescence. Cotwin differences in amygdala recovery also predicted coping styles. These data highlight experience-dependent change in childhood and adolescence.

  7. Serum Cortisol Levels via Radioimmunoassay vs Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry in Healthy Control Subjects and Patients With Adrenal Incidentalomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huayllas, Martha K P; Netzel, Brian C; Singh, Ravinder J; Kater, Claudio E

    2018-03-28

    Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are present in 4% of adults. As many as 30% may secrete cortisol autonomously in the absence of specific signs of overt hypercortisolism, in a phenomenon called subclinical hypercortisolism (SH). Diagnosis of SH is established by serum cortisol resistance to dexamethasone suppression. We compared serum cortisol concentrations, as determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectronomy (LC/MS-MS), in 73 patients with AI group (52 with unilateral AI) and 34 control subjects in 3 scenarios: basal; after 1-mg dexamethasone suppression; and after 0.25-mg stimulation with cosyntropin, a synthetic derivative of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). To bolster evidence for the diagnosis of SH, we also measured salivary cortisol levels at 11 PM and after DST, as well as plasma ACTH and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels. We observed significant positive correlation (r = 0.9345, P AI and in control subjects were very similar, as measured by RIA and LC/MS-MS.

  8. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Navdeep; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  9. Cadmium-mediated disruption of cortisol biosynthesis involves suppression of corticosteroidogenic genes in rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Navdeep [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: mvijayan@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    Cadmium is widely distributed in the aquatic environment and is toxic to fish even at sublethal concentrations. This metal is an endocrine disruptor, and one well established role in teleosts is the suppression of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol biosynthesis by the interrenal tissue. However the mechanism(s) leading to this steroid suppression is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cadmium targets genes encoding proteins critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis, including melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To test this, head kidney slices (containing the interrenal tissues) were incubated in vitro with cadmium chloride (0, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for 4 h either in the presence or absence of ACTH (0.5 IU/mL). In the unstimulated head kidney slices, cadmium exposure did not affect basal cortisol secretion and the mRNA levels of MC2R and P450scc, while StAR gene expression was significantly reduced. Cadmium exposure significantly suppressed ACTH-stimulated cortisol production in a dose-related fashion. This cadmium-mediated suppression in corticosteroidogenesis corresponded with a significant reduction in MC2R, StAR and P450scc mRNA levels in trout head kidney slices. The inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production and suppression of genes involved in corticosteroidogenesis by cadmium were completely abolished in the presence of 8-Bromo-cAMP (a cAMP analog). Overall, cadmium disrupts the expression of genes critical for corticosteroid biosynthesis in rainbow trout head kidney slices. However, the rescue of cortisol production as well as StAR and P450scc gene expressions by cAMP analog suggests that cadmium impact occurs upstream of cAMP production. We propose that MC2R signaling, the primary step in ACTH-induced cortocosteroidogenesis, is a key target for cadmium-mediated disruption of

  10. Interacting influence of potassium and polychlorinated biphenyl on cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.-A.; Lin, Tsu-Chun Emma

    2007-01-01

    Giving human adrenocortical H295R cells 14 mM KCl for 24 h significantly induced not only aldosterone biosynthesis but also cortisol biosynthesis. Pre-treating the cells with polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) further increased potassium-induced aldosterone and cortisol productions in a dose-dependent manner, but all examined concentrations of PCB126 had little effect on the yields of precursor steroids progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone. Subsequent examinations revealed that CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes, responsible for the respective final steps of the cortisol and aldosterone biosynthetic pathways, exhibited increased responsiveness to PCB126 under high potassium. While 10 -5 M PCB126 was needed to induce a significant increase in the basal mRNA abundance of either gene, PCB126 could enhance potassium-induced mRNA expression of CYP11B1 at 10 -7 M and CYP11B2 at 10 -9 M. Actually, potassium and PCB126 synergistically upregulated mRNA expression of both genes. Potassium raised the transcriptional rates of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 probably through a conserved Ad5 cis-element, whereas PCB126 appeared to regulate these two genes at the post-transcriptional level. Positive potassium-PCB126 synergism was also detected in CYP11B2 enzyme activity estimated by aldosterone/progesterone ratio. In contrast, potassium and PCB126 increased CYP11B1 enzyme activity or cortisol/17-OH-progesterone ratio additively. Moreover, potassium improved the time effect of PCB126 on gene expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B2, but not the PCB126 time response of CYP11B1. These data demonstrated that potassium differentially enhanced the potency of PCB126 to induce CYP11B1- and CYP11B2-mediated steroidogenesis

  11. Medición de cortisol y sus fracciones: Una puesta al día

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maidana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La determinación del cortisol sérico total forma parte fundamental de la exploración bioquímica de la función adrenocortical. Dado que esta hormona circula en plasma, en parte unida a proteínas de transporte y en parte en estado libre, existe la posibilidad de realizar la determinación de sus diferentes fracciones no solo en sangre sino también en orina, saliva y otros fluidos biológicos. Es posible realizar tanto determinaciones basales como pruebas funcionales y de esta manera evaluar la secreción de cortisol en un momento dado del día, estudiar su variación circadiana y analizar su relación con el resto de los componentes del eje hipotálamo-hipófiso-adrenal. Las mediciones habituales de cortisol en sangre, saliva y orina reflejan los niveles de esta hormona en el momento de la recolección o durante un período de 24 horas. Recientemente han aparecido trabajos en los cuales se propone la determinación de cortisol en cabello y uñas como potenciales marcadores del estatus hormonal en períodos más prolongados. El objetivo de esta revisión es realizar una puesta al día acerca de la metodología disponible actualmente en nuestro medio para la evaluación del eje adrenal, haciendo hincapié en su aplicación para el diagnóstico clínico.

  12. Disturbances in melatonin, cortisol and core body temperature rhythms after major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Ocak, Ubbat; Altunpinar, Omer; Middleton, Benita; Skene, Debra J; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2007-02-01

    It has been suggested that circadian rhythm disturbances are present after major surgery and that this may play a role in the development of postoperative sleep disturbances, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. The objective of this study was to examine the profile of melatonin, cortisol and core body temperature rhythms before and after major surgery. Blood samples (melatonin and cortisol) and core body temperature readings were collected every hour in the 24-h period prior to surgery and the 48 h after surgery from 11 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. All patients had private rooms. Light exposure was controlled and monitored. Phase markers [50% dim light melatonin onset (DLMO 50%) and offset (DLMOff 50%), cortisol and core body temperature acrophase] for the three circadian rhythm profiles were calculated before and after surgery. The correlation between the melatonin rhythm and time of surgery, duration of surgery and opioid use was examined. A median delay in the onset of melatonin was seen on the first postoperative day [median DLMO 50% 22:46 hours (range: 21:15-01:08 hours) on the preoperative day compared with 23:54 hours (range: 19:09-02:46 hours) on the first postoperative day; P melatonin onset (r = 0.67, P melatonin immediately after surgery, with a subsequent significant increase in maximum melatonin values on the second postoperative night. A median delay of up to 4 h was seen in the timing of the peak of the temperature rhythm on the second postoperative day. Both cortisol secretion and core body temperature were increased after surgery and did not return to preoperative values in the 48 h of the postoperative study period. No significant correlation between opioid dose and the basal or maximum melatonin levels or the time of melatonin onset was found. We found disturbances in three circadian markers after major surgery. The clinical consequences of postoperative circadian disturbances should be investigated

  13. Salivary Cortisol: A Psychophysiological Marker for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Prediction For the prediction paradigm we will use one similar to the paradigm used in Alpers et al. (2003) driving phobia experiment. The goal here...misinterpretation of the data if a person has a low baseline of cortisol due to genetics or some external factor. Thus, it is important to include subjective

  14. ADAPTATION TO PROTEIN DEFICIENCY: CORTISOL, THYROXINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci.6, I0I- 104 (1976). ADAPTATION TO PROTEIN DEFICIENCY: CORTISOL, THYROXINE,. INSULIN AND GLUCOSE IN YOUNG PIGS. J.M. van der Westhuysen*, P.C. Belonje**. A.P.D. de Satge*** & D.H. Holness***. Nutritional deficiencies place stress on the body. To maintain metabolic integrity. the body adapts by re-.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  16. Maternal depression and offspring’s cortisol concentrations in a Brazilian sample = Depressão materna e concentração de cortisol de recém-nascidos em uma amostra brasileira = La depresión materna y la concentración de cortisol del recién nacido en una muestra brasilieira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucci, Tania Kiehl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acredita-se que a depressão pós-parto (DPP possa prejudicar diversos aspectos do desenvolvimento infantil, incluindo alterações das funções do eixo Hipotálamo-pituitária-adrenal (HPA. A associação entre depressão materna e nível de cortisol salivar dos filhos foi investigada em três amostras brasileiras diferentes: ao nascimento (N=58, aos quatro (N=64 e 36 meses (N=81 após o parto. Mães preencheram a Escala de Depressão Pós-parto de Edinburgh aos 4 e 36 meses após o parto. Por meio da ANOVA resultados indicaram diferença marginal com tamanho de efeito moderado na concentração de cortisol com maiores concentrações em recém-nascidos cujas mães desenvolveram depressão pós-parto em comparação ao grupo controle. Contrariando nossa hipótese, esta diferença no nível de cortisol basal não foi encontrada aos quatro e aos 36 meses. Admitindo que os filhos de mães com sinais de DPP nascem com níveis basais de cortisol ligeiramente mais altos, esta diferença não foi verificada em momentos posteriores

  17. Low early morning plasma cortisol in posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with co-morbid depression but not with enhanced glucocorticoid feedback inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vythilingam, M; Gill, J M; Luckenbaugh, D A; Gold, P W; Collin, C; Bonne, O; Plumb, K; Polignano, E; West, K; Charney, D

    2010-04-01

    Co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD) in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) confers a more severe clinical course and is associated with distinct biologic abnormalities. Although dysregulation in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has been well established in PTSD, the impact of commonly co-occuring MDD has received scant attention. Overnight (7p.m. to 7a.m.) plasma cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were measured at 30 min intervals in 9 participants with PTSD with MDD (PTSD+MDD), 9 with PTSD without MDD (PTSD-MDD) and 16 non-traumatized healthy controls. A low-dose dexamethasone suppression test was administered to evaluate feedback sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Linear mixed models with body mass index (BMI) and age as covariates and Bonferroni corrected post hoc tests assessed group differences. Compared to healthy controls, subjects with PTSD+MDD, but not those subjects with PTSD-MDD, exhibited lower basal plasma cortisol levels between 1:30 a.m. and 3:30 a.m. and at 4:30 a.m. and 6:30 a.m. (effect size d=0.75). Despite similar plasma ACTH levels between the three groups, the ACTH/cortisol ratio was higher in PTSD+MDD patients compared to controls. We obtained similar results when the patient and control groups were re-studied 1 week later, and when men and current smokers were excluded. Basal plasma DHEA-S levels, and cortisol and ACTH response to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test were similar in all three groups. Lower early morning plasma cortisol levels and a high ACTH/cortisol ratio in subjects with PTSD and co-morbid MDD may not be due to enhanced peripheral sensitivity to glucocorticoids. A central abnormality in glucocorticoid regulation could explain HPA axis dysfunction in this subgroup. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Parotid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Di Palma, Silvana; Barrett, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis from basal cell carcinoma of the skin is very rare with cases being documented in the lymph nodes, lung, bone and parotid gland. The main histopathological differential diagnosis is the locally arising basal cell adenocarcinoma from which it is difficult to distinguish by morphology and routine immunohistochemistry. Approximately 85 % of all reported metastatic basal cell carcinomas arise in the head and neck region. Here we present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the...

  19. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  20. Hair cortisol in the evaluation of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Aaron; Lodish, Maya B; Tirosh, Amit; Meyer, Jerrold; Belyavskaya, Elena; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Rosenberg, Kendra; Demidowich, Andrew; Swan, Jeremy; Jonas, Nichole; Stratakis, Constantine A; Zilbermint, Mihail

    2017-04-01

    Hair cortisol evaluation has been used to help detect patients with suspected Cushing syndrome. Our goal was to correlate segmental hair cortisol with biochemical testing in patients with Cushing syndrome and controls. This study was a prospective analysis of hair cortisol in confirmed Cushing syndrome cases over 16 months. Thirty-six subjects (26.5 ± 18.9 years, 75% female, and 75% Caucasian) were analyzed by diurnal serum cortisol, 24 h urinary free cortisol corrected for body surface area (UFC/BSA), and 24 h urinary 17-hydroxysteroids corrected for creatinine (17OHS/Cr). Thirty patients were diagnosed with Cushing syndrome, and six were defined as controls. 3-cm hair samples nearest to the scalp, cut into 1-cm segments (proximal, medial, and distal), were analyzed for cortisol by enzyme immunoassay and measured as pmol cortisol/g dry hair. Hair cortisol levels were compared with laboratory testing done within previous 2 months of the evaluation. Proximal hair cortisol was higher in Cushing syndrome patients (266.6 ± 738.4 pmol/g) than control patients (38.9 ± 25.3 pmol/g) (p = 0.003). Proximal hair cortisol was highest of all segments in 25/36 (69%) patients. Among all subjects, proximal hair cortisol was strongly correlated with UFC/BSA (r = 0.5, p = 0.005), midnight serum cortisol (r = 0.4, p = 0.03), and 17OHS/Cr, which trended towards significance (r = 0.3, p = 0.06). Among the three examined hair segments, proximal hair contained the highest cortisol levels and correlated the most with the initial biochemical tests for Cushing syndrome in our study. Further studies are needed to validate proximal hair cortisol in the diagnostic workup for Cushing syndrome.

  1. Jointly Amplified Basal and Pulsatile Growth Hormone (GH) Secretion and Increased Process Irregularity in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Veldhuis, J D; Flyvbjerg, A

    1999-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with multiple endocrine alterations. In the majority of AN patients, basal and GHRH-stimulated serum GH levels are increased. The metabolic effects of GH are known to be related to its pulsatile secretory pattern. The present study was performed to examine GH...... mass, and burst duration were each significantly increased in women with AN compared to those in normal weight women. A 4-fold increase in daily pulsatile GH secretion was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in basal (nonpulsatile) GH secretion. There were significant negative correlations between BMI...... and the basal as well as pulsatile GH secretion rates. Moreover, AN patients exhibited significantly greater GH approximate entropy scores than the controls, denoting marked irregularity of the GH release process. In contrast to previous reports in healthy fasting subjects, cortisol levels in AN patients were...

  2. Sugarcoated Isolation: Evidence that Social Avoidance is Linked to Higher Basal Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsachi eEin-Dor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream, reflecting a strategy to draw more on personal resources when threatened.Methods: For Study 1, we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data from 60 undergraduate women at the University of Virginia. For Study 2, we collected measures of fasting blood glucose, self-reported trait anxiety, DHEA-cortisol, hypertension, and adult attachment orientations from 285 older adults of mixed gender, using a measure of attachment style different from study 1.Results: In study 1, fasting blood glucose levels corresponded with higher attachment avoidance scores after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety. For study 2, fasting blood glucose continued to correspond with higher adult attachment avoidance even after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety, trait anxiety, DHEA-cortisol and hypertension. Conclusions: Results suggest socially avoidant individuals upwardly adjust their basal glucose levels with the expectation of increased personal effort because of limited access to social resources.

  3. Adaptive and maladaptive cortisol responses to pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soros, Arlette; Zadik, Zvi; Chalew, Stuart

    2008-09-01

    The recent unprecedented increase of childhood obesity has led to an alarming rise in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) among these children. The process underlying the progression from simple obesity to T2D is not well understood. Cortisol is a candidate factor in the pathogenesis of T2D, as it can exacerbate insulin resistance and provoke other disturbances of the metabolic syndrome. The 24-h integrated concentration (IC) of cortisol is suppressed in non-diabetic obese children compared to lean children. This difference in IC-cortisol is not due to changes in cortisol binding globulin or plasma cortisol to cortisone ratio between groups. In obese individuals, IC-cortisol suppression disappears with age after adolescence, which corresponds with increasing occurrence of T2D and other metabolic disorders of obesity. We consider the IC-cortisol levels of lean insulin sensitive children to be metabolically inappropriate for obese insulin resistant children. Thus, we hypothesize that suppression of IC-cortisol is an important adaptive response to obesity (cortisol adaptive suppression) in childhood that prevents pediatric T2D while failure to suppress IC-cortisol (cortisol suppression failure) exacerbates insulin resistance and contributes to the development of T2D. In further support of this hypothesis is early pilot data suggesting that cortisol suppression failure occurs in obese children with impaired fasting glucose levels. The mechanism(s) underlying cortisol adaptive suppression, how and why these mechanism(s) fail are unknown. Elucidation of these mechanisms may lead to interventions to prevent the development of T2D and its complications in obese individuals.

  4. Bentonite buffer pre-test. Core drilling of drillholes ONK-PP264...267 in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2010-12-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled four drillholes for bentonite buffer pre-test in ONKALO at Eurajoki, Olkiluoto in July 2010. The identification numbers of the holes are ONK-PP264..267, and the lengths of the drillholes are approximately 4.30 metres each. The drillholes are 75.7 mm by diameter. The drillholes were drilled in a niche at access tunnel chainage 1475. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used for the work. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. In addition to drilling, the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock type in the drillholes is pegmatitic granite. The average fracture frequency in the drill cores is 4.0 pcs / m and the average RQD value 94.2 %. (orig.)

  5. Masters in nursing degrees: an evaluation of management and leadership outcomes using a retrospective pre-test design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure the leadership and management abilities of graduates who had completed a master's degree in nursing. A number of reports have recommended that leadership competencies be integrated into education programmes for nurses at a master's level. In spite of the growth in the number of graduates from higher degrees in nursing, there is a paucity of evidence on the management and leadership outcomes that develop as a result of undertaking a master's degree. A cross-sectional survey using a retrospective pre-test design was used to measure self-reported leadership and management outcomes from the graduates' educational programmes. Results found that graduates had gained significantly on their ability to change practice, communicate and work as part of a team and to problem solve as an outcome of completing a master's degree in nursing. Graduates make substantial gains in leadership and management capabilities as a consequence of their higher degree. These capabilities are necessary as nurses take the lead in many areas of healthcare. The masters in nursing degree now has a pivotal role in providing effective continuing education to the nursing profession; especially for those who occupy or intend to occupy senior positions within clinical, management or education branches of the profession. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the

  7. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

  8. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-23

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies.

  9. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; Rijn, Sophie van; Wied, Minet de; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-11-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this study extended previous studies in that not only baseline and reactivity to a psychosocial stressor were examined, but also recovery from a stressor. These three phases of cortisol could be impacted differentially in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) with (+ANX) and without anxiety (-ANX). The results revealed that cortisol patterns in response to psychosocial stress were different for boys with ODD/CD+ANX (n=32), ODD/CD-ANX (n=22) and non-clinical controls (NC) (n=34), with age range of 7.8-12.9 years. The ODD/CD-ANX group showed lower overall cortisol levels than the NC group. When considering the three phases of cortisol separately, the ODD/CD-ANX group had lower baseline cortisol levels relative to the other groups, whereas the ODD/CD+ANX showed an impaired cortisol recovery response. Within those with ODD/CD, callous-unemotional traits were predictive of high baseline cortisol levels. Also, anxiety predicted high baseline and recovery cortisol levels, whereas a high number of CD symptoms predicted reduced cortisol stress reactivity. These results clearly indicate that comorbid anxiety is an important factor in explaining differences in stress response profiles in boys with ODD/CD; although boys with CD/ODD are generally characterized by an impaired cortisol stress response, we found that those with comorbid anxiety showed impaired cortisol recovery, whereas those without anxiety showed reduced baseline cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Leptin, cortisol and distinct concurrent training sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, G; Dantas, E; Biehl, C; de Castro e Silva, H; Montano, M A E; de Mello, D B

    2012-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of distinct concurrent training sequences on serum leptin and cortisol levels, 10 subjects (27.1±4.8 years, body mass index 25.38±0.09) were submitted to a control session, concurrent training 1 and concurrent training 2. Samples of leptin and cortisol were collected. Concurrent training 1 consisted of indoor cycling followed by strength training and concurrent training 2 of strength training followed by indoor cycling. No exercises were performed at the control session. Blood was collected once again to verify the same variables. Shapiro-Wilk, 2-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests were used. There was a reduction in leptin levels after concurrent training 1 (Δ%= - 16.04; p=0.05) and concurrent training 2 (Δ%= - 8.54; p=0.02). Cortisol decreased after concurrent training 1 (Δ%= - 26.32; p=0.02) and concurrent training 2 (Δ%= - 33.57; p=0.05). There was a high and significant correlation between blood variables only in CS (lep PRE X cort PRE and cort POST: r= - 0.80 and r= - 0.81; lep POST X cort PRE and cort POST: r= - 0.62 and r= - 0.62). Concurrent training promoted a reduction in leptin and cortisol levels irrespective of sequence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Cortisol and Corticotrophin in Burned Patients,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    effect as a sole stimulus for gluconeogenesis in dogs but may may also point to a fruitful area of investigation in the future. __ __ __ _______ ___. >. ...with pulses of and negatively by elevated cortisol secretion (10), and ACTH (3), and hemorrhage in dogs provokes a rise in the relative hepatic and...Certainly we have found resting plasma lowing hemorrhage in dogs and that a previous hemorrhage, norepinephrine concentrations (not reported in this

  12. Emotional Freedom Techniques for Reducing Anxiety and Cortisol Level in Pregnant Adolescent Primiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardjan Mardjan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anxiety during pregnancy in  primiparous mother will be a hard burden because of the immature both psycologic and reproductive organs which can increase the risk of maternal mortality, infant mortality, prolonged childbirth, LBW, postpartum depression, etc. An effort to minimize the anxiety is the implementation of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques during the third trimester.  This research purposed to assess the effectiveness of EFT to decrease anxiety in facing childbirth. This research used the quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test method of treatment and control. The treatment was done during the third trimester, started and followed for 3 months ie month 7th, 8th, 9th. The EFT was implemented every month then continued independently by the mother, until before childbirth process. The research instrument used TMAS (Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and cortisol blood test. The subjects were 38 respondents consisted of 19 interventions and 19 controls. Result with paired t-test, TMAS1,2,3, each stage got significant difference, pre and post blood cortisol level p = 0.0001. Linear regression analysis on TMAS p = 0.001 and R² = 0.57, whereas blood cortisol level p = 0.004 and R² = 0.43. This analysis proved EFT contributed significantly 57% to lower anxiety levels and 43% to lower blood cortisol level, indirectly affected the readiness to face childbirth process.                                                            ABSTRAK         Kecemasan selama kehamilan pada ibu primipara akan memberatkan kondisi bayi dalam kandungan karena secara psikologis kejiwaannya belum siap dan organ reproduksi belum sempurna yang dapat meningkatkan risiko dalam persalinan dan merupakan salah satu faktor penyebab kematian ibu, bayi, partus lama, BBLR, depresi postpartum, dll. Upaya meminimalisasi kecemasan ini dilakukan dengan metode EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques selama trimester

  13. Focus on Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venura Samarasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs, which include basal and squamous cell cancers are the most common human cancers. BCCs have a relatively low metastatic rate and slow growth and are frequently underreported. Whilst there is a definite role of sunexposure in the pathogenesis of BCC, several additional complex genotypic, phenotypic and environmental factors are contributory. The high prevalence and the frequent occurrence of multiple primary BCC in affected individuals make them an important public health problem. This has led to a substantial increase in search for newer noninvasive treatments for BCC. Surgical excision with predetermined margins remains the mainstay treatment for most BCC. Of the newer non-invasive treatments only photodynamic therapy and topical imiquimod have become established in the treatment of certain BCC subtypes, while the search for other more effective and tissue salvaging therapies continues. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis and management of BCC.

  14. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass.

  15. An Optimization Formulation for Characterization of Pulsatile Cortisol Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Taj Faghih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an l0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed l1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use 4 examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications.

  16. Testosterone Suppression of CRH-stimulated Cortisol in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, David R.; Roca, Catherine A.; Schmidt, Peter J.; Danaceau, Merry A.; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-01-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in ten men (ages 18–45) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower ...

  17. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Taniwaki, Koukyo; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi

    1990-01-01

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  18. Noise Induce Stress Assessment via Salivary Cortisol Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Result: On the rest day and work day, between morning salivary cortisol was no significant difference in two groups. Comparing evening cortisol concentrations in work day with rest day a significant difference was observed, in worker group, but it was not significant in the other group. The evening cortisol in the working day in was significantly higher among workers than officers. .Conclusion: This study revealed that industrial noise exposure with levels higher than 80 dBA has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  19. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  20. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another ou...

  1. Pre-Test pan Work Plan sebagai Strategi Pembelajaran Efektif pada Praktikum Bahan Teknik Lanjut Jurusan Pendidikan Teknik Mesin FT UNY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdjito Nurdjito

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To find the most effective learning strategy for the practicum in the laboratory of materials of the department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Faculty of Engineering, Yogyakarta State University (YSU, a study that aims to determine the effect of applying pre-test and work plan on the learning activities and the achievement of students in the laboratory was conducted. This action research used the purposive random sampling technique. Pre-test and work plan were conducted as the treatment. The data of study was collected through a test to analyse the students’ achievement scores, then they were analyzed using t-test with SPSS. The results of this study indicated that the application of pre-test and work plan in addition to the standard module was proven to be more effective than the  normative learning using the module with t = 3.055 p = 0.003 <0.05. The implementation of the pre-test and work plan in addition to the use of standard modules is able to  improve the students’ motivation, independence and readiness to learn as well as the cooperation among the students, therefore the achievement is also improved. The mastery of competencies increased significantly proved by the increasing values of mode 66 to 85 (the experiment, and mean 73.12 into 79.32 (experiment.

  2. The effect of therapeutic touch on behavioral symptoms and cortisol in persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Beck, Cornelia; Sinha, Karabi

    2009-06-01

    Between 75-90% of nursing home (NH) residents with dementia develop behavioral symptoms (BSD) which may be associated with a stress response. Therapeutic touch has been shown to decrease restlessness in NH residents, however the mechanism is unknown. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the effect of therapeutic touch on BSD and basal cortisol levels among NH residents with dementia. Using a double blind experimental interrupted time series ABAB design, 65 participants were assigned to one of three groups. The experimental group received therapeutic touch with contact on the neck and shoulders delivered twice daily for 3 days (administered over 2 separate treatment periods); the placebo group received a mimic treatment identical in appearance, and the control group received routine care. Study outcomes were BSD, measured by the modified Agitated Behavior Rating Scale (mABRS), and salivary cortisol levels, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 64 residents, aged 67-93 years (M = 85.5, SD = 5.50), completed the study. Restlessness was significantly reduced in the experimental group compared to the control group (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference in morning cortisol variability among groups across time periods (touch may be effective for management of symptoms like restlessness coupled with stress reduction. At a time when cost containment is a consideration in health care, therapeutic touch is an intervention that is non-invasive, readily learned, and can provide a non-pharmacologic alternative for selected persons with BSD. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical activity in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) by measurement of fecal cortisol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Clauss, M; Lechner-Doll, M; Meyer, H H; Palme, R

    2001-07-01

    A method for measuring glucocorticoids noninvasively in feces of roe deer was established and validated. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) measures 11,17-dioxoandrostanes (11,17-DOA), a group of cortisol metabolites. Such measurement avoids blood sampling and reflects a dampened pattern of diurnal glucocorticoid secretion, providing an integrated measure of adrenocortical activity. After high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of at least three different immunoreactive 11,17-DOA in the feces of roe deer was demonstrated. The physiological relevance of these fecal cortisol metabolites to adrenocortical activity was evaluated with an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge test: cortisol metabolite concentrations exceeded pretreatment levels (31-78 ng/g) up to 13-fold (183-944 ng/g) within 8-23 h. Starting from basal levels between 13 and 71 ng/g, a suppression of adrenocortical activity after dexamethasone administration, indicated by metabolite levels close to the detection limit, was obtained 36-81 h after treatment, whereas unmetabolized dexamethasone was detectable in feces 12 h after its injection. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assessment via EIA is therefore of use in the monitoring of adrenocortical activity in roe deer. In a second experiment, capture, veterinary treatment, and transportation of animals were used as experimental stresses. This resulted in a 7.5-fold increase of fecal metabolites (1200 +/- 880 ng/g, mean +/- SD) compared to baseline concentrations. The administration of a long-acting tranquilizer (LAT), designed to minimize the physiological stress response, 2 days prior to a similar stress event led to a reduced stress response, resulting in only a 4-fold increase of fecal metabolites (650 +/- 280 ng/g; mean +/- SD). Therefore, LATs should be further investigated for their effectiveness in reducing stress responses in zoo and wild animals, e.g., when translocations are necessary.

  4. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in adolescent rape victims with post traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Iva A E; Postma, Riemke M; Sinnema, Gerben; De Roos, Carlijn; Olff, Miranda; Van Wesel, Floryt; Van de Putte, Elise M

    2013-03-01

    In chronic sexual abuse victims with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated. In single rape victims, PTSD symptoms are hypothesized to function as a chronic stressor leading to similar HPA-axis dysregulation. The objective of the current study was to assess HPA-axis functioning in female adolescents with rape-related PTSD, but no prior sexual trauma, in comparison to non-victimized controls. Salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were measured in 52 female adolescent rape victims with PTSD and 37 healthy adolescents at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after awakening, both under basal conditions and after 0.5 mg dexamethasone administration. Compared to age-matched controls, adolescent rape victims with PTSD showed significantly reduced cortisol and DHEAS levels. No group differences for the effect of dexamethasone suppression were found. Both the event of rape and PTSD diagnosis, and not factors such as sleep duration, smoking, education or oral contraceptives, accounted for the neuroendocrine differences between rape victims and controls. The results show evidence for a dysregulated HPA-axis in female adolescent victims of single sexual trauma with PTSD. The finding of hypocortisolism is consistent with endocrine dysfunctioning in chronic sexual abuse victims and may have clinical implications with regard to treatment possibilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The future of basal insulin supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Airin C. R.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2011-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the candidates for an improved basal insulin in the pharmaceutical pipeline. The first new basal insulin to enter the market is most likely insulin degludec (IDeg), currently reporting in phase 3 of development, from Novo Nordisk (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). IDeg has a

  7. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  8. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, M.; Bentz, D.; Schicktanz, N.; Milnik, A.; Aerni, A.; Gerhards, C.; Schwegler, K.; Vogel, M.; Blum, J.; Schmid, O.; Roozendaal, B.; Lang, U.E.; Borgwardt, S.; Quervain, D. de

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce

  9. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress is an extremely adaptive phenomenon in human beings and cortisol is a known stress hormone. Examination has been described as a naturalistic stressor capable of affecting human health. Objectives: To estimate the relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and ...

  10. Attenuation of cortisol across development for victims of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K; Noll, Jennie G; Susman, Elizabeth J; Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistencies exist in literature examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children and adults who have experienced childhood abuse. Hence, the extent and manner to which childhood abuse may disrupt HPA axis development is largely unknown. To address these inconsistencies, the developmental course of nonstress cortisol in a long-term longitudinal study was assessed at six time points from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood to determine whether childhood abuse results in disrupted cortisol activity. Nonstress, morning cortisol was measured in 84 females with confirmed familial sexual abuse and 89 nonabused, comparison females. Although dynamically controlling for co-occurring depression and anxiety, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) showed that relative to comparison females, the linear trend for abused females was significantly less steep when cortisol was examined across development from age 6 to age 30, t (1, 180) = -2.55, p cortisol activity starting in adolescence with significantly lower levels of cortisol by early adulthood, F (1, 162) = 4.78, p cortisol activity was initially significantly higher, t (1, 425) = 2.18, p cortisol hyposecretion subsequent to a period of heightened secretion.

  11. Pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In dogs, hypercortisolism is one of the most frequently observed endocrine disorders, with an estimated incidence of about 1-2 cases per 1000 dogs per year. Approximately 15% of these cases is due to a cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumor (AT). Cortisol-secreting ATs are characterized by

  12. Cortisol stress response and histopathological alteration index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples of C. gariepinus were collected every seven days and evaluated for stress by measuring cortisol concentration. The gills and liver were studied and scored for Gill Alteration Index (GAI) and Hepatic Alteration Index (HAI), respectively. There was an increase in cortisol level up to the 7th and 14th day among ...

  13. Cortisol plays central role in biochemical changes during pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    stages of pregnancy. Serum cortisol correlates positively with chloride and potassium inversely with bicarbonate. Conclusion: Cortisol plays a central role in biochemical changes that occurs in pregnancy. It increase is an indicator of emotional stress and physiological challenges in pregnancy and also, possible risk signal.

  14. Urinary free cortisol in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These biochemical tests include the measurement of excess total endogenous cortisol secretion assessed by 24‑hour urinary free cortisol (UFC), loss of the normal feedback of the hypothalamo‑pituitary‑adrenal axis assessed by suppressibility after dexamethasone testing, and disturbance of the normal circadian rhythm of ...

  15. Listening to Motivational Music: Lactate and Cortisol Response to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listening to Motivational Music: Lactate and Cortisol Response to a Single Circuit Resistance Exercise for Young Male Athletes. ... CRE had no effect on GH, epinephrine and norepinephrine, yet decreased responses of lactate and cortisol were observed, which might be one of underlying mechanisms of fatigue reduction.

  16. One-step quantitative cortisol dipstick with proportional reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, Wingman; Chan, Puiyee; Bosgoed, F.; Lehmann, Karin; Renneberg, Ilka; Lehmann, Matthias; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Rapid quantitative immuno-detection of haptens by the lateral flow assay without “typical” competitive inhibition results is studied. In the present study, we describe an immuno-threshold-based assay for the quantification of cortisol. It gives a signal which is directly proportional to the cortisol

  17. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no

  18. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  19. Interferences in the radioimmunological determination of urinary free cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneshoefer, M.; Fenner, A.; Dulce, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The magnitude of interferences arising in the radioimmunological assessment of urinary free cortisol is studied (a) by comparing cortisol immunoreactivities from crude urine, after organic solvent extraction of different selectivity and after additional chromatography by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and (b) by evaluation of the profile of immunoreactivity resulting from the fractions eluted by HPLC. Three antisera from different sources have been investigated. Values of cortisol-immunoreactivity in crude urine were about six times and values of a simple dichloromethane extract about three times higher than values obtained after HPLC. The main part of the interfering compounds arising in organic extracts have a polarity similar to cortisol, which cannot be easily eliminated by simple solvent extraction procedures. Specific estimation of urinary cortisol by radioimmunoassay requires a preceding chromatographic technique of high efficiency, such as HPLC, which represents an adequate tool for the routine laboratory. (Auth.)

  20. Prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations predict neurodevelopment in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Head, Kevin; Buss, Claudia; Sandman, Curt A

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) are the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and are proposed as a key mechanism for programming fetal brain development. The present prospective longitudinal study evaluates the association between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child neurodevelopment. Participants included a low risk sample of 91 mother-child pairs. Prenatal maternal plasma cortisol concentrations were measured at 19 and 31 gestational weeks. Brain development and cognitive functioning were assessed when children were 6-9 years of age. Structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired and cortical thickness was determined. Child cognitive functioning was evaluated using standardized measures (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV and Expressive Vocabulary Test, Second Edition). Higher maternal cortisol concentrations during the third trimester were associated with greater child cortical thickness primarily in frontal regions. No significant associations were observed between prenatal maternal cortisol concentrations and child cortical thinning. Elevated third trimester maternal cortisol additionally was associated with enhanced child cognitive performance. Findings in this normative sample of typically developing children suggest that elevated maternal cortisol during late gestation exert lasting benefits for brain development and cognitive functioning 6-9 years later. The benefits of fetal exposure to higher maternal cortisol during the third trimester for child neurodevelopment are consistent with the role cortisol plays in maturation of the human fetus. It is plausible that more extreme elevations in maternal cortisol concentrations late in gestation, as well as exposure to pharmacological levels of synthetic glucocorticoids, may have neurotoxic effects on the developing fetal brain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Sleep Characteristics and Daytime Cortisol Levels in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ethan; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha; Waite, Linda; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-05-01

    Older adults frequently report sleep problems and are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disruption. Experimental sleep restriction of younger adults has suggested that cortisol may be on the pathway between sleep restriction and cardiometabolic disease. We investigated whether the natural variation in sleep among older adults is associated with daytime cortisol level. Salivary cortisol samples and actigraphy sleep data were collected from a random subsample of participants in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a nationally representative probability sample of adults aged 62-90 (N = 672). Salivary cortisol was measured with 3 timed samples at the beginning, middle, and end of a 2-hr in-home interview. Sleep characteristics were derived from wrist actigraphy (fragmentation, wake after sleep onset [WASO], and duration) and from survey responses about usual sleep duration and sleep problems. For each individual, a single summary daytime cortisol level was estimated by fitting a marginal longitudinal model for the 3 time-stamped cortisol samples. The resulting estimates were then regressed on each sleep measure, adjusting for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities. From actigraphy, both higher fragmentation score (β = 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.00 to 0.03) and longer WASO (β = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.51) were significantly associated with higher daytime cortisol; sleep duration was not. Self-reported sleep duration and sleep problems were also not associated with cortisol. Actigraph measures of sleep disturbance are associated with higher daytime cortisol among older adults. However, cross-sectional data cannot distinguish causal direction or whether cortisol and sleep disruption have a common cause. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The future of basal insulin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Airin C R; DeVries, J Hans

    2011-06-01

    This review presents an overview of the candidates for an improved basal insulin in the pharmaceutical pipeline. The first new basal insulin to enter the market is most likely insulin degludec (IDeg), currently reporting in phase 3 of development, from Novo Nordisk (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). IDeg has a longer duration of action than currently available analogs. Phase 2 studies show comparable efficacy and safety outcomes compared with insulin glargine once daily with less hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. The final results of phase 3 studies seem to confirm this, also in type 2 diabetes. Biodel (Danbury, CT) has two long-acting basal insulin formulations in the pipeline, both in the preclinical phase of development: BIOD-Adjustable Basal, a modified formulation of insulin glargine, is available in long-, medium-, and short-acting forms and could be mixed, and BIOD-Smart Basal releases insulin proportional to the subcutaneous glucose concentration. Eli Lilly (Indianapolis, IN) is also developing a basal insulin. Phase 2 trials have been completed, but no results are published yet. Clinical trials with the new patch pump from CeQur (Montreux, Switzerland) have recently started in Europe. This patch pump delivers both basal and bolus doses subcutaneously and is intended for people with type 2 diabetes who need multiple daily injection insulin therapy.

  3. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes In Men’s Salivary Testosterone And Cortisol Levels, And In Sexual Desire After Smelling Female Axillary And Vulvar Scents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eMondragón-Ceballos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60 and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant.

  5. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  6. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  7. Basal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, J; Lesser, R L

    1983-01-01

    Basal encephaloceles are often associated with other midline anomalies such as hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft lip, and cleft palate. Optic disc anomalies such as pallor, dysplasia, optic pit, coLoboma, and megalopapilla have been reported to occur in patients with basal encephalocele We report a case of a child with a sphenoethmoidal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome of the optic nerve. The presence of such optic nerve anomalies with facial midline anomalies should alert the clinician to the possible presence of a basal encephalocele. Images PMID:6849854

  8. Free serum cortisol: quantification applying equilibrium dialysis or ultrafiltration and an automated immunoassay system

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Möhnle, Patrick; Briegel, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Background: Quantification of bioactive, free serum cortisol concentrations can characterize adrenocortical function more appropriately compared to total serum cortisol measurement. Ultrafiltration or equilibrium dialysis of serum samples allow direct measurement of free serum cortisol concentrations but respective methods have poorly been validated so far. The aim of our study was to investigate the analytical performance of free serum cortisol measurement employing equilibrium dialysis and ...

  9. One-tube micromethod for radioimmunoassay of plasma cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.; Morris, R.

    1978-01-01

    A micro-scale method is presented for measurement of cortisol. Serum or plasma, 2 μl, is diluted with buffer and the solution heated at 60 0 C in the presence of high-affinity antibody and [ 3 H]cortisol. Corticosteroid-binding globulin in the serum is denatured, releasing cortisol and making it available to the antibody, which is stable during the incubation. After cooling, ammonium sulfate solution is added, followed by a toluene-based scintillant that does not dissolve in the aqueous phase. The vial is shaken to extract the free cortisol into the scintillant. Antibody-bound cortisol remains in the aqueous phase and does not produce any scintillation. The amount of [ 3 H]cortisol that is free at the end of the incubation, and which therefore gives rise to the measured counts, is related to the concentration of cortisol in the original serum, and may be calculated from a standard curve. The assay is sensitive and precise. Ranges are presented for normal and pathologic subjects

  10. Hair Cortisol Concentrations Are Associated with Hair Growth Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in hair cortisol concentrations as a valuable biomarker for the assessment of metabolic diseases and chronic psychological stress. Fifty-three volunteers were recruited, and hair segments proximal to the scalp were collected from each individual. A cost-effective ball mill was used for the preparation of hair samples, and ELISA was performed to analyze cortisol concentrations. Results indicate that the frequency of hair washing affects the hair cortisol concentration. The group that washed their hair every day had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than the group that washed it less often. However, no significant differences were detected between cosmetic-treated and nontreated hair samples. The study also shows that hair cortisol concentrations in the first 3 cm of hair segments proximal to the scalp corresponded to average hair growth rate based on 1 cm/month. Thus, hair cortisol concentrations of segments 3 cm proximal to the scalp may represent cumulative stress exposure over the previous 3 months. These findings will allow more widespread research to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a potential biomarker to assess chronic stress. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Elevated cortisol content in dog hair with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sun-A; Shin, Nam-Shik; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease occurring in 10% of the canine population. Although most studies have focused on the pathophysiological mechanism involved in CAD, the detrimental impact of CAD on quality of life has received only little attention. Hair cortisol analysis is becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in CAD, we compared the hair cortisol concentration of atopic dogs with that of healthy conditioned dogs. The extent and severity of cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis were assessed according to modified CADESI-03 scores. In addition, skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum conductance. The correlation between CAD severity and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated. The level of hair cortisol evaluated by ELISA assay showed that the atopic dermatitis group had significantly increased cortisol levels compared to that of the healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was identified between hair cortisol level and the CADESI score in CAD patients. The TEWL value of the cubital flexor of the forelimb in the atopic group was significantly higher compared to the healthy controls. These findings imply that the hair cortisol analysis can be an effective and objective biomarker in assessment of long-term stress of CAD patients.

  12. Methods of collection for salivary cortisol measurement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Nancy A; Granger, Douglas A

    2009-01-01

    Salivary cortisol has been increasingly used as a measure of stress response in studies of welfare, reaction to stress and human-animal interactions in dogs and other species. While it can be a very useful measure, there are a number of saliva collection issues made evident through studies in the human and animal fields which have not been investigated in the canine species. Collection materials and the volume of saliva that is collected; the use of salivary stimulants; and the effect of food contamination can all dramatically impact cortisol measurement, leading to spurious results. In order to further examine the limitations of the collection method and the effects of collection material and salivary stimulant on salivary cortisol levels, a series of clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. It was found that there is a large amount of inter- and intra-individual variation in salivary cortisol measurement. Beef flavoring of collection materials leads to unpredictable variability in salivary cortisol concentration. Using salivary stimulants such as citric acid also has the potential to affect cortisol concentration measurement in saliva. Hydrocellulose appears to be a useful collection material for salivary cortisol determination. Recommendations for collection materials and use of salivary stimulants are presented.

  13. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (M age  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age-appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol. Teachers assessed children's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Stress in the family environment was operationalized as maternally reported parenting stress. Results indicated a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in response to the stressor. No significant associations were found between cortisol stress responses and behavioral functioning at school and there was no evidence for moderation by maternal parenting stress. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these results are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Nongenomic actions of cortisol in the teleost lactotroph model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borski, Russell J; Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Mita, M

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying rapid nongenomic effects of glucocorticoids is poorly understood. We have previously established that cortisol rapidly suppresses tilapia prolactin (PRL) release through a nongenomic, membrane action that involves rapid reductions in intracellular Ca2+. The aim of the pr......The mechanisms underlying rapid nongenomic effects of glucocorticoids is poorly understood. We have previously established that cortisol rapidly suppresses tilapia prolactin (PRL) release through a nongenomic, membrane action that involves rapid reductions in intracellular Ca2+. The aim...... of the present study was to investigate the role of phospholipase C (PLC)-IP3 in mediating cortisol's actions. During 30 min and 4-hour incubation, chicken GnRH-II induces a 2-4 fold increase in PRL release from the tilapia pituitary. The stimulatory effect of cGnRH-II was reduced by cortisol, cortisol-21......-hemisuccinate (HEF) and its membrane impermeant analog, HEF-BSA. Since GnRH induces PRL release, in part, via activation of PLC this suggests that cortisol may rapidly inhibit GnRH-induced PRL release by suppressing PLC activity. We also found that cortisol rapidly inhibits IP3 accumulation in tilapia RPD under...

  15. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes.

  16. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.

  17. Sonic hedgehog signaling in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela; Couvé-Privat, Sophie

    2005-07-28

    The development of basal cell carcinoma, the commonest human cancer in fair skinned populations, is clearly associated with constitutive activation of sonic hedgehog signaling. Insight into the genesis of BCC came from the identification of germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene, PATCHED, a key regulatory component of hedgehog signaling in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Analysis of sporadic basal cell carcinomas and those from repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum patients has revealed mutational inactivation of PATCHED and gain of function mutations of the proto-oncogenes, SMOOTHENED and SONIC HEDGEHOG associated with solar UV exposure. The molecular mechanisms involved in alterations of the hedgehog signaling pathway that lead to the formation of basal cell carcinomas are being unraveled and has already allowed the investigation of future therapeutic strategies for treating these skin cancers.

  18. Trichoepithelioma And Multiple Basal Cell Epithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey S.K

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of multiple trichoepithelioma and basal cell epithelioma is reported. Although malignant degeneration of trichoepithelioma is debated, clinical and histopathological studies, in our case, hint at that. The case is reported for its rarity.

  19. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Erik; Lopes, Otávio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors. PMID:28954101

  20. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Erik; Lopes, Otávio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors.

  1. Correlates and consequences of toddler cortisol reactivity to fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Kalomiris, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Cortisol reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli during toddlerhood may represent an indicator of risk for anxiety spectrum problems and other maladjustment. Thus, it is important to understand factors that may contribute to cortisol reactivity as well as those that determine its predictive relation to early emerging anxiety. In this vein, the current study investigated maternal comforting behaviors, both solicited and unsolicited by the toddler, as correlates of cortisol reactivity at 2years of age. Furthermore, we investigated maternal comforting behaviors and behavioral indicators of fear in both a low-threat and a high-threat context as moderators of the relation between cortisol reactivity at age 2 and change in anxiety from age 2 to age 3. The sample comprised 99 2-year-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers provided saliva samples at baseline and after a fear-eliciting stimulus that were assayed for cortisol. Mothers were observed for comforting behavior while interacting with their toddlers in laboratory tasks and completed questionnaires about their toddlers' anxiety. Results indicated that unsolicited (spontaneous) comforting behavior related to toddler cortisol reactivity above and beyond solicited comforting and the level of fear toddlers displayed in the same task. Moreover, fear in a low-threat context, but not in a high-threat context, moderated the relation between cortisol reactivity and change in anxiety, such that cortisol reactivity had a positive relation to anxiety at extreme levels of low-threat fear. Results suggest the importance of considering the caregiving environment and context-specific fear in understanding the nature of cortisol reactivity during the toddler years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S

    2011-01-15

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. The samples were categorized according to contamination: eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p=0.81) or sampling year (p=0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p=0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. General anesthesia for surgery influences melatonin and cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Edward; Vishne, Tali H; Weinstein, Talia; Beilin, Benzion; Dreznik, Zeev

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of general anesthesia and surgery on melatonin production, and to assess the relationship between melatonin secretion and cortisol levels. Twenty (9 males and 11 females) consecutive otherwise healthy patients aged 27 to 52 years were included in this study. The patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy or laparoscopic hernioplasty. All patients had general anesthesia with the same anesthetic drugs. Serum cortisol levels were measured at several time periods. Urine collections for melatonin were performed from 18:00 to 7:00 the day prior to surgery, on the operation day, and on the first postoperative day. Baseline melatonin metabolites were measured the night prior to surgery, and the level was found to be 1979 +/- 1.76 ng. The value decreased to 1802 +/- 1.82 ng (NS) on the night of surgery, and it became a significantly higher, reaching 2981 +/- 1.55 ng the night after surgery (p = .003). The baseline daytime cortisol level was significantly lower than the baseline night cortisol level (6.87 +/- 1.51 microg/dl, 14.89 +/- 1.66 micrograms/dl, respectively, p cortisol levels. Daytime cortisol levels increased from 6.89 +/- 1.51 microg/dl to 16.90 +/- 1.27microg/dl (p cortisol levels decreased to 10.16 +/- 1.40 microg/dl, lower than the value obtained on the day of surgery (p melatonin, cortisol levels did not reach the pre operative level (p melatonin and cortisol levels show an inverse correlation after surgery.

  4. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose T Faghih

    Full Text Available The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders.

  5. Relative maxima of diameter and basal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Difei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    It has often been observed that maximum dbh growth occurs at an earlier age than maximum individual tree basal area growth. This can be deduced from the geometry of the tree stem, by observing that a dbh increment at a given radius will be associated with a larger basal area increment than an equal dbh increment occurring at a shorter radius from the stem center. Thus...

  6. Degludec insulin: A novel basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Baruah, Manash; Kalra, Bharti

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews a novel insulin analogue, degludec, which has the potential to emerge as an ideal basal insulin. It reviews the limitations of existing basal insulin and analogues, and highlights the need for a newer molecule. The paper discusses the potential advantages of degludec, while reviewing its pharmacologic and clinical studies done so far. The paper assesses the potential role of insulin degludec and degludec plus in clinical diabetes practice.

  7. Basal cell carcinoma metastatic to parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Di Palma, Silvana; Barrett, A W

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis from basal cell carcinoma of the skin is very rare with cases being documented in the lymph nodes, lung, bone and parotid gland. The main histopathological differential diagnosis is the locally arising basal cell adenocarcinoma from which it is difficult to distinguish by morphology and routine immunohistochemistry. Approximately 85 % of all reported metastatic basal cell carcinomas arise in the head and neck region. Here we present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the left lateral canthus of the eye which metastasized to the intraparotid lymph nodes with infiltration of the adjacent parotid parenchyma. More awareness and vigilance is required on the part of the reporting pathologist to consider metastasis in the presence of a parotid tumour. Features favouring metastasis include history of primary cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, histological similarity to the primary lesion and absence of any demonstrable direct extension from the skin lesion. We also review the literature on metastatic basal cell carcinoma and discuss the need for adequate follow up in high risk patients.

  8. [Basal cell carcinoma of unusual site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlika, Rym Benmously; Kerkeni, Nadia; Jebali, Amel; Zghal, Mohamed; Debbiche, Achraf; Ayed, Mohamed Ben; Mokhtar, Insaf; Fenniche, Samy

    2011-02-01

    Labial mucosa is an atypical site of basal cell carcinoma. The involvement of the vermilion lip, devoid of hair follicles and sweat glands, contrasts with the concept of its origin from pilar structures. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developed on the vermilion upper lip. A 49-year-old woman, presented with an asymptomatic, 1-cm-diameter, erythematous, telangiectatic and crusted nodule on the upper lip evolving for 9 months and having once interested the vermilion border. There were no cervical lymph nodes. Diagnosis of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma was made by histological study, which showed a tumoral proliferation of epithelial basal cells infiltrating the dermis with perineural and muscular infiltration. Our report illustrates a rare but not exceptional site of basal cell carcinoma. The nodule, initially confined to the vermilion border, has then developed onto the mucosal and the cutaneous areas. Histopathological study revealed, as previously reported, infiltarative features. Basal cell carcinoma of the lip should be rapidly managed since its invasion to deeper structures occurs early. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Circadian secretion of cortisol and melatonin in cluster headache during active cluster periods and remission.

    OpenAIRE

    Waldenlind, E; Gustafsson, S A; Ekbom, K; Wetterberg, L

    1987-01-01

    The cyclic nature of cluster headache warranted a study of the 24-hour rhythms of serum cortisol and melatonin. They were both altered during cluster periods as compared with periods of remission and healthy controls. The 24-hour mean and maximal cortisol levels were higher and the timing of the cortisol minimum was delayed as compared to the same patients in remission. Although there was no relation between the cortisol and melatonin levels and headaches, the rise of cortisol following many ...

  10. Does cortisol modulate emotion recognition and empathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesenberg, Moritz; Weber, Juliane; Schulze, Lars; Schaeuffele, Carmen; Roepke, Stefan; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Emotion recognition and empathy are important aspects in the interaction and understanding of other people's behaviors and feelings. The Human environment comprises of stressful situations that impact social interactions on a daily basis. Aim of the study was to examine the effects of the stress hormone cortisol on emotion recognition and empathy. In this placebo-controlled study, 40 healthy men and 40 healthy women (mean age 24.5 years) received either 10mg of hydrocortisone or placebo. We used the Multifaceted Empathy Test to measure emotional and cognitive empathy. Furthermore, we examined emotion recognition from facial expressions, which contained two emotions (anger and sadness) and two emotion intensities (40% and 80%). We did not find a main effect for treatment or sex on either empathy or emotion recognition but a sex × emotion interaction on emotion recognition. The main result was a four-way-interaction on emotion recognition including treatment, sex, emotion and task difficulty. At 40% task difficulty, women recognized angry faces better than men in the placebo condition. Furthermore, in the placebo condition, men recognized sadness better than anger. At 80% task difficulty, men and women performed equally well in recognizing sad faces but men performed worse compared to women with regard to angry faces. Apparently, our results did not support the hypothesis that increases in cortisol concentration alone influence empathy and emotion recognition in healthy young individuals. However, sex and task difficulty appear to be important variables in emotion recognition from facial expressions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salivary cortisol in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bennike, Bente; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2008-01-01

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a biological endophenotype for affective disorders. In the present study the hypothesis that a high genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with higher cortisol levels was tested in a cross....... In conclusion, a high genetic liability to affective disorder was associated with a higher evening cortisol level, but not with awakening cortisol level. Future prospective family, high-risk and twin studies are needed to decide whether abnormalities in the HPA axis can be identified as an endophenotype......-sectional high-risk study. Healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. Awakening and evening salivary cortisol levels were compared between the 190 High- and Low...

  12. The differential impact of two anesthetic techniques on cortisol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based intratracheal general anesthesia (ITGA) and bupivacaine‑based epidural anesthesia (EA), using cortisol as a biochemical marker. Materials and Methods: Following the approval of the Hospital Ethical Board, informed written consent from ...

  13. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in the absence of light perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Kupers, R.; Ptito, M.

    2017-01-01

    As light plays an important role in the synchronisation of the internal biological clock to the environmental day/night schedule, we compared the 24-h profiles of biological circadian markers in blind and normal sighted individuals. Salivary melatonin and cortisol concentrations were collected...... every two hours in eleven blind subjects, reporting no conscious light perception, and eleven age- and sex-matched normal sighted controls. Timing of melatonin onset and associated cortisol quiescence period confirm an increased incidence of abnormal circadian patterns in blindness. Additionally, blind...... subjects showed a greater overall melatonin concentration throughout the 24-h period. Cortisol profiles, including concentration and morning cortisol peaks, on the other hand, did not differ between blind and sighted individuals. These findings support previous reports of an increase in abnormal circadian...

  14. Exogenous cortisol causes a shift from deliberative to intuitive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Strombach, Tina; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    People often rely on intuitive judgments at the expense of deliberate reasoning, but what determines the dominance of intuition over deliberation is not well understood. Here, we employed a psychopharmacological approach to unravel the role of two major endocrine stress mediators, cortisol and noradrenaline, in cognitive reasoning. Healthy participants received placebo, cortisol (hydrocortisone) and/or yohimbine, a drug that increases noradrenergic stimulation, before performing the cognitive reflection test (CRT). We found that cortisol impaired performance in the CRT by biasing responses toward intuitive, but incorrect answers. Elevated stimulation of the noradrenergic system, however, had no effect. We interpret our results in the context of the dual systems theory of judgment and decision making. We propose that cortisol causes a shift from deliberate, reflective cognition toward automatic, reflexive information processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Depressive rumination alters cortisol decline in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-07-01

    Depressive rumination - a central characteristic of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) - is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy that prolongs sad mood and depressive episodes. Considerable research demonstrates the emotional and behavioral consequences of depressive rumination, yet few studies investigate its effect on neuroendocrine functioning. The current study examined the effect of an emotion regulation manipulation on the trajectory of cortisol concentrations among individuals with MDD and healthy controls (CTL). Sadness was induced via forced failure. Participants then were randomly assigned to a depressive rumination or distraction emotion regulation induction. MDDs in the rumination condition exhibited less cortisol decline compared to MDDs in the distraction condition and compared to CTLs in either condition. Findings suggest that depressive rumination alters the trajectory of cortisol secretion in MDD and may prolong cortisol production. Results thereby provide important insights into the interaction of biological and psychological factors through which distress contributes to MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological distress and salivary cortisol covary within persons during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole; Kooistra, Libbe; Kaplan, Bonnie

    The mechanisms whereby maternal stress during pregnancy exerts organizational effects on fetal development require elaboration. The aim of this study was to assess the plausibility of cortisol as a biological link between maternal psychological distress during pregnancy and fetal development.

  17. Depressive Rumination Alters Cortisol Decline in Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Depressive rumination – a central characteristic of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) – is a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy that prolongs sad mood and depressive episodes. Considerable research demonstrates the emotional and behavioral consequences of depressive rumination, yet few studies investigate its effect on neuroendocrine functioning. The current study examined the effect of an emotion regulation manipulation on the trajectory of cortisol concentrations among individuals with MDD and healthy controls (CTL). Sadness was induced via forced failure. Participants then were randomly assigned to a depressive rumination or distraction emotion regulation induction. MDDs in the rumination condition exhibited less cortisol decline compared to MDDs in the distraction condition and compared to CTLs in either condition. Findings suggest that depressive rumination alters the trajectory of cortisol secretion in MDD and may prolong cortisol production. Results thereby provide important insights into the interaction of biological and psychological factors through which distress contributes to MDD. PMID:24835412

  18. Cortisol Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can get covered in saliva. Don't touch the tip of the swab with your fingers. ... Cortisol Test [cited 2017 Jul 10]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.allinahealth.org/Medical-Services/ ...

  19. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in the absence of light perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S; Kupers, R; Ptito, M; Jennum, P

    2017-01-15

    As light plays an important role in the synchronisation of the internal biological clock to the environmental day/night schedule, we compared the 24-h profiles of biological circadian markers in blind and normal sighted individuals. Salivary melatonin and cortisol concentrations were collected every two hours in eleven blind subjects, reporting no conscious light perception, and eleven age- and sex-matched normal sighted controls. Timing of melatonin onset and associated cortisol quiescence period confirm an increased incidence of abnormal circadian patterns in blindness. Additionally, blind subjects showed a greater overall melatonin concentration throughout the 24-h period. Cortisol profiles, including concentration and morning cortisol peaks, on the other hand, did not differ between blind and sighted individuals. These findings support previous reports of an increase in abnormal circadian rhythms and the absence of the entrainment properties of light in blindness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anish Mehta; Rohan R Mahale; Uchil Sudhir; Mahendra Javali; Rangasetty Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no pri...

  1. Relationship between cyberbullying roles, cortisol secretion and psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    González-Cabrera, Joaquín (UNIR); Calvete, Esther; León-Mejía, Ana (UNIR); Pérez-Sancho, Carlota; Peinado, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Although cyberbullying is associated with different psychological problems, the role of biological markers of stress in cyberbullying has been relatively neglected. The aims of this study were: 1) to analyze the profile of cortisol secretion along the day in subjects involved in cyberbullying and 2) to investigate whether the predictive relationship between cyberbullying victimization and subjective symptoms of stress and anxiety are accounted for by cortisol reactivity. A longitudinal study ...

  2. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y.; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH).; We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels.; In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (b...

  3. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  4. Interleukin-1 Antagonism Decreases Cortisol Levels in Obese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Schuetz, Philipp; Ebrahimi, Fahim; Donath, Marc Y; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-05-01

    Increased cortisol levels in obesity may contribute to the associated metabolic syndrome. In obesity, the activated innate immune system leads to increased interleukin (IL)-1β, which is known to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). We hypothesized that in obesity IL-1 antagonism would result in downregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, leading to decreased cortisol levels. In this prospective intervention study, we included 73 patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) and at least one additional feature of the metabolic syndrome. The primary end point was change in morning cortisol from baseline to after the administration of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra/Kineret®, total dose 3 × 100 mg). Secondary end points were effects on salivary cortisol and ACTH. Median age was 56 years, 50.7% of patients were female, and median BMI was 36.3 kg/m2. Median morning serum cortisol levels (nmol/L) decreased significantly after IL-1 antagonism [from baseline, 452 to 423; absolute difference, -38.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), -64 to -13.4; P = 0.0019]. Similar effects were found for salivary cortisol levels (-2.8; 95% CI, -4.4 to -1.3; P = 0.0007), ACTH levels (-2.2; 95% CI; -4.2 to -0.1; P = 0.038), systolic blood pressure (-5.2, 95% CI, -8.5 to -1.8; P = 0.0006), and heart rate (-2.9; 95% CI, -4.7 to -1.0; P = 0.0029). IL-1 antagonism in obese individuals with features of the metabolic syndrome leads to a decrease in serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, and ACTH levels along with a reduction in systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  5. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children?s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 a...

  6. Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Cortisol-secreting Adenomas

    OpenAIRE

    Domino, Jeffrey P.; Lomanto, Davide; Katara, Avinash N.; Rauff, Abu; Cheah, Wei-Keat; Chionh, Siok Bee

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas are a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling confirmed both adenomas to be hyper-secreting cortisol. She underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy; total right and partial left adrenalectomies. At 2-year follow-up, she is maintained on low-dose fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone, and without recurrence of h...

  7. Evaluation of baseline cortisol, endogenous ACTH, and cortisol/ACTH ratio to monitor trilostane treatment in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, W A; Boretti, F S; Reusch, C E; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of trilostane treatment is currently monitored by regular ACTH stimulation tests, which are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a monitoring system without a stimulation protocol and with less client expense would be preferable. The aim of our study was to evaluate if baseline cortisol, endogenous ACTH (ACTH) concentration or the baseline cortisol to ACTH ratio (cortisol/ACTH ratio) could replace the ACTH stimulation test. Forty trilostane-treated dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH) were included in this prospective study. A total of 148 ACTH stimulation tests and 77 ACTH concentrations and cortisol/ACTH ratios were analyzed. Control of cortisol release was classified according to cortisol concentration after ACTH administration as excessive (5.4 μg/dL; group 3). Baseline cortisol concentrations had considerable overlap between excessively, adequately, and inadequately controlled dogs. Only baseline cortisol >4.4 μg/dL (in 12% of tests) was a reliable diagnosis of inadequate control. Endogenous ACTH concentrations did not differ between groups. The overlap of the cortisol/ACTH ratio between groups was large. Correct classification was only possible if the cortisol/ACTH ratio was >15, which occurred in 4% of tests. To monitor trilostane treatment the ACTH stimulation test cannot be replaced by baseline cortisol, ACTH concentration, or the cortisol/ACTH ratio. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Academic self-concept of ability and cortisol reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkley, N; Westerholt, D M; Kirchner, W H

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between a school-specific trait (academic self-concept of ability [ASCA]) and hormonal stress response by using a trait-compatible stressor (test). First, we determined 52 students' ASCA scores for biology and measured their salivary cortisol concentration before and after a biology test (experimental group, n=28) or a free writing task (control group, n=24). For participants who took the test, statistical analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between ASCA score and cortisol response. In contrast, the control group showed a decrease in cortisol concentrations between test times and no correlation between cortisol concentration and ASCA scores were found. These findings indicated an interaction between ASCA scores and hormonal stress response when an academic-related stressor is present. Furthermore, these variables might influence each other adversely: high cortisol concentrations during a test situation may lead to greater feelings of insecurity, resulting in low ASCA scores and awareness of these low scores may lead to a further increase in cortisol, creating a vicious cycle.

  9. Do waking salivary cortisol levels correlate with anesthesiologist's job involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Moti; Weksler, Natan; Gidron, Yori; Heldman, Eliyahu; Gurski, Eugen; Smith, Otto Robert F; Gurman, Gabriel M

    2012-12-01

    Anesthetists' work carries great responsibility and can be very stressful. Cognitive appraisal plays a central role in stress responses; however, little is known about the relationship between stress appraisal and biological markers of stress, particularly among anesthesiologists. Stress response may be associated with increased levels of systemic cortisol, which can be conveniently measured in saliva and used as a marker for the extent of stress. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between work-related cognitive variables and waking salivary cortisol, a possible stress marker, in anesthesiologists. Thirty-eight anesthesiologists were assessed for work-related thought intrusions and perceived "mental distance" between themselves and their work, using the pictorial representation of illness self-measure (PRISM), and underwent an implicit association test reflecting implicit job-stress associations. Salivary cortisol was measured twice upon awakening and an hour later, in saliva samples, using a kit based on chemoluminescence competition assay. Only implicit job-stress associations were correlated with waking cortisol (r = 0.35, p job-stress was related to elevated cortisol only among anesthesiologists reporting large "mental distance" from work, which may represent limited job involvement related to burnout. Anesthesiologists with a low degree of job involvement who have high implicit job-stress associations have higher levels of waking salivary cortisol. Further studies are necessary to assess the impact of stress management techniques on anesthesiologists' personal and professional behavior as well as on the quality of medical care.

  10. Sleep and cortisol interact to support memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kelly A; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Payne, Jessica D

    2015-03-01

    Separate lines of research have demonstrated that rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can the occurrence of sleep soon after encoding. For the first time, we demonstrate that pre-learning cortisol interacts with sleep to benefit memory consolidation, particularly for negative arousing items. Resting cortisol levels during encoding were positively correlated with subsequent memory, but only following a period of sleep. There was no such relation following a period of wakefulness. Using eye tracking, we further reveal that for negative stimuli, this facilitative effect may arise because cortisol strengthens the relationship between looking time at encoding and subsequent memory. We suggest that elevated cortisol may "tag" attended information as important to remember at the time of encoding, thus enabling sleep-based processes to optimally consolidate salient information in a selective manner. Neuroimaging data suggest that this optimized consolidation leads to a refinement of the neural processes recruited for successful retrieval of negative stimuli, with the retrieval of items attended in the presence of elevated cortisol and consolidated over a night of sleep associated with activity in the amygdala and vmPFC. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A Pharmacokinetic Model of a Tissue Implantable Cortisol Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael A; Bakh, Naveed; Bisker, Gili; Brown, Emery N; Strano, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    Cortisol is an important glucocorticoid hormone whose biochemistry influences numerous physiological and pathological processes. Moreover, it is a biomarker of interest for a number of conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder, Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and others. An implantable biosensor capable of real time monitoring of cortisol concentrations in adipose tissue may revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders, as well as provide an invaluable research tool. Toward this end, a mathematical model, informed by the physiological literature, is developed to predict dynamic cortisol concentrations in adipose, muscle, and brain tissues, where a significant number of important processes with cortisol occur. The pharmacokinetic model is applied to both a prototypical, healthy male patient and a previously studied Cushing's disease patient. The model can also be used to inform the design of an implantable sensor by optimizing the sensor dissociation constant, apparent delay time, and magnitude of the sensor output versus system dynamics. Measurements from such a sensor would help to determine systemic cortisol levels, providing much needed insight for proper medical treatment for various cortisol-related conditions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Cortisol to Cortisone Ratio during Cardiac Catheterisation in Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Skarlandtová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A possible effect of mini-invasive heart intervention on a response of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal stress axis and conversion of cortisone to cortisol were studied. We have analysed two stress markers levels (cortisol, cortisone and cortisol/cortisone ratio in 25 sows using minimally invasive heart catheterisation as the stress factor. The values of studied parameters were assessed in four periods of the experiment: (1 the baseline level on the day before intervention, (2 after the introduction of anaesthesia, (3 after conducting tissue stimulation or ablation, and (4 after the end of the catheterisation. For statistical analyses we used the non-parametric Friedman test for four dependent samples (including all four stages of the operation or three dependent samples (influence of operation only, baseline level was excluded. Statistically significant differences in both Friedman tests were found for cortisol and for cortisone. We have found the highest level of cortisol/cortisone ratio in unstressed conditions, then it decreased to the minimal level at the end of the intervention. We have concluded that cortisol levels are blunted by the influence of anaesthesia after its administration, and therefore decrease back to the baseline at the end of the operation.

  13. The Cortisol to Cortisone Ratio during Cardiac Catheterisation in Sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlandtová, Hana; Bičíková, Marie; Neužil, Petr; Mlček, Mikuláš; Hrachovina, Vladimír; Svoboda, Tomáš; Medová, Eva; Kudlička, Jaroslav; Dohnalová, Alena; Havránek, Štěpán; Kazihnítková, Hana; Máčová, Ludmila; Vařejková, Eva; Kittnar, Otomar

    2015-01-01

    A possible effect of mini-invasive heart intervention on a response of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal stress axis and conversion of cortisone to cortisol were studied. We have analysed two stress markers levels (cortisol, cortisone) and cortisol/cortisone ratio in 25 sows using minimally invasive heart catheterisation as the stress factor. The values of studied parameters were assessed in four periods of the experiment: (1) the baseline level on the day before intervention, (2) after the introduction of anaesthesia, (3) after conducting tissue stimulation or ablation, and (4) after the end of the catheterisation. For statistical analyses we used the non-parametric Friedman test for four dependent samples (including all four stages of the operation) or three dependent samples (influence of operation only, baseline level was excluded). Statistically significant differences in both Friedman tests were found for cortisol and for cortisone. We have found the highest level of cortisol/cortisone ratio in unstressed conditions, then it decreased to the minimal level at the end of the intervention. We have concluded that cortisol levels are blunted by the influence of anaesthesia after its administration, and therefore decrease back to the baseline at the end of the operation.

  14. MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-09-01

    Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress.

  15. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  16. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du

    2006-01-01

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  17. Initial experience of evaluation of coronary artery with 320-slice row CT system in high pre-test probability population without heart rate (rhythm) control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Gang; Li Guoying; Li Min; Ding Juan; Li Shenghui; Li Li; Zhu Shifang; Lin Changling; Zou Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy of 320-slice row CT system for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in high pre-test probability population without heart rate/rhythm control. Methods: Thirty patients with a high pre-test probability of CAD underwent 320-slice row CT without preceding heart rate/rhythm control. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) served as the standard reference. Data sets were evaluated by 2 observers in consensus with respect to stenoses ≥50% decreased diameter. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and Youden index were analyzed; the impact of heart rate and calcification on image quality as well as diagnostic accuracy were also analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Mean heart rate during scanning was 73.7±15.4 beats per min(bpm), and median(QR) of Agatston score of segment was 45.6 (181). On a per-segment analysis, overall sensitivity was 96.1% (74/77, 95% CI:89.03%-99.19%), specificity was 98.3% (337/343, 95% CI:96.23%-99.36%), PPV was 92.5% (74/80, 95% CI:84.39%-97.20%), NPV of 99.1% (337/340, 95% CI: 97.44%-99.82%) and the Youden index was 0.94. In both heart-rate subgroups (242 in heart rate < 70 bpm group, 169 in heart rate ≥70 bpm group), diagnostic accuracy for the assessment of coronary artery stenosis was similar (P<0.05). The accuracy and the quality score of the subgroup Agatston score ≥100 were lower than that of the subgroup Agatston score <100; however, the difference of results between 320-slice row CT and ICA was not significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: 320-detector row CT can reliably detect coronary artery stenoses in a high pre-test probability population without heart rate/rhythm control. (authors)

  18. Accuracy of multidetector spiral computed tomography in detecting significant coronary stenosis in patient populations with differing pre-test probabilities of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontone, G.; Andreini, D.; Quaglia, C.; Ballerini, G.; Nobili, E.; Pepi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the clinical impact of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with a low versus a high pre-test likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods: A cohort of 120 patients with suspected CAD, scheduled for conventional coronary angiography, underwent MDCT. Using the American Heart Association (AHA)/American College of Cardiology (ACC) guidelines, the population was divided into two groups: patients with a low (group 1) and a high (group 2) likelihood of CAD. Results: Analysis of all segments showed a high feasibility (92%), and a patient based-model showed excellent sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPV; both 100%) and acceptable specificity and positive predictive values (PPV; 86 and 90%, respectively), with an accuracy of 94%. Using MDCT in patients with lower pre-test likelihoods of CAD, according to the ACC/AHA guidelines, the accuracy remained high (93%); conversely, in patient groups with a high prevalence of CAD, a non-significant reduction in accuracy (85%) occurred using MDCT. Particularly, MDCT can be used effectively to exclude a diagnosis of CAD because of its high sensitivity and NPV (100%), but shows a significant reduction in specificity (58%). This reduction was due to an increase in the false-positive:true-negative ratio because of the higher percentage of calcified plaque (a relative but non-significant increase in false positives), and the high prevalence of CAD (significant reduction in true negatives). No differences were found between MDCT and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) concerning the number of vessels narrowed. Conclusion: Because of its excellent sensitivity and specificity in patients with a low pre-test likelihood of CAD, MDCT could be helpful in clinical decision-making in this population

  19. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this

  20. Specificity and sensitivity of binding proteins in the radioimmunoassay of cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijzen, A.H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison concerning avidity towards cortisol and 10 other steroids was made between several binding proteins either in solution or bound to cellulose as so called ''solid phase'' reagent. Human blood cortisol binding protein (CBP, transcortin), and two distinctly different cortisol-binding rabbit antisera and the isolated immunoglobulins thereof were compared in their avidity to bind cortisol and several other steroids. The antisera were harvested from rabbits immunized with either cortisol-21-succinyl-albumin (CSA) or cortisol-3-oxim-albumin (COA). The latter antiserum, having the highest titre in cortisol titration, showed the greatest specificity and was most useful as a binding reagent in cortisol radioimmunoassay when used as a solid phase reagent. The determination of cortisol in micro samples of blood serum is possible without steroid extraction or serum protein denaturation and with only minor influence of steroid impurities in the sample to be analyzed. Affinity constants for all compared binding reagents and steroids are given

  1. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: Basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.J.A.G.; Klumpers, F.; Everaerd, D.S.; Kooijman, S.C.; Wingen, G.A. van; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both

  2. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, Marloes J. A. G.; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-01-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both

  3. The brain-gut axis of fish: Rainbow trout with low and high cortisol response show innate differences in intestinal integrity and brain gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Malin; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Winberg, Svante; Sundell, Kristina

    2018-02-01

    In fish, the stress hormone cortisol is released through the action of the hypothalamic pituitary interrenal axis (HPI-axis). The reactivity of this axis differs between individuals and previous studies have linked this to different behavioural characteristics and stress coping styles. In the current study, low and high responding (LR and HR) rainbow trout in terms of cortisol release during stress were identified, using a repeated confinements stress test. The expression of stress related genes in the forebrain and the integrity of the stress sensitive primary barrier of the intestine was examined. The HR trout displayed higher expression levels of mineralocorticoid and serotonergic receptors and serotonergic re-uptake pumps in the telencephalon during both basal and stressed conditions. This confirms that HPI-axis reactivity is linked also to other neuronal behavioural modulators, as both the serotonergic and the corticoid system in the telencephalon are involved in behavioural reactivity and cognitive processes. Involvement of the HPI-axis in the brain-gut-axis was also found. LR trout displayed a lower integrity in the primary barrier of the intestine during basal conditions compared to the HR trout. However, following stress exposure, LR trout showed an unexpected increase in intestinal integrity whereas the HR trout instead suffered a reduction. This could make the LR individuals more susceptible to pathogens during basal conditions where instead HR individuals would be more vulnerable during stressed conditions. We hypothesize that these barrier differences are caused by regulation/effects on tight junction proteins possibly controlled by secondary effects of cortisol on the intestinal immune barrier or differences in parasympathetic reactivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Topical treatment of Basal cell carcinomas in nevoid Basal cell carcinoma syndrome with a smoothened inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvara, Hans; Kalthoff, Frank; Meingassner, Josef G.; Wolff-Winiski, Barbara; Aschauer, Heinrich; Kelleher, Joseph F.; Wu, Xu; Pan, Shifeng; Mickel, Lesanka; Schuster, Christopher; Stary, Georg; Jalili, Ahmad; David, Olivier J.; Emotte, Corinne; Antunes, Ana Monica Costa; Rose, Kristine; Decker, Jeremy; Carlson, Ilene; Gardner, Humphrey; Stuetz, Anton; Bertolino, Arthur P.; Stingl, Georg; de Rie, Menno A.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a distinctive manifestation in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients. Both inherited and acquired mutations of patched 1 (PTCH1), a tumor-suppressor gene controlling the activity of Smoothened (SMO), are the primary cause of the constitutive activation

  5. Sexual dimorphism in cortisol secretion starts after age 10 in healthy children: urinary cortisol metabolite excretion rates during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudy, Stefan A; Hartmann, Michaela F; Remer, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Detailed data on the physiological pattern of adrenocortical activity during normal growth are lacking. An established method to determine adrenocortical glucocorticoid secretion is the measurement of 24-h excretion rates of major urinary cortisol metabolites (C21). To test the hypothesis that the frequently reported higher cortisol secretion in men than in women develops during puberty, we examined C21 together with excretions of combined urinary free and conjugated cortisol (F(comb)) in 400 healthy boys and girls aged 3-18 yr using GC-MS. Daily excretion rates of C21, F(comb), and body surface area (BSA)-corrected F(comb) significantly increased with age in both sexes. In contrast, C21/BSA (microgxm(-2).day(-1)) declined from the age of 3-4 yr to 7-8 yr in boys and girls (P activity (allotetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisol) in females compared with males. Our results demonstrate dynamic changes in adrenocortical activity in healthy children resulting in an emerging sexual dimorphism in cortisol secretion after age 11. The latter can be explained, at least partly, by diverging 5alpha-reductase activities in boys and girls. F(comb), a frequently analyzed GC-MS parameter, proved not to reflect dynamic changes in cortisol secretion. In conclusion, the varying metabolic need for cortisol during normal growth may have implications for future improvements in glucocorticoid replacement therapy.

  6. Genotype variation in grain yield response to basal N fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    So, a field experiment was conducted at Wuxi, China, under non-basal N and basal N fertilizer conditions, to identify the variation of grain yield response to basal fertilizer among 199 rice varieties with different genetic background, and finally choose the suitable rice varieties for us to increase basal N fertilizer efficiency and ...

  7. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  8. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Won

    1988-01-01

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  9. Influência do posicionamento em prona sobre o estresse no recém-nascido prematuro avaliada pela dosagem de cortisol salivar: um estudo piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Cândia,Maria Fernanda; Osaku,Erica Fernanda; Leite,Marcela Aparecida; Toccolini,Beatriz; Costa,Nicolle Lamberti; Teixeira,Sandy Nogueira; Costa,Claudia Rejane Lima de Macedo; Piana,Pitágoras Augusto; Cristovam,Marcos Antonio da Silva; Osaku,Nelson Ossamu

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar a influência da postura em prona sobre o estresse no recém-nascido prematuro por meio da dosagem do cortisol salivar e da avaliação das respostas fisiológicas e comportamentais, antes e após o posicionamento. Métodos: Foi realizada a coleta de saliva em cada recém-nascido em dois momentos: o primeiro (correspondente ao basal), sem manipulação prévia por 40 minutos, em decúbito lateral ou supino; e o segundo, 30 ...

  10. Effects of cortisol on aggression and locomotor activity in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverli, Øyvind; Kotzian, Susann; Winberg, Svante

    2002-08-01

    Noninvasive administration of cortisol through the diet resulted in relatively rapid (Aggressive behavior was also inhibited by long-term cortisol treatment, but not by short-term exposure to cortisol. Cortisol treatment had no effect on locomotor activity in undisturbed fish, indicating that the behavioral effects of cortisol were mediated through interaction with other signal systems activated during the simulated territorial intrusion test. This study demonstrates for the first time that cortisol has time- and context-dependent effects on behavior in teleost fish.

  11. The Influences of Pre-testing Reviews and Delays on Differentialassociative Processing versus A Condition in which Students chose their Learning Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies show that a new strategy called differential-associative processing is effective for learning related concepts. However our knowledge about differential-associative processing is still limited. Therefore the goals of the present study are to assess the duration of knowledge that is acquired from using differential-associative processing, to determine whether the efficacy of differential-associative processing changes with the addition of a 10-minute pre-testing review, and to compare differential-associate processing to two conditions in which students select their own learning strategy. The results revealed that differential-associative processing was a better strategy for learning related concepts than were either of the two comparison conditions. They also revealed that a 10-minute pre-testing review had a positive additive influence on differential-associative processing. Finally, although the knowledge acquired from using differential-associative processing declined with an increase in delay between learning and testing, this decline was equivalent to the decline observed in both comparison conditions.

  12. Cortisol-induced inhibition of ovine renin and aldosterone responses to hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.E.; Silbiger, J.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that in preterm fetal sheep increases in plasma cortisol (F) concentration equal in amplitude to fetal F stress responses suppress plasma renin activity (PRA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that this negative interaction exists in adult sheep. Cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay. Five conscious ewes with chronically prepared carotid arterial loops were infused intravenously with F or vehicle for 5 h. One hour after the end of F or vehicle infusion, renin secretion was stimulated by hypotension produced by infusion of sodium nitroprusside. F infusion increased plasma F; during vehicle infusion plasma F did not change. F infusion decreased hematocrit from 29 +/- 2 to 26 +/- 1%. Basal PRA in vehicle- and F-infused groups were 0.4 +/- 0 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 ng angiotensin I-ml -1 -h -1 and did not change. In vehicle-infused ewes, PRA increased from 0.4 +/- 0 to 4.6 +/- 0.4 and plasma aldosterone from 26.0 +/- 1.0 to 173.1 +/- 21.8 pg/ml, while in F-infused ewes, PRA increased from 0.2 +/- 1 to 3.3 +/- 0.4 ng angiotensin I-ml -1 -h -1 and aldosterone from 25.0 +/- 0 to 48.2 +/- 23.2 pg/ml, significantly smaller responses. These results suggest that repeated stress may modulate the responses of the renin-angiotensin system in this species

  13. Loneliness in older adults is associated with diminished cortisol output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, N; Holwerda, T J; Stek, M L; Dekker, J J M; Rhebergen, D; Comijs, H C

    2017-04-01

    Loneliness in older adults has been associated with increased mortality and health problems. One of the assumed underlying mechanisms is dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA-axis). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether loneliness in older adults is associated with HPA-axis dysregulation and whether this association differs between depressed and non-depressed persons. Cross-sectional data of 426 lonely and non-lonely older adults in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used. Linear regression analyses and multinominal logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between loneliness and morning cortisol, cortisol awakening response, diurnal slope and dexamethasone suppression ratio. In all analyses, confounders were introduced. In order to examine whether the association between loneliness and cortisol measures is different in depressed versus non-depressed persons, an interaction term for loneliness x depression diagnosis was tested. Cortisol output in the first hour after awakening and dexamethasone suppression ratio was lower in lonely participants. There were no significant interactions between loneliness and depression diagnosis in the association with the cortisol measures. This study is the first to investigate the association between the HPA-axis and loneliness in a large group of older adults aged 60-93years. We found lower cortisol output in the first hour after awakening and lower dexamethasone suppression ratio in lonely older depressed and non-depressed adults. Whether diminished cortisol output is the underlying mechanism that leads to health problems in lonely older adults is an interesting object for further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Quang Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote.

  15. Effects of an acute increase in epinephrine and cortisol on carbohydrate metabolism during insulin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, R E; Abumrad, N N; Lacy, D B; Wasserman, D H; Cherrington, A D

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of an acute increase in the plasma epinephrine level, with or without an accompanying increase in the plasma cortisol level, during selective insulin deficiency on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in conscious overnight-fasted dogs. Experiments consisted of an 80-min tracer and dye equilibration period, a 40-min basal period, and a 180-min experimental period. In all protocols, selective insulin deficiency was created during the experimental period by infusing somatostatin peripherally (0.8 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) with basal replacement of glucagon intraportally (0.65 ng.kg-1.min-1). In EPI+SAL (n = 6), an additional infusion of epinephrine (0.04 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) was infused during the experimental period along with saline. In EPI+CORT (n = 6), hydrocortisone (3.0 microgram.kg-1.min-1) was infused in addition to epinephrine during the experimental period. In SAL+CORT (n = 5), hydrocortisone was infused during the experimental period. In SALINE (n = 5), neither epinephrine nor cortisol was infused. [3-3H]glucose, [U-14C]alanine, and indocyanine green dye were used to assess glucose production (rate of appearance [Ra]) and gluconeogenesis using tracer and arteriovenous difference techniques. During selective insulin deficiency in SALINE, the arterial plasma glucose level increased from 6.0 +/- 0.1 to 15.8 +/- 1.1 mmol/l; Ra increased from 14.7 +/- 0.7 to 24.9 +/- 1.7 mumol.kg-1.min-1. Gluconeogenic efficiency and the conversion of alanine and lactate to glucose increased to 300 +/- 55 and 355 +/- 67% of basal. In EPI+SAL and EPI+CORT, plasma glucose increased from 6.2 +/- 0.1 to 19.8 +/- 0.9 mmol/l and from 6.3 +/- 0.1 to 19.5 +/- 0.9 mmol/l. In EPI+SAL and EPI+CORT, Ra increased from 16.5 +/- 1.1 to 29.3 +/- 3.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1 and from 15.4 +/- 1.3 to 28.3 +/- 2.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1. The rise in gluconeogenic efficiency was similar to the rise that occurred in SALINE, but gluconeogenic conversion increased

  16. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers

  18. Adhesion molecule expression in basal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, M.; Beljaards, R.; Veraart, J.; Hoekzema, R.; Neumann, M.

    1998-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are frequently associated with a peritumoral mononuclear infiltrate. Until now, the function of this inflammatory infiltrate and its possible role in the control of tumor growth is unclear. Mechanisms controlling endothelial and target cell adhesiveness for leukocytes

  19. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  20. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  1. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  2. Panoramic study of mandibular basal bone height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raviraj Jayam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To provide information regarding the changes of mandibular basal bone height using panoramic radiography, in relation to age, sex, and the state of dentulousness, which could be utilized in clinical practice, especially in implantology and pre-prosthetic surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 subjects, who were categorized according to age, sex, and state of dentulousness, were subjected to vertical measurements of mandibular basal bone in panoramic radiographs. Two measurements were made, D 1 and D 2 . The distance measured between the lower border of mental foramen to the lower border of the mandible was termed as D 1 . The distance between the lowest point of mandibular canal to the lower border of the mandible was termed as D 2 . These measurements were compared between males/females and dentulous/edentulous, which were further subjected to statistical analysis with Student′s t-test. Results: Males had higher D 1 and D 2 values compared to females and edentulous groups had higher D 1 and D 2 values compared to dentulous subjects. Conclusions: Men have higher values of mandibular basal bone height compared to females and also that there exists some potential for mandibular basal bone to increase in height as the age progresses.

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma: 10 Years of Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, E.; Tarallo, M.; Maruccia, M.; Sorvillo, V.; Pollastrini, A.; Scuderi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally invasive malignant epidermal tumour. Incidence is increasing by 10% per year; incidence of metastases is minimal, but relapses are frequent (40%-50%). The complete excision of the BCC allows reduction of relapse. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consists of 1123 patients underwent surgery for basal cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Patient and tumor characteristics recorded are: age; gender; localization (head and neck, trunk, and upper and lower extremities), tumor size, excisional margins adopted, and relapses. Results. The study considered a group of 1123 patients affected by basal cell carcinoma. Relapses occurred in 30 cases (2,67%), 27 out of 30 relapses occurred in noble areas, where peripheral margin was <3mm. Incompletely excised basal cell carcinoma occurred in 21 patients (1,87%) and were treated with an additional excision. Discussion. Although guidelines indicate 3mm peripheral margin of excision in BCC <2cm, in our experience, a margin of less than 5mm results in a high risk of incomplete excisions

  4. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an ...

  5. Neglected basal cell carcinoma on scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a very rare entity. Usually, they occur due to the negligence of the patient. Local or distant metastasis is present in most cases. Here, we present a case of giant BCC that clinically resembled squamous cell carcinoma and demonstrated no metastasis at presentation.

  6. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs ...

  7. Heterogeneity of limbal basal epithelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Yasutaka; Li, Wei; Chen, Ying-Ting; He, Hua; Chen, Szu-yu; Kheirkah, Ahmad; Zhu, Ying-Tien; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2010-11-01

    Although corneal epithelial stem cells (SCs) are located at the limbus between the cornea and the conjunctiva, not all limbal basal epithelial cells are SCs. Using 2 dispase digestions to remove different amounts of limbal basal epithelial cells for cross-sections, flat mounts, and cytospin preparations, double immunostaining to pancytokeratins (PCK) and vimentin (Vim) identified 3 p63+ epithelial progenitors such as PCK-/Vim+, PCK/Vim, and PCK-/Vim+ and 1 p63+ mesenchymal cell, PCK-/Vim+. PCK-/Vim- progenitors had the smallest cell size were 10-20 times more enriched on collagen I-coated dishes in the 5-minute rapid adherent fraction that contained the highest percentage of p63+ cells but the lowest percentage of cytokeratin12+ cells, and gave rise to high Ki67 labeling and vivid clonal growth. In contrast, PCK+/Vim+ and PCK+/Vim- progenitors were found more in the slow-adherent fraction and yielded poor clonal growth. PCK/Vim progenitors and clusters of PCK-/Vim+ mesenchymal cells, which were neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells, were located in the limbal basal region. Therefore, differential expression of PCK and Vim helps identify small PCK-/Vim- cells as the most likely candidate for SCs among a hierarchy of heterogeneous limbal basal progenitors, and their close association with PCK-/Vim+ presumed "niche" cells.

  8. [Parotid basal cell adenoma of membranous type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah-Klibi, Faten; Ferchiou, Malek; Kourda, Jihène; El Amine, Olfa; Ferjaoui, Mohamed; Ben Jilani, Sarrah; Zermani, Rachida

    2009-02-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare benign neoplasm characterized by the basaloid appearance of the tumour cells and the lack of myxo-chondroid stromal component present in pleomorphic adenoma. We report a case of basal cell adenoma of membranous type, highly suspected of malignancy because of the presence of mediastinal lymph nodes and pulmonary nodules which finally were related to an associated sarcoidosis. Our patient was an 80-year-old woman who presented a swelling of the right parotid two years ago. The clinical examination revealed a solid, indolent and mobile mass. A chest radiography noted mediastinal lymph nodes. The CT-scan confirmed the presence of mediastinal and tracheal lymph nodes with pulmonary nodules. So the diagnosis of metastatic malignant salivary gland tumor was suspected. Finally, the histological examination concluded to a basal cell adenoma of membranous type with sarcoidosis granulomas in the parotid and in the lymph nodes. The BCA is a benign tumor located generally in the parotid gland. When the malignancy is suspected, like in our case, this tumor must be differentiated from the basal cell adenocarcinoma using histological criteria.

  9. CONCERNS REGARDING HAIR CORTISOL AS A BIOMARKER OF CHRONIC STRESS IN EXERCISE AND SPORT SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjörg H. Jonsdottir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes' elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels

  10. Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Pawluski

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus. Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions… on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares, from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks, early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.

  11. Hair cortisol and cortisol awakening response are associated with criteria of the metabolic syndrome in opposite directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Linn K; Hinkelmann, Kim; Muhtz, Christoph; Dettenborn, Lucia; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wiedemann, Klaus; Otte, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Findings on the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and metabolic risk are equivocal. Different methods of measuring HPA activity might indicate adverse vs. beneficial effects of HPA activity on metabolic risk thus contributing to heterogenous findings. In this study, we aimed to determine whether (1) the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) as a marker of awakening-induced activation of the HPA axis and (2) hair cortisol as a marker of long-term cortisol secretion are associated with criteria of the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recruited 41 healthy individuals (26 women, mean age: 41.2 years) and 44 patients with major depression (28 women, 41.4 years) and assessed CAR and hair cortisol values as well as all criteria of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal obesity, blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides and high-density cholesterol levels) according to the International Diabetes Federation. CAR and hair cortisol values were divided into tertiles. Across groups, participants with hair cortisol or hair cortisone in the highest tertile showed significantly more criteria of the metabolic syndrome compared to participants in the medium or low tertile (F2,64=3.37, p=.04). These results were corroborated by significant positive correlations between mean hair cortisol values with waist circumference (r=.29, p=.03), triglycerides (r=.34, p=.01) and systolic blood pressure (r=.29, p=.04) and between mean hair cortisone and triglycerides (r=.46, pcortisol and hair cortisone levels but lower CAR values are associated with an unfavorable metabolic and cardiovascular risk profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex differences in cortisol's regulation of affiliative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Gary D; Rice, Leslie K; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Jones, Amanda C; Josephs, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. A stress perspective is used to illuminate how competitive defeat and victory shape biology and behavior. We report a field study examining how change in cortisol following perceived defeat (vs. victory) in a competition-in this case, a dog agility competition-relates to affiliative behavior. Following competition, we measured cortisol change and the extent to which dog handlers directed affiliative behaviors toward their dogs. We found striking sex differences in affiliation. First, men were more affiliative toward their dogs after victory, whereas women were more affiliative after defeat. Second, the greater a female competitor's increase in cortisol, the more time she spent affiliating with her dog, whereas for men, the pattern was the exact opposite: the greater a male competitor's increase in cortisol, the less time he spent affiliating with his dog. This pattern suggests that, in the wake of competition, men and women's affiliative behavior may serve different functions-shared celebration for men; shared consolation for women. These sex differences show not only that men and women react very differently to victory and defeat, but also that equivalent changes in cortisol across the sexes are associated with strikingly different behavioral consequences for men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Testosterone suppression of CRH-stimulated cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, David R; Roca, Catherine A; Schmidt, Peter J; Danaceau, Merry A; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-10-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in 10 men (ages 18-45 years) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (pcortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (pcortisol : ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (pcortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone.

  15. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Patterson

    Full Text Available The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+ T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.Lower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+ T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006. Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+ T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08. A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.018 and CD8(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.017 activation.These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV.

  16. Maternal Lifetime Trauma Exposure, Prenatal Cortisol, and Infant Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Devick, Katrina L; Brunst, Kelly J; Lipton, Lianna R; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-01-01

    Little research has examined the impact of maternal lifetime trauma exposure on infant temperament. We examined associations between maternal trauma history and infant negative affectivity and modification by prenatal cortisol exposure in a sociodemographically diverse sample of mother-infant dyads. During pregnancy, mothers completed measures of lifetime trauma exposure and current stressors. Third-trimester cortisol output was assessed from maternal hair. When infants were 6 months old, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. In analyses that controlled for infant sex and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and stress during pregnancy, greater maternal trauma exposure was associated with increased infant distress to limitations and sadness. Higher and lower prenatal cortisol exposure modified the magnitude and direction of association between maternal trauma history and infant rate of recovery from arousal. The association between maternal trauma history and infant distress to limitations was somewhat stronger among infants exposed to higher levels of prenatal cortisol. The analyses suggested that maternal lifetime trauma exposure is associated with several domains of infant negative affectivity independently of maternal stress exposures during pregnancy and that some of these associations may be modified by prenatal cortisol exposure. The findings have implications for understanding the intergenerational impact of trauma exposure on child developmental outcomes.

  17. Early psychosocial exposures, hair cortisol levels, and disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlén, Jerker; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Hedmark, Max; Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Faresjö, Tomas

    2015-06-01

    Early psychosocial exposures are increasingly recognized as being crucial to health throughout life. A possible mechanism could be physiologic dysregulation due to stress. Cortisol in hair is a new biomarker assessing long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. The objective was to investigate whether early-life adverse psychosocial circumstances influence infant cortisol levels in hair and health outcomes in children prospectively until age 10. A cohort study in the general community using a questionnaire covering 11 psychosocial items in the family during pregnancy and the cumulative incidence of diagnoses until age 10 years in 1876 children. Cortisol levels in hair were measured by using a radioimmunoassay in those with sufficient hair samples at age 1, yielding a subsample of n = 209. Children with added psychosocial exposures had higher infant cortisol levels in hair (B = 0.40, P psychosocial exposures determine health outcomes. The model indicates that the multiplicity of adversities should be targeted in future interventions and could help to identify children who are at high risk of poor health. Furthermore, given the prolonged nature of exposure to a stressful social environment, the novel biomarker of cortisol in hair could be of major importance. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan R.; Sudhir, Uchil; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral) meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P meningitis (P meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26019421

  19. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  20. Melatonin and cortisol rhythm in patients with extensive nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Vural; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Kalkandelen, Sadettin; Cingi, Cemal

    2013-01-01

    Extensive nasal polyposis is an inflammatory disease which effects 1%-4% of normal population. The mechanism of its formation and the circadian rhythm of cortisol and melatonin in ENP have not investigated. Salivary levels of melatonin and cortisol were measured by radioimmunoassay in 31 patients with extensive nasal polyposis and in 27 control subjects matched for age and gender. In both groups none of the subjects did not have obstructive sleep apnea. The baseline and the peak levels of salivary melatonin in the extensive nasal polyposis group were significantly lower than in the control group (pmelatonin between the study and control groups (p>0.05). The highest values of melatonin were recorded at 04:00 h in both the study and control groups. The amplitude and the 24 h mean levels of salivary cortisol in the extensive nasal polyposis group were significantly lower than in the control group (pmelatonin and cortisol were found to be disrupted in patients with extensive nasal polyposis. These results may be applicable as therapeutic tools in the future and melatonin drugs might be useful in the therapy of nasal polyposis like cortisol drugs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Methodology for determination of plasma cortisol in fish using Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Cruz-Casallas, Pablo E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To determine plasma cortisol procedure in fish using competitive enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Materials and methods. Two plasma samples of juveniles rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were analized by using ELISA human kit for cortisol assay. For standard curve calibration ...

  2. Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Netterstrøm, Bo; Hansen, Ase Marie

    2006-01-01

    Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years.......Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years....

  3. Endogenous testosterone and cortisol modulate neural responses during induced anger control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denson, T.F.; Ronay, R.D.; von Hippel, W.; Schira, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Research with violent offenders and delinquent adolescents suggests that endogenous testosterone concentrations have the strongest positive correlations with violence among men who have low concentrations of cortisol. The present study tested the hypothesis that testosterone and cortisol would

  4. A novel method for assessing chronic cortisol concentrations in dogs using the nail as a source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Z; Fokidis, H B

    2017-04-01

    Cortisol, a glucocorticoid secreted in response to stress, is used to assess adrenal function and mental health in clinical settings. Current methods assess cortisol sources that reflect short-term secretion that can vary with current stress state. Here, we present a novel method for the extraction and quantification of cortisol from the dog nail using solid phase extraction coupled to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Validation experiments demonstrated accuracy (r = 0.836, P cortisol concentrations were positively correlated to an established hair cortisol method (r = 0.736, P cortisol concentrations did not differ with dog sex, breed, age, or weights; however, sample size limitations may preclude statistical significance. Nail cortisol may provide information on cortisol secretion integrated over the time corresponding to nail growth and may be useful as a tool for diagnosing stress and adrenal disorders in dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended to measure the cortisol hormones secreted by the adrenal gland in plasma and urine. Measurements of cortisol are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the adrenal gland. (b...

  6. Analysis of cortisol and other stress-related hormones in patients with Meniere's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cruijsen, N; Dullaart, RPF; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cortisol and catecholamine levels in patients with Meniere's disease. Study Design: Prospective, controlled study. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Thirty patients with Meniere's disease and 18 healthy controls. Main Outcome Measures: Serum and saliva cortisol,

  7. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...... not statistically significant. The results would support the notion that exhaustion is associated with HPA axis hypoactivity as assessed by salivary cortisol. Furthermore, the SF-36 vitality provides a measure of exhaustion that may be useful in epidemiological studies in order to explore long-term health effects...

  8. Use of a National Continuing Medical Education Meeting to Provide Simulation-Based Training in Temporary Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion Skills: A Pre-Test Post-Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G Clark

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs. Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Objectives: Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Design: Pre-test – post-test study. Setting: 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Participants: Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Measurements: Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Methods: Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Results: Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21. Seventeen of 22 participants (77% completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001. All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics

  9. Use of a national continuing medical education meeting to provide simulation-based training in temporary hemodialysis catheter insertion skills: a pre-test post-test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Edward G; Paparello, James J; Wayne, Diane B; Edwards, Cedric; Hoar, Stephanie; McQuillan, Rory; Schachter, Michael E; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML) is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs). Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME) meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Pre-test - post-test study. 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21). Seventeen of 22 participants (77%) completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001). All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics, prior experience or procedural self-confidence with pre-test performance. Small sample-size and

  10. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  11. Profile of cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of American Bullfrog tadpoles Lithobates catesbeianus exposed to density and hypoxia stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations to the physiological profile (cortisol, glycaemia, and blood parameters of Lithobates catesbeianus caused by the stressors density and hypoxia. The organisms were in the prometamorphosis stage and exposed to different tadpole densities: 1 tadpole/L (T1, 5 tadpoles/L (T2, and 10 tadpoles/L (T3 for 12 days. The blood was collected through the rupture of the caudal blood vessel and collected under normoxia (immediate collection and hypoxia (after 15 minutes of air exposure conditions. Cortisol levels rose on the fourth and eighth days of treatment and returned to basal levels by the end of the experiment. The stressor mechanisms tested did not affect glycaemia. White blood cells (total number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils showed a significant difference at the twelfth day of the experiment when compared with the start of the experiment. We concluded that, under controlled conditions, a density of up to 10 tadpoles/L and air exposure for 15 minutes did not cause harmful physiological alterations during the experimental period. The answer to these stressors maybe was in another hormonal level (corticosterone.

  12. The effect of active immunization against adrenocorticotropic hormone on cortisol, beta-endorphin, vocalization, and growth in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Giles, L R; Bryden, W L; Downing, J A; Collins, D C; Wynn, P C

    2005-10-01

    Because the poor growth performance of intensively housed pigs is associated with increased circulating glucocorticoid concentrations, we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid suppression by inducing a humoral immune response to ACTH on physiological and production variables in growing pigs. Grower pigs (28.6 +/- 0.9 kg) were immunized with amino acids 1 through 24 of ACTH conjugated to ovalbumin and suspended in diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) dextran-adjuvant or adjuvant alone (control) on d 1, 28, and 56. The ACTH-specific antibody titers generated suppressed increases in cortisol concentrations on d 63 in response to an acute stressor (P = 0.002; control = 71 +/- 8.2 ng/mL; ACTH-immune = 43 +/- 4.9 ng/mL) without altering basal concentrations. Plasma beta-endorphin concentrations were also increased (P immune = 63 +/- 7.3 ng/mL), presumably because of a release from negative feedback on the expression of proopiomelanocortin in pituitary corticotropes. Immunization against ACTH did not alter ADG (P = 0.120; control = 1,077 +/- 25; ACTH-immune = 1,143 +/- 25 g) or ADFI (P = 0.64; control = 2,719 +/- 42; ACTH-immune = 2,749 +/- 42 g) and did not modify behavior (P = 0.681) assessed by measuring vocalization in response to acute restraint. In summary, suppression of stress-induced cortisol responses through ACTH immunization increased beta-endorphin concentrations, but it did not modify ADG, ADFI, or restraint vocalization score in growing pigs.

  13. Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Term Human Labor: Physiological and Methodological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Benfield, Rebecca D.; Newton, Edward R.; Tanner, Charles J.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Literature on the use of plasma cortisol to quantify psychophysiological stress in humans is extensive. However, in parturition at term gestation the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress is particularly complex. Plasma cortisol levels increase as labor progresses. This increase seems to be important for maintenance of maternal/fetal wellbeing and facilitation of normal labor progress. Unique physiological and methodological issues involved in the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress i...

  14. An Investigation of Hair Cortisol Concentration across Body Sites and within Hair shaft

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher F. Sharpley; Kathleen G. Kauter; James R. Mcfarlane

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations in hair collected from young male and female adults were assayed and compared for differences along shaft length and between body sites. No significant differences were found between hair shaft sites, supporting a model of the hair shaft as “alive” and responsive to environmental demand in terms of cortisol production. Hair taken from forearms had significantly higher concentrations of cortisol than hair from lower legs, suggesting a localized hair cortisol response an...

  15. Influence of Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Misalignment on Cortisol, Inflammatory Markers, and Cytokine Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Kenneth P.; Drake, Amanda L.; Frey, Danielle J.; Fleshner, Monika; Desouza, Christopher A.; Gronfier, Claude; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol and inflammatory proteins are released into the blood in response to stressors and chronic elevations of blood cortisol and inflammatory proteins may contribute to ongoing disease processes and could be useful biomarkers of disease. How chronic circadian misalignment influences cortisol and inflammatory proteins, however, is largely unknown and this was the focus of the current study. Specifically, we examined the influence of weeks of chronic circadian misalignment on cortisol, stre...

  16. Relationship between salivary cortisol levels and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in nondemented elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Bin; Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Ha; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Cortisol is a primary stress hormone for flight-or-fight response in human. Increased levels of cortisol have been associated with memory and learning impairments. However, little is known about the role of cortisol on brain/cognitive functions in older adults. We compared regional cerebral glucose metabolism between elderly subjects with high and low cortisol levels using FDG PET. Salivary cortisol levels were measured four times during a day, and an average of the four measurements was used as the standard cortisol level for the analyses. From a population of 120 nondemented elderly subjects, 19 (mean age, 70.1{+-}4.9 y: 2 males and 17 females) were identified as the high (> mean + 1 SD of the total population) cortisol subjects (mean cortisol, 0.69{+-}0.09 {mu} g/dL), while 14 (mean age, 67.2{+-}4.5 y: all females) as the low (< mean 1 SD) cortisol (mean cortisol, 0.27{+-}0.03 {mu} g/dL). A voxel-wise comparison of FDG PET images from the high and low cortisol subjects was performed using SPM99. When compared with the low cortisol group, the high cortisol group had significant hypometabolism in the right middle temporal gyrus, left precuneus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right inferior temporal and superior temporal gyri (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). There was no significant increase of glucose metabolism in the high cortisol group compared with the low cortisol group (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100). The high cortisol elderly subjects had hypometabolism in the parahippocampal and temporal gyri and precuneus, regions involved in memory and other cognitive functions. This may represent the preclinical metabolic correlates of forthcoming cognitive dysfunction associated with stress in the elderly. Longitudinal studies of brain metabolism and cognitive function are warranted.

  17. Serotonin transporter genotype, salivary cortisol, neuroticism and life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    , 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorder (high and low risk twins) were baseline assessed. Participants were followed up for seven years and then reassessed with a personal interview revealing whether they had developed psychiatric illness......OBJECTIVE: To investigate if cortisol alone or in interaction with other risk factors (familial risk, the serotonin transporter genotype, neuroticism and life events (LEs)) predicts onset of psychiatric disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk. MATRIAL AND METHODS: In a high-risk study....... RESULTS: 36 participants (15.4%) developed psychiatric disorder. Using Cox proportional hazards ratio (HR) estimates neither morning nor evening salivary cortisol at baseline did predict illness onset. In multivariate Cox models, the two-way interaction between morning cortisol and LEs lifetime before...

  18. Flavour-enhanced cortisol release during gum chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available There is some evidence to suggest that chewing gum reduces chronic stress. However, it remains controversial how the taste and odour properties of chewing gum influence stress. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in human subjects. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we tested salivary cortisol concentration, which is thought to be a stress marker, in 96 adults who chewed gum with different combinations of taste and odour. Subjects could discriminate between the types of gum without prior information. Salivary cortisol concentrations were highest and lowest for the subjects who chewed the most flavourful gum and the least flavourful gum, respectively. These findings suggest that the salivary cortisol level during gum chewing is not a marker of negative emotions (i.e., stressful conditions as traditionally considered but, rather, an index of positive emotions that can facilitate biological responses to overcome stressful conditions.

  19. Salivary cortisol and depression in public sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Increased cortisol levels have been suggested to play a role in the development of depression. An association has been shown in some studies but not consistently. The timing of an association is uncertain, and long-term follow-up studies may miss associations in narrower time windows. In the pres......Increased cortisol levels have been suggested to play a role in the development of depression. An association has been shown in some studies but not consistently. The timing of an association is uncertain, and long-term follow-up studies may miss associations in narrower time windows....... In the present study, we examined the association of several cortisol measures and depression in a repeated cross-sectional and short-term follow-up design. Depression was assessed by both self-reported symptoms of depression and clinical interviews....

  20. Growth hormone and cortisol in serum and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantonen, P J; Penttilä, I; Meurman, J H; Savolainen, K; Närvänen, S; Helenius, T

    2000-12-01

    Salivary diagnosis is a developing area in clinical chemistry and dentistry. Cortisol analyses from saliva have been used in pediatric practice and as doping tests. Growth hormone (hGH), also a stress hormone, has not been analyzed from saliva. We studied the serum and saliva of 51 healthy subjects. The samples were taken at 8:00 in the morning after 12 h fasting. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed using RIA. An immunoradiometric assay was applied for analyzing serum and salivary hGH. The validity of this method developed in our laboratory was found to be good. The results showed correlation of salivary cortisol with that of serum (r = 0.47, P hGH concentrations were 1000-fold lower than the respective values in serum, but a clear correlation was found between salivary and serum hGH levels (r = 0.59, P < 0.001).

  1. Inverse correlation between morning plasma cortisol levels and MMPI psychasthenia and depression scale scores in victims of mobbing with adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Antonio; Martocchia, Antonio; Frugoni, Patrizia; Baldini, Rossella; Sani, Gabriele; Di Simone Di Giuseppe, Barbara; Vairano, Andrea; Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Falaschi, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    Evidence in the literature suggests stress-related changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mobbing. We investigated the association between HPA activity and psychological profiles in mobbing, using a multidisciplinary approach. Forty-eight victims of mobbing were evaluated by a working group of the Departments of Occupational Medicine, Psychiatry and Internal Medicine. After an informed consent, a detailed occupational history, a psychiatric interview with Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) administration and a blood sample (8:00 AM) for the determination of basal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) plasma levels were collected. Twenty-six patients received an overnight dexamethasone (dex) test. Mean ACTH, cortisol and DHEAS levels were within normal ranges. The dex-test response was normal, with a significant hormone suppression (ACTH pmobbing with adjustment disorders was observed. A larger group of patients is necessary to identify and validate a cut-off cortisol level that may become an innovative biological parameter for the diagnosis and follow-up in victims of mobbing.

  2. Combined use of clinical pre-test probability and D-dimer test in the diagnosis of preoperative deep venous thrombosis in colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Mogens Tornby; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Hagedorn Nielsen, Tina Sandie

    2008-01-01

    preoperative DVT in colorectal cancer patients admitted for surgery. Preoperative D-dimer test and compression ultrasonography for DVT were performed in 193 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer. Diagnostic accuracy indices of the D-dimer test were assessed according to the PTP score......The preoperative prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients with colorectal cancer may be as high as 8%. In order to minimize the risk of pulmonary embolism, it is important to rule out preoperative DVT. A large study has confirmed that a negative D-dimer test in combination with a low...... clinical pre-test probability (PTP) can be safely used to rule out the tentative diagnosis of DVT in cancer patients. However, the accuracy in colorectal cancer patients is uncertain. This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a quantitative D-dimer assay in combination with the PTP score in ruling out...

  3. A model for developing and pre-testing a multi-media teaching program to enhance the self-care behavior of diabetes insipidus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, O; Schubert, W

    1985-03-01

    A patient-education program was designed by members of the Neurology Nursing Service. The program was designed to provide patients with diabetes insipidus with the information needed to help them manage their condition in the hospital and at home upon discharge. The program was approved by the Nursing Department's Patient Education Committee. The nurses worked closely with the hospital's patient-education coordinator and television-production staff to produce a videotape for educating patients about managing diabetes insipidus. A literature review of patient-education resources on diabetes insipidus revealed that no materials were available in either audiovisual or print media. The program utilized the multi-media approach of a videotape that was shown over closed-circuit television and a booklet outlining the salient points of the television program. All patients utilizing the program have been pre-tested and post-tested to assess their achievement of behavioral objectives.

  4. Reservoir characterization and final pre-test analysis in support of the compressed-air-energy-storage Pittsfield aquifer field test in Pike County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.; McCann, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The work reported is part of a field experimental program to demonstrate and evaluate compressed air energy storage in a porous media aquifer reservoir near Pittsfield, Illinois. The reservoir is described. Numerical modeling of the reservoir was performed concurrently with site development. The numerical models were applied to predict the thermohydraulic performance of the porous media reservoir. This reservoir characterization and pre-test analysis made use of evaluation of bubble development, water coning, thermal development, and near-wellbore desaturation. The work was undertaken to define the time required to develop an air storage bubble of adequate size, to assess the specification of instrumentation and above-ground equipment, and to develop and evaluate operational strategies for air cycling. A parametric analysis was performed for the field test reservoir. (LEW)

  5. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, Iris; Wedl, Manuela; Beetz, Andrea; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100) over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, pDogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI) and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT), had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016), as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ) or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ) (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003). We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context) in science and in counselling. PMID:28178272

  6. Influence of cortisol on zinc metabolism in morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Martins, Luana; Soares de Oliveira, Ana Raquel; Clímaco Cruz, Kyria Jayanne; Borges de Araújo, Camila Guedes; de Oliveira, Francisco Erasmo; Santos de Sousa, Gustavo; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of visceral fat affects the metabolism of hormones and some nutrients, but these mechanisms remain unclear. To assess the influence of cortisol on the metabolism of zinc in morbidly obese women. Cross-sectional, case-control study involving 80 women aged between 20 and 59 years. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (morbidly obese, n = 40) and control (normal weight, n = 40). Zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and serum and urinary cortisol by chemiluminescence method. Zinc intake was significantly different between groups. Mean plasma zinc was lower in obese compared to control group. Mean values for erythrocyte zinc were 44.52 ± 7.84 µg/gHb and 40.17 ± 6.71 µg/gHb for obese and control groups, respectively. Urinary excretion of this mineral was higher in obese compared to control subjects (p cortisol were 9.58 ± 4.86 µg/dL for obese and 9.89 ± 5.61 µg/dL for control groups. Mean values for urinary cortisol were 163.00 ± 100.35 µg/dL and 109.71 ± 34.88 µg/dL for obese and control groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The correlation analysis between cortisol and zinc was not significant (p > 0.05). Obese patients have hypozincemia and high erythrocyte zinc levels. The correlation between zinc parameters and cortisol concentration showed no influence of this hormone on zinc metabolism.

  7. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Schöberl

    Full Text Available Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100 over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, p<0.001, whereas owner Agreeableness (NEO-FFI scaled positively with owner iCV (F = 4.981, p = 0.028. Dogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT, had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016, as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003. We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context in science and in counselling.

  8. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2018-02-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  9. Baseline cortisol measures and developmental pathways of anxiety in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greaves-Lord, K.; Huizink, A. C.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ferdinand, R. F.

    Objective: This study investigated whether baseline cortisol measures predicted future anxiety, and compared cortisol values of groups with different developmental pathways of anxiety. Method: Cortisol levels were assessed in 1768 individuals (10-12 years). Anxiety levels were assessed at the same

  10. State-dependent regulation of cortical activity by cortisol : An EEG study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; van Peer, Jacobien M.; Wester, Anne E.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Korf, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of cortisol administration on EEG activity in eight healthy volunteers. We administered 35 mg of cortisol in a within-subjects double-blind placebo-controlled design. Cortisol administration caused a global decrease in cortical activity except for an

  11. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level | Odeniyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cortisol measurement is indicated in suspected over or underproduction of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. The finding of low cortisol can create concern and initiate further investigations for the exclusion of adrenal insufficiency. Cushing's syndrome is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of obesity.

  12. Relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration in female kindergarten teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Xingliang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yapeng; Ji, Shuang; Chen, Zheng; Sluiter, Judith K.; Deng, Huihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration among teachers to examine whether hair cortisol can be a biomarker of chronic work stress. Hair samples were collected from 39 female teachers from three kindergartens. Cortisol was

  13. Baseline cortisol measures and developmental pathways of anxiety in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greaves-Lord, K.; Huizink, A.C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective:  This study investigated whether baseline cortisol measures predicted future anxiety, and compared cortisol values of groups with different developmental pathways of anxiety. Method:  Cortisol levels were assessed in 1768 individuals (10-12 years). Anxiety levels were assessed at the same

  14. Capturing effort and recovery: reactive and recuperative cortisol responses to competition in well-trained rowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallen, V.L.; Stubbe, J.H.; Zwolle, H.J.; Valk, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim It is well known that physical strain is associated with increased cortisol production. And although mental stress elevates cortisol concentrations as well, little is known of the independent and/or combined effects of both on the secretion of cortisol. Aim of the study was to

  15. The biological clock modulates the human cortisol response in a multiplicative fashion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Booij, Sanne H.; van der Zwan, J Esi; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; Beersma, Domien G. M.

    Human cortisol levels follow a clear circadian rhythm. We investigated the contribution of alternation of sleep and wakefulness and the circadian clock, using forced desynchrony. Cortisol levels were best described by a multiplication of a circadian and a wake-time component. The human cortisol

  16. Psychosocial stress impairs working memory at high loads: An association with cortisol levels and memory retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, N.Y.L.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.; Elzinga, B.M.; van Well, S.; Bermond, B.

    2006-01-01

    Stress and cortisol are known to impair memory retrieval of well-consolidated declarative material. The effects of cortisol on memory retrieval may in particular be due to glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Therefore, effects of stress and cortisol should

  17. The impact of cortisol in steatotic and non-steatotic liver surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Bujaldon, Esther; Mendes-Braz, Mariana; Avalos de León, Cindy G; Jiménez-Castro, Mónica B; Álvarez-Mercado, Ana I; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Rodés, Juan; Peralta, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the effects of regulating cortisol levels on damage and regeneration in livers with and without steatosis subjected to partial hepatectomy under ischaemia-reperfusion. Ultimately, we found that lean animals undergoing liver resection displayed no changes in cortisol, whereas cortisol levels in plasma, liver and adipose tissue were elevated in obese animals undergoing such surgery. Such elevations were attributed to enzymatic upregulation, ensuring cortisol production, and downregulation of enzymes controlling cortisol clearance. In the absence of steatosis, exogenous cortisol administration boosted circulating cortisol, while inducing clearance of hepatic cortisol, thus maintaining low cortisol levels and preventing related hepatocellular harm. In the presence of steatosis, cortisol administration was marked by a substantial rise in intrahepatic availability, thereby exacerbating tissue damage and regenerative failure. The injurious effects of cortisol were linked to high hepatic acethylcholine levels. Upon administering an α7 nicotinic acethylcholine receptor antagonist, no changes in terms of tissue damage or regenerative lapse were apparent in steatotic livers. However, exposure to an M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist protected livers against damage, enhancing parenchymal regeneration and survival rate. These outcomes for the first time provide new mechanistic insight into surgically altered steatotic livers, underscoring the compelling therapeutic potential of cortisol-acetylcholine-M3 muscarinic receptors. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. The low single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of plasma and saliva cortisol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Alexander; Direk, Nese; Crawford, Andrew A; Mirza, Saira; Adams, Hieab; Bolton, Jennifer; Hayward, Caroline; Strachan, David P; Payne, Erin K; Smith, Jennifer A; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda; Hottenga, Jouke J; de Geus, Eco; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; van der Most, Peter J; de Rijke, Yolanda; Walker, Brian R; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol

  19. Gender differences in the associations between cortisol and insulin in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; Lamberts, SWJ; deJong, FH; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE

    To investigate the role of cortisol in the etiology of insulin resistance in men and women, we examined 218 healthy non-hospitalized elderly, selected from the Rotterdam Study. Free cortisol was assessed by the ratio of fasting serum cortisol over corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and insulin

  20. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  1. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ichinokawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118–1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124–125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  2. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Mierzewska, Hanna; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  3. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  4. Traumatisk basal subaraknoidal blødning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Peter; Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil

    2003-01-01

    mod den posterolaterale del af kraniebasis. I det typiske tilfælde falder offeret øjeblikkeligt bevidstløs sammen, og døden indtræder efter få minutter. Blødningen udgår enten fra arteria vertebralis på halsen eller fra de intrakraniale basale hjernearterier. I en del tilfælde kan blødningskilden ikke...

  5. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and negat......The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...

  6. Laparoscopic Partial Adrenalectomy for Bilateral Cortisol-secreting Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Domino

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas are a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal adenomas. Adrenal venous sampling confirmed both adenomas to be hyper-secreting cortisol. She underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy; total right and partial left adrenalectomies. At 2-year follow-up, she is maintained on low-dose fludrocortisone and hydrocortisone, and without recurrence of hypercorticolism. Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy is a feasible option for this rare condition; however, long-term follow-up is needed to determine her total independence from steroid usage.

  7. CT brain demonstration of basal ganglion calcification in adult HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brain barrier has been postulated. Calcification of the basal ganglia in encephalopathic HIV/AIDS children has been relatively well documented. Only two adult HIV cases with basal ganglion calcification (BGC) have been reported in the literature.

  8. Basal cell nevus syndrome - close-up of palm (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skeletal abnormalities. Skin manifestations include pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas. This ... close-up of the pits found in the palm of an individual with basal cell nevus syndrome.

  9. Effects of drugs on beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui

    2001-01-01

    The authors observed the effects of drugs on beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers and their correlation. The levels of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol of smokers before and after cigarette withdrawal were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The Levels of plasma beta-endorphin and cortisol in smokers is significantly higher than in controls. After natural withdrawal, the levels of plasma cortisol increased significantly, while beta-endorphin decreased significantly. After drug treatment, the levels of beta-endorphin and cortisol balanced. The drugs may play the role of cigarette withdrawal by improving the secretion of endogenous opium and the axis of hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal

  10. Stress assessment using hair cortisol of kangaroos affected by the lumpy jaw disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sano, Tadashi; Arai, Chigusa; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Hayashi, Hideaki

    2017-05-03

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess stress of kangaroos affected by lumpy jaw disease (LJD) using plasma and hair cortisol concentrations. The plasma and hair samples were collected from kangaroos with LJD and healthy controls. Collected hair samples were extracted with methanol after washing with isopropanol, following which they were processed with the cortisol enzyme immunoassay kit. The plasma cortisol concentration of LJD animals tended to be higher than that of the control. Ventral hair cortisol, but not dorsal hair, of LJD animals was significantly higher than that of the control. In conclusion, stress in kangaroos infected with LJD could be assessed by measuring ventral hair cortisol.

  11. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesInconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.MethodsWe investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized a...

  12. Effect of Stress Caused by Academic Tests on Cortisol and ProlactineLevels in a Group of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucía Salamanca

    2006-06-01

    event exposure, they could be enoughto maintain basal prolactine levels without anadaptative response. It can be inferred that cortisolregulates the prolactine synthesis. Results showthat when cortisol concentration decreases,prolactine levels significantly increase.

  13. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameloblastomas are an inscrutable group of oral tumors. Basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with very few cases reported until date. The tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has less conspicuous peripheral palisading. It shows remarkable similarity to basal cell carcinoma, basal cell ...

  14. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively.

  15. Prolactin, cortisol and thyroxine levels and the premature infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship of prolactin, cortisol and thyroxine values in cord and maternal plasma to fetal age and weight and to the incidence of hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was investigated in 80 neonates of whom 40 were born at more than 37 weeks' gestation. Of the 40 born at less than 36 weeks 11 developed HMD.

  16. Accumulation of hepatic Hsp70 and plasma cortisol in Oreochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatic isoforms Hsp70, Hsp74 and Hsp76 were identified and quantified from copper exposures. Long-term DDT exposure did not result in significant induction of hepatic Hsp70. An increase in plasma cortisol concentration was associated with a decrease in heat shock protein accumulation after cadmium exposure, ...

  17. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS−) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS− than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS− differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear. PMID:23945999

  18. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2010-01-01

    salivary cortisol in depressed patients (0-29 nmol/l) and control persons (1-23 nmol/l) showed substantial overlap suggesting lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution as the heterogeneity for the morning analysis was large and a funnel plot, suggested presence...

  19. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, Seema, E-mail: seemanara@mnnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Mechanics (Biotechnology), Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tripathi, Vinay [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, Harpal [Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Shrivastav, Tulsidas G. [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2010-12-03

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL{sup -1} with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  1. Quetiapine reduces nocturnal urinary cortisol excretion in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Stefan; Pohlmann, Kathrin; Guan, Zhenghua; Jordan, Wolfgang; Meier, Andreas; Huether, Gerald; Rüther, Eckart; Rodenbeck, Andrea

    2004-07-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction is a frequent finding in psychiatric disorders, including psychotic depression and schizophrenia. Conflicting results exist concerning the influence of antipsychotics on the HPA-axis. Therefore, this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study investigated the effect of quetiapine on nocturnal urinary cortisol and melatonin excretion in 13 healthy male subjects under conditions of undisturbed and experimentally disturbed sleep. Volunteers were studied 3 times for 3 consecutive nights (N0, adaptation; N1, standard sleep conditions; N2, acoustic stress) 4 days apart. Placebo, quetiapine 25 mg or quetiapine 100 mg was administered orally 1 h before bedtime on nights 1 and 2. Urine produced during the 8-h bedtime period was collected for later determination of cortisol and melatonin concentrations by standard radioimmunoassays. MANOVA showed a significant effect for N1 vs. N2 with elevated total amount of cortisol ( pmelatonin ( pcortisol excretion in comparison to placebo. No interaction effect of stress condition was observed. There was no effect of quetiapine on melatonin levels. The significant reduction of nocturnal cortisol excretion following quetiapine reflects a decreased activity of the HPA-axis in healthy subjects. This finding may be an important aspect in quetiapine's mode of action in different patient populations.

  2. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage = 6.09 years; 70 girls)

  3. Endogenous cortisol levels influence exposure therapy in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Michael, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    Previous research in patients with phobia showed that the administration of glucocorticoids reduces fear in phobic situations and enhances exposure therapy. Glucocorticoids underlie a daily cycle with a peak in the morning and low levels during the evening and night. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure is more effective when conducted in the morning when endogenous cortisol levels are high. Sixty patients meeting DSM IV criteria for specific phobia (animal type) were randomly assigned to one-session exposure treatment either at 08.00 a.m. (high cortisol group) or at 06.00 p.m. (low cortisol group). Participants returned for a posttreatment assessment one week after therapy and a follow-up assessment three months after therapy. Both groups showed good outcome, but patients treated in the morning exhibited significantly less fear of spiders in the behavioral approach test (BAT) and a trend for lower scores on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) than patients treated in the evening. This effect was present at posttreatment and follow-up. Our findings indicate that exposure therapy is more effective in the morning than in the evening. We suggest that this may be due to higher endogenous cortisol levels in the morning group that enhance extinction memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study Of The Relationship Between Serum Cortisol And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dementia is the general term that refers to the decline of mental abilities including memory and other thinking skills while a person is alert and awake. Dementia is considered a ... level decrease with age and mean serum cortisol levels was higher in both AD and VD than normal controls while mean serum ...

  5. Cortisol, reaction time test and health among offshore shift workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Anette; Waage, Siri; Ursin, Holger

    2010-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol shows a pronounced endogenous diurnal rhythm, which is affected by the sleep/wake cycle, meals and activity. Shift work and especially night work disrupts the sleep/wake cycle and causes a desynchronization of the natural biological rhythms. Therefore, different shift ...... schedules may have different impact on performance at work and health....

  6. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  7. The relationship between serum cortisol, adrenaline, blood glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LDL-cholesterol levels in students under examination stress compared to the non examination period (p=0.001, 0.013,. 0.0001 ... (r=0.297, p=0.032) between serum cortisol and TC/HDL ratio (cardiac risk factor) before examination stress but not during the stress ..... dents may develop memory problems which will affect.

  8. Melatonin reduces locomotor activity and circulating cortisol in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpeleta, Clara; Martínez-Alvarez, Rosa María; Delgado, María Jesús; Isorna, Esther; De Pedro, Nuria

    2010-03-01

    The present study focused on the effects of a subchronic melatonin treatment on locomotor activity and cortisol plasma levels in goldfish. We compared two different administration routes: peripheral (10 microg/g body weight) versus central (1 microg/microl) injections of melatonin for 7 or 4 days, respectively. Daily locomotor activity, including both diurnal and nocturnal activities, food anticipatory activity and circulating cortisol at 11:00 (under 24 h of food deprivation and 17 h postinjection) were significantly reduced after repeated intraperitoneal injections with melatonin for 7 days, but not after intracerebroventricular treatment. Taking in mind the anoretic effect of melatonin in this species, we investigated if such feeding reduction is directly responsible for the reduction in motor activity induced by melatonin treatment. Food restriction (50%) for 10 days did not significantly modify either daily locomotor activity or plasma cortisol levels in goldfish, indicating that the peripheral action of melatonin diminishing locomotor activity in goldfish is not a direct consequence of its anoretic action. In summary, our results indicate that, as previously described in other vertebrate species, melatonin can regulate locomotor activity and cortisol levels in goldfish, suggesting a sedative effect of this hormone in this teleost. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and the dental anxiety scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels.

  10. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  11. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  12. Long-term cortisol levels measured in scalp hair of obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Vincent L; Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Visser, Jenny A; Manenschijn, Laura; Koper, Jan W; Klessens-Godfroy, Francoise J M; van den Akker, Erica L T; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2014-09-01

    In obese subjects a relatively high cortisol output in urine has been observed compared to nonobese individuals. However, cortisol levels in blood, saliva, and urine in association with obesity have been inconsistent across studies, possibly due to the high variability of systemic cortisol levels. Cortisol levels measured in scalp hair provide a marker for long-term cortisol exposure, and have been associated with cardiovascular disease in an elderly population and to disease course in Cushing's disease. We aimed to compare hair cortisol levels between obese patients and nonobese controls. Hair cortisol levels of 47 obese patients (median BMI 38.8, range 31.1-65.8), 41 overweight, and 87 normal-weight subjects using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were measured. Obese patients had higher hair cortisol levels than overweight and normal weight subjects (respectively 30.8 vs 8.5 and 8.4 pg/mg hair, P cortisol levels was found between normal weight and overweight subjects. Our results suggest a higher long-term cortisol exposure in obese patients, which may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. Future research will determine whether long-term cortisol levels provide a novel treatment target in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in obesity. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. Reassessing the reliability of the salivary cortisol assay for the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Dou, Jingtao; Gu, Weijun; Yang, Guoqing; Lu, Juming

    2013-10-01

    The cortisol concentration in saliva is 10-fold lower than total serum cortisol and accurately reflects the serum concentration, both levels being lowest around midnight. The salivary cortisol assay measures free cortisol and is unaffected by confounding factors. This study analysed published data on the sensitivity and specificity of salivary cortisol levels in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. Data from studies on the use of different salivary cortisol assay techniques in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome, published between 1998 and 2012 and retrieved using Ovid MEDLINE®, were analysed for variance and correlation. For the 11 studies analysed, mean sensitivity and specificity of the salivary cortisol assay were both >90%. Repeated measurements were easily made with this assay, enabling improved diagnostic accuracy in comparison with total serum cortisol measurements. This analysis confirms the reliability of the saliva cortisol assay as pragmatic tool for the accurate diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. With many countries reporting a rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity--in which there is often a high circulating cortisol level--salivary cortisol measurement will help distinguish these states from Cushing syndrome.

  14. Measurement of cortisol in dog hair: a noninvasive tool for the diagnosis of hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouschan, Claudia; Kuchar, Alexandra; Möstl, Erich

    2013-08-01

    The clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism (hypercortisolism) in dogs are known to be caused by chronic overexposure to glucocorticoids. The quantification of cortisol in serum, saliva or urine reflects the cortisol concentration at the time of sample collection, but in suspected hyperadrenocorticism it may be preferable to examine a long-term parameter of cortisol production. There is a need for a noninvasive method to monitor the long-term production of cortisol in dogs. It seems possible that measuring cortisol levels in hair could represent such a method. Hair was collected from 12 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and from 10 healthy control dogs. Immunoreactive cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to test the validity of the cortisol assay. Levels of immunoreactive cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone were significantly higher in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism than in control dogs. The difference was most pronounced for the cortisol level. The determination of cortisol in hair offers the advantage that sampling is easier and less invasive than taking blood, urine, faeces or saliva. Measuring cortisol in hair may represent a valuable tool for the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Cortisol Interferes with the Estradiol-Induced Surge of Luteinizing Hormone in the Ewe1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R.; Breen, Kellie M.; Oakley, Amy E.; Pierce, Bree N.; Tilbrook, Alan J.; Turner, Anne I.; Karsch, Fred J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cortisol interferes with the positive feedback action of estradiol that induces the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Ovariectomized sheep were treated sequentially with progesterone and estradiol to create artificial estrous cycles. Cortisol or vehicle (saline) was infused from 2 h before the estradiol stimulus through the time of the anticipated LH surge in the artificial follicular phase of two successive cycles. The plasma cortisol increment produced by infusion was ∼1.5 times greater than maximal concentrations seen during infusion of endotoxin, which is a model of immune/inflammatory stress. In experiment 1, half of the ewes received vehicle in the first cycle and cortisol in the second; the others were treated in reverse order. All ewes responded with an LH surge. Cortisol delayed the LH surge and reduced its amplitude, but both effects were observed only in the second cycle. Experiment 2 was modified to provide better control for a cycle effect. Four treatment sequences were tested (cycle 1-cycle 2): vehicle-vehicle, cortisol-cortisol, vehicle-cortisol, cortisol-vehicle. Again, cortisol delayed but did not block the LH surge, and this delay occurred in both cycles. Thus, an elevation in plasma cortisol can interfere with the positive feedback action of estradiol by delaying and attenuating the LH surge. PMID:19056703

  16. A mathematical model of aging-related and cortisol induced hippocampal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Janette JL

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hippocampus is essential for declarative memory synthesis and is a core pathological substrate for Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common aging-related dementing disease. Acute increases in plasma cortisol are associated with transient hippocampal inhibition and retrograde amnesia, while chronic cortisol elevation is associated with hippocampal atrophy. Thus, cortisol levels could be monitored and managed in older people, to decrease their risk of AD type hippocampal dysfunction. We generated an in silicomodel of the chronic effects of elevated plasma cortisol on hippocampal activity and atrophy, using the systems biology mark-up language (SBML. We further challenged the model with biologically based interventions to ascertain if cortisol associated hippocampal dysfunction could be abrogated. Results The in silicoSBML model reflected the in vivoaging of the hippocampus and increased plasma cortisol and negative feedback to the hypothalamic pituitary axis. Aging induced a 12% decrease in hippocampus activity (HA, increased to 30% by acute and 40% by chronic elevations in cortisol. The biological intervention attenuated the cortisol associated decrease in HA by 2% in the acute cortisol simulation and by 8% in the chronic simulation. Conclusion Both acute and chronic elevations in cortisol secretion increased aging-associated hippocampal atrophy and a loss of HA in the model. We suggest that this first SMBL model, in tandem with in vitroand in vivostudies, may provide a backbone to further frame computational cortisol and brain aging models, which may help predict aging-related brain changes in vulnerable older people.

  17. Relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration in female kindergarten teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingliang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yapeng; Ji, Shuang; Chen, Zheng; Sluiter, Judith K; Deng, Huihua

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and hair cortisol concentration among teachers to examine whether hair cortisol can be a biomarker of chronic work stress. Hair samples were collected from 39 female teachers from three kindergartens. Cortisol was extracted from the hair samples with methanol, and cortisol concentrations were measured with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Work stress was measured using the effort-reward imbalance scale. The ratio of effort to reward showed significantly positive association with hair cortisol concentration. The cortisol concentration in the system increases with the effort-reward imbalance. Measurement of hair cortisol can become a useful biomarker of chronic work stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A longitudinal evaluation of urinary cortisol in kennelled dogs, Canis familiaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Jacqueline M; Ledger, Rebecca A

    2006-05-30

    Urinary cortisol levels (based on cortisol : creatinine ratios) were evaluated in a randomly selected sample of shelter dogs kennelled over a 31-day period. Urine was collected on days 2, 5, 10, 17, 24 and 31 (with day 1 referring to the day of admittance to the shelter). Cortisol levels peaked on day 17 and steadily declined thereafter, although a high degree of individual variation was found, with cortisol levels peaking sooner in some dogs. Cortisol levels in kennelled dogs were significantly higher on all days except d 31 than the baseline measures taken from 20 dogs in their home environments. There were no differences between cortisol levels in male and female dogs on each day of sampling and there was no significant linear correlation between age and cortisol levels. The results are discussed in relation to stress management and the welfare of kennelled dogs.

  19. Cortisol and antisocial behavior in early adolescence: the role of gender in an economically disadvantaged sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Levine, Seymour

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between adolescents' antisocial behaviors and adrenocortical activity during a laboratory visit in a sample of economically disadvantaged families (N = 116, ages 12-14, 51% female). Pretask cortisol levels indexed adolescents' prechallenge response to the lab visit, whereas adolescents' response to a conflict discussion with their caregivers was indexed with residualized change in pre- to postconflict cortisol levels. A trait measure of antisocial behavior (derived from parent, teacher, and self-reports) was associated with lower pretask cortisol levels but greater cortisol response to the conflict discussion. Gender moderated antisocial adolescents' cortisol response to the conflict discussion with girls who reported more covert risky problem behaviors showing an increased cortisol response. The findings suggest that, although antisocial adolescents had lower pretask cortisol levels, conflict discussions with caregivers present a unique challenge to antisocial girls compared with antisocial boys.

  20. [Descriptive study on basal cell eyelid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, M J; Pfeiffer, N; Valor, C

    2015-09-01

    To describe a series of cases of basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical outcome, histopathological history, and photographic images of 200 patients with basal cell eyelid carcinomas. All were treated in the Herzog Carl Theodor Eye Hospital in Munich, Germany, between 2000 and 2013. In the present study, it was found that females are more affected than males. The mean age of presentation of the tumor occurred at the age of 70 years. In 50% of the cases the tumor was found on the lower lid, especially medially from the center of the lid. The lid margin was involved in 47% of all tumors. The mean diameter was 9.2mm. The recurrence rate after surgery with histologically clear resection margins was 5%. There was a significant relationship between tumor diameter and age. As tumors where located farther away from medial and closer to the lid margin, they became larger. There is a predominance of women affected by this tumor. This may be related to the fact that the sample was taken from those attending an oculoplastic surgery clinic, where there are generally more women than men attending. The formation of basal cell carcinomas increases with age. The infrequent involvement of the upper lid could be explained by the protection of the the eyebrow. The frequent involvement of the lower lid may be due to the light reflection (total reflection) by the cornea on the lower lid margin. Also chemical and physical effects of the tears may be more harmful on the lower lid. Patients tend to ask for medical help when they are females, younger, when the tumor is closer to the medial canthus or when the tumor is away from the lid margin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Dopaminergic innervation of human basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensa, L; Cossette, M; Parent, A

    2000-12-01

    This paper summarises the results of some of our recent tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical studies of the dopaminergic innervation of the human basal ganglia. It also reports new findings on the presence of TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the striatum. Our data show the existence of nigrostriatal TH-ir axons that provide collaterals arborizing in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus. These thin and varicose collaterals emerge from thick and smooth axons that course along the main output pathways of the basal ganglia, including the ansa lenticularis, the lenticular fasciculus and Wilson's pencils. We postulate that this extrastriatal innervation, which allows nigral dopaminergic neurons to directly affect the pallidum and subthalamic nucleus, plays a critical role in the functional organisation of human basal ganglia. The TH-ir fibres that reach the striatum arborize according to a highly heterogeneous pattern. At rostral striatal levels, numerous small TH-poor zones embedded in a TH-rich matrix correspond to calbindin-poor striosomes and calbindin-rich extrastriosomal matrix, respectively. At caudal striatal levels, in contrast, striosomes display a TH immunostaining that is more intense than that of the matrix. A significant number of small, oval, aspiny TH-ir neurons scattered throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the caudate nucleus and putamen, together with a few larger, multipolar, spiny TH-ir neurons lying principally within the ventral portion of the putamen, were disclosed in human. This potential source of intrinsic striatal dopamine might play an important role in the functional organisation of the human striatum, particularly in case of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Effect of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning on Blood Cortisol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Farnaghi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute intoxication with ALP is extremely lethal. The present study was conducted to determine the range of serum cortisol levels in ALP poisoning and its correlation with patient outcome. Methods: This study was carried out on patients who were intoxicated with ALP. Their demographic data and pertinent findings in their history and physical examination were recorded at the time of arrival and also when shock and severe metabolic acidosis emerged. 5cc blood was taken from the patients to measure blood cortisol level, when shock and severe metabolic acidosis developed. Blood cortisol level analysis was performed using ELISA method. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: The average ingested dose was 1.98+1.79 tablets each containing 3 grams of ALP. Overall, 77% of the patients presented tachycardia and hypotension. Blood cortisol level less than 15 µg/dl, 15-33 µg/dl, and more than 34 µg/dl were regarded as adrenal insufficiency, critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency, and adequate adrenal response, respectively. Eventually, 3 patients fell within the first category, 24 patients matched with the second category, and 3 patients corresponded to the last category. Conclusion: Blood cortisol concentration is satisfactory only in 10% of the patients. In majority of the patients although it is not apparently low, it has not shown the expected rise comparable to the shock and stress state of such patients. It defines a role for corticosteroids therapy in management of ALP poisoning, particularly if it does not respond to conventional treatments.

  3. Prolactin and cortisol levels in women with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a progressive estrogen-dependent disease affecting women during their reproductive years. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endometriosis is associated with stress parameters. We determined cortisol and prolactin levels in serum, peritoneal and follicular fluid from infertile women with endometriosis and fertile women without the disease. The extent of the disease was staged according to the revised American Fertility Society classification (1997. Serum and peritoneal fluid were collected from 49 women aged 19 to 39 years undergoing laparoscopy. Eighteen women had stage I-II endometriosis and 10 had stage III-IV. Controls were 21 women undergoing laparoscopy for tubal sterilization. Follicular fluid was obtained from 39 women aged 25-39 years undergoing in vitro fertilization (21 infertile women with endometriosis and 18 infertile women without endometriosis. Serum prolactin levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (28.9 ± 2.1 ng/mL than in healthy controls (13.2 ± 2.1 ng/mL. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in infertile women with stage III-IV endometriosis (20.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL than in controls (10.5 ± 1.4 ng/mL. Cortisol and prolactin levels in follicular fluid and peritoneal fluid did not differ significantly between groups. The high levels of cortisol and prolactin in the serum from women with endometriosis might contribute to the subfertility frequently associated with the disease. Moreover, since higher levels of cortisol and prolactin are often associated with stress, it is probable that stress might contribute to the development of endometriosis and its progression to advanced stages of the disease.

  4. Delayed effects of cortisol enhance fear memory of trace conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sandra; van Ast, Vanessa A; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2014-02-01

    Corticosteroids induce rapid non-genomic effects followed by slower genomic effects that are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite and complementary ways. It is presently unknown how these time-dependent effects of cortisol affect fear memory of delay and trace conditioning. This distinction is of special interest because the neural substrates underlying these types of conditioning may be differently affected by time-dependent cortisol effects. Delay conditioning is predominantly amygdala-dependent, while trace conditioning additionally requires the hippocampus. Here, we manipulated the timing of cortisol action during acquisition of delay and trace fear conditioning, by randomly assigning 63 men to one of three possible groups: (1) receiving 10mg hydrocortisone 240 min (slow cort) or (2) 60 min (rapid cort) before delay and trace acquisition, or (3) placebo at both times, in a double-blind design. The next day, we tested memory for trace and delay conditioning. Fear potentiated startle responses, skin conductance responses and unconditioned stimulus expectancy scores were measured throughout the experiment. The fear potentiated startle data show that cortisol intake 240 min before actual fear acquisition (slow cort) uniquely strengthened subsequent trace conditioned memory. No effects of cortisol delivery 60 min prior to fear acquisition were found on any measure of fear memory. Our findings emphasize that slow, presumably genomic, but not more rapid effects of corticosteroids enhance hippocampal-dependent fear memories. On a broader level, our findings underline that basic experimental research and clinically relevant pharmacological treatments employing corticosteroids should acknowledge the timing of corticosteroid administration relative to the learning phase, or therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  6. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  7. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...... by immunohistochemistry followed by automated image analysis in facial BCC, peritumoural skin and normal, buttock skin. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed for FOXP3 and cytokines involved in T-reg attraction and T-cell activation. T-regs comprised 45% of CD4-cells surrounding BCC. FOXP3 was highly...

  8. Basal cell carcinoma after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Keisuke; Terashi, Hiroto; Ishida, Yasuhisa; Tahara, Shinya; Osaki, Takeo; Nomura, Tadashi; Ejiri, Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    We reported two cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that developed after radiation therapy. A 50-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy for the treatment of intracranial germinoma at the age of 22, presented with several tumors around the radiation ulcer. All tumors showed BCC. A 33-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy on the head for the treatment of leukemia at the age of 2, presented with a black nodule within the area of irradiation. The tumor showed BCC. We discuss the occurrence of BCC after radiation therapy. (author)

  9. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, M. H.; Sondak, V. K.; Sondak, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common form of non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  10. Soft tissue metastasis in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Rajeev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common of the cutaneous malignancies, accounting for 65-75% of all skin cancers. The natural history of this disease is one of chronic local invasion. Metastatic BCC Is a rare clinical entity, with a reported incidence of only 0.0028-0.5%. Approximately 85% of all metastatic BCCs arise in the head and neck region. We present a case of BCC that spread to the muscles of the cheek and nodes (intraparotid and internal jugular, in a man who had a lesion near the inner canthus of his right eye and adjoining nasal bridge.

  11. Aggression as an independent entity even in psychosis - The role of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav; Sengupta, Soumik; Pathak, Kangkan; Sah, Divyashree; Mehta, Sumit; Avinash, Priya Ranjan; Baruah, Aparajeeta; Deuri, Sailendra Kumar; Sarmah, Anil; Gogoi, Vijay; Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti

    2018-01-01

    Aggression is a common entity in psychiatric disorders, particularly psychotic disorders. Glucocorticoid hypofunction has been linked to abnormal forms of aggressive behavior in various studies in a 'possibly causal' role. We hypothesise that aggression, even among those having psychosis is associated with glucocorticoid alterations similar to those who are aggressive but not psychotic. To our knowledge, this is the first study attempting to look at the cortisol functioning in relation to both aggression and psychosis. The present study included 80 participants divided into four groups depending upon presence or absence of aggression and psychosis. Morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and their variability were measured using ELISA. The groups were compared on measures of aggression, psychosis, morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and their variability using standard statistical instruments. The present study found lower levels of morning cortisol, afternoon cortisol and cortisol variability among the aggressive group (vs. non aggressive group) and among the diseased group (vs. non diseased group). The differences were most marked for cortisol variability which was related to both aggression and psychosis independently. There were statistically significant correlation between cortisol variability and aggression, which was retained even after controlling for psychosis. There was no significant correlation of cortisol variability with psychosis severity (after controlling for aggression score) or with age, gender or duration of psychosis. We conclude that aggression, even among patients with psychosis, is an independent entity characterized by lower levels of morning cortisol and cortisol variability. The etio-pathology may lie in some altered neuro-immune parameters executed by cortisol and psychosis as trigger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Burnout and cortisol: Evidence for a lower cortisol awakening response in both clinical and non-clinical burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterholt, B.G.; Maes, J.H.R.; Linden, D. van der; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although the relationship between burnout and cortisol levels has been examined in previous studies, the results are mixed. By adopting a design in which we attempted to overcome important limitations of earlier research, the purpose of the present study was to improve the understanding

  13. Oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Brown, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The exact mechanisms underlying the dysfunction of the basal ganglia (BG) that leads to movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia still remain unclear. The classic model, based on two distinct pathways and described nearly 20 years ago by Albin and Delong, fails to explain why lesion or stimulation of the globus pallidus interna improves dyskinesias and why lesion or stimulation of the thalamus does not cause prominent bradykinesia. These paradoxes, initially highlighted out by Marsden and Obeso, led to the proposition that the pattern of neuronal discharge determines pathological function. Accordingly, over the past decade, attention has switched from considerations of discharge rate to the characterisation of synchronised activity within BG networks. Here we would like to briefly review current knowledge about synchronised oscillatory activity in the BG and focus on its relationship to abnormal motor function. In particular, we hypothesise that the frequency of synchronisation helps determine the nature of any motor deficit, perhaps as a consequence of the different tuning properties of basal ganglia-cortical sub-circuits.

  14. Kid-Short Marfan Score (Kid-SMS) Is a Useful Diagnostic Tool for Stratifying the Pre-Test Probability of Marfan Syndrome in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Veronika C; Arndt, Florian; Harring, Gesa; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Kozlik-Feldmann, Rainer; Mueller, Goetz C; Steiner, Kristoffer J; Mir, Thomas S

    2015-03-12

    Due to age dependent organ manifestation, diagnosis of Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a challenge, especially in childhood. It is important to identify children at risk of MFS as soon as possible to direct those to appropriate treatment but also to avoid stigmatization due to false diagnosis. We published the Kid-Short Marfan Score (Kid-SMS) in 2012 to stratify the pre-test probability of MFS in childhood. Hence we now evaluate the predictive performance of Kid-SMS in a new cohort of children. We prospectively investigated 106 patients who were suspected of having MFS. At baseline, children were examined according to Kid-SMS. At baseline and follow-up visit, diagnosis of MFS was established or rejected using standard current diagnostic criteria according to the revised Ghent Criteria (Ghent-2). At baseline 43 patients were identified with a risk of MFS according to Kid-SMS whereas 21 patients had Ghent-2 diagnosis of MFS. Sensitivity was 100%, specificity 77%, negative predictive value 100% and Likelihood ratio of Kid-SMS 4.3. During follow-up period, three other patients with a stratified risk for MFS were diagnosed according to Ghent-2. We confirm very good predictive performance of Kid-SMS with excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value but restricted specificity. Kid-SMS avoids stigmatization due to diagnosis of MFS and thus restriction to quality of life. Especially outpatient pediatricians and pediatric cardiologists can use it for primary assessment.

  15. Pre-test probability risk scores and their use in contemporary management of patients with chest pain: One year stress echo cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Daniela Cassar; Papachristidis, Alexandros; Roper, Damian; Tsironis, Ioannis; Byrne, Jonathan; Monaghan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare how patients with chest pain would be investigated, based on the two guidelines available for UK cardiologists, on the management of patients with stable chest pain. The UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline which was published in 2010 and the European society of cardiology (ESC) guideline published in 2013. Both guidelines utilise pre-test probability risk scores, to guide the choice of investigation. Design We undertook a large retrospective study to investigate the outcomes of stress echocardiography. Setting A large tertiary centre in the UK in a contemporary clinical practice. Participants Two thirds of the patients in the cohort were referred from our rapid access chest pain clinics. Results We found that the NICE risk score overestimates risk by 20% compared to the ESC Risk score. We also found that based on the NICE guidelines, 44% of the patients presenting with chest pain, in this cohort, would have been investigated invasively, with diagnostic coronary angiography. Using the ESC guidelines, only 0.3% of the patients would be investigated invasively. Conclusion The large discrepancy between the two guidelines can be easily reduced if NICE adopted the ESC risk score. PMID:26673458

  16. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeropoulos, E T; Heldmaier, G; Frappell, P B; McAllan, B M; Withers, K W; Klingenspor, M; White, C R; Jastroch, M

    2012-01-07

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Surprisingly, we found that the mitochondrial proton leak was greater in marsupials than in eutherians, although marsupials have lower BMRs. To verify our finding, we kept similar-sized individuals of a marsupial opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and a eutherian rodent (Mesocricetus auratus) species under identical conditions, and directly compared BMR and basal proton leak. We confirmed an approximately 40 per cent lower mass specific BMR in the opossum although its proton leak was significantly higher (approx. 60%). We demonstrate that the increase in BMR during eutherian evolution is not based on a general increase in the mitochondrial proton leak, although there is a similar allometric relationship of proton leak and BMR within mammalian groups. The difference in proton leak between endothermic groups may assist in elucidating distinct metabolic and habitat requirements that have evolved during mammalian divergence.

  17. The effect of breeding facility and sexual stimulation on plasma cortisol in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, D G; Barnett, J L; Hemsworth, P H; Jongman, E

    1995-12-01

    Nine boars were used to evaluate effects of breeding facility design and sexual activity on plasma cortisol concentrations . In one breeding facility (conventional), boars were housed individually in small pens, and female pigs were mated in those boar pens. In another breeding facility (Detection-Mating Area [DMA] system), boars were housed individually in stalls, and female pigs were mated in a specific mating pen adjacent to the front of stalls where boars were housed. After 51 d of housing treatment, a catheter was surgically implanted in the cephalic vein for collection of blood samples. Daytime profiles (hourly collections from 0900 to 1700) of cortisol did not differ among boars in the two treatment groups. Cortisol was greater (P cortisol in boars, but breeding facility did not affect the ACTH-induced changes in cortisol concentrations. There was a treatment x time interaction (P cortisol after sexual stimulation, and the magnitude and duration of increase in cortisol were greater (P Cortisol was greater (P cortisol concentration in boars seems to be a normal biological response to sexual activity. However, magnitude and duration of the increase in cortisol may be influenced by breeding facility design and mating procedure. There is no evidence, based on physiological data, that housing boars in stalls in the DMA system has any adverse effects on their welfare.

  18. Urinary cortisol and depression in early pregnancy: role of adiposity and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiza, John W; Gallaher, Marcia J; Powers, Robert W

    2015-02-13

    Depression before and during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes including low birth weight and preterm birth. Abnormal maternal cortisol has been hypothesized as one mediator between depression and adverse birth outcomes. The relationship between cortisol and depression in pregnancy is exhibited most strongly in the African American population, and most studies have focused either on circulating or placental levels of cortisol. The utility of urinary cortisol in early pregnancy related to depression and adiposity has not been investigated. Twenty-five pregnant African American women identified by the Edinburgh Depression Scale as having depression were investigated and matched by body mass index (BMI), age, race, and infant birth weight centile to non-depressed subjects. Maternal urine and plasma cortisol in early pregnancy were quantified and investigated in relation to depression and adiposity. Morning urine cortisol levels tracked positively with plasma cortisol (r(2) = 0.25, p cortisol between depressed and non-depressed pregnant women. Plasma cortisol was significantly negatively associated with several measures of maternal adiposity including percent body fat (r(2) = -0.10, p obese women were found to have significantly higher cortisol levels compared to women with depression, obesity or both (p obese pregnant women evidence atypical cortisol levels compared to non-depressed non-obese pregnant women. Plasma cortisol in early pregnancy is negatively associated with measures of maternal adiposity. Atypical low circulating maternal cortisol among depressed (lean and obese) and non-depressed obese pregnant African American women may indicate hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction in early pregnancy.

  19. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC. PMID:25126452

  20. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  1. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  2. A short note on how tied fights affect cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L; Ngo, Kathy T

    2013-09-01

    Previous work exploring the interrelationships between sex steroids (e.g. androgens, testosterones and 11-ketotestosterones) and social behavior in teleosts suggest that mirror-elicited aggression in cichlid fish may not trigger a hormonal response. Using the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) to analyze immune responses as a result of social stress, we measured levels of cortisol and melatonin using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) assays. In this work, we demonstrated that cortisol concentrations are significantly lower yet the levels of melatonin remain unchanged in tilapia that are fighting their mirror image. Our results suggested that in tied fights, certain hormone levels remain unchanged (e.g. androgens) due to the lack of melatonin induction. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  3. Endogenous cortisol in keratinized matrices: Systematic determination of baseline cortisol levels in hair and the influence of sex, age and hair color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binz, T M; Rietschel, L; Streit, F; Hofmann, M; Gehrke, J; Herdener, M; Quednow, B B; Martin, N G; Rietschel, M; Kraemer, T; Baumgartner, M R

    2018-03-01

    The measurement of hair cortisol is increasingly used to measure long-term cumulative cortisol levels and investigate its role as an important stress mediator. In this study a comparative statistical analysis of five independent studies (all analyzed in our laboratory) was performed to investigate baseline ranges of cortisol values in hair and evaluate potential influences of sex, age and hair color. Cortisol concentrations in hair of 554 subjects were measured and a comparative statistical analysis was performed. The analysis showed that cortisol levels significantly differ depending on age. The toddler group (7 months (0.6 years) to 3 years) showed significantly higher values (median 10pg/mg, p-value<0.0001, d=0.78) than the adolescent group. The adolescent groups showed significantly lower (p-value<0.0001, d=0.58 and p<0.0001, d=0.13) values (median 2.4pg/mg and 2.8pg/mg) than the adult group (median 5.8pg/mg). Furthermore, in the adult group men showed significantly higher cortisol values than women (p-value<0.05, d=0.17). This effect could not be seen in the adolescent group. Black hair showed higher cortisol concentrations than blond hair (p-value<0.0001, d=1.3). In addition, two rounds of interlaboratory comparisons for hair cortisol samples between four laboratories revealed very consistent results. Our results demonstrate that baseline cortisol levels are generally low in hair thus making a standardized and well-elaborated analytical method indispensable for accurate determination. Age-dependent normative baseline cortisol levels (toddlers, adolescents and adults) are highly recommended based on the comparative analysis comprising five independent studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Smokers' responses to television advertisements about the serious harms of tobacco use: pre-testing results from 10 low- to middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Bayly, Megan; Durkin, Sarah; Cotter, Trish; Mullin, Sandra; Warne, Charles

    2013-01-01

    While television advertisements (ads) that communicate the serious harms of smoking are effective in prompting quitting-related thoughts and actions, little research has been conducted among smokers in low- to middle-income countries to guide public education efforts. 2399 smokers aged 18-34 years in 10 low- to middle-income countries (Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Turkey and Vietnam) viewed and individually rated the same five anti-smoking ads on a standard questionnaire and then engaged in a structured group discussion about each ad. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, with robust SEs to account for the same individual rating multiple ads, was performed to compare outcomes (message acceptance, perceived personalised effectiveness, feel uncomfortable, likelihood of discussing the ad) across ads and countries, adjusting for covariates. Ads by country interactions were examined to assess consistency of ratings across countries. Three ads with graphic imagery performed consistently highly across all countries. Two of these ads showed diseased human tissue or body parts, and a third used a disgust-provoking metaphor to demonstrate tar accumulation in smokers' lungs. A personal testimonial ad performed more variably, as many smokers did not appreciate that the featured woman's lung cancer was due to smoking or that her altered physical appearance was due to chemotherapy. An ad using a visual metaphor for lung disease was also more variable, mostly due to lack of understanding of the term 'emphysema'. Television ads that graphically communicate the serious harms of tobacco use are likely to be effective with smokers in low- to middle-income countries and can be readily translated and adapted for local use. Ads with complex medical terms or metaphors, or those that feature personal testimonials, are more variable and at least require more careful pre-testing and adaptation to maximise their potential.

  5. Effects of video-feedback on the communication, clinical competence and motivational interviewing skills of practice nurses: a pre-test posttest control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Janneke; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of individual video-feedback on the generic communication skills, clinical competence (i.e. adherence to practice guidelines) and motivational interviewing skills of experienced practice nurses working in primary care. Continuing professional education may be necessary to refresh and reflect on the communication and motivational interviewing skills of experienced primary care practice nurses. A video-feedback method was designed to improve these skills. Pre-test/posttest control group design. Seventeen Dutch practice nurses and 325 patients participated between June 2010-June 2011. Nurse-patient consultations were videotaped at two moments (T0 and T1), with an interval of 3-6 months. The videotaped consultations were rated using two protocols: the Maastrichtse Anamnese en Advies Scorelijst met globale items (MAAS-global) and the Behaviour Change Counselling Index. Before the recordings, nurses were allocated to a control or video-feedback group. Nurses allocated to the video-feedback group received video-feedback between T0 and T1. Data were analysed using multilevel linear or logistic regression. Nurses who received video-feedback appeared to pay significantly more attention to patients' request for help, their physical examination and gave significantly more understandable information. With respect to motivational interviewing, nurses who received video-feedback appeared to pay more attention to 'agenda setting and permission seeking' during their consultations. Video-feedback is a potentially effective method to improve practice nurses' generic communication skills. Although a single video-feedback session does not seem sufficient to increase all motivational interviewing skills, significant improvement in some specific skills was found. Nurses' clinical competences were not altered after feedback due to already high standards. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Attenuation of cortisol across development for victims of sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    TRICKETT, PENELOPE K.; NOLL, JENNIE G.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; SHENK, CHAD E.; PUTNAM, FRANK W.

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistencies exist in literature examining hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children and adults who have experienced childhood abuse. Hence, the extent and manner to which childhood abuse may disrupt HPA axis development is largely unknown. To address these inconsistencies, the developmental course of nonstress cortisol in a long-term longitudinal study was assessed at six time points from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood to determine whether chil...

  7. Measuring cortisol and DHEA in fingernails: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Rubo

    2009-01-01

    Fay Warnock1, Kevin McElwee2, Rubo J Seo3, Sean McIsaac3, Danielle Seim3, Tatiana Ramirez-Aponte3, Karine AN Macritchie3, Allan H Young31Developmental Neuroscience and Child Health, BC Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, 3Institute of Mental Health-Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Purpose: Abnormalities in both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have been reported in psychiatr...

  8. Adult adiposity linked to relationship hostility for low cortisol reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Slep, Amy; Lorber, Michael; Thorson, Katherine; Heyman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Past research on the relation between hostility in intimate relationships and adiposity has yielded mixed findings. The present study investigated whether the association between relationship hostility and adiposity is moderated by people’s biological reactions to couple conflict. Cohabiting adult couples (N = 117 couples) engaged in two conflict interactions, before and after which salivary cortisol levels were measured. Results revealed an association between relationship hostility and adip...

  9. Estimation of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rohan R Mahale; Anish Mehta; Sudhir Uchil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in tuberculosis is around 5?10%. Of the various manifestations of CNS tuberculosis, meningitis is the most common (70?80%). Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels in tubercular meningitis and compare the levels with controls. Methods: Cross-sectional, prospective, observational, hospital-based study done in 20 patients of tubercular m...

  10. Cortisol levels, burnout and engagement in university employees

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Valdés, Juan A.; Vega-Michel, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    People’s psychological relationship with work can be conceptualized as a continuum ranging from negative experiences of professional burnout to positive experiences, known as engagement. A retrospective ex post facto study was carried out for the purpose of exploring and measuring the degree of relation of professional burnout and job engagement to cortisol levels and the filing of claims for medical costs among university employees. One hundred ninety-nine subjects participated. A weak posit...

  11. [Melatonin reduces cortisol response to ACTH in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campino, Carmen; Valenzuela, Francisco; Arteaga, Eugenio; Torres-Farfán, Claudia; Trucco, Cristián; Velasco, Alfredo; Guzmán, Sergio; Serón-Ferré, María

    2008-11-01

    Melatonin receptors are widely distributed in human tissues but they have not been reported in human adrenal gland. To assess if the human adrenal gland expresses melatonin receptors and if melatonin affects cortisol response to ACTH in dexamethasone suppressed volunteers. Adrenal glands were obtained from 4 patients undergoing unilateral nephrectomy-adrenalectomy for renal cancer. Expression of mRNA MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors was measured by Reverse TranscriPtase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The effect of melatonin on the response to intravenous (i.v.) ACTH was tested (randomized cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial) in eight young healthy males pretreated with dexamethasone (1 mg) at 23:00 h. On the next day, at 08:00 h, an i.v. line was inserted, at 08:30 h, and after a blood sample, subjects ingested 6 mg melatonin or placebo. At 09:00 h, 1-24 ACTH (Cortrosyn, 1 microg/1.73 m2 body surface area) was injected, drawing samples at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after. Melatonin, cortisol, cortisone, progesterone, aldosterone, DHEA-S, testosterone and prolactin were measured by immunoassay. The four adrenal glands expressed only MT1 receptor mRNA. Melatonin ingestion reduced the cortisol response to ACTH from 14.6 +/- 1.45 microg/dl at 60 min in the placebo group to 10.8 +/- 1.2 microg/dl in the melatonin group (p melatonin receptor in the human adrenal, and the melatonin reduction of ACTH-stimulated cortisol production suggest a direct melatonin action on the adrenal gland.

  12. Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/denta...

  13. Cortisol as a biomarker of stress in term human labor: physiological and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfield, Rebecca D; Newton, Edward R; Tanner, Charles J; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2014-01-01

    Literature on the use of plasma cortisol to quantify psychophysiological stress in humans is extensive. However, in parturition at term gestation, the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress is particularly complex. Plasma cortisol levels increase as labor progresses. This increase seems to be important for maintenance of maternal/fetal well-being and facilitation of normal labor progress. Unique physiological and methodological issues involved in the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress in labor present challenges for researchers. This review examines these issues, suggests mixed methods and within-subject repeated measures designs, and offers recommendations for assay procedures for parturient sampling. Documentation of clinical interventions and delivery outcomes may elucidate relationships among psychophysiological stressors, cortisol, and normal labor progress. With attention to these methodological issues, analysis of plasma cortisol may lead to clinical interventions that support normal labor physiology.

  14. Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Term Human Labor: Physiological and Methodological Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Edward R.; Tanner, Charles J.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Literature on the use of plasma cortisol to quantify psychophysiological stress in humans is extensive. However, in parturition at term gestation the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress is particularly complex. Plasma cortisol levels increase as labor progresses. This increase seems to be important for maintenance of maternal/fetal wellbeing and facilitation of normal labor progress. Unique physiological and methodological issues involved in the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress in labor present challenges for researchers. This review examines these issues, suggests mixed methods and within-subject repeated measures designs, and offers recommendations for assay procedures for parturient sampling. Documentation of clinical interventions and delivery outcomes may elucidate relationships among psychophysiological stressors, cortisol and normal labor progress. With attention to these methodological issues, analysis of plasma cortisol may lead to clinical interventions that support normal labor physiology. PMID:23338011

  15. Relationship status and relationship instability, but not dominance, predict individual differences in baseline cortisol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maestripieri

    Full Text Available We investigated variation in baseline cortisol levels in relation to relationship status (single or in a relationship, relationship characteristics (length, stability, presence or absence of clear dominance, or individual attributes (dominant or subordinate status, relative physical attractiveness, relationship worries. Study participants were 77 men and 75 women aged between 18 and 38 years. Individuals in romantic relationships had lower cortisol levels than singles. Individuals of African ethnicity, however, showed the opposite pattern. Individuals who perceived their relationship to be highly unstable had higher cortisol levels. Aside from African-Americans, married individuals reported the lowest relationship instability and the lowest cortisol levels, followed by individuals in long-term relationships, and by individuals in short-term relationships. The presence or absence of clear dominance in the relationship, dominance status, or relationship worries did not affect cortisol levels. Therefore relationship status and relationship instability were better predictors of variation in cortisol (presumably through stress-related mechanisms than individual attributes.

  16. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  17. Solitude and cortisol: associations with state and trait affect in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Gabriela P; Nicolson, Nancy A; Freire, Teresa

    2011-03-01

    The social context can impact psychological and physiological functioning. Being alone, in particular, is experienced as more negative on average than being with others, in both normative and pathological populations. This study investigates whether daily solitude is associated with changes in cortisol and, if so, whether momentary and trait affect can explain this relationship. Forty-four female college students used the Experience Sampling Method during a week, completing questionnaires and collecting saliva 8 times daily. Effects of current solitude, affect, and trait affectivity on cortisol were tested with multilevel regression. Cortisol levels were significantly higher when individuals were alone. Although momentary affective states changed during solitude and were also associated with cortisol, they did not fully explain the effects of solitude on cortisol. Trait affectivity moderated the association between solitude and cortisol. Findings may help clarify how daily experience may heighten risk of depression or other negative health outcomes in vulnerable individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hair cortisol levels determined at different body sites in the New Zealand White rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Comin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine hair cortisol levels in the New Zealand White (NZW rabbit and to examine possible differences in the cortisol levels of hair samples collected from different body regions in stable environmental conditions. The experiment was performed on eight 18 month-old female NZW rabbits. All animals were shaved to collect hair samples from 26 different body regions. Hair cortisol levels were determined by the RIA method. The mean hair cortisol concentration for the 26 samples in the 8 animals was 2.12±0.05 pg/mg (mean±standard error. This study reveals individual hair cortisol distributions in the 8 animals (P<0.001 and no statistical differences (P>0.05 in hair cortisol levels among the different body sites in each of the animals.

  19. Child cortisol moderates the association between family routines and emotion regulation in low-income children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L.; Song, Ju-Hyun; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C.; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kaciroti, Niko; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2018-01-01

    Biological and social influences both shape emotion regulation. In 380 low-income children, we tested whether biological stress profile (cortisol) moderated the association among positive and negative home environment factors (routines; chaos) and emotion regulation (negative lability; positive regulation). Children (M age = 50.6, SD = 6.4 months) provided saliva samples to assess diurnal cortisol parameters across 3 days. Parents reported on home environment and child emotion regulation. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether cortisol parameters moderated associations between home environment and child emotion regulation. Results showed that home chaos was negatively associated with emotion regulation outcomes; cortisol did not moderate the association. Child cortisol level moderated the routines-emotion regulation association such that lack of routine was most strongly associated with poor emotion regulation among children with lower cortisol output. Findings suggest that underlying child stress biology may shape response to environmental influences. PMID:27594200

  20. Patterns of salivary cortisol levels can manifest work stress in emergency care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yasushi; Takahashi, Takayuki; Shetty, Vivek; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2012-05-01

    To develop objective assessments of work fatigue, we investigated the patterns of changes in salivary cortisol levels in emergency care providers working extended work shifts. Fourteen subjects, comprising seven physicians and seven physician assistants, provided unstimulated saliva samples at regular intervals over the course of a 24-h work shift and over their subsequent free day. There was a significant time effect, with early morning cortisol levels being significantly attenuated following the work shift. Native diurnal variations varied by gender, with the female subjects manifesting greater cortisol levels. Physicians also had higher cortisol profiles even though their wake-rest cycles were similar to those of the physician assistants. Our results suggest that temporal changes, as well as diurnal similarities, in the salivary cortisol patterns can reflect work-related stress and recovery. In particular, early morning cortisol levels may manifest individual reactivity to work stressors as well as sleep deprivation.

  1. An exploratory study of competition scores and salivary cortisol concentrations in Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Munk; Jensen, R B; Palme, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this explorative study was to describe the relationship between competition scores and salivary cortisol concentrations in young horses during dressage and showjumping competitions. The study also investigated whether the diurnal rhythm of salivary cortisol concentrations wa...... concentrations at competition than showjumpers, suggesting that they may perceive the novel environment as more stressful. Furthermore, there was no consistent relationship between baseline salivary cortisol concentrations and competition scores across the events.......The main objective of this explorative study was to describe the relationship between competition scores and salivary cortisol concentrations in young horses during dressage and showjumping competitions. The study also investigated whether the diurnal rhythm of salivary cortisol concentrations...... was affected by competition over consecutive days compared with the home environment. Saliva samples were collected from 126 dressage horses and showjumpers in their home environment and at 3 different events. The relationship between scores given by judges at the competition and cortisol concentrations...

  2. Dental anxiety and salivary cortisol levels before urgent dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegane, Kazue; Penha, Sibele S; Munhoz, Carolina D; Rocha, Rodney G

    2009-12-01

    Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment, and affects the utilization of health care services. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if patients with different degrees of dental anxiety and pain undergoing emergency dental care have different stress reactions as measured by salivary cortisol. Seventy three patients completed the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and described any previous dental traumatic experience. Their socio-demographic characteristics were also recorded. They also rated pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A saliva sample was collected before the procedure, and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Thirty patients were dentally anxious and forty one complained of pain. In this sample, dental anxiety was not related to gender, age, educational level and family income; however, a previous traumatic event was related to dental anxiety. There was no association between salivary cortisol concentrations and gender or dental anxiety. Patients with pain showed higher cortisol levels. When gathering patient information, the dentist should note patients' negative dental experiences in order to provide more effective, less traumatic treatment.

  3. Plasma cortisol levels in captive wild felines after chemical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira G.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Panthera onca (Po, 13 Felis concolor (Fc, 7 Felis yagouaroundi (Fy, 7 Felis tigrina (Ft and 5 Felis pardalis (Fp specimens from São Paulo State zoos were used. All animals were restrained with darts containing 10 mg/kg ketamine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Venous blood samples were collected as soon as possible (within 15-20 min and serum was frozen until the time for cortisol quantification. Cortisol was determined using a solid phase radioimmunoassay with an intra-assay coefficient of 8.51%. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons test, and the one-sample t-test, with the level of significance set at P<0.05. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Cortisol levels differed among the captive felines: Po = 166 ± 33a, Fc = 670 ± 118b, Fy = 480 ± 83b, Ft = 237 ± 42ab, Fp = 97 ± 12a nmol/l (values followed by different superscript letters were significantly different (P<0.001. Since most of the veterinary procedures on these species involve chemical restraint, these results show the necessity of preventive measures in order to minimize the effect of restraint stress on more susceptible species

  4. Chinese Pediatric Reference Intervals for Serum Cortisol on IMMULITE 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling Li; Zhang, Li Yue; Wang, Hui Yan; Wen, Huai Kai; Tao, Hong Qun; Zhao, Xiao Wei

    2018-01-01

    Clinical interpretation of the test results for cortisol based on continuous reference intervals with appropriate partitions improves pediatric diagnosis; however, these values are available only for Caucasians. To develop the pediatric reference intervals for Chinese population, we examined the serum cortisol levels in 1,143 healthy Chinese children aged 4-18 years (566 boys and 577 girls), using an IMMULITE 2000 Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare GmbH). Phlebotomy was performed at 7-9 a.m. for 284 boys and 287 girls and at 1-3 p.m. for the others. They were divided into four age groups according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline EP28-A3c, with the last group further stratified according to sampling time. Separate reference intervals of 49.6-323.7, 70.9-395.3, and 90.1-448.7 nmol/L were established for children aged 4-8, 9-12, and 13-15 years, respectively. Further, reference intervals of 118.2-464.7 and 71.4-446.7 nmol/L were established for morning and afternoon cortisol levels, respectively, in children aged 16-18 years. Further studies are necessary to transfer and validate these reference intervals in other analytical systems and pediatric populations, and to allow for broader applications. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine.

  5. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Smith, Eric A; O'Connor, Kathleen A; Kaplan, Hillard S; Gurven, Michael D

    2014-02-07

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18-82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by 'showing off' was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters.

  6. REPRODUCTIVE HORMONES AND CORTISOL RESPONSES TO PLYOMETRIC TRAINING IN MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Vatansever Ozen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training activities are commonly used by a wide range of athletes to increase jump performance and improve explosive power and muscular activation patterns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of plyometric training on male reproductive hormones. Nineteen recreationally active males volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to plyometrically trained (n=10, 21.2 ±2.3 years and control groups (n=9, 21.4± 2.1. The plyometric training group performed in a six-week plyometric training programme and the control group did not perform any plyometric training techniques. Resting serum levels of testosterone, prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinising hormone (LH, and cortisol were measured in each subject at t0 (before the training, t1 (end of third week and t2 (end of training. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant (P<0.05 interaction effects for testosterone, prolactin, FSH and cortisol. Six-week plyometric training decreased serum levels of testosterone, cortisol and FSH and increased serum levels of prolactin. These results suggest the presence of alterations in anabolic and catabolic hormonal responses to resistance exercise in men.

  7. Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Triple Negative/Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Ebru PALA; Ümit BAYOL; Süheyla CUMURCU; Elif KESKİN

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Triple-negative-breast-cancer that accounts for 10-20% of all breast carcinomas is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 expression, and agressive clinical behavior. Triple-negative-breast-cancer is categorized into basal like and other types. The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers.Material and Method: We studied 41 immunohistochemically triplenegative- breast-cancer patients to determine EGFR, Cytoke...

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804

  9. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate.......70-105.56) (P basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...... a dysfunctional metabolism contributing to the high-fat-body composition....

  10. Stress assessment using hair cortisol of kangaroos affected by the lumpy jaw disease

    OpenAIRE

    SOTOHIRA, Yukari; SUZUKI, Kazuyuki; SANO, Tadashi; ARAI, Chigusa; ASAKAWA, Mitsuhiko; HAYASHI, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess stress of kangaroos affected by lumpy jaw disease (LJD) using plasma and hair cortisol concentrations. The plasma and hair samples were collected from kangaroos with LJD and healthy controls. Collected hair samples were extracted with methanol after washing with isopropanol, following which they were processed with the cortisol enzyme immunoassay kit. The plasma cortisol concentration of LJD animals tended to be higher than that of the control. ...

  11. Salivary Cortisol and Binge Eating Disorder in Obese Women After Surgery for Morbid Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Junilla K.; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.; Geenen, Rinie

    2009-01-01

    Background Binge eating episodes characterized by loss of control are hypothesized to be accompanied by changes in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Cortisol is an end product of this neuroendocrine stress system. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the cortisol levels and the awakening cortisol response (ACR) in obese persons showing binge eating after surgery for morbid obesity. Method Sixteen obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) and 18 obese women with...

  12. Adrenocorticotrophin and cortisol secretion in children after low dose cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowne, E.C.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Gibson, S.; Moore, C.M.; White, A.; Shalet, S.M. (Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Endocrinology)

    1993-09-01

    We investigated the effect of low dose cranial irradiation (18-24 Gy) on spontaneous ACTH and cortisol secretion in children. We analysed 24-hour plasma ACTH and cortisol profiles sampled at 20-minute intervals. Twenty long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were studied and results compared with those in 14 normal children. No significant disruption of spontaneous ACTH or cortisol secretion, either in the amount or pattern of hormones secreted, was found in children after low dose cranial irradiation. (Author).

  13. Influence of Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Misalignment on Cortisol, Inflammatory Markers, and Cytokine Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth P.; Drake, Amanda L.; Frey, Danielle J.; Fleshner, Monika; Desouza, Christopher A.; Gronfier, Claude; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol and inflammatory proteins are released into the blood in response to stressors and chronic elevations of blood cortisol and inflammatory proteins may contribute to ongoing disease processes and could be useful biomarkers of disease. How chronic circadian misalignment influences cortisol and inflammatory proteins, however, is largely unknown and this was the focus of the current study. Specifically, we examined the influence of weeks of chronic circadian misalignment on cortisol, stress ratings, and pro- and anti- inflammatory proteins in humans. We also compared the effects of acute total sleep deprivation and chronic circadian misalignment on cortisol levels. Healthy, drug free females and males (N=17) aged 20-41 participated. After three weeks of maintaining consistent sleep-wake schedules at home, six laboratory baseline days and nights, a 40-h constant routine (CR, total sleep deprivation) to examine circadian rhythms for melatonin and cortisol, participants were scheduled to a 25-day laboratory entrainment protocol that resulted in sleep and circadian disruption for eight of the participants. A second constant routine was conducted to reassess melatonin and cortisol rhythms on days 34-35. Plasma cortisol levels were also measured during sampling windows every week and trapezoidal area under the curve (AUC) was used to estimate 24-h cortisol levels. Inflammatory proteins were assessed at baseline and near the end of the entrainment protocol. Acute total sleep deprivation significantly increased cortisol levels (psleep schedule showed little change in cortisol levels. Stress ratings increased during acute sleep deprivation (psleep deprivation and chronic circadian misalignment modulate cortisol levels and that chronic circadian misalignment increases plasma concentrations of pro- and antiinflammatory proteins. PMID:25640603

  14. Longitudinal patterns of cortisol regulation differ in maltreated and nonmaltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with dysregulation of stress-mediating systems and an increased risk of mental and physical health problems. Specifically, disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation have been reported in maltreated children. The current study investigates whether increased cortisol variability is responsible for inconsistent patterns in the literature. This study modeled cortisol activity over 20 weeks in 187 maltreated and 154 nonmaltreated children (mean = 8.4 years, SD = 1.8 years) in order to capture week-to-week cortisol patterns. Maltreatment was assessed through coding of Department of Human Services records. Children attended an after-school program 1 day per week for 20 weeks, where saliva was collected at the same time each day and subsequently assayed for cortisol. Multiple-group growth curves indicated that maltreated and non-maltreated children differ in longitudinal cortisol patterns. Maltreated children showed higher variance in the initial cortisol levels and slope over time compared to nonmaltreated children, indicating greater between-person variability in the maltreated group. Maltreated children with higher cortisol at the first assessment showed cortisol suppression over time, indicating potential HPA blunting after chronic high cortisol levels. The severity, timing, and number of subtypes of maltreatment predicted individuals' cortisol variability, and both maltreatment status and greater cortisol variability predicted more behavior problems. Interventions for maltreated children may benefit from pre- and post-intervention HPA assessments to determine a component of treatment efficacy. As maltreatment dimensions predicted differential cortisol regulation, assessment of maltreatment experiences is necessary to understand alterations in behavior and HPA regulation post-intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of sleep deprivation and circadian misalignment on cortisol, inflammatory markers, and cytokine balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth P; Drake, Amanda L; Frey, Danielle J; Fleshner, Monika; Desouza, Christopher A; Gronfier, Claude; Czeisler, Charles A

    2015-07-01

    Cortisol and inflammatory proteins are released into the blood in response to stressors and chronic elevations of blood cortisol and inflammatory proteins may contribute to ongoing disease processes and could be useful biomarkers of disease. How chronic circadian misalignment influences cortisol and inflammatory proteins, however, is largely unknown and this was the focus of the current study. Specifically, we examined the influence of weeks of chronic circadian misalignment on cortisol, stress ratings, and pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins in humans. We also compared the effects of acute total sleep deprivation and chronic circadian misalignment on cortisol levels. Healthy, drug free females and males (N=17) aged 20-41 participated. After 3weeks of maintaining consistent sleep-wake schedules at home, six laboratory baseline days and nights, a 40-h constant routine (CR, total sleep deprivation) to examine circadian rhythms for melatonin and cortisol, participants were scheduled to a 25-day laboratory entrainment protocol that resulted in sleep and circadian disruption for eight of the participants. A second constant routine was conducted to reassess melatonin and cortisol rhythms on days 34-35. Plasma cortisol levels were also measured during sampling windows every week and trapezoidal area under the curve (AUC) was used to estimate 24-h cortisol levels. Inflammatory proteins were assessed at baseline and near the end of the entrainment protocol. Acute total sleep deprivation significantly increased cortisol levels (psleep schedule showed little change in cortisol levels. Stress ratings increased during acute sleep deprivation (psleep deprivation and chronic circadian misalignment modulate cortisol levels and that chronic circadian misalignment increases plasma concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cortisol, Interleukins and S100B in Delirium in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Munster, Barbara C.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Endert, Erik; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van Oosten, Hannah E.; Goslings, J. Carel; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In independent studies delirium was associated with higher levels of cortisol, interleukin(IL)s, and S100B. The aim of this study was to simultaneously compare cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B levels in patients aged 65 years and older admitted for hip fracture surgery with and without delirium. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B were assayed in…

  17. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  18. Basal hypercortisolism and trauma in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakvis, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Giltay, E.J.; Kuyk, J.; Edelbroek, P.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Roelofs, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies have indicated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are associated with psychological trauma, but only a few studies have examined the associations with neurobiologic stress systems, such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-product cortisol.

  19. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma: a biological continuum of Basal cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Karaninder S; Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Sharma, Anju Lath; Sharma, Vikas; Abhinav, C; Khatri, Gayatri; Prabha, Neel; Sharma, Saurabh; Negi, Muninder

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50 mg) and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750 mg) on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest.

  20. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaninder S. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50 mg and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750 mg on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest.

  1. Prolactin and cortisol regulate branchial claudin expression in Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossus, Maryline C; Bollinger, Rebecca J; Reed, P Justin; Tipsmark, Christian K

    2017-01-01

    Several gill claudin (Cldn) tight junction proteins in Japanese medaka are regulated by salinity (cldn10 paralogs and cldn28b), while others are constitutively expressed (cldn27a, cldn28a and cldn30c). The role of the endocrine system in this regulation has yet to be understood. The in vitro effects of cortisol and prolactin on cldn expression in gill explant cultures were investigated in medaka. ncc2b and cftr were used as markers of specific ionocytes associated with freshwater- and seawater-acclimation, respectively. Concentration-response experiments were performed by overnight incubation with 0, 0.1, 1 and 10μgmL -1 cortisol or 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1μgmL -1 ovine prolactin. Cortisol significantly up-regulated cftr, ncc2b, cldn10 paralogs, cldn27a and cldn30c from 1.2- to 5-fold control levels at 10μgmL -1 . Cortisol had no effect on cldn28a and cldn28b. Prolactin had a concentration-dependent effect, decreasing expression of cftr (1μgmL -1 , 2.2-fold) while increasing ncc2b (from 0.1μgmL -1 , 6-7-fold). Prolactin up-regulated expression of 3 cldns: cldn28b (0.1 and 1μgmL -1 ), cldn10c and cldn10f (1μgmL -1 ), with up to 2-, 2.5- and 2-fold of control level, respectively. A combination experiment with both hormones showed that they act in synergy on cldn28b and have an additive effect on cftr, ncc2b, cldn10c and cldn10f. Our results showed that cortisol and prolactin are essential to maintain the expression of specific branchial claudins. This work also provides evidence that both hormones act directly on gill of medaka to modulate determinants of paracellular ion movement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Cortisol and physical performance in older populations: Findings from the international mobility in aging study (IMIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque; Marchand, Alain; Garcia, Angeles; Gomez, Jose Fernando; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack M; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    To compare diurnal cortisol profiles across samples of older adults from diverse populations and to examine if differences in circadian cortisol secretion are associated with poor physical performance (SPPBMobility in Aging Study conducted in 2012 in Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania) and Manizales (Colombia). Salivary cortisol was collected from a subsample of 309 participants instructed to collect saliva on two consecutive days, and 5 different intervals each day: upon awakening (M1), 30min (M2) and 60min after awakening, at 15:00h and before bedtime (E). Cortisol was analyzed using enzyme immunoassay kits. Physical performance was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Mixed linear models were fit to assess the associations between cortisol diurnal output and physical performance, adjusting for potential confounders. Kingston, Saint-Hyacinthe and Tirana residents had significantly higher cortisol values than their Manizales counterparts, with the population from Tirana showing the highest levels. Attenuated morning cortisol peak (M2) (p=0.025), higher cortisol bed time (E) (p=0.005), and lower M2/E ratio (pprofiles varied across four diverse populations of older adults. Circadian cortisol secretion is associated with physical performance as an attenuated morning response and higher bed time values were observed in older adults with SPPB<9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between objectively measured physical activity, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome score in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Katrina D; McKune, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels, salivary cortisol, and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) score was examined. Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years) had a fasting blood draw, waist circumference and blood pressure measured, and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 days. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol levels. Previously established cut points estimated the minutes spent in moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A continuous MetSyn score was created from blood pressure, waist circumference, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, and glucose values. Correlation analyses examined associations between physical activity, cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components. Regression analysis examined the relationship between cortisol, the MetSyn score, and its related components adjusting for physical activity, percent body fat, and sexual maturity. Vigorous physical activity was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol values. The MetSyn score was not related with cortisol values after controlling for confounders. In contrast, HDL was negatively related with 30 min post waking cortisol. Triglyceride was positively related with 30 min post waking cortisol and area under the curve. The MetSyn score and many of its components were not related to cortisol salivary levels even after adjusting for physical activity, body fat percentage, and sexual maturity.

  4. Salivary cortisol awakening response in mild Alzheimer disease, caregivers, and noncaregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Kishiyama, Shirley S; Zajdel, Daniel; Oken, Barry S

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been noted in people with Alzheimer disease (AD) and in the people caring for them. In a case-control study, we assessed whether the cortisol response at awakening and diurnal cortisol would reflect these changes. AD patients, their caregivers, and healthy senior noncaregivers collected saliva within 5 minutes of waking, 30 minutes after waking, before lunch, 1 hour after lunch, and at 11 pm or when getting ready for bed. They also completed a Perceived Stress Scale. Total cortisol for the day after adjusting for antidepressant use revealed a group effect [F(2,39)=12.49, Pcaregivers having higher cortisol values. Unlike the noncaregivers (t=-1.15, df=14, P>0.27), both cortisol values of the AD caregivers (t=-2.96, df=16, Pcaregivers (r=0.44, P=0.10) with higher cortisol values 30 minutes after waking also showed a trend toward higher perceived stress scores. Salivary cortisol and cortisol response on awakening may enhance future studies relating free cortisol to subjective psychologic and physiologic markers.

  5. Low cortisol levels in blood from dairy cows with ketosis: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Kristina B; Ljungvall, Orjan A; Jones, Bernt V

    2010-05-20

    An elevated plasma glucose concentration has been considered to be a potential risk factor in the pathogenesis of left-displaced abomasums (DA). Therefore the present study was performed to investigate if spontaneous disease (parturient paresis, metritis, ketosis etc) in dairy cows results in elevated concentrations of glucose and cortisol in blood as cortisol is the major regulator of glucose in ruminants. Cortisol, insulin, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and serum calcium were analyzed in blood serum and glucose, in whole blood, from 57 spontaneously diseased cows collected at different farms. The cows were grouped according to the disease; parturient paresis, recumbent for other reasons, mastitis, metritis, ketosis, inappetance and others. No elevated concentrations of cortisol or glucose were found in cows with metritis and mastitis but both cortisol and glucose were elevated in cows stressed by recumbency. Cows with ketonemia (BHBA > 1.5 mmol/l) did not have low concentration of glucose in blood but significantly low levels of cortisol. Some of these cows even had cortisol concentrations below the detection limit of the analysing method (ketosis, recommending glucocorticoids, insulin etc. However further studies of this problem are needed to understand why cows with ketosis have low levels of cortisol and normal levels of glucose. To what extent elevated cortisol and glucose levels in hypocalcemic and recumbent cows are involved in the ethiology and /or the pathogenesis of DA also will need further research.

  6. Saliva collection by using filter paper for measuring cortisol levels in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, D; Hyodo, M; Doi, H; Kurachi, T; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T; Watanabe, G

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of noninvasive evaluation of cortisol in saliva of dogs. In experiment 1, we measured the cortisol concentration in the filter paper on which 250-μL cortisol solutions had been quantitatively pipetted and in filter papers dipped in cortisol solution. In experiment 2, we collected the blood and saliva of dogs 3 times at 30-min intervals and compared the cortisol concentrations to examine whether the dynamics of cortisol in the blood and saliva are similar. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed that the cortisol concentration can be quantitatively measured with this method and that the dynamics of cortisol concentration in the plasma and saliva collected by using filter paper are not different (P = 0.14 for experiment 1 and P = 0.51 for experiment 2). In experiment 3, to investigate the factors related to inducing stress in dogs by using the filter-paper method of collecting saliva, we compared the cortisol concentrations at 0 and 30 min after collecting the saliva of pet dogs. The dog owners completed a survey on their dogs, providing basic information and reporting the collection of their dog's saliva. We found that the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose owners spent >2 min collecting saliva (P = 0.005), suggesting that prompt collection of saliva is necessary for accurate assessment of cortisol without induction of a stress response. In addition, the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose teeth were not regularly brushed (P = 0.04), suggesting that regular teeth brushing mitigates the effect of the collection process on cortisol concentrations in the saliva, with minimal stress to the dogs. In experiment 4, we measured cortisol concentrations in pet dogs accustomed to having their teeth brushed by their owners, before and after interaction with their owners, to assess whether brushing induces stress in dogs. We detected that the

  7. Psychosocial stress and urinary cortisol excretion in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix kuhli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T E; French, J A

    1997-08-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the hallmarks of the physiological responses to psychosocial stressors. The most common method of assessing HPA function is via the measurement of plasma cortisol levels. However, venipuncture involves capture and restraint, which can modify HPA function. We validated a noninvasive procedure for monitoring HPA responses to stressors by measuring excretion of free urinary cortisol. Samples collected throughout the day displayed marked circadian variation, with low cortisol values in first-void samples, followed by a mid-morning peak in cortisol excretion. Concentrations of excreted cortisol declined throughout the day. Exposing marmosets to mild and moderate stressors (11 h isolation in a small cage and manual restraint) increased excreted cortisol concentrations in a dose-dependent fashion: isolation in a small cage led to elevated cortisol in afternoon samples, while manual restraint and isolation produced elevated cortisol in both morning and afternoon samples. The marmoset HPA is differentially sensitive to rather subtle variations in stressors, and these results show that urinary cortisol excretion is a valid and sensitive index of the HPA response to these stressors.

  8. Perinatal maternal depression and cortisol function in pregnancy and the postpartum period: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Sunaina; Lewis, Andrew J; Galbally, Megan

    2016-05-31

    Perinatal depression has a significant impact on both mother and child. However, the influence of hormonal changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period remains unclear. This article provides a systematic review of studies examining the effects of maternal cortisol function on perinatal depression. A systematic search was conducted of six electronic databases for published research on the relationship between cortisol and perinatal depression. The databases included; MEDLINE complete, PsychINFO, SCOPUS, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, Science Direct and EBSCO, for the years 1960 to May 2015. Risk of bias was assessed and data extraction verified by two investigators. In total, 47 studies met criteria and studies showed considerable variation in terms of methodology including sample size, cortisol assays, cortisol substrates, sampling processes and outcome measures. Those studies identified as higher quality found that the cortisol awakening response is positively associated with momentary mood states but is blunted in cases of major maternal depression. Furthermore, results indicate that hypercortisolemia is linked to transient depressive states while hypocortisolemia is related to chronic postpartum depression. Future research should aim to improve the accuracy of cortisol measurement over time, obtain multiple cortisol samples in a day and utilise diagnostic measures of depression. Future studies should also consider both antenatal and postnatal depression and the differential impact of atypical versus melancholic depression on cortisol levels, as this can help to further clarify the relationship between perinatal depression and maternal cortisol function across pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  9. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  10. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition for Locally Advanced Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Omar K; Yin, Vivian; Chou, Eva; Ball, Sharon; Kies, Merrill; William, William N; Migden, Michael; Thuro, Bradley A; Esmaeli, Bita

    2015-08-01

    To review our experience treating patients with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, vismodegib, in patients with orbital or periocular locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or basal cell nevus syndrome. Retrospective interventional case series. We reviewed all patients with locally advanced or metastatic orbital or periocular BCC or basal cell nevus syndrome treated with the Hedgehog pathway inhibitor, vismodegib, at a comprehensive cancer center from 2009 through 2015. Reviewed data included age; sex; American Joint Commission on Cancer tumor, node, metastasis staging system designation; type and grade of drug-related side effects; response to treatment; duration of follow-up, and status at last follow-up. The study included 10 white men and 2 white women; the median age was 64.5 years. Ten patients had locally advanced BCC; 2 had basal cell nevus syndrome. Among the patients with locally advanced BCC, 5 had T3bN0M0 disease at presentation; 1 each had T3aN0M0, T3bN1M0, T2N1M1, T4N1M1, and T4N2cM1 disease. Overall, 3 patients had a complete response, 6 had a partial response, and 3 had stable disease at last follow-up. Two patients developed progressive disease after a complete response for 38 months and stable disease for 16 months, respectively. All patients developed grade I drug-related adverse effects, most commonly muscle spasms (12 patients), weight loss (10), dysgeusia (9), alopecia (9), decreased appetite (5), and fatigue (4). Five patients developed grade II adverse effects. At last follow-up, none of the 5 patients presenting with T3bN0M0, nor the patient with T3bN1M0 disease, had required orbital exenteration. Hedgehog pathway inhibition produces a significant clinical response in most patients with locally advanced or metastatic orbital or periocular BCC or basal cell nevus syndrome and can obviate orbital exenteration in some patients. Drug-related adverse effects are manageable in most patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  12. Patient perspectives with abbreviated versus standard pre-test HIV counseling in the prenatal setting: a randomized-controlled, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Deborah; Gomez, Elvira; Greenberg, Mara; Washington, Sierra; Charlebois, Edwin D

    2009-01-01

    In the US, an unacceptably high percentage of pregnant women do not undergo prenatal HIV testing. Previous studies have found increased uptake of prenatal HIV testing with abbreviated pre-test counseling, however little is known about patient decision making, testing satisfaction and knowledge in this setting. A randomized-controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted from October 2006 through February 2008 at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH), the public teaching hospital of the City and County of San Francisco. A total of 278 English- and Spanish-speaking pregnant women were randomized to receive either abbreviated or standard nurse-performed HIV test counseling at the initial prenatal visit. Patient decision making experience was compared between abbreviated versus standard HIV counseling strategies among a sample of low-income, urban, ethnically diverse prenatal patients. The primary outcome was the decisional conflict score (DCS) using O'Connor low-literacy scale and secondary outcomes included satisfaction with test decision, basic HIV knowledge and HIV testing uptake. We conducted an intention-to-treat analysis of 278 women--134 (48.2%) in the abbreviated arm (AA) and 144 (51.8%) in the standard arm (SA). There was no significant difference in the proportion of women with low decisional conflict (71.6% in AA vs. 76.4% in SA, p = .37), and the observed mean difference between the groups of 3.88 (95% CI: -0.65, 8.41) did not exceed the non-inferiority margin. HIV testing uptake was very high (97. 8%) and did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (99.3% in AA vs. 96.5% in SA, p = .12). Likewise, there was no difference in satisfaction with testing decision (97.8% in AA vs. 99.3% in SA, p = .36). However, women in AA had significantly lower mean HIV knowledge scores (78.4%) compared to women in SA (83.7%, pprocess, while associated with slightly lower knowledge, does not compromise patient decision making or satisfaction regarding HIV testing

  13. Pre-Test CFD for the Design and Execution of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Axdahl, Erik L.; Cabell, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing costs of physics experiments and simultaneous increase in availability and maturity of computational tools it is not surprising that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is playing an increasingly important role, not only in post-test investigations, but also in the early stages of experimental planning. This paper describes a CFD-based effort executed in close collaboration between computational fluid dynamicists and experimentalists to develop a virtual experiment during the early planning stages of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing project at NASA Langley Research Center. This projects aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The purpose of the virtual experiment was to provide flow field data to aid in the design of the experimental apparatus and the in-stream rake probes, to verify the nonintrusive measurements based on NO-PLIF, and to perform pre-test analysis of quantities obtainable from the experiment and CFD. The approach also allowed for the joint team to develop common data processing and analysis tools, and to test research ideas. The virtual experiment consisted of a series of Reynolds-averaged simulations (RAS). These simulations included the facility nozzle, the experimental apparatus with a baseline strut injector, and the test cabin. Pure helium and helium-air mixtures were used to determine the efficacy of different inert gases to model hydrogen injection. The results of the simulations were analyzed by computing mixing efficiency, total pressure recovery, and stream thrust potential. As the experimental effort progresses, the simulation results will be compared with the experimental data to calibrate the modeling constants present in the CFD and validate simulation fidelity. CFD will also be used to

  14. Does basal metabolic rate drive eating rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Ponnalagu, Shalini; Bi, Xinyan; Forde, Ciaran

    2018-05-15

    There have been recent advances in our understanding of the drivers of energy intake (EI). However, the biological drivers of differences in eating rate (ER) remain less clear. Studies have reported that the fat-free mass (FFM) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are both major components that contribute to daily energy expenditure (EE) and drive EI. More recently, a number of observations report that higher ER can lead to greater EI. The current study proposed that adults with a higher BMR and higher energy requirements would also exhibit higher ERs. Data on BMR, FFM, and ER were collected from 272 Chinese adults (91 males and 181 females) in a cross-sectional study. Analysis showed significant positive associations between BMR and ER (r s  = 0.405, p BMR explained about 15% of the variation in ER which was taken to be metabolically significant. This association provides metabolic explanation that the differences in an individual's BMR (hence energy requirements) may be correlated with ERs. This merits further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level.

  16. Distrofia de la membrana basal epitelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaadia Pérez Parra

    Full Text Available La distrofia de Cogan es la distrofia corneal anterior más común, frecuente en adultos del sexo femenino, entre 40-70 años de edad. Presentamos un caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad, del sexo femenino, quien refiere visión borrosa, lagrimeo y fotofobia. Al examen de la córnea en lámpara de hendidura se observan imágenes de color grisáceo en forma de huellas dactilares y de mapa. Esta afección es causada por alteraciones de la membrana basal epitelial que provoca la separación parcial o total del epitelio corneal. Generalmente asintomática, es la causa más frecuente de erosión corneal recurrente. Las opciones terapéuticas varían desde lubricantes, soluciones hipertónicas tópicas, lentes de contacto de vendaje, desbridamiento del epitelio central, micropunciones mecánicas o diatermia y fotoqueratectomía con láser excímer.

  17. Basal cell carcinoma in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jesleen; Hadjicharalambous, Elena; Mehregan, Darius

    2012-04-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer most commonly affects Caucasians, and only rarely affects darker-skinned individuals. However, skin cancer in these groups is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Ultraviolet radiation is the major etiologic factor in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and likely plays a pivotal role in the development of other forms of skin cancer. Yet it is commonly thought among patients as well as physicians that darker pigmentation inherently affords complete protection from skin cancer development. This low index of suspicion results in delayed diagnoses and poorer outcomes. This review follows a detailed computer search that cross-matched the diagnosis of BCC with skin color type in a large commercial dermatopathology facility. The reported skin types, all Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, and VI, and histories were confirmed. A predominance of pigmented BCCs was found in sun-exposed areas of these older individuals. Although less common in darker-skinned ethnic groups, BCC does occur and can pose significant morbidity. Thus, it is essential that dermatologists are familiar with the epidemiology and clinical presentation of all cutaneous malignancies in darker skin so that these patients are fully aware of risks as well as prevention of the disease.

  18. Basal insulin and cardiovascular and other outcomes in dysglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstein, Hertzel C; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R

    2012-01-01

    The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested.......The provision of sufficient basal insulin to normalize fasting plasma glucose levels may reduce cardiovascular events, but such a possibility has not been formally tested....

  19. Genotype variation in grain yield response to basal N fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... pollution. During the past decades, many investigations have been reported, related to nitrogen efficiency of different plant genotypes (Zhang et al., 1997; .... 274. 411. 548. Gr ai n yi el d wi t hout basal grain yield with basal fertilizer (g/8 plants). I. Ⅱ. (a). -20. -10. 0. 10. 20. -1. 99. 199. Rice variety number. A.

  20. Basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) in children and teenagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.

  1. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  2. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of ameloblastoma.[4] The microscopic features of basal cell ameloblastoma, however, are similar to those of several malignant tumors, including basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC),[5,6] cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and solid‑type adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC).[1] The pathologist may sometimes fail to.

  3. Incorporating crown dimensions into stem height and basal area for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four crown dimensions (crown diameter, crown projection area, crown length and crown ratio) were each incorporated into nonlinear individual tree total height and basal area increment models for African white wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum). The basic height/basal area growth model was formulated as a ...

  4. Cortisol Concentrations in Well-Regulated Dogs with Hyperadrenocorticism Treated with Trilostane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midence, J N; Drobatz, K J; Hess, R S

    2015-01-01

    There are no clear treatment guidelines for dogs with clinically well-regulated hyperadrenocorticism in which serum cortisol concentrations before and after an ACTH stimulation test performed 3-6 hours after trilostane administration are cortisol concentrations measured before (Pre1) and after (Post1) ACTH stimulation at 3-6 hours after trilostane administration are significantly lower than cortisol concentrations measured before (Pre2) and after (Post2) ACTH stimulation 9-12 hours after trilostane administration, in a specific population of dogs with clinically well-regulated hyperadrenocorticism and Pre1 and Post1 dogs with clinically well-regulated hyperadrenocorticism and Pre1 and Post1 serum cortisol concentrations Dogs had a second ACTH stimulation test performed 9-12 hours after trilostane administration, on the same day of the first ACTH stimulation test. Cortisol concentrations before and after ACTH stimulation were compared using a paired t-test. Cortisol concentrations before (1.4 ± 0.3 μg/dL) and after the first stimulation (1.5 ± 0.3 μg/dL, mean ± SD) were significantly lower than cortisol concentration before the second stimulation (3.3 ± 1.6 μg/dL, P = .0012 each). Cortisol concentration before the first stimulation was also significantly lower than cortisol concentration after the second stimulation (5.3 ± 2.4 μg/dL, P = .0001). In dogs with clinically well-regulated, trilostane-treated, hyperadrenocorticism, and cortisol concentrations cortisol concentrations that could support continued trilostane treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Displacement of cortisol from human heart by acute administration of a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javaid; Andrew, Ruth; Cruden, Nicholas L; Kenyon, Christopher J; Hughes, Katherine A; Newby, David E; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Walker, Brian R

    2014-03-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure and myocardial infarction, often attributed to blocking aldosterone action in the myocardium. However, binding of aldosterone to MR requires local activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which inactivates cortisol to cortisone and thereby prevents receptor occupancy by cortisol. In vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 and potential occupancy of MR by cortisol in human heart have not been quantified. This study aimed to measure in vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 and to establish whether cortisol binds MR in human heart. Nine patients without heart failure undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography were infused to steady state with the stable isotope tracers 9,11,12,12-[(2)H]4-cortisol and 1,2-[(2)H]2-cortisone to quantify cortisol and cortisone production. Samples were obtained from the femoral artery and coronary sinus before and for 40 minutes after bolus iv administration of an MR antagonist, potassium canrenoate. Coronary sinus blood flow was measured by venography and Doppler flow wire. There was no detectable production of cortisol or cortisone across the myocardium. After potassium canrenoate administration, plasma aldosterone concentrations increased substantially but aldosterone was not detectably released from the myocardium. In contrast, plasma cortisol concentrations did not change in the systemic circulation but tissue-bound cortisol was released transiently from the myocardium after potassium canrenoate administration. Human cardiac 11β-HSD2 activity appears too low to inactivate cortisol to cortisone. Cortisol is displaced acutely from the myocardium by MR antagonists and may contribute to adverse MR activation in human heart.

  6. Evaluation of salivary cortisol and psychological factors in patients with oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Bina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Lichen planus is a relatively common chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa and skin. Cortisol, also called as "stress hormone", has been used as an indicator in various stress evaluation studies. Salivary cortisol measurement is an indicator of free cortisol or biologically active cortisol in human serum and provides noninvasive and easy technique. Recent studies have been conflicting, and hence, in the present study, evaluation of salivary cortisol levels and psychosocial factors in oral lichen planus (OLP patients was done. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 patients with clinically and histopathologically proven cases of OLP, along with the age and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Samples of stimulated saliva were collected, centrifuged and analyzed for the level of cortisol with cortisol enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Psychosocial factors of study and control groups were measured by depression anxiety and stress scale. Student′s t-test was used to compare the psychological factors and salivary cortisol levels between patients with the OLP and the control group. Results: Irrespective of sex, significantly higher depression (83.4 ± 15.4%, anxiety (80.5 ± 11.3%, and stress (94.2 ± 6.2% scores were observed in OLP patients compared to controls. Increased cortisol levels were observed among 17 (56.6% OLP patients in the study group. A positive correlation was found between psychological factors and salivary cortisol levels in the OLP patients. The values of Pearson′s correlation coefficient "r", between depression, anxiety, and stress with salivary cortisol was: +0.42,S; +0.27,NS; and +0.65,HS, respectively among the study group.

  7. Basal ganglia mechanisms underlying precision grip force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M; Vaillancourt, David E

    2009-06-01

    The classic grasping network has been well studied but thus far the focus has been on cortical regions in the control of grasping. Sub-cortically, specific nuclei of the basal ganglia have been shown to be important in different aspects of precision grip force control but these findings have not been well integrated. In this review, we outline the evidence to support the hypothesis that key basal ganglia nuclei are involved in parameterizing specific properties of precision grip force. We review literature from different areas of human and animal work that converges to build a case for basal ganglia involvement in the control of precision gripping. Following on from literature showing anatomical connectivity between the basal ganglia nuclei and key nodes in the cortical grasping network, we suggest a conceptual framework for how the basal ganglia could function within the grasping network, particularly as it relates to the control of precision grip force.

  8. Measurements of salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol in hominoid primates reveal within-species consistency and between-species differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Behringer

    Full Text Available Salivary alpha amylase (sAA is the most abundant enzyme in saliva. Studies in humans found variation in enzymatic activity of sAA across populations that could be linked to the copy number of loci for salivary amylase (AMY1, which was seen as an adaptive response to the intake of dietary starch. In addition to diet dependent variation, differences in sAA activity have been related to social stress. In a previous study, we found evidence for stress-induced variation in sAA activity in the bonobos, a hominoid primate that is closely related to humans. In this study, we explored patterns of variation in sAA activity in bonobos and three other hominoid primates, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan to (a examine if within-species differences in sAA activity found in bonobos are characteristic for hominoids and (b assess the extent of variation in sAA activity between different species. The results revealed species-differences in sAA activity with gorillas and orangutans having higher basal sAA activity when compared to Pan. To assess the impact of stress, sAA values were related to cortisol levels measured in the same saliva samples. Gorillas and orangutans had low salivary cortisol concentrations and the highest cortisol concentration was found in samples from male bonobos, the group that also showed the highest sAA activity. Considering published information, the differences in sAA activity correspond with differences in AMY1 copy numbers and match with general features of natural diet. Studies on sAA activity have the potential to complement molecular studies and may contribute to research on feeding ecology and nutrition.

  9. Associations between sociodemographic, sampling and health factors and various salivary cortisol indicators in a large sample without psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Kruijtzer, Boudewijn P.; van Pelt, Johannes; van Dyck, Richard; DeRijk, Roel H.; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; Smit, Johannes H.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda

    Background: Cortisol levels are increasingly often assessed in large-scale psychosomatic research. Although determinants of different salivary cortisol indicators have been described, they have not yet been systematically studied within the same study with a Large sample size. Sociodemographic,

  10. Cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress and cognitive ability in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T.; Phillips, Anna C.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Carroll, Douglas; Derooij, Susanne R.

    2012-01-01

    Given evidence linking blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute stress and a range of adverse behavioral outcomes, the present study examined the associations between cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and cognitive ability measured independently of the stress task exposure.

  11. Influência do posicionamento em prona sobre o estresse no recém-nascido prematuro avaliada pela dosagem de cortisol salivar: um estudo piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Cândia, Maria Fernanda; Osaku, Erica Fernanda; Leite, Marcela Aparecida; Toccolini, Beatriz; Costa, Nicolle Lamberti; Teixeira, Sandy Nogueira; Costa, Claudia Rejane Lima de Macedo; Piana, Pitágoras Augusto; Cristovam, Marcos Antonio da Silva; Osaku, Nelson Ossamu

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar a influência da postura em prona sobre o estresse no recém-nascido prematuro por meio da dosagem do cortisol salivar e da avaliação das respostas fisiológicas e comportamentais, antes e após o posicionamento. Métodos: Foi realizada a coleta de saliva em cada recém-nascido em dois momentos: o primeiro (correspondente ao basal), sem manipulação prévia por 40 minutos, em decúbito lateral ou supino; e o segundo, 30 minutos após o posicionamento em prona. A frequência cardíac...

  12. [What is new in basal cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppt, M; von Braunmühl, T; Berking, C

    2016-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in fair-skinned individuals. Although lymph node or visceral metastases are observed in less than 0.5 % of all cases, BCC can have a fatal course due to its highly invasive growth pattern. To provide a comprehensive update on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of BCC. We review the current literature and recommendations of the German guidelines on treatment and prevention of skin cancer. The most pertinent developments are summarized in this review article. The use of optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy can significantly improve the diagnosis of BCC compared with clinical assessment and dermoscopy alone. Mohs micrographic surgery remains the therapeutic gold standard for tumors in the head and facial area and tumors with high-risk features. The application of imiquimod, 5‑fluorouracil, or photodynamic therapy should be restricted to low-risk superficial tumors. Topical inhibitors of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway are currently being evaluated in early clinical trials. In contrast, vismodegib and sonidegib have been approved for the systemic treatment of locally advanced and metastatic BCC with good response rates. The most common adverse events of both agents are muscle cramps, dysgeusia, diffuse alopecia, weight loss, and fatigue. In an Australian phase III trial, oral nicotinamide (vitamin B3) reduced the occurrence of new BCC by 20 % in skin cancer patients. Targeted therapy with SHH inhibitors has improved the prognosis of locally advanced and metastatic BCC, albeit at the cost of a significant number of adverse events.

  13. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  14. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-08-17

    Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas. To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome. Pubmed was used to search the following terms: axillary basal cell carcinoma and basal cell nevus syndrome. The papers and their citations were evaluated. Basal cell nevus syndrome patients with basal cell carcinoma of the axilla were observed in two women; this represents 2.5% (2 of 79) of the patients with axillary basal cell carcinoma. Both women had pigmented tumors that were histologically nonaggressive. The cancers did not recur after curettage or excision. Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla has only been described in 79 individuals; two of the patients were women with pigmented tumors who had basal cell nevus syndrome. Similar to other patients with axillary basal cell carcinoma, the tumors were histologically nonaggressive and did not recur following treatment. Whether PTCH1 gene mutation predisposes basal cell nevus patients to develop axillary basal cell carcinomas remains to be determined.

  15. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Karaninder S. Mehta; Vikram K. Mahajan; Pushpinder S. Chauhan; Anju Lath Sharma; Vikas Sharma; C. Abhinav; Gayatri Khatri; Neel Prabha; Saurabh Sharma; Muninder Negi

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide s...

  16. Evaluation of Cortisol Production in Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kosuke; Yamazaki, Yuto; Tsurutani, Yuya; Suematsu, Sachiko; Sugisawa, Chiho; Saito, Jun; Omura, Masao; Sasano, Hironobu; Nishikawa, Tetsuo

    2017-11-01

    Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is sometimes accompanied with subclinical hypercortisolism. We investigated the ability of cortisol production in APA, both clinically and pathologically. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Yokohama Rosai Hospital from 2009 to 2016. Thirty patients with APA and serum cortisol levels during the 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (F-DST)DST (pre-F-DST) and post-adrenalectomy F-DST (ΔF-DST), 2) correlation between ∆F-DST and pre-F-DST, tumour size determined by CT, and type of adrenalectomy (total or partial), and 3) relationship between the ratio of F-DST divided by tumour size (ΔF-DST/pre-F-DST/mm) and immunoreactivity of CYP17A1, CYP11B1, and CYP11B2. The median [interquartile range] age was 48 [38-58] years. We found a significant decrease in F-DST after adrenalectomy [before: 1.4 (1.1-1.8); after: 0.9 (0.6-1.2); pDST and both pre-F-DST (Spearman, ρ=-0.68, pDST between total and partial adrenalectomy. CYP17A1 and CYP11B1 were positive in 21 (100%) and 17 (81%) adenomas, respectively. CYP17A1 immunoreactivity in the tumour was significantly related with ΔF-DST/pre-F-DST/mm (p 0.049). F-DST significantly decreased after adrenalectomy, and most of the adenomas were immunohistochemically positive for CYP17A1 and CYP11B1 as well as CYP11B2. We should consider the possibility of autonomous cortisol production as well as hyperaldosteronism in the evaluation and treatment of APA patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Cortisol, obesity and the metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study of obese subjects and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, SB; Rubino, D; Sinaii, N; Ramsey, S; Nieman, LK

    2013-01-01

    Circulating cortisol and psychosocial stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome. To evaluate these relationships, we performed a cross-sectional study of 369 overweight and obese subjects and 60 healthy volunteers and reviewed the previous literature. Overweight and obese subjects had at least two other features of Cushing?s syndrome. They underwent measurements representing cortisol dynamics (24h urine cortisol excretion (UFC), bedtime salivary cortisol, 1 m...

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis reveals acutely elevated plasma cortisol following fasting but not less severe calorie restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yuko; Walker, Brian R.; Ikuta, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Elevated plasma cortisol has been reported following caloric restriction, and may contribute to adverse effects including stress-induced overeating, but results from published studies are inconsistent. To clarify the effects of caloric restriction on plasma cortisol, and to assess cortisol as an indicator of stress during caloric restriction, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies in which cortisol was measured following caloric restriction without other manip...

  19. Egg cortisol exposure enhances fearfulness in larvae and juvenile rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colson, Violaine; Valotaire, Claudiane; Geffroy, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    accelerations occurring after a sudden event. At 146 dpf, these high accelerations were more frequent in cortisol-treated fish than in controls. At 146 dpf also, swimming activity was increased in cortisol-treated fish both before and after the sudden stimulus. This study underlines the important behavioural...

  20. Work stress and recovery measured by urinary catecholamines and cortisol excretion in long distance coach drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, J. K.; van der Beek, A. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate coach drivers' work stress during work and in the course of recovery from work by measurement of urinary catecholamines and cortisol. METHODS: The urinary excretion rate of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol of 10 coach drivers was studied during a long distance trip of